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Sample records for 24-hr dietary recalls

  1. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chensheng; Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES). Methods Parents were instructed to collect 24-hr duplicate food samples of all conventional fruits, vegetables, and fruit juices equal to the quantity consumed by their children, similarly prewashed/prepared, and from the same source or batch. Individual or composite food items were analyzed for organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticide residues. Results We collected a total of 239 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from the 46 CPES children. We found 14% or 5% of those food samples contained at least one OP or pyrethroid insecticide, respectively. We measured a total of 11 OP insecticides, at levels ranging from 1 to 387 ng/g, and three pyrethroid insecticides, at levels ranging from 2 to 1,133 ng/g, in children’s food samples. We found that many of the food items consumed by the CPES children were also on the list of the most contaminated food commodities reported by the Environmental Working Group. Conclusions The frequent consumption of food commodities with episodic presence of pesticide residues that are suspected to cause developmental and neurological effects in young children supports the need for further mitigation. PMID:20639183

  2. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  3. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  4. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  5. Formative research of a quick list for an automated self-administered 24-Hour dietary recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used to collect high-quality dietary data. Because they require highly trained interviewers, recalls are expensive and impractical for large-scale nutrition research, leading to the use of food frequency questionnaires. We are developing a computer-based, self-ad...

  6. Cognitive processes in children’s dietary recalls: Insight from methodological studies

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel

    2009-01-01

    Objective This article summarises 12 dietary-reporting methodological studies with children (six validation studies, one non-validation study, five secondary analyses studies of data from one or more of the six validation studies), identifies research gaps, and provides recommendations for (a) improving children’s recall accuracy and (b) details to specify in publications of studies that utilise children’s dietary recalls. Subjects/Methods Randomly selected children (ages nine to ten) were observed eating school breakfast and school lunch, and interviewed to obtain dietary recalls. Results Children’s recall accuracy improved slightly between the first and third recalls, but individual children’s accuracy was inconsistent from one interview to the next. Although accuracy was poor overall, it was better for boys with reverse-order (evening-to-morning) prompts, but for girls with forward-order (morning-to-evening) prompts. Children recalled breakfast intake less accurately than lunch intake. Children’s accuracy did not depend on whether recalls were obtained in-person or by telephone, but was better for recalls obtained with open than meal format. Retention interval was crucial as children’s accuracy was better for prior-24-hour recalls (about the 24 hours immediately preceding the interview) than previous-day recalls (about midnight to midnight of the day before the interview). Observations of school meals did not affect children's recalls. Children’s recall accuracy was related to their age/sex body mass index percentile. Conventional report rates (which disregard accuracy for items and amounts) overestimated accuracy for energy and macronutrients, and masked complexities of recall error. Conclusions Research concerning errors in Children’s dietary recalls provides insight for improving children’s recall accuracy. PMID:19190640

  7. Recalls

    MedlinePlus

    ... XP Turbo Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles Due to Fire Hazard; Severe Burn Injuries; Includes Previously Recalled RZR ... Salewa North America Recalls Wild Country Climbing Harnesses Due to Fall Hazard (Recall ...

  8. The Food Similarity Index: A New Dimension of Dietary Acculturation Based on Dietary Recall Data

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Quiros, Susana; Frisco, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background This study introduces a flexible indicator of dietary acculturation that measures immigrants’ eating behavior relative to U.S.-born persons. Methods Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey pooled across multiple years from 1999/00 through 2009/10, we developed and tested the validity of the “Food Similarity Index” (FSI), which indicates the similarity of the foods consumed by individuals to the foods most commonly consumed by same-aged U.S-born persons of all racial/ethnic groups. We demonstrate its utility here for children and adults of four racial-ethnic groups. Results FSI was positively associated with the consumption of common American foods and negatively associated with eating Hispanic and Asian foods. In addition, FSI was associated with generational status among all racial/ethnic groups and duration of U.S. residence among Hispanics. FSI was also negatively associated with the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Discussion The FSI enables researchers to compare immigrants’ dietary patterns over generations and across groups. It can be used to study how dietary acculturation shapes health risk factors and diseases. PMID:25245371

  9. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  10. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  11. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  12. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  13. Feasibility Testing of an Automated Image-Capture Method to Aid Dietary Recall

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Estrin, Deborah; Kim, Donnie H.; Burke, Jeff; Goldman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives The accuracy of dietary recalls might be enhanced by providing participants with photo images of foods they consumed during the test period. Subjects/Methods We examined the feasibility of a system (Image-Diet Day) that is a user-initiated camera-equipped mobile phone that is programmed to automatically capture and transmit images to a secure website in conjunction with computer-assisted, multi-pass, 24-hour dietary recalls in 14 participants during 2007. Participants used the device during eating periods on each of the three independent days. Image processing filters successfully eliminated underexposed, over-exposed, and blurry images. Captured images were accessed by participants using the ImageViewer software while completing the 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. Results None of the participants reported difficulty using the ImageViewer. Images were deemed “helpful” or “sort of helpful” by 93% of participants. A majority (79%) of users reported having no technical problems, but 71% rated the burden of wearing the device as somewhat to very difficult, owing to issues such as limited battery life, self-consciousness about wearing the device in public, and concerns about the camera’s field of view. Conclusion Overall, these findings suggest that automated imaging is a promising technology to facilitate dietary recall. The challenge of managing the thousands of images generated can be met. Smaller devices with a broader field of view may aid in overcoming user’s self-consciousness with using or wearing the device PMID:21587282

  14. Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

  15. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  16. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  17. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  18. Sources of Intrusions in Children’s Dietary Recalls from a Validation Study of Order Prompts

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Smith, Albert F.; Guinn, Caroline H.

    2008-01-01

    Validation-study data and foodservice production records were analyzed to test hypotheses concerning sources of intrusions (reports of uneaten items) in the school-meal parts of children’s dietary recalls. Each child was observed eating school meals on two days, and interviewed the morning after each observation day; one interview used forward-order (morning-to-evening) and one used reverse-order (evening-to-morning) prompts. Lunch intrusions were likelier to have been available in the foodservice environment at lunch as day before the interview came closer, and on days before than after the interview. Temporal dating errors are contributing sources of intrusions in the school-lunch parts of children’s recalls. PMID:18987088

  19. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Raymond J.; Midthune, Douglas; Subar, Amy F.; Shumakovich, Marina; Freedman, Laurence S.; Thompson, Frances E.; Kipnis, Victor

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1–12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America’s Table Study (1997–1998), the authors found that 4–6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2–4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4–6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ. PMID:22273536

  20. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data. PMID:24001201

  1. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  2. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  3. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition. PMID:25964261

  4. Validity and relative validity of a novel digital approach for 24-h dietary recall in athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed a digital dietary analysis tool for athletes (DATA) using a modified 24-h recall method and an integrated, customized nutrient database. The purpose of this study was to assess DATA’s validity and relative validity by measuring its agreement with registered dietitians’ (RDs) direct observations (OBSERVATION) and 24-h dietary recall interviews using the USDA 5-step multiple-pass method (INTERVIEW), respectively. Methods Fifty-six athletes (14–20 y) completed DATA and INTERVIEW in randomized counter-balanced order. OBSERVATION (n = 26) consisted of RDs recording participants’ food/drink intake in a 24-h period and were completed the day prior to DATA and INTERVIEW. Agreement among methods was estimated using a repeated measures t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results The paired differences (with 95% confidence intervals) between DATA and OBSERVATION were not significant for carbohydrate (10.1%, -1.2–22.7%) and protein (14.1%, -3.2–34.5%) but was significant for energy (14.4%, 1.2–29.3%). There were no differences between DATA and INTERVIEW for energy (-1.1%, -9.1–7.7%), carbohydrate (0.2%, -7.1–8.0%) or protein (-2.7%, -11.3–6.7%). Bland-Altman analysis indicated significant positive correlations between absolute values of the differences and the means for OBSERVATION vs. DATA (r = 0.40 and r = 0.47 for energy and carbohydrate, respectively) and INTERVIEW vs. DATA (r = 0.52, r = 0.29, and r = 0.61 for energy, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively). There were also wide 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for most method comparisons. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for OBSERVATION vs. DATA was 0.874 (0.551-1.385) for energy, 0.906 (0.522-1.575) for carbohydrate, and 0.895(0.395-2.031) for protein. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for INTERVIEW vs. DATA was 1.016 (0.538-1.919) for energy, 0.995 (0.563-1.757) for carbohydrate, and 1.031 (0.514-2.068) for protein. Conclusion DATA has good relative

  5. Fourth-grade Children’s Dietary Recall Accuracy is Influenced by Retention Interval (Target Period and Interview Time)

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background For a 24-hour dietary recall, two possible target periods are the prior 24 hours (24 hours immediately preceding the interview time) and previous day (midnight to midnight of the day before the interview), and three possible interview times are morning, afternoon, and evening. Target period and interview time determine the retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), which, along with intervening meals, can influence reporting accuracy. Objective The effects of target period and interview time on children’s accuracy for reporting school meals during 24-hour dietary recalls were investigated. Design and subjects/setting During the 2004–05, 2005–06, and 2006–07 school years in (city), (state), each of 374 randomly selected fourth-grade children (96% Black) was observed eating two consecutive school meals (breakfast, lunch) and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour dietary recall using one of six conditions defined by crossing two target periods with three interview times. Each condition had 62 or 64 children (half boys). Main outcome measures Accuracy for reporting school meals was quantified by calculating rates for omissions (food items observed eaten but unreported) and intrusions (food items reported eaten but unobserved); a measure of total inaccuracy combined errors for reporting food items and amounts. Statistical analyses performed For each accuracy measure, analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, sex, interviewer, and school year in the model. Results There was a target-period effect and a target-period by interview-time interaction on omission rates, intrusion rates, and total inaccuracy (six P values <0.004). For prior-24-hour recalls compared to previous-day recalls, and for prior-24-hour recalls in the afternoon and evening compared to previous-day recalls in the afternoon and evening, omission rates were better by one-third, intrusion rates were better by

  6. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  7. Reliability and Predictive Validity of Caloric Intake Measures from the 24-Hour Dietary Recalls of Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Locher, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    24-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults’ eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total caloric intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. 230 homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two sub-samples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n = 52), sufficient test-retest reliability of caloric intake was observed (r = 0.59); but caloric intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r = 0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n = 143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient caloric intake (odds ratio = 3.49, p = .009), and in White participants compared to African American participants (odds ratio = 3.13, p=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals are needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of caloric intake measures for this population. PMID:20430140

  8. Human performance and physiological function during a 24-hr exposure to 1 percent bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Degioanni, J. J.; Tan, M. N.; Davis, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Performance and physiological measurements were obtained from four pairs of men exposed for 24 hr to 1 percent (10,000 ppm) Halon 1301 (CBrF3) and to air with order counterbalanced using a double-blind protocol. Cognitive and motor performance was assessed before, during, and after the exposures, using seven scales of the Automated Portable Testing System, which produced 13 measures of performance. Halon inhalation induced decrements in 2 of the 13 measures, but actual and estimated magnitudes of the decrements were no greater than 5 percent of baseline values. Physiological data obtained before, during, and after the exposures revealed significant changes during Halon inhalation for 6 of the 52 variables assessed; however, all physiological values remained within clinically acceptable limits. No cardiovascular effects were noted. This study demonstrated that exposure to 1 percent Halon 1301 for 24 hr can produce minor disturbance of central nervous system function as assessed by cognitive tasks.

  9. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  10. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  11. Short- and long-term reliability of adult recall of vegetarian dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    PubMed

    Teixeira Martins, Marcia C; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Past dietary patterns may be more important than recent dietary patterns in the aetiology of chronic diseases because of the long latency in their development. We developed an instrument to recall vegetarian dietary patterns during the lifetime and examined its reliability of recall over 5·3 and 32·6 years on average. The short-term/5-year recall ability study (5-RAS) was done using 24 690 participants from the cohort of the Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 62·2 years). The long-term/33-year recall ability study (33-RAS) included an overlap population of 1721 individuals who joined the Adventist Health Study-1 and Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 72·5 years). Spearman correlation coefficients for recall of vegetarian status were 0·78 and 0·72 for the 5-RAS and 33-RAS, respectively, when compared with 'reference' data. For both time periods sensitivity and positive predictive values were highest for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian patterns (vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians). In the 5-RAS analyses, male, non-black, younger, and more educated participants, lifetime Adventists, and those with more stability of consumption of animal products generally showed higher recall ability. Somewhat similar tendencies were shown for the 33-RAS analyses. Our findings show that the instrument has higher reliability for recalled lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian than for vegan, semi- and pesco-vegetarian dietary patterns in both short- and long-term recalls. This is in part because these last dietary patterns were greatly contaminated by recalls that correctly would have belonged in the adjoining category that consumed more animal products. PMID:26097699

  12. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A Self-Completed 24 Hour Dietary Recall for Children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Douglass, Deirdre; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4(FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24 hour dietary recall (24hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSST4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in U.S. national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (for example questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and FIRSSt4 incorporate 10,000+ food images with up to eight images per food to assist in portion size estimation. This paper reviews the formative research conducted during the development of FIRSSt4. When completed, FIRSSt4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute’s ASA24 website. PMID:22616645

  13. Dietary Patterns are similar using a population specific diet screening tool and multiple 24-hour recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but requires comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort. Thi...

  14. Human performance and physiological function during a 24-hr exposure to 1% bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Degioanni, J. J.; Tan, M. N.; Davis, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Performance and physiological measurements were obtained from four pairs of men exposed for 24 hr to 1% (10,000 ppm) Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane, CBrF3) and to air with order counterbalanced using a double-blind protocol. Cognitive and motor performance was assessed before, during, and after the exposures using seven scales of the Automated Portable Testing System, which produced 13 measures of performance. Halon inhalation induced decrements in 2 of the 13 measures, but actual and estimated magnitudes of the decrements were no greater than 5% of baseline values. Physiological data were obtained before, during, and after the exposures from clinical chemistry analyses of blood and urine samples, pulmonary function tests, and monitoring of vital signs. Significant change during Halon inhalation was observed for 6 of the 52 variables assessed; however, all physiological values remained within clinically acceptable limits. No cardiovascular effects were noted. This study demonstrated that exposure to 1% Halon 1301 for 24 hr can produce minor disturbance of central nervous system function as assessed by cognitive tasks.

  15. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  16. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  17. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  18. Single-Source Gravitational Wave Limits From the J1713+0747 24-hr Global Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, T.; NANOGrav Collaboration; Ellis, J. A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Lam, M. T.; Bassa, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P. B.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Lorimer, D. R.; Madison, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Ransom, S. M.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R. M.; Smits, R.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Stinebring, D. R.; Stovall, K.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-05-01

    Dense, continuous pulsar timing observations over a 24-hr period provide a method for probing intermediate gravitational wave (GW) frequencies from 10 microhertz to 20 millihertz. The European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA), the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav), the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), and the combined International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) all use millisecond pulsar observations to detect or constrain GWs typically at nanohertz frequencies. In the case of the IPTA's nine-telescope 24-Hour Global Campaign on millisecond pulsar J1713+0747, GW limits in the intermediate frequency regime can be produced. The negligible change in dispersion measure during the observation minimizes red noise in the timing residuals, constraining any contributions from GWs due to individual sources. At 10-5 Hz, the 95% upper limit on strain is 10-11 for GW sources in the pulsar's direction.

  19. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  20. Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ≥19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

  1. A validation study concerning the effects of interview content, retention interval, and grade on children’s recall accuracy for dietary intake and/or physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne D.; Hitchcock, David B.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Puryear, Megan P.; Royer, Julie A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Wilson, Dawn K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Practitioners and researchers are interested in assessing children’s dietary intake and physical activity together to maximize resources and minimize subject burden. Objective To investigate differences in dietary and/or physical-activity recall accuracy by content (diet-only; physical-activity-only; diet-&-physical-activity), retention interval (same-day-recalls-in-the-afternoon; previous-day-recalls-in-the-morning), and grade (third; fifth). Design Children (n=144; 66% African American, 13% White, 12% Hispanic, 9% Other; 50% girls) from four schools were randomly selected for interviews about one of three contents. Each content group was equally divided by retention interval, each equally divided by grade, each equally divided by sex. Information concerning diet and physical activity at school was validated with school-provided breakfast and lunch observations, and accelerometry, respectively. Dietary accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and kilocalorie correspondence rate and inflation ratio. Physical activity accuracy measures were absolute and arithmetic differences for moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity minutes. Statistical analyses performed For each accuracy measure, linear models determined effects of content, retention interval, grade, and their two-way and three-way interactions; ethnicity and sex were control variables. Results Content was significant within four interactions: intrusion rate (content-×-retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0004), correspondence rate (content-×-grade; p=.0004), inflation ratio (content-×-grade; p=.0104), and arithmetic difference (content-×-retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0070). Retention interval was significant for correspondence rate (p=.0004), inflation ratio (p=.0014), and three interactions: omission rate (retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0095), intrusion rate, and arithmetic difference (both already mentioned). Grade was significant for absolute difference (p=.0233) and five

  2. Conceptual Design of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with 24-HR Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design study for a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is able to carry a 25-lb science payload for 24 hr and is able to land and take off at elevations as high as 15,000 ft without human intervention. In addition to the science payload, this vehicle must be able to carry a satellite communication system, and the vehicle must be able to be transported in a standard full-size pickup truck and assembled by only two operators. This project started with a brainstorming phase to devise possible vehicle configurations that might satisfy the requirements. A down select was performed to select a near-term solution and two advanced vehicle concepts that are better suited to the intent of the mission. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the requirements and the technology levels to obtain a better understanding of the design space. This study found that within the study assumptions the mission is feasible; the selected concepts are recommended for further development.

  3. Anatomical observations of the rat cerebellar nodulus after 24 hr of spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Holstein, G R; Kukielka, E; Martinelli, G P

    1999-07-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in postural, locomotor and oculomotor functions. The vestibular abnormalities experienced by astronauts entail immediate reflex motor responses, including postural illusions, sensations of rotation, nystagmus, dizziness and vertigo, as well as space motion sickness. Adaptation to the microgravity environment usually occurs within one week, and a subsequent re-adaptation period of several months is often required upon return to Earth. Some astronauts experience recurrences of dizziness, nausea, and vomiting, as well as marked disturbances in postural equilibrium in the absence of vision during this readaptation period. The mechanisms underlying such adaptation processes remain unclear, although current evidence favors some type of sensory conflict. The purpose of the present study was to explore the structural basis for the reorganization in the central vestibular system that underlies the process of adaptation to altered gravitational environments. Hindbrain tissue was obtained from rats flown on the Neurolab shuttle mission (STS-90) that launched on April 17, 1998. Tissue for the present report was obtained from four adult Fisher 344 rats sacrificed on orbit during flight day 2 (FD2), 24 hr after launch. Equal numbers of vivarium control animals and cage-controls were sacrificed 48 and 96 hr, respectively, after the flight dissections. Following decapitation, each hindbrain was immersion-fixed for 45 min in 4% paraformaldehyde/0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer pH 7.3, and then transferred to a 4% paraformaldehyde solution in 0.1M phosphate buffer for 18 days at 4 degrees C. After this fixation, the cerebellum was dissected away from the ventral portion of the brainstem by severing the cerebellar peduncles. The entire cerebellum of each rat was cut by Vibratome into 100 micrometers thick sections in the parasagittal plane. These sections were collected serially and processed for electron microscopy by

  4. Intrusions in Children’s Dietary Recalls: The Roles of Body Mass Index, Sex, Race, Interview Protocol, and Social Desirability

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary-reporting validation study data and school foodservice production records were used to examine intrusions (reports of uneaten items) in school meals in 24-hour recalls. Fourth-grade children (20 low-body mass index [BMI; ≥5th and <50th percentiles]; 20 high-BMI [≥85th percentile];50% boys; 75% Black) were each observed eating two school meals (breakfast, lunch) and interviewed about the prior 24 hours that evening (24E) or the previous day the next morning (PDM). Social desirability was assessed. Intrusions were classified as stretches (on meal tray), internal confabulations (in school foodservice environment but not on meal tray), and external confabulations (not in school foodservice environment). For breakfast, reported items were less likely to be intrusions for Black than White children, and for low-BMI boys than the other BMI-x-sex groups, and to be external confabulations for high-BMI girls than high-BMI boys. For lunch, reported items and intrusions were more likely to be stretches for 24E than PDM interviews. As social desirability increased, fewer items were reported for breakfast, and reported items and intrusions were more likely to be internal confabulations for lunch. For breakfast, compared to low-BMI girls, as social desirability increased, intruded amounts were larger for high-BMI boys and smaller for high-BMI girls. For lunch, intruded amounts were smaller for high-BMI girls than the other BMI-x-sex groups. Amounts reported were smaller for stretches than internal confabulations and external confabulations for breakfast, and external confabulations for lunch. To better understand intrusions, dietary-reporting validation studies are needed with larger samples by BMI-group, sex, and race. PMID:18535542

  5. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR. PMID:26975650

  6. Accuracy of Fourth-Graders' Dietary Recalls of School Breakfast and School Lunch Validated with Observations: In-Person versus Telephone Interviews

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, WILLIAM O.; LITAKER, MARK S.; GUINN, CAROLINE H.; FRYE, FRANCESCA H. A.; BAGLIO, MICHELLE L.; SHAFFER, NICOLE M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy of children's dietary recalls of school breakfast and school lunch validated with observations and obtained during in-person versus telephone interviews. Design: Each child was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch and was interviewed that evening about that day's intake. Setting: Ten elementary schools. Participants: A sample of fourth-graders was randomly selected within race (black, white) and gender strata, observed, and interviewed in person (n = 33) or by telephone (n = 36). Main Outcomes Measured: Rates for omissions (items observed but not reported) and intrusions (items reported but not observed) were calculated to determine accuracy for reporting items. A measure of total inaccuracy was calculated to determine inaccuracy for reporting items and amounts combined. Analysis: Analysis of variance; chi-square. Results: Interview type (in person, telephone) did not significantly affect recall accuracy. For omission rate, intrusion rate, and total inaccuracy, means were 34%, 19%, and 4.6 servings for in person recalls and 32%, 16%, and 4.3 servings for telephone recalls of school breakfast and school lunch. Conclusions and Implications: The accuracy of children's recalls of school breakfast and school lunch is not significantly different whether obtained in person or by telephone. Whether interviewed in person or by telephone, children reported only 67% of items observed; furthermore, 17% of items reported were not observed. PMID:12773283

  7. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events. PMID:27452779

  8. A 24 Hr Global Campaign to Assess Precision Timing of the Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bassa, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P. B.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Lee, K. J.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R. M.; Stairs, I.; Stovall, K.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Madison, D. R.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Ransom, S.; Stappers, B.; Zhu, W. W.; Dai, S.; Desvignes, G.; Guillemot, L.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A.; Perera, B. B. P.; Petroff, E.; Rankin, J. M.; Smits, R.

    2014-10-01

    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration undertook a 24 hr global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1-24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nançay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized \\sqrt{N} improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the signal-to-noise ratio of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.

  9. A 24 hr global campaign to assess precision timing of the millisecond pulsar J1713+0747

    SciTech Connect

    Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bassa, C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Kondratiev, V.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Jordan, C.; Keith, M.; Champion, D. J.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Cognard, I.; Demorest, P. B.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; and others

    2014-10-10

    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration undertook a 24 hr global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1-24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nançay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized √N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the signal-to-noise ratio of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.

  10. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Mosdøl, Annhild; Aunan, Marte Bergsund; Monsen, Carina; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection. PMID:24949548

  11. Children’s recalls from five dietary-reporting validation studies: Intrusions in correctly reported and misreported options in school breakfast reports

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    For school breakfast each day, many elementary schools offer a choice between a cold option that includes ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal and a hot option that includes a non-RTE-cereal entrée such as waffles. For breakfast reports, intrusions (reports of uneaten items) in correctly reported and misreported breakfast options were examined using data from five dietary-reporting validation studies. In each study, fourth-grade children were observed eating school breakfast and school lunch and then interviewed to obtain a dietary recall. A breakfast option was correctly reported in 240 breakfast reports for 203 intrusions total, and misreported in 97 breakfast reports for 189 intrusions total. Asymmetry was evident in misreported options; specifically, children observed eating a cold option almost never misreported a hot option, but children observed eating a hot option often misreported a cold option. Proportionately more breakfast reports were intrusion-free when a breakfast option was correctly reported than misreported. Linking of intrusions (i.e., multiple intrusions from the same option in a breakfast report) was especially evident with misreported breakfast options. Methodological aspects of dietary recalls such as target period (prior 24 hours; previous day), interview time (morning; afternoon; evening), and interview format (meal; open) had implications for intrusions and misreported breakfast options. PMID:18501992

  12. Data from a Validation Study of Reporting Accuracy over Multiple Recalls, and School Foodservice Production Records Provide Insight into the Origins of Intrusions (Reports of Uneaten Food Items) in Children’s Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Intrusions in dietary recalls may originate in confusion of episodic memories manifested as temporal dating errors. Objective Data from a validation study (concerning reporting accuracy over multiple recalls) and school foodservice production records were used to investigate origins of intrusions in school meals in children’s 24-hour recalls. Design/subjects/setting During the 1999–2000 school year, 104 fourth-grade children were observed eating school meals on one to three non-consecutive days separated by ≥25 days, and interviewed about the previous day’s intake in the morning on the day after each observation day. Statistical analyses performed For breakfast and lunch separately, logistic regression was used to investigate the effect of time (i.e., days) before the interview day on the probability that intrusions referred to items available in the school foodservice environment. Exploratory analyses were conducted for breakfast options observed and/or reported eaten. Results For interviews in which reported meals met criteria to be considered school meals and that contained intrusions, of 634 and 699 items reported eaten at breakfast and lunch, respectively, 394 and 331 were intrusions. Availability in the school foodservice environment of items referred to by intrusions in reports of lunch, but not breakfast, decreased as days increased before the interview day (P values=0.031 and 0.285, respectively). Concerning breakfast, children observed eating a cold option (i.e., ready-to-eat [RTE] cereal, milk, juice, crackers [graham; animal]) almost always reported a cold option, whereas children observed eating a hot option (i.e., non-RTE-cereal entrée [e.g., sausage biscuit], milk, fruit or juice) reported a cold option in approximately 50% of interviews. Conclusions In children’s 24-hour recalls, confusion of episodic memories contributes to intrusions in school lunch, and generic dietary information (e.g., cold option items available daily) or

  13. Wearable cameras can reduce dietary under-reporting: doubly labelled water validation of a camera-assisted 24 h recall.

    PubMed

    Gemming, Luke; Rush, Elaine; Maddison, Ralph; Doherty, Aiden; Gant, Nicholas; Utter, Jennifer; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary research has suggested that wearable cameras may reduce under-reporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of a wearable camera-assisted 24 h dietary recall against the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed over 15 d using the DLW protocol among forty adults (n 20 males, age 35 (sd 17) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2 and n 20 females, age 28 (sd 7) years, BMI 22 (sd 2) kg/m2). EI was assessed using three multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls (MP24) on days 2-4, 8-10 and 13-15. On the days before each nutrition assessment, participants wore an automated wearable camera (SenseCam (SC)) in free-living conditions. The wearable camera images were viewed by the participants following the completion of the dietary recall, and their changes in self-reported intakes were recorded (MP24+SC). TEE and EI assessed by the MP24 and MP24+SC methods were compared. Among men, the MP24 and MP24+SC measures underestimated TEE by 17 and 9 %, respectively (P< 0·001 and P= 0·02). Among women, these measures underestimated TEE by 13 and 7 %, respectively (P< 0·001 and P= 0·004). The assistance of the wearable camera (MP24+SC) reduced the magnitude of under-reporting by 8 % for men and 6 % for women compared with the MP24 alone (P< 0·001 and P< 0·001). The increase in EI was predominantly from the addition of 265 unreported foods (often snacks) as revealed by the participants during the image review. Wearable cameras enhance the accuracy of self-report by providing passive and objective information regarding dietary intake. High-definition image sensors and increased imaging frequency may improve the accuracy further. PMID:25430667

  14. Effectiveness of Prompts on Fourth-Grade Children’s Dietary Recall Accuracy Depends on Retention Interval and Varies by Gender1234

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Royer, Julie A; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J; Miller, Patricia H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary recall accuracy is related to retention interval (RI) (i.e., time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), and possibly to prompts. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated their combined effect. Objective: The combined influence of RI and prompts on children’s recall accuracy was investigated in this study. Two RIs [short (prior-24-h recall obtained in afternoon) and long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] were crossed with 4 prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, lunch, etc.), open (no instructions), and reverse (recent-to-distant)], creating 8 conditions. Methods: Fourth-grade children (n = 480; 50% girls) were randomly selected from consenting children at 10 schools in 4 districts in a southern state during 3 school years (2011–2012, 2012–2013, and 2013–2014). Each child was observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed one time under 1 of the 8 conditions. Condition assignment was constrained so that each had 60 children (30 girls). Accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and energy correspondence rate and inflation ratio. For each measure, linear models determined effects of RI, prompt, gender, and interactions (2-way, 3-way); race/ethnicity, school year, and district were control variables. Results: RI (P values < 0.015) and prompt (P values < 0.005) were significant for all 4 accuracy measures. RI × prompt (P values < 0.001) was significant for 3 accuracy measures (not intrusion rate). Prompt × gender (P = 0.005) was significant for omission rate. RI × prompt × gender was significant for intrusion rate and inflation ratio (P values < 0.001). For the short vs. long RI across prompts and genders, accuracy was better by 33–50% for each accuracy measure. Conclusions: To obtain the most accurate recalls possible from children, studies should be designed to use a short rather than long RI. Prompts affect children’s recall accuracy

  15. A review of the use of information and communication technologies for dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Joy; Engelen, Anouk; Molag, Marja; Roesle, Joni; García-Segovia, Purificación; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-07-01

    Presently used dietary-assessment methods often present difficulties for researchers and respondents, and misreporting errors are common. Methods using information and communication technologies (ICT) may improve quality and accuracy. The present paper presents a systematic literature review describing studies applying ICT to dietary assessment. Eligible papers published between January 1995 and February 2008 were classified into four assessment categories: computerised assessment; personal digital assistants (PDA); digital photography; smart cards. Computerised assessments comprise frequency questionnaires, 24 h recalls (24HR) and diet history assessments. Self-administered computerised assessments, which can include audio support, may reduce literacy problems, be translated and are useful for younger age groups, but less so for those unfamiliar with computers. Self-administered 24HR utilising computers yielded comparable results as standard methods, but needed supervision if used in children. Computer-assisted interviewer-administered recall results were similar to conventional recalls, and reduced inter-interviewer variability. PDA showed some advantages but did not reduce underreporting. Mobile phone meal photos did not improve PDA accuracy. Digital photography for assessing individual food intake in dining facilities was accurate for adults and children, although validity was slightly higher with direct visual observation. Smart cards in dining facilities were useful for measuring food choice but not total dietary intake. In conclusion, computerised assessments and PDA are promising, and could improve dietary assessment quality in some vulnerable groups and decrease researcher workload. Both still need comprehensive evaluation for micronutrient intake assessment. Further work is necessary for improving ICT tools in established and new methods and for their rigorous evaluation. PMID:19594959

  16. The number of 24 h dietary recalls using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's automated multiple-pass method required to estimate nutrient intake in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA’s Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) is a five-step, multiple-pass, interviewer-administered, computerized, 24-h dietary recall. The objective of the study was to quantify sources of variation such as day of the week, season, sequence of the diet interviews (training effect), diet interv...

  17. Validation of a Group-Administered Pictorial Dietary Recall with 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Victoria; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry; Romaniello, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Determine validity of Day in the Life Questionnaire-Colorado (DILQ-CO) as a dietary assessment tool for classroom-administered use. Methods: Agreement between DILQ-CO responses and weighed plate waste measured in 125 fourth-grade students in 2 low-income schools. Validity assessed by comparing reported school lunch items and portion…

  18. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  19. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; De Cnop, Mara Lima; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption. PMID:26910251

  20. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  1. Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children’s accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2010-01-01

    -values<0.0001), and inflation ratios for energy and carbohydrate differed by the target-period by interview-time interaction (both P-values<0.005). Conclusions Shorten the retention interval of dietary recalls to increase accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrients. For validation studies, obtain reference information from a method that provides details about foods and amounts consumed, and use an analytic approach that captures errors of reported foods and amounts. PMID:20656093

  2. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21935277

  3. Measures of diet quality across calendar and holiday seasons among midlife women: A one-year longitudinal study using the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Systematic seasonal bias may confound efforts to estimate usual dietary intake and diet quality; little is known of dietary quality over the holiday season. Objectives: Test for differences in intakes of energy, percentage of energy from macronutrients, vegetables and fruits, and diet qu...

  4. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (P<0·001) and higher in individuals with lower educational level (P=0·01) and current smokers (P=0·02). The main dietary contributors for total polyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  5. Dietary antioxidant intake and its association with cognitive function in an ethnically diverse sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M. A.; Fanelli Kuczmarski, M.; Kitner-Triolo, M. H.; Beydoun, H. A.; Kaufman, J. S.; Mason, M. A.; Evans, M. K.; Zonderman, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration, and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30–64y at baseline (Mean±SD: 47.5±9.3) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hr recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E, per 1,000 kcal. Results Among key findings, one standard deviation (SD~2.02 mg/1,000kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall, (β=+0.64±0.19, p=0.001) and better language/verbal fluency performance (β=+0.53±0.16, p=0.001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β=+0.68±0.21, p=0.001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated=13–16%). Conclusions In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. PMID:25478706

  6. Improved interpretation of studies comparing methods of dietary assessment: combining equivalence testing with the limits of agreement.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Marijka J; Van Loo, Christel; Charlton, Karen E; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-04-14

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of testing for equivalence in combination with the Bland and Altman method when assessing agreement between two dietary methods. A sample data set, with eighty subjects simulated from previously published studies, was used to compare a FFQ with three 24 h recalls (24HR) for assessing dietary I intake. The mean I intake using the FFQ was 126·51 (sd 54·06) µg and using the three 24HR was 124·23 (sd 48·62) µg. The bias was -2·28 (sd 43·93) µg with a 90% CI 10·46, 5·89 µg. The limits of agreement (LOA) were -88·38, 83·82 µg. Four equivalence regions were compared. Using the conventional 10 % equivalence range, the methods are shown to be equivalent both by using the CI (-12·4, 12·4 µg) and the two one-sided tests approach (lower t=-2·99 (79 df), P=0·002; upper t=2·06 (79 df), P=0·021). However, we make a case that clinical decision making should be used to set the equivalence limits, and for nutrients where there are potential issues with deficiency or toxicity stricter criteria may be needed. If the equivalence region is lowered to ±5 µg, or ± 10 µg, these methods are no longer equivalent, and if a wider limit of ±15 µg is accepted they are again equivalent. Using equivalence testing, acceptable agreement must be assessed a priori and justified; this makes the process of defining agreement more transparent and results easier to interpret than relying on the LOA alone. PMID:26879342

  7. No Effect of Route of Exposure (Oral; Subcutaneous Injection) on Plasma Bisphenol A throughout 24 hr after Administration in Neonatal Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julia A.; Welshons, Wade V.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2008-01-01

    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24 hr after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration. PMID:18295446

  8. Recall in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion; Ricks, Margaret

    1979-01-01

    Free recall, cued recall, color recall, organization in recall, and sorting of three and four year olds were assessed on nine-item lists of objects that were orthogonally varied on color and category dimensions. Subjects were 64 boys and girls. (Author/MP)

  9. Calorie intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity among New York City adults: findings from a 2013 population study using dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Ryan Richard; Akhund, Ali; Adjoian, Tamar; Kansagra, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight-obesity have contributed to increases in early mortality and noncommunicable disease incidence. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to obesity, weight gain, and metabolic syndrome. To further explore this relationship in a large urban environment, we assessed disparities in calorie intake between SSB and non-SSB consumers and determine the association between varying SSB consumption, obesity, and overweight-obesity using data from a 2013 representative dietary survey conducted in New York City. Results show that adult SSB drinkers consume 193 kcal/day from SSBs, approximately 10% of daily caloric needs. Compared to non-SSB drinkers, those who consume SSBs have a 572 kcal greater daily intake. Total calorie differences are due to greater SSB calorie and food calorie consumption. Among SSB consumers, each 10-oz increase in SSB consumption is associated with a greater likelihood of obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.05, 2.05) and overweight-obesity (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.31, 3.80). Additionally, each 10-kcal SSB increase is related to obesity (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01, 1.08) and overweight-obesity (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11). PMID:24671367

  10. The science of recalls.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Melvin N; Coto, Daniel; Weidner, J David

    2005-09-01

    Morbidity due to foodborne illnesses in the US has decreased over the last ten years. During the same time period recalls affecting the meat and poultry industry have increased from 38 in 1993 to a peak of 128 in 2002. Recalls due to L. monocytogenes (LM) and E. coli O157:H7 have accounted for the majority of recalls in recent years, while incidence rates for these pathogens have decreased. Incidence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 cases since 1996 have decreased 17% and 42% respectively while product positives in ready to eat foods for LM has decreased from 3% in 1995 to 0.75% in 2003. In response to the increasing number of recalls, members of the meat and poultry industry have developed recall plans to effectively manage a recall crisis. A detailed recall plan which is tested through mock scenarios is essential to reducing the economic and negative consumer confidence impact of recalls. PMID:22064061

  11. Cued recall in depression.

    PubMed

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1987-05-01

    An experiment is reported in which a depressed and a control group were tested on free recall, cued recall and recognition memory for a prose passage. As expected from previous work the depressives tended to show less impairment on recognition than on free recall. However, contrary to what some theories would predict, cued recall performance was no better than free recall. The implications of this finding for the nature of the depressive memory deficit for neutral materials are discussed. It seems that neither the amount of verbal output required, nor the need to generate retrieval cues, are critical factors. PMID:3580652

  12. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  13. Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    2010-10-01

    The study of recollective and nonrecollective retrieval has become controversial, owing to several critiques of traditional recognition-based measurement (e.g., remember/know, ROC, process dissociation). We present a new methodology in which subjects merely study and recall lists, using any standard paradigm (associative, cued, free, or serial recall), the data are analyzed with a Markov model whose parameters measure recollective and nonrecollective retrieval, and the model's fit is compared to that of one-process models. The power of this approach is illustrated in some experiments that dealt with two classic questions: (a) What are the process-level differences between associative and free recall, and (b) why does taxonomic organization improve free recall but impair associative recall? Fit results showed that a dual-retrieval model is both necessary and sufficient to account for associative and free recall data, in contrast to the sufficient-but-not-necessary pattern that prevails in the recognition literature. Key substantive findings were that associative recall is more reliant on recollective retrieval and less reliant on nonrecollective retrieval than free recall, that taxonomic organization impairs recollective retrieval in both paradigms, and that taxonomic organization enhances the reconstruction component of nonrecollective retrieval in free recall. PMID:22279248

  14. Longitudinal Analysis of Dietary Patterns in Chinese Adults from 1991 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A.; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and the tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence of these patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We used seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9,253 adults with ≥3 waves complete. Diet was measured over a 3-day period with 24-hr recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified, remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern pattern was characterized by high intake of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour, corn/coarse grains; and the modern high-wheat pattern was characterized by high intake of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy roots/tubers products, fruits, eggs/eggs products, soy milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity level were positively associated with both dietary patterns, but the association became smaller in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China; the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods is cause of concern. PMID:24331247

  15. Failure to Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly…

  16. Creativity and Dream Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creative interests and dream recall frequency (DRF) by having 44 adults complete dream recall journals as well as a verbal creativity test. Results indicate that persons with both visual and verbal creative skills remember their dreams more. Visual memory may be a mediating variable between…

  17. Hypermnesia in free recall and cued recall.

    PubMed

    Payne, D G; Hembrooke, H A; Anastasi, J S

    1993-01-01

    In three experiments, categorized lists and both free recall and cued recall tests were used to examine hypermnesia. In Experiment 1, materials were drawn from obvious and nonobvious categories in an attempt to vary the amount of relational processing at encoding. The study materials in Experiment 2 consisted of a long word list that comprised several exemplars from each of a number of common categories. In Experiment 3, a single exemplar was drawn from each of 45 categories. In each experiment, similar magnitudes of hypermnesia were obtained on free and cued recall tests. Examination of the specific items recalled across tests indicated that similar processes underlie the hypermnesic effect for both test conditions. Implications of the results for extant accounts of the hypermnesic effect are discussed. It is concluded that the dynamics of retrieval processes change in a systematic fashion across repeated tests and the retention interval following study and that an adequate account of the nature of these changes in retrieval dynamics is essential to our understanding of hypermnesia and related phenomena. PMID:8433647

  18. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Marie T.; Allen, Allyssa; Beydoun, Hind A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day) with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30–64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index–2010 (HEI–2010) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), (two 24-hr recalls). A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status. Results Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively), whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100), reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1) to $6.62/d (Q4)) was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components. Conclusions Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010) requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people’s decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices. PMID:26536243

  19. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  20. Assessing vitamin status in large population surveys by measuring biomarkers and dietary intake – two case studies: folate and vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Johnson, Clifford L.; Coates, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time. The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary), and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC) folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism. Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys. PMID:22489219

  1. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:26081477

  2. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  3. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  4. Personality Correlates of Dream Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    The study investigated the capacity of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) to discriminate between those who frequently recall dreams and those who do not. The results are interpreted as indicating that the frequent recaller experiences less and the infrequent recaller experiences more intrapsychic conflict. (Author)

  5. Adaptive memory: Animacy enhances free recall but impairs cued recall.

    PubMed

    Popp, Earl Y; Serra, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of objects and lists of animals for free-recall tests, and studied sets of animal-animal pairs and object-object pairs for cued-recall tests. In Experiment 2, we compared participants' cued recall for English-English, Swahili-English, and English-Swahili word pairs involving either animal or object English words. In Experiment 3, we compared participants' cued recall for animal-animal, object-object, animal-object, and object-animal pairs. Although we were able to replicate past effects of animacy aiding free recall, animacy typically impaired cued recall in the present experiments. More importantly, given the interactions found in the present experiments, we conclude that some factor associated with animacy (e.g., attention capture or mental arousal) is responsible for the present patterns of results. This factor seems to moderate the relationship between animacy and memory, producing a memory advantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to enhanced target retrievability but a memory disadvantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to impaired association memory. PMID:26375781

  6. Writing superiority in cued recall.

    PubMed

    Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather

  7. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C

    2004-01-01

    Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure. PMID:15064162

  8. Compound cuing in free recall.

    PubMed

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  9. Age Differences in Adults' Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion

    1979-01-01

    Adults in their twenties and sixties were tested for free recall, cued recall, and recognition of words that they had studied in an intentional memory task or generated associations to in an incidental orienting task. Significant age-related declines in performance on intentional items were observed regardless of type of memory test. (Author)

  10. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  11. Dream recall and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Frauscher, S; Shendi, A

    1995-08-01

    The present study estimated correlations for 50 subjects among frequency of dream recall, length of dream report, and visual memory. Whereas the results confirmed the previously found relationship between frequency of dream recall and visual memory, influence of visual memory on length of dream report was not found. PMID:8532466

  12. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  13. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  14. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  15. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (D...

  16. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (DQS...

  17. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  18. Extinction of Conditioned Fear is Better Learned and Recalled in the Morning than in the Evening

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis; Verga, Patrick W.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N=109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCR) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS−), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS+E) but not the other (CS+U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 hr (within AM or PM), 12 hr (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 hr (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p=.002). Collapsing across CS+ type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p=.003) and fear renewal (p=.005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS+E to CS+U with the response to the CS+U significantly larger than to the CS+E only in the evening (p=.028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicting better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. PMID:23992769

  19. Radiation recall with anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Burris, Howard A; Hurtig, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Radiation recall is an acute inflammatory reaction confined to previously irradiated areas that can be triggered when chemotherapy agents are administered after radiotherapy. It remains a poorly understood phenomenon, but increased awareness may aid early diagnosis and appropriate management. A diverse range of drugs used in the treatment of cancer has been associated with radiation recall. As most data come from case reports, it is not possible to determine the true incidence, but to date the antineoplastic drugs for which radiation recall reactions have been most commonly reported include the anthracycline doxorubicin, the taxanes docetaxel and paclitaxel, and the antimetabolites gemcitabine and capecitabine. Radiation recall is drug-specific for any individual patient; it is not possible to predict which patients will react to which drugs, and rechallenge does not uniformly induce a reaction. There are no identifiable characteristics of drugs that cause radiation recall, and thus, it is a possibility that must be kept in mind with use of any drug after radiotherapy, including those from new drug classes. Although it is not yet possible to design treatment regimens to eliminate the risk of radiation recall, it seems likely that risks can be minimized by prolonging the interval between completion of radiotherapy and initiation of chemotherapy. PMID:21045191

  20. Why is it important to improve dietary assessment methods?

    Cancer.gov

    Food frequency questionnaires, which measure a person's usual intake over a defined period of time, and 24-hour recalls, in which a person records everything eaten or drunk during the previous 24 hours, are commonly used to collect dietary information.

  1. Recall Instructions and the Suffix Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; Crowder, Robert G.

    1976-01-01

    Performance on the last few items of a 12-word list was impaired when a spoken "Recall" was used as the cue for recall, relative to performance with a nonverbal cue. This suffix effect occured with four types of recall instructions after auditory presentation, including instructions for conventional serial and after free recall. (Editor)

  2. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  3. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  4. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  6. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  7. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  8. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  9. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  10. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  11. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  12. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  13. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  14. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  15. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  16. Dietary Patterns and Socioeconomic Status in the Very Old: The Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R.; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with health outcomes in younger adults but there is a lack of evidence in the very old (aged 85+) on DP and their association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, health and functioning measures. Higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with healthier DP but it is not known whether these associations are sustained in the very old. Objective We aimed to (a) characterise DP in the very old and (b) assess the relationships between three SES indicators (education, occupational class and area-deprivation index [IMD]) and DP. Methods Complete dietary data at baseline (2006/07) for 793 participants in the Newcastle 85+ Study were established through 24-hr multiple pass recall. We used Two-Step clustering and 30 food groups to derive DP, and multinomial logistic regression models to assess the association with SES. Results We identified three distinct DP (characterised as ‘High Red Meat’, ‘Low Meat’, and ‘High Butter’) that varied with key sociodemographic, health and functioning measures. ‘Low Meat’ participants were more advantaged (i.e. higher education and occupational class, and lived in more affluent areas in owned homes), were least disabled, cognitively impaired, and depressed, and were more physically active than those in the other DP. After adjusting for other lifestyle factors, cognitive status and BMI, lower educational attainment remained a significant predictor of ‘High Red Meat’ and ‘High Butter’ membership compared with ‘Low Meat’ (‘High Red Meat’: OR [95% CI] for 0–9 and 10–11 years of education vs. ≥12 years: 5.28 [2.85–9.79], p<0.001 and 3.27 [1.65–6.51], p = 0.001, respectively; ‘High Butter’: 3.32 [1.89–5.82], p<0.001 and 2.83 [1.52–5.28], p = 0.001). Conclusions In this cohort of very old adults, we detected a favourable DP (‘Low Meat’), which was associated with better health and functioning and higher SES. PMID:26488497

  17. Action research through stimulated recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, John

    1993-12-01

    The emphasis in classroom learning research has moved from process-product models to the mediating process paradigm. The stimulated-recall interview and thik aloud techniques are the two main processes that have been used in attempts to find out what goes on inside students' heads while they are learning. For example, this researcher has used the stimulated-recall interview technique to identify the workplace thinking of a marine science researcher, and the in-class thinking of a year eleven biology student. Such studies as these have produced findings with important implications for the classroom teacher in the role of action researcher. This paper describes how to conduct stimulated-recall interviews and discusses some classroom implications from the two studies.

  18. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  19. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2013-12-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:24095784

  20. Comparison of a web-based versus traditional diet recall among children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24 (ASA24) hour dietary recall and how this compared to an intervi...

  1. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 2...

  2. Recall in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walen, Susan R.

    1970-01-01

    The learning and retention performances of children and adults were compared on free and serialized reproductions of meaningful words. Although the children took longer than the adults to reach the learning criterion, and short-term retention was equivalent for both groups, the children displayed a superior serial recall at 7-day retention.…

  3. School Board Recall Revives Vista.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In November 1992, Vista (California) residents elected two conservative Christians to four-year terms on the school board. Controversial topics at board meetings divided the community. In a November 1994 recall election two conservatives were replaced by two moderates. An interview with the board president and superintendent describes how school…

  4. Sequential Recall in Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Chapman, Robin S.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to recall correctly ordered information was examined using two auditory tasks (narrative recall and digit span) and a nonverbal, visual task, with 47 individuals with Down's syndrome (ages 5 to 20) and 47 mentally aged-matched children. Although Down's syndrome subjects recalled less information than controls, no differences in the…

  5. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  6. Loss of Retrieval Information in Prose Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehulster, Jerome R.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally manipulate input and output orders of information and separate storage and retrieval components of prose free recall. The cued partial recall method, used in word list recall, was adapted to a prose learning task. Four short biographical stories of about 55 words each were systematically combined…

  7. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed for that recall. In general terms, the purpose of a recall communication is to convey: (1) That...

  8. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  9. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  10. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  11. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  12. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  13. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS PUBLICLY... Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been...

  14. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  15. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  16. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  17. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  18. Children's Use of Scripts in Story Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Kathleen A.; Nelson, Katherine

    1981-01-01

    Reveals that (1) structural importance and not serial position was the better guide to recall, (2) children were able to sequence properly with few idiosyncratic interferences, and (3) younger children recalled main events, as well as did older children--improved recall with age was primarily for filler events. (FL)

  19. Recalled Behavior and Ease of Recall as Information in Self-Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    In studies examining the influence of recall on judgments, social psychologists have generally concentrated on the content of recalled material rather than on the process of recall. To investigate the impact of recalled behaviors (content) and the ease with which these behaviors came to mind (process) on assessment of one's own assertiveness, 158…

  20. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  1. Assessment of usual dietary intake in population studies of gene-diet interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intake is a critical exposure when examining genetic factors on disease risk. Weighed diet records can provide the most accurate assessment of intake, but are usually not realistic in large population studies. Multiple 24 hour dietary recalls provide detail, allowing for diverse dietary prac...

  2. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe. PMID:19350835

  3. POSITIVE EMOTIONS ENHANCE RECALL OF PERIPHERAL DETAILS

    PubMed Central

    Talarico, Jennifer M.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional arousal and negative affect enhance recall of central aspects of an event. However, the role of discrete emotions in selective memory processing is understudied. Undergraduates were asked to recall and rate autobiographical memories of eight emotional events. Details of each memory were rated as central or peripheral to the event. Significance of the event, vividness, reliving and other aspects of remembering were also rated for each event. Positive affect enhanced recall of peripheral details. Furthermore, the impairment of peripheral recall was greatest in memories of anger, not of fear. Reliving the experience at retrieval was negatively correlated with recall of peripheral details for some emotions (e.g., anger) but not others (e.g., fear), irrespective of similarities in affect and intensity. Within individuals, recall of peripheral details was correlated with less belief in the memory’s accuracy and more likelihood to recall the memory from one’s own eyes (i.e., a field perspective). PMID:21359127

  4. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  5. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. PMID:27516599

  6. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  7. Practice makes perfect in memory recall.

    PubMed

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-04-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists. Moreover, some of them developed a number of consistent input-position-dependent recall strategies, in particular recalling words consecutively ("chaining") or in groups of consecutively presented words ("chunking"). The time course of acquisition and particular choice of positional grouping were variable among participants. Our results show that acquiring positional strategies plays a crucial role in improvement of recall performance. PMID:26980785

  8. Improved nutrient intake and diet quality associated with lean beef consumption in the US: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dietary guidelines recommend consuming meats in its lowest fat form. NHANES 1999–2004 24-hr dietary recall data were used to compare nutrient intake and diet quality (HEI-2005) between highest lean/lowest fat (HLLF) beef consumers, and lowest lean/highest fat (LLHF) beef consumers aged 4+ y (n e...

  9. Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of children (9-13 Years): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NHANES, 1999-2004, 24-hr dietary recalls were used to examine the contribution of Lean Beef (LB) to total nutrient intake in diets of children 9-13 years (n=3,273), and determine dietary intake differences between LB consumers and non-consumers. LB was defined by MyPyramid Equivalents Database as be...

  10. Quantum bounce and cosmic recall.

    PubMed

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-25

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10(-56) (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall. PMID:18518182

  11. Quantum Bounce and Cosmic Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10-56 (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall.

  12. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  13. Environmental 24-hr Cycles Are Essential for Health.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Coomans, Claudia P; van Putten, Maaike; de Kreij, Suzanne R; van Genugten, Jasper H L T; Sutorius, Robbert P M; de Rooij, Karien E; van der Velde, Martijn; Verhoeve, Sanne L; Smit, Jan W A; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Smits, Hermelijn H; Guigas, Bruno; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M; Meijer, Johanna H

    2016-07-25

    Circadian rhythms are deeply rooted in the biology of virtually all organisms. The pervasive use of artificial lighting in modern society disrupts circadian rhythms and can be detrimental to our health. To investigate the relationship between disrupting circadian rhythmicity and disease, we exposed mice to continuous light (LL) for 24 weeks and measured several major health parameters. Long-term neuronal recordings revealed that 24 weeks of LL reduced rhythmicity in the central circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by 70%. Strikingly, LL exposure also reduced skeletal muscle function (forelimb grip strength, wire hanging duration, and grid hanging duration), caused trabecular bone deterioration, and induced a transient pro-inflammatory state. After the mice were returned to a standard light-dark cycle, the SCN neurons rapidly recovered their normal high-amplitude rhythm, and the aforementioned health parameters returned to normal. These findings strongly suggest that a disrupted circadian rhythm reversibly induces detrimental effects on multiple biological processes. PMID:27426518

  14. Does feigning amnesia impair subsequent recall?

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Punjabi, Paawan V; Greenberg, Lucy T; Seamon, John G

    2009-01-01

    Defendants who are accused of serious crimes sometimes feign amnesia to evade criminal responsibility. Previous research has suggested that feigning amnesia might impair subsequent recall. In two experiments, participants read and heard a story about a central character, described as "you," who was responsible for the death of either a puppy (Experiment 1) or a friend (Experiment 2). On free and cued recall tests immediately after the story, participants who had feigned amnesia recalled less than did participants who had recalled accurately. One week later, when all participants recalled accurately, participants who had previously feigned amnesia still performed worse than did participants who had recalled accurately both times. However, the participants who had formerly feigned amnesia did not perform worse than did a control group who had received only the delayed recall tests. Our results suggest that a "feigned amnesia effect" may reflect nothing more than differential practice at recall. Feigning amnesia for a crime need not impair memory for that crime when a person later seeks to remember accurately. PMID:19103978

  15. Development of Strategies for Recall and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tversky, Barbara; Teiffer, Evelyn

    1976-01-01

    A total of 122 kindergartners, third and fifth graders viewed 30 pictures of familiar objects and interested on their free recall of the object names and their recognition of the original pictures. Half received instruction in adult recognition strategies, half in adult recall strategies. (MS)

  16. Aging and the Category-Recall Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, Patricia E.; Meggison, David L.

    A sorting-recall procedure was used to investigate how long-term memory in elderly subjects is affected by categorical organization. Sixty-four young adults (average age 20 years) and retirees (average age 67) sorted 48 unrelated words into two, four, six, or eight categories prior to recall. High- and low-frequency lists were tested, a…

  17. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  18. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  19. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  20. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  1. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  2. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  3. Hypermnesia as Determined by Level of Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses three experiments which provide evidence for the conclusions that hypermnesia (increased recall with repeated testing) does not depend on the encoding of material in an imaginal format but is related to the level of recall across conditions within an experiment. (EKN)

  4. Recall Readiness in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Annette; Blades, Mark; Boucher, Jill

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the metacognitive ability (recall readiness) in matched groups of children with autism, children with mental retardation, and normally developing children (all with a mental age of 7). Children with autism and children with mental retardation had impaired recall readiness compared to the normally developing children. (Author/DB)

  5. Individual Differences in Eyewitness Recall Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, James D.; Herringer, Lawrence G.

    1991-01-01

    Presents study results comparing college students' self-evaluation of recall accuracy to actual recall of detail after viewing a crime scenario. Reports that self-reported ability to remember detail correlates with accuracy in memory of specifics. Concludes that people may have a good indication early in the eyewitness situation of whether they…

  6. Passage Recall: Schema Change and Cognitive Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Paula T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The effects of subsequent related information and cognitive flexibility on prose recall were studied. Subjects read a passage; then were given either consistent or contradictory information. Errors in cued recall, reflecting the subsequent information, were more frequently produced after a three-week delay than after two days. (Author/GDC)

  7. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  8. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  9. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  10. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  11. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  12. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  13. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  14. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  15. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  16. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  17. Low accuracy and low consistency of fourth-graders' school breakfast and school lunch recalls

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, WILLIAM 0.; LITAKER, MARK S.; FRYE, FRANCESCA H.A.; GUINN, CAROLINE H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy and consistency of fourth-graders' school breakfast and school lunch recalls obtained during 24-hour recalls and compared with observed intake. Design Children were interviewed using a multiple-pass protocol at school the morning after being observed eating school breakfast and school lunch. Subjects 104 children stratified by ethnicity (African-American, white) and gender were randomly selected and interviewed up to 3 times each with 4 to 14 weeks between each interview. Statistical analysis Match, omission, and intrusion rates to determine accuracy of reporting items; arithmetic and/or absolute differences to determine accuracy for reporting amounts; total inaccuracy to determine inaccuracy for reporting items and amounts combined; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to determine consistency. Results Means were 51% for omission rate, 39% for intrusion rate, and 7.1 servings for total inaccuracy. Total inaccuracy decreased significantly from the first to the third recall (P=0.006). The ICC was 0.29 for total inaccuracy and 0.15 for omission rate. For all meal components except bread/grain and beverage, there were more omissions than intrusions. Mean arithmetic and absolute differences per serving in amount reported for matches were -0.08 and 0.24, respectively. Mean amounts per serving of omissions and intrusions were 0.86 and 0.80, respectively. Applications/conclusions The low accuracy and low consistency of children's recalls from this study raise concerns regarding the current uses of dietary recalls obtained from children. To improve the accuracy and consistency of children's dietary recalls, validation studies are needed to determine the best way(s) to interview children. PMID:11905461

  18. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    PubMed

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  19. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history

    PubMed Central

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  20. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence from Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this…

  1. Oak Ridge callibration recall program

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Wright, W.E.; Pritchard, E.W.

    1996-12-31

    A development effort was initiated within the Oak Ridge metrology community to address the need for a more versatile and user friendly tracking database that could be used across the Oak Ridge complex. This database, which became known as the Oak Ridge Calibration Recall Program (ORCRP), needed to be diverse enough for use by all three Oak Ridge facilities, as well as the seven calibration organizations that support them. Various practical functions drove the initial design of the program: (1) accessible by any user at any site through a multi-user interface, (2) real-time database that was able to automatically generate e-mail notices of due and overdue measuring and test equipment, (3) large memory storage capacity, and (4) extremely fast data access times. In addition, the program needed to generate reports on items such as instrument turnaround time, workload projections, and laboratory efficiency. Finally, the program should allow the calibration intervals to be modified, based on historical data. The developed program meets all of the stated requirements and is accessible over a network of computers running Microsoft Windows software.

  2. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  3. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  4. Category clustering calculator for free recall

    PubMed Central

    Senkova, Olesya; Otani, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    The free recall measure is one of the most popular measures in memory research. Using this measure, researchers can assess not only the amount of recall but also the strategy participants used to recall the material. Category clustering is a strategy participants often use when the input list is categorized. Unfortunately, computing category clustering measures is laborious. The present paper introduces a calculator that computes these measures for each participant using a platform that is accessible to most researchers in an attempt to make these measures more user-friendly. PMID:23717345

  5. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  6. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with industry and our state partners to publish press releases and other public notices about recalls ... Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  7. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  8. Interpersonal Process Recall: An Innovative Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedek, Elissa P.; Bieniek, Christine M.

    1977-01-01

    Three specific skills are described that the novice psychiatric resident must begin to learn: interviewing techniques, self-observation, and empathy. Curriculum effective in accelerating the learning process, i.e., interpersonal process recall, is also discussed. (Author/LBH)

  9. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less

  10. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  11. The influence of disfigurement on conversational recall.

    PubMed

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Furness, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    Two experiments are reported which examine the degree to which conversational recall is affected by facial disfigurement. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a video interview and then immediately recalled the information given by the speaker. Recall fell from 68 per cent to 52 per cent when a fake disfigurement was visible on the speaker's face. In Experiment 2, these results were replicated in a more realistic simulated webcam interaction. Again, immediate conversational recall fell substantially from 85 per cent to 51 per cent when the speaker had a fake disfigurement. In both experiments, however, overt reactions through personality ratings were unaffected by appearance. Reasons for such reactions are discussed, together with the value to the individual in knowing and expecting such reactions. PMID:18987084

  12. Reminiscence and item recovery in free recall.

    PubMed

    Madigan, S

    1976-05-01

    The item recovery or reminiscence component of recall in RTT procedures was investigated in two free recall experiments. In the first, Erdelyi and Becker's (1974) "hypermnesia" effect was found with pictures as the to-be-remembered material: total amount recalled increased over two successive test trials, and included a large reminiscence effect, with some 27% of previously unrecalled items appearing in the second test. The second experiment, with word lists, showed that the frequency of occurrence of new items was greater following a 12-min separation of two test trials than in two relatively massed tests. This kind of item recovery is relevant to models of output interference and retrieval limitations in free recall, and may be also related to spontaneous recovery effects. PMID:21287027

  13. Word Recall: Cognitive Performance Within Internet Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M; Jim, Heather S

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of online surveys for data collection has increased exponentially, yet it is often unclear whether interview-based cognitive assessments (such as face-to-face or telephonic word recall tasks) can be adapted for use in application-based research settings. Objective The objective of the current study was to compare and characterize the results of online word recall tasks to those of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and determine the feasibility and reliability of incorporating word recall tasks into application-based cognitive assessments. Methods The results of the online immediate and delayed word recall assessment, included within the Women’s Health and Valuation (WHV) study, were compared to the results of the immediate and delayed recall tasks of Waves 5-11 (2000-2012) of the HRS. Results Performance on the WHV immediate and delayed tasks demonstrated strong concordance with performance on the HRS tasks (ρc=.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.91), despite significant differences between study populations (P<.001) and study design. Sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported memory demonstrated similar relationships with performance on both the HRS and WHV tasks. Conclusions The key finding of this study is that the HRS word recall tasks performed similarly when used as an online cognitive assessment in the WHV. Online administration of cognitive tests, which has the potential to significantly reduce participant and administrative burden, should be considered in future research studies and health assessments. PMID:26543924

  14. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined. PMID:26506017

  15. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire comprised 61 questions for assessing dietary habits. A survey was administered to 320 adults (19 to 64 years old) using the dietary pattern evaluation tool and 24-hour-recall method between March and May of 2014 in Jeonbuk province and the metropolitan area. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to identify dietary behavior patterns. Nutritional analysis was conducted using CAN-Pro 4.0, and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was calculated to assess dietary quality. The correlation between dietary pattern scores and DQI-I scores was also analyzed. RESULTS The factor analysis resulted in a total of 34 questions mapped to four main dietary behavior patterns: "high fat and calorie" pattern (12 questions), "overeating/binge" pattern (nine questions), "dietary impulse" pattern (eight questions), and "unbalanced food intake" pattern (five questions). The four dietary behavior patterns were negatively correlated with DQI-I adequacy and total scores (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The dietary pattern evaluation tool developed in this study can be used to diagnose a client's dietary behavior problems and is available as a nutrition counseling tool in the field. PMID:27247727

  16. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  17. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  19. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  20. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  1. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  2. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  3. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  4. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  5. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  6. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  7. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  8. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  9. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  10. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.27 Recall notice content requirements. Except as provided in § 1115.29, every recall notice...

  11. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  12. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  13. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  14. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  15. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.27 Recall notice content requirements. Except as provided in § 1115.29, every recall notice...

  16. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  17. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  18. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  19. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  20. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  1. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  2. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  3. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  4. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  5. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  6. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  7. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  8. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  9. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  10. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  11. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  12. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  13. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  14. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  15. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.27 Recall notice content requirements. Except as provided in § 1115.29, every recall notice...

  16. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  17. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  18. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  19. The Development of Conceptual and Rote Recall Skills Among School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Garrett

    1973-01-01

    One hundred eighty children from Grades K, 5, and 9 performed a recall task within one of four instructional conditions: serial recall; standard free recall; labeling free recall; labeling cued recall. (Editor)

  20. COMPARATIVE STRATEGIES FOR USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS TO ASSESS DIETARY PATTERNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize dietary patterns using two different cluster analysis strategies. In this cross-sectional study, diet information was assessed by five 24-hour recalls collected over 10 months. All foods were classified into 24 food subgroups. Demographic, health, and ...

  1. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    PubMed

    Hunt, R Reed; Smith, Rebekah E; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2011-11-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone is sufficient to explain extant data. Our research was driven by a framework that distinguishes item-based and event-based distinctive processing to account for the effects of different variables on both correct recall of study list items and false recall. We report the results of three experiments examining the effect of a deep orienting task and the effect of visual presentation of study items, both of which have been shown to reduce false recall. The experiments replicate those previous findings and add important new information about the effect of the variables on a recall test that eliminates the need for monitoring. The results clearly indicate that both post-access monitoring and constraints on access contribute to reductions in false memories. The results also showed that the manipulations of study modality and orienting task had different effects on correct and false recall, a pattern that was predicted by the item-based/event-based distinctive processing framework. PMID:22003267

  2. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  3. Negative priming in free recall reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C Philip; Jones, Dylan M

    2016-05-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595066

  4. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Saito, Satoru; Morita, Aiko; Varma, Samarth; Norris, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers of English recalled visually presented words. In all experiments, items varied in visual similarity and were controlled for phonological similarity. For Kanji and for English, performance on lists comprising visually similar items was overall poorer than for lists of visually distinct items across all serial positions. For mixed lists in which visually similar and visually distinct items alternated through the list, a clear "zig-zag" pattern appeared with better recall of the visually distinct items than for visually similar items. This is the first time that this zig-zag pattern has been shown for manipulations of visual similarity in serial-ordered recall. These data provide new evidence that retaining a sequence of visual codes relies on similar principles to those that govern the retention of a sequence of phonological codes. We further illustrate this by demonstrating that the data patterns can be readily simulated by at least one computational model of serial-ordered recall, the Primacy model (Page and Norris, Psychological Review, 105(4), 761-81, 1998). Together with previous evidence from neuropsychological studies and experimental studies with healthy adults, these results are interpreted as consistent with two domain-specific, limited-capacity, temporary memory systems for phonological material and for visual material, respectively, each of which uses similar processes that have evolved to be optimal for retention of serial order. PMID:26704711

  5. Validation of the school lunch recall questionnaire to capture school lunch intake of third- to fifth-grade students.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Amy; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Fleming, Phyllis; Ammerman, Alice

    2011-03-01

    Children's dietary intake is a key variable in evaluations of school-based interventions. Current methods for assessing children's intake, such as 24-hour recalls and meal observations, are time- and resource-intensive. As part of a study to evaluate the impact of farm-to-school programs, the school lunch recall was developed from a need for a valid and efficient tool to assess school lunch intake among large samples of children. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire, the school lunch recall prompts for school lunch items by asking children whether they chose a menu item, how much of it they ate, how much they liked it, and whether they would choose it again. The school lunch recall was validated during summer school in 2008 with 18 third- to fifth-grade students (8 to 11 years old) in a North Carolina elementary school. For 4 consecutive days, trained observers recorded foods and amounts students ate during school lunch. Students completed the school lunch recall immediately after lunch. Thirty-seven total observation school lunch recall sets were analyzed. Comparison of school lunch recalls against observations indicated high accuracy, with means of 6% for omission rate (items observed but unreported), 10% for intrusion rate (items unobserved but reported), and 0.63 servings for total inaccuracy (a measure that combines errors for reporting items and amounts). For amounts, accuracy was high for matches (0.06 and 0.01 servings for absolute and arithmetic differences, respectively) but lower for omissions (0.47 servings) and intrusions (0.54 servings). In this pilot study, the school lunch recall was a valid, efficient tool for assessing school lunch intake for a small sample of third- to fifth-grade students. PMID:21338742

  6. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category. PMID:27592833

  7. Dietary intake data collection: challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to succinctly review the origin of US dietary surveys, the challenges and limitations of obtaining dietary intake data, the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990, the integrated US federal food survey, and the development of the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) automated multiple-pass method. The USDA has monitored the food consumption patterns of Americans since the late 1890 s. In 2002, the US Department of Health and Human Services and the USDA integrated their data collection efforts, with data now collected on a continuous basis. Two 24-hour dietary recalls are obtained using USDA's automated multiple-pass method. By combining their respective areas of expertise, the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services have increased research opportunities for scientists and provided data foundational for establishing programs and public policy. PMID:23121343

  8. Comparison of a web-based versus traditional diet recall among children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Baranowski, Janice; Martin, Shelby; Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Adame, Su-heyla; Watson, Kathleen B.; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether eight to 13 year old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24 (ASA24) hour dietary recall and how this compared to an interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24 HDR). One-hundred and twenty eight to13 year old children were recruited in Houston from June through August 2009, and randomly assigned to complete either the ASA24 or an interviewer-administered 24 HDR, followed by the other recall mode covering the same time interval. Multivariate analysis of variance, testing for differences by age, gender and ethnic/racial group, were applied to percentages of food matches, intrusions, and omissions between reports on the ASA24 and the interviewer-administered 24 HDR. For the ASA24, qualitative findings were reported regarding ease of use. Overall matches between interviewer-administered and ASA24 self-administered 24 HDR was 47.8 percent. Matches were significantly lower among younger (eight to nine year old), compared to older (10 to 13 year old) children. Omissions on ASA24 (18.9 percent overall) were most common among eight year olds and intermediate among nine year olds. Eight and nine year olds had substantial difficulties and often required aid in completing ASA24. Findings from this study suggest that a simpler version of a web-based diet recall program would be easier for children to use. PMID:22717216

  9. VALIDATION OF THREE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES AND 24-HOUR RECALLS WITH SERUM CAROTENOID LEVELS IN A SAMPLE OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN ADULTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake in minority populations has not been adequately established. In this study, the authors examined the association of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls with serum carotenoid levels. Approximately 1,000 Africa...

  10. The Spacing of Lists in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; Crowder, Robert G.

    1975-01-01

    Spaced presentations of 12- and 15-word lists were better recalled when no task or an easy task intervened between presentations. Results indicate a lack of generality in Bjork and Allen's 1970 findings and a need for a two-factor theory of the spacing effect, and are evidence for a spacing effect. (CHK)

  11. Enhancing the Recall of Presented Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Many educators distribute either complete or incomplete handouts so students can follow along with their lectures. This research examines a teaching system that combines computer-generated graphics presentations and detailed outline handouts with blanks added. An experiment found that this system produced significantly higher short-term recall of…

  12. Recalling data in a distributed processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionka, H.E.

    1983-07-01

    A multihost system includes programming controls that migrate aged data from the primary external data storage DASD (direct-access storage device) to magnetic recording tape for long-term storage. The author describes an independent recall operation which retrieves tape stored data for a particular host.

  13. Story Structure versus Content in Children's Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezworski, Teresa; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Study examines possibility that certain story constituents are better recalled than others, suggesting a universal, underlying representation for a story by controlling for semantic content of settings, initiating events, internal responses, consequences, and reactions across versions of same story. Results show subjects transformed syntactic form…

  14. Adults' Event Recall: Is Context Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Hilary Horn; Padgett, Robert J.

    In studies of retention of verbal material adults have repeatedly remembered less than younger adults have. A study was conducted which asked older adults to remember an experienced event, retention of experiences being considered a better indicator of functioning ability than retention of word lists. In an initial study, older adults' recall was…

  15. The Structure and Recall of Narrative Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Donald R.

    This study examines recall of narrative prose for evidence of underlying structures such as the grammar used in the story's sentence structure. Subjects listened to repeated presentations of a tape recording of two pages from a history book, with verbals collected after each presentation. The subjects used in this experiment were 13 undergraduate…

  16. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  17. Task Context and Organization in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…

  18. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their Library of…

  19. A Composite Holographic Associative Recall Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe Eich, Janet

    1982-01-01

    A model of association formation, storage, and retrieval is described. Experiments which test new predictions derived from the model against human recall are reported. The model is applied to previous findings: prototype abstraction, the A-B A-D paradigm and the Osgood transfer surface. Previous models of memory are discussed. (Author/RD)

  20. Genetic Counselling: Information Given, Recall and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Susan; McDonald, Valerie; Marteau, Theresa M.

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to counselors (N=32) to categorize the key points given in genetic counseling; to assess the amount and type of information recalled; and to examine the relationships between counselees' knowledge, satisfaction with information received, the meeting of expectations, concern, and anxiety. Results emphasize the importance of…

  1. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  2. Working Memory and Binding in Sentence Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baddeley, A. D.; Hitch, G. J.; Allen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To…

  3. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  4. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. PMID:24976425

  5. The Relation Between Nutrition Knowledge and the Dietary Intake of Selected Women: A Basis for Adult Education Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Reba Jones

    To investigate the relationship between the estimated quality of dietary intake and (1) knowledge of nutrition concepts, (2) attitude toward nutrition, (3) food preferences, and (4) perception of personal control of dietary intake, information was gathered from two 24-hour food recalls and other instruments administered to 102 women representing…

  6. Standardization of the juvenile mussel bioassay: Dietary requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, L.W.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Optimizing a feeding regime is essential for establishing juvenile mussels (Utterbackia imbecillus) as a standard toxicity test organism. Although very little is known about their dietary requirements, these juveniles appear to derive adequate nourishment for survival and growth in batch culture from a diet of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus. However, results of previous studies have suggested that mussel diet in culture prior to exposure influences the sensitivity of these organisms to aqueous copper and cadmium exposure. Dietary components included three species of live algae (A. falcatus, C. vulgaris, and Scenedesmus quadricauda) and a suspension of rehydrated, dried Spirulina sp. Less than 24-hr laboratory cultured juveniles were fed all four components or combinations of three algal species daily to determine which mixtures promoted maximal growth. Preliminary data showed growth of control mussels receiving no food was comparable to those organisms fed all four algal species in combination. The greatest increase in shell length of juvenile mussels over 6 days was obtained with the tri-algal combination of A. falcatus, C. vulgaris, and S. quadricauda. The mixture resulting in the least growth included A. falcatus, S. quadricauda, and dried Spirulina sp.

  7. Capacity Differences Reflected in the Recall Performance of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attig, Mary S.

    Recent theories in cognitive psychology have emphasized the role of capacity requirements in encoding tasks. To examine the notion that age-related differences in the recall performance reflect differences in cognitive capacity, 80 adults (40 undergraduates, and 40 senior citizens) recalled newspaper advertisements under free recall and cued…

  8. Human Figure Drawings and Children's Recall of Touching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Maggie

    2009-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were…

  9. Source Memory in the Absence of Successful Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gabriel I.; Marsh, Richard L.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2006-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to address the question of whether source information could be accessed in the absence of being able to recall an item. The authors used a paired-associate learning paradigm in which cue-target word pairs were studied, and target recall was requested in the presence of the cue. When target recall failed,…

  10. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27 Section 1115.27 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.27 Recall notice content...

  11. Source Recall Enhances Children's Discrimination of Seen and Heard Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Karen L.; Goh, Chee Leong; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Murray, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rehearsing actions by source (slideshow vs. story) and of test modality (picture vs. verbal) on source monitoring were examined. Seven- to 8-year-old children (N = 30) saw a slideshow event and heard a story about a similar event. One to 2 days later, they recalled the events by source (source recall), recalled the events without…

  12. The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Anthony J.

    The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

  13. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  14. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  15. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205.59... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall of... manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not in compliance with...

  16. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  17. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  18. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  19. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  20. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  1. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  2. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  3. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  4. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  5. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  6. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  7. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  8. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  9. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  10. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  11. Reconstructive Recall of Linguistic Style. Technical Report No. 286.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, William F.; Hay, Anne E.

    A study investigated reconstructive recall for linguistic style. It was hypothesized that (1) features of linguistic style would be more difficult to recall than underlying content, (2) reconstructive errors would include stylistic forms recalled as standard forms when subjects lacked productive control of a particular feature of a style, and (3)…

  12. Becoming a Reflective Teacher: The Role of Stimulated Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wear, Stella Brown; Harris, Jimmy Carl

    1994-01-01

    Recall of teaching events from a lesson is an important part of reflectivity for preservice teachers. Researchers examined questions about the differences between unaided and aided recall of deviations from planned lessons. Results indicated student teachers recalled less than half their deviations and were prone to forgetting student-initiated…

  13. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    PubMed

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme. PMID:1861610

  14. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dochang; Koo, Ja Seung; Suh, Chang-Ok; Yoon, Chang Yun; Bae, Jaehyun; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of radiation recall dermatitis caused by trastuzumab. A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer received palliative first-line trastuzumab/paclitaxel and a salvage partial mastectomy with lymph node dissection was subsequently performed. In spite of the palliative setting, the pathology report indicated that no residual carcinoma was present, and then she underwent locoregional radiotherapy to ensure a definitive response. After radiotherapy, she has maintained trastuzumab monotherapy. Nine days after the fifth cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis in previously irradiated skin developed, with fever. Radiation recall dermatitis triggered by trastuzumab is extremely rare. A high fever developed abruptly with a skin rash. This may be the first case of this sort to be reported. PMID:23543400

  15. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  16. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  17. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  18. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  19. The polyp prevention trial II: dietary intervention program and participant baseline dietary characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lanza, E; Schatzkin, A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Corle, D; Clifford, C; Paskett, E; Hayes, D; Bote, E; Caan, B; Shike, M; Weissfeld, J; Slattery, M; Mateski, D; Daston, C; Clifford, D C

    1996-05-01

    The Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a low-fat, high-dietary fiber, high-fruit and -vegetable eating pattern will reduce the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel. Men and women who had one or more adenomas removed recently were randomized into either the intervention (n = 1037) or control (n = 1042) arms. Food frequency questionnaire data indicate that PPT participants at the beginning of the trial consumed 36.8% of total energy from fat, 9.7 g of dietary fiber/1000 kcal, and 3.8 daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Baseline dietary characteristics, including intake of fat, fiber, and fruits and vegetables, as well as other macro- and micronutrients, were similar in the two study groups. The intervention participants receive extensive dietary and behavioral counseling to achieve the PPT dietary goals of 20% of total energy from fat, 18 g/1000 kcal of dietary fiber, and 5-8 daily servings (depending on total caloric intake) of fruits and vegetables. Control participants do not receive such counseling and are expected to continue their usual intake. Dietary intake in both groups is mentioned annually using a 4-day food record (also completed at 6 months by intervention participants only) and a food frequency questionnaire, with a 10% random sample of participants completing an annual unscheduled 24-h telephone recall. Blood specimens are drawn and analyzed annually for lipids and carotenoids. This article provides details on the rationale and design of the PPT dietary intervention program and describes the participant baseline dietary intake data characteristics. PMID:9162305

  20. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A; Hurley, Thomas G; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-03-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:26923507

  1. Validity and Reproducibility of a Dietary Questionnaire for Consumption Frequencies of Foods during Pregnancy in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ming-Yang; He, Jian-Rong; Chen, Nian-Nian; Lu, Jin-Hua; Shen, Song-Ying; Xiao, Wan-Qing; Hu, Fang; Xiao, Hui-Yun; Wu, Yan-Yan; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Yu; Qiu, Lan; Wu, Ying-Fang; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the reproducibility and validity of a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in a birth cohort study to estimate the usual consumption frequencies of foods during pregnancy. The reference measure was the average of three inconsecutive 24 h diet recalls (24 HR) administrated between two FFQs, and the reproducibility was measured by repeating the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately eight weeks later (FFQ2). A total of 210 pregnant women from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS) with full data were included in the analysis. The Spearman’s correlation coefficients of FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from 0.33 to 0.71. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQs ranged from 0.22 to 0.71. The Spearman’s correlation coefficients of the 24 HR and FFQ2 ranged from 0.23 to 0.62. Cross-classification analysis showed 65.1% of participants were classified into same and contiguous quintiles, while only 3.2% were misclassified into the distant quintiles. Bland-Altman methods showed good agreement for most food groups across the range of frequencies between FFQ1 and FFQ2. Our findings indicated that the reproducibility and validity of the FFQ used in BIGCS for assessing the usual consumption frequencies of foods during pregnancy were acceptable. PMID:27483304

  2. Validity and Reproducibility of a Dietary Questionnaire for Consumption Frequencies of Foods during Pregnancy in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Yang; He, Jian-Rong; Chen, Nian-Nian; Lu, Jin-Hua; Shen, Song-Ying; Xiao, Wan-Qing; Hu, Fang; Xiao, Hui-Yun; Wu, Yan-Yan; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Yu; Qiu, Lan; Wu, Ying-Fang; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the reproducibility and validity of a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in a birth cohort study to estimate the usual consumption frequencies of foods during pregnancy. The reference measure was the average of three inconsecutive 24 h diet recalls (24 HR) administrated between two FFQs, and the reproducibility was measured by repeating the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately eight weeks later (FFQ2). A total of 210 pregnant women from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS) with full data were included in the analysis. The Spearman's correlation coefficients of FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from 0.33 to 0.71. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQs ranged from 0.22 to 0.71. The Spearman's correlation coefficients of the 24 HR and FFQ2 ranged from 0.23 to 0.62. Cross-classification analysis showed 65.1% of participants were classified into same and contiguous quintiles, while only 3.2% were misclassified into the distant quintiles. Bland-Altman methods showed good agreement for most food groups across the range of frequencies between FFQ1 and FFQ2. Our findings indicated that the reproducibility and validity of the FFQ used in BIGCS for assessing the usual consumption frequencies of foods during pregnancy were acceptable. PMID:27483304

  3. Hypermnesia occurs in recall but not in recognition.

    PubMed

    Payne, D G; Roediger, H L

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effect of encoding conditions and type of test (recall vs. recognition) on the phenomenon of hypermnesia (improved performance across repeated tests). Subjects in Experiment 1 studied a list of words using either imaginal or semantic elaboration strategies and then received three successive tests. Different groups of subjects received either free recall, four-alternative forced-choice recognition, or yes/no recognition tests. Reliable hypermnesia was found only in the recall conditions, with the recognition conditions showing either no change in performance levels across tests (forced-choice tests) or significant forgetting (yes/no tests). In Experiment 2, subjects studied a list of words, and encoding was manipulated using three orienting tasks. Once again, hypermnesia was found with the recall tests but not with the forced choice recognition tests. Finding hypermnesia in recall but not in recognition indicates that retrieval processes in recall play a major role in producing hypermnesia. Also, the finding that the magnitude of the recall hypermnesias increased with an increase in total cumulative recall levels across study conditions suggests that cumulative recall levels are an important factor in determining the presence or absence of recall hypermnesia. PMID:3618837

  4. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  5. Televised Self-Confrontation and Recalled Affect: A New Look at Videotape Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David; Resnikoff, Arthur

    1977-01-01

    The extent to which individuals can recall feelings they experienced during a dyadic interaction, when shown a televised replay of that interaction, was investigated. Pairs of subjects (N=10) were trained rate their degree of comfort or discomfort during the actual ("live") interaction and, subsequently, as they watched a video-taped replay of…

  6. Training older adult free recall rehearsal strategies.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, F A; Murphy, M D; Sanders, R E

    1981-05-01

    Three groups of older adults (mean age 72.1 years) were compared on a free recall task with categorizable lists. The nine females and two males in each group were instructed to rehearse overtly while studying. A group instructed to rehearse by category showed higher levels of free recall and category organization than either a control group instructed only to remember or a group instructed to rehearse actively at study. Strategy instructed subjects' rehearsal was organized serially early in a list and then categorically organized for the remainder of a list. Activity instructed subjects showed a high number of same-item repetitions but adopted no clear pattern of strategic category rehearsal. Control subjects' rehearsal was essentially inactive and nonstrategic, mainly consisting of single mentions of each list item and an associate. These data show that older adults' memory performance is modifiable and that efficient performance is obtained when instructional training is aimed at the processes that are crucial to task performance. Direct strategy measures, such as those used as here, yield important information about the processes underlying age differences in memory and can aid greatly in the design of training aimed at exploring older adult potential. PMID:7229280

  7. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-01-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval. PMID:27300910

  8. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  9. Modality of Communication and Recall of Health-related Information.

    PubMed

    Corston, R; Colman, A M

    1997-04-01

    A health warning was presented to 89 female and 19 male students aged 17-36 years via three modalities or channels of communication: a 'talking head' (video), an audiotape recording (audio) or a printed transcript (print). The verbal content of the message was identical in all three conditions. Participants' free recall, cued recall (recognition) and global recall of the message were then measured. On two separate dependent measures and a combined measure, recall was significantly (p < .005) better in both the audio and print conditions than in the video condition. No significant differences in recall were found between the audio and print conditions. These results, and those of earlier studies of modality effects on recall of information, are discussed in terms of self-pacing and distraction theories. PMID:22013002

  10. Age effects in earwitness recall of a novel conversation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan; Coombe, Allison

    2005-06-01

    Recall of conversation is an important part of memory for events. Previous studies have focused predominantly on adults. In the present study, 195 participants ages 11 to 63 years listened to a novel audiotaped conversation. They were not informed they would later have to recall elements of this conversation. Recall was a week later. There were no age-related differences in the recall of children ages 11, 13, and 15; however, there was a difference between retention over 7 days of children and adults, with adults recalling more information correctly. No sex differences were observed. These results are evaluated in the context of research on eye- and ear-witness recall and suggestions for research are given. PMID:16060441

  11. Positive and negative generation effects, hypermnesia, and total recall time.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Duke, Marquinn D

    2002-10-01

    Self-generated information is typically remembered better than perceived information (the generation effect). Experimental design produces an important limiting condition for this effect: Generation enhances recall in within-subjects designs, but typically not in between-subjects designs. However, Mulligan (2001) found that the generation effect emerged over repeated recall tests in a between-subjects design, calling into question the generality of this limiting condition. Two experiments further delineated the emergent generation effect Experiment 1 demonstrated that this effect does not require multiple discrete recall tests but may emerge on a single recall test of long duration. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the negative generation effect (a reversal of the typical generation effect produced under certain conditions) is abolished by multiple recall tests. In both experiments, the generate condition produced greater hypemnesia (increased recall over tests) than did the read condition. PMID:12507369

  12. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

  13. Recall compliance and incidence of dental caries among underserved children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ulysses; Hui, Brian K; Pourat, Nadereh

    2015-02-01

    Regular dental recall intervals are widely recommended by dentists in the U.S. to prevent caries and improve periodontal health. However, there is some debate on whether or not compliance with six-month or more frequent recall intervals results in reduced incidence of dental caries. This study examines whether compliance with regular recall and receipt of cleanings, exams and patient education reduces rates of new decay in underserved children and finds a positive impact. PMID:25868221

  14. Product recall: a Croatian experience (2000–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Vuk, Tomislav; Barišić, Marijan; Ljubičić, Julijana; Hećimović, Ana; Juraković-Lončar, Nina; Šarlija, Dorotea; Jukić, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Background Timely and efficient recall of products known or suspected to be non-conforming is an important measure in the prevention of adverse events and in patients' safety. Product recall in the transfusion service is regulated by professional standards and legal acts, but publications presenting results related to the implementation of these procedures are quite rare. Materials and methods Data from the Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine (CITM) on the procedures of product recall during an 11-year period (2000–2010) were retrospectively analyzed. Reasons for product recall, their frequency, level of severity and efficiency of the procedures are presented and discussed. Results During the study period, there were 245 procedures of product recall, for an average of 22 (18–29) procedures/year, all of low extent (1–25 products). Recall was required for 1/3,571 blood products issued, while the frequency of laboratory test report recalls was 1/5,447 patients. The leading reasons for product recall were suspected bacterial contamination of blood products (30.2%) and suspected or demonstrated non-conformity of laboratory test reports (28.6%). In total, 99 (40.4%) product recalls were categorized as class I, 30 (12.2%) as class II and 116 (47.3%) as class III. Discussion According to the available literature data, the product recall procedures were performed quite infrequently by the CITM and were of low extent. There was a remarkable decreasing trend in the rate of product recall due to non-conformities or errors made at the CITM, along with a constant or increasing rate of recalls because of biological variability of blood products. PMID:23114522

  15. High dietary protein regimens provide significant protection from mercury nephrotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.M.; Chung, E.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The effects of high protein dietary regimens prior to the administration of inorganic mercury were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed on purified test diets containing either normal (20%) or high (60%) concentrations of protein. Mercury was administered as a single intravenous injection of mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg). All rats maintained on normal dietary protein prior to and following mercury injection exhibited severe kidney dysfunction, extensive necrosis of both second (S2) and third (S3) segments of the kidney proximal tubules, and 100% mortality. In contrast, rats maintained on high dietary protein for 48 hr or longer just prior to mercury injection and returned to normal dietary protein immediately following mercury administration all survived and exhibited normal serum creatinine and BUN values within 4 days following mercury administration. The kidneys of this latter group took up significantly less radiolabeled mercury during the first 12 hr following mercury injection, and exhibited relatively little damage to the second segments (S2) of the proximal tubules. The third segments (S3) of the proximal tubules, however, exhibited the same degree of necrosis as that observed in the control group. Maintaining rats on high dietary protein regimens for shorter periods of time prior to mercury infusion (i.e., 12 or 24 hr) also dramatically reduced subsequent acute renal failure and improved survival, although not to the extent noted following 48 hr or longer on these diets. These observations suggested that high dietary protein regimens may protect from mercury nephrotoxicity by reducing mercury uptake to the second segments (S2) of the proximal tubules during the initial period of exposure to intravenously administered mercury.

  16. Software-related recalls: an analysis of records.

    PubMed

    Simone, Lisa K

    2013-01-01

    Public and internal databases were examined to evaluate software-related recalls in the medical device industry sector. In the analysis of recalls reported from 2005 through 2011, 19.4% of medical device recalls are related to software. This paper includes analysis results, challenges faced in determining the causes, and examples and trends in software-related recalls. This information can be useful in enhancing our understanding of why medical devices fail, and it can help to improve medical device safety, and patient and public health. PMID:24328977

  17. Parapraxes in song recall: a neglected variable.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1993-09-01

    In addition to expressing themselves with verbal and nonverbal communications, and by the countertransference reactions perceived by analysts, patients also reveal their inner world of images and feelings specifically with music evocations. This paper presents an initial attempt to identify and classify some of the parapraxes produced in the evocation of lyrics and music by polyglot members of treatment dyads in two empirical studies and in private practice. There may be many others, particularly related to the music per se. This paper has focused mainly on the lyrics, the equivalent of the manifest content of dreams, which nonmusician therapists can learn to handle well. Instead, in the case of the musical latent content, some knowledge of music is necessary. Supervisors' songs were considered beyond the scope of this paper and will be addressed separately. Parapraxes in song recall signal unconscious transference-countertransference states in process at the moment of evocation. PMID:8214208

  18. Dietary intakes of choline: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the choline intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to intake. The dietary data was from twenty-four hour recall provided by all 9,118 individuals who participated in What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007–2008. The analys...

  19. Evaluating the use of questions and responses in a large national dietary data collection instrument

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) Blaise instrument collects 24-hour dietary recall data for the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. AMPM contains more than 2,500 questions and 25,000 responses about foods. Each year it is used in approximately 10,0...

  20. Effect of snacking frequency on adolescents' dietary intakes and meeting national recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how snacking frequency impacts intake of nutrients and food groups and contributes to meeting recommendations outlined in USDA's MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from 4,357 adolescents 12-19 years of age participating in ...

  1. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The presnt study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children. PMID:25944159

  2. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-06-28

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The present study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children. PMID:25944159

  3. The accuracy of symptom recall in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carol B; Miller, Kathryn B; Johnson-Lind, Joy; Crow, Scott J; Thuras, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how accurately patients with eating disorders recall their symptoms after 6 to 12 months, to evaluate whether more recent symptoms are remembered more accurately, and to determine the extent to which the accuracy of recall impacts diagnostic classification. Seventy women who were enrolled in a longitudinal study of eating disorder symptoms were asked to recall their eating patterns, behaviors, and attitudes from 6 or 12 months earlier using semistructured interviews (Eating Disorders Examination and McKnight Longitudinal Follow-up Interview for Eating Disorders). Results indicated that correlations between the original and recalled data for frequency of objective binge eating episodes and vomiting ranged from r = .534 to .898 (average, r = .772), with lower correlations for subjective binge eating episodes (average, r = .335). Attitudes toward shape and weight were recalled more accurately at 6 months (average, r = .907) than 12 months (average, r = .620). kappa Coefficients were higher for eating disorder diagnoses using broad than narrow definitions, with no differences between 6- and 12-month recall. Overall, agreement for depression recall was low but better at 6 months (kappa = .423) than 12 months (kappa = .296). These findings suggest that patients with eating disorders are at least moderately accurate when recalling most symptoms from 6 to 12 months earlier. Although broadly defined eating disorder diagnoses remained consistent, depression and narrower eating disorder diagnostic classifications showed more variability. PMID:17145282

  4. Semantic Processing and Recall Improvement of EMR Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Warner, Darcey A.

    1983-01-01

    Semantic processing, the form of stories linking to-be-remembered words, was compared with cumulative rehearsal in a free-recall task for 60 educable mentally retarded adolescents. Semantic-processing Ss showed better recall at original learning and, to a lesser extent, at a 2-week retention test. (Author/CL)

  5. Exclusion of Learned Material from Recall as a Postretrieval Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; Tulving, Endel

    1979-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which, following presentation of a categorized list, subjects either recalled the whole list or a part of the list. Results indicate that it is difficult to retrieve selectively parts of a studied list when instructions specify only what not to recall. (Author/AM)

  6. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  7. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

  8. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  9. Speech and Language Processing Mechanisms in Verbal Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Hulme, Charles

    2006-01-01

    We report two experiments examining the role of concreteness and word phonological neighborhood characteristics on immediate serial recall. In line with previous findings concreteness, word frequency, and larger neighborhood size are associated with better serial recall. Both concreteness and word neighborhood size were also positively associated…

  10. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  11. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  12. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  13. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  14. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  15. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  16. Enhancing Free-Recall Rates of Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Chechile, Nicholas A.; Loiselle, Raquel C.

    2001-01-01

    This study with 16 adolescents with mental retardation compared free-recall rates under two encoding conditions: (1) fade-in, initially presenting pictures out of focus then slowly fading them into focus; and (2) fade-out, slowly blurring originally clear pictures. Results indicated that free-recall rates were greater for the fade-in items for…

  17. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  18. Self-Generated Questions and Reading Recall: Does Training Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Trained junior high school students were compared with untrained students on comprehension and recall after both were told to construct questions while reading text passages. Results indicate that training improved the question quality only for those students who had above average pretest free recall scores. (Author/LMO)

  19. Information Recall of 4 Elements among Young Newspaper Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanta, Wayne; Remy, Jay

    1995-01-01

    Examines the ability of high school students to process and recall information contained in story texts, graphics, index boxes, and pull-out quotes. Finds that most efficient recall comes from information pull-out quotes and least efficient comes from information in graphics. (TB)

  20. Children's collaborative recall of shared and unshared information.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Leman, Patrick J; Hollins, Tara S

    2013-09-01

    This study examined age differences in collaborative inhibition and the role of inter-subjectivity, collective information sampling (CIS) and collaborative inhibition for the collaborative recall of shared and unshared information in groups of 7- and 9-year-old children. Three-hundred and thirteen 7- and 9-year-old children recalled memorized wordlists either in real or nominal groups of three. All group members either recalled the same items, or each group member was given some unique items. Nine-year-olds, but not 7-year-olds, recalled significantly more items in nominal than real groups, a phenomenon called collaborative inhibition. Groups whose interactions were characterized by higher numbers of inter-subjective exchanges recalled fewer words than groups low in inter-subjectivity. In both age groups, a higher proportion of shared compared with unshared information was recalled consistent with processes of CIS. However, 7-year-olds recalled more unshared items than predicted, suggesting that collaborative inhibition additionally contributes to the recall of shared and unshared items. PMID:23901844

  1. How Similar are Context Effects in Recognition and Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed

    1975-01-01

    The context effect in recognition memory has been attributed to retrieval failure following a context change. Since this inference is based in part upon the similarity of context effects in recognition and recall, two experiments were conducted to examine further the similarity of context effects upon recognition and recall. (Editor)

  2. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Children's Episodic Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Howieson, Noel D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ability of five- to six-year-old children to remember past experiences. A set of stimuli cards modelled on adaptations of the Separation Anxiety Test was generated. Interview transcripts are scored for the child's ability to recall past experience in episodic form. The quality of episodic recall is compared with attachment…

  3. Note-Taking and Information Recall: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jerry R.; Miller, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    The amount of recorded information from a medical interview by note-taking was compared with that received with no note-taking. The study with 46 medical students suggests that note-taking facilitates recall and that there is a progressive decay of memory recall with the passage of time between the physician-patient interview and the recording of…

  4. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  5. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  6. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  7. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  8. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  9. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  10. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  11. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  12. Parent Implementation of RECALL: A Systematic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Hanline, Mary Frances; Davis, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    This systematic case study utilized a repeated acquisition design to investigate the impact of a caregiver-implemented RECALL (Reading to Engage Children with Autism in Language and Learning) on the correct, unprompted responses of a young child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RECALL is an adapted shared reading intervention that includes a…

  13. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  14. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  15. The Interaction of Color Realism and Pictorial Recall Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Louis H.

    This study investigated the interaction of variations in color realism on pictorial recall memory in order to better understand the effects of variations in color realism, and to draw comparisons between visual recall memory and visual recognition memory in terms of color information processing. Stimulus materials used were three sets of slides,…

  16. Accuracy in Recalling Interest Inventory Information at Three Time Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the…

  17. Effects of Delayed Performance on a Word Association Task Upon Ongoing Short Term Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurner, Ronald D.; Mauldin, Michael A.

    1974-01-01

    In a short-term free-recall paradigm, Ss presented a list of numbers followed by a list of words were cued after presentation to (a) recall numbers only, (b) recall numbers then words, (c) recall words then numbers, or (d) recall numbers, then perform a word association task. (Editor)

  18. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  19. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  20. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  1. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  2. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  3. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  4. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  5. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  6. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  7. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  8. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  9. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  10. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  11. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  12. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  13. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  14. Aha! experiences leave a mark: facilitated recall of insight solutions.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates a possible memory advantage for solutions that were reached through insightful problem solving. We hypothesized that insight solutions (with Aha! experience) would be remembered better than noninsight solutions (without Aha! experience). 34 video clips of magic tricks were presented to 50 participants as a novel problem-solving task, asking them to find out how the trick was achieved. Upon discovering the solution, participants had to indicate whether they had experienced insight during the solving process. After a delay of 14 days, a recall of solutions was conducted. Overall, 55 % of previously solved tricks were recalled correctly. Comparing insight and noninsight solutions, 64.4 % of all insight solutions were recalled correctly, whereas only 52.4 % of all noninsight solutions were recalled correctly. We interpret this finding as a facilitating effect of previous insight experiences on the recall of solutions. PMID:23007629

  15. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting. PMID:27231732

  16. Observed vs. Recalled Exercise Behavior: A Validation of a Seven Day Exercise Recall for Boys 11 to 13 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Janet P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eleven boys at a summer camp were asked to recall the mode, duration, and intensity of their physical activity during the preceding seven days. When compared with their counselor's records, the boys were accurate enough to make seven-day recall applicable as a summary tool of children's total energy expenditure. (Author/MT)

  17. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  18. Relative validation of Block Kids Food Screener for dietary assessment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Monica; O'Malley, Jean; Block, Torin; Norris, Jean C

    2015-04-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are less time consuming and inexpensive instruments for collecting dietary intake when compared with 24-h dietary recalls or double-labelled water; however, the validation of FFQ is important as incorrect information may lead to biased conclusions about associations. Therefore, the relative validity of the Block Kids Food Screener (BKFS) developed for use with children was examined in a convenience sample of 99 youth recruited from the Portland, OR metropolitan area. Three 24-h dietary recalls served as the reference. The relative validity was analysed after natural log transformation of all variables except glycaemic index prior to correlation analysis. Daily cup equivalent totals from the BKFS and 'servings' from 24-h recalls were used to compute average daily intake of fruits, vegetables, potatoes, whole grains, legumes, meat/fish/poultry and dairy. Protein grams (g), total kcalories, glycaemic index (glucose reference), glycaemic load (glucose reference), total saturated fat (g) and added sugar (g) were also calculated by each instrument. The correlation between data obtained from the two instruments was corrected for the within-subject variation in food intake reported by the 24-h recalls using standard nutritional assessment methodology. The de-attenuated correlations in nutritional intake between the two dietary assessment instruments ranged from 0.526 for vegetables, to 0.878 for potatoes. The 24-h recall estimated higher levels of saturated fat and added sugar consumption, higher glycaemic loads and glycaemic indices; the de-attenuatted correlations of these measures ranged from 0.478 to 0.768. Assessment of Bland-Altman plots indicated no systematic difference between the two instruments for vegetable, dairy and meat/fish/poultry fat consumption. BKFS is a useful dietary assessment instrument for the nutrients and food groups it was designed to assess in children age 10-17 years. PMID:23006452

  19. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  20. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  1. 78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product... Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements.'' This draft guidance intends to clarify for industry when a potential change to a device is a medical device recall, distinguish...

  2. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes the intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Adverse effects of air pollution (AP) on cognitive functions have been proposed, but investigations of simultaneous exposure to noise are scarce. Objectives: We analyzed the cross-sectional associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with overall MCI and amnestic (aMCI) and nonamnestic (naMCI) MCI. Methods: At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, cognitive assessment was completed in 4,086 participants who were 50–80 years old. Of these, 592 participants were diagnosed as having MCI (aMCI, n = 309; naMCI, n = 283) according to previously published criteria using five neuropsychological subtests. We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression, and for traffic noise [weighted 24-hr (LDEN) and night-time (LNIGHT) means]. Logistic regression models adjusted for individual risk factors were calculated to estimate the association of environmental exposures with MCI in single- and two-exposure models. Results: Most air pollutants and traffic noise were associated with overall MCI and aMCI. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and a 10 A-weighted decibel [dB(A)] increase in LDEN were associated with overall MCI as follows [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: 1.16 (1.05, 1.27) and 1.40 (1.03, 1.91), respectively, and with aMCI as follows: 1.22 (1.08, 1.38) and 1.53 (1.05, 2.24), respectively. In two-exposure models, AP and noise associations were attenuated [e.g., for aMCI, PM2.5 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) and LDEN 1.46 (1.11, 1.92)]. Conclusions: Long-term exposures to air pollution and traffic noise were positively associated with MCI, mainly with the amnestic subtype. Citation: Tzivian L, Dlugaj M, Winkler A, Weinmayr G, Hennig F, Fuks KB, Vossoughi M, Schikowski T, Weimar C, Erbel R, Jöckel KH

  3. Validation of dietary intake data in black women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amend, Allison; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A; Galasso, Pamela; Wylie-Rosett, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The validity of baseline dietary intake data in women participating in a culturally competent intervention study for black women with type 2 diabetes was assessed. The relationship of sociodemographic and physiologic factors with underreporting of dietary intake was determined. Criterion validity of dietary intake, which had been assessed using the Nutritionist Five Collection Form, a combination of a standard 2-day dietary recall and a modified, culturally appropriate food frequency questionnaire, was determined. Data were analyzed using First Data Bank Nutritionist Five (version 2.3, 2000, First Data Bank, San Bruno, CA) software. Validation of baseline dietary data in 109 women was performed by calculating the ratio of energy intake to resting metabolic rate. Chi(2) and t tests were used to assess relationships between underreporting and sociodemographic and physiologic factors. Mean ratio of energy intake to resting metabolic rate was 1.46 (+/-0.4). Using a lower limit of 1.35, the prevalence of underreporting was 46.8%. Underreporting was significantly associated with body mass index (P< or =0.001) and waist circumference (P<0.001). Use of this combined dietary recall and modified food frequency questionnaire might, therefore, provide more accurate dietary assessment in this population. Additional modification and validity testing is warranted in this and other populations. PMID:17197278

  4. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures. PMID:25523628

  5. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  6. Physical Activity Information Seeking and Advertising Recall

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bauman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (N = 1211) showed that gender, age, education, and activity level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (N = 1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18 – 54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information seeking behaviour on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  7. Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (χ2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention. PMID:22704744

  8. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children's recall govern children's rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3) 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists. PMID:25870569

  9. Conscious recall of different aspects of skill memory.

    PubMed

    Song, Sunbin; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-01-01

    Different mechanisms are involved in the formation of memories necessary for daily living. For example, different memory representations are formed for the practiced transitions between key-presses (i.e., pressing key "2" after "3" in "4-3-2-1") and for the ordinal position of each key-press (i.e., pressing key "2" in the third ordinal position in "4-3-2-1") in a motor sequence. Whether the resulting transition-based and ordinal-based memories (Song and Cohen, 2014) can be consciously recalled is unknown. Here, we studied subjects who over a week of training and testing formed transition and ordinal-based memory representations of skill for a 12-item sequence of key-presses. Afterwards, subjects were first asked to recall and type the trained sequence and then to perform random key-presses avoiding the trained sequence. The difference in the ability to purposefully recall and avoid a trained sequence represents conscious recall (Destrebecqz and Cleeremans, 2001). We report that (a) the difference in the ability to purposefully recall and to avoid the trained sequence correlated with ordinal-based but not with transition-based memory; (b) subjects with no ability to recall or avoid the trained sequence formed transition-based but not ordinal-based memories; and (c) subjects with full ability to recall and avoid the trained sequence formed both transition-based and ordinal-based memories. We conclude that ordinal-based memory can be voluntarily recalled when transition-based memory cannot, documenting a differential capacity to recall memories forming a motor skill. Understanding that different memories form a motor skill, with different neural substrates (Cohen and Squire, 1980), may help develop novel training strategies in neurorehabilitation of patients with brain lesions. PMID:25071489

  10. Dream recall frequency by socioeconomic status of Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Whereas the effect of sex and age on dream recall have been studied widely, socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated. However, two studies reported that higher socioeconomic status was related to greater frequency of dream recall. In the present sample of 612 Chinese students from three different schools, one elite (high socioeconomic status), one rural (low socioeconomic status) and one intermediate, analysis of variance indicated no significant association between frequency of dream recall and socioeconomic status. Researchers could investigate whether "dream socialization," e.g., encouragement of a child to remember his dreams, depends on socioeconomic background, whether these processes are mediated by culture. PMID:18065085

  11. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  12. Children’s Dietary Recalls from Three Validation Studies: Types of Intrusion Vary with Retention Interval

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Hardin, James W.; Smith, Albert F.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Using previously collected data of fourth-grade children observed eating school meals and then interviewed, we categorized intrusions (food items reported but not observed eaten) as stretches (on the child’s tray) or confabulations (not on the child’s tray). We investigated intrusions, confabulations, and stretches, and the role of liking, at different retention intervals (morning interviews about the previous day’s intake; evening interviews about that day’s intake) and under different reporting-order prompts (forward; reverse). As retention interval between consumption and report increased, the likelihood 1) increased that reported items were intrusions, that reported items were confabulations, and that intrusions were confabulations; and 2) was constant that reported items were stretches. Results concerning reporting-order prompts were inconclusive. Liking ratings were higher for matches (reports of items observed eaten) than stretches, for confabulations than stretches, and for matches than omissions (unreported items observed eaten), but did not vary by retention interval or reporting-order prompts. PMID:19023454

  13. Improving Recall Using Database Management Systems: A Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)

  14. Joe Engle Recalls Legacy Of X-15 Testing at Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut Joe Engle recalled the legacy of the famed X-15 rocket plane recently during a colloquium at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Engle, the only pe...

  15. Cued recall hypermnesia is not an artifact of response bias.

    PubMed

    Otani, H; Whiteman, H L

    1994-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether hypermnesia occurs in cued recall when response bias is controlled by instructing subjects to generate more responses than they normally produce under standard cued recall instructions. Subjects processed 36 pairs of words using a relational processing, item-specific processing, or intentional learning strategy. A well-categorized list was presented in Experiment 1, whereas a loosely categorized list was used in Experiment 2. Three standard or forced cued recall tests were then administered. Hypermnesia was observed even when subjects were forced to guess. Furthermore, as in previous studies, relational processing resulted in greater net improvement than item-specific processing or intentional learning. We conclude that cued recall hypermnesia is a genuine phenomenon. PMID:7977903

  16. A Therapist's Induced Recall of Sinatra Singing "My Way."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how a therapist's induced recall of Frank Sinatra's rendition of the song "My Way" illuminated transference-countertransference dynamics active at that moment in a patient-therapist dyad being discussed at a post-conference workshop. (SR)

  17. Radiation Recall Pneumonitis During Systemic Treatment With Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Douglas; Gauchan, Dron; Ramaekers, Ryan; Norvell, Max; Copur, Mehmet Sitki

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall syndrome is an acute inflammatory reaction developing at anatomical sites of previously irradiated tissue, weeks to months after the completion of radiation therapy. The distribution pattern of inflammation typically involves, and remains limited to, the boundaries of prior radiation treatment fields. Several classical chemotherapy drugs have been reported to have the potential for causing radiation recall syndrome. With the increasing availability and expanding use of novel biologic and targeted therapy anticancer drugs, isolated reports of radiation recall syndrome secondary to this class of agents are starting to appear in the literature. We describe a case of everolimus-induced radiation recall pneumonitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell cancer. PMID:26629944

  18. Environmental context effects of background color in free recall.

    PubMed

    Isarida, Taeo; Isarin, Tosmko K

    2007-10-01

    In four experiments, we investigated background-color context effects in free recall. A total of 194 undergraduates studied words presented one by one against a background color, and oral free recall was tested after a 30-sec filled retention interval. A signal for recall was presented against a background color throughout the test. Recalled items were classified as same- and different-context items according to whether the background colors at study and test were the same or different. Significant context effects were found in Experiments I and 2, in which two background colors were randomly alternated word by word. No context effects were found in Experiments 3 and 4, in which a common background color was presented for all items (Experiment 3) or for a number of successive items (Experiment 4). The results indicate that a change in background colors is necessary and sufficient to produce context effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:18062540

  19. Patterns of hemispheric lateralization in dream recallers and non-dream recallers.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, F; Milana, I; Violani, C

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen right handed females reporting 6 or more dreams per week on a home dream and sleep diary (Dream Recallers: DR), and 11 reporting 1 or 0 dreams per week (Non Dream Recallers: NDR) drawn from a sample of 233 college students, were individually tested on two tasks assessing the hemispheric lateralization of visuo-constructive and verbal-semantic functions. NDR showed a significant degree of hemispheric asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right hemisphere advantage) and semantic (left hemisphere advantage) functions. DR showed no hemispheric advantage on both tasks. The two groups of subjects did not differ in mean daily amount of sleep time. In keeping with previous studies showing that NDR have an imbalance of interhemispheric activation upon REM awakenings, results from the present research suggest that DR and NDR can be characterized by a different pattern of hemispheric lateralization of cognitive skills. This finding may stimulate further research aimed at evaluating both the possible existence of differences in the lateralization of functions not considered in this study and the concomitance of REM sleep dependent differences in balance of hemispheric functioning. PMID:8082996

  20. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122

  1. Mixed method approaches to understanding cancer-related dietary risk reduction among public housing residents.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Ann C; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Black, Maureen M; Caulfield, Laura E

    2009-07-01

    Improving diet is one important pathway for addressing cancer disparities. We conducted mixed-method analyses of 468 24-h dietary recalls from 156 African-American women residents of Washington DC public housing to better understand dietary patterns. Recalls were rated for five cancer-related preventive characteristics (adequate fruits/vegetables, moderate fat, moderate calories, no alcohol, and adequate Healthy Eating Index score), combined as a scale. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified psychosocial and dietary characteristics associated with scale scores. Qualitative analyses of dietary records identified contextual aspects of food patterns within and across score groups. Sixty-one percent of respondents met zero or one dietary goal; alcohol abstention was most common (64%). Only 12% achieve either three (6%), four (4%), or all five (<1%) goals; five fruit and vegetable servings were least common (15%). The underlying scalar structure of responses suggests that fruit and vegetable consumption is seldom achieved in this population without other scale components. Poorer scores were associated with younger age, depressive symptoms, stressful life events, smoking, and food-purchasing practices. Qualitative analyses identified eight themes related to differences between dietary patterns. Findings reinforce the value of nonreductionist approaches to cancer-related nutrition intervention. PMID:19444616

  2. Inter- and intra-individual variation in immediate free recall: an examination of serial position functions and recall initiation strategies.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Serial position functions in immediate free recall have been historically noted for their bowed shape, where items presented at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a list are better remembered than those presented in the middle. While extensive work has examined these effects, researchers typically ignore the systematic differences among individuals that likely contribute, but are lost when using an aggregate function. In the current study, inter- and intra-individual differences in serial position functions and differences in recall strategies were examined. Participants performed a free recall task on multiple lists. Three groups of participants were derived based on the relative profiles in their serial position functions. These groups differed in the extent that they output mainly primacy items, recency items, or both primacy and recency items. Performance on immediate free recall and on cognitive ability tasks was compared between these three groups. Systematic inter- and intra-individual variation in recall strategies led to differential profiles of performance in immediate free recall, which was also related to the additional cognitive ability measures. Performance on a task can be due to the utilisation of a variety of control processes that emphasise various components of that task over other components. PMID:21240749

  3. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall. PMID:18387559

  4. Simulated adaptations to an adult dietary self-report tool to accommodate children: Impact on nutrient estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to simulate the effect of child-friendly (CF) adaptations of the National Cancer Institute’s Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall (ASA24) on estimates of nutrient intake. One hundred twenty children, 8–13 years old, entered their previous day’s intake using the ASA24 ...

  5. Randomized Trial of a Brief Dietary Intervention To Decrease Consumption of Fat and Increase Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Victor J.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Toobert, Deborah J.; Karanja, Njeri; Smith, K. Sabina

    2002-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of a computer-assisted counseling intervention to reduce diet-related cancer risk. Healthy female HMO members were randomly assigned to nutrition counseling or attention-control interventions. Women completed dietary recalls and eating behavior questionnaires. Four-month follow-up results indicated that this moderate-intensity…

  6. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  7. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 90 percent of adults do not obtain the Adequate Intake (AI) for dietary fiber (DF). Using only reliable recalls in NHANES 2003–2006, we modeled the following changes to assess impact on usual DF intakes in US adults 19+ yrs: 1) increase all fiber containing foods by 10, 25, 50, or 100 percent; ...

  8. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  9. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  10. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  11. The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, David P.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that…

  12. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification..., and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a) An evaluation of the health hazard presented by a product being recalled or considered for recall will...

  13. 40 CFR 90.805 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... KILOWATTS Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.805 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) Send the defect report,...

  14. 40 CFR 90.805 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... KILOWATTS Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.805 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) Send the defect report,...

  15. 40 CFR 1068.505 - How does the recall program work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How does the recall program work? 1068... Defects and Recalling Engines/Equipment § 1068.505 How does the recall program work? (a) If we make a... provide for it. (e) You may ask us to allow you to conduct your recall differently than specified in...

  16. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  17. 40 CFR 1068.505 - How does the recall program work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does the recall program work? 1068... Defects and Recalling Engines/Equipment § 1068.505 How does the recall program work? (a) If we make a... provide for it. (e) You may ask us to allow you to conduct your recall differently than specified in...

  18. 40 CFR 90.805 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... KILOWATTS Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.805 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) Send the defect report,...

  19. 9 CFR 418.3 - Preparation and maintenance of written recall procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recall procedures. 418.3 Section 418.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RECALLS § 418.3 Preparation and maintenance of written recall procedures. Each official establishment must prepare and maintain written procedures for the recall of any meat, meat...

  20. 40 CFR 1068.505 - How does the recall program work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does the recall program work? 1068... Defects and Recalling Engines/Equipment § 1068.505 How does the recall program work? (a) If we make a... provide for it. (e) You may ask us to allow you to conduct your recall differently than specified in...

  1. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  2. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 8075, Feb. 10, 2014. The recalling...

  3. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  4. 40 CFR 90.805 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... KILOWATTS Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.805 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) Send the defect report,...

  5. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  6. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  7. 40 CFR 90.805 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... KILOWATTS Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.805 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) Send the defect report,...

  8. 9 CFR 418.3 - Preparation and maintenance of written recall procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recall procedures. 418.3 Section 418.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RECALLS § 418.3 Preparation and maintenance of written recall procedures. Each official establishment must prepare and maintain written procedures for the recall of any meat, meat...

  9. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  10. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other extralist and prior-list intrusions. The authors developed the theory by simulating recall of such lists, using factorial combinations of semantic mechanisms operating at encoding, retrieval, or both stages. During encoding, unstudied words' associations to list context were strengthened in proportion to their strength of semantic association either to each studied word or to all co-rehearsed words. During retrieval, words received preference in proportion to their strength of semantic association to the most recently recalled single word or multiple words. The authors simulated all intrusion types and veridical recall for lists varying in semantic association strength among studied and critical words from the same and different lists. Multiplicative semantic encoding and retrieval mechanisms performed well in combination. Using such combined mechanisms, the authors also simulated several core findings from the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm literature, including developmental patterns, specific list effects, association strength effects, and true–false correlations. These results challenge existing false-memory theories. PMID:17907869

  11. Goal-seeking neural net for recall and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidvar, Omid M.

    1990-07-01

    Neural networks have been used to mimic cognitive processes which take place in animal brains. The learning capability inherent in neural networks makes them suitable candidates for adaptive tasks such as recall and recognition. The synaptic reinforcements create a proper condition for adaptation, which results in memorization, formation of perception, and higher order information processing activities. In this research a model of a goal seeking neural network is studied and the operation of the network with regard to recall and recognition is analyzed. In these analyses recall is defined as retrieval of stored information where little or no matching is involved. On the other hand recognition is recall with matching; therefore it involves memorizing a piece of information with complete presentation. This research takes the generalized view of reinforcement in which all the signals are potential reinforcers. The neuronal response is considered to be the source of the reinforcement. This local approach to adaptation leads to the goal seeking nature of the neurons as network components. In the proposed model all the synaptic strengths are reinforced in parallel while the reinforcement among the layers is done in a distributed fashion and pipeline mode from the last layer inward. A model of complex neuron with varying threshold is developed to account for inhibitory and excitatory behavior of real neuron. A goal seeking model of a neural network is presented. This network is utilized to perform recall and recognition tasks. The performance of the model with regard to the assigned tasks is presented.

  12. Sequential dependencies in recall of sequences: filling in the blanks.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Simon; Hurlstone, Mark J; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2013-08-01

    Sequential dependencies can provide valuable information about the processes supporting memory, particularly memory for serial order. Earlier analyses have suggested that anticipation errors-reporting items ahead of their correct position in the sequence-tend to be followed by recall of the displaced item, consistent with primacy gradient models of serial recall. However, a more recent analysis instead suggests that anticipation errors are followed by further anticipation errors, consistent with chaining models. We report analyses of 21 conditions from published serial recall data sets, in which we observed a systematic pattern whereby anticipations tended to be followed by the "filling in" of displaced items. We note that cases where a different pattern held tended to apply to recall of longer lists under serial learning conditions or to conditions where participants were free to skip over items. Although the different patterns that can be observed might imply a dissociation (e.g., between short- and long-term memory), we show that these different patterns are naturally predicted by Farrell's (Psychological Review 119:223-271, 2012) model of short-term and episodic memory and relate to whether or not spontaneously formed groups of items can be skipped over during recall. PMID:23519990

  13. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

    PubMed Central

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  14. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  15. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  16. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  17. Recognition during recall failure: Semantic feature matching as a mechanism for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Wagner, Samantha R

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al., Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005) to examine whether the same holds true when the cues are semantic in nature (e.g., jaguar is used to cue cheetah). Indeed, test cues (e.g., cedar) that overlapped in semantic features (e.g., a_tree, has_bark, etc.) with four unretrieved studied items (e.g., birch, oak, pine, willow) received higher cue familiarity ratings during recall failure than test cues that overlapped in semantic features with only two (also unretrieved) studied items (e.g., birch, oak), which in turn received higher familiarity ratings during recall failure than cues that did not overlap in semantic features with any studied items. These findings suggest that the feature-matching theory of recognition during recall failure can accommodate recognition of semantic cues during recall failure, providing a potential mechanism for conceptually-based forms of cue recognition during target retrieval failure. They also provide converging evidence for the existence of the semantic features envisaged in feature-based models of semantic knowledge representation and for those more concretely specified by the production norms of McRae et al. (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005). PMID:26282623

  18. Residential Road Traffic Noise and High Depressive Symptoms after Five Years of Follow-up: Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Orban, Ester; McDonald, Kelsey; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Hoffmann, Barbara; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Dragano, Nico; Viehmann, Anja; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Pundt, Noreen; Moebus, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traffic noise affects a large number of people, particularly in urbanized areas. Noise causes stress and annoyance, but less is known about the relationship between noise and depression. Objective: We investigated the association of residential road traffic noise with depressive symptoms using 5-year follow-up data from a German population-based study. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,300 participants in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study who were between 45 and 75 years old and were without depressive symptoms at baseline (2000–2003). Depressive symptoms were defined based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) 15-item questionnaire (total score ≥ 17) and antidepressant medication intake. Road traffic noise was modeled according to European Parliament/Council Directive 2002/49/EC. High noise exposure was defined as annual mean 24-hr noise levels > 55 A-weighted decibels [dB(A)]. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) a) adjusting for the potential confounders age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), neighborhood-level SES, and traffic proximity; b) additionally adjusting for body mass index and smoking; and c) additionally adjusting for the potential confounders/intermediates comorbidities and insomnia. Results: Overall, 35.7% of the participants were exposed to high residential road traffic noise levels. At follow-up (mean = 5.1 years after baseline), 302 participants were classified as having high depressive symptoms, corresponding to an adjusted RR of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.62; Model 1) for exposure to > 55 versus ≤ 55 dB(A). Adjustment for potential confounders/intermediates did not substantially alter the results. Associations were stronger among those who reported insomnia at baseline (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.59 vs. RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.57) and appeared to be limited to those with ≤ 13 years of education (RR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.85 vs. 0.92; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.53 for

  19. Influence of dietary calcium on bone calcium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M.; Roland, D.A. Sr.; Clark, A.J.

    1986-02-01

    In Experiment 1, 10 microCi /sup 45/Ca/day were administered to 125 hens for 10 days. Hens were then allocated to five treatments with calcium levels ranging from .08 to 3.75% of the diet. In Experiment 2, hens with morning oviposition times were randomly allocated to 11 treatments that were periods of time postoviposition ranging from 6 hr to 24 hr, in 2-hr increments (Experiment 2). At the end of each 2-hr period, eggs from 25 hens were removed from the uterus. The 18-, 20-, and 22-hr treatments were replicated three times. In Experiment 3, hens were fed either ad libitum or feed was withheld the last 5 or 6 hr before oviposition. In Experiment 4, hens were fed 10 microCi of /sup 45/Ca for 15 days to label skeletal calcium. Hens were divided into two groups and fed a .08 or 3.75% calcium diet for 2 days. On the second day, 25 hens fed the 3.75% calcium diet were intubated with 7 g of the same diet containing .5 g calcium at 1700, 2100, 0100, 0500, and 0700 hr. The measurements used were egg weight, shell weight, and /sup 45/Ca content of the egg shell. Results indicated a significant linear or quadratic regression of dietary calcium levels on /sup 45/Ca accumulation in eggshells and eggshell weight (Experiment 1). As the calcium level of the diet increased, eggshell weight increased and /sup 45/Ca recovery decreased. Utilization of skeletal calcium for shell formation ranged from 28 to 96%. In Experiment 2, the rate of shell calcification was not constant throughout the calcification process but varied significantly.

  20. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  1. Dietary Interviewing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A computer based dietary interviewing program enhanced self awareness for overweight participants. In a three part interview designed for direct interaction between patient and computer, questions dealt with general dietary behavior and details of food intake. The computer assisted the patient in planning a weight reducing diet of approximately…

  2. Long-term cued recall of tasks in senile dementia.

    PubMed

    Bird, M; Kinsella, G

    1996-03-01

    Participants with senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type, vascular dementia, or both, associated a task with a cue. On reinstatement of the cue 1 day later, a substantial portion of the sample recalled the task. The teaching method, both with and without participant performance of the task (PPT), was spaced retrieval with supplementary or fading cues provided as required. Findings were that (a) PPT encoding and retrieval encoding, separately, assisted later recall: (b) retrieval combined with PPT encoding increased the probability of task performance at final recall; (c) repetition in the absence of retrieval or PPT was less effective; and (d) there was no forgetting between 1 hr and 1 day. Theoretical and clinical aspects of these findings are discussed. PMID:8726369

  3. Orthopedic medical devices: ethical questions, implant recalls and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Racine, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    The hip replacement is a surgical procedure to replace the femoral head and acetabulum with prosthetic implants to improve function, increase mobility, and relieve pain caused by damage from disorders such as osteoarthritis and fractures. In recent years, we have seen several recalls of poorly functioning implant systems, most recently, the Johnson and Johnson (J&J) Articular Surface Replacement device. Product recalls are often the results of premature failure of implants requiring additional surgery to exchange the failed device. This raises many questions - technical, medical, regulatory, ethical, and legal - that ultimately put patients at risk, compromise confidence in medicine and regulatory agencies, and important relationships including those between the physician-patient and physician-industry. Where do the responsibilities lie for the patients' suffering, morbidity, and costs of removing the failed device? This article discusses the current recall of the J&J implant, the responsibilities of the manufacturer, surgeons, and the regulatory agency. PMID:23741723

  4. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    PubMed

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  5. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R.; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-01-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. PMID:19524088

  6. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-09-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. PMID:19524088

  7. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall

    PubMed Central

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G.; Cooper, Janine M.; Dzieciol, Anna M.; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  8. Cognitive interviewing procedures and suggestibility in children's recall.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B K; Delamothe, K

    1997-08-01

    In this study the authors examine the effects of procedures adapted from the cognitive interview of R. E. Geiselman, R.P. Fisher, D.P. MacKinnon, and H.L. Holland (1985) on children's recall following exposure to misleading suggestions. Children aged 5-7 years and 9-11 years saw a videotaped story and were presented with misleading or neutral information concerning story details. All were later given free- and cued-recall tests preceded by standard interview instructions or instructions that reinstated the encoding context and encouraged exhaustive reporting. Increased recall accuracy was found following cognitive interview instructions. Both age groups were susceptible to misleading suggestions, but susceptibility was unaffected by interview type. The authors discuss the implications for interviewing child witnesses. PMID:9378684

  9. Temporal-contextual processing in working memory: evidence from delayed cued recall and delayed free recall tests.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; McCabe, David P

    2012-02-01

    Three experiments are reported that addressed the nature of processing in working memory by investigating patterns of delayed cued recall and free recall of items initially studied during complex and simple span tasks. In Experiment 1, items initially studied during a complex span task (i.e., operation span) were more likely to be recalled after a delay in response to temporal-contextual cues, relative to items from subspan and supraspan list lengths in a simple span task (i.e., word span). In Experiment 2, items initially studied during operation span were more likely to be recalled from neighboring serial positions during delayed free recall than were items studied during word span trials. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the number of attentional refreshing opportunities strongly predicts episodic memory performance, regardless of whether the information is presented in a spaced or massed format in a modified operation span task. The results indicate that the content-context bindings created during complex span trials reflect attentional refreshing opportunities that are used to maintain items in working memory. PMID:21948350

  10. Longitudinal analysis of dietary patterns in Chinese adults from 1991 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we aimed to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence to these dietary patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We analysed dietary data collected during seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9253 adults with complete dietary data for three or more waves. Dietary intake assessment was carried out over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave, we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour and maize/coarse grains and the modern high-wheat dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy root/tuber products, fruits, eggs/egg products, soya milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern dietary pattern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat dietary pattern had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity levels were positively associated with both the dietary patterns, but the association became weaker in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China, the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat dietary pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods, is a cause of concern. PMID:24331247

  11. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data.

    PubMed

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: (1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; (2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; (3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; (4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; (5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; (6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and (7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies. PMID:26468491

  12. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    PubMed

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety. PMID:19940578

  13. Dietary variety increases the probability of nutrient adequacy among adults.

    PubMed

    Foote, Janet A; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea

    2004-07-01

    Despite guidance to consume a variety of foods, the role of dietary variety in ensuring nutrient adequacy is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether a commodity-based measure of dietary variety was associated with the probability of nutrient adequacy after adjusting for energy and food group intakes. Subjects were 4969 men and 4800 women >/= 19 y old who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes for Individuals 1994-1996. Using 24-h recall data, the mean probability of adequacy across 15 nutrients was calculated using the Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary variety was defined using a commodity-based method similar to that used for the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Associations were examined in gender-specific multivariate regression models. Energy intake was a strong predictor of the mean probability of adequacy in models controlled for age, BMI, education level, and ethnicity (model R(2) = 0.60 and 0.54 for men and women, respectively). Adding the number of servings from each of the 5 Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) groups to the models significantly improved the model fit (R(2) = 0.69 and 0.66 for men and women). Adding dietary variety again significantly improved the model fit for both men and women (R(2) = 0.73 and 0.70, respectively). Variety counts within the dairy and grain groups were most strongly associated with improved nutrient adequacy. Dietary variety as defined by the HEI contributes an additional component of dietary quality that is not captured by FGP servings or energy intake. PMID:15226469

  14. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  15. Improved associative recall of binary data in volume holographic memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzos, George A.; Laisné, Alexandre; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    1999-11-01

    A new technique is presented that improves the results of associative recall in a volume holographic memory system. A background is added to the normal search argument to increase the amount of optical power that is used to reconstruct the reference beams in the crystal. This is combined with post-processing of the captured image of the reference beams. The use of both the background and post-processing greatly improves the results by allowing associative recall using small arguments. In addition, the number of false hits is reduced and misses are virtually eliminated.

  16. Methodological challenges in performing targeting: assessing dietary risk for WIC participation and education.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E

    2005-04-01

    This paper summarizes recent evaluations of indicators of dietary risk used to determine eligibility and nutrition education and counseling within the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The concept of dietary risk relates to an inadequate dietary pattern or a failure to adhere to the food guide pyramid and, within WIC, is typically assessed based on an individual's intake from a 24-h recall or FFQ. Available evidence suggests, however, that even with a high-quality technique, substantial error exists in these data at the level of the individual, making the likelihood of misclassification high. Such data, with appropriate statistical procedures, can provide valid information at the group or the population level, and this is a future area for indicator development and incorporation into the management of WIC and other nutrition education programs addressing dietary risk. PMID:15795451

  17. The contributions of encoding, retention, and recall to the Hebb effect.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Meyer, Nadine

    2009-10-01

    The article reports an experiment testing whether the Hebb repetition effect-the gradual improvement of immediate serial recall when the same list is repeated several times-depends on overt recall of the repeated lists. Previous reports which suggest that recall is critical confound the recall manipulation with retention interval. The present experiment orthogonally varies retention interval (0 or 9 s) and whether the list is to be recalled after the retention interval. Hebb repetition learning is assessed in a final test phase. A repetition effect was obtained in all four experimental conditions; it was larger for recalled than non-recalled lists, whereas retention interval had no effect. The results show that encoding is sufficient to generate cumulative long-term learning, which is strengthened by recall. Rehearsal, if it takes place in the retention interval at all, does not have the same effect on long-term learning as overt recall. PMID:19598058

  18. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data. PMID:22765837

  19. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM. PMID:24199660

  20. Dietary and non-dietary factors associated with serum zinc in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Catherine A; Menon, Kavitha C; Ferguson, Elaine L; Thomson, Christine D; Bailey, Karl; Gray, Andrew R; Zodpey, Sanjay; Saraf, Abhay; Das, Prabir Kumar; Skeaff, Sheila A

    2014-10-01

    Women in low-income settings, common in India, are at risk of inadequate zinc intake due to poor diet quality and low consumption of flesh foods rich in zinc. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of zinc status of non-pregnant rural and tribal women living in central India and to identify dietary and non-dietary factors associated with the biochemical zinc status of these women. Rural and tribal non-pregnant women 18-30 years of age were selected using proportion to population sampling near Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Sociodemographic, biochemical (serum zinc), clinical, and dietary data (1-day interactive 24-h recall) were collected. The mean age of women (n = 109; rural = 52; tribal = 56) was 23.2 years and mean BMI was 17.9 kg/m(2). The majority of the participants identified as being non-vegetarian (72 %). The mean ± SD serum zinc concentration was 10.8 ± 1.6 μmol/L, and 52 % of participants had a low serum zinc concentration according to the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG). The median (first and third quartile) energy, zinc intake, and phytate/zinc molar ratio was 5.4 (4.2, 6.7) MJ/day, 5.3 (3.8, 7.0) mg/day, and 26 (22, 28), respectively. Zinc intakes were well below IZiNCG recommendations for dietary zinc of 9 mg/day for non-pregnant women aged 14-18 years and 7 mg/day for non-pregnant women aged ≥ 19 years. Using linear regression analysis to identify non-dietary and dietary factors associated with serum zinc, a significant association was only found for current lactation (p = 0.012) and energy intake (p < 0.001). Diets low in energy with poor bioavailability of dietary zinc are likely to be the primary cause of the high proportion of Indian women with zinc deficiency. PMID:25080861

  1. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes. PMID:26435534

  2. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. PMID:25998492

  3. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  4. The impact of cognitive load on delayed recall.

    PubMed

    Camos, Valérie; Portrat, Sophie

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term retention of items studied in a working memory span task depends on the refreshing of memory items-more specifically, on the number of refreshing opportunities. However, it was previously shown that refreshing depends on the cognitive load of the concurrent task introduced in the working memory span task. Thus, cognitive load should determine the long-term retention of items assessed in a delayed-recall test if such retention relies on refreshing. In two experiments, while the amount of refreshing opportunities remained constant, we varied the cognitive load of the concurrent task by either introducing tasks differing in their attentional demands or varying the pace of the concurrent task. To verify that this effect was related to refreshing and not to any maintenance mechanism, we also manipulated the availability of subvocal rehearsal. Replicating previous results, increasing cognitive load reduced immediate recall. This increase also had a detrimental effect on delayed recall. Conversely, the addition of concurrent articulation reduced immediate but not delayed recall. This study shows that both working and episodic memory traces depend on the cognitive load of the concurrent task, whereas the use of rehearsal affects only working memory performance. These findings add further evidence of the dissociation between subvocal rehearsal and attentional refreshing. PMID:25421406

  5. Humiliation, Unfairness and Laughter: Students Recall Power Relations with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Minna

    2011-01-01

    A Finnish magazine published my request that people remember and write about their teachers. Many writers recalled teachers who, for example, had humiliated, favoured or laughed at their students. This article focuses on a study of such negative memories, examining what writers tell about teachers and students in power relationships and how…

  6. Does Size Impact Attention and Recall of Graphic Health Warnings?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Shoben, Abigail B.; Krygowski, Sarah; Ferketich, Amy; Berman, Micah; Peters, Ellen; Rao, Unnava; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the attention paid to larger sizes of graphic health warnings (GHWs) embedded within cigarette advertisements so as to assess their impacts on rural smokers. Methods Daily smokers (N = 298) were randomly assigned to view a cigarette advertisement with 3 conditions: 2 intervention conditions with GHW comprising 20% or 33% of the ad area, or a text-only control. Eye-tracking software measured attention in milliseconds. Binary outcome mediation was conducted. Results Intervention participants spent 24% of their time viewing the GHWs, compared to 10% for control (p < .01). The odds of GHW recall in the combined (20% and 33%) intervention group were 3.3 times higher than controls. Total dwell time mediated 33% of the effect of the graphic condition on any recall. Conclusions GHWs in 20% of cigarette advertisement space attracted significantly more attention than text-only warnings; larger GHWs did not increase attention. Attention was significantly associated with warning recall; total time viewing mediated warning recall. Tobacco ads should include GHWs to attract the attention of smokers. PMID:26550583

  7. The Disfluent Discourse: Effects of Filled Pauses on Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as "uh" and "um", affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time…

  8. The Impact of Formal Schemata on L3 Reading Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Rhetorical structure refers to a complex network of relationships and the way the underlying ideas are organized within a text. This study was conducted to see whether explicit instruction of descriptive and causative text organization positively affected L3 reading recall. 240 Turkish students of EFL who had Persian as their second language were…

  9. The Endurance of Children's Working Memory: A Recall Time Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towse, John N.; Hitch, Graham J.; Hamilton, Z.; Pirrie, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence…

  10. Memory for Dialogue: Recalling an Anchor through Talk and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Pam

    This paper reports on a project involving student recall of the dialogue in a movie and retention of the "anchor," which in this case refers to a videotape recording of "To Kill a Mockingbird." The project looked at how students retained knowledge over a few days and what kind of activities resulted from expertise with an anchor. The goal of…

  11. Effect of Altered Prior Knowledge on Passage Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.; Nicolich, Mark

    A study was conducted to determine: (1) the relationships between prior knowledge and passage recall; (2) the effect of a prereading activity (PReP) on available knowledge; and (3) the effect of the PReP activity on total comprehension scores. The subjects were 161 sixth grade students from a middle class suburban Long Island, New York, public…

  12. Young Children's Reasoning and Recall in an Object Manipulation Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junn, Ellen; Sugarman, Susan

    A study investigated developments in reasoning and memory as reflected by the discovery strategies of children taking part in a manipulative categorization and recall task. A total of 40 children (8 each of 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 months of age) participated. Stimulus materials consisting of blocks, toy plates, discs, and plastic trees were…

  13. Negative Transfer in Children's Recall of Categorized Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A negative transfer paradigm was used to assess kindergarten, third-, and sixth-grade children's use of category relations in lists presented for recall. Results showed that negative transfer effects increased with age, with kindergarten children showing no evidence of interference relative to a control group. (Author/MP)

  14. Prior-list intrusions in serial recall are positional.

    PubMed

    Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the prior list, a finding which led to the endorsement of positional models of serial recall. However, all of the demonstrations of positional intrusions occurred in designs in which relatively small sets of items were repeatedly employed as stimuli. In recent years, a number of investigations have found evidence for chaining in designs in which large sets of items are employed and items are never reused across trials (open sets). We conducted 2 experiments using open sets of items to test whether a pure chaining model is a viable model for open-set conditions. Both experiments revealed that intrusions from the immediately preceding list exhibited a strong tendency to be output in the same position as their position in the prior list, suggesting the usage of positional representations in open-set designs. A chaining model that lacks positional representations provides an inadequate account of serial recall in open-set conditions. PMID:26010828

  15. Use and Recall of Advance Organizers in Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, George W.

    1976-01-01

    Two studies are described which (a) determined whether the generality and inclusiveness of advance organizers (AOs) were the same as the mathematical generality or abstractness of concepts that might be used as AOs and (b) measured the effect of programmed recall of AOs in enhancing the learning of a mathematical concept. (DT)

  16. Semantic Knowledge as a Determinant of Developmental Differences in Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceci, Stephen J.; Howe, Michael J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments examined the possible role of children's semantic knowledge and their ability to encode it in a cued-recall test. Performance of children aged 7, 10, and 13 years was observed in encoding specificity tasks which used homographs as the to-be-remembered words. (MP)

  17. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  18. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting in Recall: Competitor Interference Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verde, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Participants studied category-exemplar pairs ("FRUIT Cherry," "FRUIT Grape") and then practiced some of the items ("Cherry"). In Experiment 1, practice that involved retrieving the item from memory suppressed recall of related items ("Grape"), a finding known as the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect.…

  19. Client Retrospective Recall of Resolved and Unresolved Misunderstanding Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Renee H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied client retrospective recall of major misunderstanding events in 19 cases of therapy. Found that good relationship, clients' willingness to assert negative feelings about being misunderstood, and therapists' facilitation of mutual repair effort through maintaining flexible and accepting stance typically led to resolution. (Author/NB)

  20. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  1. Parental satisfaction and the ability to recall the physician's name.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal R; Cabana, Michael D

    2010-06-01

    During urgent care visits, families may not see their regular physician and may not even recall the name of their provider. The authors conducted a cross-sectional parental satisfaction survey at pediatric ambulatory clinics to assess whether parent recall of their treating physician's name is associated with parental satisfaction. For urgent care, ability to recall the physician's name was positively associated with parental satisfaction (odds ratio [OR] = 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.76-2.60). Factors associated with dissatisfaction were parking difficulty (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.26-0.57) and increasing visit time (OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.81-0.94). In urgent care clinics, not being able to recall the treating physician's name is associated with dissatisfaction. Although there are many factors associated with satisfaction that are not in the physician's control, there may be simple actions associated with improved satisfaction that physicians can implement, such as clearly introducing themselves and making sure parents remember their name. PMID:20118085

  2. Analyzing Category Clustering in Free Recall Using an SPSS Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazen, Joseph K.; Otani, Hajime

    1997-01-01

    A Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program is described that computes four common clustering measures used to analyze free recall of information from categorized lists. Computed are a ratio of repetition, a modified ratio of repetition, an adjusted ratio of clustering, and a deviation score for stimulus lists. (SLD)

  3. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not in... in commerce which do not conform to the regulations. Such determination may be based on: (1) A... issued only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing. (e) All costs, including labor and...

  4. Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

  5. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  6. Developmental Continuity in the Processes that Underlie Spatial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, John P.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether children's spatial recall performance shows three separable characteristics: (1) biases away from symmetry axes (geometric effects); (2) systematic drift over delays; and (3) biases toward the exemplar distribution experienced in the task (experience-dependent effects). In Experiment 1, the location of one target…

  7. Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images. PMID:19093619

  8. Associative Information in Memory: Evidence from Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aue, William R.; Criss, Amy H.; Fischetti, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of item and associative information in episodic memory was investigated using cued recall and single item recognition. In the first four experiments, participants studied two lists constructed such that some items presented in a pair during List 1 were rearranged to create new pairs in List 2 and were accompanied by pairs…

  9. Preschool Children's Preferences and Recall for Stereotyped versus Nonstereotyped Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropp, Jerri Jaudon; Halverson, Charles F.

    1983-01-01

    Of four stories, preschool girls liked one with a female character and feminine activity best, and one with a male character and masculine activity least. The reverse was true for boys. Measures taken a day later showed that children recalled more about stories they had liked least the day before. (Author/MJL)

  10. Musculoskeletal allograft risks and recalls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mroz, Thomas E; Joyce, Michael J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Lieberman, Isador H; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2008-10-01

    There have been several improvements to the US tissue banking industry over the past decade. Tissue banks had limited active government regulation until 1993, at which time the US Food and Drug Administration began regulatory oversight because of reports of disease transmission from allograft tissues. Reports in recent years of disease transmission associated with the use of allografts have further raised concerns about the safety of such implants. A retrospective review of allograft recall data was performed to analyze allograft recall by tissue type, reason, and year during the period from January 1994 to June 30, 2007. During the study period, more than 96.5% of all allograft tissues recalled were musculoskeletal. The reasons underlying recent musculoskeletal tissue recalls include insufficient or improper donor evaluation, contamination, recipient infection, and positive serologic tests. Infectious disease transmission following allograft implantation may occur if potential donors are not adequately evaluated or screened serologically during the prerecovery phase and if the implant is not sterilized before implantation. PMID:18832599

  11. Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

  12. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  13. Memory Strategy Instruction, Contextual Learning and ESP Vocabulary Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…

  14. Content Schemata, Linguistic Simplification, and EFL Readers' Comprehension and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Atai, Mahmoud Reza; Ahmadi, Hossein

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of linguistic simplification and content schemata on reading comprehension and recall. The participants, 240 Iranian male students of English as a foreign language (EFL), were divided into 4 homogeneous groups, each consisting of 60 participants (30 with high proficiency and 30 with low proficiency). To elicit…

  15. A Parallel Distributed Processing Model of Story Comprehension and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Richard M.; Rumelhart, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Introduces a multistate probabilistic causal chain notation for describing the knowledge structures implicitly represented by the subjective conditional probability distribution. Proposes a psychological process model of how story comprehension and recall processes operate using causal chain representations. Compares the model's story-recall…

  16. Advance Organizers in Advisory Reports: Selective Reading, Recall, and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagerwerf, Luuk; Cornelis, Louise; de Geus, Johannes; Jansen, Phidias

    2008-01-01

    According to research in educational psychology, advance organizers lead to better learning and recall of information. In this research, the authors explored advance organizers from a business perspective, where larger documents are read under time pressure. Graphic and verbal advance organizers were manipulated into six versions of an advisory…

  17. Rehearsal strategies, test expectancy, and memory monitoring in free recall.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H

    1996-05-01

    Three experiments were carried out to determine (a) the effectiveness of associative rehearsal and rote repetition for long-term recall with and without expectation of a later recall test, and (b) the subjects' ability to assess their own future recall performance. The overall results showed that a test expectancy effect was not obtained when a voluntary selection in strategies was prohibited, but was found for subjects not instructed in the use of any particular strategy. It is also shown that the subjects could predict correctly that the items studied with associative rehearsal would be recalled more successfully at the final test than when they were studied with rote repetition. A superiority of associative rehearsal for prediction was not found when the subjects used only one type of rehearsal, but was found when they were not given the immediate test. The results suggest that the expectancy effect can be explained in terms of subjects' intentional shifts of strategies based on their metacognitive assessment of such strategies. PMID:8735611

  18. Individual Differences in False Recall: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intrusions in several different recall tasks was examined in the current study. Intrusions from these tasks were moderately correlated and formed a unitary intrusion factor. This factor was related to other cognitive ability measures including working memory capacity, judgments of recency, and general source-monitoring…

  19. The Impact of Interactive Storybook on Elementary School Students' Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyit, Ertem Ihsan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of animated interactive storybook on elementary school students' recall. This experiment utilized 77 fourth grade students in three groups. Each student was randomly assigned with one of the three conditions: (1) computer presentation of interactive storybooks with animation; (2) computer presentation of…

  20. Shared Encoding and the Costs and Benefits of Collaborative Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Celia B.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John

    2013-01-01

    We often remember in the company of others. In particular, we routinely collaborate with friends, family, or colleagues to remember shared experiences. But surprisingly, in the experimental collaborative recall paradigm, collaborative groups remember less than their potential, an effect termed "collaborative inhibition". Rajaram and…