Science.gov

Sample records for 24-hr urine collections

  1. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-hr urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study ...

  2. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  3. Energy expenditures in four men estimated by D/sub 2/ /sup 18/O method at two times. I. From 24 hr urine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bodwell, C.E.; Miles, C.W.; Seale, J.L.; Canary, J.J.; Prather, E.S.

    1986-03-01

    Four men (I-IV) were fed controlled diets with adjustment of energy intakes until body weights were constant for 3 wks (fall (F)) or 2 wks (spring (S)) and then maintained on the same diets for 3-4 weeks after dosing with D/sub 2/ /sup 18/O. Disappearances of D and /sup 18/O, measured in 24 hour urine (21 days), were used to estimate energy expenditures (EE) compared to metabolizable energy intakes (EI) needed to maintain body wt. EI were obtained from gross energy values (bomb calorimetry) of diet composites corrected for fecal and urinary losses. One subject (IV) consumed ETOH (18-20% of total calories). Among subjects, daily EI varied from 2500 to 3100 Kcal; 21-day mean +/-S.D. body wts. were (I) 66.3 +/- 0.3(F), 67.2 +/- 0.3(S); (II) 73.6 +/- 0.2(F), 74.2 +/- 0.3 (S); (III) 80.2 +/- 0.3(F), 77.6 +/- 0.4(S); (IV) 69.4 +/- 0.4(F), 70.7 +/- 0.4(S). For I and II, F and S intakes and EE values were similar; for III, S values were lower than F values. Small changes in body composition were observed; allowing for these altered relations between EE and EI. EE values were anomalous for IV; for subjects with high intake levels of fluids/ETOH, special methodology may be needed.

  4. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  5. Quantitative immunological determination of 12 plasma proteins excreted in human urine collected before and after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Poortmans, Jacques; Jeanloz, Roger W.

    1968-01-01

    Urine was collected from 6 healthy male adults at rest and from 20 male adults after a marathon race (25 miles). The concentrated urines were quantitatively analyzed, by single radial immunodiffusion, for their content in 12 different plasma proteins: tryptophan-rich prealbumin, albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, α1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, Gc-globulin, transferrin, hemopexin, β2-glycoprotein I, γA-globulin, and γG-globulin. Albumin, γA-globulin, and γG-globulin represent the major part of the plasma proteins detected in normal urine excreted by humans at rest (12, 0.5, and 2.5 mg respectively, out of a total excretion of 17.5 mg of plasma proteins per 24 hr). The other plasma proteins were excreted at a lower rate (< 0.4 mg/24 hr). The relative content of tryptophan-rich prealbumin, α1-antitrypsin, Gc-globulin, transferrin, and γG-globulin was lower in normal urine than in normal serum, whereas that of α1-acid glycoprotein, β2-glycoprotein I, and γA-globulin was higher. The ratio of γG-globulin to γA-globulin was 4.9:1. When plotted on a logarithmic scale, no direct relationship between the molecular weight of a protein and the value of its renal clearance could be observed. Strenuous exercise increased (up to 50-fold) the excretion of plasma proteins which represent 82% of the total proteins found in urine, instead of 57% in urine collected from humans at rest. There was particularly a significant rise of tryptophan-rich albumin, albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, transferrin, γA-globulin, and γG-globulin (0.26, 127, 11.8, 3.3, 1.2, and 2.0 μg respectively, out of a total excretion of 167 μg of plasma proteins per min). The ratio of γG-globulin to γA-globulin was 16:1. After exercise, the renal clearance of proteins increased from 2 to 40 times, but, as for the urine of normal subjects at rest, no direct relationship between molecular weight and renal clearance could be observed. Images PMID:4170390

  6. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  7. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  8. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  9. Human performance and physiological function during a 24-hr exposure to 1% bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Degioanni, J. J.; Tan, M. N.; Davis, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Performance and physiological measurements were obtained from four pairs of men exposed for 24 hr to 1% (10,000 ppm) Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane, CBrF3) and to air with order counterbalanced using a double-blind protocol. Cognitive and motor performance was assessed before, during, and after the exposures using seven scales of the Automated Portable Testing System, which produced 13 measures of performance. Halon inhalation induced decrements in 2 of the 13 measures, but actual and estimated magnitudes of the decrements were no greater than 5% of baseline values. Physiological data were obtained before, during, and after the exposures from clinical chemistry analyses of blood and urine samples, pulmonary function tests, and monitoring of vital signs. Significant change during Halon inhalation was observed for 6 of the 52 variables assessed; however, all physiological values remained within clinically acceptable limits. No cardiovascular effects were noted. This study demonstrated that exposure to 1% Halon 1301 for 24 hr can produce minor disturbance of central nervous system function as assessed by cognitive tasks.

  10. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  11. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  12. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  13. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  14. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  15. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  16. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  17. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  18. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  19. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  20. Development testing of a shuttle urine collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests conducted in December 1973 demonstrated the ability of an unisexual urine collection subsystem to function in a zero-g environment. The urinal, which could be adjusted with three degrees of freedom, accommodated 16 female test subjects with a wide range of stature, as well as five male test subjects. The urinal was in intimate contact with the female and was contoured to form an effective air seal at the periphery. When positioned 2-4 inches forward, the urinal could be used for male collection and contact was not required.

  1. USE OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS TO COLLECT URINE IN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large studies of children's health as it relates to exposures to chemicals in the environment often require measurements of biomarkers of chemical exposures or effects in urine samples. But collection of urine samples from infants and toddlers is difficult. For large exposure s...

  2. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  3. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  4. 49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What form is used to document a DOT urine... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.45 What form is used to document a DOT urine collection? (a) The Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF) must be used to document every urine...

  5. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chensheng; Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES). Methods Parents were instructed to collect 24-hr duplicate food samples of all conventional fruits, vegetables, and fruit juices equal to the quantity consumed by their children, similarly prewashed/prepared, and from the same source or batch. Individual or composite food items were analyzed for organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticide residues. Results We collected a total of 239 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from the 46 CPES children. We found 14% or 5% of those food samples contained at least one OP or pyrethroid insecticide, respectively. We measured a total of 11 OP insecticides, at levels ranging from 1 to 387 ng/g, and three pyrethroid insecticides, at levels ranging from 2 to 1,133 ng/g, in children’s food samples. We found that many of the food items consumed by the CPES children were also on the list of the most contaminated food commodities reported by the Environmental Working Group. Conclusions The frequent consumption of food commodities with episodic presence of pesticide residues that are suspected to cause developmental and neurological effects in young children supports the need for further mitigation. PMID:20639183

  6. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  7. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  8. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  9. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  10. Anatomical observations of the rat cerebellar nodulus after 24 hr of spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Holstein, G R; Kukielka, E; Martinelli, G P

    1999-07-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in postural, locomotor and oculomotor functions. The vestibular abnormalities experienced by astronauts entail immediate reflex motor responses, including postural illusions, sensations of rotation, nystagmus, dizziness and vertigo, as well as space motion sickness. Adaptation to the microgravity environment usually occurs within one week, and a subsequent re-adaptation period of several months is often required upon return to Earth. Some astronauts experience recurrences of dizziness, nausea, and vomiting, as well as marked disturbances in postural equilibrium in the absence of vision during this readaptation period. The mechanisms underlying such adaptation processes remain unclear, although current evidence favors some type of sensory conflict. The purpose of the present study was to explore the structural basis for the reorganization in the central vestibular system that underlies the process of adaptation to altered gravitational environments. Hindbrain tissue was obtained from rats flown on the Neurolab shuttle mission (STS-90) that launched on April 17, 1998. Tissue for the present report was obtained from four adult Fisher 344 rats sacrificed on orbit during flight day 2 (FD2), 24 hr after launch. Equal numbers of vivarium control animals and cage-controls were sacrificed 48 and 96 hr, respectively, after the flight dissections. Following decapitation, each hindbrain was immersion-fixed for 45 min in 4% paraformaldehyde/0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer pH 7.3, and then transferred to a 4% paraformaldehyde solution in 0.1M phosphate buffer for 18 days at 4 degrees C. After this fixation, the cerebellum was dissected away from the ventral portion of the brainstem by severing the cerebellar peduncles. The entire cerebellum of each rat was cut by Vibratome into 100 micrometers thick sections in the parasagittal plane. These sections were collected serially and processed for electron microscopy by

  11. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  17. Human performance and physiological function during a 24-hr exposure to 1 percent bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Degioanni, J. J.; Tan, M. N.; Davis, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Performance and physiological measurements were obtained from four pairs of men exposed for 24 hr to 1 percent (10,000 ppm) Halon 1301 (CBrF3) and to air with order counterbalanced using a double-blind protocol. Cognitive and motor performance was assessed before, during, and after the exposures, using seven scales of the Automated Portable Testing System, which produced 13 measures of performance. Halon inhalation induced decrements in 2 of the 13 measures, but actual and estimated magnitudes of the decrements were no greater than 5 percent of baseline values. Physiological data obtained before, during, and after the exposures revealed significant changes during Halon inhalation for 6 of the 52 variables assessed; however, all physiological values remained within clinically acceptable limits. No cardiovascular effects were noted. This study demonstrated that exposure to 1 percent Halon 1301 for 24 hr can produce minor disturbance of central nervous system function as assessed by cognitive tasks.

  18. Metabolism and Excretion Rates of Parent and Hydroxy-PAHs in Urine Collected after Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon for Native American Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E.; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 hours. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 hr post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 hr for retene to 3.3 hr for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 hr for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 hr for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 hr post-consumption. PMID:25659315

  19. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  20. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  1. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  2. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  3. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  4. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

  5. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet... act as the collector when that employee is tested, unless no other collector is available and you...

  6. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet... act as the collector when that employee is tested, unless no other collector is available and you...

  7. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet... act as the collector when that employee is tested, unless no other collector is available and you...

  8. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet... act as the collector when that employee is tested, unless no other collector is available and you...

  9. Single-Source Gravitational Wave Limits From the J1713+0747 24-hr Global Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, T.; NANOGrav Collaboration; Ellis, J. A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Lam, M. T.; Bassa, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P. B.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Lorimer, D. R.; Madison, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Ransom, S. M.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R. M.; Smits, R.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Stinebring, D. R.; Stovall, K.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-05-01

    Dense, continuous pulsar timing observations over a 24-hr period provide a method for probing intermediate gravitational wave (GW) frequencies from 10 microhertz to 20 millihertz. The European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA), the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav), the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), and the combined International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) all use millisecond pulsar observations to detect or constrain GWs typically at nanohertz frequencies. In the case of the IPTA's nine-telescope 24-Hour Global Campaign on millisecond pulsar J1713+0747, GW limits in the intermediate frequency regime can be produced. The negligible change in dispersion measure during the observation minimizes red noise in the timing residuals, constraining any contributions from GWs due to individual sources. At 10-5 Hz, the 95% upper limit on strain is 10-11 for GW sources in the pulsar's direction.

  10. A computerised real-time measurement system to locate the position of the urine stream in designing urine collection devices for women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Macaulay, M C; Jowitt, F A; Clarke-O'Neill, S R; Fader, M J; van den Heuvel, E A; Cottenden, A M

    2008-05-01

    A computerised real-time measurement system has been developed and tested for locating the position of the urine stream into a handheld urinal and onto a body-worn pad using arrays of resistive or optical sensors. Experimental data indicates that urine streams were usually scattered over quite a large cross-sectional area (typically 30mm in the anterior/posterior direction) at the point of entry into handheld urinals. However, a correctly placed aperture of length 90mm would have successfully received all the urine from the total of 36 clinical experiments run with seven women. Similarly, experiments to determine the initial position of the urine stream onto body-worn pads indicated that a target area of length 120mm would have received the initial stream of urine from all 54 clinical experiments with 18 women. These data have been used to help with the design of a handheld urinal and a body-worn urine collection interface (the latter using the body-worn pad data) to be used in two variants of a new urine collection device for women (NICMS). Although both resistive and optical sensors provided useful data, the reliability of optical sensors was often compromised by droplets of urine splashing onto light sources or detectors. Future work should focus on protecting them from splashing. PMID:17643336

  11. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. PMID:24166762

  12. Conceptual Design of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with 24-HR Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design study for a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is able to carry a 25-lb science payload for 24 hr and is able to land and take off at elevations as high as 15,000 ft without human intervention. In addition to the science payload, this vehicle must be able to carry a satellite communication system, and the vehicle must be able to be transported in a standard full-size pickup truck and assembled by only two operators. This project started with a brainstorming phase to devise possible vehicle configurations that might satisfy the requirements. A down select was performed to select a near-term solution and two advanced vehicle concepts that are better suited to the intent of the mission. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the requirements and the technology levels to obtain a better understanding of the design space. This study found that within the study assumptions the mission is feasible; the selected concepts are recommended for further development.

  13. Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J

    1999-01-01

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10417365

  14. Technique for the collection of clear urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jan G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Groenewald, Herman B; Bekker, Lizette C; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    Urine samples can be a very useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of animal health. In this article, a simple technique to collect urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) was described, based on a similar unpublished technique developed for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) using a canine urinary catheter. With this technique, it was possible to collect relatively clean urine samples from Nile crocodiles of different sizes using canine urinary catheters or small diameter stomach tubes. Based on the gross anatomical features of the cloaca of the Nile crocodile, it was confirmed that urine accumulates in a chamber consisting of the urodeum and coprodeum. Faecal material is stored temporarily in the very short rectum, which is separated from the urinary chamber by the rectocoprodeal sphincter. PMID:23327128

  15. The further development of the active urine collection device: a novel continence management system.

    PubMed

    Tinnion, E; Jowitt, F; Clarke-O'Neill, S; Cottenden, A M; Fader, M; Sutherland, I

    2003-01-01

    Continence difficulties affect the lives of a substantial minority of the population. Women are far more likely than men to be affected by urinary incontinence but the range of management options for them is limited. There has been considerable interest in developing an external urine collection system for women but without success to date. This paper describes the development and preliminary clinical testing of an active urine collection device (AUCD), which could provide a solution for sufferers. The device uses stored vacuum, protected by a high bubble point filter, to remove urine as quickly as it is produced. This allows a small battery-operated pump to provide the required vacuum, enabling the device to be portable. Two different types of non-invasive patient/device interface were developed, and tested by volunteers: urinal and small pad. The slimline urinal was popular with users although liquid noise was a problem. The pad interface was successful on occasions but further work is necessary to produce a reliable pad. This study has successfully demonstrated that a prototype AUCD liquid handling system can remove urine at clinically relevant flowrates. While further development is required, volunteer tests have shown that the AUCD could be a useful advance in continence management. PMID:12885199

  16. Weekend versus weekday urine collections in assessment of stone-formers.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R W

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collections are an important part of the metabolic evaluation of stone-formers, but are difficult for patients at work. At weekends the results might be different. Forty-five stone-formers who worked at day jobs from Monday to Friday collected urine for 24 h on a normal working day and also on a Saturday or Sunday and the differences were evaluated. Average 24 h urine volume was higher on weekdays than at weekends. Calcium, oxalate, and uric acid excretion did not differ. These results imply an increased risk of crystalluria at the weekend. Therefore weekend collections are most likely to show abnormalities and should be acceptable to clinicians. PMID:8976890

  17. Positive reinforcement methods to train chimpanzees to cooperate with urine collection.

    PubMed

    Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kim; Franklin, Andrea; Griffis, Caroline; McMillan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training can be used in many ways to enhance the welfare of captive primates. Training for biologic sample collection is one application of positive reinforcement training. In this study, 35 adult female chimpanzees were trained to cooperate with the collection of urine samples needed to facilitate a research study. A median of 35 training sessions was required for the subjects to reach reliable performance (4 of 5 sequential attempts successful) of the urine collection behavior. Adult age had no effect on the speed of learning as indicated by a rank order correlation. Individual differences in the rate of learning were pronounced but did not vary with the age of the chimpanzees. Approximately 2 y after the initial training, and with continual sample collection taking place twice weekly, we assessed the reliability of their performance and found that the chimpanzees cooperated 100% of the time and that collection of a urine sample required about 5 min. Positive reinforcement training can markedly reduce staff time, particularly for studies such as this that require frequent biologic sample collection over long durations. Similar approaches could be used to train other laboratory primates to cooperate with urine collection procedures. Animal training programs that emphasize positive reinforcement training are an important refinement in the care of laboratory primates. PMID:25651093

  18. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; Brandão, João; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and

  19. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

  20. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

  1. A 24 Hr Global Campaign to Assess Precision Timing of the Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bassa, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P. B.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Lee, K. J.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R. M.; Stairs, I.; Stovall, K.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Madison, D. R.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Ransom, S.; Stappers, B.; Zhu, W. W.; Dai, S.; Desvignes, G.; Guillemot, L.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A.; Perera, B. B. P.; Petroff, E.; Rankin, J. M.; Smits, R.

    2014-10-01

    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration undertook a 24 hr global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1-24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nançay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized \\sqrt{N} improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the signal-to-noise ratio of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.

  2. A 24 hr global campaign to assess precision timing of the millisecond pulsar J1713+0747

    SciTech Connect

    Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bassa, C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Kondratiev, V.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Jordan, C.; Keith, M.; Champion, D. J.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Cognard, I.; Demorest, P. B.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; and others

    2014-10-10

    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration undertook a 24 hr global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1-24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nançay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized √N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the signal-to-noise ratio of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.

  3. Urine Collection in the Emergency Department: What Really Happens in There?

    PubMed Central

    Frazee, Bradley W.; Frausto, Kenneth; Cisse, Bitou; White, Douglas E. A.; Alter, Harrison

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In women with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI), a non-contaminated voided specimen is considered important for valid urinalysis and culture results. We assess whether midstream parted-labia catch (MSPC) instructions were provided by nurses, understood, and performed correctly, according to the patient. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of English- and Spanish-speaking female patients submitting voided urine samples for urinalysis for suspected UTI. The survey was conducted in a public teaching hospital emergency department (ED) from June to December 2010, beginning 2 months after development and dissemination of a nursing MSPC instructions protocol. Research assistants administered the survey within 2 hours of urine collection. Nurses were unaware of the study purpose. Results: Of 129 patients approached, 74 (57%) consented and were included in the analysis. Median age was 35; 44% were Latino. Regarding instructions from nurses, patients reported the following: 45 (61%; 95% CI 50–72%) received any instructions; of whom 37 (82%; 95% CI 71–93%) understood them completely. Sixteen (36%; 95% CI 22–51%) were instructed to collect midstream; and 7 (16%; 95% CI 6–29%) to part the labia. Regardless of receiving or understanding instructions, 33 (45%; 95% CI 33–57%) reported actually collecting midstream, and 11 (15%, 95% CI 8–25%) parting the labia. Conclusion: In this ED, instructions for MSPC urine collection frequently were not given, despite a nursing protocol, and patients rarely performed the essential steps. An evidence-based approach to urine testing in the ED that considers urine collection technique, is needed. PMID:23359832

  4. Variability of Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A in Spot Samples, First Morning Voids, and 24-Hour Collections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lee-Yang; Bishop, Amber M.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread. After exposure, BPA is rapidly metabolized and eliminated in urine. Therefore, there is considerable within-person and between-person variability of BPA concentrations in spot urine samples. However, no information exists on the within-day variability of urinary BPA concentrations. Objectives: We examined the between-person and within-person and between-day and within-day variability in the urinary BPA concentrations of eight adults who collected all voids for 1 week to investigate the impact of sampling strategy in the exposure assessment of BPA using spot, first morning, or 24-hr urine collections. Methods: We determined the urinary concentrations of BPA using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The between-day and within-person variability was the primary contributor to the total variance both for first morning voids (77%) and 24-hr urine collections (88%). For the spot collections, we observed considerable within-day variance (70%), which outweighed the between-person (9%) and between-day and within-person (21%) variances. Conclusions: Regardless of the type of void (spot, first morning, 24-hr collection), urinary BPA concentrations for a given adult changed considerably—both within a day and for the 7 days of the study period. Single 24-hr urine collections accurately reflect daily exposure but can misrepresent variability in daily exposures over time. Of interest, when the population investigated is sufficiently large and samples are randomly collected relative to meal ingestion times and bladder emptying times, the single spot–sampling approach may adequately reflect the average exposure of the population to BPA. PMID:21406337

  5. 49 CFR 40.43 - What steps must operators of collection sites take to protect the security and integrity of urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to protect the security and integrity of urine collections? 40.43 Section 40.43 Transportation Office... PROGRAMS Collection Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.43 What steps must operators of collection sites take to protect the security and integrity of urine collections?...

  6. 49 CFR 40.43 - What steps must operators of collection sites take to protect the security and integrity of urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to protect the security and integrity of urine collections? 40.43 Section 40.43 Transportation Office... PROGRAMS Collection Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.43 What steps must operators of collection sites take to protect the security and integrity of urine collections?...

  7. Assessment of human exposure to atrazine through the determination of free atrazine in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Catenacci, G. ); Maroni, M. ); Cottica, D. ); Pozzoli, L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on metabolism and excretion of atrazine in man are not available in the literature. The present study has investigated human exposure to atrazine during its industrial production by means of assessment of ambient exposure and determination of free atrazine in urine. Four workers exposed to atrazine during its manufacture and packaging in a production plant, volunteered for the study. Atrazine was determined in airborne dust of the working environment obtained by personal sampling, on skin pads according to the WHO standard method, and on the skin of the hands of the workers by means of a washing procedure. Urine was collected before, during, and after exposure. A 24 hr collection before the first workshift, all the urine voided during the monitoring period, subdivided in 8 hr fractions; and one or more 12 hr samples after the end of the exposure period were collected.

  8. Usefulness of short-term urine collection in the nutritional monitoring of low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Boehm, G; Wiener, M; Schmidt, C; Ungethüm, A; Ungethüm, B; Moro, G

    1998-03-01

    To establish adequacy of urine collection times shorter than 24h in the metabolic monitoring of low birthweight infants, we collected urine for 24 h in 39 LBW infants during the third and fourth week of life. All urine voidings over the 24-h period were separately collected, the volume of each sampling and the time of voiding were recorded, and 20% of the volume was removed for pooling. All individual and pooled samples were analysed for total nitrogen, urea and ammonia, alpha-amino nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus, and for each compound the ratio to 1 mol creatinine was established. Individual sample results were "pooled" to obtain 3-, 6- and 12-h period excretion and than related to the 24-h excretion as measured in the pooled 24-h sample. As the volume of urine obtained in any 6-h collecting period depended on the time of sampling (06:00-12:00 h, 17.5+/-3.1% of total; 12:00-18:00 h, 31.6+/-5.1% of total; 18:00-24:00 h, 25.6+/-3.1% of total; and 0:00-06:00h, 25.3+/-2.9% of total), calculations were based on samples obtained from 18:00 to 06:00 h. The correlation between results of 3- and 24 h-collection periods was weakest, while results of the 6-h collection correlated highly with the total daily excretion (r = between 0.82 and 0.93 for the different compounds) and the correlation was only slightly better when the 12-h collection period was considered. The correlation between the mean molar substrate/creatinine ratio of all individual samples of a 24-h collecting period and the and total daily excretion of the respective substrate was weaker (r = between 0.46 and 0.76 for the different compounds) than the correlation between the results of a 6-h collecting period and the daily excretion is not as stable than in later life. The data indicate that 6-h urine sampling may be sufficient for metabolic monitoring of LBW infants. By contrast, urinary substrate/creatinine ratios are not good markers of the daily excretions of the respective

  9. Optimal Method of Collection of First-Void Urine for Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Men▿

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Craig A.; White, John A.; Michel, Claude-Edouard C.; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V.; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Barber, Penelope J.; Goh, Beng T.; Lee, Helen H.

    2008-01-01

    First-void urine (FVU) is the preferred specimen for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men. We have developed FirstBurst, a urine collection device that collects the first 4 to 5 ml of FVU and yields a specimen with a sixfold higher C. trachomatis organism load than the regular urine cup by quantitative PCR (32,533 versus 5,271 plasmids/ml; P < 0.0001). Consequently, the use of FirstBurst to collect a urine sample improved the sensitivity of a rapid test for Chlamydia over testing of samples collected with a urine cup (82 versus 47% sensitivity using PCR as a reference; P < 0.0015). PMID:18234860

  10. Home collection of urine specimens--boric acid bottles or Dipslides?

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, F E; McMaster, D J; Napier, W A; Houston, I B; Postlethwaite, R J

    1990-01-01

    Sterile mid stream specimens of urine (MSSU) were obtained from 84 children in a hospital outpatient department. All 84 children collected urine at home by one of two Dipslide methods and by collection into boric acid within 24 hours of the hospital collected MSSU. The samples collected at home were posted to the hospital. Thirty six of the Dipslides (43%) and nine of the boric acid samples (10%) were not sterile but none had a pure growth of a single organism of greater than 10(5) organisms/ml. In addition, 17 of the Dipslides (20%) were returned with one or both media detached and therefore could not be relied upon to exclude urinary tract infection. In a second part to the study, 95 urines which showed a significant growth in primary culture were also cultured after storage in boric acid. Inhibition was noted in nine samples after storage in boric acid, seven of which were in underfilled bottles. Transport of specimens in boric acid produced less contamination than Dipslides but may inhibit growth in a small number of specimens. Technical failures with Dipslides were disappointingly high. PMID:2334205

  11. Comparison of urine collection methods for albuminuria assessment in young children.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, S M; Gracchi, V; de Zeeuw, D; Heerspink, H J L

    2016-07-01

    Cotton wool or pantyliners placed in a diaper can be used as urine collection devices for albuminuria measurements in young, not continent children. We tested a new collection method (PeeSpot(R)) for its analytical performance, and compared it with the pantyliner technique. Eighty-one urine samples with a wide range of albuminuria were pipetted on the pantyliner and PeeSpot in duplicate. These were incubated for 3h at 37°C (simulating the time a toddler wears a diaper), and subsequently 72h at room temperature (simulating transport to a central laboratory). Urine was extracted by centrifugation and albumin concentration (UAc) was measured. UAC measured by the two methods was compared with UAC in an unprocessed reference aliquot stored for 75h at 4°C. Bias (mean percentage UAC difference between test and reference), precision (interquartile range of the UAC difference) and accuracy (proportion of samples within 30% of reference UAC) were calculated. Median UAC in the reference aliquot was 66.0mg/L [IQR 25.0-211.0], pantyliner 32.0mg/L [4.7-165.0; P<0.001 vs reference], and PeeSpot 61.0mg/L [27.0-216.0; P=0.84 vs reference]. Bias, precision and accuracy in pantyliner were -34.2%, 31.3mg/L and 48.1%; in PeeSpot 3.3%, 5.0mg/L and 96.3%. Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot showed an underestimation for the pantyliner but not for the PeeSpot. The PeeSpot is an accurate and precise tool for collecting urine for albumin measurement in young children and should be preferred over the alternative cotton wool collection technique. PMID:27129631

  12. A Modified Catheterization Procedure to Reduce Bladder Damage when Collecting Urine Samples from Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Tetsuo; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; SATO, Say; SEKI, Makoto; NISHIKI, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection. PMID:24561376

  13. A comparison between 24-hour and 2-hour urine collection for the determination of proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Somanathan, N; Farrell, T; Galimberti, A

    2003-07-01

    Proteinuria is one of the fundamental criteria for the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia with quantitative assessment based on the 24-hour urine protein estimation as the gold standard. This study was undertaken to determine whether a 2-hour protein estimation correlated with that of a formal 24-hour collection. Thirty women with proteinuric hypertension were recruited. There was significant correlation between the 2-hour and 24-hour urine protein levels (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.76 (P 0.000). A positive 2-hour test was associated more closely with significant levels of 24-hour proteinuria than dipstick analysis alone. We conclude from this study that a random 2-hour sample could be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria and so avoid the delay associated with 24-hour quantification of urinary protein. PMID:12881076

  14. 49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? 40.63 Section 40.63 Transportation Office... PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.63 What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the collector, you must take the following steps...

  15. Drug Use on Mont Blanc: A Study Using Automated Urine Collection

    PubMed Central

    Robach, Paul; Trebes, Gilles; Lasne, Françoise; Buisson, Corinne; Méchin, Nathalie; Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Roustit, Matthieu; Kérivel, Patricia; Botré, Francesco; Bouzat, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Mont Blanc, the summit of Western Europe, is a popular but demanding high-altitude ascent. Drug use is thought to be widespread among climbers attempting this summit, not only to prevent altitude illnesses, but also to boost physical and/or psychological capacities. This practice may be unsafe in this remote alpine environment. However, robust data on medication during the ascent of Mont Blanc are lacking. Individual urine samples from male climbers using urinals in mountain refuges on access routes to Mont Blanc (Goûter and Cosmiques mountain huts) were blindly and anonymously collected using a hidden automatic sampler. Urine samples were screened for a wide range of drugs, including diuretics, glucocorticoids, stimulants, hypnotics and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Out of 430 samples analyzed from both huts, 35.8% contained at least one drug. Diuretics (22.7%) and hypnotics (12.9%) were the most frequently detected drugs, while glucocorticoids (3.5%) and stimulants (3.1%) were less commonly detected. None of the samples contained PDE-5 inhibitors. Two substances were predominant: the diuretic acetazolamide (20.6%) and the hypnotic zolpidem (8.4%). Thirty three samples were found positive for at least two substances, the most frequent combination being acetazolamide and a hypnotic (2.1%). Based on a novel sampling technique, we demonstrate that about one third of the urine samples collected from a random sample of male climbers contained one or several drugs, suggesting frequent drug use amongst climbers ascending Mont Blanc. Our data suggest that medication primarily aims at mitigating the symptoms of altitude illnesses, rather than enhancing performance. In this hazardous environment, the relatively high prevalence of hypnotics must be highlighted, since these molecules may alter vigilance. PMID:27253728

  16. Drug Use on Mont Blanc: A Study Using Automated Urine Collection.

    PubMed

    Robach, Paul; Trebes, Gilles; Lasne, Françoise; Buisson, Corinne; Méchin, Nathalie; Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Roustit, Matthieu; Kérivel, Patricia; Botré, Francesco; Bouzat, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Mont Blanc, the summit of Western Europe, is a popular but demanding high-altitude ascent. Drug use is thought to be widespread among climbers attempting this summit, not only to prevent altitude illnesses, but also to boost physical and/or psychological capacities. This practice may be unsafe in this remote alpine environment. However, robust data on medication during the ascent of Mont Blanc are lacking. Individual urine samples from male climbers using urinals in mountain refuges on access routes to Mont Blanc (Goûter and Cosmiques mountain huts) were blindly and anonymously collected using a hidden automatic sampler. Urine samples were screened for a wide range of drugs, including diuretics, glucocorticoids, stimulants, hypnotics and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Out of 430 samples analyzed from both huts, 35.8% contained at least one drug. Diuretics (22.7%) and hypnotics (12.9%) were the most frequently detected drugs, while glucocorticoids (3.5%) and stimulants (3.1%) were less commonly detected. None of the samples contained PDE-5 inhibitors. Two substances were predominant: the diuretic acetazolamide (20.6%) and the hypnotic zolpidem (8.4%). Thirty three samples were found positive for at least two substances, the most frequent combination being acetazolamide and a hypnotic (2.1%). Based on a novel sampling technique, we demonstrate that about one third of the urine samples collected from a random sample of male climbers contained one or several drugs, suggesting frequent drug use amongst climbers ascending Mont Blanc. Our data suggest that medication primarily aims at mitigating the symptoms of altitude illnesses, rather than enhancing performance. In this hazardous environment, the relatively high prevalence of hypnotics must be highlighted, since these molecules may alter vigilance. PMID:27253728

  17. Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals

    PubMed Central

    Danish, Lisa Michelle; Heistermann, Michael; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in non-invasively collected samples have opened up new and exciting opportunities for wildlife research. Different types of samples, however, involve different limitations and certain physiological markers (e.g., C-peptide, oxytocin) can only be reliably measured from urine. Common collection methods for urine to date work best for arboreal animals and large volumes of urine. Sufficient recovery of urine is thus still difficult for wildlife biologists, particularly for terrestrial and small bodied animals. We tested three collection devices (two commercially available saliva swabs, Salivette synthetic and cotton, and cotton First aid swabs) against a control to permit the collection of small volumes of urine from the ground. We collected urine samples from captive and wild macaques, and humans, measured volume recovery, and analyzed concentrates of selected physiological markers (creatinine, C-peptide, and neopterin). The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices. Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it. Fluid recovery was also best for this device. The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control. In addition, these concentrations were either not or weakly correlated to the control. The Salivette cotton device provided intermediate results, although these concentrations were strongly correlated to the control. Salivette synthetic swabs seem to be useful devices for the collection of small amounts of urine from the ground destined for the assessment of physiological parameters. They thus provide new

  18. Accuracy and Usefulness of Select Methods for Assessing Complete Collection of 24-Hour Urine: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Campbell, Norm R; Nowson, Caryl A; Legetic, Branka; Hennis, Anselm J M; Patel, Sheena M

    2016-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collection is the recommended method for estimating sodium intake. To investigate the strengths and limitations of methods used to assess completion of 24-hour urine collection, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on the accuracy and usefulness of methods vs para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) recovery (referent). The percentage of incomplete collections, based on PABA, was 6% to 47% (n=8 studies). The sensitivity and specificity for identifying incomplete collection using creatinine criteria (n=4 studies) was 6% to 63% and 57% to 99.7%, respectively. The most sensitive method for removing incomplete collections was a creatinine index <0.7. In pooled analysis (≥2 studies), mean urine creatinine excretion and volume were higher among participants with complete collection (P<.05); whereas, self-reported collection time did not differ by completion status. Compared with participants with incomplete collection, mean 24-hour sodium excretion was 19.6 mmol higher (n=1781 specimens, 5 studies) in patients with complete collection. Sodium excretion may be underestimated by inclusion of incomplete 24-hour urine collections. None of the current approaches reliably assess completion of 24-hour urine collection. PMID:26726000

  19. Complementary nutrient effects of separately collected human faeces and urine on the yield and nutrient uptake of spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Kutu, Funso R; Muchaonyerwa, Pardon; Mnkeni, Pearson N S

    2011-05-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined use of separately collected human faeces and urine as fertilizer for spinach (Spinacia oleracea) production. Seven human faeces N : urine N combinations (1 : 7 to 7 : 1) each supplying 200 kg N ha(-1) were evaluated along with sole human faeces, sole urine, inorganic fertilizer and an unamended control. Complementary application of the two resources, human faeces and urine, increased fresh and dry matter yields only in treatments having high proportions of urine. Nitrogen uptake followed the same trend but the opposite trend occurred for P uptake indicating that urine was a better source of N whereas human faeces were the better source of P. Potassium uptake was not influenced by the two resources. The minimal improvement observed in the fertilizer value of human faeces when co-applied with urine suggested that co-application of the two resources may not give an added yield advantage when compared with sole human faeces. PMID:20601403

  20. Plasma Levels of Middle Molecules to Estimate Residual Kidney Function in Haemodialysis without Urine Collection

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Enric; Boltiador, Capella; Wong, Jonathan; Viljoen, Adie; Machado, Ashwini; Uthayakumar, Arani; Farrington, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background Residual Kidney Function (RKF) is associated with survival benefits in haemodialysis (HD) but is difficult to measure without urine collection. Middle molecules such as Cystatin C and β2-microglobulin accumulate in renal disease and plasma levels have been used to estimate kidney function early in this condition. We investigated their use to estimate RKF in patients on HD. Design Cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, urea and creatinine levels were studied in patients on incremental high-flux HD or hemodiafiltration(HDF). Over sequential HD sessions, blood was sampled pre- and post-session 1 and pre-session 2, for estimation of these parameters. Urine was collected during the whole interdialytic interval, for estimation of residual GFR (GFRResidual = mean of urea and creatinine clearance). The relationships of plasma Cystatin C and β2-microglobulin levels to GFRResidual and urea clearance were determined. Results Of the 341 patients studied, 64% had urine output>100ml/day, 32.6% were on high-flux HD and 67.4% on HDF. Parameters most closely correlated with GFRResidual were 1/β2-micoglobulin (r2 0.67) and 1/Cystatin C (r2 0.50). Both these relationships were weaker at low GFRResidual. The best regression model for GFRResidual, explaining 67% of the variation, was: GFRResidual=160.3⋅(1β2m)−4.2 Where β2m is the pre-dialysis β2 microglobulin concentration (mg/L). This model was validated in a separate cohort of 50 patients using Bland-Altman analysis. Areas under the curve in Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis aimed at identifying subjects with urea clearance≥2ml/min/1.73m2 was 0.91 for β2-microglobulin and 0.86 for Cystatin C. A plasma β2-microglobulin cut-off of ≤19.2mg/L allowed identification of patients with urea clearance ≥2ml/min/1.73m2 with 90% specificity and 65% sensitivity. Conclusion Plasma pre-dialysis β2-microglobulin levels can provide estimates of RKF which may have clinical utility and appear superior to cystatin C. Use

  1. Non-invasive urine collection in the female southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) with the aid of classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Swinbourne, Alyce M; Janssen, Tina; Phillips, Clive J C; Johnston, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    We propose that regular urine samples can be used to monitor and characterize the reproductive cycle of the wombat, but this approach has never before been attempted in a marsupial. We conducted a three stage conditioning process for non-invasive urine collection in captive female wombats, which included (1) initial habituation and observation of urination patterns; (2) classical association of a stimulus with urination and (3) urine collection with the classically-conditioned stimulus. Four of the five female wombats selected for this trial were successfully conditioned for urine collection. During stage 2, the animals urinated in response to tactile stimulation 96 times from 208 attempts (46%). In stage 3, urine was successfully collected 399 times from 485 attempts (82%), with the majority of samples being collected in the morning (280/388). Hand-raised females that were previously conditioned for toileting purposes as pouch young responded more rapidly to the stimulus than juvenile females with no prior conditioning. This study is the first description of a successful method of urine collection by classical conditioning in a marsupial. PMID:25201777

  2. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture. PMID:27233427

  3. Identifying new cannabis use with urine creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentrations and time intervals between specimen collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2009-05-01

    A previously recommended method for detecting new cannabis use with creatinine-normalized 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) urine concentrations in periodically collected specimens for treatment, workplace and judicial drug testing applications is refined by considering the time interval between urine collections. All urine specimens were collected from six less-than-daily cannabis users who smoked placebo, 1.75%, and 3.55% THC cigarettes in randomized order, each separated by one week. Ratios (n = 24,322) were calculated by dividing each creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentration (U2) by that of a previously collected specimen (U1). Maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios with 15 and 6 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentrations, with and without new use between specimens, were calculated for each 24-h interval after smoking up to 168 h and are included in tables. These ratios decreased with increasing interval between collections providing improved decision values for determining new cannabis use. For example, with a 15 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentration and no new use between specimens, the maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios were 3.05, 1.59, and 0.686, respectively, when the collection interval was

  4. 49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What steps does the collector take in the... PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.63 What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the collector, you must take the following steps...

  5. 49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What steps does the collector take in the... PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.63 What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the collector, you must take the following steps...

  6. 49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What steps does the collector take in the... PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.63 What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the collector, you must take the following steps...

  7. 49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What steps does the collector take in the... PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.63 What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the collector, you must take the following steps...

  8. Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Marui, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family. PMID:26965760

  9. Energy expenditures in four men estimated by D/sub 2/ /sup 18/O method at two times. II. From once daily samples of urine or breath

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, C.W.; Seale, J.L.; Collins, J.S.; Barnes, R.; Canary, J.J.; Bodwell, C.E.

    1986-03-01

    To make the doubly labelled water method for determining energy expenditure more applicable in a free-living population, collection of a single daily urine or breath sample would have advantages compared to a 24-hr urine collection. Coward et al. reported the use of a single daily urine sample. In the previously described study, a single urine collection and a fasting morning breath sample were collected from four men during two 21-day periods (fall, F, spring, S) while maintaining their body wts. on controlled diets (20% calories from protein, 40% from fat, 60% from CHO (F); 20% protein, 20% fat, 60% CHO (S)). Urine and breath samples were analyzed to determine disappearance rates of D and /sup 18/O for up to 21 days. Values were compared with metabolizable energy intake levels (EI), with or without corrections for estimated changes in body composition assessed by several methods. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the single daily urine sample values may overestimate and values from the fasting breath samples may underestimate energy expenditure compared to EI.

  10. Palmtop-assisted self-interviewing for the collection of sensitive behavioral data: randomized trial with drug use urine testing.

    PubMed

    van Griensven, Frits; Naorat, Sataphana; Kilmarx, Peter H; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Jenkins, Richard A; Uthaivoravit, Wat; Wasinrapee, Punneporn; Mock, Philip A; Tappero, Jordan W

    2006-02-01

    Palmtop-assisted self-interviewing (PASI) may provide a cheaper and more mobile alternative to audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) for collecting sensitive behavioral data. To evaluate PASI, in late 2002 the authors enrolled 1,283 Thai students aged 15-21 years in a randomized trial. Data collection used PASI, ACASI, self-administered questionnaire, and face-to-face interview in combination with drug-use urine testing. By use of reported levels of behaviors and agreement between self-reports of smoking and urine test results, PASI and ACASI (alpha = 0.05) were compared for noninferiority, and PASI and interview were compared for superiority (alpha = 0.05). Noninferiority of PASI was demonstrated by use of self-reports of the most sensitive areas of sexual behavior (e.g., oral sex, sexual intercourse, commercial sex, history of genital ulcers, pregnancy), as well as self-reports of less sensitive behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, dietary behaviors, symptoms of depression). Data generally showed noninferiority of PASI, ACASI, and self-administered questionnaires when compared with each other and superiority of PASI, ACASI, and self-administered questionnaires when compared with interviews. PASI agreements between self-reports of tobacco smoking and presence of nicotine metabolites in urine were noninferior to ACASI and superior to interviews. The establishment of PASI noninferiority and superiority using behavioral and biologic measures suggests that PASI is a scientifically acceptable alternative for collecting sensitive behavioral data. PMID:16357109

  11. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MARKERS:BLOOD AND URINE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES (EOHSI-AP-209-040)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure describes the process for collecting and analyzing blood and urine samples. The presence of chemical contaminants in biological specimens such as blood, urine, and hair represent a measure of the internal dose or body burden for a given individual derived from the ...

  12. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients. PMID:25198158

  13. Urea nitrogen urine test

    MedlinePlus

    A 24-hour urine sample is often needed. You will need to collect your urine over 24 hours . Your health care provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly to ensure accurate results.

  14. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The urine sample can also be collected during cystoscopy . During this procedure, your provider uses a thin, ... discomfort with a clean catch urine specimen. During cystoscopy, there may be slight discomfort when the scope ...

  15. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...

  16. Pink urine.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  17. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. A small amount of urine ...

  18. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may be due to: Liver cancer Hepatitis Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) Alternative Names Urine uroporphyrin; Urine ... More Delta-ALA urine test Enzyme Hemoglobin Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma PBG urine test Porphyria ...

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND CREATININE ANALYSIS (F10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples for metal, pesticides, and creatinine analysis. Samples were collected on Days 2 and 8 of each Cycle. The Day 2 sample was analyzed for metals and creatinine. The Day 8...

  20. The QuickWee trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation to hasten non-invasive urine collection from infants

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Jonathan; Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tosif, Shidan; Hopper, Sandy M; Bryant, Penelope A; Donath, Susan M; Babl, Franz E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children. Urine sample collection is required to diagnose or exclude UTI; however, current collection methods for pre-continent children all have limitations and guidelines vary. Clean catch urine (CCU) collection is a common and favoured non-invasive collection method, despite its high contamination rates and time-consuming nature. This study aims to establish whether gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold fluid-soaked gauze can improve the rate of voiding for CCU within 5 min in young pre-continent children. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised controlled trial of 354 infants (aged 1–12 months) who require urine sample collection, conducted in a single emergency department in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. After standard urogenital cleaning, patients will be randomised to either a novel technique of suprapubic cutaneous stimulation using cold saline-soaked gauze in circular motions or no stimulation. The study period is 5 min, after which care is determined by the treating clinician if a urine sample has not been collected. Primary outcome: whether the child voids within 5 min (yes/no). Secondary outcomes: parental and clinician satisfaction with the method, success in catching a urine sample if the child voids, and sample contamination rates. This trial will allow the definitive assessment of this novel technique, gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold saline-soaked gauze, and its utility to hasten non-invasive urine collection in infants. Ethics and dissemination The study has hospital ethics approval and is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12615000754549. The results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000754549; Pre-results. PMID:27515752

  1. Urine odor

    MedlinePlus

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...

  2. 49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used...://www.workplace.samhsa.gov). (b) You must not use a non-Federal form or an expired CCF to conduct a DOT... laboratory. (e) As an employer, you may use an equivalent foreign-language version of the CCF approved...

  3. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  4. No Effect of Route of Exposure (Oral; Subcutaneous Injection) on Plasma Bisphenol A throughout 24 hr after Administration in Neonatal Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julia A.; Welshons, Wade V.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2008-01-01

    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24 hr after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration. PMID:18295446

  5. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  6. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... or osmolality, your provider will send your urine sample to a lab. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate.

  7. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a color-sensitive pad. The color the dipstick changes to tells the provider the level of glucose in your urine. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do ...

  8. COMPARISON OF TWO α2-ADRENERGIC AGONISTS ON URINE CONTAMINATION OF SEMEN COLLECTED BY ELECTROEJACULATION IN CAPTIVE AND SEMI-FREE-RANGING CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Marrow, Judilee C; Woc-Colburn, Margarita; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Marker, Laurie; Murray, Suzan

    2015-06-01

    Alpha2-adrenergic agonists are used to immobilize many veterinary species, but use has been infrequently linked to urine contamination of semen collected via electroejaculation. The objective of the study was to compare the α2-agonists medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on urine contamination of semen in anesthetized cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) during electroejaculation procedures. From 2009-2012, a retrospective medical record review revealed 21 anesthesia events in 12 adult male cheetahs. Animals were immobilized with combinations of Telazol® (2.33±0.43 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.38±1 mg/kg); Telazol (1.17±0.14 mg/kg), ketamine (1.17±0.14 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.012±0.0017 mg/kg); or Telazol (1.59±0.1 mg/kg), ketamine (1.59±0.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (0.01±0.001 mg/kg). Semen was successfully collected in all animals; four animals anesthetized with medetomidine had urine contamination (P=0.037). Medetomidine may contribute to urine contamination; however, further investigation is needed to determine significance in cheetahs. PMID:26056908

  9. Strategy for NMR metabolomic analysis of urine in mouse models of obesity--from sample collection to interpretation of acquired data.

    PubMed

    Pelantová, Helena; Bugáňová, Martina; Anýž, Jiří; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Novák, Daniel; Haluzík, Martin; Kuzma, Marek

    2015-11-10

    The mouse model of monosodium glutamate induced obesity was used to examine and consequently optimize the strategy for analysis of urine samples by NMR spectroscopy. A set of nineteen easily detectable metabolites typical in obesity-related studies was selected. The impact of urine collection protocol, choice of (1)H NMR pulse sequence, and finally the impact of the normalization method on the detected concentration of selected metabolites were investigated. We demonstrated the crucial effect of food intake and diurnal rhythms resulting in the choice of a 24-hour fasting collection protocol as the most convenient for tracking obesity-induced increased sensitivity to fasting. It was shown that the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment is a better alternative to one-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (1D-NOESY) for NMR analysis of mouse urine due to its ability to filter undesirable signals of proteins naturally present in rodent urine. Normalization to total spectral area provided comparable outcomes as did normalization to creatinine or probabilistic quotient normalization in the CPMG-based model. The optimized approach was found to be beneficial mainly for low abundant metabolites rarely monitored due to their overlap by strong protein signals. PMID:26263053

  10. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M.; Steven, Kenneth; Larsen, Louise K.; Guldberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM). In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%), including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%). In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%). Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer. PMID:26151138

  11. Determination of Parent and Hydroxy PAHs in Personal PM2.5 and Urine Samples Collected During Native American Fish Smoking Activities

    PubMed Central

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Stone, David; Kile, Molly; Sudakin, Daniel; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5 um in diameter (PM2.5) using GC-MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker’s Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker’s Urine). The method was used to measure PAHs and OH-PAHs in urine and personal PM2.5 samples collected from the operators of two different fish smoking facilities (tipi and smoke shed) burning two different wood types (alder and apple) on the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) while they smoked salmon. Urine samples were spiked with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase to hydrolyze the conjugates of OH-PAHs and the PAHs and OH-PAHs were extracted using Plexa and C18 solid phases, in series. The 34OH-PAHs were derivatized using MTBSTFA, and the mixture was measured by GC-MS. The personal PM2.5samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, derivatized with MTBSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS for PAHs and OH-PAHs. Fourteen isotopically labeled surrogates were added to accurately quantify PAHs and OH-PAHs in the urine and PM2.5 samples and three isotopically labeled internal standards were used to calculate the recovery of the surrogates. Estimated detection limits in urine ranged from 6.0 to 181 pg/ml for OH-PAHs and from 3.0 to 90 pg/ml for PAHs, and, in PM2.5, they ranged from 5.2 to 155 pg/m3 for OH-PAHs and from 2.5 to 77 pg/m3 for PAHs. The results showed an increase in OH-PAH concentrations in urine after 6 hours offish smoking and an increase in PAH concentrations in air within each smoking facility. In general, the PAH exposure in the smoke shed was higher than in the tipi and the PAH exposure from burning apple wood was higher than burning alder. PMID:25461072

  12. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the urine can result from: Amyloidosis Leukemia Multiple myeloma Kidney disorders such as IgA nephropathy or IgM ... CLL) IgA nephropathy Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Multiple myeloma Protein electrophoresis - urine Protein urine test Urinalysis Update ...

  13. Widespread occurrence of perchlorate in water, foodstuffs and human urine collected from Kuwait and its contribution to human exposure.

    PubMed

    Alomirah, Husam F; Al-Zenki, Sameer F; Alaswad, Marivi C; Alruwaih, Noor A; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-06-01

    Perchlorate is a thyroid hormone-disrupting compound and is reported to occur widely in the environment. Little is known on human exposure to perchlorate in Kuwait. In this study, 218 water samples, 618 commonly consumed foodstuffs and 532 urine samples collected from Kuwait were analysed to assess the exposure of the Kuwaiti population to perchlorate. For the estimation of daily intake of perchlorate, food consumption rates were obtained from the National Nutrition Survey in the State of Kuwait (NNSSK). The results showed that leafy vegetables accounted for a major share of perchlorate exposure among the Kuwaiti population at 0.062 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) (36.2%), followed by fruits at 0.026 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) (15.3%) and non-leafy vegetables at 0.017 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) (10.1%). The urinary perchlorate geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranged from 8.51 to 17.1 µg l(-)(1) for the five age groups, which were higher than those reported in other countries. The estimated urinary perchlorate exposure for the Kuwaiti general population was 0.42 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1), which was higher than that reported for the United States. The dietary intake of perchlorate for the Kuwaiti population ranged from 0.14 to 0.67 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) for the five age groups, with a mean total daily intake of 0.17 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) for the general population. The highest estimated dietary mean daily intake of perchlorate (0.67 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1)) was found for children at 3-5 years. The estimated dietary perchlorate exposure in Kuwait is higher than the recommended mean reference dose (RfD) but lower than that of provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). PMID:27248576

  14. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  15. Evaluation of the Bladder Stimulation Technique to Collect Midstream Urine in Infants in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Antoine; Demonchy, Diane; Caci, Hervé; Desmontils, Jonathan; Montaudie-Dumas, Isabelle; Bensaïd, Ronny; Haas, Hervé; Berard, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Midstream clean-catch urine is an accepted method to diagnose urinary tract infection but is impracticable in infants before potty training. We tested the bladder stimulation technique to obtain a clean-catch urine sample in infants. Materials and methods We included 142 infants under walking age who required a urine sample in a cross- sectional study carried out during a 3-months period, from September to November 2014, in the emergency department of the University Children’s Hospital of Nice (France). A technique based on bladder stimulation and lumbar stimulation maneuvers, with at least two attempts, was tested by four trained physicians. The success rate and time to obtain urine sample within 3 minutes were evaluated. Discomfort (EVENDOL score ≥4/15) was measured. We estimated the risk factors in the failure of the technique. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare frequencies. T-test and Wilcoxon test were used to compare quantitative data according to the normality of the distribution. Risk factors for failure of the technique were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results We obtained midstream clean-catch urine in 55.6% of infants with a median time of 52.0 s (10.0; 110.0). The success rate decreased with age from 88.9% (newborn) to 28.6% (>1 y) (p = 0.0001) and with weight, from 85.7% (<4kg) to 28.6% (>10kg) (p = 0.0004). The success rate was 60.8% for infants without discomfort (p<0.0001). Heavy weight and discomfort were associated with failure, with adjusted ORs of 1.47 [1.04–2.31] and 6.65 [2.85–15.54], respectively. Conclusion Bladder stimulation seems to be efficient in obtaining midstream urine with a moderate success rate in our study sample. This could be an alternative technique for infants before potty training but further randomized multicenter studies are needed to validate this procedure. PMID:27031953

  16. The effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance during LBNP and standing after 24-hr head-down bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Fortney, S. M.; Ford, S. R.; Charles, J. B.; Ward, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    Shuttle astronauts currently drink approximately a quart of water with eight salt tablets before reentry to restore lost body fluid and thereby reduce the likelihood of cardiovascular instability and syncope during reentry and after landing. However, the saline loading countermeasure is not entirely effective in restoring orthostatic tolerance to preflight levels. We tested the hypothesis that the effectiveness of this countermeasure could be improved with the use of a vasopressin analog, 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP). The rationale for this approach is that reducing urine formation with exogenous vasopressin should increase the magnitude and duration of the vascular volume expansion produced by the saline load, and in so doing improve orthostatic tolerance during reentry and postflight.

  17. Immunofixation - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to supply a clean-catch (midstream) urine sample. Clean the area around where urine leaves the body. Men or boys should wipe the head of the penis. Women or girls should wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. Allow a small amount to ...

  18. 6-sulfatoxymelatonin collected from infant diapers: feasibility and implications for urinary biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility and acceptability of using a diaper pad for collection of in-home infant urinary samples and to test the accuracy of diaper pad extraction for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and creatinine, which was used to correct assay results for urinary volume. To assess feasibility and acceptability, urine samples from 20 infants were collected over a 24-hr day using a cotton pad inserted in the diaper. The accuracy of diaper pad extraction was evaluated in the laboratory using urine samples collected from 11 adult volunteers and assayed using enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA). Urine samples were divided, one aliquot was assayed without extraction, and one aliquot was instilled into a diaper pad, extracted, and assayed. Mothers found diaper pad collection acceptable and easy to perform. Of 144 infant urinary samples obtained in the home environment, 59% were usable for assay purposes, and the remaining either were contaminated with stool or were of insufficient volume. While creatinine values from diaper pad extracted and nonextracted samples were highly correlated (r(2) = .947), those of creatinine-corrected 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were not (r(2) = .216). Diaper pad collection procedures altered 6-sulfatoxymelatonin values. Implications for measurement of urinary biochemical substances and statistical analysis are discussed. PMID:19502239

  19. Excretion of malondialdehyde, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in the urine of rats following acute and chronic administration of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Moser, J; Bagchi, D; Akubue, P I; Stohs, S J

    1993-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that xenobiotics which induce oxidative stress result in an increased production and excretion of acetaldehyde (ACT), formaldehyde (FA), acetone (ACON) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the urine of rats. We have therefore examined the effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration on the excretion of these four lipid metabolites in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Urine samples were collected over dry ice for 6 hr time periods. Aliquots of urine were derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine HCl, and extracted with n-pentane. High pressure lipid chromatogrpahy (HPLC) was used to quantitate and the hydrazones of the four lipid metabolite products. Following a single, oral, acute dose of 5 g ethanol/kg, urinary excretion of ACT increased approximately 5.8-fold from 6 to 12 hr posttreatment, and decreased thereafter. FA excretion decreased by approximately 50% from 0 to 12 hr, returned to control values in the 18-24 hr urine samples, and was 1.3-fold greater than control values at 42-48 hr. ACON increased 3.1-fold over control values from 0 to 30 hr and remained elevated throughout the remaining 18 hr of the study. The excretion of MDA increased approximately 1.5-fold from 18 to 36 hr, then remained constant through the 48 hr time point. In a separate series of experiments, a chronic oral dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg was administered to rats for 10 consecutive days and the urinary excretion of the lipid metabolites MDA, FA, ACT and ACON was examined for 11 days, beginning with the first day of ethanol administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8352840

  20. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  1. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Update Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  2. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... very strong. After birth For the first few days after delivery, you may urinate even more often ...

  3. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Urination ...

  4. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  5. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... or gallbladder Considerations Bilirubin can break down in light. That is why babies with jaundice are sometimes placed under blue fluorescent lamps. Alternative Names Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - ...

  6. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  7. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  8. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  9. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... use a multi-stall restroom, you must either— (i) Secure all sources of water and other substances that... agent in all toilets or secure the toilets to prevent access; or (ii) Conduct all collections in...

  10. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  11. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  12. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  13. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine specimen. A urine collection bag with adhesive tape on one end might instead be used ... Infants may occasionally experience skin irritation from the adhesive tape on the collection bag. If a catheterized ...

  14. Urinal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Hacking, Kip; Haymore, Benjamin; Truscott, Tadd; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In response to harsh and repeated criticisms from our mothers and several failed relationships with women, we present the splash dynamics of a simulated human male urine stream impacting rigid and free surfaces. Our study aims to reduce undesired splashing that may result from lavatory usage. Experiments are performed at a pressure and flow rate that would be expected from healthy male subjects. For a rigid surface, the effects of stream breakup and surface impact angle on lateral and vertical droplet ejection distances are measured using high-speed photography and image processing. For free surface impact, the effects of velocity and fluid depth on droplet ejection distances are measured. Guided by our results, techniques for splash reduction are proposed.

  15. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  16. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  17. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ... conditions or surgeries that could affect your urine flow? What medicines do you take? Tests that may ...

  18. 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid influence on 2,6-dinitrotoluene-induced urine genotoxicity in Fischer 344 rats: effect on gastrointestinal microflora and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    George, S E; Chadwick, R W; Chang, J J; Kohan, M J; Allison, J C; Dekker, J P; Hayes, Y

    1992-02-01

    2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) are hazardous chemicals that have potential harmful effects. 2,6-DNT is recognized as a hepatotoxicant while 2,4,5-T, a component of Agent Orange, is also suspect. 2,6-DNT requires both oxidative and reductive metabolism to elicit genotoxic effects. To determine what effect 2,4,5-T had on 2,6-DNT metabolism, intestinal enzymes, microbial populations, and urine mutagenicity were examined during 2,4,5-T treatment. Weanling Fischer 344 male rats were treated daily with 54.4 mg/kg 2,4,5-T by gavage for 4 weeks. One, two, and four weeks after the initial 2,4,5-T dose, rats were administered (po) 2,6-DNT (75 mg/kg) and urine was collected for 24 hr in metabolism cages. Azo reductase, nitroreductase, beta-glucuronidase, dechlorinase, and dehydrochlorinase activities were examined concurrently. Treatment of rats for 1 week reduced the transformation of 2,6-DNT to mutagenic urinary metabolites. This was accompanied by a decrease in the fecal anaerobic microorganisms. The elimination of Lactobacillus fermentum from the small intestine and cecum of treated animals accompanied a significant increase in oxygen-tolerant lactobacilli and other unidentified aerobic microorganisms. However, there were no significant alterations in the intestinal enzyme activities examined. By 2 weeks of 2,4,5-T treatment, microbiota and urine genotoxicity returned to the levels observed in control animals. This trend continued for the duration of the experiment. After 2 weeks, while cecal nitroreductase and azo reductase activities increased, small intestinal beta-glucuronidase activity decreased. By 4 weeks, treated and untreated animal intestinal enzyme activities were indistinguishable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1601224

  19. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  20. [The Bourdaloue urinal in all its forms].

    PubMed

    Mathieu, F

    1996-01-01

    The author draws the attention of his urologist as well as nonurologist colleagues to the "Bourdaloue" urinal describing its dual aspect of a utilitarian and artistic object. A rapid study situates it in its particular historical context and in the more general context of urine collection bottles. PMID:8924944

  1. The Characterization of Feces and Urine: A Review of the Literature to Inform Advanced Treatment Technology

    PubMed Central

    Rose, C.; Parker, A.; Jefferson, B.; Cartmell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The safe disposal of human excreta is of paramount importance for the health and welfare of populations living in low income countries as well as the prevention of pollution to the surrounding environment. On-site sanitation (OSS) systems are the most numerous means of treating excreta in low income countries, these facilities aim at treating human waste at source and can provide a hygienic and affordable method of waste disposal. However, current OSS systems need improvement and require further research and development. Development of OSS facilities that treat excreta at, or close to, its source require knowledge of the waste stream entering the system. Data regarding the generation rate and the chemical and physical composition of fresh feces and urine was collected from the medical literature as well as the treatability sector. The data were summarized and statistical analysis was used to quantify the major factors that were a significant cause of variability. The impact of this data on biological processes, thermal processes, physical separators, and chemical processes was then assessed. Results showed that the median fecal wet mass production was 128 g/cap/day, with a median dry mass of 29 g/cap/day. Fecal output in healthy individuals was 1.20 defecations per 24 hr period and the main factor affecting fecal mass was the fiber intake of the population. Fecal wet mass values were increased by a factor of 2 in low income countries (high fiber intakes) in comparison to values found in high income countries (low fiber intakes). Feces had a median pH of 6.64 and were composed of 74.6% water. Bacterial biomass is the major component (25–54% of dry solids) of the organic fraction of the feces. Undigested carbohydrate, fiber, protein, and fat comprise the remainder and the amounts depend on diet and diarrhea prevalence in the population. The inorganic component of the feces is primarily undigested dietary elements that also depend on dietary supply. Median urine

  2. Quantitation of proteinuria by spot urine sampling.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Indira; Kirubakaran, Chellam; Markandeyulu; Selvakumar

    2004-07-01

    Few studies have shown that calculation of protein/creatinine ratio in a spot urine sample correlates well with the 24-hour urine collection. A study was conducted to compare the accuracy of a spot urinary protein/creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) and urinary dipstick (albustix) with the 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP). Fifty samples from 26 patients were collected. This included a 24-hour urine sample followed by the next voided spot sample. The protein/creatinine ratio was calculated and dipstick (albustix) was performed on the spot sample. This was compared with the 24-hour urine protein excretion. The correlation between the three samples was statistically highly significant (p=<0.001) for all levels of proteinuria. The normal value of protein/creatinine ratio in Indian children was also estimated on 100 normal children attending the OPD and was calculated to be 0.053 (S.E of mean±0.003). PMID:23105455

  3. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  4. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine. This may mean you have a urinary tract infection . If this test is positive, the urine should ... Results Mean An abnormal result indicates a possible urinary tract infection. Alternative Names WBC esterase Images Male urinary system ...

  5. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... can take to care for yourself include: Keep track of your urination patterns and bring the report ... Medical Professional Call your provider if you notice urinary hesitancy, dribbling, or a weak urine stream. Call ...

  6. RBC urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 red blood cells per high power field (RBC/HPF) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above ...

  7. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  8. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid (dehydration) Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Severe emotional stress Strenuous exercise Urinary tract infection

  9. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... test results: Dehydration Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Emotional stress Heavy exercise Urinary tract infection

  10. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  11. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), ... wall repair Inflatable artificial sphincter Radical prostatectomy Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence - injectable implant ...

  12. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested in the lab. This is called a random urine sample. If needed, your health care provider ... For a random urine sample, a negative test result is considered normal. If the test is done on a 24-hour ...

  13. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  14. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen bottles, hereinafter referred to as Bottle A and Bottle B, the collector shall take the following steps: (1) The... urine specimen. The collector shall pour 30 mL of urine into Bottle A and a minimum of 15 mL of...

  15. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen bottles, hereinafter referred to as Bottle A and Bottle B, the collector shall take the following steps: (1) The... urine specimen. The collector shall pour 30 mL of urine into Bottle A and a minimum of 15 mL of...

  16. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  17. 49 CFR 40.43 - What steps must operators of collection sites take to protect the security and integrity of urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Collectors and operators of collection sites must take the steps listed in this section to prevent unauthorized access that could compromise the integrity of collections. (b) As a collector, you must do the... or hospital examining room, you must, as a collector, also ensure before the collection that:...

  18. 49 CFR 40.43 - What steps must operators of collection sites take to protect the security and integrity of urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Collectors and operators of collection sites must take the steps listed in this section to prevent unauthorized access that could compromise the integrity of collections. (b) As a collector, you must do the... or hospital examining room, you must, as a collector, also ensure before the collection that:...

  19. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  20. Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.

    PubMed

    Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role. PMID:24292466

  1. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; R, Kannan; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  2. 17-Ketosteroids urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 34. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Metyrapone (cortisol) - 24-hour urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . ...

  3. The Urinal Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranakis, Evangelos; Krizanc, Danny

    A man walks into a men's room and observes n empty urinals. Which urinal should he pick so as to maximize his chances of maintaining privacy, i.e., minimize the chance that someone will occupy a urinal beside him? In this paper, we attempt to answer this question under a variety of models for standard men's room behavior. Our results suggest that for the most part one should probably choose the urinal furthest from the door (with some interesting exceptions). We also suggest a number of variations on the problem that lead to many open problems.

  4. Gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow.

    PubMed

    Steele, J E; Skarlatos, S; Brand, P H; Metting, P J; Britton, S L

    1993-10-01

    The rate of urine formation is a primary index of renal function, but no techniques are currently available to accurately measure low rates of urine flow on a continuous basis, such as are normally found in rats. We developed a gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow in anesthetized rats. Catheters were inserted directly into the ureters close to the renal pelves, and a siphon was created to collect all of the urine formed as rapidly as it was produced. Urine flow was determined by measuring the weight of the urine using a direct-reading analytical balance interfaced to a computer. Basal urine flow was measured at 2-sec intervals for 30 to 60 min. The dynamic response of urine flow to a rapid decrease in arterial pressure produced by a bolus intravenous injection of acetylcholine (0.5 micrograms) was also measured. Intrinsic drift, evaporative losses, and the responsiveness of the system to several fixed pump flows in the low physiologic range were evaluated in vitro. The gravimetric method described was able to continuously measure basal urine flows that averaged 37.3 +/- 12.4 microliters/min. Error due to drift and evaporation was negligible, totaling less than 1% of the measured urine flow. Acetylcholine-induced declines in arterial pressure were followed within 8 sec by a decline in urine flow. These data demonstrate that this new gravimetric method provides a simple, inexpensive, dynamic measurement of urine flow in the microliter/min range. PMID:8372099

  5. Osmolality urine - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... midstream) urine sample. To obtain a clean-catch sample, men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, ...

  6. [Urine analysis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schlembach, D

    2006-09-01

    Beside prevention routine antenatal care involves screening examinations for early diagnosis and therapy of pregnancy associated complications. Antenatal care guidelines recommend physical and especially vaginal examination, ultrasonographic evaluation, laboratory examinations, but also urine analysis. The commonly used urine analysis by dipstick can provide information on urinary tract infections, glucosuria and proteinuria. While the estimation of glucosuria has been found to be of no use for the detection of gestational diabetes and therefore is not recommended as a screening method for this disorder, urine analysis by dipstick or culture for bacteriuria or urinary tract infection followed by an antibiotic treatment is able to reduce maternal and neonatal complications. The most important role for urine analysis is the detection of proteinuria by routine dipstick examination and the quantification of proteinuria by 24 hour urin sampling in women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, especially in preeclampsia. PMID:17048173

  7. β3-Adrenoreceptors in the thick ascending limb of Henle and in principal cells of the collecting duct work to concentrate urine.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G

    2016-09-01

    β3-Adrenoreceptors and their importance to increase sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle and to increase water reabsorption in principal cells of the collecting duct are, for the first time, described here. This is an integrated brain response to dehydration perceived by osmosensitive cells in the hypothalamus and triggering through vasopressin axonal and dendritic release a coordinated response implicating vasopressin V2 receptors and β3-adrenoreceptors on the luminal membrane of cortical collecting duct cells. PMID:27521107

  8. Forgotten hardware: how to urinate in a spacesuit.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Hunter

    2013-06-01

    On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly in space. Although National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discounted the need for him to urinate, Shepard did, in his spacesuit, short circuiting his electronic biosensors. With the development of the pressure suit needed for high-altitude and space flight during the 1950s, technicians had developed the means for urine collection. However, cultural mores, combined with a lack of interagency communication, and the technical difficulties of spaceflight made human waste collection a difficult task. Despite the difficulties, technicians at NASA created a successful urine collection device that John Glenn wore on the first Mercury orbital flight on February 20, 1962. With minor modifications, male astronauts used this system to collect urine until the Space Shuttle program. John Glenn's urine collection device is at the National Air and Space Museum and has been on view to the public since 1976. PMID:23728129

  9. Protein electrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... nephropathy Kidney failure Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Acute urinary tract infection Risks There are no risks associated with this ... Primary amyloidosis Protein in diet Protein urine test Urinary tract infection - adults Update Date 5/29/2014 Updated by: ...

  10. Frequent or urgent urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinate. Causes Common causes of these symptoms are: Urinary tract infection (UTI) Enlarged prostate in middle-aged and older ... Urogynecology. Physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lentz GM, Lobo ...

  11. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause ... to-Creatinine Ratio Kidney Diseases in Childhood Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Urine Test: ...

  12. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... be done to check for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There ...

  13. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  14. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  15. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  16. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003617.htm Leucine aminopeptidase - urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leucine aminopeptidase is a type of protein called an ...

  17. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  18. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  19. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... supervision during this two-hour period. (c) Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the positive result. Center staff shall file a disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test... collection, recording, mailing, or processing of the test results. (b) If an inmate fails to provide a...

  20. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... supervision during this two-hour period. (c) Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the positive result. Center staff shall file a disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test... collection, recording, mailing, or processing of the test results. (b) If an inmate fails to provide a...

  1. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... supervision during this two-hour period. (c) Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the positive result. Center staff shall file a disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test... collection, recording, mailing, or processing of the test results. (b) If an inmate fails to provide a...

  2. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  3. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  4. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  5. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  6. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  7. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  8. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  9. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  10. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  11. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  12. Color recognition system for urine analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Lin, Qian; Dong, Mingli

    2010-08-01

    In order to increase the speed of photoelectric conversion, a linear CCD is applied as the photoelectric converter instead of the traditional photodiode. A white LED is used as the light source of the system. The color information of the urine test strip is transferred into the CCD through a reflecting optical system. It is then converted to digital signals by an A/D converter. The test results of urine analysis are obtained by a data processing system. An ARM microprocessor is selected as the CPU of the system and a CPLD is employed to provide a driving timing for the CCD drive and the A/D converter. Active HDL7.2 and Verilog HDL are used to simulate the driving timing of the CPLD. Experimental results show that the correctness rate of the test results is better than 90%. The system satisfies the requirements of the color information collection of urine analyzer.

  13. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... process starts in the kidneys , which remove excess fluids and waste from the blood and turn them into urine. The urine then flows through tubes called ureters into the bladder, where it's stored ...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... catheter, which includes the urinary drainage collection kit and the closed urine drainage system and..., urosheath type incontinence device, and the paste-on device for incontinence. (b) Classification—(1)...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... catheter, which includes the urinary drainage collection kit and the closed urine drainage system and..., urosheath type incontinence device, and the paste-on device for incontinence. (b) Classification—(1)...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... catheter, which includes the urinary drainage collection kit and the closed urine drainage system and..., urosheath type incontinence device, and the paste-on device for incontinence. (b) Classification—(1)...

  17. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  18. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  19. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  20. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  1. Environmental 24-hr Cycles Are Essential for Health.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Coomans, Claudia P; van Putten, Maaike; de Kreij, Suzanne R; van Genugten, Jasper H L T; Sutorius, Robbert P M; de Rooij, Karien E; van der Velde, Martijn; Verhoeve, Sanne L; Smit, Jan W A; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Smits, Hermelijn H; Guigas, Bruno; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M; Meijer, Johanna H

    2016-07-25

    Circadian rhythms are deeply rooted in the biology of virtually all organisms. The pervasive use of artificial lighting in modern society disrupts circadian rhythms and can be detrimental to our health. To investigate the relationship between disrupting circadian rhythmicity and disease, we exposed mice to continuous light (LL) for 24 weeks and measured several major health parameters. Long-term neuronal recordings revealed that 24 weeks of LL reduced rhythmicity in the central circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by 70%. Strikingly, LL exposure also reduced skeletal muscle function (forelimb grip strength, wire hanging duration, and grid hanging duration), caused trabecular bone deterioration, and induced a transient pro-inflammatory state. After the mice were returned to a standard light-dark cycle, the SCN neurons rapidly recovered their normal high-amplitude rhythm, and the aforementioned health parameters returned to normal. These findings strongly suggest that a disrupted circadian rhythm reversibly induces detrimental effects on multiple biological processes. PMID:27426518

  2. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  3. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  4. Challenges in urine bioanalytical assays: overcoming nonspecific binding.

    PubMed

    Ji, Allena Ji; Jiang, Zhiping; Livson, Yuliya; Davis, Jennifer Ann; Chu, Jasper Xuegong; Weng, Naidong

    2010-09-01

    Dr Allena Ji is the Director of Bioanalytical Services, XenoBiotic Laboratories, Inc., NJ, USA. She has worked in the bioanalytical field for many years and accumulated rich experience in LC-MS/MS method development, method validation and sample analysis under GLP compliance in large pharmaceutical company and contract laboratory settings. In the past 10 years, Allena worked at Pfizer (Legacy of Wyeth) and investigated many small-molecule drug candidates for their nonspecific binding in urine assays. Nonspecific binding of compounds results in a severe underestimation of the compounds' concentrations and poor precision and accuracy in urine bioanalytical assays. To overcome nonspecific binding in urine assays, Allena and her colleagues developed a series of practical approaches for urine method development. By adding an appropriate anti-adsorptive agent at its optimum concentration to the urine collection containers, the nonspecific binding can be blocked. Urine assays have much higher hurdles than plasma assays due to nonspecific binding and variability of urine pH, salt concentration, volume and solubility of drug(s) in urine. A simple and systematic approach for urine method development is emphasized in this paper. Nonspecific binding is a very serious issue in bioanalytical urine assays where a compound(s) adsorbs to the container wall. The adsorption happens frequently in urine assays because urine lacks proteins and lipids that can bind to the analytes or solubilize lipophilic analytes. Therefore, urine bioanalytical assays tend to suffer from analyte losses more often than plasma assays. In the past decade, there have been many methods described to overcome nonspecific adsorption in urine assays based on individual analyte characteristics. However, a common and simple method development approach for various analytes has not been discussed and summarized. In this article we demonstrate, discuss and summarize a common approach to urine method development with

  5. Determination of an Environmental Background Level of Sr-90 in Urine for the Hanford Bioassay Program Determination of an Environmental Background Level of Sr-90 in Urine for the Hanford Bioassay Program

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.; Rivard, James W.

    2009-11-01

    During the decommissioning and maintenance of some of the facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, workers have potential for a 90Sr intake. However, because of worldwide radioactive fallout, 90Sr is present in our environment, and can be detectable in routine urine bioassay samples. It is important for the Hanford Site bioassay program to discern an occupational intake from a non-occupational environmental one. A detailed study of the background 90Sr in the urine of unexposed Hanford workers was performed. A survey of the Hanford Site bioassay database found 128 Hanford workers who were hired between 1997 and 2002 and who had a very low potential for an occupational exposure prior to the baseline strontium urinalysis. Each urinalysis sample represented excretion during an approximate 24-hr period. The arithmetic mean value for the 128 pre-exposure baselines was 3.6 ± 5.1 mBq d-1. The 90Sr activities in urine varied from -12 to 20 mBq. The 99th percentile result was 16.4 mBqd-1, which was interpreted to mean that 1% of Hanford workers not occupationally exposed to strontium might exceed 16.4 mBq d-1.

  6. Invited commentary: Quantifying salt in urine--a complex solution.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-06-01

    Reduction of dietary sodium intake has been identified as a priority to reduce the worldwide burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Dietary sodium intake is most precisely ascertained by using timed urine collection. Casual urine sodium measurements are relatively easy to perform, but their relationship to timed urine sodium measurements is unclear. In this issue of the Journal, Brown et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1180-1192) report the development and validation of equations to estimate 24-hour urine sodium excretion from casual urine samples. Their study included a large number of participants on 2 continents, a well-collected gold standard, separate discovery and validation samples, and relevant covariates. The resulting equations represent the best available methods to estimate dietary sodium intake from casual urine samples. However, the study is limited by evidence of a suboptimal model fit, restriction to people 20-59 years of age in North America and Europe, and exclusion and adjustment that further limit external validity. In addition, individual-level correlations of estimated and measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion were modest. Properly applied, the results will facilitate tracking of dietary sodium intake within populations over time and identification of communities for which dietary sodium restriction is most likely to be beneficial. Further work is needed to extend estimation to additional populations and improve individual-level assessment. PMID:23673248

  7. Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  8. Advances in Urine Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gavin J; Garigali, Giuseppe; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Urine microscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of several conditions affecting the kidneys and urinary tract. In this review, we describe the automated instruments, based either on flow cytometry or digitized microscopy, that are currently in use in large clinical laboratories. These tools allow the examination of large numbers of samples in short periods. We also discuss manual urinary microscopy commonly performed by nephrologists, which we encourage. After discussing the advantages of phase contrast microscopy over bright field microscopy, we describe the advancements of urine microscopy in various clinical conditions. These include persistent isolated microscopic hematuria (which can be classified as glomerular or nonglomerular on the basis of urinary erythrocyte morphology), drug- and toxin-related cystalluria (which can be a clue for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury associated with intrarenal crystal precipitation), and some inherited conditions (eg, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, which is associated with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystalluria, and Fabry disease, which is characterized by unique urinary lamellated fatty particles). Finally, we describe the utility of identifying "decoy cells" and atypical malignant cells, which can be easily done with phase contrast microscopy in unfixed samples. PMID:26806004

  9. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  10. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract is the body’s drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, ... 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra water. The urine flows from the kidneys to the ...

  11. The effects of urine concentration, and cushion centrifugation to remove urine, on the quality of cool-stored stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Voge, Jared; Varner, Dickson D; Blanchard, Terry L; Meschini, Marika; Turner, Carly; Teague, Sheila R; Brinsko, Steven P; Love, Charles C

    2016-09-15

    Urine-contaminated stallion semen is a clinical problem due to a variety of causes. The effect of the level of urine contamination on the longevity of sperm quality has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urine concentration level (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) and cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, on measures of sperm quality, immediately after semen collection (T0), after 1 hour of storage at room temperature (T1), and after 24 hours of cooled storage (T24). In general, most sperm quality measures declined with increasing urine concentration starting at T0. Cushioned centrifugation (CC), but not simple dilution, generally maintained sperm quality at T24 as compared with T1. At T24, total sperm motility was higher in all urine-contaminated CC samples compared with uncentrifuged samples (P < 0.05); sperm viability was lower in CC than uncentrifuged at a urine concentration of 20%, but higher at 30% and 40% (P < 0.05); and DNA quality was decreased (higher % cells outside the main population) in all urine concentrations (P < 0.05). Immediate extension in semen extender, followed by cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, provided the best option for preserving sperm quality of urospermic semen. PMID:27349135

  12. Urine oxalate biological variation in patients with primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Clifford-Mobley, Oliver; Sjögren, Anna; Lindner, Elisabeth; Rumsby, Gill

    2016-08-01

    Hyperoxaluria is a well-recognised risk factor for urolithiasis and patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH) gradually build up calcium oxalate deposits leading to chronic kidney disease. Efforts to improve treatment for PH have focused on reducing urine oxalate excretion and thus decreasing lithogenesis. To determine the efficacy of treatments designed to alter a biochemical parameter it is necessary to know the biological and analytical variation of that parameter. In this study, we estimated the intra-individual biological variation of urine oxalate excretion in patients with PH, and from this determined what would constitute a significant change in the form of a reference change value (RCV). Each patient collected four 24-h urines on consecutive weeks. The intra-individual biological variation of oxalate excretion calculated from these samples ranged from 0 to 36 % with a mean of 14 %. The corresponding RCVs were 4-84 % with a mean of 32 %. This result implies that, on average, a reduction of almost one-third in urine oxalate excretion is required to prove an effect from treatment. The wide range of biological variation between individuals may reflect other, as yet unknown, determinants of oxaluria in PH, as well as inaccuracies in urine collection. The data suggest that it is more appropriate to use individual RCVs established prior to treatment to determine its efficacy: a relatively small fall in urine oxalate excretion may be outside the biological variation of some patients but not of others. PMID:26857252

  13. Quantitation of products from riboflavin in rat urine

    SciTech Connect

    Chastain, J.L.; McCormick, D.B.

    1986-03-05

    When (2-/sup 14/C) riboflavin is injected i.p. into rats, the excreted vitamin in urine and feces has been shown to be the intact vitamin with trace amounts of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Recent findings with /sup 14/C-riboflavin fed to rats indicated higher levels of riboflavin catabolites in urine, e.g., 7- and 8-carboxylumichromes. The authors have determined catabolites in urine from male rats fed 0, 2, and 6 ..mu..g riboflavin/g diet/day for six weeks. Two rats from each group were placed weekly in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 hours. On the fourth week, a third animal from each group received an i.p. injection of /sup 14/C-riboflavin and the urine was collected for 48 hours. Urine samples were extracted with phenol for flavin components and with chloroform for derivatives of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Riboflavin was the predominant flavin excreted by all diet groups with trace amounts of coenzymes and 7- and 8-hydroxymethylriboflavin. Riboflavin accounted for 85% of all the radioactivity recovered from the deficient and sufficient rats and 90% in rats fed excess. Lumichrome-type compounds including carboxylumichromes accounted for only a few % of recovered radioactivity. Thus, these components are primarily a product of intestinal microfloral degradation rather than significant tissue catabolites of riboflavin.

  14. Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

  15. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. PMID:22414392

  16. EDRN Pre-Validation of Multiplex Biomarker in Urine — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of this proposal is to begin to establish an EDRN “pre-validation” trial of a multiplex set of transcripts, including the ETS gene fusions, in post-DRE urine sediments. As can be evidenced by our preliminary data, we have established the utility of this multiplex urine test (which includes TMPRSS-ERG, SPINK1, PCA3 and GOLPH2) in a cohort of prospectively collected urine sediments from the University of Michigan EDRN CEVC site (collected by co-I, Dr. John Wei). In this proposal, we will run this multiplex assay on prospectively collected post-DRE urines collected from other EDRN sites. The idea is to couple this “pre-validation” study with an EDRN validation trial under consideration for the Gen-Probe PCA3 urine test (directed by Drs. John Wei and Harry Rittenhouse).

  17. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  18. Optimizing Urine Processing Protocols for Protein and Metabolite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Nazema Y; DuBois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Will, Thompson J; Grenier, Carole; Burke, Emily; Fraser, Matthew O; Amundsen, Cindy L; Murphy, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Background In urine, factors such as timing of voids, and duration at room temperature (RT) may affect the quality of recovered protein and metabolite data. Additives may aid with detection, but can add more complexity in sample collection or analysis. We aimed to identify the optimal urine processing protocol for clinically-obtained urine samples that allows for the highest protein and metabolite yields with minimal degradation. Methods Healthy women provided multiple urine samples during the same day. Women collected their first morning (1st AM) void and another “random void”. Random voids were aliquotted with: 1) no additive; 2) boric acid (BA); 3) protease inhibitor (PI); or 4) both BA + PI. Of these aliquots, some were immediately stored at 4°C, and some were left at RT for 4 hours. Proteins and individual metabolites were quantified, normalized to creatinine concentrations, and compared across processing conditions. Sample pools corresponding to each processing condition were analyzed using mass spectrometry to assess protein degradation. Results Ten Caucasian women between 35-65 years of age provided paired 1st morning and random voided urine samples. Normalized protein concentrations were slightly higher in 1st AM compared to random “spot” voids. The addition of BA did not significantly change proteins, while PI significantly improved normalized protein concentrations, regardless of whether samples were immediately cooled or left at RT for 4 hours. In pooled samples, there were minimal differences in protein degradation under the various conditions we tested. In metabolite analyses, there were significant differences in individual amino acids based on the timing of the void. Conclusions For comparative translational research using urine, information about void timing should be collected and standardized. For urine samples processed in the same day, BA does not appear to be necessary while the addition of PI enhances protein yields, regardless of 4

  19. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  20. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie; Vostrotin, Vadim; Vvdensky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  1. Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

  2. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  3. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  4. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  5. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  6. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, Tara K; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D; Fillmore, Thomas L; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2016-06-01

    The human urinary proteome provides an assessment of kidney injury with specific biomarkers for different kidney injury phenotypes. In an effort to fully map and decipher changes in the urine proteome and peptidome after kidney transplantation, renal allograft biopsy matched urine samples were collected from 396 kidney transplant recipients. Centralized and blinded histology data from paired graft biopsies was used to classify urine samples into diagnostic categories of acute rejection, chronic allograft nephropathy, BK virus nephritis, and stable graft. A total of 245 urine samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) reagents. From a group of over 900 proteins identified in transplant injury, a set of 131 peptides were assessed by selected reaction monitoring for their significance in accurately segregating organ injury causation and pathology in an independent cohort of 151 urine samples. Ultimately, a minimal set of 35 proteins were identified for their ability to segregate the 3 major transplant injury clinical groups, comprising the final panel of 11 urinary peptides for acute rejection (93% area under the curve [AUC]), 12 urinary peptides for chronic allograft nephropathy (99% AUC), and 12 urinary peptides for BK virus nephritis (83% AUC). Thus, urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation can identify urine protein panels for rapid and noninvasive differentiation of different causes of kidney transplant injury, without the requirement of an invasive biopsy. PMID:27165815

  7. The role of urine toxicology in chronic opioid analgesic therapy.

    PubMed

    Compton, Peggy

    2007-12-01

    The current trend of treating chronic nonmalignant pain with opioid therapy means that pain management nurses are increasingly involved in the care of patients who are prescribed and using potent opioid analgesics on a daily basis. Although demonstrated to be quite effective in certain patients, sanctioned access to these medications brings with it risks for abuse, addiction, and diversion. Urine toxicology analysis is a valuable, yet underutilized, tool to monitor patterns of medication use and potential use of illicit drugs to evaluate the effect of these on health outcomes. This review provides a guide for the use of urine toxicology in the nursing management of chronic pain patients on opioid therapy, detailing the information provided by urine toxicology analysis, the benefits and limitations of urine drug testing, principles of sample collection, and correct interpretation of findings. It is emphasized that the results of urine toxicology analysis should never be used in isolation to identify abuse, addiction, or diversion, and that patterns of medication and other drug use should always be evaluated with respect to evidence of improved functionality. Nurses involved in the care of patients with chronic pain are encouraged to consider urine toxicology analysis as an integral component in care plan for those on chronic opioid therapy, and to knowledgeably implement and interpret this powerful tool in the practice of pain care. PMID:18036504

  8. Ethylglucuronide determination in urine and hair from alcohol withdrawal patients.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Cruz, Angelines; Mon, Marisol; de Castro, Ana; Quintela, Oscar; Lorenzo, Angeles; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2009-04-01

    Two methods for the determination of ethylglucuronide (EtG) in urine and in hair have been developed by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. These two methods were fully validated, including linearity (0.25-100 microg/mL in urine; 0.05-5 ng/mg in hair; r(2) > 0.99, n = 5), limits of detection (0.1 microg/mL in urine, 0.025 ng/mg in hair) and quantitation (lowest level of the calibration curve), extraction efficiency (> 55%), within-day and between-day imprecision and bias (CV and mean relative error < 15%), matrix effect, and relative ion intensity. These methods have been applied to 541 urine samples and 17 hair specimens collected from 156 alcohol withdrawal patients. The determination of ethanol versus EtG in urine was compared, and also the convenience of EtG determination in hair. EtG in urine and in hair proved to be a powerful tool for monitoring abstinence in these patients. PMID:19371464

  9. Comparative plasma salicylate and urine salicylurate levels following administration of aspirin, magnesium salicylate, and choline magnesium trisalicylate.

    PubMed

    Mason, W D

    1980-11-01

    Eighteen healthy volunteers were administered single doses of commercially available solid dosage forms of aspirin, magnesium salicylate (I), and choline magnesium trisalicylate (II), equivalent to approximately 500 mg of salicylic acid, in a randomized, complete crossover design. Plasma salicylate and urine salicylurate levels were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography at frequent intervals following dosing; the resultant profiles, areas under the curve (AUC), and percentages of dose excreted as salicylurate were statistically analyzed by an analysis of variance. The plasma salicylate levels following the two dosage forms containing I and II were virtually identical when corrected for small differences in the dose. The plasma salicylic acid level following aspirin was approximately 10% lower during the 1.5--3.0-hr interval due to a portion of unhydrolyzed aspirin, but the dose-corrected AUC for the products tested did not differ significantly (p < 0.05). During the 24 hr following dosing, 66.5 +/- 12.1 68.4 +/- 7.1, and 60.9 +/- 14.1% of the salicylic acid were excreted as urine salicylurate for aspirin, I, and II, respectively, with no significant difference (p < 0.05). Based on this study, there are no significant differences in the rate and extent of absorption of salicylate following the three dosage forms tested, and the elimination kinetics of salicylic acid are not altered by these dosage forms. PMID:7452472

  10. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  11. Urine oligosaccharide pattern in patients with hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Bertil; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Landberg, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Free milk-type oligosaccharides are produced during pregnancy and lactation and may have an impact on several cells in the immune system. Our aim was to investigate if patients with isolated hyperprolactinaemia, not related to pregnancy, also have increased synthesis and urinary excretion of milk-type oligosaccharides and to compare the excretion pattern with that found during pregnancy. Urine samples were collected as morning sample from 18 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, 13 healthy controls with normal prolactin levels and four pregnant women. After purification, lactose and free oligosaccharides were analysed and quantified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The identity of peaks was confirmed by exoglycosidase treatment and comparison with oligosaccharide standards. Prolactin was measured in serum collected between 09 and 11 a.m. by a standardized immunochemical method. Patients with hyperprolactinaemia had higher urinary excretion of lactose than normoprolactinemic controls and urinary lactose correlated positively to prolactin levels (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). Increased levels of the fucosylated oligosaccharides 2-fucosyl lactose and lacto-di-fucotetraose were found in urine from three and two patients, respectively. The acidic oligosaccharide 3-sialyl lactose was found in high amount in urine from two patients with prolactin of >10,000 mU/l. However, pregnant women in their third trimester had the highest concentration of all these oligosaccharides and excretion increased during pregnancy. This study is first to show that both lactose and certain fucosylated and sialylated milk-type oligosaccharides are increased in some patients with hyperprolactinaemia. It remains to elucidate the functional importance of these findings. PMID:26275984

  12. Influence of collection time on hematologic and immune markers in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Williams, Robert J; Hamilton, Matthew T; Elsey, Ruth M; Oppenheimer, Victor A; Holladay, Steven D; Gogal, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Crocodilians are important keystone species and indicators of environmental health. Much remains unknown, however regarding utility of field-collected crocodilian blood samples for ecologic assessments. Field sampling sites are also often distant to analysis centers, necessitating development of new techniques and panels of assays that will yield environmentally relevant data. Stability and viability of hematological and immunological indices have been of particular interest for linking ecosystem health to biomarkers in resident species. In this study, we investigated the effect of time at analysis post-blood sampling at 4 and 24 hr on a panel of potential biomarkers in alligator blood. Our results suggest alligator blood samples can be reliably evaluated for both hematologic and immunologic profile 24 hr after sampling. PMID:25560415

  13. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  14. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Delaune, Deborah; Poyot, Thomas; Valade, Eric; Mérens, Audrey; Rollin, Pierre E.; Foissaud, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated RNA stability of Ebola virus in EDTA blood and urine samples collected from infected patients and stored in West Africa’s environmental conditions. In blood, RNA was stable for at least 18 days when initial cycle threshold values were <30, but in urine, RNA degradation occurred more quickly. PMID:26812135

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--METALS IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals in Urine data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 6 metals in 176 urine samples over 176 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household during Stage III of the NHEXAS study. The sample consists of the fir...

  16. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--PESTICIDE METABOLITES IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Metabolites in Urine data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 4 pesticide metabolites in 176 urine samples over 176 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household during Stage III of the NHEXAS study. ...

  17. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--METALS IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals in Urine data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 7 metals in 86 urine samples over 86 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household. The sample consists of the first morning void following the 24-hour d...

  18. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  19. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  20. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  1. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  2. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  3. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  4. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  5. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  6. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  7. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--METALS IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes analytical results for measurements of metals in 600 urine samples. For some chemicals, particularly arsenic, urine provides the best information about the relationship between exposure and body burden. Two samples were collected from each participant on da...

  9. Creating a urine black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  10. Bioanalysis of urine samples after manipulation by oxidizing chemicals: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shanlin; Luong, Susan; Pham, Annie; Charlton, Nathan; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan

    2014-06-01

    Drug testing programs are established to help achieve a drug-free work environment, promote fair competition in sport, facilitate harm minimization and rehabilitation programs, better manage patient care by clinicians and service law enforcement authorities. Urine remains the most popular and appropriate testing matrix for such purposes. However, urine is prone to adulteration, where chemicals, especially oxidizing chemicals, are purposely added to the collected urine specimens to produce a false-negative test result. This article will describe the effect of various popular oxidizing adulterants on urine drug test results, the countermeasures taken by laboratories in dealing with adulterated urine samples and the prospect of developing more robust and economical methods to combat urine adulteration in the future. PMID:25046053

  11. 49 CFR 40.47 - May employers use the CCF for non-Federal collections or non-Federal forms for DOT collections?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Collection Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.47 May employers use the... are prohibited from using the CCF for non-Federal urine collections. You are also prohibited from using non-Federal forms for DOT urine collections. Doing either subjects you to enforcement action...

  12. 49 CFR 40.47 - May employers use the CCF for non-Federal collections or non-Federal forms for DOT collections?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Collection Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.47 May employers use the... are prohibited from using the CCF for non-Federal urine collections. You are also prohibited from using non-Federal forms for DOT urine collections. Doing either subjects you to enforcement action...

  13. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  14. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  15. Urine Culture in Uncomplicated UTI: Interpretation and Significance.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical problem, accounting for millions of outpatient visits in the USA annually. Although routinely obtaining urine cultures in UTI is not recommended, there are circumstances in which obtaining a pre-therapy culture may be warranted or chosen by clinicians, such as when indicated by the need for careful antimicrobial stewardship. This review focuses on understanding reasons for obtaining a pre-therapy culture, methods of collection, and appropriately interpreting urine culture data. PMID:26971335

  16. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  17. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  18. [Determination of dimethylbenzoic acid isomers in urine by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Kostrzewski, P; Wiaderna-Brycht, A; Czerski, B

    1994-01-01

    Trimethylobenzene (TMB) is a main ingredient of many organic solvents used in industry. In Farbasol (Polish trade name of the solvent) TMB occurs as a mixture of three isomers: pseudocumene (1, 2, 4-TMB) 30%; mesitylene (1, 3, 5-TMB) 15%; hemimellitene (1,2,3-TMB) 5%. As it is known in human organism, TMB is metabolized mainly to dimethylbenzoic (DMBA) and dimethylhippuric (DMHA) acids, and some authors suggest, that the acids excreted in urine can be biological indicators of exposure to TMB. This study was aimed at developing the method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine. Biological material was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and next extracted with diethyl ether. DMBA concentration in urine was determined by gas chromatography using a variant of quantitative analysis with internal standard (5-methyl-2-isopropylphenol, thymol). Analytical parameters of the developed method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine such as linearity, precision, reproducibility, stability (192 days, when urine samples stored at-18 degrees C), detectability limit (400 micrograms/dm3) have been fully compatible with the requirements of biological monitoring. In order to confirm the presence of DMBA isomers in urine, four volunteers were exposed (8 hours) to Farbasol in toxicological chamber. The TMB concentration in the air, determined by means of gas chromatograph (HP 5890), amounted to 100 mg/m3 (MAC value in Poland). In urine samples collected 2,3-; 2,4-; 2,5-; 2,6-; 3,4-; 3,5-dimethylbenzoic acids were identified by means of GC/MSD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8170375

  19. Tryptophan glycoconjugates in food and human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, B; Grun, C; Scheutzow, D; Herderich, M

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating the formation of tryptophan glycoconjugates other than well-established Amadori rearrangement products, HPLC-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of human urine collected from several healthy individuals proved the presence of one distinct tryptophan C-glycosyl compound [Horiuchi, Yonekawa, Iwahara, Kanno, Kurihara and Fujise (1994) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 115, 362-366]. After isolation, unambiguous identification of this novel tryptophan metabolite as 2-(alpha-mannopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan was achieved by tandem MS combined with NMR spectroscopy including homonuclear COSY, heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity and (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence experiments. Remarkably, a thorough evaluation of vicinal proton-proton coupling constants in different solvents and nuclear Overhauser effect experiments demonstrate the predominant axial orientation of the hydroxymethyl group of the hexopyranosyl residue. Likewise this spatial arrangement indicates that the respective alpha-anomeric C-mannosylhexopyranose is preferentially adopting a (1)C(4) conformation in acidic methanol. Whereas only one distinct tryptophan mannoconjugate could be observed in human urine, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of food samples for the first time led to the identification of numerous N(1)-(beta-d-hexopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan, 2-(beta-d-hexopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan and 1-(1,2,3,4,5-pentahyd- roxypent-1-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives derived from the condensation of tryptophan with aldohexoses. Taking into consideration the significant differences between profiles and configurations of tryptophan glycoconjugates originating from dietary sources and human urine, C-2 mannosylation of tryptophan residues [de Beer, Vliegenthart, Loeffler and Hofsteenge (1995) Biochemistry 34, 11785-11789] represents a novel enzymic pathway in tryptophan metabolism in humans. PMID:10493906

  20. Development of Urine Receptacle Assembly for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle Rae; Thomas, Evan; Peterson, Laurie; Goforth, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The Urine Receptacle Assembly (URA) initially was developed for Apollo as a primary means of urine collection. The aluminum housing with stainless steel honeycomb insert provided all male crewmembers with a non-invasive means of micturating into a urine capturing device and then venting to space. The performance of the URA was a substantial improvement over previous devices but its performance was not well understood. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) program is exploring the URA as a contingency liquid waste management system for the vehicle. URA improvements are required to meet CEV requirements, including: consumables minimization, flow performance, acceptable hygiene standards, crew comfort, and female crewmember capability. This paper presents the results of a historical review of URA performance during the Apollo program, recent URA performance tests on the reduced gravity aircraft flight under varying flow conditions, and a proposed development plan for the URA to meet CEV needs.

  1. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  2. Dynamic Assessment of Functional Lipidomic Analysis in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Hannah E; Gao, Fei; Chen, Emily Y; McDaniel, Justice; Sarangarajan, Rangaprasad; Narain, Niven R; Kiebish, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    The development of enabling mass spectrometry platforms for the quantification of diverse lipid species in human urine is of paramount importance for understanding metabolic homeostasis in normal and pathophysiological conditions. Urine represents a non-invasive biofluid that can capture distinct differences in an individual's physiological status. However, currently there is a lack of quantitative workflows to engage in high throughput lipidomic analysis. This study describes the development of a MS/MS(ALL) shotgun lipidomic workflow and a micro liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) workflow for urine structural and mediator lipid analysis, respectively. This workflow was deployed to understand biofluid sample handling and collection, extraction efficiency, and natural human variation over time. Utilization of 0.5 mL of urine for structural lipidomic analysis resulted in reproducible quantification of more than 600 lipid molecular species from over 20 lipid classes. Analysis of 1 mL of urine routinely quantified in excess of 55 mediator lipid metabolites comprised of octadecanoids, eicosanoids, and docosanoids generated by lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 activities. In summary, the high-throughput functional lipidomics workflow described in this study demonstrates an impressive robustness and reproducibility that can be utilized for population health and precision medicine applications. PMID:27038173

  3. The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda

    The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

  4. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  5. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of hazardous wastes and urine from rats fed these wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Inmon, J.P.; Simmons, J.E.; Berman, E.; Pasley, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    15 hazardous industrial-waste samples were evaluated for mutagenicity in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay using strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the crude wastes were also evaluated. 7 of the crude wastes were mutagenic, but only 2 of the extracts of these 7 wastes were mutagenic; extracts of 2 additional wastes also were mutagenic. In addition, 10 of the crude wastes were administered by gavage to F-344 rats, and 24-h urine samples were collected. Of the 10 raw urines evaluated, 3 were mutagenic in strain TA98 in the presence of S9 and beta-glucuronidase. The 3 crude wastes that produced these 3 mutagenic urines were, themselves, mutagenic. Adequate volumes of 6 of the 10 raw urines were available for extraction/concentration. These 6 urines were incubated with beta-glucuronidase and eluted through Sep-Pak C18 columns; the methanol eluates of 3 of the urines were mutagenic, and these were the same 3 whose raw urines also were mutagenic. In general, the C18/methanol extraction procedure reduced the cytotoxicity and increased the mutagenic potency of the urines. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report of the mutagenicity of urine from rodents exposed to hazardous wastes.

  6. A practical approach to using spot urine protein/creatinine ratios for assessing proteinuria in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Marnoch, Catherine A; Larson, Lucia; Weitzen, Sherry; Phipps, Maureen G; Sung, C James; Powrie, Raymond O

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio compared with the 24-hour urine protein in pregnancy. Study Design: In this prospective cohort study of inpatient pregnant women, the protein/creatinine ratio and dipstick protein were assessed from a single urine sample collected at the start of the 24-hour urine. Both tests were compared with the 24-hour urine protein for correlation and test characteristics. Results: In the 196 specimens analysed, we found a strong correlation between the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.78, P < 0.01). A protein/creatinine ratio <0.1 ruled out significant proteinuria (≥300 mg/day) with sensitivity and negative predictive value 100%. A protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.4 detected significant proteinuria (specificity and positive predictive value of 100%). A protein/creatinine ratio ≥4.6 had a specificity and positive predictive value of 100% for detecting severe proteinuria (≥5000 mg/day). Urine dipsticks correlated poorly with the 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.40, P = 0.826). Nineteen percent of dipsticks reading nil or trace were false-negative results. Conclusion: The spot urine protein/creatinine ratio correlated well with the 24-hour urine protein and performed better than the urine dipsticks. Significant proteinuria in pregnancy was excluded if the protein/creatinine ratio was <0.1 and identified when it was ≥0.4.

  7. Development of an In-line Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight causes bone loss when calcium and other metabolic by-products are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is thus essential in determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of the countermeasures that are taken to minimize this loss. Earlier space shuttle Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to the cross-contamination that took place between users, as well as to fluid system instabilities. Crew urine voids are currently collected manually in a flexible plastic bag that contains a known tracer quantity. A crew member must completely mix the contents of this bag before withdrawing a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The existing bag system accuracy is therefore highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After the ISS UMS has been used by a crew member, it delivers urine to the WHC for normal processing. The UMS plumbing is then flushed with a small volume of water. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, consequently greatly reducing cross-contamination among urine voids (less than 0.5 mL urine) while also providing accurate volume measurements (less than 2 percent error for 100 to 1,000 mL void volumes). ISS UMS performance has been validated through extensive ground tests and reduced-gravity aircraft flights. The locker-sized ISS UMS is currently undergoing a design modification that will permit it to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian toilet (ACY) hardware. The operating principles, characteristics, and results of this design modification are outlined here.

  8. Development of an Inline Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Banelle R.

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to microgravity during spaceflight causes bone loss. Calcium and other metabolic byproducts are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is essential to determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. Previous US Space Shuttle (SS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to cross contamination between users and fluid system instabilities. Currently, urine voids must be collected manually in a flexible plastic bag containing a known tracer quantity. The crew member must completely mix the bag then withdraw a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The current bag system accuracy is highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures the void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After operations, the ISS UMS delivers the urine to the WHC for normal processing then flushes its plumbing with a small water volume. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, greatly reduces cross contamination between urine voids (< 0.5 ml urine), and provides accurate volume measurements (< +/- 2% error for 100 to 1000 ml void volumes). The system performance has been validated with extensive ground tests and reduced gravity aircraft flights. The lockersized ISS UMS is currently being modified to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian ACY hardware. The operation principles, characteristics, and results are outlined in the paper.

  9. Towards the Detection of Prostate Cancer in Urine: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Matthew; Yang, Bing; Jarrard, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal exam (DRE) have low specificity for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and poorly predict the presence of aggressive disease. Urine is readily available, non-invasive, and represents a promising source of biomarkers for early detection and prediction of PCa prognosis. The goal of this review is to identify promising biomarkers for urine-based PCa, examine trends, and outline potential pitfalls. Methods Pubmed® and Web of Science® database searches of peer-reviewed literature on urine-based testing in PCa were performed. Original studies on this subject, as well as a small number of reviews, were analyzed including the strengths and weaknesses. We provide a comprehensive review of urine-based testing for PCa that covers the technical aspects including the methodology of urine collection, as well as recent developments in biomarkers spanning the fields of genomics, epigenetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Results The process of urine collection is subject to variability, which may result in conflicting clinical results. Detecting PCa in urine is technically feasible as demonstrated by numerous “proof-of principle” studies, but few markers have been validated in multiple large sample sets. Biomarker development using urine has been accelerating in recent years, with numerous studies identifying DNA, RNA, protein, and metabolite-based biomarkers in the urine. Advanced clinical studies have identified PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcripts as promising RNA markers for cancer detection and possibly prognosis. DNA methylation analysis of multiple genes improves specificity, and represents a promising platform for the development of clinical-grade assays. Conclusions Urine-based testing is non-invasive and represents a rich source of novel biomarkers for PCa. Although urine demonstrates promise in detecting cancer, the ability to identify aggressive subsets of PCa needs further

  10. Analysis of urine from pooled urinals - a novel method for the detection of novel psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, J R H; Hudson, S; Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2013-06-01

    Current data on the epidemiology of recreational drug use is largely based on population and self-population surveys of drug use. In addition, increasingly, particularly for novel psychoactive substances, data collected from web monitoring systems is used to collect information on early trends in the use of NPS and the drugs available to users. All of these indicators rely on users self-report of the drug(s) that they are using, or more accurately the drugs that they perceive they are using. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated significant variation in the content of both classical recreational drugs and novel psychoactive substances. The technique of waste-water analysis has allowed estimation of population level use of a number of established recreational drugs such as cocaine and MDMA. However this technique is limited for novel psychoactive substances because of limitations in the knowledge of the stability and metabolism of these compounds. Our group has developed a technique that involves the collection and analysis of pooled-urine from standalone portable urinals and demonstrated that this technique can be used to detect the use of both classical, established recreational drugs and novel psychoactive substances. We discuss this technique in this paper and the ways in which this can be further developed to allow detection of use of new NPS and trends in use of these substances over time and across geographical regions. PMID:24308525

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurse if you have any of these changes: l A strong urge to urinate more often l Urine that is cloudy, or is a different ... such as orange, red, green, or dark yellow l Urine that has a strong smell l Trouble ...

  12. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  13. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Van Keer, Jan; Detroyer, Daan; Bammens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome. PMID:26351597

  14. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Van Keer, Jan; Detroyer, Daan; Bammens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome. PMID:26351597

  15. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  16. Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 μg/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

  17. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  18. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  19. Determination of struvite crystallization mechanisms in urine using turbidity measurement.

    PubMed

    Triger, Aurélien; Pic, Jean-Stéphane; Cabassud, Corinne

    2012-11-15

    Sanitation improvement in developing countries could be achieved through wastewater treatment processes. Nowadays alternative concepts such as urine separate collection are being developed. These processes would be an efficient way to reduce pollution of wastewater while recovering nutrients, especially phosphorus, which are lost in current wastewater treatment methods. The precipitation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)∙6H(2)O) from urine is an efficient process yielding more than 98% phosphorus recovery with very high reaction rates. The work presented here aims to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of struvite precipitation in order to supply data for the design of efficient urine treatment processes. A methodology coupling the resolution of the population balance equation to turbidity measurement was developed, and batch experiments with synthetic and real urine were performed. The main mechanisms of struvite crystallization were identified as crystal growth and nucleation. A satisfactory approximation of the volumetric crystal size distribution was obtained. The study has shown the low influence on the crystallization process of natural organic matter contained in real urine. It has also highlighted the impact of operational parameters. Mixing conditions can create segregation and attrition which influence the nucleation rate, resulting in a change in crystals number, size, and thus final crystal size distribution (CSD). Moreover urine storage conditions can impact urea hydrolysis and lead to spontaneous struvite precipitation in the stock solution also influencing the final CSD. A few limits of the applied methodology and of the proposed modelling, due to these phenomena and to the turbidity measurement, are also discussed. PMID:22975737

  20. Global potential of phosphorus recovery from human urine and feces.

    PubMed

    Mihelcic, James R; Fry, Lauren M; Shaw, Ryan

    2011-08-01

    This study geospatially quantifies the mass of an essential fertilizer element, phosphorus, available from human urine and feces, globally, regionally, and by specific country. The analysis is performed over two population scenarios (2009 and 2050). This important material flow is related to the presence of improved sanitation facilities and also considers the global trend of urbanization. Results show that in 2009 the phosphorus available from urine is approximately 1.68 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). If collected, the phosphorus available from urine and feces could account for 22% of the total global phosphorus demand. In 2050 the available phosphorus from urine that is associated with population increases only will increase to 2.16 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). The available phosphorus from urine and feces produced in urban settings is currently approximately 0.88 million metric tons and will increase with population growth to over 1.5 million metric tons by 2050. Results point to the large potential source of human-derived phosphorus in developing regions like Africa and Asia that have a large population currently unserved by improved sanitation facilities. These regions have great potential to implement urine diversion and reuse and composting or recovery of biosolids, because innovative technologies can be integrated with improvements in sanitation coverage. In contrast, other regions with extensive sanitation coverage like Europe and North America need to determine how to retrofit existing sanitation technology combined that is combined with human behavioral changes to recover phosphorus and other valuable nutrients. PMID:21429554

  1. Long-Term Follow-up of HPV Infection Using Urine and Cervical Quantitative HPV DNA Testing

    PubMed Central

    Vorsters, Alex; Van Keer, Severien; Biesmans, Samantha; Hens, Annick; De Coster, Ilse; Goossens, Herman; Ieven, Margareta; Van Damme, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The link between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and cervical cancer has been clearly demonstrated. Virological end-points showing the absence of persistent HPV infection are now accepted as a way of monitoring the impact of prophylactic vaccination programs and therapeutic vaccine trials. This study investigated the use of urine samples, which can be collected by self-sampling at home, instead of cervical samples for follow-up of an HPV intervention trial. Eighteen initially HPV DNA-positive women participating in an HPV therapeutic vaccine trial were monitored during a three-year follow-up period. A total of 172 urine samples and 85 cervical samples were collected. We obtained a paired urine sample for each of the 85 cervical samples by recovering urine samples from six monthly gynaecological examinations. We performed a small pilot study in which the participating women used a urine collection device at home and returned their urine sample to the laboratory by mail. All samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time HPV DNA PCR. A good association (κ value of 0.65) was found between the presence of HPV DNA in urine and a subsequent cervical sample. Comparisons of the number of HPV DNA copies in urine and paired cervical samples revealed a significant Spearman rho of 0.676. This correlation was superior in women with severe lesions. The HPV DNA results of the small pilot study based on self-collected urine samples at home are consistent with previous and subsequent urine and/or cervical results. We demonstrated that urine sampling may be a valid alternative to cervical samples for the follow-up of HPV intervention trials or programs. The potential clinical value of urine viral load monitoring should be further investigated. PMID:27196899

  2. Long-Term Follow-up of HPV Infection Using Urine and Cervical Quantitative HPV DNA Testing.

    PubMed

    Vorsters, Alex; Van Keer, Severien; Biesmans, Samantha; Hens, Annick; De Coster, Ilse; Goossens, Herman; Ieven, Margareta; Van Damme, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The link between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and cervical cancer has been clearly demonstrated. Virological end-points showing the absence of persistent HPV infection are now accepted as a way of monitoring the impact of prophylactic vaccination programs and therapeutic vaccine trials. This study investigated the use of urine samples, which can be collected by self-sampling at home, instead of cervical samples for follow-up of an HPV intervention trial. Eighteen initially HPV DNA-positive women participating in an HPV therapeutic vaccine trial were monitored during a three-year follow-up period. A total of 172 urine samples and 85 cervical samples were collected. We obtained a paired urine sample for each of the 85 cervical samples by recovering urine samples from six monthly gynaecological examinations. We performed a small pilot study in which the participating women used a urine collection device at home and returned their urine sample to the laboratory by mail. All samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time HPV DNA PCR. A good association (κ value of 0.65) was found between the presence of HPV DNA in urine and a subsequent cervical sample. Comparisons of the number of HPV DNA copies in urine and paired cervical samples revealed a significant Spearman rho of 0.676. This correlation was superior in women with severe lesions. The HPV DNA results of the small pilot study based on self-collected urine samples at home are consistent with previous and subsequent urine and/or cervical results. We demonstrated that urine sampling may be a valid alternative to cervical samples for the follow-up of HPV intervention trials or programs. The potential clinical value of urine viral load monitoring should be further investigated. PMID:27196899

  3. The Use of Chlorhexidine/n-Propyl Gallate (CPG) as an Ambient-Temperature Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nillen, Jeannie L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    A safe, effective ambient temperature urine preservative, chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate (CPG), has been formulated for use during spacefli ght that reduces the effects of oxidation and bacterial contamination on sample integrity while maintaining urine pH. The ability of this preservative to maintain stability of nine key analytes was evaluated for a period of one year. CPG effectively maintained stability of a mmonia, total nitrogen, 3-methylhistidine, chloride, sodium, potassiu m, and urea; however, creatinine and osmolality were not preserved by CPG. These data indicate that CPG offers prolonged room-temperature storage for multiple urine analytes, reducing the requirements for f rozen urine storage on future spaceflights. Iii medical applications on Earth, this technology can allow urine samples to be collected in remote settings and eliminate the need to ship frozen samples.

  4. Student support and perceptions of urine source separation in a university community.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2016-09-01

    Urine source separation, i.e., the collection and treatment of human urine as a separate waste stream, has the potential to improve many aspects of water resource management and wastewater treatment. However, social considerations must be taken into consideration for successful implementation of this alternative wastewater system. This work evaluated the perceptions of urine source separation held by students living on-campus at a major university in the Southeastern region of the United States. Perceptions were evaluated in the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior. The survey population represents one group within a community type (universities) that is expected to be an excellent testbed for urine source separation. Overall, respondents reported high levels of support for urine source separation after watching a video on expected benefits and risks, e.g., 84% indicated that they would vote in favor of urine source separation in residence halls. Support was less apparent when measured by willingness to pay, as 33% of respondents were unwilling to pay for the implementation of urine source separation and 40% were only willing to pay $1 to $10 per semester. Water conservation was largely identified as the most important benefit of urine source separation and there was little concern reported about the use of urine-based fertilizers. Statistical analyses showed that one's environmental attitude, environmental behavior, perceptions of support within the university community, and belief that student opinions have an impact on university decision makers were significantly correlated with one's support for urine source separation. This work helps identify community characteristics that lend themselves to acceptance of urine source separation, such as those related to environmental attitudes/behaviors and perceptions of behavioral control and subjective norm. Critical aspects of these alternative wastewater systems that require attention in order to foster public

  5. [Quantitative urine microscopic examination using disposable counting chamber for diagnosis of urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Hida, Y; Yamashita, M; Gejyo, F; Hiraoka, M; Hori, C; Sudo, M

    1995-12-01

    Routine urinalysis is performed as a screening test for urinary tract infection (UTI) in out-patients or in-patients. We assessed the usefulness of microscopic examination of unspun and unstained urine using a disposable slide with counting chambers (Kova Slide 10 grid, Miles-Sankyo) for diagnosis of significant bacteriuria. 173 fresh urine samples were obtained from 173 subjects (89 male and 84 (female), including 117 inpatients, aged from 0 to 96 years. Urine samples were examined for bacteriuria by the standard culture method and counting chamber method. Significant bacteriuria was defined as 10(5)/ml or more of bacilli for midstream urine and urine collected by bags and 10(4)/ml or more for urine collected by catheterization and from indwelling catheters. Urine leukocytes were also counted on disposable slide. The rapid dipstick test (N-multistix-SG-10, Miles-Sankyo) of leukocyte esterase activity and nitrite were measured in the urine specimens read by a photometer (Clinitek-10, Miles-Sankyo). Significant bacteriuria was diagnosed by standard culture method in 67 urine samples. Close correlation was obtained between bacterial counts determined by the bacterial culture and counting chamber method (Spearman's correlation coefficient p < 0.001). Sensitivity and negative predictive value for significant bacteriuria were 94.0 and 95.1%, respectively, when bacteriuria or pyuria was present in the counting chamber. Dipstick test had a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 86.6 and 89.9%, respectively, when either leukocyte esterase activity of + or more, or nitrite of + was found. In out-patients, both sensitivity and negative predictive value were as high as 100% in counting chamber method. Thus, we can conclude that urine microscopy on disposable counting chambers is a very sensitive, simple, time-saving and lost-effective method for diagnosis of UTI. PMID:8569040

  6. Optimization for Peptide Sample Preparation for Urine Peptidomics

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Dai, Hong; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2014-02-25

    Analysis of native or endogenous peptides in biofluids can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms. Furthermore, the detected peptides may also have utility as potential biomarkers for non-invasive monitoring of human diseases. The non-invasive nature of urine collection and the abundance of peptides in the urine makes analysis by high-throughput ‘peptidomics’ methods , an attractive approach for investigating the pathogenesis of renal disease. However, urine peptidomics methodologies can be problematic with regards to difficulties associated with sample preparation. The urine matrix can provide significant background interference in making the analytical measurements that it hampers both the identification of peptides and the depth of the peptidomics read when utilizing LC-MS based peptidome analysis. We report on a novel adaptation of the standard solid phase extraction (SPE) method to a modified SPE (mSPE) approach for improved peptide yield and analysis sensitivity with LC-MS based peptidomics in terms of time, cost, clogging of the LC-MS column, peptide yield, peptide quality, and number of peptides identified by each method. Expense and time requirements were comparable for both SPE and mSPE, but more interfering contaminants from the urine matrix were evident in the SPE preparations (e.g., clogging of the LC-MS columns, yellowish background coloration of prepared samples due to retained urobilin, lower peptide yields) when compared to the mSPE method. When we compared data from technical replicates of 4 runs, the mSPE method provided significantly improved efficiencies for the preparation of samples from urine (e.g., mSPE peptide identification 82% versus 18% with SPE; p = 8.92E-05). Additionally, peptide identifications, when applying the mSPE method, highlighted the biology of differential activation of urine peptidases during acute renal transplant rejection with distinct laddering of specific peptides, which was obscured for most proteins

  7. Pathogens and pharmaceuticals in source-separated urine in eThekwini, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bischel, Heather N; Özel Duygan, Birge D; Strande, Linda; McArdell, Christa S; Udert, Kai M; Kohn, Tamar

    2015-11-15

    In eThekwini, South Africa, the production of agricultural fertilizers from human urine collected from urine-diverting dry toilets is being evaluated at a municipality scale as a way to help finance a decentralized, dry sanitation system. The present study aimed to assess a range of human and environmental health hazards in source-separated urine, which was presumed to be contaminated with feces, by evaluating the presence of human pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and an antibiotic resistance gene. Composite urine samples from households enrolled in a urine collection trial were obtained from urine storage tanks installed in three regions of eThekwini. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeted 9 viral and 10 bacterial human pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The most frequently detected viral pathogens were JC polyomavirus, rotavirus, and human adenovirus in 100%, 34% and 31% of samples, respectively. Aeromonas spp. and Shigella spp. were frequently detected gram negative bacteria, in 94% and 61% of samples, respectively. The gram positive bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, which is known to survive for extended times in urine, was found in 72% of samples. A screening of 41 trace organic compounds in the urine facilitated selection of 12 priority pharmaceuticals for further evaluation. The antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, which are frequently prescribed as prophylaxis for HIV-positive patients, were detected in 95% and 85% of samples, reaching maximum concentrations of 6800 μg/L and 1280 μg/L, respectively. The antiretroviral drug emtricitabine was also detected in 40% of urine samples. A sulfonamide antibiotic resistance gene (sul1) was detected in 100% of urine samples. By coupling analysis of pathogens and pharmaceuticals in geographically dispersed samples in eThekwini, this study reveals a range of human and environmental health hazards in urine intended for fertilizer production. Collection of urine offers the benefit of

  8. A history of urine microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since. PMID:26079823

  9. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Luisa; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines. PMID:18760007

  10. Effectiveness of Preanalytic Practices on Contamination and Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Cultures: a Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franek, Jacob; Leibach, Elizabeth K.; Weissfeld, Alice S.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Sautter, Robert L.; Baselski, Vickie; Rodahl, Debra; Peterson, Edward J.; Cornish, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background. Urinary tract infection (UTI) in the United States is the most common bacterial infection, and urine cultures often make up the largest portion of workload for a hospital-based microbiology laboratory. Appropriately managing the factors affecting the preanalytic phase of urine culture contributes significantly to the generation of meaningful culture results that ultimately affect patient diagnosis and management. Urine culture contamination can be reduced with proper techniques for urine collection, preservation, storage, and transport, the major factors affecting the preanalytic phase of urine culture. Objectives. The purposes of this review were to identify and evaluate preanalytic practices associated with urine specimens and to assess their impact on the accuracy of urine culture microbiology. Specific practices included collection methods for men, women, and children; preservation of urine samples in boric acid solutions; and the effect of refrigeration on stored urine. Practice efficacy and effectiveness were measured by two parameters: reduction of urine culture contamination and increased accuracy of patient diagnosis. The CDC Laboratory Medicine Best Practices (LMBP) initiative's systematic review method for assessment of quality improvement (QI) practices was employed. Results were then translated into evidence-based practice guidelines. Search strategy. A search of three electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and CINAHL), as well as hand searching of bibliographies from relevant information sources, for English-language articles published between 1965 and 2014 was conducted. Selection criteria. The search contained the following medical subject headings and key text words: urinary tract infections, UTI, urine/analysis, urine/microbiology, urinalysis, specimen handling, preservation, biological, preservation, boric acid, boric acid/borate, refrigeration, storage, time factors, transportation, transport time, time delay

  11. Urinary concentrations and urine ex-vivo effect of mecillinam and sulphamethizole.

    PubMed

    Kerrn, M B; Frimodt-Møller, N; Espersen, F

    2004-01-01

    Healthy adult volunteers received 1 g of sulphamethizole orally (n = 10) and later 400 mg of pivmecillinam (274 mg of mecillinam) (n = 9). All urine was collected in defined periods over 24 h, and the drug concentrations in urine were determined. For sulphamethizole, the maximum urine concentration for seven subjects was reached in 0-3 h, and for the remaining three in 3-6 h. For mecillinam, eight of the nine subjects attained a maximum urine concentration in 0-3 h, after which the concentration declined rapidly for six subjects in 3-6 h. Strains of Escherichia coli with different MICs for sulphamethizole and mecillinam were exposed to collected urine for 2.5 h and 5 h. The results indicated that a sensitive E. coli population should be suppressed by sulphamethizole in urine for two-thirds of the time (with 1 g twice-daily) and by mecillinam in urine throughout the 24-h period (with 400 mg three times a day). There was a slight but significant correlation between the ex-vivo effect (Delta log10 CFU/mL) and the log10 concentration/MIC ratio after exposure to sulphamethizole for 5 h (r2 = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and a significant correlation between the variables with mecillinam (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.0001). PMID:14706087

  12. 50 CFR 23.16 - What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? 23.16 Section 23.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... Requirements § 23.16 What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? (a... DNA. (1) You must obtain any collection permit and CITES document required by the foreign country....

  13. 50 CFR 23.16 - What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? 23.16 Section 23.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... Requirements § 23.16 What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? (a... DNA. (1) You must obtain any collection permit and CITES document required by the foreign country....

  14. 50 CFR 23.16 - What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? 23.16 Section 23.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... Requirements § 23.16 What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? (a... DNA. (1) You must obtain any collection permit and CITES document required by the foreign country....

  15. 50 CFR 23.16 - What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? 23.16 Section 23.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... Requirements § 23.16 What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? (a... DNA. (1) You must obtain any collection permit and CITES document required by the foreign country....

  16. 50 CFR 23.16 - What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? 23.16 Section 23.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... Requirements § 23.16 What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? (a... DNA. (1) You must obtain any collection permit and CITES document required by the foreign country....

  17. Serial nephelometric urine IgG measurement and the management of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eden, R D; Wahbeh, C J; Williams, A Y; Easley, H A; Gall, S A

    1984-04-15

    Serial IgG analysis was performed on the urine and serum of 16 patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Significant immunoglobulinuria developed prior to the development of azotemia, significantly decreased creatinine clearance, significant proteinuria (greater than or equal to 3+ dipstick or greater than or equal to 5 gm per 24-hour urine collection), or oliguria. Nephelometric measurement of urine IgG concentrations appears to be a rapid and accurate method for confirming the severity of clinical disease, the degree of renal involvement, the benefit of treatment modalities on renal function, and the likelihood of postpartum maternal morbidity. PMID:6711642

  18. Cycle-Characteristic Odour of Cow Urine Can Be Detected by the Female Face Fly (Musca autumnalis)

    PubMed Central

    Nordéus, K; Webster, B; Söderquist, L; Båge, R; Glinwood, R

    2014-01-01

    Contents Due to declining dairy cow fertility rates, there is great interest in developing tools for oestrus detection. Compounds in the volatile profile of oestrous cows are suggested as oestrus-specific, but consistent results have not been presented. Certain haematophagous arthropods can discriminate stages of the mammalian reproductive cycle based on host volatiles. This study investigated whether the face fly, Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae), can discriminate between urine from cows in oestrus and urine collected during the luteal phase. Individual flies were tested in a two-choice behavioural assay with choice between odour of oestrous or luteal urine and water (control). Flies chose the control arm significantly more when exposed to oestrous urine than when exposed to luteal urine. Analysis of volatiles showed that 1-hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) was released in greater amounts from oestrous urine than from urine collected during the luteal phase. In a dose response assay, flies were significantly attracted by 0.01 ng of 1-hexadecanol but significantly repelled by 0.1 ng, a pattern consistent with fly responses to urine. In conclusion, M. autumnalis can discriminate between oestrous and luteal urine, and this may be mediated by differences in 1-hexadecanol concentration. PMID:25244510

  19. Biomarkers of Exposure to Triclocarban in Urine and Serum

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Furr, Johnathan; Ahn, Ki Chang; Hammock, Bruce D.; Gray, Earl L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2012-01-01

    3, 4, 4’- Trichlorocarbanilide (triclocarban, TCC) is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in a variety of consumer and personal care products. TCC is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, but its potential toxic effects in humans are still largely unknown. Because of its widespread uses, the potential for human exposure to TCC is high. In order to identify adequate exposure biomarkers of TCC, we investigated the metabolic profile of TCC in adult female Sprague Dawley rats after administering TCC once (500 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. Urine was collected 0–24 hours before dosing, and 0–24 hours and 24–48 hours after dosing. Serum was collected at necropsy 48 h after dosing. We identified several metabolites of TCC in urine and serum by on-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry. We unambiguously identified two major oxidative metabolites of TCC, 3’-hydroxy-TCC and 2’-hydroxy-TCC, by comparing their chromatographic behavior and mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those of authentic standards. By contrast, compared to these oxidative metabolites, we detected very low levels of TCC in the urine or serum. Taken together these data suggest that in rats, oxidation of TCC is a major metabolic pathway. We also measured TCC and its oxidative metabolites in 50 urine and 16 serum samples collected from adults in the United States. The results suggest differences in the metabolic profile of TCC in rats and in humans; oxidation appears to be a minor metabolic pathway in humans. Total (free plus conjugated) TCC could serve as a potential biomarker for human exposure to TCC. PMID:21635932

  20. Determination of monomethylarsonous acid, a key arsenic methylation intermediate, in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Le, X C; Ma, M; Cullen, W R; Aposhian, H V; Lu, X; Zheng, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study we report on the finding of monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] in human urine. This newly identified arsenic species is a key intermediate in the metabolic pathway of arsenic biomethylation, which involves stepwise reduction of pentavalent to trivalent arsenic species followed by oxidative addition of a methyl group. Arsenic speciation was carried out using ion-pair chromatographic separation of arsenic compounds with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Speciation of the inorganic arsenite [As(III)], inorganic arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], and MMA(III) in a urine sample was complete in 5 min. Urine samples collected from humans before and after a single oral administration of 300 mg sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) were analyzed for arsenic species. MMA(III) was found in 51 out of 123 urine samples collected from 41 people in inner Mongolia 0-6 hr after the administration of DMPS. MMA(III )in urine samples did not arise from the reduction of MMA(V) by DMPS. DMPS probably assisted the release of MMA(III) that was formed in the body. Along with the presence of MMA(III), there was an increase in the relative concentration of MMA(V) and a decrease in DMA(V) in the urine samples collected after the DMPS ingestion. PMID:11102289

  1. Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Pradella, M; Dorizzi, R M; Rigolin, F

    1988-01-01

    The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinary specific gravity after taking no fluids for 12 h overnight should be 1.025 or more, so that the second urine in the morning is a useful sample for screening purposes. Many preservation procedures affect specific gravity measurements. The concentration of solids (or water) in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometer, refractometry, surface tension, osmolality, a reagent strip, or oscillations of a capillary tube. These measurements are interrelated, not identical. Urinary density measurement is useful to assess the disorders of water balance and to discriminate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis. The water balance regulates the serum sodium concentration, therefore disorders are revealed by hypo- and hypernatremia. The

  2. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  3. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  4. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  5. Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation

    SciTech Connect

    Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.

    1989-06-01

    Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

  6. Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...

  7. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  8. Partial characterization of endogenous digoxinlike substance in human urine

    SciTech Connect

    Vinge, E.; Ekman, R.

    1988-01-01

    Urinary samples were collected from individuals not taking cardiac glycosides. Aliquots of 30 ml were passed through preparative octadecylsilane-bonded phase columns and eluted in fractions by stepwise increasing concentrations of acetonitrile. Eluted fractions were analysed for their contents of endogenous digoxinlike substance (EDLS) by radioimmunoassay of digoxin and by a bioassay of cardiac glycosides, which measures the uptake of rubidium (/sup 86/Rb) by erythrocytes as an index of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In both assays, digoxinlike activity was found in several fractions, but the highest values were consistently measured in the fractions eluted with 40% acetonitrile. Greater amounts of EDLS were recovered from the urine of pregnant women than from the urine of men and nonpregnant women.

  9. Isolation of multiple novel paramyxoviruses from pteropid bat urine.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jennifer; Smith, Craig; Smith, Ina; de Jong, Carol; Todd, Shawn; Melville, Debra; Broos, Alice; Crameri, Sandra; Haining, Jessica; Marsh, Glenn; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bats have been found to harbour a number of new emerging viruses with zoonotic potential, and there has been a great deal of interest in identifying novel bat pathogens to determine the risk to human and animal health. Many groups have identified novel viruses in bats by detection of viral nucleic acid; however, virus isolation is still a challenge, and there are few reports of viral isolates from bats. In recent years, our group has developed optimized procedures for virus isolation from bat urine, including the use of primary bat cells. In previous reports, we have described the isolation of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Cedar virus in Queensland, Australia. Here, we report the isolation of four additional novel bat paramyxoviruses from urine collected from beneath pteropid bat (flying fox) colonies in Queensland and New South Wales during 2009-2011. PMID:25228492

  10. Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.

    1973-01-01

    A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464

  11. Hydroxylated collagen peptide in urine as biomarker for detecting colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lalmahomed, Zarina S; Bröker, Mirelle EE; van Huizen, Nick A; van den Braak, Robert RJ Coebergh; Dekker, Lennard JM; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Verhoef, Cornelis; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Luider, Theo M; IJzermans, Jan NM

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a marker of colorectal liver metastasis is limited, motivating a search for new biomarkers. Recently, urine proteomic analysis revealed AGPP(-OH)GEAGKP(-OH)GEQGVP(-OH)GDLGAP(-OH)GP (AGP), a promising peptide for this application. This study aimed to determine whether combining urine AGP testing with serum CEA analyses improves the sensitivity of detecting colorectal liver metastases. Urine samples from 100 patients with CRLM were collected prospectively and compared to three control groups: healthy kidney donors, patients who were relapse-free for 24 months after curative CRLM surgery, and primary colorectal cancer patients. A stable isotope labeled peptide standard was used to quantify the abundance of AGP in urine samples by selective reaction monitoring. Combined testing of urine AGP levels and serum CEA levels revealed a significantly increased sensitivity compared to CEA alone (85% vs. 68%, P<0.001; specificity 84% and 91%, respectively). No correlation was found between CEA and AGP-positive test results within individual patients (r2 = 0.08). Urine AGP testing was negative in the three control groups. These results indicate that collagen-derived urine AGP peptide with a specific hydroxylation pattern combined with serum CEA levels may significantly improve the detection of colorectal liver metastases in patients at risk. PMID:27186406

  12. CREATININE DETERMINATION IN URINE BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD.

    PubMed

    Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Sawicki, Wojciech; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-01-01

    Creatinine determination in urine is used to estimate the completeness of the 24-h urine collection, compensation for variable diuresis and as a preliminary step in protein profiling in urine. Despite the fact that a wide range of methods of measuring creatinine level in biofluids has been developed, many of them are adversely affected by interfering substances. A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for creatinine determination in urine has been developed. Chromatographic separation was performed by applying C18 column and a gradient elution. Analyses were carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source. The developed method was fully validated according to the international guidelines. The quantification range of the method was 5-1500 ng/mL, which corresponds to 1-300 mg/dL in urine. Limit of detection and quantitation were 2 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. Additionally, the comparison of creatinine determination by newly developed method to the colorimetric method was performed. The method enables the determination of creatinine in urine samples with a minimal sample preparation, excellent sensitivity and prominent selectivity. Since mass spectrometry allows to measure a number of compounds simultaneously, a future perspective would be to incorporate the determination of other clinically important compounds excreted in urine. PMID:27180423

  13. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that

  14. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Licensed Materials from any location via the Internet. b. STANDALONE WORKSTATION: A standalone subscription permits multiple ... computer. A Standalone Workstation license does not include Internet access to the Licensed Materials. c. INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION: ...

  15. SELECTED PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN URINE FROM A SURVEY OF THE U.S. GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or the...

  16. Advances in the Diagnosis of Human Opisthorchiasis: Development of Opisthorchis viverrini Antigen Detection in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Duenngai, Kunyarat; Wangboon, Chompunoot; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Watwiengkam, Nattaya; Namwat, Nisana; Techasen, Anchalee; Loilome, Watcharin; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Loukas, Alex; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Bethony, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    -treated with TCA prior to use in the urine OV-ES assay, the analytical sensitivity was significantly improved. Using TCA pre-treatment of urine, the urine OV-ES assay had a limit of detection (LoD) of 39 ng/ml compared to the LoD of 52 ng/mL reported for coprological antigen detection methods. Similarly, the urine OV-ES assay correlated significantly with intensity of OV infection as measured by FECT. The urine OV-ES assay was also able to detect 28 individuals as positive from the 63 (44.4%) individuals previously determined to be negative using FECT. The likelihood of a positive diagnosis of OV infection by urine OV-ES assay increased significantly with the intensity of OV infection as determined by FECT. With reference to FECT, the sensitivity and specificity of the urine OV-ES assay was 81% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion The detection of OV-infection by the urine OV-ES assay showed much greater diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity than the current "gold standard" FECT method for the detection and quantification of OV infection. Due to its ease-of-use, and noninvasive sample collection (urine), the urine OV-ES assay offers the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis of liver fluke infection and provide an effective tool for control and elimination of these tumorigenic parasites. PMID:26485024

  17. Quantitation of proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome by spot urine protein creatinine ratio estimation in children.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A; Kumar, R; Chaterjee, A; Ghosh, J K; Basu, K

    2009-01-01

    In Nephrotic Syndrome the amount of protein excretion is a reflection of activity of disease. Quantitative measurement of proteinuria by a 24-hour urine collection has been the accepted method of evaluation. Recent studies have shown that calculation of protein/creatinine ratio in a spot urine sample correlates well with the 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP) excretion. A study was conducted to compare the accuracy of a spot urinary protein/creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) and urinary dipstick with the 24-hour urine protein. Fifty two samples from 26 patients of nephrotic syndrome were collected. This included a 24-hour urine sample followed by the next voided random spot sample. The protein/creatinine ratio was calculated and dipstick was performed on the spot sample. This was compared with the 24-hour urine protein excretion. The correlation between the three samples was statistically highly significant (p<0.001) for all levels of proteinuria. The normal value of protein/creatinine ratio in Indian children was also estimated on 50 normal children admitted in the ward without any renal diseases calculated to be 0.053 (SE of mean+/-0.003). PMID:19182753

  18. Searching for the Non-Invasive Biomarker Holy Grail: Are Urine Proteomics the Answer?

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Joachim; Goo, Young Ah; Cain, Kevin; Woods, Nancy; Jarrett, Monica; Smith, Lynne; Shulman, Robert; Heitkemper, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biobehavioral nursing scientists have focused attention on the search for biomarkers or biological signatures to identify patients at risk for various health problems and poor disease outcomes. In response to the national impetus for biomarker discovery, the measurement of biological fluids and tissues has become increasingly sophisticated. Urine proteomics in particular, may hold great promise for biobehavioral-focused nursing scientists for examination of symptom- and syndrome- related research questions. Urine proteins are easily accessible secreted proteins that provide a direct and indirect window into bodily functions. Advances in proteomics and biomarker discovery provide new opportunities to conduct research studies with banked and fresh urine to benefit diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluate outcomes in various disease populations. This paper provides a review of proteomics and a rationale for specifically utilizing urine proteomics in biobehavioral research. It addresses as well some of the specific challenges involved in data collection and sample preparation. PMID:21586496

  19. Difference in 24-Hour Urine Composition between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Adults without Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Duan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhijian; Yuan, Jian; Wan, Shaw P.; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients are more likely to develop kidney stones than the general population. The underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain to be elucidated. Little is known about the relationship between urine composition and diabetes mellitus in non-stone-forming individuals. We sought to examine the differences in the 24-hour (24-h) urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who were not stone formers. Methods A convenience sample of 538 individuals without a history of nephrolithiasis, gout, hyperparathyroidism, or gastroenteric diseases participated in this study. The 24-h urine profiles of 115 diabetic adults were compared with those of 423 non-diabetic adults. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis or medication use. All participants were non-stone formers confirmed by urinary tract ultrasonography. Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare mean urinary values. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, fasting serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, estimated creatinine clearance rate and urinary factors. Results Univariable analysis showed that the diabetic participants had significantly higher 24-h urine volumes and lower urine calcium and magnesium excretions than non-diabetic participants (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment, no significant differences in 24-h urine composition were observed between diabetic and non-diabetic participants except for a slightly increased 24-h urine volume in diabetic participants (all P > 0.05). The main limitation of this study is that the convenience samples and self-reported data may have been sources of bias. Conclusion Our data showed that there were no differences in 24-h urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who are not stone formers. The reason for it might be the improved glycemic control in

  20. Understanding Measurements of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy Humans with Urine Lactulose and Mannitol Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Nadeau, Ashley; Lamsam, Jesse; Nord, Sara Linker; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Sweetser, Seth; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Singh, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to understand the information from differential two-sugar excretion (2-SE) in measuring intestinal permeability. In a crossover study in 12 healthy volunteers, we compared urinary excretion ratios of lactulose (L) to mannitol [(M) LMR] after ingestion in liquid formulation (LF) or in delayed-release, methacrylate-coated capsules (CAP). Both formulations were radiolabeled. Urine was collected every 2 hours from 0–8h, and from 8–24h. Two hours after LF, gastric residual was 15.9 ± 6.2 % (SEM), and the percentage in colon was 49.6 ± 7.8 %; in 11/12 participants, liquid had entered colon within 2h. Average CAP arrival time in colon was 5.16 ± 0.46h (mode 6 h). After LF, mannitol was extensively absorbed in the first 8h; lactulose absorption was low thoughout the 24h. After the LF, the LMR (geometric mean, 95% CI/hour) in the 0–2h urine was 0.08 [0.05, 0.11]), which was lower than in 8–24h urine (0.32,[0.16, 0.46]; p<0.05). Urine LMRs at 8–24h were similar after LF or CAP. We concluded that, after LF, sugar excretion in 0–2h urine may reflect both SI and colon permeability. Colonic permeability is reflected by urine sugar excretion between 6 and 24h. CAP delivery reduces mannitol excreted at 0–6h, compared to LF. The 0 to 5 or 6h 2-SE urine likely reflects both SI and colon permeability; the higher LMR in the 8–24h urine relative to 0–2h urine should be interpreted with caution and does not mean that colon is more permeable than SI. PMID:19614866

  1. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon. PMID:628994

  2. Levetiracetam: Probably Associated Diurnal Frequent Urination.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Hu, Lin-Yan; Pang, Ling-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal frequent urination is a common condition in elementary school children who are especially at risk for associated somatic and behavioral problems. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that has been used in both partial and generalized seizures and less commonly adverse effects including psychiatric and behavioral problems. Diurnal frequent urination is not a well-known adverse effect of LEV. Here, we reported 2 pediatric cases with epilepsy that developed diurnal frequent urination after LEV administration. Case 1 was a 6-year-old male patient who presented urinary frequency and urgency in the daytime since the third day after LEV was given as adjunctive therapy. Symptoms increased accompanied by the raised dosage of LEV. Laboratory tests and auxiliary examinations did not found evidence of organic disease. Diurnal frequent urination due to LEV was suspected, and then the drug was discontinued. As expected, his frequency of urination returned to normal levels. Another 13-year-old female patient got similar clinical manifestations after oral LEV monotherapy and the symptoms became aggravated while in stress state. Since the most common causes of frequent micturition had been ruled out, the patient was considered to be diagnosed with LEV-associated psychogenic frequent urination. The dosage of LEV was reduced to one-third, and the frequency of urination was reduced by 60%. Both patients got the Naranjo score of 6, which indicated that LEV was a "probable" cause of diurnal frequent urination. Although a definite causal link between LEV and diurnal urinary frequency in the 2 cases remains to be established, we argue that diurnal frequent urination associated with LEV deserves clinician's attention. PMID:26938751

  3. Comparison of Result Times Between Urine and Whole Blood Point-of-care Pregnancy Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Michael; Wnek, Kristopher; Moskoff, Jordan; Christian, Errick; Bailitz, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Point-of-care (POC) pregnancy testing is commonly performed in the emergency department (ED). One prior study demonstrated equivalent accuracy between urine and whole blood for one common brand of POC pregnancy testing. Our study sought to determine the difference in result times when comparing whole blood versus urine for the same brand of POC pregnancy testing. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study at an urban, academic, tertiary care hospital comparing the turnaround time between order and result for urine and whole blood pregnancy tests collected according to standard protocol without intervention from the investigators. After the blood was collected, the nurse would place three drops onto a Beckman Coulter ICON 25 Rapid HCG bedside pregnancy test and set a timer for 10 minutes. At the end of the 10 minutes, the result and time were recorded on an encoded data sheet and not used clinically. The same make and model analyzer was also used for urine tests in the lab located within the ED. The primary outcome was the difference in mean turnaround time between whole blood in the ED and urine testing in the adjacent lab results. Concordance between samples was assessed as a secondary outcome. Results 265 total patients were included in the study. The use of whole blood resulted in a mean time savings of 21 minutes (95% CI 16–25 minutes) when compared with urine (p<0.001). There was 99.6% concordance between results, with one false negative urine specimen with a quantitative HCG level of 81 mIU/L. Conclusion Our results suggest that the use of whole blood in place of urine for bedside pregnancy testing may reduce the total result turnaround time without significant changes in accuracy in this single-center study. PMID:27429695

  4. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis: Detection of parasite-derived DNA in urine.

    PubMed

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Caro, Reynaldo; Sofer, Shterna; Scott, Alan; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Shiff, Clive

    2016-11-01

    Detecting infections of Strongyloides stercoralis is arduous and has low sensitivity. Clinically this is a major problem because chronic infections may disseminate in the host and lead to a life threatening condition. Epidemiologically, S. stercoralis is often missed in surveys as it is difficult to identify by standard stool examination procedures. We present, for the first time, evidence that the infection can be detected in filtered urine samples collected and processed in the field and subsequently assayed for the presence of parasite DNA. Urine specimens (∼40mL) were collected from 125 test and control individuals living in rural and peri-urban regions of Northern Argentina. From the same individuals, fresh stool specimens were processed using three different copropological methods. Urine specimens were filtered in the field through a 12.5cm Whatman No. 3 filter. The filters were dried and packed individually in sealable plastic bags with desiccant and shipped to a laboratory where DNA was recovered from the filter and PCR-amplified with primers specific to a dispersed repetitive sequence. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection by stool culture and direct examination was 35/125 (28%), In contrast, PCR-based detection of parasite-specific trans-renal DNA in urine indicated that 56/125 (44.8%) carried the parasite. Of the patients that tested positive for urine-based parasite DNA, approximately half also tested positive in their stool specimens. There were 6.4% of cases where parasite larvae were seen in the stool but no DNA was amplified from the urine. As proof of principle, DNA amplification from urine residue reveals significantly more cases of S. stercoralis infection than the current standard stool examination techniques. Additional work is required to establish the relative utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine-based analysis compared to parasitological and nucleic acid detection from stool for clinical and epidemiological detection for S

  5. Determination of ethylene thiourea in urine by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    El Balkhi, Souleiman; Sandouk, Pierre; Galliot-Guilley, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Ethylene thiourea (ETU) is a metabolite of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs); it is the best indicator of exposure to these fungicides. Therefore, high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was optimized and validated for the determination of ETU in human urines. Urine samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction using Extrelut and analyzed using HPLC-DAD set at 231 nm. The analyses were carried out using a mobile phase of 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 4.5) on a C18 Uptisphere NEC-5-20, 250- x 4.6-mm x 5-microm column. The internal standard used was 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrazide. The method was successfully validated in compliance with requirements set by the International Committee on Harmonization 1996. The lower limit of quantitation was at 1 microg/L, and the linearity was studied from 1 to 100 microg/L. There were 272 urine samples collected from farmers exposed to EBDCs in different regions in France analyzed in this study. PMID:15975251

  6. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  7. Correlation of Urine Biomarkers: Microalbuminuria and Spot Urine Protein among Diabetic Patients. Application of Spot Urine Protein in Diabetic Kidney Disease, Nephropathy, Proteinuria Estimation, Diagnosing and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2015-01-01

    Current study has invented a new method for utilizing spot urine protein among diabetic patients. There have been various efforts and strategies in research internationally to detect, diagnose and monitor nephropathy/DKD. Although 24-hour urine studies are gold standard, however, there exist some controversies about microalbuminuria and spot urine protein. The current study was designed to utilize spot urine protein among diabetic patients and to find its association with routine dipstick urine test for albumin, and microalbuminuria. The study demonstrated significant association of spot urine protein with urine dipstick albumin, and has demonstrated increasing spot urine protein with increasing albumin in urine (p-value < 0.0001). This study also demonstrated significantly higher levels of spot urine protein between the groups with nephropathy/DKD as compared to those without nephropathy/DKD (p-value < 0.0001). Similarly, spot urine protein and spot urine protein/creatinine were also significantly associated with microalbumin and microalbumin/creatinine in urine. Significant regression models for spot urine protein and microalbuminuria were also developed and proposed to detect and estimate microalbumin in urine while utilizing spot urine protein (< 0.0001). Synthesized regression equations and models can be used confidently to detect, rule out and monitor proteinuria and DKD. ROC curves were utilized to detect spot urine protein cutoff points for nephropathy and DKD with high specificity and sensitivity. Some important patents were also discussed in the paper regarding albuminuria/proteinuria detection and management. Current study has demonstrated and concluded, for the first time, that there exists a significant association of spot urine protein with routine dipstick albumin in urine and microalbuminuria. It is also essential to detect early, monitor and manage proteinuria, hypertension and dyslipidemia with good glycemic control to prevent diabetes

  8. Vitamin A in the urine of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, F J; Thomann, E; Zucker, H

    1991-01-01

    Vitamin A levels (retinol equivalents) in the urine of canines were between 423 ng/ml (dog) and 6304 ng/ml (silver fox). Neither vitamin A nor vitamin E was found in the urine of herbivores, omnivorous and rodents. No vitamin A but low levels of vitamin E were detected in cats. Vitamin A in the urine was present as retinol and retinyl esters (basically retinyl palmitate/oleate). The total excretion of vitamin A represented 15 to 63% of the daily uptake in dogs, while less than 4% of vitamin E was excreted. Results after precipitation and ultracentrifugation indicate that similar carrier proteins may exist for retinol, retinyl esters and alpha-tocopherol in the urine. The biological significance of this phenomenon is discussed with regard to the high concentrations of retinyl esters in the blood plasma of carnivores bound to lipoproteins. PMID:1917346

  9. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  10. Measurement of mercury in human urine.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D M; Clarke, A D

    1970-03-01

    Four methods of determining the concentration of mercury in human urine have been studied. A simple method suitable for general laboratory use is recommended and the requirements for accurate results are defined. The method employs mild oxidation with permanganate and HS(2)O(4) followed by dithizone extraction and measurement of absorbance at 485 nm and 620 nm.No mercury was detected in any of 74 urines from unexposed laboratory controls and hospital patients. A random urine sample seems adequate for the investigation of clinical or industrial mercury poisoning. Two individuals, free of symptoms, but subjected to moderate exposure, excreted 3.0-9.7 mug of mercury per 100 ml of urine. After the administration of an organic mercurial to two volunteers, urinary excretion was rapid and virtually complete within 48 hours. PMID:5423951

  11. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation.

    PubMed

    Faridi, M S; Rahman, Md Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-02-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  12. The potential of at-home prediction of the formation of urolithiasis by simple multi-frequency electrical conductivity of the urine and the comparison of its performance with urine ion-related indices, color and specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Silverio, Angelito A; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wang, Hai-Lung; Kung, Chien-Min; Chen, Jun; Tsai, Vincent F S

    2016-04-01

    It is important to control daily diet, water intake and life style as well as monitor the quality of urine for urolithiasis prevention. For decades, many ion-related indices have been developed for predicting the formation of urinary stones or urolithiasis, such as EQUILs, relative supersaturation (RSS), Tiselius indices (TI), Robertson risk factor algorithms (RRFA) and more recently, the Bonn risk index. However, they mostly demand robust laboratory analysis, are work-intensive, and even require complex computational programs to get the concentration patterns of several urine analytes. A simple and fast platform for measuring multi-frequency electrical conductivity (MFEC) of morning spot urine (random urine) to predict the onset of urolithiasis was implemented in this study. The performance thereof was compared to ion-related indices, urine color and specific gravity. The concentrations of relevant ions, color, specific gravity (SG) and MFEC (MFEC tested at 1, 10, 100, 5001 KHz and 1 MHz) of 80 random urine samples were examined after collection. Then, the urine samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h to determine whether sedimentation would occur or not. Ion-activity product index of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) EQ2) was calculated. The correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color, SG and MFEC were analyzed. AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color and MFEC (at 5 frequencies) all demonstrated good prediction (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, respectively) for stone formation. The positive correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2 and MFEC is also significant (p = 0.01). MFEC provides a good metric for predicting the onset of urolithiasis, which is comparable to conventional ion-related indices and urine color. This technology can be implemented with much ease for objectively monitoring the quality of urine at points-of-care or at home. PMID:26271351

  13. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript stratifies prostate cancer risk in men with elevated serum PSA

    PubMed Central

    Tomlins, Scott A.; Aubin, Sheila M. J.; Siddiqui, Javed; Lonigro, Robert J.; Sefton-Miller, Laurie; Miick, Siobhan; Williamsen, Sarah; Hodge, Petrea; Meinke, Jessica; Blase, Amy; Penabella, Yvonne; Day, John R.; Varambally, Radhika; Han, Bo; Wood, David; Wang, Lei; Sanda, Martin G.; Rubin, Mark A.; Rhodes, Daniel R.; Hollenbeck, Brent; Sakamoto, Kyoko; Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Fradet, Yves; Amberson, James B.; Meyers, Stephanie; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Rittenhouse, Harry; Wei, John T.; Groskopf, Jack; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 1,000,000 men undergo prostate biopsy each year in the United States, most for “elevated” serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Given the lack of specificity and unclear mortality benefit of PSA testing, methods to individualize management of elevated PSA are needed. Greater than 50% of PSA-screened prostate cancers harbor fusions between the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) genes. Here, we report a clinical-grade, transcription-mediated amplification assay to risk stratify and detect prostate cancer noninvasively in urine. The TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript was quantitatively measured in prospectively collected whole urine from 1312 men at multiple centers. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG was associated with indicators of clinically significant cancer at biopsy and prostatectomy, including tumor size, high Gleason score at prostatectomy, and upgrading of Gleason grade at prostatectomy. TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), improved the performance of the multivariate Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator in predicting cancer on biopsy. In the biopsy cohorts, men in the highest and lowest of three TMPRSS2:ERG+PCA3 score groups had markedly different rates of cancer, clinically significant cancer by Epstein criteria, and high-grade cancer on biopsy. Our results demonstrate that urine TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine PCA3, enhances the utility of serum PSA for predicting prostate cancer risk and clinically relevant cancer on biopsy. PMID:21813756

  14. The importance of acid digestion of urine prior to spontaneous deposition of 210Po.

    PubMed

    Fellman, A; Ralston, L; Hickman, D; Ayres, L; Cohen, N; Spitz, H; Robinson, B

    1989-10-01

    Historically, radiochemical analysis of 210Po in urine has used spontaneous deposition of the nuclide directly from raw urine onto a suitable metal disc. Consequently, the urinary excretion fraction for Po in some current metabolic and dosimetric models is based on studies which inherently assume that metabolized (i.e., filtered out of the blood by the kidneys) 210Po is plated with the same efficiency as tracer 210Po which has been added to urine samples. Urine samples collected after intravenous administration of 210Po citrate to two species of nonhuman primates were divided and simultaneously analyzed via two methods: the historical procedure of plating 210Po from raw urine for one sample and a method which includes the addition of 208Po tracer and sample digestion with concentrated HNO3 prior to 210Po deposition for the other sample. A more significant amount of 210Po was consistently recovered when the urine was wet ashed then when it was not wet ashed. A temporal relationship was found to describe the change in the ratio of the deposition recoveries for the two methods. Possible mechanisms for this phenomenon and its dosimetric implications are discussed. PMID:2507478

  15. Urine sample preparation in 96-well filter plates for quantitative clinical proteomics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanbao; Suh, Moo-Jin; Sikorski, Patricia; Kwon, Keehwan; Nelson, Karen E; Pieper, Rembert

    2014-06-01

    Urine is an important, noninvasively collected body fluid source for the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based shotgun proteomics has evolved as a sensitive and informative technique to discover candidate disease biomarkers from urine specimens. Filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) generates peptide samples from protein mixtures of cell lysate or body fluid origin. Here, we describe a FASP method adapted to 96-well filter plates, named 96FASP. Soluble urine concentrates containing ~10 μg of total protein were processed by 96FASP and LC-MS resulting in 700-900 protein identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR). The experimental repeatability, as assessed by label-free quantification and Pearson correlation analysis for shared proteins among replicates, was high (R ≥ 0.97). Application to urinary pellet lysates which is of particular interest in the context of urinary tract infection analysis was also demonstrated. On average, 1700 proteins (±398) were identified in five experiments. In a pilot study using 96FASP for analysis of eight soluble urine samples, we demonstrated that protein profiles of technical replicates invariably clustered; the protein profiles for distinct urine donors were very different from each other. Robust, highly parallel methods to generate peptide mixtures from urine and other body fluids are critical to increase cost-effectiveness in clinical proteomics projects. This 96FASP method has potential to become a gold standard for high-throughput quantitative clinical proteomics. PMID:24797144

  16. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The increase in the number of pets (mostly dogs), homeless people and the more recent open-air drinking sessions organized by young people in historical centers of European cities, derive on the augmentation of urinations on stone façades of the built cultural heritage. Up to now this process has been considered only under an undesirable aesthetical point of view and the insalubrious conditions it creates, together with the cleaning costs that the local governments have to assume. This study aims to confirm urine as a real source of soluble salts that can trigger the decay of building materials, especially of those of built cultural heritage of the historical centers of the cities, which are suffering the new social scenario described above. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed and performed in the laboratory to simulate this process. 5 cm side cubic specimens of dolostone were subjected to 100 testing cycles of urine absorption by capillarity. The necessary amount of urine was collected by donors and stored following clinical protocol conditions. Each cycle consisted of imbibitions of the specimens in 3 mm high urine sheet for 3 hours, drying at 40°C in an oven for 20 hours and 1 hour cooling in a dessicator. At the end of the 100 cycles, small pieces of the specimens were cut, observed and analyzed with the aid of an environmental scanning electron microscope, which presents the advantage of no sample preparation. The sampled pieces were selected considering there were different sections in height in the specimens: a) a bottom section that corresponds to the section that has been immersed in the urine solution (3 mm); b) an interface section, immediately above the immersed area, which is the area most affected by the urine capillarity process, characterized by a strong yellowish color; c) the section that we have named as section of influence, which is subjected to the capillary absorption, although not so strongly than the interface section

  17. Investigation of urine proteomic profile of cosmonauts after long-term space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obraztcova, Olga; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Dobrokhotov, Igor; Kononikhin, Alexey; Nikolaev, Eugene

    The main interest is the study of changes in the protein composition of urine caused by aggressive factors of space flight. To analyze these changes, we investigated the proteome of urine obtained from cosmonauts after long-term spaceflight. We studied the protein composition of the second morning urine fractions obtained from six Russian cosmonauts aged 35 to 51 years, whose mission at the International Space Station continued from 169 to 199 days. Were used proteomic data acquisition technology and advanced bioinformatics analysis approaches. Collection of biomaterial was held within the space experiment "Proteome" before the flight, on the first and seventh day after landing. Urine protein was not detected spectrophotometrically in the majority of the urine samples before the flight, but on the first day after landing it was detected in four cosmonauts, and later - in two cosmonauts. By liquid chromatography (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) - mass-spectrometry (Thermo, Germany) technic, proteins in urine samples were detected in all periods of observation. As a result of our analysis, we have determined that the detected proteins had different origin. There were identified proteins synthesized in the kidney, liver and prostate. There was observed the drift of the protein composition in urine. One of the hallmarks of this drift was the disappearance of the five proteins in urine samples during the first day after the flight, despite their presence in the samples pre-flight period. They were: receptor tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal keratin-1, G-protein-coupled receptors, inter-alpha (globulin) inhibitor H4. Such changes could be explained by the influence of factors of space flight, as well as the individual response of each cosmonaut’ organism when they return to the Earth conditions. Also, there was detected the trend to activate proteolysis of proteins in post-flight period, based on the identified secretory proteins with protease activity (cystatin M

  18. Detection of mutagenic activity in the urine of rodents treated with p-Rosaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Lawlor, T.E.; Haworth, S.R.; Lilja, H.S.; Cameron, T.P.; Dunkel, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    p-Rosaniline was fed to male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice at doses of 1000 and 2000 ppm for male rats and 500 and 1000 ppm for female rats and mice of both sexes. Urine was collected overnight at 1-wk intervals over a 4-wk treatment period and frozen until its use in the mutagenicity assay. The neat urine was tested in triplicate without S-9 on Salmonella tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 at 0.75, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.05 ml per plate. When sufficient urine was available, samples were tested at TA100 in the presence of S-9. Either urine samples were pretreated for 18 hr at 37/sup 0/C with ..beta..-glucuronidase, or the deconjugating enzyme was added to the top agar at the time of plating in the mutagenicity assay (non-pretreatment). Direct-acting mutagenic activity was detected on TA98 in the urine from male mice, but only when using the non-pretreatment deconjugation method. No direct-acting mutagenic activity was detected in the urine of male and female rats and female mice; however, in the presence of S-9, mutagenic activity was observed in the urine of male rats and in the urine of male and female mice regardless of the deconjugation method used. The non-pretreatment method was superior for detecting direct acting mutagenic activity, and the pretreatment method was superior for detecting mutagenic activity requiring metabolic activation by S-9.

  19. Need and utility of a polyethylene glycol marker to ensure against urine falsification among heroin users

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Atchison, Jared J.; Madera, Gabriela; Metz, Verena E.; Comer, Sandra D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Deceptive methods of falsifying urine samples are of concern for anyone who relies on accurate urine toxicology results. A novel method to combat these efforts utilizes polyethylene glycol (PEG) markers administered orally prior to providing a urine sample. By using various PEG combinations to create a tracer capsule of unique composition, each urine sample can be matched to that individual. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using the PEG marker system among active heroin users screening for research studies. Methods Upon each screening visit, participants (N=55) were randomized to provide an unobserved urine sample, or the PEG tracer procedure was used. LCMS analysis was used to distinguish the PEG combinations, and allowed us to provide a unique qualitative analysis of patterns of drug use (N=168, total urine specimens). Results The unique composition of the tracer capsules was accurately detected in 83.5% of the urine specimens. Analyses of inconsistencies implicated a number of possible attempts at fraudulence (11.4%) and investigator/lab error (5.1%). Among this sample, the concurrent use of multiple classes of psychoactive drugs was more common than not, though concomitant drug use was often underreported. Conclusion Urine drug testing should be the minimum standard for obtaining information about drug use as self-report was unreliable even in a situation where there were no perceived adverse consequences for full disclosure. In cases where there are significant pressures for individuals to falsify these data, more protective collection methods such as the PEG marker system should be considered. PMID:26051158

  20. Specific detection of prostate cancer cells in urine by multiplex immunofluorescence cytology.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazutoshi; Pavlovich, Christian P; Netto, George J; Konishi, Yuko; Isaacs, William B; Ali, Syed; De Marzo, Angelo; Meeker, Alan K

    2009-07-01

    Prostate cancer biomarkers are enriched in urine after prostatic manipulation, suggesting that whole cells might also be detectable for diagnosis. We tested multiplex staining of urinary sediments as a minimally invasive method to detect prostate cancer. Urine samples were collected from 35 men who had prostatic massage (attentive digital rectal examination) in a urology clinic and from 15 control men without urologic disease and without massage, for a total of 50 specimens (27 cancer-positive cases and 23 cancer-negative cases). LNCaP prostate cancer cells spiked into urine were used for initial marker optimization. Urine sediments were cytospun onto glass slides and stained. Multiplex urine cytology was compared with conventional urine cytology for cancer detection; anti-alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase antibody was used as a marker of prostate cancer cells, anti-Nkx3.1 as a marker of prostate epithelial cells, anti-nucleolin as a marker of nucleoli, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to highlight nuclei. Prostate cancer cells were successfully visualized by combined staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, and nucleolin. Of the 25 informative cases with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, 9 were diagnosed as suspicious or positive by multiplex immunofluorescence urine cytology, but only 4 were similarly judged by conventional cytology. All cases without cancer were read as negative by both methods. The multiplex cytology sensitivity for cancer detection in informative cases was 36% (9/25), and specificity was 100% (8/8). In conclusion, we have successfully achieved multiple staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, nucleolin, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to detect prostate cancer cells in urine. Further refinements in marker selection and technique may increase sensitivity and applicability for prostate cancer diagnosis. PMID:19368959

  1. The recycle of water and nitrogen from urine in bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shengda; Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The recycle of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), among which the treatment and recovery of the crew's urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Researchers have paid a lot of attention on the desalination of urine in the previous studies, however, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved more significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urine was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification method (HTAM) and immobilized urease catalysis method (IUCM) were investigated in the hydrolysis pretreatment of urine. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the hydrolysis efficiencies were compared. The results showed that the optimum treatment temperature and acidity for HTAM were 99 °C and [H+] =2 mol/L when the reaction time was 7 h, and the maximum nitrogen recycle efficiency was 39.7%. While, the optimum treatment conditions for IUCM were 60 °C, pH=7.0 and 40 min, and the maximum nitrogen recycle efficiency could reach 52.2%. Therefore, compared with HTAM, IUCM has higher hydrolysis efficiency with milder reaction temperature and pH and shorter reaction time which means it could adapt to the heavy urine treatment workload in BLSS. This investigation has provided a promising method to recycle the urine in BLSS, and all the results will contribute to the further BLSS experiments conducted in the stage II of the "Lunar Palace 1".

  2. Lithogenic activity and clinical relevance of lipids extracted from urines and stones of nephrolithiasis patients.

    PubMed

    Boonla, Chanchai; Youngjermchan, Phantip; Pumpaisanchai, Somkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana

    2011-02-01

    We investigated contents and classes of urinary and stone matrix lipids, and evaluated their clinical relevance in nephrolithiasis patients. Lithogenic role of major lipid classes was explored. Urine (24 h) and stone samples were collected from 47 patients with nephrolithiasis. Control urines were obtained from 29 healthy subjects. Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and total proteins were measured. Total lipids were extracted from centrifuged urines (10,000 rpm, 30 min) and stones by chloroform/methanol method. Major classes of lipids were identified using multi-one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (MOD-TLC). Influence of each lipid class purified from stone matrices on stone formation was evaluated using crystallization and crystal aggregation assays. Urinary NAG activity and 8-OHdG were significantly elevated in nephrolithiasis patients. Total lipids in centrifuged urines of the patients were not significantly different from that of controls. In nephrolithiasis, urinary excretion of total lipids was linearly correlated to urinary MDA, 8-OHdG, NAG activity and total proteins. Lipid contents in stone matrices varied among stone types. Uric acid stone contained lower amount of total lipids than calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones. MOD-TLC lipid chromatograms of healthy urines, nephrolithiasis urines and stone matrices were obviously different. Triacylglyceride was abundant in urines, but scarcely found in stone matrices. Stone matrices were rich in glycolipids and high-polar lipids (phospholipids/gangliosides). Partially purified glycolipids significantly induced crystal aggregation while cholesterol was a significant inducer of both crystal formation and agglomeration. In conclusion, total lipids in centrifuged urines did not differ between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. Our finding suggests that the significant sources of lipids in patients' urine may be

  3. A Low Cost Device for Monitoring the Urine Output of Critical Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Abraham; Palacios, Francisco; Akinfiev, Teodor; Apalkov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    In critical care units most of the patients’ physiological parameters are sensed by commercial monitoring devices. These devices can also supervise whether the values of the parameters lie within a pre-established range set by the clinician. The automation of the sensing and supervision tasks has discharged the healthcare staff of a considerable workload and avoids human errors, which are common in repetitive and monotonous tasks. Urine output is very likely the most relevant physiological parameter that has yet to be sensed or supervised automatically. This paper presents a low cost patent-pending device capable of sensing and supervising urine output. The device uses reed switches activated by a magnetic float in order to measure the amount of urine collected in two containers which are arranged in cascade. When either of the containers fills, it is emptied automatically using a siphon mechanism and urine begins to collect again. An electronic unit sends the state of the reed switches via Bluetooth to a PC that calculates the urine output from this information and supervises the achievement of therapeutic goals. PMID:22163495

  4. Urine Proteome Biomarkers in Kidney Diseases. I. Limits, Perspectives, and First Focus on Normal Urine

    PubMed Central

    Santucci, Laura; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni; Lugani, Francesca; Petretto, Andrea; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urine proteome is a potential source of information in renal diseases, and it is considered a natural area of investigation for biomarkers. Technology developments have markedly increased the power analysis on urinary proteins, and it is time to confront methodologies and results of major studies on the topics. This is a first part of a series of reviews that will focus on the urine proteome as a site for detecting biomarkers of renal diseases; the theme of the first review concerns methodological aspects applied to normal urine. Main issues are techniques for urine pretreatment, separation of exosomes, use of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, mass spectrometry approaches, and analysis of data sets. Available studies show important differences, suggesting a major confounding effect of the technologies utilized for analysis. The objective is to obtain consensus about which approaches should be utilized for studying urine proteome in renal diseases. PMID:26997865

  5. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  6. "I have chicken fat in my urine!" A case of Candida tropicalis induced emphysematous pyelitis.

    PubMed

    Alansari, Ahmed; Borras, Manuel Duran; Boma, Noella

    2015-12-01

    A patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus presented with fever and flank pain. A computed tomography scan showed free air within both collecting systems. A diagnosis of emphysematous pyelitis was made after other alternative diagnoses were ruled out. Urine culture grew Candida tropicalis. The emphysematous pyelitis resolved with conservative management using antifungal therapy. PMID:26909246

  7. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PESTICIDE METABOLITES IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Metabolites in Urine data set contains the analytical results for measurements of up to 8 pesticide metabolites in 86 samples over 86 households. Each sample was collected form the primary respondent within each household. The sample consists of the first morning ...

  8. [Impulse galvanization in postoperative urination disorders].

    PubMed

    Kölbl, H; Riss, P

    1988-03-01

    In this study we examined the therapeutic effect of impulse-galvanization in patients with voiding difficulties after anterior vaginal repair. Patients (n = 56/79) revealing residual urine until the sixth postoperative day were studied. Considering the onset of the first spontaneous micturition and the lack of residual urine no significant difference was found in the group undergoing impulse-galvanization (n = 19) compared to a group without therapy (n = 37). By adjuvant treatment with alpha-sympathicolytics, spasmolytics or tranquilizers patients with impulse-galvanization and the comparative group were found to be without residual urine 11.2 and 13 days after surgery, respectively (p less than 0.001). PMID:3259522

  9. [Urease activity of bacteria in urine].

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Takeuchi, H; Tomoyoshi, T; Tatewaki, K

    1989-02-01

    Urea splitting bacteria are related to the formation of struvite or apatite. We investigated the urease activity of bacteria by two methods; the direct measurement of urease activity of viable bacteria and sonicated bacteria from amounts of ammonia by the indophenol method, and the measurement of urease activity by alkalization of infected urine. Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had moderate activity of urease, and Morganella morganii and Staphylococcus epidermidis had the most powerful activity. P. mirabilis caused the strongest alkalization in infected urine. PMID:2500012

  10. Investigation of Urination Disorder in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Zhang, Xu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urination disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and respond poorly to medication. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for urination disorders in PD. Methods: Ninety-one patients with PD (aged 34–83 years old) were recruited. Patients were assessed with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr stage, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Micturition number was recorded, and Type B ultrasound was used to evaluate residual urine. Statistics was performed using binary logistic regression, bivariate correlations, and Chi-square and t-tests. Results: Of 91 patients, urinary dysfunction occurred in 55.0%. Among these, 49.5% suffered with nocturia, 47.3% with pollakiuria. Nocturia number had a positive linear relationship with HAMA score (odds ratio [OR] = 0.340, P = 0.001), HAMD score (OR = 0.323, P = 0.002), duration of L-dopa medication (OR = 0.328, P = 0.001), dose of L-dopa (OR = 0.273, P = 0.009), UPDRS-II (OR = 0.402, P = 0.000), UPDRS-III score (OR = 0.291, P = 0.005), and PSQI score (OR = 0.249, P = 0.017). Micturition number over 24 h was positively associated with HAMA (OR = 0.303, P = 0.004) and UPDRS-II scores (OR = 0.306, P = 0.003). Of patients with residual urine, 79.3% had a volume of residual urine <50 ml. Residual urine was present in 44.4% of the patients with nocturia, 46.5% of the patients with pollakiuria, and 80.0% of the patients with dysuria. More men than women had residual urine (35.2% male vs. 13.3% female; P = 0.002). Conclusions: Nocturia and pollakiuria were common micturition symptoms in our participants with PD. Nocturia was associated with depression, anxiety, sleep problems, and severity of PD. Pollakiuria was associated with anxiety and severity of PD. Male patients were more prone to residual urine and pollakiuria. PMID:26521789

  11. Comparison of Depletion Strategies for the Enrichment of Low-Abundance Proteins in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Filip, Szymon; Vougas, Konstantinos; Zoidakis, Jerome; Latosinska, Agnieszka; Mullen, William; Spasovski, Goce; Mischak, Harald; Vlahou, Antonia; Jankowski, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Proteome analysis of complex biological samples for biomarker identification remains challenging, among others due to the extended range of protein concentrations. High-abundance proteins like albumin or IgG of plasma and urine, may interfere with the detection of potential disease biomarkers. Currently, several options are available for the depletion of abundant proteins in plasma. However, the applicability of these methods in urine has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we compared different, commercially available immunodepletion and ion-exchange based approaches on urine samples from both healthy subjects and CKD patients, for their reproducibility and efficiency in protein depletion. A starting urine volume of 500 μL was used to simulate conditions of a multi-institutional biomarker discovery study. All depletion approaches showed satisfactory reproducibility (n=5) in protein identification as well as protein abundance. Comparison of the depletion efficiency between the unfractionated and fractionated samples and the different depletion strategies, showed efficient depletion in all cases, with the exception of the ion-exchange kit. The depletion efficiency was found slightly higher in normal than in CKD samples and normal samples yielded more protein identifications than CKD samples when using both initial as well as corresponding depleted fractions. Along these lines, decrease in the amount of albumin and other targets as applicable, following depletion, was observed. Nevertheless, these depletion strategies did not yield a higher number of identifications in neither the urine from normal nor CKD patients. Collectively, when analyzing urine in the context of CKD biomarker identification, no added value of depletion strategies can be observed and analysis of unfractionated starting urine appears to be preferable. PMID:26208298

  12. Urine vanadium concentrations in workers overhauling an oil-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Ryan, P B; Christiani, D C

    1998-01-01

    Since fuel oil ash contains vanadium (V), the measurement of urinary levels of V may provide a biological marker in workers exposed to fuel oil ash. The usefulness of urine V samples as a biological monitoring tool ultimately depends on determining the appropriate time of sampling relative to when exposure occurs. Twenty boilermakers were studied during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler. A total of 117 urine samples were collected, 65 start-of-shift (S-O-S) and 52 end-of-shift (E-O-S) samples. Air V exposures were estimated with personal sampling devices and work history diaries. Air V concentrations ranged from 0.36 to 32.19 micrograms V/m3, with a mean +/- SD of 19.1 +/- 10.7, and a median of 18.5. On the first day of work on the overhaul, the V urine levels at the E-O-S (mean +/- SD were 1.53 +/- 0.53, median was 1.52 mg V/g creatinine) were significantly higher than those at the S-O-S (0.87 +/- 0.32, median was 0.83), P = 0.004. However, the V concentrations of the S-O-S urine samples on the last Monday of the study were not significantly different from the S-O-S urine levels on the previous Saturday, a time interval of about 38 hr between the end of exposure and sample collection. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between the S-O-S urine V and the workplace concentration of V dust during the previous day was r = 0.35. In summary, the results suggest a rapid initial clearance of V (elevating the E-O-S V concentration on the first day of work relative to the S-O-S concentration), followed by a slow clearance that is not complete 38 hr after the end of exposure, as evidenced by the Monday morning urine V concentrations. The Spearman correlations suggest that the S-O-S urine is preferred to the E-O-S urine for across-shift biological monitoring of V exposure. PMID:9408529

  13. Effect-based detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine.

    PubMed

    Pitardi, Danilo; Cini, Barbara; Paleologo, Maurizio; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; van der Linden, Sander; Vincenti, Marco; Capra, Pierluigi; Gili, Marilena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meloni, Daniela; Bozzetta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to testing for the illicit use of anabolic substances in meat-producing animals stem from the production of new synthetic compounds and the administration of low-dose cocktails to circumvent detection by the surveillance schemes of European Union member states. This work evaluated for the first time GR-CALUX, a highly sensitive reporter gene assay, as a screening tool for the detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine. In order to verify the effect of natural corticosteroids on the method, the bioassay was tested first using blank urine samples collected at the farm and the slaughterhouse. Next, the dose-response curves were measured for the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids. The bioassay's ability to detect them in spiked and incurred samples of bovine urine was then evaluated. Finally, its performance was compared against a commercially available ELISA kit ordinarily used in screening activities. GR-CALUX performance did not appear to be influenced by physiological levels of endogenous corticosteroids in the farm samples, whereas an increase in these hormones might invalidate the analysis in samples obtained at the slaughterhouse. Using pure compounds, GR-CALUX showed a high sensitivity toward the synthetic glucocorticosteroids tested in order of relative potencies: flumethasone ≫ dexamethasone > betamethasone > methylprednisolone > prednisolone. As expected, the bioassay failed to detect the prohormone prednisone. The results obtained from analysis of the spiked and incurred specimens reproduced those of the blank samples and the pure compounds. GR-CALUX is a promising screening tool for the detection of illicit treatments in meat-producing bovines. Its ability to detect the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids was comparable with the ELISA test. Importantly, it appeared to be less susceptible to matrix effects than ELISA. PMID:25569131

  14. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~ 5 minutes per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5–10 μg/mL (which is more than 3 times lower than clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  15. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  16. Arsenic levels in blood, urine, and hair of workers applying monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelghani, A.A.; Anderson, A.C.; Jaghabir, M.; Mather, F.

    1986-05-01

    Uptake and excretion of total arsenic from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) in workers who applied the herbicide was followed during the spraying season. Urine, blood, and hair samples were collected and air samples were taken from the workers' breathing zone. Arsenic concentrations in air samples ranged from 0.001-1.086 micrograms/m3. Blood and urine arsenic values ranged from 0.0-0.2 mg/L and 0.002-1.725 mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean arsenic concentration in urine increased during the week but returned to base levels on weekends. Hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.02-358.0 mg/kg, increased during the spraying season, and returned to pre-season levels once herbicide application ceased. Three workers had higher than normal pre-exposure hair values. However, only one of the three workers had consistently above normal values throughout the study period.

  17. Excretion of cannabinoids in urine after ingestion of cannabis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, T; Sager, F; Brenneisen, R

    1997-09-01

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) quantitation of 25 cannabis sed oils determined delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from 3 to 1500 micrograms/g oil. In a pilot study, the morning urine of six volunteers who had ingested 11 or 22 g of the oil, which contained the highest THC content (1500 micrograms/g), was collected for six days. The urine samples were screened by immunoassay, and the content of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-THC (THCCOOH) was determined by GC-MS. Urine samples were found cannabis positive for up to six days with THCCOOH-equivalent concentrations up to 243 ng/mL. by the Abuscreen OnLine immunoassay and THCCOOH contents from 5 to 431 ng/mL by the GC-MS method. All subjects reported THC-specific psychotropic effects. PMID:9288590

  18. [Estimation of quantitative proteinuria using a new dipstick in random urine samples].

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Umino, Tetsuo; Nemoto, Jun; Tanba, Kaichirou; Ando, Yasuhiro; Muto, Shigeaki; Asano, Yasushi

    2004-02-01

    Proteinuria is quantified for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and to assess responses to therapy. Methods used to assess urinary protein include 24-hour urine collection (24-Up) and determination of the ratio of protein to creatinine concentration (Up/Ucr) in simple voided urine samples (Up/Ucr quantitative method). However, these methods are costly and time consuming. The Multistix PRO 11 (Bayer Medical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) is a new urine dipstick that allows rapid measurement of Up/Ucr. Results obtained with the Multistix PRO 11 coincided well with those obtained with the 24-Up method (kappa = 0.68) and the Up/Ucr quantitative method (kappa = 0.75). However, Multistix PRO 11 did not accurately measure moderate to severe proteinuria (> or = 500 mg/g. Cr). Our findings suggest that Multistix PRO 11 is useful for the screening, assessment, and follow-up of mild proteinuria. PMID:15058105

  19. [Purple urine bag syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Lazimy, Yaël; Delotte, Jérôme; Machiavello, Jean-Christophe; Lallement, Michel; Imbenotte, Michel; Bongain, André

    2007-06-01

    The authors report a case of dark purple urine in a woman with bowel obstruction and bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy urinary diversion for 30 years. This colour was due to the presence of high urinary concentrations of 3-indoxyl sulphate due to the enzymatic activity of Providencia rettgeri. A favourable course was observed in response to antibiotics. PMID:17634003

  20. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  1. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  2. Presence of endogenous prednisolone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Fidani, Marco; Gamberini, Maria C; Pompa, Giuseppe; Mungiguerra, Francesca; Casati, Alessio; Arioli, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The possibility of an endogenous presence of the glucocorticoid prednisolone has already been demonstrated in bovine and horse urine, with the aim of clarifying its origin in this matrix, which is used by official agencies for the control of illicit treatments. From this point of view, the endogenous nature of prednisolone could be a major topic in doping control of both amateur and professional human athletes. A study was therefore made on 34 human volunteers (13 males and 21 females; aged 22-62) to detect the presence of prednisolone in their urine by HPLC-MS(3). One of the volunteers underwent vernal allergy treatment with betamethasone for two subsequent years. An investigation was carried out with the aim of verifying if the suppression, and the circadian rhythm, of cortisol urinary levels could also apply to prednisolone. The results of the study show that prednisolone was present in the urine of all 34 volunteers, with a concentration very close to 100-times lower that of cortisol, with no dependence on gender. The same ratio (1/100) was observed in the prednisolone and cortisol levels detected during the 24h together with the suppression of prednisolone by betamethasone treatment. These data demonstrate the endogenous nature of low concentrations of prednisolone in human urine, and motivate further studies about the biosynthetic pathways of this corticosteroid and its relationship with stress in humans, as already described in cows. PMID:23182764

  3. Automated detection of bacteria in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Kelbaugh, B. N.

    1972-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of bacteria in urine was developed which utilizes the bioluminescent reaction of adenosine triphosphate with luciferin and luciferase derived from the tails of fireflies. The method was derived from work on extraterrestrial life detection. A device was developed which completely automates the assay process.

  4. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  5. Molecular detection of Leptospira spp. in the urine of cattle in northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shafighi, T; Zahraei Salehi, T; Abdollahpour, G; Asadpour, L; Akbarein, H; Salehzadeh, A

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by Leptospira interrogans and is considered as an emerging global public health problem. Transmission usually results from direct or indirect exposure to the urine or other body fluids of leptospiruric animals which may become a source of infection for human or other animals. Having a humid climate with plenty of annual rainfall, Guilan province is a suitable environment for maintaining Leptospira spp. Hence, early detection of Leptospira spp. in the host prompts control and protection, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a suitable method. The present report aimed to demonstrate the PCR analysis of bovine urine for detection of leptospiral DNA. A total of 98 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle bladder in Rasht abattoir of Iran and the presence of leptospiral DNA was assayed by PCR amplification of rrs (16S rRNA) gene and the results confirmed by nested PCR. Out of 98 urine samples in 42 samples leptospires DNA was identified with the frequency of 43%. The high presence of the organism in the urine of carriers is a serious threat to the dairy farms and to the public health which requires an effective control measure in the north provinces of Iran. PMID:27175139

  6. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in urine of Peromyscus leucopus by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Stafford, K C

    1994-03-01

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, in urine from white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Of the 87 urine specimens tested from 87 mice collected in widely separated tick-infested sites in Connecticut, 57 (65.5%) contained detectable concentrations of spirochetal antigens. Forty-seven (62.7%) of 75 serum samples analyzed contained antibodies to B. burgdorferi. In culture work with tissues from bladders, kidneys, spleens, or ears, 50 of 87 mice (57.5%) were infected with B. burgdorferi. Thirty-eight (76%) of 50 infected mice had antigens of this spirochete in urine, while 36 (72%) individuals had infected bladders. Of those with infected bladders, 24 (66.7%) mice excreted subunits or whole cells of B. burgdorferi into urine. Successful culturing of B. burgdorferi from mouse tissues, the presence of serum antibodies to this bacterium, and detection of antigens to this spirochete in urine provide further evidence that multiple assays can be performed to verify the presence of B. burgdorferi in P. leucopus. PMID:8195393

  7. Metabolic changes in the urine of andrographolide sodium bisulfite-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, J D; Xing, W M; Yuan, T J; Chen, J; Lu, H

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, andrographolide sodium bisulfite (ASB) has been reported to cause acute renal failure frequently in clinical practice. We hypothesized that changes in metabolic profile could have occurred after administration of ASB. To investigate the metabolic changes caused by ASB-induced nephrotoxicity, metabonomics method was utilized to depict the urine metabolic characteristics and find the specific urine biomarkers associated with ASB-induced nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three experimental groups. They received a single daily injection of vehicle (0.9% sodium chloride solution) or ASB at a dose of 100 or 600 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 7 days. Twelve-hour urine was collected after the last administration. The routine urinalysis was measured by a urine automatic analyzer while urinary metabolites were evaluated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The acquired data were processed by multivariate principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal PLS-DA. After 7-day administration of ASB, the positive urine samples in protein, occult blood, and ketones were increased, presenting dose dependence. The PCA and PLS-DA models were capable of distinguishing the difference between ASB-treated group and control. Biomarkers such as 1,5-anhydroglucitol, d-erythro-sphingosine, and 2-ketoadipate were identified as the most influential factors in ASB-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25852136

  8. The prevalence and significance of Borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of feral reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Bosler, E M; Schulze, T L

    1986-12-01

    Live Borrelia burgdorferi were isolated from the blood and/or urine of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) collected on Shelter Island, New York, in 1984 and 1985. Prevalence of spirochetes in urine was consistently higher than in blood or both fluids simultaneously. Spirochetes remained viable for 18-24 hours in urine and were maintained in culture for one week. Mice removed from the field were spirocheturic for at least 13 months. One spirocheturic mouse developed spirochetemia one month after field removal indicating the pathogen can return to the peripheral circulation. Twenty-one kidneys from 22 mice had spirochetes in the interstitial areas and bridging the tubules. A positive correlation between Babesia microti infection and spirocheturia was seen. Although the mechanism of entry into the urine is unknown, B. microti infection may increase glomerular permeability. Babesia induced hematuria may provide possible nutrients to maintain spirochetes. Urine may provide a method for contact non-tick transmission of B. burgdorferi in natural rodent populations particularly during periods of nesting and/or breeding. PMID:3577491

  9. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

  10. Metabolism study of boldenone in human urine by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinchen; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Wenxin; Ni, Jian

    2015-11-10

    Boldenone (BOLD), an anabolic steroid, is likely to be abused in livestock breeding and in sports. Although some of BOLD metabolites in human urine, such as 5β-adrost-1-en-17β-ol-3-one (BM1), have been detected, investigations on their excretion patterns for both genders are insufficient. Moreover, little research on 17α-BOLD glucuronide as a metabolite in human urine has been reported. The aim of this study is to make a contribution to the knowledge of 17β-BOLD metabolism in humans. Three male and three female volunteers were orally administrated with 30mg 17β-BOLD. Urine samples were collected and analyzed with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data proved that 17β-BOLD, BM1, and 17α-BOLD were excreted in urine in both free and glucuronic conjugated forms after administration of 17β-BOLD. For most subjects, the urinary concentrations of BM1 were higher than that of 17β-BOLD. 17α-BOLD was excreted in small amounts. 17α-BOLD, 17β-BOLD, and BM1 were present naturally in urine with low concentrations. Administration of 30mg 17β-BOLD could not influence the excretion profiles of urinary androsterone, etiocholanolone, and testosterone/epitestosterone ratio. There were no differences in BOLD metabolic patterns between man and woman. PMID:26319750

  11. Noninvasive urine-derived cell lines derived from neurological genetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Jie; He, Jin; Ni, Wang; Lin, Xiang; Yao, Xiang-Ping; Lin, Min-Ting; Murong, Shen-Xing; Wang, Ning; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2013-03-01

    Many major inherited neurological disorders are characterized by early childhood onset, high lethality rate, and the absence of effective treatments. A poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms of such disorders is partly because of the scarcity of patient-specific samples. In this study, we cultured the urine sediments of such patients, aiming to explore the capacity of urine cell cultures to obtain specimens from patients suffering from rare inherited neurological diseases. We collected fresh urine from a variety of neurogenetic patients; cultured the specimens; generated different urine cell lines; and classified these cell lines through morphology, reverse transcription-PCR, and immunofluorescence. We then used these cell lines to detect the affected genes in spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We successfully established cell lines from patients with spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, and Wilson's disease. All established cell lines consisted of urinary tract epithelial cells and podocytes, and had the same gene defects as the blood specimens. Urine cell culture is thus a new, simple, and noninvasive avenue for getting patient-specific samples not only for genetic diagnosis, but also for storing the samples from patients with rare neurological inherited diseases. PMID:23358449

  12. A population study of urine glycerol concentrations in elite athletes competing in North America.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian N; Madsen, Myke; Sharpe, Ken; Nair, Vinod; Eichner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an endogenous substance that is on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited threshold substances due to its potential use as a plasma volume expansion agent. The WADA has set the threshold for urine glycerol, including measurement uncertainty, at 1.3 mg/mL. Glycerol in circulation largely comes from metabolism of triglycerides in order to meet energy requirements and when the renal threshold is eclipsed, glycerol is excreted into urine. In part due to ethnic differences in postprandial triglyceride concentrations, we investigated urine glycerol concentrations in a population of elite athletes competing in North America and compared the results to those of athletes competing in Europe. 959 urine samples from elite athletes competing in North America collected for anti-doping purposes were analyzed for urine glycerol concentrations by a gas chromatography mass-spectrometry method. Samples were divided into groups according to: Timing (in- or out-of-competition), Class (strength, game, or endurance sports) and Gender. 333 (34.7%) samples had undetectable amounts of glycerol (<1 μg/mL). 861 (89.8%) of the samples had glycerol concentrations ≤20 μg/mL. The highest glycerol concentration observed was 652 μg/mL. Analysis of the data finds the effects of each category to be statistically significant. The largest estimate of the 99.9(th) percentile, from the in-competition, female, strength athlete samples, was 1813 μg/mL with a 95% confidence range from 774 to 4251 μg/mL. This suggests a conservative threshold of 4.3 mg/mL, which would result in a reasonable detection window for urine samples collected in-competition for all genders and sport classes. PMID:24353191

  13. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  14. New Prostate Technique May Help Men's Nighttime Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158125.html New Prostate Technique May Help Men's Nighttime Urination Procedure partially blocks blood flow to ... night to urinate is a common problem among men who have an enlarged prostate, but an innovative ...

  15. Morbid attraction to leopard urine in Toxoplasma-infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Poirotte, Clémence; Kappeler, Peter M; Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; Bourgeois, Stéphanie; Moussodji, Maick; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2016-02-01

    Parasites are sometimes capable of inducing phenotypic changes in their hosts to improve transmission [1]. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan that infects a broad range of warm-blooded species, is one example that supports the so-called 'parasite manipulation hypothesis': it induces modifications in rodents' olfactory preferences, converting an innate aversion for cat odor into attraction and probably favoring trophic transmission to feline species, its only definitive hosts [2]. In humans, T. gondii induces behavioral modifications such as personality changes, prolonged reaction times and decreased long-term concentration [3]. However, modern humans are not suitable intermediate hosts because they are no longer preyed upon by felines. Consequently, behavioral modifications in infected people are generally assumed to be side effects of toxoplasmosis or residual manipulation traits that evolved in appropriate intermediate hosts. An alternative hypothesis, however, states that these changes result from parasite manipulative abilities that evolved when human ancestors were still under significant feline predation [3,4]. As such, T. gondii also alters olfactory preferences in humans; infected men rate cat urine, but not tiger urine, as pleasant while non-infected men do not [5]. To unravel the origin of Toxoplasma-induced modifications in humans, we performed olfactory tests on a living primate still predated by a feline species. We found in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), that Toxoplasma-infected (TI) animals lost their innate aversion towards the urine of leopards (Panthera pardus), their only natural predator. By contrast, we observed no clear difference in the response of TI and Toxoplasma-non-infected (TN) animals towards urine collected from other definitive feline hosts that chimpanzees do not encounter in nature. Although the adaptive value of parasitically induced behavior should be assessed carefully, we suggest that the

  16. The selection of female urinals: results of a multicentre evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fader, M; Pettersson, L; Dean, G; Brooks, R; Cottenden, A

    Female urinals are designed to enable women to empty their bladders while not on the toilet and are therefore potentially useful in preventing incontinence. However, there is little published information to guide product selection. Therefore, an evaluation of these products was undertaken by the Continence Products Evaluation Network (funded by the Medical Devices Agency). All 13 reusable female urinals available in the UK in March 1997 were evaluated. Each urinal was evaluated by 28-32 community-based women. Preliminarily, each subject tested all urinals by trying to place them in one or two of their preferred positions, to establish if the urinals were suitable for full testing. Each of the urinals that were selected for full testing were then used for 1 week each. During this week the subjects kept a diary to record leakage or spillage when using the urinal. At the end of the week a product evaluation form was filled in to record product performance. The results from full testing indicate that all urinals were successful for some subjects. However, some urinals were found to be successful for all four main positions (e.g. Petal Female Urinal) while others were successful mainly in one or two positions (e.g. Bridge Saddle Pan and Subaseal). Many urinals were successful in the standing/crouching and sitting on the edge (of chair or bed) positions, while comparatively few urinals were successful in the lying position. It was found that the chances of finding a suitable urinal increased with levels of independence. This means that subjects with higher levels of dependency found fewer urinals to be suitable for their needs when used without assistance. The results of this evaluation provide guidance for product selection. However, it is recommended that continence specialists keep samples of the full range of female urinals to enable women to experiment with urinals in order to find one that best suits their needs. PMID:10711014

  17. ECLSS Sustaining Compatibility Testing on Urine Processor Assembly Nonmetallic Materials for Reformulation of Pretreated Urine Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    On International Space Station (ISS), the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) converts human urine and flush water into potable water. The urine is acid-pretreated primarily to control microbial growth. In recent years, the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment was believed to be largely responsible for producing salt crystals capable of plugging filters in UPA components and significantly reducing the percentage of water recovery from urine. In 2012, ISS management decided to change the acid pretreatment for urine from sulfuric to phosphoric with the goal of eliminating or minimizing formation of salt crystals. In 2013-2014, as part of the qualification of the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) formulation, samples of 12 nonmetallic materials used in UPA components were immersed for up to one year in pretreated urine and brine solutions made with the new H3PO4 formulation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to measure modulus (stiffness) of the immersed samples compared to virgin control samples. Such compatibility data obtained by DMA for the H3PO4-based solutions were compared to DMA data obtained for the H2SO4-based solutions in 2002-2003.

  18. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  19. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  20. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  1. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  2. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  3. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  4. Comparison between Urine and Cervical Samples for HPV DNA Detection and Typing in Young Women in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cómbita, Alba Lucía; Gheit, Tarik; González, Paula; Puerto, Devi; Murillo, Raúl Hernando; Montoya, Luisa; Vorsters, Alex; Van Keer, Severien; Van Damme, Pierre; Tommasino, Massimo; Hernández-Suárez, Gustavo; Sánchez, Laura; Herrero, Rolando; Wiesner, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Urine sampling for HPV DNA detection has been proposed as an effective method for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination programs; however, conflicting results have been reported. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of optimized urine HPV DNA testing in women aged 19 to 25 years. Optimization process included the use of first void urine, immediate mixing of urine with DNA preservative, and the concentration of all HPV DNA, including cell-free DNA fragments. Urine and cervical samples were collected from 535 young women attending cervical screening at health centers from two Colombian cities. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using an HPV type-specific multiplex genotyping assay, which combines multiplex polymerase chain reaction with bead-based Luminex technology. Concordance between HPV DNA detection in urine and cervical samples was determined using kappa statistics and McNemar tests. The accuracy of HPV DNA testing in urine samples was evaluated measuring sensitivity and specificity using as reference the results obtained from cervical samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA11.2 software. The findings revealed an overall HPV prevalence of 60.00% in cervical samples and 64.72% in urine samples, HPV-16 being the most frequent HPV type detected in both specimens. Moreover, our results indicate that detection of HPV DNA in first void urine provides similar results to those obtained with cervical samples and can be used to monitor HPV vaccination trials and programs as evidenced by the substantial concordance found for the detection of the four vaccine types. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 766-71. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27417431

  5. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls) of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI). Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both

  6. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  7. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples.

    PubMed

    Cezarino, Bruno Nicolino; Yamamoto, Lidia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Rocha, Daisy; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2008-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains the most common cause of early-onset sepsis in newborns. Laboratory gold-standard, broth culture methods are highly specific, but lack sensitivity. The aim of this study was to validate a nested-PCR and to determine whether residue volumes of urine samples obtained by non invasive, non sterile methods could be used to confirm neonatal GBS sepsis. The nested-PCR was performed with primers of the major GBS surface antigen. Unavailability of biological samples to perform life supporting exams, as well as others to elucidate the etiology of infections is a frequent problem concerning newborn patients. Nevertheless, we decided to include cases according to strict criteria: newborns had to present with signs and symptoms compatible with GBS infection; at least one of the following biological samples had to be sent for culture: blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid; availability of residue volumes of the samples sent for cultures, or of others collected on the day of hospitalization, prior to antibiotic therapy prescription, to be analyzed by PCR; favorable outcome after GBS empiric treatment. In only one newborn GBS infection was confirmed by cultures, while infection was only presumptive in the other three patients (they fulfilled inclusion criteria but were GBS-culture negative). From a total of 12 biological samples (5 blood, 3 CSF and 4 urine specimen), eight were tested by culture methods (2/8 were positive), and 8 were tested by PCR (7/8 were positive), and only 4 samples were simultaneously tested by both methods (1 positive by culture and 3 by PCR). In conclusion, although based on a restricted number of neonates and samples, our results suggest that the proposed nested-PCR might be used to diagnose GBS sepsis as it has successfully amplified the three types of biological samples analyzed (blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid), and was more sensitive than culture methods as PCR in urine confirmed diagnosis in all four patients

  8. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Cezarino, Bruno Nicolino; Yamamoto, Lidia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Rocha, Daisy; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2008-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains the most common cause of early-onset sepsis in newborns. Laboratory gold-standard, broth culture methods are highly specific, but lack sensitivity. The aim of this study was to validate a nested-PCR and to determine whether residue volumes of urine samples obtained by non invasive, non sterile methods could be used to confirm neonatal GBS sepsis. The nested-PCR was performed with primers of the major GBS surface antigen. Unavailability of biological samples to perform life supporting exams, as well as others to elucidate the etiology of infections is a frequent problem concerning newborn patients. Nevertheless, we decided to include cases according to strict criteria: newborns had to present with signs and symptoms compatible with GBS infection; at least one of the following biological samples had to be sent for culture: blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid; availability of residue volumes of the samples sent for cultures, or of others collected on the day of hospitalization, prior to antibiotic therapy prescription, to be analyzed by PCR; favorable outcome after GBS empiric treatment. In only one newborn GBS infection was confirmed by cultures, while infection was only presumptive in the other three patients (they fulfilled inclusion criteria but were GBS-culture negative). From a total of 12 biological samples (5 blood, 3 CSF and 4 urine specimen), eight were tested by culture methods (2/8 were positive), and 8 were tested by PCR (7/8 were positive), and only 4 samples were simultaneously tested by both methods (1 positive by culture and 3 by PCR). In conclusion, although based on a restricted number of neonates and samples, our results suggest that the proposed nested-PCR might be used to diagnose GBS sepsis as it has successfully amplified the three types of biological samples analyzed (blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid), and was more sensitive than culture methods as PCR in urine confirmed diagnosis in all four patients

  9. Selenium metabolites in urine of cancer patients receiving L-selenomethionine at high doses

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehnelt, Doris; Juresa, Dijana; Francesconi, Kevin A. . E-mail: kevin.francesconi@uni-graz.at; Fakih, Marwan; Reid, Mary E.

    2007-04-15

    We investigated, with quantitative HPLC/mass spectrometry, the selenium metabolites in urine from five cancer patients receiving high doses of L-selenomethionine over an extended period (2 x 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 7 days, then 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 21 days) as an adjunct to their normal cancer chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected at day 0 (all 5 patients), and at 2-3 additional collection times ranging from 1 to 33 days. The background selenium concentrations ranged from 12 to 55 {mu}g Se/L and increased to 870 to 4420 {mu}g Se/L for the five patients during the study. All five patients had appreciable levels of selenosugars in their background urine sample, and the concentrations increased dramatically after selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), on the other hand, was generally present as only a trace metabolite in background urine, and, although the concentration of TMSe increased following selenium exposure, it became a less significant proportion relative to selenosugars. These data refute the currently accepted role of TMSe as the preferred excretion metabolite when selenium exposure is high.

  10. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) gene deficiency impairs urine concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shizheng; Gao, Min; Liu, Jia; Jia, Xiao; Han, Qifei; Zheng, Senfeng; Miao, Yifei; Li, Shuo; Weng, Haoyu; Xia, Xuan; Du, Shengnan; Wu, Wanfu; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Guan, Youfei

    2014-02-11

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR is ubiquitously distributed in renal tubules. FXR agonist treatment significantly lowered urine volume and increased urine osmolality, whereas FXR knockout mice exhibited an impaired urine concentrating ability, which led to a polyuria phenotype. We further found that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with chenodeoxycholic acid, an FXR endogenous ligand, significantly up-regulated renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression, whereas FXR gene deficiency markedly reduced AQP2 expression levels in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that the AQP2 gene promoter contained a putative FXR response element site, which can be bound and activated by FXR, resulting in a significant increase of AQP2 transcription in cultured primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that FXR plays a critical role in the regulation of urine volume, and its activation increases urinary concentrating capacity mainly via up-regulating its target gene AQP2 expression in the collecting ducts. PMID:24464484

  11. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew J; Ward, Malcolm A; Thompson, Andrew J; Chappell, Lucy C

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the 'gold standard' amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia). BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-acid assay, which performed particularly poorly at higher protein concentrations. These data highlight the need to use amino-acid or BCA assays for unprocessed urine protein estimation. PMID:26103798

  12. Theories and controversies on urine formation.

    PubMed

    Timio, Mario; Saronio, Paolo; Capodicasa, Enrico; Timio, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    The theories of urine formation developed in the wake of progressing scientific knowledge in renal anatomy and physiology. From the philosophical theories which for a long time swung between vitalism and mechanism, the "scientific revolution" gave a great impulse to morpho/functional unit of kidney. Bowman's secretory hypothesis, as an expression of the vitalistic based theory, describes for the first time many features of the nephron and its blood supply. New insight into the inevitable errors of Bowman led Ludwig to develop the filtration-reabsorption theory, which based its scientific approach on the emerging physics and chemistry theories. The Heidenhain's secretory hypothesis which does not admit the physical filtration in Ludwig's sense, nor the hydrostatic pressure of the blood, even though incomplete and in some part without unequivocal experimental evidence, adds a fragment to the right theory of the urine formation and heralds the modern approach to the renal function of the 20th century. PMID:14736027

  13. [SHIFTS IN URINE PROTEIN PROFILE DURING DRY IMMERSION].

    PubMed

    Pastushkova L Kh; Kononikhin, A S; Tiys, E S; Nosovsky, A M; Dobrokhotov, I V; Ivanisenko, V A; Nikolaev, E N; Novoselova, N M; Custaud, M A; Larina, I M

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at tracking the proteomic profile of urine in 8 normal volunteers to 5-day dry immersion (DI). The proteome composition was determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry on high-efficient on-line liquid nano chromatograph Agilent 1100; complementary information about the protein spectra was obtained by dint of mass-spectrometer MaXis Impact 4G and hybrid mass-spectrometer LTQ-FT. Functional associations between proteins and biological functions were analyzed using computer system ANDCell (Associative Networks Discovery in Cells). A total of 256 proteins were identified; for 43 proteins difference in the detection rate during the baseline data collection and on DI day 4 exceeded 20%. PMID:26554129

  14. Psychopathology and Urine Toxicology in Methadone Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Gamal; Cernovsky, Zack; Chiu, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile). The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48), were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44), reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41), of phobic tendencies (r=40), of anxiety (r=0.39), and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38), and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43). PMID:26266026

  15. Measurement of Menadione in Urine by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Ala Al; Peterson, James; Choi, Sang Woon; Suttie, John; Barakat, Susan; Booth, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    Menadione is a metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using a C30 column, post-column zinc reduction and fluorescence detection was developed to measure urinary menadione. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol with 0.55% aqueous solution and 5% DI H2O. Menaquinone-2 (MK-2) was used as an internal standard. The standard calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.999 for both menadione and MK-2. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.3 pmole menadione/mL urine. Sample preparation involved hydrolysis of menadiol conjugates and oxidizing the released menadiol to menadione. Using this method, urinary menadione was shown to increase in response to 3 years of phylloquinone supplementation. This HPLC method is a sensitive and reproducible way to detect menadione in urine. Research support: USDA ARS Cooperative Agreement 58-1950-7-707. PMID:20719580

  16. Natural calcium isotonic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skulan, J.; Bullen, T.; Anbar, A.D.; Puzas, J.E.; Shackelford, L.; LeBlanc, A.; Smith, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether changes in the natural isotopic composition of calcium in human urine track changes in net bone mineral balance, as predicted by a model of calcium isotopic behavior in vertebrates. If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques. Methods: Calcium isotopic compositions are expressed as ??44Ca, or the difference in parts per thousand between the 44Ca/40Ca of a sample and the 44Ca/ 40Ca of a standard reference material. ??44Ca was measured in urine samples from 10 persons who participated in a study of the effectiveness of countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight, in which 17 weeks of bed rest was used to induce bone loss. Study participants were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: controls received no treatment, one treatment group received alendronate, and another group performed resistive exercise. Measurements were made on urine samples collected before, at 2 or 3 points during, and after bed rest. Results: Urine ??44Ca values during bed rest were lower in controls than in individuals treated with alendronate (P <0.05, ANOVA) or exercise (P <0.05), and lower than the control group baseline (P <0.05, Mest). Results were consistent with the model and with biochemical and bone mineral density data. Conclusion: Results confirm the predicted relationship between bone mineral balance and calcium isotopes, suggesting that calcium isotopic analysis of urine might be refined into a clinical and research tool. ?? 2007 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  17. Value of Routine Dengue Diagnostic Tests in Urine and Saliva Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Lorn Try, Patrich; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Serial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine. Conclusions Although the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible. PMID:26406240

  18. Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Urine and Saliva Samples in Nonhuman Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John Maina; Gachie, Beatrice Muthoni; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Waema, Maxwell Wambua; Maranga, Dawn Nyawira; Maina, Naomi Wangari

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector-borne parasitic zoonotic disease. The disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the most prevalent in Africa. Early diagnosis is hampered by lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques. This study explored the potential of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of T. b. gambiense infection in a vervet monkey HAT model. Six vervet monkeys were experimentally infected with T. b. gambiense IL3253 and monitored for 180 days after infection. Parasitaemia was scored daily. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, and urine samples were collected weekly. PCR and LAMP were performed on serum, CSF, saliva, and urine samples. The detection by LAMP was significantly higher than that of parasitological methods and PCR in all the samples. The performance of LAMP varied between the samples and was better in serum followed by saliva and then urine samples. In the saliva samples, LAMP had 100% detection between 21 and 77 dpi, whereas in urine the detection it was slightly lower, but there was over 80% detection between 28 and 91 dpi. However, LAMP could not detect trypanosomes in either saliva or urine after 140 and 126 dpi, respectively. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of LAMP in diagnosis of HAT using saliva and urine samples. PMID:26504841

  19. Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of females of two species of tabanid to volatiles in urine of different mammals.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, F; Cadier, J; Porciani, A; Buatois, B; Dormont, L; Jay-Robert, P

    2013-03-01

    Urine volatiles from different ungulates (cows, horses and sheep) were tested as bait for tabanids in southeastern France using Nzi traps during the early summer of 2011. Tabanus bromius Linnaeus, 1758 and Atylotus quadrifarius (Loew, 1874) (both: Diptera: Tabanidae) were the most captured species, respectively representing 57% and 41% of all tabanids collected (all of which were female). Horse urine significantly increased catches of T. bromius (1.6-fold) and A. quadrifarius (3.5-fold), and sheep urine significantly increased catches of A. quadrifarius (2.5-fold). In parallel, an electroantennogram (EAG) study was conducted for the first time on these two species, in which EAGs were recorded using 1-octen-3-ol and extracts of the same urine samples used in the field. For T. bromius, the EAG response to 1-octen-3-ol increased quasi-sigmoidally with dose, with a maximum response at ≥100 µg on filter paper. For both species of tabanid, cow and horse urine elicited larger EAGs than did sheep urine. The behavioural implications in host-seeking and feeding habits are discussed. PMID:22681479

  20. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Lara R.; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A.; Luke, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes 2H and 18O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of 2H and 18O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that 2H and 18O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. PMID:25977450

  1. Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1989-01-01

    We compared the nutritional status of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 natural yards and 1 yard where deer were supplementally fed from 1 January to 31 March 1985 in northeastern Minnesota. We monitored deer nutritonal status by sequential collection and chemical analysis of urine in snow (snow-urine) for urea nitrogen (U), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Dilution of urine by snow was corrected by comparing these data as ratios to creatinine (C). All deer remained in an early phase of undernutrition; however, declining trends of U:C, Na:C, and K:C in 2 natural yards indicated increasingly inadequate nutrition as winter progressed. Unaltered values of these ratios and P.C in snow-urine collected from the third natural yard reflected stable levels of nutrient availability. Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of Na:C, K:C, and P:C in 2 natural yards with similar snow regimes suggested initiation of nutritional recovery in deer during late March. In contrast, deep snow in the third natural yard restricted feeding activity and was associated with ratios that remained diminished. Elevated U:C, Na:C, and K:C provided physiological evidence of the higher nutritional status of supplementally fed deer throughout winter and their ability to increase nutrient intake during late March despite prolonged deep snow cover. Frequent and quantitative assessments of the physiological status of deer by snow-urine analysis provided an improved understanding of the relationship between snow cover and the nutritional well-being of these deer.

  2. Low-cost struvite production using source-separated urine in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Etter, B; Tilley, E; Khadka, R; Udert, K M

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated the possibility of transferring phosphorus from human urine into a concentrated form that can be used as fertilizer in agriculture. The community of Siddhipur in Nepal was chosen as a research site, because there is a strong presence and acceptance of the urine-diverting dry toilets needed to collect urine separately at the source. Furthermore, because the mainly agricultural country is landlocked and depends on expensive, imported fertilizers, the need for nutrient security is high. We found that struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) precipitation from urine is an efficient and simple approach to produce a granulated phosphorus fertilizer. Bittern, a waste stream from salt production, is a practical magnesium source for struvite production, but it has to be imported from India. Calculations show that magnesium oxide produced from locally available magnesite would be a cheaper magnesium source. A reactor with an external filtration system was capable of removing over 90% of phosphorus with a low magnesium dosage (1.1 mol Mg mol P), with coarse nylon filters (pore width up to 160±50 μm) and with only one hour total treatment time. A second reactor setup based on sedimentation only achieved 50% phosphate removal, even when flocculants were added. Given the current fertilizer prices, high volumes of urine must be processed, if struvite recovery should be financially sustainable. Therefore, it is important to optimize the process. Our calculations showed that collecting the struvite and calcium phosphate precipitated spontaneously due to urea hydrolysis could increase the overall phosphate recovery by at least 40%. The magnesium dosage can be optimized by estimating the phosphate concentration by measuring electrical conductivity. An important source of additional revenue could be the effluent of the struvite reactor. Further research should be aimed at finding methods and technologies to recover the nutrients from the effluent. PMID:20980038

  3. Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratios during Labor: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanamai, Vaya W.; Seagle, Brandon-Luke L.; Yeh, Judy Y.; Brady, Bethany; Miller, Corrie B.; Sena, Salvador; Dodge, Jessica; Shahabi, Shohreh; Samuelson, Robert; Norwitz, Errol R.; Luo, Guoyang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the utility of urine protein/creatinine ratio (uPCR) measurements among healthy parturients at term we performed a prospective cohort study at a community teaching hospital. Methods Serial urine samples were collected. Ninety-three women contributed 284 urine samples. uPCRs were determined. Multiple imputation and paired sampled analysis was performed when appropriate. Results Two-thirds (63/93) of women had at least one measured uPCR ≥ 0.3. One-third (31/93) had a uPCR ≥ 0.3 at admission, including 39.1% (9/23) of women not in labor. Median (IQR) uPCRs increased during labor and after delivery: latent phase/no labor, 0.15 (0.06–0.32); active phase, 0.29 (0.10–0.58); early postpartum, 0.45 (0.18–1.36) (all p < 0.04). Median uPCRs were significantly < 0.3 in the latent phase and significantly > 0.3 in the immediate postpartum period (p < 0.01). Women who labored before cesarean delivery had the highest early postpartum uPCRs: median (IQR) 1.16 (0.39–1.80). A negative urine dipstick protein result did not exclude uPCR ≥ 0.3. uPCRs were similar when compared by method of urine collection. Conclusion uPCR ≥ 0.3 is common among healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies at term. uPCR increases during labor and is not a reliable measure of pathologic proteinuria at term or during the peripartum period. PMID:27479123

  4. Serum and urine metabolomic fingerprinting in diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Deja, Stanisław; Mulak, Agata; Ząbek, Adam; Jawień, Ewa; Pawełka, Dorota; Banasik, Mirosław; Mastalerz-Migas, Agnieszka; Balcerzak, Waldemar; Kaliszewski, Krzysztof; Skóra, Jan; Barć, Piotr; Korta, Krzysztof; Pormańczuk, Kornel; Szyber, Przemyslaw; Litarski, Adam; Młynarz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the utility of serum and urine metabolomic analysis in diagnosing and monitoring of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: Serum and urine samples were collected from 24 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 19 patients with the Crohn’s disease (CD) and 17 healthy controls. The activity of UC was assessed with the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, while the activity of CD was determined using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index. The analysis of serum and urine samples was performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All spectra were exported to Matlab for preprocessing which resulted in two data matrixes for serum and urine. Prior to the chemometric analysis, both data sets were unit variance scaled. The differences in metabolite fingerprints were assessed using partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curves were used to evaluate the quality and prediction performance of the obtained PLS-DA models. Metabolites responsible for separation in models were tested using STATISTICA 10 with the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test and the Student’s t test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The comparison between the group of patients with active IBD and the group with IBD in remission provided good PLS-DA models (P value 0.002 for serum and 0.003 for urine). The metabolites that allowed to distinguish these groups were: N-acetylated compounds and phenylalanine (up-regulated in serum), low-density lipoproteins and very low-density lipoproteins (decreased in serum) as well as glycine (increased in urine) and acetoacetate (decreased in urine). The significant differences in metabolomic profiles were also found between the group of patients with active IBD and healthy control subjects providing the PLS-DA models with a very good separation (P value < 0.001 for serum and 0.003 for urine). The metabolites that were found to be the strongest biomarkers included in this case: leucine

  5. Alterations of microbiota in urine from women with interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community present in the urine from IC female patients by 454 high throughput sequencing of the 16S variable regions V1V2 and V6. The taxonomical composition, richness and diversity of the IC microbiota were determined and compared to the microbial profile of asymptomatic healthy female (HF) urine. Results The composition and distribution of bacterial sequences differed between the urine microbiota of IC patients and HFs. Reduced sequence richness and diversity were found in IC patient urine, and a significant difference in the community structure of IC urine in relation to HF urine was observed. More than 90% of the IC sequence reads were identified as belonging to the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, a marked increase compared to 60% in HF urine. Conclusion The 16S rDNA sequence data demonstrates a shift in the composition of the bacterial community in IC urine. The reduced microbial diversity and richness is accompanied by a higher abundance of the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, compared to HF urine. This study demonstrates that high throughput sequencing analysis of urine microbiota in IC patients is a powerful tool towards a better understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:22974186

  6. Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

  7. Determination of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and naloxone in fingernail clippings and urine of patients under opioid substitution therapy.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Kovatsi, Leda; Belivanis, Stamatis; Mantsi, Mary; Alegakis, Athanasios; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the determination of buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP) and naloxone (NAL) in fingernails and urine samples collected from former heroin users under suboxone substitution therapy. The analytes were extracted by solid-liquid or solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The validation of the analytical methods developed included linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision, ion suppression, sensitivity of interfaces and limits of determination and quantification. The validated methods were applied to samples from 46 individuals. The majority of the urine samples were positive for all analytes (93.5% for BUP, 95.7% for NBUP and 84.8% for NAL). In nails, a higher detection rate was observed for NBUP and BUP (89.1%), compared with NAL (10.9%). The median values of the NBUP/BUP and the NAL/BUP ratio were 2.5 and 0.3 in urine and 0.8 and 0.3 in nails, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between the BUP, NBUP and total BUP (BUP and NBUP) concentrations in urine and those in nails. A weak correlation was observed between the daily dose (mg/day) and total BUP (P = 0.069), or NBUP (P = 0.072) concentrations in urine. In contrast, a strong correlation was found between the total amount of BUP administered during the last 12 months and total BUP (P = 0.038), or NBUP (P = 0.023) concentrations in urine. Moreover urine BUP, NBUP and total BUP concentrations correlated significantly. Our study demonstrated successfully the application of the developed method for the determination of the three analytes in urine and nails. PMID:25663675

  8. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

  9. Mutagens in urine sampled repetitively from municipal refuse incinerator workers and water treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xin Fang; Babish, J.G.; Scarlett, J.M.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Municipal refuse incinerator workers may be exposed to mutagenic compounds from combustion gases and particulates during plant operation, maintenance, and ash removal procedures. The frequency of mutagens was measured by the Ames assay in 3 urine samples collected from each of 37 workers in 4 refuse incinerators and 35 (control) workers from 8 water treatment plants during June-August 1990. When comparing the first urine samples contributed by workers in each cohort, incinerator workers had a significantly (p < .05) increased risk of both direct-acting mutagens and promutagens (8/37 or 22% for each mutagen type) compared with water treatment workers (2/35 or 6% for each mutagen type). Smoking within 24 h before urine sampling was not a confounder of these results. Interestingly, there was no significant (p > .05) difference for risk of urinary mutagens or promutagens between the two cohorts when comparing, respectively, the second and third urine samples from each cohort. The repeatability of demonstrating urinary mutagens in individual incinerator workers was poor, suggesting that their exposure was highly variable and/or that these workers modified their exposure (e.g., wore masks) as a consequence of being studied. Factors that influence production of mutagenic compounds during refuse incineration and subsequent worker exposure are discussed.

  10. The clinical significance of dipstick-negative, culture-positive urines in a veterans population.

    PubMed

    Gutman, S I; Solomon, R R

    1987-08-01

    The consequences of omitting cultures in dipstick-negative urines submitted to the authors' microbiology laboratory were evaluated retrospectively in 1,079 clean-catch midstream samples. Using positive dipstick readings for leukocyte esterase, nitrite, and/or protein as evidence of a positive screen, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for specimens containing more than or 10(3) CFUs/mL (10(6)/L) were 80%, 71%, 48%, and 91%, respectively. Clinical data were reviewed in 38 patients with one or more dipstick-negative, culture-positive urines. Most of these patients lacked clinical or other laboratory evidence suggesting urinary tract infection. Problems with specimen collection were suspected in 19 neurologically compromised patients. Only two patients with dipstick-negative urines received treatment based on the culture reports. Symptoms persisted in both. The authors conclude that in their predominantly male veteran population, clinically significant bacteriuria is an unlikely finding in a dipstick-negative urine. PMID:3618553

  11. Creatinine measurements in 24 h urine by liquid chromatography--tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kee; Watanabe, Takaho; Gee, Shirley J; Schenker, Marc B; Hammock, Bruce D

    2008-01-23

    A simple, sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determining urinary creatinine was developed and used to evaluate 24 h urine samples collected during an exposure study. Urine (1 microL) was diluted with methanol and then directly applied to LC-MS/MS. Under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, the transition molecules of creatinine and creatinine- d3 were observed at m/ z 114 > 44 and m/ z 117 > 47, respectively. The retention time of creatinine was 0.59 min. The linear range was 1-2000 ng/mL, with a detection limit in urine of 1 ng/mL. LC-MS/MS and colorimetric end-point methods were significantly associated ( R2 = 0.8785, p < 0.0001). The LC-MS/MS method to determine creatinine in 24 h urine samples had shorter retention times, was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, simple, selective, and used a smaller sample size than other LC-MS/MS or commercial methods. PMID:18092755

  12. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  13. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Coe, Fredric L.; White, Mark D.; Erhard, Michael J.; DeFoor, William R.; Mahan, John D.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Asplin, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-hour urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones; all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  14. Radiation Metabolomics: Identification of Minimally Invasive Urine Biomarkers for Gamma-Radiation Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tyburski, John B.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Slavík, Josef; Fornace, Albert J.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-radiation exposure has both short- and long-term adverse health effects. The threat of modern terrorism places human populations at risk for radiological exposures, yet current medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are limited. Here we describe metabolomics for γ-radiation biodosimetry in a mouse model. Mice were γ-irradiated at doses of 0, 3 and 8 Gy (2.57 Gy/min), and urine samples collected over the first 24 h after exposure were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–TOFMS). Multivariate data were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). Both 3- and 8-Gy exposures yielded distinct urine metabolomic phenotypes. The top 22 ions for 3 and 8 Gy were analyzed further, including tandem mass spectrometric comparison with authentic standards, revealing that N-hexanoylglycine and β-thymidine are urinary biomarkers of exposure to 3 and 8 Gy, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid 3-O-sulfate is elevated in urine of mice exposed to 3 but not 8 Gy, and taurine is elevated after 8 but not 3 Gy. Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI) self-organizing maps showed clear dose–response relationships for subsets of the urine metabolome. This approach is useful for identifying mice exposed to γ radiation and for developing metabolomic strategies for noninvasive radiation biodosimetry in humans. PMID:18582157

  15. Fully automated high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the analysis of free catecholamines in urine.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Robinet, D; Barbier, C; Sartre, J; Huguet, C

    1990-08-24

    A totally automated and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the routine determination of free catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) in urine. The catecholamines were isolated from urine samples using small alumina columns. A standard automated method for pH adjustment of urine before the extraction step has been developed. The extraction was performed on an ASPEC (Automatic Sample Preparation with Extraction Columns, Gilson). The eluate was collected in a separate tube and then automatically injected into the chromatographic column. The catecholamines were separated by reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography and quantified by fluorescence detection. No manual intervention was required during the extraction and separation procedure. One sample may be run every 15 min, ca. 96 samples in 24 h. Analytical recoveries for all three catecholamines are 63-87%, and the detection limits are 0.01, 0.01, and 0.03 microM for norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine, respectively, which is highly satisfactory for urine. Day-to-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. PMID:2277100

  16. Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

  17. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38-77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal. PMID:27033801

  18. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38–77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal. PMID:27033801

  19. Zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girala, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle used in the Apollo command module is described. This type receptacle eliminates the need for a cuff-type urine collector or for the penis to circumferentially contact the receptacle in order to urinate. This device may be used in a gravity environment, varying from zero gravity to earth gravity, such as may be experienced in a space station or space base.

  20. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  1. Chemotherapeutic potential of cow urine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Sharma, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for the treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of a cow with many benefits and without toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activity of cow’s urine (CU) comparable with standard drugs such as ofloxacin, cefpodoxime, and gentamycin, against a vast number of pathogenic bacteria, more so against Gram-positive than negative bacteria. Interestingly antimicrobial activity has also been found against some resistant strains such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial action is enhanced still further by it being an immune-enhancer and bioenhancer of some antibiotic drugs. Antifungal activity was comparable to amphotericin B. CU also has anthelmintic and antineoplastic action. CU has, in addition, antioxidant properties, and it can prevent the damage to DNA caused by the environmental stress. In the management of infectious diseases, CU can be used alone or as an adjunctive to prevent the development of resistance and enhance the effect of standard antibiotics. PMID:26401404

  2. Urine-activated paper batteries for biosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Lee, Ki

    2005-09-01

    The first urine-activated laminated paper batteries have been demonstrated and reported in this paper. A simple and cheap fabrication process for the paper batteries has been developed which is compatible with the existing plastic laminating technologies or plastic molding technologies. In this battery, a magnesium (Mg) layer and copper chloride (CuCl) in the filter paper are used as the anode and the cathode, respectively. A stack consisting of a Mg layer, CuCl-doped filter paper and a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between two plastic layers is laminated into the paper batteries by passing through the heating roller at 120 °C. The paper battery is tested and it can deliver a power greater than 1.5 mW. In addition, these urine-activated laminated paper batteries could be integrated with bioMEMS devices such as home-based health test kits providing a power source for the electronic circuit. A portion of this paper was presented at The 4th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004), 28 30 November, 2004, Kyoto, Japan.

  3. Process for the removal of radioactive iodine from a liquid, especially urine, and apparatus to carry out the process

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, I.; Heinzel, F.; Muller-Duysing, W.

    1980-10-21

    Apparatus for removing radioactive iodine from a liquid, especially urine, having a collecting means, a treating tank with a mixer-pump, a filter, and a catch basin in which radiation is detected. The apparatus includes various control means and magnetic values to provide automatic operation.

  4. Plasma and urine catecholamine levels in cosmonauts during long-term stay on Space Station Salyut-7.

    PubMed

    Kvetnansky, R; Davydova, N A; Noskov, V B; Vigas, M; Popova, I A; Usakov, A C; Macho, L; Grigoriev, A I

    1988-02-01

    The activity of the sympathetic adrenal system in cosmonauts exposed to a stay in space lasting for about half a year has so far been studied only by measuring catecholamine levels in plasma and urine samples taken before space flight and after landing. The device "Plasma 01", specially designed for collecting and processing venous blood from subjects during space flight on board the station Salyut-7 rendered it possible for the first time to collect and freeze samples of blood from cosmonauts in the course of a long-term 237-day space flight. A physician-cosmonaut collected samples of blood and urine from two cosmonauts over the period of days 217-219 of their stay in space. The samples were transported to Earth frozen. As indicators of the sympathetic adrenal system activity, plasma and urine concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine as well as urine levels of the catecholamine metabolites metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were determined before, during and after space flight. On days 217-219 of space flight plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were slightly increased, yet not substantially different from normal. During stress situations plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels usually exhibit a manifold increase. On days 217-219 of space flight norepinephrine and epinephrine levels in urine were comparable with pre-flight values and the levels of their metabolites were even significantly decreased. All the parameters studied, particularly plasma norepinephrine as well as urine norepinephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid, reached the highest values 8 days after landing. The results obtained suggest that, in the period of days 217-219 of the cosmonauts stay in space in the state of weightlessness, the sympathetic adrenal system is either not activated at all or there is but a slight activation induced by specific activities of the cosmonauts, whereas in the process of re-adaptation after space flight on

  5. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. PMID:24881513

  6. Postal urine specimens: are they a feasible method for genital chlamydial infection screening?

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, J; Rowsell, R; Horner, P; Crowley, T; Caul, E O; Low, N; Smith, G D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A United Kingdom (UK) screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis has recently been announced. Pilot projects involving the opportunistic testing of women attending health facilities are due to commence in several sites. There is a danger that this approach will fail to obtain adequate population coverage. The alternative--true systematic population screening--is generally assumed to be unfeasible. Studies in Denmark using postal urine specimens have challenged this assumption. No such studies have been reported from the UK. AIM: To assess the potential of urine specimens sent by post as the basis for a UK population screening strategy for genital chlamydial infection. METHOD: Two hundred patients (100 men, 100 women) aged 18 to 45 years were randomly sampled from the list of one urban group practice. Subjects were mailed an explanatory letter, a urine sample container, a sexual lifestyle questionnaire, and a prepaid return envelope. Non-responders were contacted by telephone; persistent non-responders were visited at home. Samples were tested for Chlamydia by DNA amplification and enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Sixty-four (32%) subjects were no longer living at their GP registered address. Of the remaining 136, 126 (93%) responded to the survey and 113 (83%) accepted the request for a urine sample and completed a questionnaire. Acceptance rates were similar for men and women and across age groups. Four samples (3%) were Chlamydia positive. CONCLUSION: Home mailed urine specimen collection in conjunction with a self-completed postal questionnaire is feasible. This could provide a viable basis both for determining population Chlamydia prevalence and for a UK Chlamydia population screening strategy. Overall cost effectiveness of such a strategy will depend on the cost of the test used. Comparative performance characteristics of the different currently available tests in this setting have yet to be fully determined. PMID:10562745

  7. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Bancu, Ioana; Oliveira-Tercero, Anna; Armengol, María Pilar; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Del Portillo, Hernando A.; Lauzurica-Valdemoros, Ricardo; Borràs, Francesc E.

    2015-01-01

    Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9). The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs. When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein) were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species. To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches. PMID:26025625

  8. Prospective evaluation of FISH for detecting upper tract urothelial carcinoma in voided urine specimens

    PubMed Central

    YU, QIUBO; LI, YANAN; LI, GANG; LI, TINGHONG; ZENG, HAN; YANG, ZHU; WANG, DELING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of tumor cells in voided urine specimens for detecting upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Cytology and FISH analyses were conducted on voided urine collected in the morning from 125 patients with suspected UTUC. During follow-up, ureteroscopy with biopsy and histopathology were used to confirm the presence of tumors. The average follow-up time was 23.8 months (range, 6–36 months). A total of 8 patients who could not be contacted until the last follow-up were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 117 patients, 19 were histologically demonstrated to have UTUC, of whom, 3 patients had stage pTis disease, 6 had stage pTa disease, 5 had stage pT1 disease and 5 had stage pT2 disease (7 G1, 8 G2 and 4 G3). The overall sensitivity of FISH to detect UTUCs in voided urine specimens was 84.21% (16/19), whereas that of cytology was 42.11% (8/19) (P<0.05). The overall specificity of FISH to detect UTUCs in voided urine specimens was 89.80% (88/98), compared with 94.90% (93/98) of cytology (P>0.05). The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value of FISH were 80.00% (16/20) and 97.78% (88/90), respectively, whereas those of cytology were 100.00% (8/8) (P>0.05) and 90.29% (93/103) (P>0.05), respectively. The present data indicated that FISH was a method capable of detecting UTUCs in voided urine specimens with good sensitivity and specificity, although it exhibited a high rate of false positivity and low PPV. PMID:27347122

  9. Measurement of human growth hormone in urine: development and validation of a sensitive and specific assay.

    PubMed

    Hourd, P; Edwards, R

    1989-04-01

    A specific solid-phase immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), optimized for maximum sensitivity, has been developed for measurement of human GH (hGH) in urine. The sensitivity varied with sample size, giving a range of 0.001 to 0.003 mU/l for a sample volume of 2 ml. Recovery and dilution experiments, together with chromatography of urine samples, indicate that the method is specific for hGH. Added exogenous hGH was measured with a mean recovery of 101 +/- 10% (S.D.) for 1 ml samples and 87 +/- 8% for 2 ml samples. Measurements of samples diluted at 1:2 and 1:4 gave values of 97.4 and 96.6% respectively of those expected. Cross-reactions of human placental lactogen and prolactin were less than 0.008 and 0.04% respectively on a mol/mol basis. The assay was insensitive to the presence of NaCl (50-500 mmol/l), urea (50-1000 mmol/l), creatinine (1-20 mmol/l), Ca2+ ions (1-20 mmol/l), SO4(2-) ions (1-1000 mmol/l), Mg2+ ions (0.05-50 mmol/l), 0.5-5% (w/v) glucose and a pH range of 6-9. Chromatography of unextracted samples showed that the immunoreactive material in urine eluted in a single homogenous peak with a similar position to monomeric pituitary hGH (22 kDa). Administered hGH (0.002%) was recovered in urine collected over a 2-h period following an intravenous injection. The urine output of hGH showed a good correlation with serum hGH in 18 patients following routine insulin tolerance tests and in 25 patients following an oral glucose tolerance test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2715756

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography of amino acids in urine and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Lam, S; Azumaya, H; Karmen, A

    1984-10-19

    Two different methods for analyzing amino acids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both of which can separate D- and L- stereoisomers, have been used for studying the amino acid composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine. One method, by which Dns derivatives of amino acids are separated as mixed chelate complexes with Cu(II) and a single stereoisomer of a second amino acid, was used to analyze CSF. CSF contains ca. 10 mumole/l per amino acid, compared to 100 mumole/l in serum. The high sensitivity of fluorescence detection enabled complete analysis, starting with 50 microliter of fluid. The second method, which uses lower concentrations of both the copper and the second amino acid and detects amino acids by the change in absorbance of the copper complex, was used to measure the urine concentration of the lysine metabolite, pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), a secondary amino acid that is difficult to detect by the more usual detection methods. Our procedure involves passing urine through a cation-exchange column, collecting the fraction containing pipecolic acid, and chromatographing it on a reversed-phase HPLC column with a mobile phase containing L-aspartame and Cu(II). To assess the utility of the method, urine samples from a patient given loading doses of D- or L-isomers were analyzed. When either isomer was administered, both D- and L-isomers were detected, but in different proportions. Varying proportions and concentrations of both isomers were also detected in the urines of patients with hyperpipecolatemia from different metabolic abnormalities. PMID:6501504

  11. Estimation of nitrite in source-separated nitrified urine with UV spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Mašić, Alma; Santos, Ana T L; Etter, Bastian; Udert, Kai M; Villez, Kris

    2015-11-15

    Monitoring of nitrite is essential for an immediate response and prevention of irreversible failure of decentralized biological urine nitrification reactors. Although a few sensors are available for nitrite measurement, none of them are suitable for applications in which both nitrite and nitrate are present in very high concentrations. Such is the case in collected source-separated urine, stabilized by nitrification for long-term storage. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry in combination with chemometrics is a promising option for monitoring of nitrite. In this study, an immersible in situ UV sensor is investigated for the first time so to establish a relationship between UV absorbance spectra and nitrite concentrations in nitrified urine. The study focuses on the effects of suspended particles and saturation on the absorbance spectra and the chemometric model performance. Detailed analysis indicates that suspended particles in nitrified urine have a negligible effect on nitrite estimation, concluding that sample filtration is not necessary as pretreatment. In contrast, saturation due to very high concentrations affects the model performance severely, suggesting dilution as an essential sample preparation step. However, this can also be mitigated by simple removal of the saturated, lower end of the UV absorbance spectra, and extraction of information from the secondary, weaker nitrite absorbance peak. This approach allows for estimation of nitrite with a simple chemometric model and without sample dilution. These results are promising for a practical application of the UV sensor as an in situ nitrite measurement in a urine nitrification reactor given the exceptional quality of the nitrite estimates in comparison to previous studies. PMID:26340062

  12. Phthalate metabolites in urine and asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Callesen, Michael; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka; Brive, Lena; Clausen, Geo; Toftum, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Høst, Arne; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-07-01

    Phthalate esters are among the most ubiquitous of indoor pollutants and have been associated with various adverse health effects. In the present study we assessed the cross-sectional association between eight different phthalate metabolites in urine and allergic disease in young children. As part of the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study, urine samples were collected from 440 children aged 3-5 years, of whom 222 were healthy controls, 68 were clinically diagnosed with asthma, 76 with rhinoconjunctivitis and 81 with atopic dermatitis (disease subgroups are not mutually exclusive; some children had more than one disease). There were no statistically significant differences in the urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites between cases and healthy controls with the exception of MnBP and MECPP, which were higher in healthy controls compared with the asthma case group. In the crude analysis MnBP and MiBP were negatively associated with asthma. In the analysis adjusted for multiple factors, only a weak positive association between MEP in urine and atopic dermatitis was found; there were no positive associations between any phthalate metabolites in urine and either asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis. These findings appear to contradict earlier studies. Differences may be due to higher exposures to certain phthalates (e.g., BBzP) via non-dietary pathways in earlier studies, phthalates serving as surrogates for an agent associated with asthma (e.g., PVC flooring) in previous studies but not the present study or altered cleaning habits and the use of "allergy friendly" products by parents of children with allergic disease in the current study in contrast to studies conducted earlier. PMID:24388279

  13. Screening for proteinuria in a rheumatology clinic: comparison of dipstick testing, 24 hour urine quantitative protein, and protein/creatinine ratio in random urine samples.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S H; Caine, N; Richards, I; O'Reilly, D; Sturrock, R D; Capell, H A

    1988-09-01

    Measurements of protein/creatinine ratio in 'spot' urine samples were compared with measurements of 24 hour quantitative proteinuria and side room 'dipstick' testing in 104 samples from 90 patients presenting consecutively to a rheumatology unit. Linear regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between the random urinary protein/creatinine ratio and total protein excretion in 24 hour urine samples (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001, y = 6.55x + 0.04). Although an approximation of 24 hour urinary protein excretion could have been made from the regression line: 24 hour urine protein = 6.55 x protein/creatinine ratio + 0.04 (g/l), there was a wide scatter of values, particularly in patients with greater than 1 g/24 h urinary protein excretion. Nevertheless, significant proteinuria (greater than 300 mg/24 h) could have been confirmed or excluded with a sensitivity and specificity of 97% by adopting random protein/creatinine values of less than 0.04 as 'normal'. Specificity and sensitivity could have been increased to 100%, however, by excluding patients with values lying between 0.01 and 0.10 as all the false negatives (n = 3) and false positives (n = 3) lay within this range. In comparison, dipstick testing, although 100% sensitive, had a poor specificity due to the high false positive rate (40/83 (48%] in patients with 1+ to 3+ readings. Assessment of random urinary protein/creatinine ratio may obviate the need for 24 hour urine collections in the initial assessment of suspected proteinuria. A wider application of this technique seems indicated in view of the obvious advantages in terms of cost, time, and patient convenience. PMID:3263087

  14. Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dahu; Berger, Andrew J.

    2007-04-01

    We report measurements of chemical concentrations in clinical blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber (LCOF) Raman spectroscopy to increase the collected signal strength. Both Raman and absorption spectra were acquired in the near-infrared region using the LCOF geometry. Spectra of 71 blood serum and 61 urine samples were regressed via partial least squares against reference analyzer values. Significant correlation was found between predicted and reference concentrations for 13 chemicals. Using absorption data to normalize the LCOF enhancement made the results more accurate. The experimental geometry is well suited for high-volume and automated chemical analysis of clear biofluids.

  15. Urine phyto-oestrogen metabolites are not significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese health study.

    PubMed

    Talaei, Mohammad; Lee, Bee L; Ong, Choon N; van Dam, Rob M; Yuan, Jian M; Koh, Woon P; Pan, An

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the relationship between urine concentrations of phyto-oestrogens (isoflavones and lignans) and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese residing in Singapore. Urine metabolites of isoflavones and lignans were assayed by HPLC among 564 diabetes cases and 564 matched controls in a case-control study nested within the Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort. Participants were free of diagnosed diabetes, CVD and cancer at morning urine collections during 1999-2004. Cases were participants who reported to have physician-diagnosed diabetes at follow-up visits during 2006-2010, whereas controls were randomly selected among those who remained free of diabetes and were matched to the index cases by age, sex, dialect group and date of urine collection. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95 % CI with adjustment for potential confounders. The mean age of the participants at the time of urine collection was 59·8 years, and the average interval between urine collection and diabetes diagnosis was 4·0 years. The multivariate-adjusted OR for diabetes were 1·00 (reference), 0·76 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·11), 0·78 (95 % CI 0·53, 1·14) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·15) across quartiles of urine isoflavones (P for trend=0·54), and were 1·00 (reference), 0·87 (95 % CI 0·60, 1·27), 1·10 (95 % CI 0·77, 1·56) and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·63, 1·37) for lignans (P for trend=0·93). The results were similar in men and women, as well as for individual metabolites of isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitin and equol) or lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone). The present study did not find a significant association between urine phyto-oestrogen metabolites and risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. PMID:26949260

  16. Leonid's Particle Analyses from Stratospheric Balloon Collection on Xerogel Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Phillips, Tony; Horack, John; Porter, Linda; Myszka, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Recovered from a stratospheric balloon above 20 km on 17-18 November 1998, at least eight candidate microparticles were collected and analyzed from low-density silica xerogel collection plates. Capture time at Leonids' storm peak was validated locally along the balloon trajectory by direct video imaging of meteor fluence up to 24/hr above 98% of the Earth's atmosphere. At least one 30 micron particle agrees morphologically to a smooth, unmelted spherule and compares most closely in non-volatile elemental ratios (Mg/Si, Al/Si, and Fe/Si) to compositional data in surface/ocean meteorite collections. A Euclidean tree diagram based on composition makes a most probable identification as a non-porous stratospherically collected particle and a least probable identification as terrestrial matter or an ordinary chondrite. If of extraterrestrial origin, the mineralogical class would be consistent with a stony (S) type of silicate, olivine [(Mg,Fe)2SiO4] and pyroxene [(Mg, Fe)Si!O3)--or oxides, herecynite [(Fe,Mg) Al2O4].

  17. Litomosoides sigmodontis: a jird urine metabolome study.

    PubMed

    Globisch, Daniel; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth M; Eubanks, Lisa M; Hoerauf, Achim; Janda, Kim D

    2015-12-15

    The neglected tropical disease onchocerciasis affects more than 35 million people worldwide with over 95% in Africa. Disease infection initiates from the filarial parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by the blackfly vector Simulium sp. carrying infectious L3 larvae. New treatments and diagnostics are required to eradicate this parasitic disease. Herein, we describe that a previously discovered biomarker for onchocerciasis, N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG) is also present in urine samples of jirds infected with the onchocerciasis model nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis. Increased NATOG values paralleled a progressing infection and demonstrated that quantification of NATOG in this rodent model can be utilized to track its infectivity. Moreover, our findings suggest how NATOG monitoring may be used for evaluating potential drug candidates. PMID:26573416

  18. A workshop on urinalysis and a survey on urine microscopy among kidney centers of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hami, Maryam; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Nouri-Majalan, Nader; Atapour, Abdolamir; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2013-11-01

    Urinalysis is a mandatory diagnostic tool for the evaluation of patients with kidney diseases. A workshop on urinalysis was held for nephrologists in Isfahan, Iran, on October 11-12, 2012. After the presentation of the results of a survey of the nephrology centers of Iran on urine microscopy, the most important aspects of urinalysis were presented and discussed. These included the following: (1) urinalysis by dipstick, which provides results in a few seconds, is simple to use, has a low cost, and is used worldwide for screening purposes, in spite of some limitations; (2) measurement of proteinuria by 24-hour urine collection, which still represents the reference method in spite of limitations due to frequent over or under collection errors; (3) protein-creatinine ratio in a random urine sample, which is recommended by international guidelines as an alternative to the measurement of 24-hour protein excretion; (4) microalbuminuria, which is seen as a marker of systemic endothelial damage; and (5) the urinary sediment, which is underused even among nephrologists in spite of the relevant diagnostic information it can supply in a wide spectrum of kidney diseases. PMID:24241087

  19. DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine.

    PubMed

    Le Guern, Rémi; Miaux, Brigitte; Pischedda, Patricia; Herwegh, Stéphanie; Courcol, René

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 55 urine samples. Crossing threshold (Ct) values were highly similar after 3 to 14 days at room temperature (+0.002, P = 0.99). Consequently, it does not seem necessary to transfer urine specimens into a transport medium in less than 24 hours as recommended by manufacturers. PMID:27130478

  20. Radioimmunoassay of free light chains of immunoglobulins in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.L.; Gowland, E.; Ward, I.D.; Scarffe, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays for kappa and lambda light chains of immunoglobulins in urine are described. The assays, which involve antisera to free light chains, were sufficiently sensitive to measure the light chains in unconcentrated urine from healthy subjects. The usefulness of the assays in clinical practice is illustrated by measurements of light chain excretion by patients, including serial studies on patients undergoing treatment for myeloma.

  1. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42 Section 550.42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract...

  2. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  4. Carcinoma of the scrotum associated with rubber urinals. Case report.

    PubMed

    Grundy, D; Jones, A C; Powley, P H

    1993-09-01

    A paraplegic patient, who had worn a rubber urinal in close contact with the scrotum for over 40 years, developed carcinoma of the scrotum. It is likely that this is a previously unsuspected example of chemical carcinogenesis, and in view of this, we believe that the use of rubber urinals should be discontinued. PMID:8247605

  5. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  6. Worker exposures to triclopyr: risk assessment through measurements in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Nathalie H; Brunet, Robert C; Carrier, Gaétan; Dosso, Amssétou

    2005-07-01

    In the province of Quebec (Canada), the phytocide Garlon 4, whose active ingredient is triclopyr, is often used to prevent trees from reaching electrical conductors. The object of this paper is to assess the potential health risks in workers coming into contact with Garlon 4. Ten workers collected their urine during the 22 h following the beginning of a work shift. Measured urinary amounts of triclopyr varied between 1 and 13 mg. The absorbed daily doses were estimated from the amounts of triclopyr in urine through the use of a kinetic model that links the rates of triclopyr elimination to absorbed doses. These estimated doses were compared with the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) observed in rats: 5 mg per kg of body weight. The upper-bound estimations of the worker's daily absorbed doses were found to be 13.3% or less of the rat NOEL. PMID:15703284

  7. High-resolution determination of 147Pm in urine using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Elchuk, S; Lucy, C A; Burns, K I

    1992-10-15

    A procedure has been developed for measuring 147Pm in bioassay samples, based on the separation and preconcentration of 147Pm from the urine matrix by adsorption onto a conventional cation-exchange column with final separation and purification by HPLC using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography. The concentration of 147Pm is determined by collecting the appropriate HPLC fraction and measuring the 147Pm by liquid scintillation counting. The limit of detection is 0.1 Bq (3 fg) 147Pm based on a 500-mL sample of urine and a counting time of 30 min with a background of 100 cpm. Ten samples can be processed in 1.5-2 days. PMID:1466450

  8. Characterization of pentoxyverine metabolites in urine using GC/MS after intoxication with Silomat cough drops.

    PubMed

    Westphal, F; Junge, Th; Radünz, L; Stegk, J; Rochholz, G

    2012-02-10

    A nearly two and a half year old boy was hospitalized after showing symptoms of disorientation and hallucination. The parents remembered the child playing with a bottle of Silomat cough drops, so that an intoxication was taken into consideration. After liquid/liquid extraction of a urine sample collected in hospital, the underivatized and the acetylated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using electron ionization (EI) as well as chemical ionization (CI). In the urine sample high amounts of pentoxyverine (carbetapentane) and several of its metabolites, e.g., different hydrolyzed, desalkylated and ring-hydroxylated products have been identified. The correlation of the results, the observed symptoms, and the access to the Silomat cough drops reveal an intoxication after ingestion of an unknown amount of the antitussive pentoxyverine. Corresponding EI- and CI-GC/MS spectra are presented characterizing the structure of its metabolites. PMID:21450423

  9. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Viau, A.; Benoit, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C(U))-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites.

  10. Application of electrolysis for detoxification of an antineoplastic in urine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hirose, Jun; Sano, Kouichi; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Emi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Antineoplastics in excreta from patients have been considered to be one of the origins of cytotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic contaminants in surface water. Recent studies have demonstrated that antineoplastics in clinical wastewater can be detoxified by electrolysis. In this study, to develop a method for the detoxification of antineoplastics in excreta, methotrexate solution in the presence of human urine was electrolyzed and evaluated. We found that urine inhibits detoxification by electrolysis; however, this inhibition decreased by diluting urine. In urine samples, the concentrations of active chlorine generated by anodic oxidation from 0.9% NaCl solution for inactivation of antineoplastics increased in dilution-dependent and time-dependent manner. These results indicate that electrolysis with platinum-based iridium oxide composite electrode is a possible method for the detoxification of a certain antineoplastic in urine. PMID:22154144

  11. Introducing a hand-held urinal service in secondary care.

    PubMed

    Pomfret, Ian; Vickerman, Julie; Tonge, Pauline

    Chorley & South Ribble Primary Care Trust's multiprofessional continence service was established in 2000 (Pomfret, 2001). An integral part of this service development was the creation of a community-based, hand-held urinal library. There are 28 female hand-held urinals available in the UK and many more for males. Some of the urinals are available on prescription and others have to be purchased by the patient. The urinal library allows patients in the community to use the urinals before they are prescribed or buy them, because it is only by using them that they will know that the product will be suitable. The service is proving to be hugely successful. PMID:15895500

  12. Intraluminal measurement of papillary duct urine pH, in vivo: a pilot study in the swine kidney.

    PubMed

    Handa, Rajash K; Lingeman, James E; Bledsoe, Sharon B; Evan, Andrew P; Connors, Bret A; Johnson, Cynthia D

    2016-06-01

    We describe the in vivo use of an optic-chemo microsensor to measure intraluminal papillary duct urine pH in a large mammal. Fiber-optic pH microsensors have a tip diameter of 140-µm that allows insertion into papillary Bellini ducts to measure tubule urine proton concentration. Anesthetized adult pigs underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy to access the lower pole of the urinary collecting system. A flexible nephroscope was advanced towards an upper pole papilla with the fiber-optic microsensor contained within the working channel. The microsensor was then carefully inserted into Bellini ducts to measure tubule urine pH in real time. We successfully recorded tubule urine pH values in five papillary ducts from three pigs (1 farm pig and 2 metabolic syndrome Ossabaw pigs). Our results demonstrate that optical microsensor technology can be used to measure intraluminal urine pH in real time in a living large mammal. This opens the possibility for application of this optical pH sensing technology in nephrolithiasis. PMID:26526044

  13. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  14. Urine Output Changes During Postcardiac Arrest Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Raper, Jaron D; Wang, Henry E

    2013-12-01

    While commonly described, no studies have characterized cold-induced diuresis or rewarm anti-diuresis occurring during the delivery of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We sought to determine urine output changes during the provision of postcardiac arrest TH. We analyzed clinical data on patients receiving postcardiac arrest TH at an urban tertiary care center. TH measures included cooling by cold intravenous fluid, external ice packs, and a commercial external temperature management system. TH treatment was divided into phases: (1) induction, (2) maintenance, (3) rewarm, and (4) post-rewarm. The primary outcome measure was the mean urine output rate (mL/hour). We compared urine output rates between TH phases using a Generalized Estimating Equations model, defining urine output rate (mL/hour) as the dependent variable and TH phase (induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm) as the primary exposure variable. We adjusted for age, sex, initial ECG rhythm, location of arrest, shock, acute kidney injury, rate of intravenous fluid input, and body mass index. Complete urine output data were available on 33 patients. Mean urine output rates during induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm phases were 157 mL/hour (95% CI: 104-210), 103 mL/hour (95% CI: 82-125), 70 mL/hour (95% CI: 51-88), and 91 mL/hour (95% CI: 65-117), respectively. Compared with the post-rewarm phase, adjusted urine output was higher during the TH induction phase (output rate difference +51 mL/hour; 95% CI: 3-99). Adjusted urine output during the maintenance and rewarm phases did not differ from the post-rewarm phase. In this preliminary study, we observed modest increases in urine output during TH induction. We did not observe urine output changes during TH maintenance or rewarming. PMID:24380030

  15. Halogenated Anesthetics Determination in Urine by SPME/GC/MS and Urine Levels Relationship Evaluation with Surgical Theatres Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Indelicato, Serena; Tranchina, Ernesto; Arcadipane, Concetta; Giambartino, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new sensitive analytical method has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the most commonly used gaseous anesthetics, desflurane, sevoflurane, and this latter's hepatic metabolite hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in the urine. In addition, an evaluation of anesthetics exposition on the urine levels of a small population of surgical operators has been performed and results are briefly discussed. PMID:24719778

  16. Urine 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels among workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI).

    PubMed

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Ball, Louise M; Richardson, David B; Ding, Kai; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-08-01

    Urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) may serve as a biomarker for systemic exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in occupationally exposed populations. However, the quantitative relationships between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels have not been established. We measured acid-hydrolyzed urine HDA levels along with dermal and breathing-zone levels of HDI in 48 automotive spray painters. These measurements were conducted over the course of an entire workday for up to three separate workdays that were spaced approximately 1 month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints and subsequent samples were collected during the workday. HDA levels varied throughout the day and ranged from nondetectable to 65.9 microg l(-1) with a geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.10 microg l(-1) +/- 6.68. Dermal exposure and inhalation exposure levels, adjusted for the type of respirator worn, were both significant predictors of urine HDA levels in the linear mixed models. Creatinine was a significant covariate when used as an independent variable along with dermal and respirator-adjusted inhalation exposure. Consequently, exposure assessment models must account for the water content of a urine sample. These findings indicate that HDA exhibits a biphasic elimination pattern, with a half-life of 2.9 h for the fast elimination phase. Our results also indicate that urine HDA level is significantly associated with systemic HDI exposure through both the skin and the lungs. We conclude that urinary HDA may be used as a biomarker of exposure to HDI, but biological monitoring should be tailored to reliably capture the intermittent exposure pattern typical in this industry. PMID:20530123

  17. Urine 1,6-Hexamethylene Diamine (HDA) Levels Among Workers Exposed to 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI)

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Linda G. T.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Flack, Sheila L.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Ball, Louise M.; Richardson, David B.; Ding, Kai; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Nylander-french, Leena A.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) may serve as a biomarker for systemic exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in occupationally exposed populations. However, the quantitative relationships between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels have not been established. We measured acid-hydrolyzed urine HDA levels along with dermal and breathing-zone levels of HDI in 48 automotive spray painters. These measurements were conducted over the course of an entire workday for up to three separate workdays that were spaced approximately 1 month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints and subsequent samples were collected during the workday. HDA levels varied throughout the day and ranged from nondetectable to 65.9 μg l−1 with a geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.10 μg l−1 ± 6.68. Dermal exposure and inhalation exposure levels, adjusted for the type of respirator worn, were both significant predictors of urine HDA levels in the linear mixed models. Creatinine was a significant covariate when used as an independent variable along with dermal and respirator-adjusted inhalation exposure. Consequently, exposure assessment models must account for the water content of a urine sample. These findings indicate that HDA exhibits a biphasic elimination pattern, with a half-life of 2.9 h for the fast elimination phase. Our results also indicate that urine HDA level is significantly associated with systemic HDI exposure through both the skin and the lungs. We conclude that urinary HDA may be used as a biomarker of exposure to HDI, but biological monitoring should be tailored to reliably capture the intermittent exposure pattern typical in this industry. PMID:20530123

  18. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

  19. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral 26Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (−0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  20. Development of a Targeted Urine Proteome Assay for Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Lloyd G.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Chung, Lisa; Belcher, Justin; Abbott, Thomas; Cantley, Jennifer L.; Williams, Kenneth R.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2016-01-01

    Human urine is the least invasive and most readily available bio fluid whose proteome has been shown to change in response to disease or drug treatment. Urine is thus very amenable to quantitative proteomics and is a logical sample choice for identifying protein biomarkers for kidney diseases. In this study potential biomarkers were identified initially by using a multi-proteomics workflow to compare urine proteomes of kidney transplant patients who exhibited immediate versus delayed graft function. To comprehensively interrogate the urine proteome two “bottom up”, mass spectrometric-based discovery approaches, iTRAQ and Label Free Quantitation (LFQ), were complemented by Differential Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) analyses of intact urine proteins from kidney transplant recipients who received a deceased donor kidney. Differentially expressed proteins in the two patient groups were identified, and corresponding stable isotope–labeled internal peptide standard (SIS) peptides were synthesized for scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The Targeted Urine Proteome Assay (TUPA) was then developed by identifying those peptides for which there were at least 2 transitions for which interference in a urine matrix across 156 MRM runs was less than 30%. This resulted in a final assay that monitors 224 peptides corresponding to 167 quantifiable proteins. PMID:26220717

  1. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased. PMID:26508358

  2. Contextual chemosensory urine signaling in an African cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Chemosensory signaling is crucial for communication in many fish species, but little is known about how signalers modulate chemical output in response to sensory information and social context. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dominant male African cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) use urine signals during social interactions, and demonstrate that this signaling depends on social context (reproductive; territorial) and on available sensory information (visual cues; full interaction). We injected males with dye to visualize urine pulses and exposed them to full sensory information or visual cues alone of four types: (1) dominant male; (2) gravid (reproductively receptive) females; (3) mouth-brooding (non-receptive) females; or (4) control (no fish). We found that males released urine sooner and increased their urination frequency when visually exposed to gravid females as compared with mouth-brooding females and or no-fish controls. While males could distinguish female reproductive states using visual cues alone, courtship behavior rates were ∼10-fold higher when they fully interacted with gravid females compared with receiving visual cues alone. Males also increased their urination and territorial behaviors when exposed to another male, suggesting that chemical signals may convey information on dominance status. These data support the hypothesis that dominant males use urine as a chemical signal and adjust the frequency of their urine output based on contextual information. PMID:22162854

  3. Pychotropic medications in the treatment of feline urine spraying.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Barabara Sherman

    2007-01-01

    Urine spraying (urine marking) is one of the most prevalent feline behavior disorders and a common reason for veterinarian consultation. Although urine spraying is a normal feline communication signal, it is unacceptable behavior for house cats, and, if untreated can lead to relinquishment, relegation outside, or even euthanasia. Urine spraying is associated with a medical disorder in up to 25% of cats that present for treatment; hence all cats that spray should undego clinical examination by a veterinarian to rule out physical causes before a psychogenic cause can be presumed. Behavioral treatment involves litter box management and medication. A variety of psychotropic medications have proven safe and effective for the long-term treatment of psychogenic feline urine spraying, but only if they are prescribed appropriately, monitored judiciously, and coupled therapeutically with environmental management. The goal of such therapy is to reduce the incidence of urine marking to a level acceptable to the owner. Compounding pharmacists perform an essential function in modifying doses of manufactured anxiolytic and antidepressant medications for use in cats whose spraying is psychogenic in origin. In this article, the case is reported of a cat successfully treated with psychotropic medication to reduce the incidence of urine marking, and medications compounded for that purpose are briefly reviewed. The role of the compounding pharmacist in ensuring the success of treatment is also discussed. PMID:23974483

  4. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  5. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    PubMed

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. PMID:6347841

  6. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on fabric.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Bandey, Helen; Bleay, Steve; NicDaéid, Niamh

    2012-01-10

    A range of chemical techniques were utilised for the enhancement of footwear impressions deposited on a variety of fabric types of different colours with urine as a contaminant. A semi-automated stamping device was used to deliver test impressions at a set force to minimise the variability between impressions; multiple impressions were produced and enhanced by each reagent to determine the repeatability of the enhancement. Urine samples from different donors were analysed using a spectrofluorophotometer revealing differences between individuals. Results indicated that the enhancement of footwear impressions in urine was possible using amino acid staining techniques whereas protein stains failed to achieve successful enhancement. PMID:21813253

  7. Aluminium in the blood and urine of industrially exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Lundberg, I; Lidums, V

    1983-01-01

    Blood and urine aluminium concentrations were studied in industrially exposed workers using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Welders and workers making aluminium powder and aluminium sulphate had higher concentrations in blood and urine than non-exposed referents. Workers in the electrolytic production of aluminium had higher urine but not blood concentrations than the referents. Thus aluminium was found to be absorbed by all industrially exposed workers. Blood concentrations were lower than those presumably associated with aluminium induced encephalopathy in patients receiving dialysis. PMID:6871119

  8. Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID

  9. Metabolites of cannabidiol identified in human urine.

    PubMed

    Harvey, D J; Mechoulam, R

    1990-03-01

    1. Urine from a dystonic patient treated with cannabidiol (CBD) was examined by g.l.c.-mass spectrometry for CBD metabolites. Metabolites were identified as their trimethylsilyl (TMS), [2H9]TMS, and methyl ester/TMS derivatives and as the TMS derivatives of the product of lithium aluminium deuteride reduction. 2. Thirty-three metabolites were identified in addition to unmetabolized CBD, and a further four metabolites were partially characterized. 3. The major metabolic route was hydroxylation and oxidation at C-7 followed by further hydroxylation in the pentyl and propenyl groups to give 1"-, 2"-, 3"-, 4"- and 10-hydroxy derivatives of CBD-7-oic acid. Other metabolites, mainly acids, were formed by beta-oxidation and related biotransformations from the pentyl side-chain and these were also hydroxylated at C-6 or C-7. The major oxidized metabolite was CBD-7-oic acid containing a hydroxyethyl side-chain. 4. Two 8,9-dihydroxy compounds, presumably derived from the corresponding epoxide were identified. 5. Also present were several cyclized cannabinoids including delta-6- and delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. 6. This is the first metabolic study of CBD in humans; most observed metabolic routes were typical of those found for CBD and related cannabinoids in other species. PMID:2336840

  10. [Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    PubMed

    Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold

  11. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  12. Folate Catabolites in Spot Urine as Non-Invasive Biomarkers of Folate Status during Habitual Intake and Folic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Niesser, Mareile; Demmelmair, Hans; Weith, Thea; Moretti, Diego; Rauh-Pfeiffer, Astrid; van Lipzig, Marola; Vaes, Wouter; Koletzko, Berthold; Peissner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background Folate status, as reflected by red blood cell (RCF) and plasma folates (PF), is related to health and disease risk. Folate degradation products para-aminobenzoylglutamate (pABG) and para-acetamidobenzoylglutamate (apABG) in 24 hour urine have recently been shown to correlate with blood folate. Aim Since blood sampling and collection of 24 hour urine are cumbersome, we investigated whether the determination of urinary folate catabolites in fasted spot urine is a suitable non-invasive biomarker for folate status in subjects before and during folic acid supplementation. Study Design and Methods Immediate effects of oral folic acid bolus intake on urinary folate catabolites were assessed in a short-term pre-study. In the main study we included 53 healthy men. Of these, 29 were selected for a 12 week folic acid supplementation (400 µg). Blood, 24 hour and spot urine were collected at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks and PF, RCF, urinary apABG and pABG were determined. Results Intake of a 400 µg folic acid bolus resulted in immediate increase of urinary catabolites. In the main study pABG and apABG concentrations in spot urine correlated well with their excretion in 24 hour urine. In healthy men consuming habitual diet, pABG showed closer correlation with PF (rs = 0.676) and RCF (rs = 0.649) than apABG (rs = 0.264, ns and 0.543). Supplementation led to significantly increased folate in plasma and red cells as well as elevated urinary folate catabolites, while only pABG correlated significantly with PF (rs = 0.574) after 12 weeks. Conclusion Quantification of folate catabolites in fasted spot urine seems suitable as a non-invasive alternative to blood or 24 hour urine analysis for evaluation of folate status in populations consuming habitual diet. In non-steady-state conditions (folic acid supplementation) correlations between folate marker (RCF, PF, urinary catabolites) decrease due to differing kinetics. PMID:23457526

  13. Samarium-153 therapy for prostate cancer: the evaluation of urine activity, staff exposure and dose rate from patients.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Yasemin; Gumuser, Gul; Sayit, Elvan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the excretion of Samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylphosphonic acid ((153)Sm-EDTMP) in urine and to calculate the dose rate of its retention in the body as a function of time and the dose received by the skin of laboratory staff's finger. Urine samples were collected from 11 patients after intravenous injection of (153)Sm-EDTMP. The measurements of dose rate were performed. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used for absorbed dose measurements. Effective half-lives that were calculated from urine sample measurements were found as 7.1±3 h within the first 24 h. Whole body dose rates before collecting urine of patients were 60.0 ± 15.7 µSv h(-1) for within 1 h following (153)Sm-EDTMP administration. The highest finger radiation dose is to the right-hand thumb (3.8 ± 2 mGy). The results of the study imply that patients who recieved (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy should be kept a minumum of 8 h in an isolated room at hospital and that one staff should give therapy at most two patients per week. PMID:25063786

  14. The Molting Biomarker Metabolite N-acetylglucosamino-1,5-lactone in Female Urine of the Helmet Crab Telmessus cheiragonus.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hirona; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylglucosamino-1,5-lactone (NAGL) is a molting biomarker in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus The concentration of this compound in urine is highest at the premolt stage. Since sexually mature premolt females release sex pheromone in their urine, NAGL is a candidate sex pheromone molecule in C. sapidus This compound has not been reported in other species. In the present study, we quantified the concentration of NAGL in the urine of the helmet crab Telmessus cheiragonus, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and found that the concentration increases toward the day of molting and decreases after molting. However, the total amount of NAGL collected from individual animals was greatest two to five days after molting, because the amount of urine collected was the lowest at the premolt stage, and it increased after molting. The highest median concentration of NAGL in T. cheiragonas was 29 μmol l(-1), which is 75% of the highest concentration reported in C. sapidus This is the first report of NAGL as a molting biomarker in a species other than C. sapidus We assume that NAGL is part of a pheromone bouquet in these two species. PMID:27132136

  15. Cadmium levels in the urine of female farmers in nonpolluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    About 1200 urine samples were collected, mostly in winter seasons in 1982-1984, from adult women in 7 nonpolluted areas in widely separated parts of Japan, and analyses for cadmium (Cd-U) were conducted in a single laboratory. The geometric mean (GM) by decades of age groups of Cd-U, after adjustment for a specific gravity of urine of 1.016, increased from 0.88 microgram/l in the twenties to reach a maximum of 1.78 micrograms/l in the fifties followed by gradual decrease to 1.31 micrograms/l in the eighties. The effect of smoking (about 8 cigarettes/d as a mean) was absent. Analyses of additional 125 urine samples from men revealed that Cd-U in men was not higher than that in women. When classified geographically, Cd-U was higher in the area on the coast of the Sea of Japan, as suspected in preceding studies on blood cadmium levels and dietary cadmium intakes. The Cd-U levels observed in the present study are similar to the values in previous publications on the Japanese and are apparently higher than the counterpart values from Europe, the United States, and New Zealand.

  16. Polyphenol levels in human urine after intake of six different polyphenol-rich beverages.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideyuki; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Manach, Claudine; Morand, Christine; Mennen, Louise; Rémésy, Christian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2005-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols are suggested to participate in the prevention of CVD and cancer. It is essential for epidemiological studies to be able to compare intake of the main dietary polyphenols in populations. The present paper describes a fast method suitable for the analysis of polyphenols in urine, selected as potential biomarkers of intake. This method is applied to the estimation of polyphenol recovery after ingestion of six different polyphenol-rich beverages. Fifteen polyphenols including mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone), several phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, m-coumaric, gallic, and 4-O-methylgallic acids), phloretin and various flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, and naringenin) were simultaneously quantified in human urine by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionisation mass-MS (HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry) with a run time of 6 min per sample. The method has been validated with regard to linearity, precision, and accuracy in intra- and inter-day assays. It was applied to urine samples collected from nine volunteers in the 24 h following consumption of either green tea, a grape-skin extract, cocoa beverage, coffee, grapefruit juice or orange juice. Levels of urinary excretion suggest that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin, naringenin or hesperetin could be used as specific biomarkers to evaluate the consumption of coffee, wine, tea or cocoa, and citrus juices respectively. PMID:16197573

  17. Effects of Therapy on Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Nondiabetic Glomerular Diseases with Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Vanavanan, Somlak; Chittamma, Anchalee; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong; Lertrit, Amornpan; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya

    2016-01-01

    Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is widely used as a biomarker for acute kidney injury. Cross-sectional studies have shown that NGAL may be elevated in glomerular diseases, but there is limited information on the value of NGAL in predicting treatment response or on the changes of NGAL levels after therapy. We prospectively evaluated the effects of therapy on NGAL in nondiabetic glomerular diseases. Urine NGAL was collected at biopsy and follow-up at 12 months. At baseline, NGAL in glomerular disease patients (n = 43) correlated with proteinuria, but not with glomerular filtration rate (GFR). After therapy with renin-angiotensin blockers and/or immune modulating agents, change of NGAL correlated with change of proteinuria, but not with change of GFR. NGAL at baseline was not different between patients in complete remission (CR) at follow-up compared to those not in remission (NR). Compared to baseline, NGAL at follow-up decreased in CR (n = 10), but not in NR. Change of NGAL was greater in CR than NR. In conclusion, the change of urine NGAL correlated with the change of proteinuria. Baseline NGAL was not a predictor of complete remission. Future studies will be necessary to determine the role of NGAL as a predictor of long term outcome in proteinuric glomerular diseases. PMID:27525120

  18. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of hazardous wastes and urine from rats fed these wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Inmon, J.P.; Simmons, J.E.; Berman, E.; Pasley, T.C.

    1987-06-01

    Fifteen hazardous industrial waste samples were evaluated for mutagenicity in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay using strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the crude wastes also were evalauted. Seven of the crude wastes were mutagenic, but only 2 of the extract of these 7 wastes were mutagenic; extracts of 2 additional wastes also were mutagenic. In addition, 10 of the crude wastes were administered by gavage to F-344 rats, and 24-H urine samples were collected. Of the 10 raw urines evaluated, 3 were mutagenic in strain TA98 in the presence of S9 and B-glucuronidase. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the mutagenicity of urine from rodents exposed to hazardous wastes. Based on the present results, the use of only strain TA98 in the presence of S9 might be adequate for general screening of hazardous wastes or waste extracts for genotoxicity.

  19. Detection of synthetic corticosteroids in bovine urine by chemiluminescence high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, B I; Feás, X; Lolo, M; Fente, C A; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A

    2005-01-01

    The development of a black market of chemical cocktails for illegal growth promotion in food-producing animals includes substances that are potentially dangerous for human health, such as synthetic corticosteroids. The potential presence of these residues in food makes it necessary to develop rapid and sensitive analytical methodologies to detect such substances, preferably in live animals before they arrive at the market. A chemiluminescence (CL) detection method for the determination of four synthetic corticosteroids (prednisolone, betamethasone, dexamethasone and flumethasone) in bovine urine has been developed. The proposed system, which does not need any derivatization procedure, offers an easy method well suited for routine research. Urine samples were homogenized with methanol:water (50:50, v/v) and centrifuged. The upper layer was collected and Strata X cartridges were used for cleaning up. The purified residues were evaporated to dryness and then redissolved in the mobile phase. Analysis of the extracts was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection, employing luminol as the CL reagent. The recovery curves, obtained at four spiking levels (different for each corticosteroid), showed that recoveries of at least 70% could be obtained for urine. The chemiluminescence detection procedure afforded satisfactory results with respect to sensitivity and the LOD and LOQ, taken as the first point of the regression curve, ranged from 4 ppb to 65 ppb. The maximum mean RSD was below 13% and below 15% for intra- and inter-day assay, respectively, in all cases. PMID:15924320

  20. Interim Guidance for Zika Virus Testing of Urine - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection can be accomplished using molecular and serologic methods. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the preferred test for Zika virus infection because it can be performed rapidly and is highly specific (1,2). However, in most patients, Zika virus RNA is unlikely to be detected in serum after the first week of illness (2,3). Recent reports using adaptations of previously published methods (2,4) suggest that Zika virus RNA can be detected in urine for at least 2 weeks after onset of symptoms (3,5-7). Currently, the CDC Trioplex rRT-PCR assay is the only diagnostic tool authorized by the Food and Drug Administration for Zika virus testing of urine (1). Other laboratory-developed tests will need in-house validations to adequately characterize the performance of the assay and meet Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments requirements. Further investigation is needed to determine the sensitivity and utility of Zika virus rRT-PCR on urine specimens collected ≥14 days after onset of symptoms. PMID:27171368

  1. Natural incidence of zearalenone in Croatian pig feed, urine and meat in 2014.

    PubMed

    Pleadin, Jelka; Mihaljević, Željko; Barbir, Tina; Vulić, Ana; Kmetič, Ivana; Zadravec, Manuela; Brumen, Vlatka; Mitak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of zearalenone (ZEN) in different feed materials and feedstuffs for pigs, as well as in pig urine and pig meat following contaminated feed consumption. In total, 253 feed material and feedstuff samples were collected from Croatian pig farms. The results revealed the presence of ZEN in significant concentrations, the maximal being found in maize (5522 µg/kg), wheat (3366 µg/kg) and pig fattening feed (1949 µg/kg). In farms in which high feed contamination and pig hyperestrogenism were observed, samples of pig urine (n=30) and meat (n=30) were retrieved as well. The mean ZEN concentrations in pig urine and pig meat were 206±20.6 µg/L and 0.62±0.14 µg/kg, respectively. Despite high contamination of feedstuffs responsible for farmed pigs' intoxication, ZEN levels determined in pig meat were shown to be of little significance for human safety. PMID:26367461

  2. Seasonal influence over serum and urine metabolic markers in submariners during prolonged patrols

    PubMed Central

    Holy, Xavier; Bégot, Laurent; Renault, Sylvie; Butigieg, Xavier; André, Catherine; Bonneau, Dominique; Savourey, Gustave; Collombet, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of earlier publications, we have consistently dedicated our investigations to eliciting the effects of both seasonal vitamin D deficiency and submarine-induced hypercapnia on serum parameters for acid–base balance and bone metabolism in submariners over a 2-month winter (WP) or summer (SP) patrols. The latest findings reported herein, contribute further evidence with regard to overall physiological regulations in the same submariner populations that underwent past scrutiny. Hence, urine and blood samples were collected in WP and SP submariners at control prepatrol time as well as on submarine patrol days 20, 41, and 58. Several urine and serum metabolic markers were quantified, namely, deoxypyridinoline (DPD), lactate, albumin, creatinine, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and ionized sodium (Na+) or potassium (K+), with a view to assessing bone, muscle, liver, or kidney metabolisms. We evidenced bone metabolism alteration (urine DPD, calcium, and phosphorus) previously recorded in submarine crewmembers under prolonged patrols. We also highlighted transitory modifications in liver metabolism (serum albumin) occurring within the first 20 days of submersion. We further evidenced changes in submariners’ renal physiology (serum creatinine) throughout the entire patrol time span. Measurements of ionic homeostasis (serum Na+ and K+) displayed potential seasonal impact over active ionic pumps in submariners. Finally, there is some evidence that submersion provides beneficial conditions prone to fend off seasonal lactic acidosis (serum lactate) detected in WP submariners. PMID:26265754

  3. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  4. 49 CFR 40.61 - What are the preliminary steps in the collection process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process begins. Example to paragraph (b... catheterization or other means, urine from an unconscious employee to conduct a drug test under this part. Nor may... to test. (c) Require the employee to provide positive identification. You must see a photo ID...

  5. 49 CFR 40.61 - What are the preliminary steps in the collection process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process begins. Example to paragraph (b... catheterization or other means, urine from an unconscious employee to conduct a drug test under this part. Nor may... to test. (c) Require the employee to provide positive identification. You must see a photo ID...

  6. Optimization of a pre-MEKC separation SPE procedure for steroid molecules in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Olędzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Dziomba, Szymon; Szmudanowski, Piotr; Bączek, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Many steroid hormones can be considered as potential biomarkers and their determination in body fluids can create opportunities for the rapid diagnosis of many diseases and disorders of the human body. Most existing methods for the determination of steroids are usually time- and labor-consuming and quite costly. Therefore, the aim of analytical laboratories is to develop a new, relatively low-cost and rapid implementation methodology for their determination in biological samples. Due to the fact that there is little literature data on concentrations of steroid hormones in urine samples, we have made attempts at the electrophoretic determination of these compounds. For this purpose, an extraction procedure for the optimized separation and simultaneous determination of seven steroid hormones in urine samples has been investigated. The isolation of analytes from biological samples was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane and compared to solid phase extraction (SPE) with C18 and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) columns. To separate all the analytes a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK) technique was employed. For full separation of all the analytes a running buffer (pH 9.2), composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 10% methanol was selected. The methodology developed in this work for the determination of steroid hormones meets all the requirements of analytical methods. The applicability of the method has been confirmed for the analysis of urine samples collected from volunteers--both men and women (students, amateur bodybuilders, using and not applying steroid doping). The data obtained during this work can be successfully used for further research on the determination of steroid hormones in urine samples. PMID:24232737

  7. Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-10-01

    Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ≤ 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

  8. Identification of Parabodo caudatus (class Kinetoplastea) in urine voided from a dog with hematuria.

    PubMed

    Vandersea, Mark W; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Litaker, R Wayne; Vaden, Shelly L; Renschler, Janelle S; Gookin, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    A voided urine sample, obtained from a 13-year-old intact male dog residing in a laboratory animal research facility, was observed to contain biflagellate protozoa 5 days following an episode of gross hematuria. The protozoa were identified as belonging to the class Kinetoplastea on the basis of light microscopic observation of Wright-Giemsa-stained urine sediment in which the kinetoplast was observed basal to 2 anterior flagella. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers corresponding with conserved regions within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of representative kinetoplastid species identified nucleotide sequences with 100% identity to Parabodo caudatus. Parabodo caudatus organisms were unable to be demonstrated cytologically or by means of PCR in samples collected from the dog's environment. The dog had a history of 50 complete urinalyses performed over the 12-year period preceding detection of P. caudatus, and none of these were noted to contain protozoa. Moreover, the gross hematuria that was documented 5 days prior to detection of P. caudatus had never before been observed in this dog. Over the ensuing 2.5 years of the dog's life, 16 additional complete urinalyses were performed, none of which revealed the presence of protozoa. Bodonids are commonly found in soil as well as in freshwater and marine environments. However, P. caudatus, in particular, has a 150-year-long, interesting, and largely unresolved history in people as either an inhabitant or contaminant of urine. This historical conundrum is revisited in the current description of P. caudatus as recovered from the urine of a dog. PMID:25525146

  9. Analytical Performance of ELISA Assays in Urine: One More Bottleneck towards Biomarker Validation and Clinical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Chatziharalambous, Despina; Lygirou, Vasiliki; Latosinska, Agnieszka; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Vlahou, Antonia; Jankowski, Vera; Zoidakis, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    ELISA is the main approach for the sensitive quantification of protein biomarkers in body fluids and is currently employed in clinical laboratories for the measurement of clinical markers. As such, it also constitutes the main methodological approach for biomarker validation and further qualification. For the latter, specific assay performance requirements have to be met, as described in respective guidelines of regulatory agencies. Even though many clinical ELISA assays in serum are regularly used, ELISA clinical applications in urine are significantly less. The scope of our study was to evaluate ELISA assay analytical performance in urine for a series of potential biomarkers for bladder cancer, as a first step towards their large scale clinical validation. Seven biomarkers (Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, Survivin, Slit homolog 2 protein, NRC-Interacting Factor 1, Histone 2B, Proteinase-3 and Profilin-1) previously described in the literature as having differential expression in bladder cancer were included in the study. A total of 11 commercially available ELISA tests for these markers were tested by standard curve analysis, assay reproducibility, linearity and spiking experiments. The results show disappointing performance with coefficients of variation>20% for the vast majority of the tests performed. Only 3 assays (for Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, Survivin and Slit homolog 2 protein) passed the accuracy thresholds and were found suitable for further application in marker quantification. These results collectively reflect the difficulties in developing urine-based ELISA assays of sufficient analytical performance for clinical application, presumably attributed to the urine matrix itself and/or presence of markers in various isoforms. PMID:26889680

  10. Development and clinical application of an LC-MS-MS method for mescaline in urine.

    PubMed

    Björnstad, Kristian; Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof

    2008-04-01

    Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethylamine) is an hallucinogenic psychoactive substance present in several species of cacti. Mescaline has a documented use dating back 5700 years. In more recent years, the interest in hallucinogenic designer drugs such as ecstasy has also triggered interest in the naturally occurring mescaline. This study was undertaken to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the screening and confirmation of mescaline in human urine samples and to apply this method to routine testing in patient samples. For the screening procedure, chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5-microm HyPURITY C(18) column, using a methanol gradient in ammonium acetate buffer. The MS-MS analysis was performed using selected reaction monitoring; the transitions monitored were m/z 212.3 --> m/z 180.3 for mescaline and m/z 221.3 --> m/z 186.3 for the deuterated internal standard (mescaline-d(9)). The detection limit for mescaline in urine matrix was 3-5 microg/L, the upper limit of quantification was 10,000 microg/L, and the total coefficient of variation for spiked samples containing 10 to 1025 microg/L was < 8.5%. The confirmation procedure included a sample clean-up by solid-phase extraction on a C(18) cartridge, and one extra transition for mescaline (m/z 212.3 --> m/z 195.2) was monitored. The LC-MS-MS method was found to be sensitive and specific for the routine detection of mescaline in urine. Among 462 urine samples collected from young people with alcohol or drug problems, 32% were positive for illicit drugs, but none for mescaline. PMID:18397574

  11. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of five bisphosphonates in equine urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Wong, April S Y; Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D

    2015-08-15

    Bisphosphonates are used in the management of skeletal disorder in humans and horses, with tiludronic acid being the first licensed veterinary medicine in the treatment of lameness associated with degenerative joint disease. Bisphosphonates are prohibited in horseracing according to Article 6 of the International Agreement on Breeding, Racing and Wagering (published by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities). In order to control the use of bisphosphonates in equine sports, an effective method to detect the use of bisphosphonates is required. Bisphosphonates are difficult-to-detect drugs due to their hydrophilic properties. The complexity of equine matrices also added to their extraction difficulties. This study describes a method for the simultaneous detection of five bisphosphonates, namely alendronic acid, clodronic acid, ibandronic acid, risedronic acid and tiludronic acid, in equine urine and plasma. Bisphosphonates were first isolated from the sample matrices by solid-phase extractions, followed by methylation with trimethylsilyldiazomethane prior to liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry analysis using selective reaction monitoring in the positive electrospray ionization mode. The five bisphosphonates could be detected at low ppb levels in 0.5mL equine plasma or urine with acceptable precision, fast instrumental turnaround time, and negligible matrix interferences. The method has also been applied to the excretion study of tiludronic acid in plasma and urine collected from a horse having been administered a single dose of tiludronic acid. The applicability and effectiveness of the method was demonstrated by the successful detection and confirmation of the presence of tiludronic acid in an overseas equine urine sample. To our knowledge, this is the first reported method in the successful screening and confirmation of five amino- and non-amino bisphosphonates in equine biological samples. PMID:26143477

  12. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-23

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

  13. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-01

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236±0.677 kBq/L and 1.704±0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO4 addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 μSv/year and 0.532 μSv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 μSv/year.

  14. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. PMID:25782025

  15. First results on citrinin biomarkers in urines from rural and urban cohorts in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Rahman, Mashiur; Alim, Abdul; Hossain, Khaled; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-02-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin contaminant in food commodities and can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), another nephrotoxic contaminant in food and feed. Presence of OTA in maize from Bangladesh has been reported, but no data exist on CIT occurrence in food or feed in Bangladesh. Since biomonitoring provides the best approach to assess human exposure to contaminants from various sources and by all routes, a validated method for biomarker analysis has been used to investigate the presence of CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT) in urines from two Bangladeshi cohorts: Both analytes were determined in urine samples collected from inhabitants of a rural (n=32) and an urban (n=37) area in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. After cleanup by immunoaffinity columns, extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS; the limits of detection for CIT and HO-CIT in urine were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. CIT and HO-CIT were detectable in 94 and 71% of all urine samples. Urinary biomarker levels did not show significant correlations with age, gender, and body mass index of the donors. However, excretion of CIT together with its metabolite HO-CIT was significantly higher (p<0.01) in the rural cohort (mean 1.1±1.9 ng/mL) than in the urban cohort (mean 0.14±0.14 ng/mL). This clearly indicates differences in mycotoxin exposure. As food habits differ between rural and urban people and also their main areas of occupation, further research is needed with regard to the major contributors of CIT exposure in the two cohorts. In conclusion, this first biomarker analysis indicates widespread and variable exposure to CIT in Bangladeshi adults. PMID:25488509

  16. Development of online NIR urine analyzing system based on AOTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Feng; Sun, Zhendong; Li, Xiaoxia

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, some key techniques on development of on-line MR urine analyzing system based on AOTF (Acousto - Optics Tunable Filter) are introduced. Problems about designing the optical system including collimation of incident light and working distance (the shortest distance for separating incident light and diffracted light) are analyzed and researched. DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) controlled by microprocessor is used to realize the wavelength scan. The experiment results show that this MR urine analyzing system based on. AOTF has 10000 - 4000cm -1 wavelength range and O.3ms wavelength transfer rate. Compare with the conventional Fourier Transform NIP. spectrophotometer for analyzing multi-components in urine, this system features low cost, small volume and on-line measurement function. Unscrambler software (multivariate statistical software by CAMO Inc. Norway) is selected as the software for processing the data. This system can realize on line quantitative analysis of protein, urea and creatinine in urine.

  17. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  18. Purple urine bag syndrome in an elderly patient from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Jiménez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Bastidas-Rivera, Fabricio; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman in a nursing home, with indwelling urinary catheter, bedridden, presented with a purple urine collector bag. The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition associated with the metabolism of tryptophan by overgrowth of intestinal bacteria. The purple color is formed by a combination of indigo and indirubin produced as a result of phosphatase and sulfatase enzymatic activity of bacteria on indoxyl sulfate, under alkaline pH of the urine. We present the second case of this syndrome reported in Colombia detailing the management of this rare syndrome associated with urinary tract infection. Several conditions should be considered in the differential diagnose of diseases that cause discoloration of the urine. PMID:26230133

  19. Pure human urine is a good fertiliser for cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Sjöblom, Annalena; Fabritius, Helena; Karinen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Human urine obtained from separating toilets was tested as a fertiliser for cultivation of outdoor cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Nordic climate. The urine used contained high amounts of nitrogen with some phosphorus and potassium, but numbers of enteric microorganisms were low even though urine had not been preserved before sampling. The cucumber yield after urine fertilisation was similar or slightly better than the yield obtained from control rows fertilised with commercial mineral fertiliser. None of the cucumbers contained any enteric microorganisms (coliforms, enterococci, coliphages and clostridia). In the taste assessment, 11 out of 20 persons could recognise which cucumber of three cucumbers was different but they did not prefer one over the other cucumber samples, since all of them were assessed as equally good. PMID:16413181

  20. The Hydrodynamics of Urination: to drip or jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Jonathan; Yang, Patricia; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    The release of waste products is fundamental to all life. How are fluids released from the body quickly and efficiently? In a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in animal mass. Using high-speed videography and flow-rate measurement at the Atlanta Zoo, we report discrete regimes for urination style. We observe dripping by small mammals such as rats and jetting by large mammals such as elephants. We discover urination duration is independent of animal size among animals that use jetting. We rationalize urination styles, along with the constant-time scaling, by consideration of the relative magnitudes of the driving forces, gravity and bladder pressure, and the corresponding viscous losses within the urethra. This study may give insight into why certain animals are more prone to diseases of the urinary tract, and how the urinary system evolved under the laws of fluid mechanics.