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Sample records for 24-nt small rnas

  1. Landscape of Fluid Sets of Hairpin-Derived 21-/24-nt-Long Small RNAs at Seed Set Uncovers Special Epigenetic Features in Picea glauca

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Conifers’ exceptionally large genome (20–30 Gb) is scattered with 60% retrotransposon (RT) components and we have little knowledge on their origin and evolutionary implications. RTs may impede the expression of flanking genes and provide sources of the formation of novel small RNA (sRNAs) populations to constrain events of transposon (TE) proliferation/transposition. Here we show a declining expression of 24-nt-long sRNAs and low expression levels of their key processing gene, pgRTL2 (RNASE THREE LIKE 2) at seed set in Picea glauca. The sRNAs in 24-nt size class are significantly less enriched in type and read number than 21-nt sRNAs and have not been documented in other species. The architecture of MIR loci generating highly expressed 24-/21-nt sRNAs is featured by long terminal repeat—retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in families of Ty3/Gypsy and Ty1/Copia elements. This implies that the production of sRNAs may be predominantly originated from TE fragments on chromosomes. Furthermore, a large proportion of highly expressed 24-nt sRNAs does not have predictable targets against unique genes in Picea, suggestive of their potential pathway in DNA methylation modifications on, for instance, TEs. Additionally, the classification of computationally predicted sRNAs suggests that 24-nt sRNA targets may bear particular functions in metabolic processes while 21-nt sRNAs target genes involved in many different biological processes. This study, therefore, directs our attention to a possible extrapolation that lacking of 24-nt sRNAs at the late conifer seed developmental phase may result in less constraints in TE activities, thus contributing to the massive expansion of genome size. PMID:28082604

  2. Loss of RNA–Dependent RNA Polymerase 2 (RDR2) Function Causes Widespread and Unexpected Changes in the Expression of Transposons, Genes, and 24-nt Small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yi; Lisch, Damon R.; Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Scanlon, Michael J.; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes and are typically transcriptionally silenced. RNA–dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) is a component of the RNA–directed DNA methylation (RdDM) silencing pathway. In maize, loss of mediator of paramutation1 (mop1) encoded RDR2 function results in reactivation of transcriptionally silenced Mu transposons and a substantial reduction in the accumulation of 24 nt short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that recruit RNA silencing components. An RNA–seq experiment conducted on shoot apical meristems (SAMs) revealed that, as expected based on a model in which RDR2 generates 24 nt siRNAs that suppress expression, most differentially expressed DNA TEs (78%) were up-regulated in the mop1 mutant. In contrast, most differentially expressed retrotransposons (68%) were down-regulated. This striking difference suggests that distinct silencing mechanisms are applied to different silencing templates. In addition, >6,000 genes (24% of analyzed genes), including nearly 80% (286/361) of genes in chromatin modification pathways, were differentially expressed. Overall, two-thirds of differentially regulated genes were down-regulated in the mop1 mutant. This finding suggests that RDR2 plays a significant role in regulating the expression of not only transposons, but also of genes. A re-analysis of existing small RNA data identified both RDR2–sensitive and RDR2–resistant species of 24 nt siRNAs that we hypothesize may at least partially explain the complex changes in the expression of genes and transposons observed in the mop1 mutant. PMID:19936292

  3. Loss of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) function causes widespread and unexpected changes in the expression of transposons, genes, and 24-nt small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yi; Lisch, Damon R; Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Scanlon, Michael J; Nettleton, Daniel; Schnable, Patrick S

    2009-11-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes and are typically transcriptionally silenced. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) is a component of the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) silencing pathway. In maize, loss of mediator of paramutation1 (mop1) encoded RDR2 function results in reactivation of transcriptionally silenced Mu transposons and a substantial reduction in the accumulation of 24 nt short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that recruit RNA silencing components. An RNA-seq experiment conducted on shoot apical meristems (SAMs) revealed that, as expected based on a model in which RDR2 generates 24 nt siRNAs that suppress expression, most differentially expressed DNA TEs (78%) were up-regulated in the mop1 mutant. In contrast, most differentially expressed retrotransposons (68%) were down-regulated. This striking difference suggests that distinct silencing mechanisms are applied to different silencing templates. In addition, >6,000 genes (24% of analyzed genes), including nearly 80% (286/361) of genes in chromatin modification pathways, were differentially expressed. Overall, two-thirds of differentially regulated genes were down-regulated in the mop1 mutant. This finding suggests that RDR2 plays a significant role in regulating the expression of not only transposons, but also of genes. A re-analysis of existing small RNA data identified both RDR2-sensitive and RDR2-resistant species of 24 nt siRNAs that we hypothesize may at least partially explain the complex changes in the expression of genes and transposons observed in the mop1 mutant.

  4. Citrus tristeza virus infection induces the accumulation of viral small RNAs (21-24-nt) mapping preferentially at the 3'-terminal region of the genomic RNA and affects the host small RNA profile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Navarro, Beatriz; Gisel, Andreas; Peña, Leandro; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Di Serio, Francesco; Flores, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    To get an insight into the host RNA silencing defense induced by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and into the counter defensive reaction mediated by its three silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), we have examined by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina) the small RNAs (sRNAs) in three virus-host combinations. Our data show that CTV sRNAs: (i) represent more than 50% of the total sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange (where CTV reaches relatively high titers), but only 3.5% in sour orange (where the CTV titer is significantly lower), (ii) are predominantly of 21-22-nt, with a biased distribution of their 5' nucleotide and with those of (+) polarity accumulating in a moderate excess, and (iii) derive from essentially all the CTV genome (ca. 20 kb), as revealed by its complete reconstruction from viral sRNA contigs, but adopt an asymmetric distribution with a prominent hotspot covering approximately the 3'-terminal 2,500 nt. These results suggest that the citrus homologues of Dicer-like (DCL) 4 and 2 most likely mediate the genesis of the 21 and 22 nt CTV sRNAs, respectively, and show that both ribonucleases act not only on the genomic RNA but also on the 3' co-terminal subgenomic RNAs and, particularly, on their double-stranded forms. The plant sRNA profile, very similar and dominated by the 24-nt sRNAs in the three mock-inoculated controls, was minimally affected by CTV infection in sour orange, but exhibited a significant reduction of the 24-nt sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange. We have also identified novel citrus miRNAs and determined how CTV influences their accumulation.

  5. Identification and characterization of two novel classes of small RNAs in the mouse germline: retrotransposon-derived siRNAs in oocytes and germline small RNAs in testes

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Takeda, Atsushi; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Minami, Naojiro; Imai, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Small RNAs ranging in size between 18 and 30 nucleotides (nt) are found in many organisms including yeasts, plants, and animals. Small RNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression through translational repression, mRNA degradation, and chromatin modification. In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) are the only small RNAs that have been well characterized. Here, we have identified two novel classes of small RNAs in the mouse germline. One class consists of ∼20- to 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from mouse oocytes, which are derived from retroelements including LINE, SINE, and LTR retrotransposons. Addition of retrotransposon-derived sequences to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of a reporter mRNA destabilizes the mRNA significantly when injected into full-grown oocytes. These results suggest that retrotransposons are suppressed through the RNAi pathway in mouse oocytes. The other novel class of small RNAs is 26- to 30-nt germline small RNAs (gsRNAs) from testes. gsRNAs are expressed during spermatogenesis in a developmentally regulated manner, are mapped to the genome in clusters, and have strong strand bias. These features are reminiscent of Tetrahymena ∼23- to 24-nt small RNAs and Caenorhabditis elegans X-cluster small RNAs. A conserved novel small RNA pathway may be present in diverse animals. PMID:16766679

  6. Physcomitrella patens DCL3 Is Required for 22–24 nt siRNA Accumulation, Suppression of Retrotransposon-Derived Transcripts, and Normal Development

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Hyun; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Coruh, Ceyda; Arif, M. Asif; Ma, Zhaorong; Frank, Wolfgang; Axtell, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Endogenous 24 nt short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), derived mostly from intergenic and repetitive genomic regions, constitute a major class of endogenous small RNAs in flowering plants. Accumulation of Arabidopsis thaliana 24 nt siRNAs requires the Dicer family member DCL3, and clear homologs of DCL3 exist in both flowering and non-flowering plants. However, the absence of a conspicuous 24 nt peak in the total RNA populations of several non-flowering plants has raised the question of whether this class of siRNAs might, in contrast to the ancient 21 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and 21–22 nt trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs), be an angiosperm-specific innovation. Analysis of non-miRNA, non-tasiRNA hotspots of small RNA production within the genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed multiple loci that consistently produced a mixture of 21–24 nt siRNAs with a peak at 23 nt. These Pp23SR loci were significantly enriched in transposon content, depleted in overlap with annotated genes, and typified by dense concentrations of the 5-methyl cytosine (5 mC) DNA modification. Deep sequencing of small RNAs from two independent Ppdcl3 mutants showed that the P. patens DCL3 homolog is required for the accumulation of 22–24 nt siRNAs, but not 21 nt siRNAs, at Pp23SR loci. The 21 nt component of Pp23SR-derived siRNAs was also unaffected by a mutation in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutant Pprdr6. Transcriptome-wide, Ppdcl3 mutants failed to accumulate 22–24 nt small RNAs from repetitive regions while transcripts from two abundant families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon-associated reverse transcriptases were up-regulated. Ppdcl3 mutants also displayed an acceleration of leafy gametophore production, suggesting that repetitive siRNAs may play a role in the development of P. patens. We conclude that intergenic/repeat-derived siRNAs are indeed a broadly conserved, distinct class of small regulatory RNAs within land plants. PMID:19096705

  7. Small RNAs in spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram Prakash; Kotaja, Noora

    2014-01-25

    Spermatogenesis is characterized by meiotic divisions and major morphological changes to produce spermatozoa that are capable of independent movement and fertilization of an egg. Male germ cell differentiation is governed by orchestrated, phase-specific gene expression patterns that are tightly controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Post-transcriptional regulation of protein-coding mRNAs becomes prominent during the late steps of spermatogenesis when the compacting sperm nucleus becomes transcriptionally inhibited. Small non-coding RNAs are important regulators of gene expression that mainly function post-transcriptionally to control the properties of their target mRNAs. Male germ cells express several classes of small RNAs, including Dicer-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), as well as Dicer-independent piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Increasing evidence supports the essential role of small RNA-mediated RNA regulation in normal spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  8. Small RNAs, DNA methylation and transposable elements in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 80% of the wheat genome is composed of transposable elements (TEs). Since active TEs can move to different locations and potentially impose a significant mutational load, their expression is suppressed in the genome via small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). sRNAs guide silencing of TEs at the transcriptional (mainly 24-nt sRNAs) and post-transcriptional (mainly 21-nt sRNAs) levels. In this study, we report the distribution of these two types of sRNAs among the different classes of wheat TEs, the regions targeted within the TEs, and their impact on the methylation patterns of the targeted regions. Results We constructed an sRNA library from hexaploid wheat and developed a database that included our library and three other publicly available sRNA libraries from wheat. For five completely-sequenced wheat BAC contigs, most perfectly matching sRNAs represented TE sequences, suggesting that a large fraction of the wheat sRNAs originated from TEs. An analysis of all wheat TEs present in the Triticeae Repeat Sequence database showed that sRNA abundance was correlated with the estimated number of TEs within each class. Most of the sRNAs perfectly matching miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) belonged to the 21-nt class and were mainly targeted to the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). In contrast, most of the sRNAs matching class I and class II TEs belonged to the 24-nt class and were mainly targeted to the long terminal repeats (LTRs) in the class I TEs and to the terminal repeats in CACTA transposons. An analysis of the mutation frequency in potentially methylated sites revealed a three-fold increase in TE mutation frequency relative to intron and untranslated genic regions. This increase is consistent with wheat TEs being preferentially methylated, likely by sRNA targeting. Conclusions Our study examines the wheat epigenome in relation to known TEs. sRNA-directed transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing plays important roles in

  9. Small regulatory RNAs in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Babski, Julia; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Heyer, Ruth; Jaschinski, Katharina; Prasse, Daniela; Jäger, Dominik; Randau, Lennart; Schmitz, Ruth A; Marchfelder, Anita; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are universally distributed in all three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes. In bacteria, sRNAs typically function by binding near the translation start site of their target mRNAs and thereby inhibit or activate translation. In eukaryotes, miRNAs and siRNAs typically bind to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of their target mRNAs and influence translation efficiency and/or mRNA stability. In archaea, sRNAs have been identified in all species investigated using bioinformatic approaches, RNomics, and RNA-Seq. Their size can vary significantly between less than 50 to more than 500 nucleotides. Differential expression of sRNA genes has been studied using northern blot analysis, microarrays, and RNA-Seq. In addition, biological functions have been unraveled by genetic approaches, i.e., by characterization of designed mutants. As in bacteria, it was revealed that archaeal sRNAs are involved in many biological processes, including metabolic regulation, adaptation to extreme conditions, stress responses, and even in regulation of morphology and cellular behavior. Recently, the first target mRNAs were identified in archaea, including one sRNA that binds to the 5'-region of two mRNAs in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 and a few sRNAs that bind to 3'-UTRs in Sulfolobus solfataricus, three Pyrobaculum species, and Haloferax volcanii, indicating that archaeal sRNAs appear to be able to target both the 5'-UTR or the 3'-UTRs of their respective target mRNAs. In addition, archaea contain tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), and one tRF has been identified as a major ribosome-binding sRNA in H. volcanii, which downregulates translation in response to stress. Besides regulatory sRNAs, archaea contain further classes of sRNAs, e.g., CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and snoRNAs.

  10. Global Analyses of Small Interfering RNAs Derived from Bamboo mosaic virus and Its Associated Satellite RNAs in Different Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuan-Yu; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Wang, Wei-Chi; Huang, Ying-Wen; Lee, Yun-Shien; Huang, Hsien-Da; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Satellite RNAs (satRNAs), virus parasites, are exclusively associated with plant virus infection and have attracted much interest over the last 3 decades. Upon virus infection, virus-specific small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) are produced by dicer-like (DCL) endoribonucleases for anti-viral defense. The composition of vsiRNAs has been studied extensively; however, studies of satRNA-derived siRNAs (satsiRNAs) or siRNA profiles after satRNA co-infection are limited. Here, we report on the small RNA profiles associated with infection with Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) and its two satellite RNAs (satBaMVs) in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Methodology/Principal Findings Leaves of N. benthamiana or A. thaliana inoculated with water, BaMV alone or co-inoculated with interfering or noninterfering satBaMV were collected for RNA extraction, then large-scale Solexa sequencing. Up to about 20% of total siRNAs as BaMV-specific siRNAs were accumulated in highly susceptible N. benthamiana leaves inoculated with BaMV alone or co-inoculated with noninterfering satBaMV; however, only about 0.1% of vsiRNAs were produced in plants co-infected with interfering satBaMV. The abundant region of siRNA distribution along BaMV and satBaMV genomes differed by host but not by co-infection with satBaMV. Most of the BaMV and satBaMV siRNAs were 21 or 22 nt, of both (+) and (−) polarities; however, a higher proportion of 22-nt BaMV and satBaMV siRNAs were generated in N. benthamiana than in A. thaliana. Furthermore, the proportion of non-viral 24-nt siRNAs was greatly increased in N. benthamiana after virus infection. Conclusions/Significance The overall composition of vsiRNAs and satsiRNAs in the infected plants reflect the combined action of virus, satRNA and different DCLs in host plants. Our findings suggest that the structure and/or sequence demands of various DCLs in different hosts may result in differential susceptibility to the same virus. DCL2 producing 24-nt

  11. Identification of wounding and topping responsive small RNAs in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are two major classes of small RNAs. They play important regulatory roles in plants and animals by regulating transcription, stability and/or translation of target genes in a sequence-complementary dependent manner. Over 4,000 miRNAs and several classes of siRNAs have been identified in plants, but in tobacco only computational prediction has been performed and no tobacco-specific miRNA has been experimentally identified. Wounding is believed to induce defensive response in tobacco, but the mechanism responsible for this response is yet to be uncovered. Results To get insight into the role of small RNAs in damage-induced responses, we sequenced and analysed small RNA populations in roots and leaves from wounding or topping treated tobacco plants. In addition to confirmation of expression of 27 known miRNA families, we identified 59 novel tobacco-specific miRNA members of 38 families and a large number of loci generating phased 21- or 24-nt small RNAs (including ta-siRNAs). A number of miRNAs and phased small RNAs were found to be responsive to wounding or topping treatment. Targets of small RNAs were further surveyed by degradome sequencing. Conclusions The expression changes of miRNAs and phased small RNAs responsive to wounding or topping and identification of defense related targets for these small RNAs suggest that the inducible defense response in tobacco might be controlled by pathways involving small RNAs. PMID:22353177

  12. Identification of wounding and topping responsive small RNAs in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Tang, She; Wang, Yu; Li, Zefeng; Gui, Yijie; Xiao, Bingguang; Xie, Jiahua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-02-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are two major classes of small RNAs. They play important regulatory roles in plants and animals by regulating transcription, stability and/or translation of target genes in a sequence-complementary dependent manner. Over 4,000 miRNAs and several classes of siRNAs have been identified in plants, but in tobacco only computational prediction has been performed and no tobacco-specific miRNA has been experimentally identified. Wounding is believed to induce defensive response in tobacco, but the mechanism responsible for this response is yet to be uncovered. To get insight into the role of small RNAs in damage-induced responses, we sequenced and analysed small RNA populations in roots and leaves from wounding or topping treated tobacco plants. In addition to confirmation of expression of 27 known miRNA families, we identified 59 novel tobacco-specific miRNA members of 38 families and a large number of loci generating phased 21- or 24-nt small RNAs (including ta-siRNAs). A number of miRNAs and phased small RNAs were found to be responsive to wounding or topping treatment. Targets of small RNAs were further surveyed by degradome sequencing. The expression changes of miRNAs and phased small RNAs responsive to wounding or topping and identification of defense related targets for these small RNAs suggest that the inducible defense response in tobacco might be controlled by pathways involving small RNAs.

  13. Exploring the trans-acting short interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) technology for virus control in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small ribonucleic acid (RNAs) (~20-24nt) processed from double-stranded RNA in plants can trigger degradation of the target mRNAs in cytoplasm or de novo DNA methylation in nucleus leading to gene silencing. Trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) have been shown to enhance the target mRNA d...

  14. Changes in 24-nt siRNA levels in Arabidopsis hybrids suggest an epigenetic contribution to hybrid vigor.

    PubMed

    Groszmann, Michael; Greaves, Ian K; Albertyn, Zayed I; Scofield, Graham N; Peacock, William J; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2011-02-08

    Intraspecific hybrids between the Arabidopsis thaliana accessions C24 and Landsberg erecta have strong heterosis. The reciprocal hybrids show a decreased level of 24-nt small RNA (sRNA) relative to the parents with the decrease greatest for those loci where the parents had markedly different 24-nt sRNA levels. The genomic regions with reduced 24-nt sRNA levels were largely associated with genes and their flanking regions indicating a potential effect on gene expression. We identified several examples of genes with altered 24-nt sRNA levels that showed correlated changes in DNA methylation and expression levels. We suggest that such epigenetically generated differences in gene activity may contribute to hybrid vigor and that the epigenetic diversity between ecotypes provides increased allelic (epi-allelic) variability that could contribute to heterosis.

  15. Changes in 24-nt siRNA levels in Arabidopsis hybrids suggest an epigenetic contribution to hybrid vigor

    PubMed Central

    Groszmann, Michael; Greaves, Ian K.; Albertyn, Zayed I.; Scofield, Graham N.; Peacock, William J.; Dennis, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Intraspecific hybrids between the Arabidopsis thaliana accessions C24 and Landsberg erecta have strong heterosis. The reciprocal hybrids show a decreased level of 24-nt small RNA (sRNA) relative to the parents with the decrease greatest for those loci where the parents had markedly different 24-nt sRNA levels. The genomic regions with reduced 24-nt sRNA levels were largely associated with genes and their flanking regions indicating a potential effect on gene expression. We identified several examples of genes with altered 24-nt sRNA levels that showed correlated changes in DNA methylation and expression levels. We suggest that such epigenetically generated differences in gene activity may contribute to hybrid vigor and that the epigenetic diversity between ecotypes provides increased allelic (epi-allelic) variability that could contribute to heterosis. PMID:21266545

  16. Molecular characterization of geminivirus-derived small RNAs in different plant species

    PubMed Central

    Akbergenov, Rashid; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Blevins, Todd; Amin, Imran; Kutter, Claudia; Vanderschuren, Herve; Zhang, Peng; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Meins, Frederick; Hohn, Thomas; Pooggin, Mikhail M.

    2006-01-01

    DNA geminiviruses are thought to be targets of RNA silencing. Here, we characterize small interfering (si) RNAs—the hallmarks of silencing—associated with Cabbage leaf curl begomovirus in Arabidopsis and African cassava mosaic begomovirus in Nicotiana benthamiana and cassava. We detected 21, 22 and 24 nt siRNAs of both polarities, derived from both the coding and the intergenic regions of these geminiviruses. Genetic evidence showed that all the 24 nt and a substantial fraction of the 22 nt viral siRNAs are generated by the dicer-like proteins DCL3 and DCL2, respectively. The viral siRNAs were 5′ end phosphorylated, as shown by phosphatase treatments, and methylated at the 3′-nucleotide, as shown by HEN1 miRNA methylase-dependent resistance to β-elimination. Similar modifications were found in all types of endogenous and transgene-derived siRNAs tested, but not in a major fraction of siRNAs from a cytoplasmic RNA tobamovirus. We conclude that several distinct silencing pathways are involved in DNA virus-plant interactions. PMID:16421273

  17. Dynamic changes of small RNAs in rice spikelet development reveal specialized reproductive phasiRNA pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Qili; Yang, Li; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing; Meyers, Blake C.

    2016-01-01

    Dissection of the genetic pathways and mechanisms by which anther development occurs in grasses is crucial for both a basic understanding of plant development and for examining traits of agronomic importance such as male sterility. In rice, MULTIPLE SPOROCYTES1 (MSP1), a leucine-rich-repeat receptor kinase, plays an important role in anther development by limiting the number of sporocytes. OsTDL1a (a TPD1-like gene in rice) encodes a small protein that acts as a cofactor of MSP1 in the same regulatory pathway. In this study, we analyzed small RNA and mRNA changes in different stages of spikelets from wild-type rice, and from msp1 and ostdl1a mutants. Analysis of the small RNA data identified miRNAs demonstrating differential abundances. miR2275 was depleted in the two rice mutants; this miRNA is specifically enriched in anthers and functions to trigger the production of 24-nt phased secondary siRNAs (phasiRNAs) from PHAS loci. We observed that the 24-nt phasiRNAs as well as their precursor PHAS mRNAs were also depleted in the two mutants. An analysis of co-expression identified three Argonaute-encoding genes (OsAGO1d, OsAGO2b, and OsAGO18) that accumulate transcripts coordinately with phasiRNAs, suggesting a functional relationship. By mRNA in situ analysis, we demonstrated a strong correlation between the spatiotemporal pattern of these OsAGO transcripts and phasiRNA accumulations. PMID:27702997

  18. Small RNAs reflect grandparental environments in apomictic dandelion.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Lionel; Preite, Veronica; Oplaat, Carla; Anava, Sarit; Ferreira de Carvalho, Julie; Rechavi, Oded; Johannes, Frank; Verhoeven, Koen J F

    2017-05-04

    Plants can show long-term effects of environmental stresses and in some cases a stress 'memory' has been reported to persist across generations, potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. However, few documented cases exist of transgenerational effects that persist for multiple generations and it remains unclear if or how epigenetic mechanisms are involved. Here we show that the composition of small regulatory RNAs in apomictic dandelion lineages reveals a footprint of drought stress and salicylic acid treatment experienced two generations ago. Overall proportions of 21nt and 24nt RNA pools were shifted due to grandparental treatments. While individual genes did not show strong up- or downregulation of associated sRNAs, the subset of genes that showed the strongest shifts in sRNA abundance was significantly enriched for several GO terms including stress-specific functions. This suggests that a stress-induced signal was transmitted across multiple unexposed generations leading to persistent changes in epigenetic gene regulation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Small silencing RNAs: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Ghildiyal, Megha; Zamore, Phillip D

    2009-02-01

    Since the discovery in 1993 of the first small silencing RNA, a dizzying number of small RNA classes have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These classes differ in their biogenesis, their modes of target regulation and in the biological pathways they regulate. There is a growing realization that, despite their differences, these distinct small RNA pathways are interconnected, and that small RNA pathways compete and collaborate as they regulate genes and protect the genome from external and internal threats.

  20. Small silencing RNAs: an expanding universe

    PubMed Central

    Ghildiyal, Megha; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery in 1993 of the first small silencing RNA, a dizzying number of small RNA classes have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These classes differ in their biogenesis, modes of target regulation and in the biological pathways they regulate. There is a growing realization that, despite their differences, these distinct small RNA pathways are interconnected and that small RNA pathways compete and collaborate as they regulate genes and protect the genome from external and internal threats. PMID:19148191

  1. Viral small RNAs reveal the genomic variations of three grapevine vein clearing virus quasispecies populations.

    PubMed

    Howard, Susanne; Qiu, Wenping

    2017-02-02

    Viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) include viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) that are initiators and products of RNA silencing, and small RNAs that are derived from viral RNAs with function still unknown. Sequencing of vsRNAs allows assembling of viral genomes and revelation of viral population variations at genomic levels. Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is a new member of the family Caulimoviridae whose DNA genome is replicated by reverse transcription of pre-genomic RNA molecules. In this short report, three genomic sequences of GVCV were assembled from vsRNAs that were isolated and sequenced from three individual grapevines in commercial vineyards and compared to the GVCV-CHA reference genome. Profiles of single nucleotide polymorphism among three viral populations indicated a closer relatedness between two populations in different grape cultivars at the same location than those in the same grape cultivar at different locations, suggesting the spread of GVCV populations among vineyards of close proximity. Classic types of vsiRNAs (21-nt, 22-nt, and 24-nt) were found in the three GVCV vsiRNA populations, but these did not produce alignment hotspots on the GVCV-CHA reference genome. The number of 36-nt reads is the highest among vsRNAs, the role of these vsRNAs remains unclear. The analysis of vsRNAs provides a first holistic picture of genomic variations among GVCV viral quasispecies populations that help monitor epidemics and evolution of GVCV populations, an emerging virus that is becoming a threat to grape production in the Midwest region of the USA.

  2. DASHR: database of small human noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Yuk Yee; Kuksa, Pavel P.; Amlie-Wolf, Alexandre; Valladares, Otto; Ungar, Lyle H.; Kannan, Sampath; Gregory, Brian D.; Wang, Li-San

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are highly abundant RNAs, typically <100 nucleotides long, that act as key regulators of diverse cellular processes. Although thousands of sncRNA genes are known to exist in the human genome, no single database provides searchable, unified annotation, and expression information for full sncRNA transcripts and mature RNA products derived from these larger RNAs. Here, we present the Database of small human noncoding RNAs (DASHR). DASHR contains the most comprehensive information to date on human sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products. DASHR provides a simple user interface for researchers to view sequence and secondary structure, compare expression levels, and evidence of specific processing across all sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products in various human tissues. DASHR annotation and expression data covers all major classes of sncRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs), Piwi-interacting (piRNAs), small nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic (sn-, sno-, scRNAs, respectively), transfer (tRNAs), and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Currently, DASHR (v1.0) integrates 187 smRNA high-throughput sequencing (smRNA-seq) datasets with over 2.5 billion reads and annotation data from multiple public sources. DASHR contains annotations for ∼48 000 human sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products, 82% of which are expressed in one or more of the curated tissues. DASHR is available at http://lisanwanglab.org/DASHR. PMID:26553799

  3. Role of Small RNAs in Trypanosomatid Infections

    PubMed Central

    Linhares-Lacerda, Leandra; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites survive and replicate in the host by using mechanisms that aim to establish a successful infection and ensure parasite survival. Evidence points to microRNAs as new players in the host-parasite interplay. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that control proteins levels via post-transcriptional gene down-regulation, either within the cells where they were produced or in other cells via intercellular transfer. These microRNAs can be modulated in host cells during infection and are among the growing group of small regulatory RNAs, for which many classes have been described, including the transfer RNA-derived small RNAs. Parasites can either manipulate microRNAs to evade host-driven damage and/or transfer small RNAs to host cells. In this mini-review, we present evidence for the involvement of small RNAs, such as microRNAs, in trypanosomatid infections which lack RNA interference. We highlight both microRNA profile alterations in host cells during those infections and the horizontal transfer of small RNAs and proteins from parasites to the host by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles in a cell communication mechanism. PMID:27065454

  4. Deep Sequencing of Viroid-Derived Small RNAs from Grapevine Provides New Insights on the Role of RNA Silencing in Plant-Viroid Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gisel, Andreas; Moxon, Simon; Dalmay, Tamas; Bisztray, György; Di Serio, Francesco; Burgyán, József

    2009-01-01

    Background Viroids are circular, highly structured, non-protein-coding RNAs that, usurping cellular enzymes and escaping host defense mechanisms, are able to replicate and move through infected plants. Similarly to viruses, viroid infections are associated with the accumulation of viroid-derived 21–24 nt small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) with the typical features of the small interfering RNAs characteristic of RNA silencing, a sequence-specific mechanism involved in defense against invading nucleic acids and in regulation of gene expression in most eukaryotic organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain further insights on the genesis and possible role of vd-sRNAs in plant-viroid interaction, sRNAs isolated from Vitis vinifera infected by Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd1) were sequenced by the high-throughput platform Solexa-Illumina, and the vd-sRNAs were analyzed. The large majority of HSVd- and GYSVd1-sRNAs derived from a few specific regions (hotspots) of the genomic (+) and (−) viroid RNAs, with a prevalence of those from the (−) strands of both viroids. When grouped according to their sizes, vd-sRNAs always assumed a distribution with prominent 21-, 22- and 24-nt peaks, which, interestingly, mapped at the same hotspots. Conclusions/Significance These findings show that different Dicer-like enzymes (DCLs) target viroid RNAs, preferentially accessing to the same viroid domains. Interestingly, our results also suggest that viroid RNAs may interact with host enzymes involved in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, indicating more complex scenarios than previously thought for both vd-sRNAs genesis and possible interference with host gene expression. PMID:19890399

  5. Competition between small RNAs: a quantitative view.

    PubMed

    Loinger, Adiel; Shemla, Yael; Simon, Itamar; Margalit, Hanah; Biham, Ofer

    2012-04-18

    Two major classes of small regulatory RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs)--are involved in a common RNA interference processing pathway. Small RNAs within each of these families were found to compete for limiting amounts of shared components, required for their biogenesis and processing. Association with Argonaute (Ago), the catalytic component of the RNA silencing complex, was suggested as the central mechanistic point in RNA interference machinery competition. Aiming to better understand the competition between small RNAs in the cell, we present a mathematical model and characterize a range of specific cell and experimental parameters affecting the competition. We apply the model to competition between miRNAs and study the change in the expression level of their target genes under a variety of conditions. We show quantitatively that the amount of Ago and miRNAs in the cell are dominant factors contributing greatly to the competition. Interestingly, we observe what to our knowledge is a novel type of competition that takes place when Ago is abundant, by which miRNAs with shared targets compete over them. Furthermore, we use the model to examine different interaction mechanisms that might operate in establishing the miRNA-Ago complexes, mainly those related to their stability and recycling. Our model provides a mathematical framework for future studies of competition effects in regulation mechanisms involving small RNAs.

  6. Genome-wide analysis for discovery of new rice miRNA reveals natural antisense miRNA (nat-miRNAs)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small RNAs (21-24nt) are involved in gene regulation through translation inhibition, mRNA cleavage, or directing chromatin modifications. In rice, currently ~240 miRNAs have been annotated. We sequenced more than four million small RNAs from rice and identified another 24 miRNA genes. Among these, w...

  7. Identification and characterization of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid in fig (Ficus carica L.) by next generation sequencing of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, M; Torchetti, E M; Di Serio, F; Minafra, A

    2014-08-08

    Viroids are small (246-401 nt) circular and non coding RNAs infecting higher plants. They are targeted by host Dicer-like enzymes (DCLs) that generate small RNAs of 21-24 nt (sRNAs), which are involved in the host RNA silencing pathways. The accumulation in plant tissues of such viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is a clear sign of an ongoing viroid infection. In this study, next generation sequencing of a sRNAs library and assembling of the sequenced vd-sRNAs were instrumental for the identification of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) in a fig accession. After confirming by molecular methods the presence of this viroid in the fig tree, its population was characterized, showing that the ADFVd master sequence from fig diverges from that of the ADFVd reference variant from apple. Moreover, since this viroid accumulates at a low level in fig, a semi-nested RT-PCR assay was developed for detecting it in other fig accessions. ADFVd seems to have a wider host range than thought before and this poses questions about its epidemiology. A further characterization of ADFVd-sRNAs showed similar accumulation of (+) or (-) vd-sRNAs that mapped on the viroid genome generating hotspot profiles. Moreover, similarly to other nuclear-replicating viroids, vd-sRNAs of 21, 22 and 24 nt in size prevailed in the distribution profiles. Altogether, these data support the involvement of double-stranded RNAs and different DCLs, targeting the same restricted viroid regions, in the genesis of ADFVd-sRNAs.

  8. PMS1T, producing phased small-interfering RNAs, regulates photoperiod-sensitive male sterility in rice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yourong; Yang, Jiangyi; Mathioni, Sandra M.; Yu, Jinsheng; Shen, Jianqiang; Yang, Xuefei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qinghua; Cai, Zhaoxia; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2016-01-01

    Phased small-interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs) are a special class of small RNAs, which are generated in 21- or 24-nt intervals from transcripts of precursor RNAs. Although phasiRNAs have been found in a range of organisms, their biological functions in plants have yet to be uncovered. Here we show that phasiRNAs generated by the photopheriod-sensetive genic male sterility 1 (Pms1) locus were associated with photoperiod-sensitive male sterility (PSMS) in rice, a germplasm that started the two-line hybrid rice breeding. The Pms1 locus encodes a long-noncoding RNA PMS1T that was preferentially expressed in young panicles. PMS1T was targeted by miR2118 to produce 21-nt phasiRNAs that preferentially accumulated in the PSMS line under long-day conditions. A single nucleotide polymorphism in PMS1T nearby the miR2118 recognition site was critical for fertility change, likely leading to differential accumulation of the phasiRNAs. This result suggested possible roles of phasiRNAs in reproductive development of rice, demonstrating the potential importance of this RNA class as regulators in biological processes. PMID:27965387

  9. MicroRNAs: Small RNAs with Big Effects

    PubMed Central

    Anglicheau, Dany; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are evolutionarily conserved, small (~20–25 nucleotides), single-stranded molecules that suppress the expression of protein-coding genes by translational repression, messenger RNA degradation, or both. More than 700 microRNAs have been identified in the human genome. Amazingly, a single miRNA can regulate the expression of hundreds of mRNAs/proteins within a cell. The small RNAs are fast emerging as master regulators of innate and adaptive immunity, and very likely to play a pivotal role in transplantation. The clinical application of RNA sequencing (“next – generation sequencing”) should facilitate transcriptome profiling at an unprecedented resolution. We provide an overview of microRNA biology and their hypothesized roles in transplantation. PMID:20574417

  10. Small nuclear RNAs in the ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, N; Hellung-Larsen, P; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated and partially characterized a family of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) from three different species of the protozoan Tetrahymena. We find six distinct snRNAs ranging in size from 100 to 250 nucleotides. The two largest snRNAs, as well as an abundant, heterogenous group of smaller snRNAs are found in the nucleolar RNA fraction. None of the snRNAs are transcription products of the ribosomal RNA gene or its flanking regions, as shown by hybridization tests. The snRNAs are metabolically stable as determined by pulse/chase experiments and several of them contain a number of modified nuclotides. The snRNAs from Tetrahymena all have slightly different sizes from mammalian snRNAs. The cap structure of the snRNAs from Tetrahymena differs from that of the snRNAs from mammalian cells, but has not yet been fully characterized. The relative amount of snRNAs to total RNA is less in Tetrahymena (greater than 0.1%) than in mammalian cells (2%). Images PMID:2409533

  11. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD.

  12. Small RNAs in mycobacteria: an unfolding story

    PubMed Central

    Haning, Katie; Cho, Seung Hee; Contreras, Lydia M.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacteria represent a class of powerful pathogens, including those causing tuberculosis and leprosy, which continue to be worldwide health challenges. In the last 20 years, an abundance of non-coding, small RNAs (sRNAs) have been discovered in model bacteria and gained significant attention as regulators of cellular responses, including pathogenesis. Naturally, a search in mycobacteria followed, revealing over 200 sRNAs thus far. Characterization of these sRNAs is only beginning, but differential expression under environmental stresses suggests relevance to mycobacterial pathogenesis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of sRNAs in mycobacteria, including historical perspective and techniques used for identification and characterization. PMID:25105095

  13. Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-01-25

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny.

  14. Designing small multiple-target artificial RNAs

    PubMed Central

    De Guire, Vincent; Caron, Maxime; Scott, Nicolas; Ménard, Catherine; Gaumont-Leclerc, Marie-France; Chartrand, Pascal; Major, François; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are naturally occurring small RNAs that regulate the expression of several genes. MiRNAs’ targeting rules are based on sequence complementarity between their mature products and targeted genes’ mRNAs. Based on our present understanding of those rules, we developed an algorithm to design artificial miRNAs to target simultaneously a set of predetermined genes. To validate in silico our algorithm, we tested different sets of genes known to be targeted by a single miRNA. The algorithm finds the seed of the corresponding miRNA among the solutions, which also include the seeds of new artificial miRNA sequences potentially capable of targeting these genes as well. We also validated the functionality of some artificial miRNAs designed to target simultaneously members of the E2F family. These artificial miRNAs reproduced the effects of E2Fs inhibition in both normal human fibroblasts and prostate cancer cells where they inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular senescence. We conclude that the current miRNA targeting rules based on the seed sequence work to design multiple-target artificial miRNAs. This approach may find applications in both research and therapeutics. PMID:20453028

  15. High-Throughput Sequencing of RNA Silencing-Associated Small RNAs in Olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Donaire, Livia; Pedrola, Laia; de la Rosa, Raúl; Llave, César

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt) in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.). sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive. PMID:22140484

  16. Small RNAs in plants: recent development and application for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) which involves sequence-specific gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) has emerged as one of most powerful approaches for crop improvement. RNAi based on siRNA is one of the widely used tools of reverse genetics which aid in revealing gene functions in many species. This technology has been extensively applied to alter the gene expression in plants with an aim to achieve desirable traits. RNAi has been used for enhancing the crop yield and productivity by manipulating the gene involved in biomass, grain yield and enhanced shelf life of fruits and vegetables. It has also been applied for developing resistance against various biotic (bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects) and abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, cold, etc.). Nutritional improvements of crops have also been achieved by enriching the crops with essential amino acids, fatty acids, antioxidants and other nutrients beneficial for human health or by reducing allergens or anti-nutrients. microRNAs are key regulators of important plant processes like growth, development, and response to various stresses. In spite of similarity in size (20–24 nt), miRNA differ from siRNA in precursor structures, pathway of biogenesis, and modes of action. This review also highlights the miRNA based genetic modification technology where various miRNAs/artificial miRNAs and their targets can be utilized for improving several desirable plant traits. microRNA based strategies are much efficient than siRNA-based RNAi strategies due to its specificity and less undesirable off target effects. As per the FDA guidelines, small RNA (sRNA) based transgenics are much safer for consumption than those over-expressing proteins. This review thereby summarizes the emerging advances and achievement in the field of sRNAs and its application for crop improvement. PMID:25883599

  17. Small RNAs in plants: recent development and application for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) which involves sequence-specific gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) has emerged as one of most powerful approaches for crop improvement. RNAi based on siRNA is one of the widely used tools of reverse genetics which aid in revealing gene functions in many species. This technology has been extensively applied to alter the gene expression in plants with an aim to achieve desirable traits. RNAi has been used for enhancing the crop yield and productivity by manipulating the gene involved in biomass, grain yield and enhanced shelf life of fruits and vegetables. It has also been applied for developing resistance against various biotic (bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects) and abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, cold, etc.). Nutritional improvements of crops have also been achieved by enriching the crops with essential amino acids, fatty acids, antioxidants and other nutrients beneficial for human health or by reducing allergens or anti-nutrients. microRNAs are key regulators of important plant processes like growth, development, and response to various stresses. In spite of similarity in size (20-24 nt), miRNA differ from siRNA in precursor structures, pathway of biogenesis, and modes of action. This review also highlights the miRNA based genetic modification technology where various miRNAs/artificial miRNAs and their targets can be utilized for improving several desirable plant traits. microRNA based strategies are much efficient than siRNA-based RNAi strategies due to its specificity and less undesirable off target effects. As per the FDA guidelines, small RNA (sRNA) based transgenics are much safer for consumption than those over-expressing proteins. This review thereby summarizes the emerging advances and achievement in the field of sRNAs and its application for crop improvement.

  18. Specific Argonautes Selectively Bind Small RNAs Derived from Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid and Attenuate Viroid Accumulation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Minoia, Sofia; Carbonell, Alberto; Di Serio, Francesco; Gisel, Andreas; Carrington, James C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The identification of viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) of 21 to 24 nucleotides (nt) in plants infected by viroids (infectious non-protein-coding RNAs of just 250 to 400 nt) supports their targeting by Dicer-like enzymes, the first host RNA-silencing barrier. However, whether viroids, like RNA viruses, are also targeted by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) remains controversial. At the RISC core is one Argonaute (AGO) protein that, guided by endogenous or viral sRNAs, targets complementary RNAs. To examine whether AGO proteins also load vd-sRNAs, leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana infected by potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) were agroinfiltrated with plasmids expressing epitope-tagged versions of AGO1, AGO2, AGO3, AGO4, AGO5, AGO6, AGO7, AGO9, and AGO10 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Immunoprecipitation analyses of the agroinfiltrated halos revealed that all AGOs except AGO6, AGO7, and AGO10 associated with vd-sRNAs: AGO1, AGO2, and AGO3 preferentially with those of 21 and 22 nt, while AGO4, AGO5, and AGO9 additionally bound those of 24 nt. Deep-sequencing analyses showed that sorting of vd-sRNAs into AGO1, AGO2, AGO4, and AGO5 depended essentially on their 5′-terminal nucleotides, with the profiles of the corresponding AGO-loaded vd-sRNAs adopting specific hot spot distributions along the viroid genome. Furthermore, agroexpression of AGO1, AGO2, AGO4, and AGO5 on PSTVd-infected tissue attenuated the level of the genomic RNAs, suggesting that they, or their precursors, are RISC targeted. In contrast to RNA viruses, PSTVd infection of N. benthamiana did not affect miR168-mediated regulation of the endogenous AGO1, which loaded vd-sRNAs with specificity similar to that of its A. thaliana counterpart. IMPORTANCE To contain invaders, particularly RNA viruses, plants have evolved an RNA-silencing mechanism relying on the generation by Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes of virus-derived small RNAs of 21 to 24 nucleotides (nt) that load and guide Argonaute (AGO

  19. Specific argonautes selectively bind small RNAs derived from potato spindle tuber viroid and attenuate viroid accumulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Sofia; Carbonell, Alberto; Di Serio, Francesco; Gisel, Andreas; Carrington, James C; Navarro, Beatriz; Flores, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    The identification of viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) of 21 to 24 nucleotides (nt) in plants infected by viroids (infectious non-protein-coding RNAs of just 250 to 400 nt) supports their targeting by Dicer-like enzymes, the first host RNA-silencing barrier. However, whether viroids, like RNA viruses, are also targeted by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) remains controversial. At the RISC core is one Argonaute (AGO) protein that, guided by endogenous or viral sRNAs, targets complementary RNAs. To examine whether AGO proteins also load vd-sRNAs, leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana infected by potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) were agroinfiltrated with plasmids expressing epitope-tagged versions of AGO1, AGO2, AGO3, AGO4, AGO5, AGO6, AGO7, AGO9, and AGO10 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Immunoprecipitation analyses of the agroinfiltrated halos revealed that all AGOs except AGO6, AGO7, and AGO10 associated with vd-sRNAs: AGO1, AGO2, and AGO3 preferentially with those of 21 and 22 nt, while AGO4, AGO5, and AGO9 additionally bound those of 24 nt. Deep-sequencing analyses showed that sorting of vd-sRNAs into AGO1, AGO2, AGO4, and AGO5 depended essentially on their 5'-terminal nucleotides, with the profiles of the corresponding AGO-loaded vd-sRNAs adopting specific hot spot distributions along the viroid genome. Furthermore, agroexpression of AGO1, AGO2, AGO4, and AGO5 on PSTVd-infected tissue attenuated the level of the genomic RNAs, suggesting that they, or their precursors, are RISC targeted. In contrast to RNA viruses, PSTVd infection of N. benthamiana did not affect miR168-mediated regulation of the endogenous AGO1, which loaded vd-sRNAs with specificity similar to that of its A. thaliana counterpart. Importance: To contain invaders, particularly RNA viruses, plants have evolved an RNA-silencing mechanism relying on the generation by Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes of virus-derived small RNAs of 21 to 24 nucleotides (nt) that load and guide Argonaute (AGO) proteins to

  20. Small RNAs in the Genus Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C.; Jones, Shawn W.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny. PMID:21264064

  1. Structure and Gene-Silencing Mechanisms of Small Noncoding RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.

    Small (19-31-nucleotides) noncoding RNAs were identified in the past 10 years for their distinct function in gene silencing. The best known gene-silencing phenomenon, RNA interference (RNAi), is triggered in a sequence-specific manner by endogenously produced or exogenously introduced small doubled-stranded RNAs. As knowledge of the structure and function of the RNAi machinery has expanded, this phenomenon has become a powerful tool for biochemical research; it has enormous potential for therapeutics. This chapter summarizes significant aspects of three major classes of small noncoding, regulatory RNAs: small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here, we focus on the biogenesis of these small RNAs, their structural features and coupled effectors as well as the mechanisms of each small regulatory RNA pathway which reveal fascinating ways by which gene silencing is controlled and fine-tuned at an epigenetic level.

  2. High throughput sequencing of small RNAs in Potato Leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in gene regulation, function and development is a rapidly evolving field. sRNAs result from transcript degradation and to regulatory micro RNA (miRNA) and small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) classes involved in gene regulation. The sRNAs from potato leaves were...

  3. Artificial microRNAs and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs interfere with viroid infection.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Alberto; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2016-12-27

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs) are two classes of artificial small RNAs (sRNAs) engineered to silence endogenous transcripts as well as viral RNAs in plants. Here, we explore the possibility of using amiRNAs and syn-tasiRNAs to specifically interfere with infections by viroids, small (250-400 nt) non-coding circular RNAs with compact secondary structure infecting a wide range of plant species. The combined use of recent high-throughput methods for artificial sRNA construct generation and of the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)/Nicotiana benthamiana pathosystem allowed for the simple and time-effective screening of multiple artificial sRNAs targeting sites distributed along PSTVd RNAs of (+) or (-) polarity. The majority of amiRNAs were highly active in agroinfiltrated leaves when co-expressed with an infectious PSTVd transcript, as were syn-tasiRNAs derived from a construct including the five most effective amiRNA sequences. A comparative analysis showed that the effects of the most effective amiRNA and of the syn-tasiRNAs were similar in agroinfiltrated leaves, as well as in upper non-agroinfiltrated leaves where PSTVd accumulation was significantly delayed. These results suggest that amiRNAs and syn-tasiRNAs can be used effectively to control viroid infections in plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Rpl13a small nucleolar RNAs regulate systemic glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon; Harris, Alexis N.; Holley, Christopher L.; Mahadevan, Jana; Pyles, Kelly D.; Lavagnino, Zeno; Scherrer, David E.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Sidhu, Rohini; Zhang, Jessie; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Piston, David W.; Remedi, Maria S.; Urano, Fumihiko; Ory, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that form ribonucleoproteins to guide covalent modifications of ribosomal and small nuclear RNAs in the nucleus. Recent studies have also uncovered additional non-canonical roles for snoRNAs. However, the physiological contributions of these small RNAs are largely unknown. Here, we selectively deleted four snoRNAs encoded within the introns of the ribosomal protein L13a (Rpl13a) locus in a mouse model. Loss of Rpl13a snoRNAs altered mitochondrial metabolism and lowered reactive oxygen species tone, leading to increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets and enhanced systemic glucose tolerance. Islets from mice lacking Rpl13a snoRNAs demonstrated blunted oxidative stress responses. Furthermore, these mice were protected against diabetogenic stimuli that cause oxidative stress damage to islets. Our study illuminates a previously unrecognized role for snoRNAs in metabolic regulation. PMID:27820699

  5. Small Regulatory RNAs of Rickettsia conorii

    PubMed Central

    Narra, Hema P.; Schroeder, Casey L. C.; Sahni, Abha; Rojas, Mark; Khanipov, Kamil; Fofanov, Yuriy; Sahni, Sanjeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs comprise critically important modulators of gene expression in bacteria, yet very little is known about their prevalence and functions in Rickettsia species. R. conorii, the causative agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, is a tick-borne pathogen that primarily infects microvascular endothelium in humans. We have determined the transcriptional landscape of R. conorii during infection of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMECs) by strand-specific RNA sequencing to identify 4 riboswitches, 13 trans-acting (intergenic), and 22 cis-acting (antisense) small RNAs (termed ‘Rc_sR’s). Independent expression of four novel trans-acting sRNAs (Rc_sR31, Rc_sR33, Rc_sR35, and Rc_sR42) and known bacterial sRNAs (6S, RNaseP_bact_a, ffs, and α-tmRNA) was next confirmed by Northern hybridization. Comparative analysis during infection of HMECs vis-à-vis tick AAE2 cells revealed significantly higher expression of Rc_sR35 and Rc_sR42 in HMECs, whereas Rc_sR31 and Rc_sR33 were expressed at similar levels in both cell types. We further predicted a total of 502 genes involved in all important biological processes as potential targets of Rc_sRs and validated the interaction of Rc_sR42 with cydA (cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase subunit I). Our findings constitute the first evidence of the existence of post-transcriptional riboregulatory mechanisms in R. conorii and interactions between a novel Rc_sR and its target mRNA. PMID:27834404

  6. Small RNA deep sequencing identifies novel and salt-stress-regulated microRNAs from roots of Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Long, Rui-Cai; Li, Ming-Na; Kang, Jun-Mei; Zhang, Tie-Jun; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qing-Chuan

    2015-05-01

    Small 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) ribonucleic acids (RNAs), notably the microRNA (miRNA), are emerging as a posttranscriptional regulation mechanism. Salt stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that cause the crop losses worldwide. In saline lands, root growth and function of plant are determined by the action of environmental salt stress through specific genes that adapt root development to the restrictive condition. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in salt stress regulation in Medicago, we used a high-throughput sequencing approach to analyze four small RNA libraries from roots of Zhongmu-1 (Medicago sativa) and Jemalong A17 (Medicago truncatula), which were treated with 300 mM NaCl for 0 and 8 h. Each library generated about 20 million short sequences and contained predominantly small RNAs of 24-nt length, followed by 21-nt and 22-nt small RNAs. Using sequence analysis, we identified 385 conserved miRNAs from 96 families, along with 68 novel candidate miRNAs. Of all the 68 predicted novel miRNAs, 15 miRNAs were identified to have miRNA*. Statistical analysis on abundance of sequencing read revealed specific miRNA showing contrasting expression patterns between M. sativa and M. truncatula roots, as well as between roots treated for 0 and 8 h. The expression of 10 conserved and novel miRNAs was also quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The miRNA precursor and target genes were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. We concluded that the salt stress related conserved and novel miRNAs may have a large variety of target mRNAs, some of which might play key roles in salt stress regulation of Medicago.

  7. Big Impacts by Small RNAs in Plant Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The identification and study of small RNAs, including microRNAs and trans-acting small interfering RNAs, have added a layer of complexity to the many pathways that regulate plant development. These molecules, which function as negative regulators of gene expression, are now known to have greatly exp...

  8. Small RNAs as Guardians of the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Colin D.; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    Transposons populate the landscape of all eukaryotic genomes. Often considered purely genomic parasites, transposons can also benefit their hosts, playing roles in gene regulation and in genome organization and evolution. Peaceful coexistence with mobile elements depends upon adaptive control mechanisms, since unchecked transposon activity can impact long-term fitness and acutely reduce the fertility of progeny. Here, we review the conserved roles played by small RNAs in the adaptation of eukaryotes to coexist with their genomic colonists. An understanding of transposon-defense pathways has uncovered recurring themes in the mechanisms by which genomes distinguish “self” from “non-self” and selectively silence the latter. PMID:19239887

  9. Endogenous small RNAs and antibacterial immunity in plants.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hailing

    2008-08-06

    Small RNAs are non-coding regulatory RNA molecules that control gene expression by mediating mRNA degradation, translational inhibition, or chromatin modification. Virus-derived small RNAs induce silencing of viral RNAs and are essential for antiviral defense in both animal and plant systems. The role of host endogenous small RNAs on antibacterial immunity has only recently been recognized. Host disease resistance and defense responses are achieved by activation and repression of a large array of genes. Certain endogenous small RNAs in plants, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are induced or repressed in response to pathogen attack and subsequently regulate the expression of genes involved in disease resistance and defense responses by mediating transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene silencing. Thus, these small RNAs play an important role in gene expression reprogramming in plant disease resistance and defense responses. This review focuses on the recent findings of plant endogenous small RNAs in antibacterial immunity.

  10. Small RNAs of Sequoia sempervirens during rejuvenation and phase change.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-T; Shen, C-H; Lin, W-D; Chu, H-A; Huang, B-L; Kuo, C-I; Yeh, K-W; Huang, L-C; Chang, I-F

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the population of small RNAs (sRNAs) was studied in the gymnosperm Sequoia sempervirens during phase changes, specifically in the juvenile, adult and rejuvenated plants obtained in vitro. The potential target genes of Sequoia sRNAs were predicted through bioinformatics. Rejuvenation is a pivotal process in woody plants that enables them to regain their growth potential, which results in the recovery of physiologic and molecular characteristics that were lost when the juveniles mature into adult plants. The results from the five repeated graftings of juvenile, adult and rejuvenated plants in vitro showed that sRNAs could be classified into structural RNAs (Group I), small interfering RNAs (Group II), annotated microRNAs (Group III, and unannotated sRNAs (Group IV). The results indicate that only 573 among 15,485,415 sRNAs (Groups III and IV) had significantly different expression patterns associated with rejuvenation and phase change. A total of 215 sRNAs exhibited up-regulated expression patterns in adult shoots, and 358 sRNAs were down-regulated. Expression profiling and prediction of possible target genes of these unique small RNAs indicate possible functions in the control of photosynthetic efficiency and rooting competence abundance during plant rejuvenation. Moreover, the increase in SsmiR156 and decrease in SsmiR172 during plant rejuvenation suggested that these two microRNAs extensively affect phase transition.

  11. Quantitative aspects of gene regulation by small RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Pankaj

    2007-03-01

    Small, non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play an important role as genetic regulators in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Many sRNAs act through base-pairing interaction with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to regulate transcription, translation, and mRNA stability. sRNAs represent a novel form of genetic regulation distinct from more thoroughly studied protein regulators. This talk addresses quantitative aspectsof sRNA-mediated genetic regulation, focusing on noise, tunability, and feedback. In particular, we compare and contrast sRNA and protein regulators in an attempt to understand the compartive advantages of each form of regulation.

  12. Dicer independent small RNAs associate with telomeric heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fang; Li, Xiangzhi; Hiew, Samantha; Brady, Hugh; Liu, Yifan; Dou, Yali

    2009-01-01

    Small RNAs play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin structures. We show the presence of telomere specific small RNAs (tel-sRNAs) in mouse embryonic stem cells that are ∼24 nucleotides in length, Dicer-independent, and 2′-O-methylated at the 3′ terminus. The tel-sRNAs are asymmetric with specificity toward telomere G-rich strand, and evolutionarily conserved from protozoan to mammalian cells. Furthermore, tel-sRNAs are up-regulated in cells that carry null mutation of H3K4 methyltransferase MLL (Mll(−/−)) and down-regulated in cells that carry null mutations of histone H3K9 methyltransferase SUV39H (Suv39h1/h2(−/−)), suggesting that they are subject to epigenetic regulation. These results support that tel-sRNAs are heterochromatin associated pi-like small RNAs. PMID:19460867

  13. The expanding world of small RNAs in plants

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Filipe; Martienssen, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant genomes produce a variety of small RNAs that function in distinct, yet overlapping, genetic and epigenetic silencing pathways. However, the abundance and diversity of small RNA classes varies in different plant species, suggesting co-evolution between environmental adaptations and gene silencing mechanisms. Small RNA biogenesis in plants is well understood, but we are just beginning to uncover their intricate regulation and activity. Here, we discuss the biogenesis of plant small RNAs, such as microRNAs, secondary small-interfering RNAs and heterochromatic small-interfering RNAs, and their diverse cellular and developmental functions, including reproductive transitions, genomic imprinting and paramutation. We also discuss the diversification of small RNA-directed silencing pathways through the expansion of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, Dicer and Argonaute proteins. PMID:26530390

  14. Rewiring two-component signal transduction with small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Göpel, Yvonne; Görke, Boris

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) and small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) form densely interconnected networks that integrate and transduce information from the environment into fine-tuned changes of gene expression. Many TCSs control target genes indirectly through regulation of sRNAs, which in turn regulate gene expression by base-pairing with mRNAs or targeting a protein. Conversely, sRNAs may control TCS synthesis, thereby recruiting the TCS regulon to other regulatory networks. Several TCSs control expression of multiple homologous sRNAs providing the regulatory networks with further flexibility. These sRNAs act redundantly, additively or hierarchically on targets. The regulatory speed of sRNAs and their unique features in gene regulation make them ideal players extending the flexibility, dynamic range or timing of TCS signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Small RNAs: a new frontier in mosquito biology.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Keira J; Myles, Kevin M; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of small non-coding RNAs has revolutionized our understanding of regulatory networks governing multiple functions in animals and plants. However, our knowledge of mosquito small RNAs is limited. We discuss here the state of current knowledge regarding the roles of small RNAs and their targets in mosquitoes, and describe the ongoing efforts to understand the role of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in mosquito antiviral immunity and transposon silencing. Providing a clear picture into the role of small RNAs in mosquito vectors will pave the way to the utilization of these small molecules in developing novel control approaches that target mosquito immunity and/or reproductive events. Elucidation of the functions of small RNAs represents a new frontier in mosquito biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel microRNAs and microsatellite-like small RNAs in sexual and apomictic Boechera species.

    PubMed

    Amiteye, Samuel; Corral, Jose M; Vogel, Heiko; Kuhlmann, Markus; Mette, Michael F; Sharbel, Timothy F

    2013-01-01

    Apomixis refers to plant asexual reproduction through seeds that give rise to progeny which are genotypically identical to the maternal parent. It has evolved from many different sexual taxa although the underlying genetic factors remain unknown. Previous analyses of the over-representation of transcription factors, in a comparison of microdissected ovules from apomictic and sexual Boechera, showed that many transcription factor mRNAs possessed microRNA (miRNAs) binding sites, thus pointing to miRNAs as potentially important factors that may be involved in the regulatory switch from sexual to apomictic reproduction. A microarray-based approach was used to identify (1) 673 microsatellitelike small RNAs (misRNAs) containing predominantly 2-7 repeats of (GAA)n/(CUU)n, (GCA)n/(CGU)n, (GGA)n/(CCU)n, (GGU)n/(CCA)n and (UGA)n/(ACU)n, and (2) 166 more typical non-repeat small RNAs. In total, 87 small RNAs were found to be located in cDNAs that could fold into stem-loop structures and thus represent miRNA molecules. In addition, 109 Boechera small RNAs including both misRNAs and non-repeat small RNAs, showed significant homology to 407 Arabidopsis thaliana small RNAs including the A. thaliana pollen-specific ath-miR5021. This indicates that only a fraction of the identified small RNAs are unique to Boechera. Ten small RNAs were validated using a Northern blot assay on flower and leaf tissues, eight of which showed flower-specific expression with varying abundance. The potential binding sites of many of the misRNAs and non-repeat small RNAs occur predominantly in exonic regions. This feature coupled with their flower-specific pattern of expression is suggestive of their probable role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. We propose that quantitative variation for misRNA target binding (and hence post-transcriptional gene regulation) could arise via microsatellite length polymorphisms occurring either in misRNA precursors or in their gene targets.

  17. Biocomputational prediction of small non-coding RNAs in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Pánek, Josef; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel; Basler, Marek; Vohradský, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Background The first systematic study of small non-coding RNAs (sRNA, ncRNA) in Streptomyces is presented. Except for a few exceptions, the Streptomyces sRNAs, as well as the sRNAs in other genera of the Actinomyces group, have remained unstudied. This study was based on sequence conservation in intergenic regions of Streptomyces, localization of transcription termination factors, and genomic arrangement of genes flanking the predicted sRNAs. Results Thirty-two potential sRNAs in Streptomyces were predicted. Of these, expression of 20 was detected by microarrays and RT-PCR. The prediction was validated by a structure based computational approach. Two predicted sRNAs were found to be terminated by transcription termination factors different from the Rho-independent terminators. One predicted sRNA was identified computationally with high probability as a Streptomyces 6S RNA. Out of the 32 predicted sRNAs, 24 were found to be structurally dissimilar from known sRNAs. Conclusion Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinomyces, whose sRNAs have not been studied. The Actinomyces is a group of bacterial species with unique genomes and phenotypes. Therefore, in Actinomyces, new unique bacterial sRNAs may be identified. The sequence and structural dissimilarity of the predicted Streptomyces sRNAs demonstrated by this study serve as the first evidence of the uniqueness of Actinomyces sRNAs. PMID:18477385

  18. Identification and characterization of small RNAs in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, Arthur; Smith, Eric A.; Petrone, Brianna L.; Singh, Navjot; Karch, Christopher; McDonough, Kathleen A.; Wade, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is closely related to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis evolutionarily but has a very different mode of infection. The RNA-binding regulatory protein, Hfq, mediates regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs) and is required for virulence of both Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Moreover, Hfq is required for growth of Y. pestis, but not Y. pseudotuberculosis, at 37°C. Together, these observations suggest that sRNAs play important roles in the virulence and survival of Y. pestis, and that regulation by sRNAs may account for some of the differences between Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. We have used a deep sequencing approach to identify 31 sRNAs in Y. pestis. The majority of these sRNAs are not conserved outside the Yersiniae. Expression of the sRNAs was confirmed by Northern analysis and we developed deep sequencing approaches to map 5ʹ and 3ʹ ends of many sRNAs simultaneously. Expression of the majority of the sRNAs we identified is dependent upon Hfq. We also observed temperature-dependent effects on the expression of many sRNAs, and differences in expression patterns between Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Thus, our data suggest that regulation by sRNAs plays an important role in the lifestyle switch from flea to mammalian host, and that regulation by sRNAs may contribute to the phenotypic differences between Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:23324607

  19. Small RNAs Originated from Pseudogenes: cis- or trans-Acting?

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingyi; Zhang, Zhaolei; Gerstein, Mark B.; Zheng, Deyou

    2009-01-01

    Pseudogenes are significant components of eukaryotic genomes, and some have acquired novel regulatory roles. To date, no study has characterized rice pseudogenes systematically or addressed their impact on the structure and function of the rice genome. In this genome-wide study, we have identified 11,956 non-transposon-related rice pseudogenes, most of which are from gene duplications. About 12% of the rice protein-coding genes, half of which are in singleton families, have a pseudogene paralog. Interestingly, we found that 145 of these pseudogenes potentially gave rise to antisense small RNAs after examining ∼1.5 million small RNAs from developing rice grains. The majority (>50%) of these antisense RNAs are 24-nucleotides long, a feature often seen in plant repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) produced by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR2) and Dicer-like protein 3 (DCL3), suggesting that some pseudogene-derived siRNAs may be implicated in repressing pseudogene transcription (i.e., cis-acting). Multiple lines of evidence, however, indicate that small RNAs from rice pseudogenes might also function as natural antisense siRNAs either by interacting with the complementary sense RNAs from functional parental genes (38 cases) or by forming double-strand RNAs with transcripts of adjacent paralogous pseudogenes (2 cases) (i.e., trans-acting). Further examinations of five additional small RNA libraries revealed that pseudogene-derived antisense siRNAs could be produced in specific rice developmental stages or physiological growth conditions, suggesting their potentially important roles in normal rice development. In summary, our results show that pseudogenes derived from protein-coding genes are prevalent in the rice genome, and a subset of them are strong candidates for producing small RNAs with novel regulatory roles. Our findings suggest that pseudogenes of exapted functions may be a phenomenon ubiquitous in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:19649160

  20. Design and Characterization of Topological Small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hassall, Jack; MacDonald, Paul; Cordero, Teresa; Rostain, William; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    RNA can self-assemble into complex structures through base pairing, as well as encode information and bind with proteins to induce enzymatic activity. Furthermore, RNA can possess intrinsic enzymatic-like (ribozymatic) activity, a property that, if necessary, can be activated only upon the binding of a small molecule or another RNA (as is the case in aptazymes). As such, RNA could be of use in nanotechnology as a programmable polymer capable of self-assembling into complex topological structures. In this chapter we describe a method for designing advanced topological structures using self-circulating RNA, exemplified by three tiers of topologically manipulated self-assembling synthetic RNA systems. The first tier of topological manipulation, the RNA knot is a physically locked structure, formed by circularizing one monomer of knotted single-stranded RNA left with loose ends (an "open" knot). The second tier, a two interlocking ring system, is made by interlocking two circular RNA components: a circular RNA target, and an RNA lasso designed to intercalate the target before circularizing. The third tier naturally extends this system into a string of topologically locked circular RNA molecules (an RNA chain). We detail the methodology used for designing such topologically complex RNAs, including computational predictions of secondary structure, and where appropriate, RNA-RNA interactions, illustrated by examples. We then describe the experimental methods used for characterizing such structures, and provide sequences of building blocks that can be used for topological manipulation of RNA.

  1. The role of RNases in the regulation of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Saramago, Margarida; Bárria, Cátia; Dos Santos, Ricardo F; Silva, Inês J; Pobre, Vânia; Domingues, Susana; Andrade, José M; Viegas, Sandra C; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2014-04-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are key factors in the control of biological processes, since they modulate the processing, degradation and quality control of RNAs. This review gives many illustrative examples of the role of RNases in the regulation of small RNAs (sRNAs). RNase E and PNPase have been shown to degrade the free pool of sRNAs. RNase E can also be recruited to cleave mRNAs when they are interacting with sRNAs. RNase III cleaves double-stranded structures, and can cut both the sRNA and its RNA target when they are hybridized. Overall, ribonucleases act as conductors in the control of sRNAs. Therefore, it is very important to further understand their role in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression.

  2. Small non-coding RNAs as novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M

    2010-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), an evolutionarily conserved sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that results in the degradation of homologous mRNA or in the inhibition of mRNA translation. The naturally occurring triggers for the RNAi pathway are small regulatory RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), processed from longer dsRNAs by the RNAse III enzyme Dicer, and microRNAs (miRNAs), generated in a regulated multistep process from endogenous primary transcripts (pri-miRNA). These primary transcripts are capped, polyadenylated and spliced, thus resembling conventional mRNAs. It is estimated that miRNAs regulate more than one third of all cellular mRNAs, and bioinformatic data indicate that each miRNA can control hundreds of gene targets. Thus, there are likely to be few biological processes not regulated by miRNAs. Although the biological functions of miRNAs are not completely revealed, there is growing evidence that miRNA pathways are a new mechanism of gene regulation in both normal and diseased conditions. Recent evidence has shown that miRNA mutations or aberrant expression patterns correlate with various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases and indicates that miRNAs can function as tumor suppressors and oncogenes. MiRNAs have not only emerged as a powerful tool for gene regulation studies but also for the development of novel drugs. Since they do not encode proteins, they are not traditional therapeutic targets of small-molecule inhibitors and thus comprise a novel class of therapeutics. This article will focus on the current progress in drug discovery using the miRNA strategy.

  3. Small RNAs regulate plant responses to filamentous pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Tung; Zhai, Yi; Ma, Wenbo

    2016-08-01

    Small RNAs are central players of RNA silencing in eukaryotes. These short RNA molecules (20-25 nucleotides in length) repress target gene expression based on sequence complementarity. While small RNAs are well-known for their essential function in regulating growth and development, recent research has revealed that they also influence plant immunity. Extensive changes in small RNA accumulation have been observed during infection. This review focuses on specific small RNA changes that are involved in plant responses to filamentous eukaryotic pathogens including fungi and oomycetes. We describe how changes in small RNA accumulation influence plant immunity and summarize the cellular processes affected by these small RNAs. In particular, we discuss secondary small interfering RNAs that directly modulate the expression of defense-related genes.

  4. Argonaute and Argonaute-Bound Small RNAs in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lihong; Wang, Lin; Teng, Feng; Zhou, Lanting; Zhang, Wenjing; Xiao, Juan; Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs are essential for a variety of cellular functions. Argonaute (AGO) proteins are associated with all of the different classes of small RNAs, and are indispensable in small RNA-mediated regulatory pathways. AGO proteins have been identified in various types of stem cells in diverse species from plants and animals. This review article highlights recent progress on how AGO proteins and AGO-bound small RNAs regulate the self-renewal and differentiation of distinct stem cell types, including pluripotent, germline, somatic, and cancer stem cells. PMID:26861290

  5. Sources and Functions of Extracellular Small RNAs in Human Circulation.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Ghosal, Anubrata; Wampach, Linda; Etheridge, Alton; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2016-07-17

    Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Furthermore, exosome-borne ex-sRNAs have been reported to elicit physiological responses in acceptor cells. Exogenous ex-sRNAs derived from diet (most prominently from plants) and microorganisms have also been reported in human blood. Essential issues that remain to be conclusively addressed concern the (a) presence and sources of exogenous ex-sRNAs in human bodily fluids, (b) detection and measurement of ex-sRNAs in human circulation, (c) selectivity of ex-sRNA export and import, (d) sensitivity and specificity of ex-sRNA delivery to cellular targets, and (e) cell-, tissue-, organ-, and organism-wide impacts of ex-sRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication. We survey the present state of knowledge of most of these issues in this review.

  6. Deep sequencing of small RNAs in plants: applied bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Studholme, David J

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNA and short-interfering RNAs, play important roles in plants. In recent years, developments in sequencing technology have enabled the large-scale discovery of sRNAs in various cells, tissues and developmental stages and in response to various stresses. This review describes the bioinformatics challenges to analysing these large datasets of short-RNA sequences and some of the solutions to those challenges.

  7. Big effects of small RNAs: a review of microRNAs in anxiety.

    PubMed

    Malan-Müller, Stefanie; Hemmings, Sîan Megan Joanna; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetic and regulatory elements provide an additional layer of complexity to the heterogeneity of anxiety disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that have recently drawn interest as epigenetic modulators of gene expression in psychiatric disorders. miRNAs elicit their effects by binding to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and hindering translation or accelerating degradation. Considering their role in neuronal differentiation and synaptic plasticity, miRNAs have opened up new investigative avenues in the aetiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a thorough analysis of miRNAs, their targets and their functions in the central nervous system (CNS), focusing on their role in anxiety disorders. The involvement of miRNAs in CNS functions (such as neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis and synaptic and neural plasticity) and their intricate regulatory role under stressful conditions strongly support their importance in the aetiology of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, miRNAs could provide new avenues for the development of therapeutic targets in anxiety disorders.

  8. High molecular weight RNAs and small interfering RNAs induce systemic posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants

    PubMed Central

    Klahre, Ulrich; Crété, Patrice; Leuenberger, Sabrina A.; Iglesias, Victor A.; Meins, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in transgenic plants is an epigenetic form of RNA degradation related to PTGS and RNA interference (RNAi) in fungi and animals. Evidence suggests that transgene loci and RNA viruses can generate double-stranded RNAs similar in sequence to the transcribed region of target genes, which then undergo endonucleolytic cleavage to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNA) that promote degradation of cognate RNAs. The silent state in transgenic plants and in Caenorhabditis elegans can spread systemically, implying that mobile silencing signals exist. Neither the chemical nature of these signals nor their exact source in the PTGS pathway is known. Here, we use a positive marker system and real-time monitoring of green fluorescent protein expression to show that large sense, antisense, and double-stranded RNAs as well as double-stranded siRNAs delivered biolistically into plant cells trigger silencing capable of spreading locally and systemically. Systemically silenced leaves show greatly reduced levels of target RNA and accumulate siRNAs, confirming that RNA can induce systemic PTGS. The induced siRNAs represent parts of the target RNA that are outside of the region of homology with the triggering siRNA. Our results imply that siRNAs themselves or intermediates induced by siRNAs could comprise silencing signals and that these signals induce self-amplifying production of siRNAs. PMID:12181491

  9. Small RNAs – secrets and surprises of the genome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Small RNAs associated with post-transcriptional gene silencing were first discovered in plants in 1999. Although this study marked the beginning of small RNA biology in plants, the sequence of the Arabidopsis genome and related genomic resources that were soon to become available to the Arabidopsis community launched the research on small RNAs at a remarkable pace. In 2000, when the genetic blueprint of the first plant species was revealed, the tens of thousands of endogenous small RNA species as we know today remained hidden features of the genome. However, the subsequent 10 years have witnessed an explosion of our knowledge of endogenous small RNAs: their widespread existence, diversity, biogenesis, mode of action and biological functions. As key sequence-specific regulators of gene expression in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, small RNAs influence almost all aspects of plant biology. Because of the extensive conservation of mechanisms concerning the biogenesis and molecular actions of small RNAs, research in the model plant Arabidopsis has contributed vital knowledge to the small RNA field in general. Our knowledge of small RNAs gained primarily from Arabidopsis has also led to the invention of effective gene knock-down technologies that are applicable to diverse plant species, including crop plants. Here, I attempt to recount the developments of the small RNA field in the pre- and post-genomic era, in celebration of the 10th anniversary of the completion of the first plant genome. PMID:20409269

  10. Isolation and Detection of Small RNAs from Pollen.

    PubMed

    Martinez, German

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the accumulation and roles of small RNAs have been slowly uncovered. Recently, the RNA silencing pathways active in the male gametophyte of plants have started to be analyzed in depth. Although several studies have shed light on the small RNA populations present in the pollen, we still lack a clear picture of their regulatory activity. This chapter outlines an extraction method of mature pollen grains and its different downstream applications for the purification and detection of small RNAs.

  11. The emerging world of small silencing RNAs in protozoan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Atayde, Vanessa D.; Tschudi, Christian; Ullu, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    A new RNA world has emerged in the past 10 years with the discovery of a plethora of 20- to 30-nucleotide long small RNAs that are involved in various gene silencing mechanisms. These small RNAs have considerably changed our view of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms, with a major shift towards epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here we focus on the striking diversity of small silencing RNAs that have been identified in a number of protozoan parasites and their potential biological role. PMID:21497553

  12. Diversity of small RNAs expressed in Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus L; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Tribelli, Paula M; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Molin, Søren

    2015-04-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revealed several hundreds of previously undetected small RNAs (sRNAs) in all bacterial species investigated, including strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae. Nonetheless, only little is known about the extent of conservation of expressed sRNAs across strains and species. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify sRNAs in P. putida DOT-T1E and Pseudomonas extremaustralis 14-3b. This is the first strain of P. extremaustralis and the second strain of P. putida to have their transcriptomes analysed for sRNAs, and we identify the presence of around 150 novel sRNAs in each strain. Furthermore, we provide a comparison based on sequence conservation of all the sRNAs detected by RNA-seq in the Pseudomonas species investigated so far. Our results show that the extent of sRNA conservation across different species is very limited. In addition, when comparing the sRNAs expressed in different strains of the same species, we observe that numerous sRNAs exhibit a strain-specific expression pattern. These results support the idea that the evolution of most bacterial sRNAs is rapid, which limits the extent of both interspecies and intraspecies conservation.

  13. RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation. PMID:26580233

  14. Small RNAs tell big stories in Whistler.

    PubMed

    Seila, Amy C; Sharp, Phillip A

    2008-06-01

    The Keystone Symposium on RNAi, microRNA and non-coding RNA convened on March 25-30 at Whistler Resort in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. Researchers with backgrounds in different biochemical disciplines came together to exchange ideas on short RNAs and their roles in a host of biological processes.

  15. Delivery of Small Interfering RNAs to Cells via Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wahlgren, Jessica; Statello, Luisa; Skogberg, Gabriel; Telemo, Esbjörn; Valadi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane bound vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter of endocytic origin that are secreted into the extracellular environment by many different cell types. Exosomes play a role in intercellular communication by transferring proteins, lipids, and RNAs to recipient cells.Exosomes from human cells could be used as vectors to provide cells with therapeutic RNAs. Here we describe how exogenous small interfering RNAs may successfully be introduced into various kinds of human exosomes using electroporation and subsequently delivered to recipient cells. Methods used to confirm the presence of siRNA inside exosomes and cells are presented, such as flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and Northern blot.

  16. Sources and functions of extracellular small RNAs in human circulation

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Joëlle V.; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Ghosal, Anubrata; Wampach, Linda; Etheridge, Alton; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation including microRNAs, tRNA, rRNA and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease contexts and have therefore been proposed as well-suited biomarkers. Furthermore, exosome-borne ex-sRNAs have been reported to elicit physiological responses in receiving cells. Albeit controversial, exogenous ex-sRNAs derived from plants and microorganisms have also been described in human blood. Essential questions which remain to be conclusively addressed in the field concern the (i) presence and mechanistic sources of exogenous ex-sRNA in human bodily fluids, (ii) detection and measurement of ex-sRNA in human circulation, (iii) selectivity of ex-sRNA export and import, (iv) sensitivity and specificity of ex-sRNA delivery to cellular targets, and (v) cell-, tissue-, organ- and organism-wide impacts of ex-sRNAs. We will survey the present state of knowledge of most of these questions in this review. PMID:27215587

  17. Mammalian Small Nucleolar RNAs Are Mobile Genetic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Michel J

    2006-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) of the H/ACA box and C/D box categories guide the pseudouridylation and the 2′-O-ribose methylation of ribosomal RNAs by forming short duplexes with their target. Similarly, small Cajal body–specific RNAs (scaRNAs) guide modifications of spliceosomal RNAs. The vast majority of vertebrate sno/scaRNAs are located in introns of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II and processed by exonucleolytic trimming after splicing. A bioinformatic search for orthologues of human sno/scaRNAs in sequenced mammalian genomes reveals the presence of species- or lineage-specific sno/scaRNA retroposons (sno/scaRTs) characterized by an A-rich tail and an ∼14-bp target site duplication that corresponds to their insertion site, as determined by interspecific genomic alignments. Three classes of snoRTs are defined based on the extent of intron and exon sequences from the snoRNA parental host gene they contain. SnoRTs frequently insert in gene introns in the sense orientation at genomic hot spots shared with other genetic mobile elements. Previously characterized human snoRNAs are encoded in retroposons whose parental copies can be identified by phylogenic analysis, showing that snoRTs can be faithfully processed. These results identify snoRNAs as a new family of mobile genetic elements. The insertion of new snoRNA copies might constitute a safeguard mechanism by which the biological activity of snoRNAs is maintained in spite of the risk of mutations in the parental copy. I furthermore propose that retroposition followed by genetic drift is a mechanism that increased snoRNA diversity during vertebrate evolution to eventually acquire new RNA-modification functions. PMID:17154719

  18. Comparative genomics boosts target prediction for bacterial small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patrick R; Richter, Andreas S; Papenfort, Kai; Mann, Martin; Vogel, Jörg; Hess, Wolfgang R; Backofen, Rolf; Georg, Jens

    2013-09-10

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) constitute a large and heterogeneous class of bacterial gene expression regulators. Much like eukaryotic microRNAs, these sRNAs typically target multiple mRNAs through short seed pairing, thereby acting as global posttranscriptional regulators. In some bacteria, evidence for hundreds to possibly more than 1,000 different sRNAs has been obtained by transcriptome sequencing. However, the experimental identification of possible targets and, therefore, their confirmation as functional regulators of gene expression has remained laborious. Here, we present a strategy that integrates phylogenetic information to predict sRNA targets at the genomic scale and reconstructs regulatory networks upon functional enrichment and network analysis (CopraRNA, for Comparative Prediction Algorithm for sRNA Targets). Furthermore, CopraRNA precisely predicts the sRNA domains for target recognition and interaction. When applied to several model sRNAs, CopraRNA revealed additional targets and functions for the sRNAs CyaR, FnrS, RybB, RyhB, SgrS, and Spot42. Moreover, the mRNAs gdhA, lrp, marA, nagZ, ptsI, sdhA, and yobF-cspC were suggested as regulatory hubs targeted by up to seven different sRNAs. The verification of many previously undetected targets by CopraRNA, even for extensively investigated sRNAs, demonstrates its advantages and shows that CopraRNA-based analyses can compete with experimental target prediction approaches. A Web interface allows high-confidence target prediction and efficient classification of bacterial sRNAs.

  19. Comparative genomics boosts target prediction for bacterial small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patrick R.; Richter, Andreas S.; Papenfort, Kai; Mann, Martin; Vogel, Jörg; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Backofen, Rolf; Georg, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) constitute a large and heterogeneous class of bacterial gene expression regulators. Much like eukaryotic microRNAs, these sRNAs typically target multiple mRNAs through short seed pairing, thereby acting as global posttranscriptional regulators. In some bacteria, evidence for hundreds to possibly more than 1,000 different sRNAs has been obtained by transcriptome sequencing. However, the experimental identification of possible targets and, therefore, their confirmation as functional regulators of gene expression has remained laborious. Here, we present a strategy that integrates phylogenetic information to predict sRNA targets at the genomic scale and reconstructs regulatory networks upon functional enrichment and network analysis (CopraRNA, for Comparative Prediction Algorithm for sRNA Targets). Furthermore, CopraRNA precisely predicts the sRNA domains for target recognition and interaction. When applied to several model sRNAs, CopraRNA revealed additional targets and functions for the sRNAs CyaR, FnrS, RybB, RyhB, SgrS, and Spot42. Moreover, the mRNAs gdhA, lrp, marA, nagZ, ptsI, sdhA, and yobF-cspC were suggested as regulatory hubs targeted by up to seven different sRNAs. The verification of many previously undetected targets by CopraRNA, even for extensively investigated sRNAs, demonstrates its advantages and shows that CopraRNA-based analyses can compete with experimental target prediction approaches. A Web interface allows high-confidence target prediction and efficient classification of bacterial sRNAs. PMID:23980183

  20. Balance and Stealth: The Role of Noncoding RNAs in the Regulation of Virus Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer E; Sullivan, Christopher S

    2014-11-01

    In the past two decades, our knowledge of gene regulation has been greatly expanded by the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small (19-24 nt) noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) found in metazoans, plants, and some viruses. They have been shown to regulate many cellular processes, including differentiation, maintenance of homeostasis, apoptosis, and the immune response. At present, there are over 300 known viral miRNAs encoded by diverse virus families. One well-characterized function of some viral miRNAs is the regulation of viral transcripts. Host miRNAs can also regulate viral gene expression. We propose that viruses take advantage of both host and viral ncRNA regulation to balance replication and infectious state (for example, latent versus lytic infection). As miRNA regulation can be reversed upon certain cellular stresses, we hypothesize that ncRNAs can serve viruses as barometers for cellular stress.

  1. The role of small RNAs in vegetative shoot development

    PubMed Central

    Fouracre, Jim P.; Poethig, R. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Shoot development consists of the production of lateral organs in predictable spatial and temporal patterns at the shoot apex. To properly integrate such programs of growth across different cell and tissue types, plants require highly complex and robust genetic networks. Over the last twenty years, the roles of small, non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in these networks have become increasingly apparent, not least in vegetative shoot growth. In this review, we describe recent progress in understanding the contribution of sRNAs to the regulation of vegetative shoot growth, and outline persisting experimental limitations in the field. PMID:26745378

  2. Novel Meiotic miRNAs and Indications for a Role of PhasiRNAs in Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Dukowic-Schulze, Stefanie; Sundararajan, Anitha; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Kianian, Shahryar; Pawlowski, Wojciech P.; Mudge, Joann; Chen, Changbin

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNA) add additional layers to the regulation of gene expression, with siRNAs directing gene silencing at the DNA level by RdDM (RNA-directed DNA methylation), and micro RNAs (miRNAs) directing post-transcriptional regulation of specific target genes, mostly by mRNA cleavage. We used manually isolated male meiocytes from maize (Zea mays) to investigate sRNA and DNA methylation landscapes during zygotene, an early stage of meiosis during which steps of meiotic recombination and synapsis of paired homologous chromosomes take place. We discovered two novel miRNAs from meiocytes, zma-MIR11969 and zma-MIR11970, and identified putative target genes. Furthermore, we detected abundant phasiRNAs of 21 and 24 nt length. PhasiRNAs are phased small RNAs which occur in 21 or 24 nt intervals, at a few hundred loci, specifically in male reproductive tissues in grasses. So far, the function of phasiRNAs remained elusive. Data from isolated meiocytes now revealed elevated DNA methylation at phasiRNA loci, especially in the CHH context, suggesting a role for phasiRNAs in cis DNA methylation. In addition, we consider a role of these phasiRNAs in chromatin remodeling/dynamics during meiosis. However, this is not well supported yet and will need more additional data. Here, we only lay out the idea due to other relevant literature and our additional observation of a peculiar GC content pattern at phasiRNA loci. Chromatin remodeling is also indicated by the discovery that histone genes were enriched for sRNA of 22 nt length. Taken together, we gained clues that lead us to hypothesize sRNA-driven DNA methylation and possibly chromatin remodeling during male meiosis in the monocot maize which is in line with and extends previous knowledge. PMID:27313591

  3. Identification and Characterization of Novel Small RNAs in Rickettsia prowazekii

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Casey L. C.; Narra, Hema P.; Sahni, Abha; Rojas, Mark; Khanipov, Kamil; Patel, Jignesh; Shah, Riya; Fofanov, Yuriy; Sahni, Sanjeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates a critically important role for bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) as post-transcriptional regulators of physiology, metabolism, stress/adaptive responses, and virulence, but the roles of sRNAs in pathogenic Rickettsia species remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the identification of both novel and well-known bacterial sRNAs in Rickettsia prowazekii, known to cause epidemic typhus in humans. RNA sequencing of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs), the preferred targets during human rickettsioses, infected with R. prowazekii revealed the presence of 35 trans-acting and 23 cis-acting sRNAs, respectively. Of these, expression of two trans-acting (Rp_sR17 and Rp_sR60) and one cis-acting (Rp_sR47) novel sRNAs and four well-characterized bacterial sRNAs (RNaseP_bact_a, α-tmRNA, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA) was further confirmed by Northern blot or RT-PCR analyses. The transcriptional start sites of five novel rickettsial sRNAs and 6S RNA were next determined using 5′ RLM-RACE yielding evidence for their independent biogenesis in R. prowazekii. Finally, computational approaches were employed to determine the secondary structures and potential mRNA targets of novel sRNAs. Together, these results establish the presence and expression of sRNAs in R. prowazekii during host cell infection and suggest potential functional roles for these important post-transcriptional regulators in rickettsial biology and pathogenesis. PMID:27375581

  4. Influence of small RNAs on biofilm formation process in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghaz-Jahanian, Mohammad Ali; Khodaparastan, Fatemeh; Berenjian, Aydin; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda

    2013-11-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play a significant role in regulation of bacterial physiological behaviors. After sensing any environmental cue such as fluctuation of nutrient concentration, temperature, pH, and osmolarity, these sRNAs interfere to transmit these signals to target regulators and genes. sRNAs have key role in biofilm formation process by base pairing with target mRNAs or interaction with modulating proteins to both positive and negative regulation mechanisms. There are various regulatory systems to characterize the initiation and formation of special bacterial biofilms that are mostly described as two component systems based on sRNAs functions. In this study, regulatory pathways that are important for biofilm formation and genetic responses to environmental stimuli in mature biofilms were evaluated. Some of the regulatory systems that produce common types of biofilms such as curli, PGA, cellulose and polysaccharides such as alginate, colonic acid, Psl and their involved sRNAs functions were also discussed.

  5. Small RNAs and regulation of transposons in plants.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference is now a well-recognized post-transcriptional mechanism for regulation of gene expression in both animals and plants. In this process, microRNAs (miRNAs) direct silencing complexes to complementary RNA sequences, leading to either degradation or repression of translation. Plants also contain another type of small RNA, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that play a role in gene silencing by directing cytosine methylation activities of complementary DNA sequences and thus, differ from miRNAs. This nuclear regulation system is referred to as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In plant genomes, transposable elements were initially thought to be regulated by DNA methylation alone. However, several recent reports have revealed that siRNAs and RdDM also play crucial roles in silencing of transposons and endogenous repeats. It is also becoming apparent that transposons are subjected to different levels of regulation in response to developmental and environmental cues. Transposons are tightly regulated in germ cells to protect the host genome from transgenerational mutagenic activity. In plants, transposons are also activated by biotic and abiotic stress. The regulation of transposons in these different situations has been associated with both the DNA methylation and siRNA-mediated regulation systems, suggesting that plants likely evolved "multi-lock" systems for transposon regulation to ensure tight control during the developmental phase and environmental changes.

  6. Small RNAs controlled by two-component systems.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Claudio; Haas, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) allow bacteria to monitor diverse environmental cues and to adjust gene expression accordingly at the transcriptional level. It has been recently recognized that prokaryotes also regulate many genes and operons at a posttranscriptional level with the participation of small, noncoding RNAs which serve to control translation initiation and stability of target mRNAs, either directly by establishing antisense interactions or indirectly by antagonizing RNA-binding proteins. Interestingly, the expression of a subset of these small RNAs is regulated by TCSs and in this way, the small RNAs expand the scope of genetic control exerted by TCSs. Here we review the regulatory mechanisms and biological relevance ofa number of small RNAs under TCS control in Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. These regulatory systems govern, for instance, porin-dependent permeability of the outer membrane, quorum-sensing control of pathogenicity, or biocontrol activity. Most likely, this emerging and rapidly expanding field of molecular microbiology will provide more and more examples in the near future.

  7. Mice deficient for a small cluster of Piwi-interacting RNAs implicate Piwi-interacting RNAs in transposon control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingang; You, Yun; Hunsicker, Patricia; Hori, Tamaki; Small, Chris; Griswold, Michael D; Hecht, Norman B

    2008-07-01

    The mammalian testis expresses a class of small noncoding RNAs that interact with mammalian PIWI proteins. In mice, the PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) partner with mammalian PIWI proteins, PIWIL1 and PIWIL2, also known as MIWI and MILI, to maintain transposon silencing in the germline genome. Here, we demonstrate that inactivation of Nct1/2, two noncoding RNAs encoding piRNAs, leads to derepression of LINE-1 (L1) but does not affect mouse viability, spermatogenesis, testicular gene expression, or fertility. These findings indicate that piRNAs from a cluster on chromosome 2 are necessary to maintain transposon silencing.

  8. Small nucleolar RNAs as new biomarkers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and small Cajal body-specific RNAs are non-coding RNAs involved in the maturation of other RNA molecules. Alterations of sno/scaRNA expression may play a role in cancerogenesis. This study elucidates the patterns of sno/scaRNA expression in 211 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients (Binet stage A) also in comparison with those of different normal B-cell subsets. Methods The patterns of sno/scaRNA expression in highly purified CD19+ B-cells of 211 CLL patients and in 18 normal B-cell samples - 6 from peripheral blood, and 12 from tonsils (4 germinal center, 2 marginal zone, 3 switched memory and 3 naïve B-cells) - were analyzed on the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Results CLLs display a sno/scaRNAs expression profile similar to normal memory, naïve and marginal-zone B-cells, with the exception of a few down-regulated transcripts (SNORA31, -6, -62, and -71C). Our analyses also suggest some heterogeneity in the pattern of sno/scaRNAs expression which is apparently unrelated to the major biological (ZAP-70 and CD38), molecular (IGHV mutation) and cytogenetic markers. Moreover, we found that SNORA70F was significantly down-regulated in poor prognostic subgroups and this phenomenon was associated with the down-regulation of its host gene COBLL1. Finally, we generated an independent model based on SNORA74A and SNORD116-18 expression, which appears to distinguish two different prognostic CLL groups. Conclusions These data extend the view of sno/scaRNAs deregulation in cancer and may contribute to discover novel biomarkers associated with the disease and potentially useful to predict the clinical outcome of early stage CLL patients. PMID:24004562

  9. Deep sequencing of Brachypodium small RNAs at the global genome level identifies microRNAs involved in cold stress response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Xu, Yunyuan; Huan, Qing; Chong, Kang

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species. PMID:19772667

  10. Plant siRNAs from introns mediate DNA methylation of host genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dijun; Meng, Yijun; Yuan, Chunhui; Bai, Lin; Huang, Donglin; Lv, Shaolei; Wu, Ping; Chen, Ling-ling; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), largely known as microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), emerged as the critical components of genetic and epigenetic regulation in eukaryotic genomes. In animals, a sizable portion of miRNAs reside within the introns of protein-coding genes, designated as mirtron genes. Recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) revealed a huge amount of sRNAs that derived from introns in plants, such as the monocot rice (Oryza sativa). However, the biogenesis and the biological functions of this kind of sRNAs remain elusive. Here, we performed a genome-scale survey of intron-derived sRNAs in rice based on HTS data. Several introns were found to have great potential to form internal hairpin structures, and the short hairpins could generate miRNAs while the larger ones could produce siRNAs. Furthermore, 22 introns, termed “sirtrons,” were identified from the rice protein-coding genes. The single-stranded sirtrons produced a diverse set of siRNAs from long hairpin structures. These sirtron-derived siRNAs are dominantly 21 nt, 22 nt, and 24 nt in length, whose production relied on DCL4, DCL2, and DCL3, respectively. We also observed a strong tendency for the sirtron-derived siRNAs to be coexpressed with their host genes. Finally, the 24-nt siRNAs incorporated with Argonaute 4 (AGO4) could direct DNA methylation on their host genes. In this regard, homeostatic self-regulation between intron-derived siRNAs and their host genes was proposed. PMID:21518803

  11. NanoRNAs: a class of small RNAs that can prime transcription initiation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Bryce E; Dove, Simon L

    2011-10-07

    It has been widely assumed that all transcription in cells occur using NTPs only (i.e., de novo). However, it has been known for several decades that both prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases can utilize small (2 to ∼5 nt) RNAs to prime transcription initiation in vitro, raising the possibility that small RNAs might also prime transcription initiation in vivo. A new study by Goldman et al. has now provided the first evidence that priming with so-called "nanoRNAs" (i.e., 2 to ∼5 nt RNAs) can, in fact, occur in vivo. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that altering the extent of nanoRNA-mediated priming of transcription initiation can profoundly influence global gene expression. In this perspective, we summarize the findings of Goldman et al. and discuss the prospect that nanoRNA-mediated priming of transcription initiation represents an underappreciated aspect of gene expression in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Endogenous small RNAs in grain: semi-quantification and sequence homology to human and animal genes.

    PubMed

    Ivashuta, Sergey I; Petrick, Jay S; Heisel, Sara E; Zhang, Yuanji; Guo, Liang; Reynolds, Tracey L; Rice, James F; Allen, Edwards; Roberts, James K

    2009-02-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are effector molecules of RNA interference (RNAi), a highly conserved RNA-based gene suppression mechanism in plants, mammals and other eukaryotes. Endogenous RNAi-based gene suppression has been harnessed naturally and through conventional breeding to achieve desired plant phenotypes. The present study demonstrates that endogenous small RNAs, such as siRNAs and miRNAs, are abundant in soybean seeds, corn kernels, and rice grain, plant tissues that are traditionally used for food and feed. Numerous endogenous plant small RNAs were found to have perfect complementarity to human genes as well as those of other mammals. The abundance of endogenous small RNA molecules in grain from safely consumed food and feed crops such as soybean, corn, and rice and the homology of a number of these dietary small RNAs to human and animal genomes and transcriptomes establishes a history of safe consumption for dietary small RNAs.

  13. MicroRNAs and the heart: small things do matter.

    PubMed

    Papoutsidakis, Nikolaos; Deftereos, Spyridon; Kaoukis, Andreas; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Theodorakis, Andreas; Angelidis, Christos; Hatzis, Georgios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules and constitute a relatively novel class of gene expression regulators, found in the great majority of eukaryotic cells. Their role in human physiology and pathology is actively being researched with new exciting discoveries continuously coming to the forefront. MicroRNAs play a crucial role in the biogenesis and function of the cardiovascular system and act as important regulators of various metabolic and signaling pathways in cardiovascular disease. In this review there will be a summary on current knowledge about the expression, regulation and function of microRNAs in the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system as well as a presentation of and discussion about their promising future role as new biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  14. Engineering small interfering RNAs by strategic chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Bramsen, Jesper B; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have revolutionized functional genomics in mammalian cell cultures due to their reliability, efficiency, and ease of use. This success, however, has not fully translated into siRNA applications in vivo and in siRNA therapeutics where initial optimism has been dampened by a lack of efficient delivery strategies and reports of siRNA off-target effects and immunogenicity. Encouragingly, most aspects of siRNA behavior can be addressed by careful engineering of siRNAs incorporating beneficial chemical modifications into discrete nucleotide positions during siRNA synthesis. Here, we review the literature (Subheadings 1 -3) and provide a quick guide (Subheading 4) to how the performance of siRNA can be improved by chemical modification to suit specific applications in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Efficient degradation and expression prioritization with small RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Andersson, Anna M. C.; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs; Sneppen, Kim

    2007-09-01

    We build a simple model for feedback systems involving small RNA (sRNA) molecules based on the iron metabolism system in the bacterium E. coli, and compare it with the corresponding system in H. pylori which uses purely transcriptional regulation. This reveals several unique features of sRNA-based regulation that could be exploited by cells. Firstly, we show that sRNA regulation can maintain a smaller turnover of target mRNAs than transcriptional regulation, without sacrificing the speed of response to external shocks. Secondly, we propose that a single sRNA can prioritize the usage of different target mRNAs. This suggests that sRNA regulation would be more common in more complex systems which need to co-regulate many mRNAs efficiently.

  16. Filtering of deep sequencing data reveals the existence of abundant Dicer-dependent small RNAs derived from tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Christian; Sobala, Andrew; Lu, Cheng; Thatcher, Shawn R.; Bowman, Andrew; Brown, John W.S.; Green, Pamela J.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Hutvagner, Gyorgy

    2009-01-01

    Deep sequencing technologies such as Illumina, SOLiD, and 454 platforms have become very powerful tools in discovering and quantifying small RNAs in diverse organisms. Sequencing small RNA fractions always identifies RNAs derived from abundant RNA species such as rRNAs, tRNAs, snRNA, and snoRNA, and they are widely considered to be random degradation products. We carried out bioinformatic analysis of deep sequenced HeLa RNA and after quality filtering, identified highly abundant small RNA fragments, derived from mature tRNAs that are likely produced by specific processing rather than from random degradation. Moreover, we showed that the processing of small RNAs derived from tRNAGln is dependent on Dicer in vivo and that Dicer cleaves the tRNA in vitro. PMID:19850906

  17. Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as a promising tool for ocular therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Aranguez, A; Loma, P; Pintor, J

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to inhibit the expression of specific genes in vitro and in vivo, thereby providing an extremely useful tool for investigating gene function. Progress in the understanding of RNAi-based mechanisms has opened up new perspectives in therapeutics for the treatment of several diseases including ocular disorders. The eye is currently considered a good target for RNAi therapy mainly because it is a confined compartment and, therefore, enables local delivery of small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by topical instillation or direct injection. However, delivery strategies that protect the siRNAs from degradation and are suitable for long-term treatment would be help to improve the efficacy of RNAi-based therapies for ocular pathologies. siRNAs targeting critical molecules involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa and neovascular eye diseases (age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and corneal neovascularization) have been tested in experimental animal models, and clinical trials have been conducted with some of them. This review provides an update on the progress of RNAi in ocular therapeutics, discussing the advantages and drawbacks of RNAi-based therapeutics compared to previous treatments. PMID:23937539

  18. Identification of mRNA-like non-coding RNAs and validation of a mighty one named MAR in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meizhen; Wu, Bin; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shanfa

    2015-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play significant roles in plants. However, little is known about lncRNAs in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, an economically significant medicinal plant species. A total of 3,688 mRNA-like non-coding RNAs (mlncRNAs), a class of lncRNAs, were identified in P. ginseng. Approximately 40% of the identified mlncRNAs were processed into small RNAs, implying their regulatory roles via small RNA-mediated mechanisms. Eleven miRNA-generating mlncRNAs also produced siRNAs, suggesting the coordinated production of miRNAs and siRNAs in P. ginseng. The mlncRNA-derived small RNAs might be 21-, 22-, or 24-nt phased and could be generated from both or only one strand of mlncRNAs, or from super long hairpin structures. A full-length mlncRNA, termed MAR (multiple-function-associated mlncRNA), was cloned. It generated the most abundant siRNAs. The MAR siRNAs were predominantly 24-nt and some of them were distributed in a phased pattern. A total of 228 targets were predicted for 71 MAR siRNAs. Degradome sequencing validated 68 predicted targets involved in diverse metabolic pathways, suggesting the significance of MAR in P. ginseng. Consistently, MAR was detected in all tissues analyzed and responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. It sheds light on the function of mlncRNAs in plants. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. A Tale of Two RNAs during Viral Infection: How Viruses Antagonize mRNAs and Small Non-Coding RNAs in The Host Cell

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Kristina M.; Nag, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection initiates an array of changes in host gene expression. Many viruses dampen host protein expression and attempt to evade the host anti-viral defense machinery. Host gene expression is suppressed at several stages of host messenger RNA (mRNA) formation including selective degradation of translationally competent messenger RNAs. Besides mRNAs, host cells also express a variety of noncoding RNAs, including small RNAs, that may also be subject to inhibition upon viral infection. In this review we focused on different ways viruses antagonize coding and noncoding RNAs in the host cell to its advantage. PMID:27271653

  20. A Tale of Two RNAs during Viral Infection: How Viruses Antagonize mRNAs and Small Non-Coding RNAs in The Host Cell.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Kristina M; Nag, Anita

    2016-06-02

    Viral infection initiates an array of changes in host gene expression. Many viruses dampen host protein expression and attempt to evade the host anti-viral defense machinery. Host gene expression is suppressed at several stages of host messenger RNA (mRNA) formation including selective degradation of translationally competent messenger RNAs. Besides mRNAs, host cells also express a variety of noncoding RNAs, including small RNAs, that may also be subject to inhibition upon viral infection. In this review we focused on different ways viruses antagonize coding and noncoding RNAs in the host cell to its advantage.

  1. Plant-Generated Artificial Small RNAs Mediated Aphid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guiling; Yang, Kun; Wang, Yu; Niu, Libo; Chen, Xiaoying; Fang, Rongxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA silencing is an important mechanism for regulation of endogenous gene expression and defense against genomic intruders in plants. This natural defense system was adopted to generate virus-resistant plants even before the mechanism of RNA silencing was unveiled. With the clarification of that mechanism, transgenic antiviral plants were developed that expressed artificial virus-specific hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs) or microRNAs (amiRNAs) in host plants. Previous works also showed that plant-mediated RNA silencing technology could be a practical method for constructing insect-resistant plants by expressing hpRNAs targeting essential genes of insects. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, we chose aphid Myzus persicae of order Hemiptera as a target insect. To screen for aphid genes vulnerable to attack by plant-mediated RNA silencing to establish plant aphid resistance, we selected nine genes of M. persicae as silencing targets, and constructed their hpRNA-expressing vectors. For the acetylcholinesterase 2 coding gene (MpAChE2), two amiRNA-expressing vectors were also constructed. The vectors were transformed into tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanti). Insect challenge assays showed that most of the transgenic plants gained aphid resistance, among which those expressing hpRNAs targeting V-type proton ATPase subunit E-like (V-ATPaseE) or tubulin folding cofactor D (TBCD) genes displayed stronger aphicidal activity. The transgenic plants expressing amiRNAs targeting two different sites in the MpAChE2 gene exhibited better aphid resistance than the plants expressing MpAChE2-specific hpRNA. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicated that plant-mediated insect-RNA silencing might be an effective way to develop plants resistant to insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, and both the selection of vulnerable target genes and the biogenetic type of the small RNAs were crucial for the effectiveness of aphid control. The expression of insect

  2. Elucidation of Small RNAs that Activate Transcription in Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    et al., 2008). Thus, RNA-based regulatory elements may exist within the transcriptional processes of prokaryotes . Synthetic biology aims to...recognition, and transcription activation in prokaryotes . Cell 79, 743-746 Bushman, F.D., Shang, C., and Ptashne, M. (1989). One glutamic acid...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2012-0067 Elucidation of Small RNAs that Activate Transcription in Bacteria Michael S. Goodson Thomas Lamkin Ryan Kramer

  3. Age-associated changes in expression of small, noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs, in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaomi; Chen, Xiaowei; Inukai, Sachi; Zhao, Hongyu; Slack, Frank J

    2011-10-01

    Small, noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), impact diverse biological events through the control of gene expression and genome stability. However, the role of these sncRNAs in aging remains largely unknown. To understand the contribution of sncRNAs to the aging process, we performed small RNA profiling by deep-sequencing over the course of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) aging. Many small RNAs, including a significant number of miRNAs, change their expression during aging in C. elegans. Further studies of miRNA expression changes under conditions that modify lifespan demonstrate the tight control of their expression during aging. Adult-specific loss of argonaute-like gene-1 (alg-1) activity, which is necessary for miRNA maturation and function, resulted in an abnormal lifespan, suggesting that miRNAs are, indeed, required in adulthood for normal aging. miRNA target prediction algorithms combined with transcriptome data and pathway enrichment analysis revealed likely targets of these age-associated miRNAs with known roles in aging, such as mitochondrial metabolism. Furthermore, a computational analysis of our deep-sequencing data identified additional age-associated sncRNAs, including miRNA star strands, novel miRNA candidates, and endo-siRNA sequences. We also show an increase of specific transfer RNA (tRNA) fragments during aging, which are known to be induced in response to stress in several organisms. This study suggests that sncRNAs including miRNAs contribute to lifespan regulation in C. elegans, and indicates new connections between aging, stress responses, and the small RNA world.

  4. Small RNA profiling reveals important roles for miRNAs in Arabidopsis response to Bacillus velezensis FZB42.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shanshan; Jiang, Haiyang; Xu, Zhilan; Xu, Qianqian; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-09-20

    Bacillus velezensis FZB42 (previously classified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42) has been confirmed to successfully colonize plant roots and enhance defense response against pathogen infection. This study indicated that FZB42 inoculation enhanced Arabidopsis defense response against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 through inducing the expression of PR1, PDF1.2 and stomata closure. To further clarify the induced defense response at miRNA level, sRNA libraries from Arabidopsis roots inoculated with FZB42 and control were constructed and sequenced. The reads of 21nt and 24nt in length were the most abundant groups in FZB42-treated library and control library, respectively. 234 known miRNAs and 16 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 11 known miRNAs and 4 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed after FZB42 inoculation. Moreover cis-elements (TC-rich repeats, TCA-element and CGTCA-motif) associated with plant defense were also found in the promoters of these miRNAs. Additionally, 141 mRNAs were predicted as potential targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs. GO annotations of the target genes indicated their potential roles in polyamine biosynthetic process and intracellular protein transport biological process, which may contribute to increased defense response. Our findings indicated that Bacillus velezensis FZB42 inoculation altered the expression of Arabidopsis miRNAs and their target genes, which were associated with defense response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Roles of small RNAs in the immune defense mechanisms of crustaceans.

    PubMed

    He, Yaodong; Ju, Chenyu; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2015-12-01

    Small RNAs, 21-24 nucleotides in length, are non-coding RNAs found in most multicellular organisms, as well as in some viruses. There are three main types of small RNAs including microRNA (miRNA), small-interfering RNA (siRNA), and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA). Small RNAs play key roles in the genetic regulation of eukaryotes; at least 50% of all eukaryote genes are the targets of small RNAs. In recent years, studies have shown that some unique small RNAs are involved in the immune response of crustaceans, leading to lower or higher immune responses to infections and diseases. SiRNAs could be used as therapy for virus infection. In this review, we provide an overview of the diverse roles of small RNAs in the immune defense mechanisms of crustaceans.

  6. Identification of Small RNAs in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Andrew; Joachimiak, Marcin; Deutschbauer, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Bender, Kelly

    2010-05-17

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of facilitating the removal of toxic metals such as uranium from contaminated sites via reduction. As such, it is essential to understand the intricate regulatory cascades involved in how D. vulgaris and its relatives respond to stressors in such sites. One approach is the identification and analysis of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs); molecules ranging in size from 20-200 nucleotides that predominantly affect gene regulation by binding to complementary mRNA in an anti-sense fashion and therefore provide an immediate regulatory response. To identify sRNAs in D. vulgaris, a bacterium that does not possess an annotated hfq gene, RNA was pooled from stationary and exponential phases, nitrate exposure, and biofilm conditions. The subsequent RNA was size fractionated, modified, and converted to cDNA for high throughput transcriptomic deep sequencing. A computational approach to identify sRNAs via the alignment of seven separate Desulfovibrio genomes was also performed. From the deep sequencing analysis, 2,296 reads between 20 and 250 nt were identified with expression above genome background. Analysis of those reads limited the number of candidates to ~;;87 intergenic, while ~;;140 appeared to be antisense to annotated open reading frames (ORFs). Further BLAST analysis of the intergenic candidates and other Desulfovibrio genomes indicated that eight candidates were likely portions of ORFs not previously annotated in the D. vulgaris genome. Comparison of the intergenic and antisense data sets to the bioinformatical predicted candidates, resulted in ~;;54 common candidates. Current approaches using Northern analysis and qRT-PCR are being used toverify expression of the candidates and to further develop the role these sRNAs play in D. vulgaris regulation.

  7. Transposable elements and small RNAs: Genomic fuel for species diversity.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Federico G; McGuire, Liam P; Counterman, Brian A; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    While transposable elements (TE) have long been suspected of involvement in species diversification, identifying specific roles has been difficult. We recently found evidence of TE-derived regulatory RNAs in a species-rich family of bats. The TE-derived small RNAs are temporally associated with the burst of species diversification, suggesting that they may have been involved in the processes that led to the diversification. In this commentary, we expand on the ideas that were briefly touched upon in that manuscript. Specifically, we suggest avenues of research that may help to identify the roles that TEs may play in perturbing regulatory pathways. Such research endeavors may serve to inform evolutionary biologists of the ways that TEs have influenced the genomic and taxonomic diversity around us.

  8. Profiling of small RNAs involved in plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dongdong; Wang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Shune; Qiao, Lulu; Zhao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing is an important gene expression regulatory mechanism conserved in eukaryotes. Such sRNAs, first discovered in plants, are involved in diverse biological processes. In plants, sRNAs participate in many growth and developmental processes, such as embryo development, seed germination, flowering, hormone synthesis and distribution, and nutrient assimilation. However, the significance of sRNA in shaping the relationship between plants and their symbiotic microbes or pathogens has been underestimated. Recent progress in profiling sRNA, especially advances in next-generation sequencing technology, has revealed its extensive and complicated involvement in interactions between plants and viruses, bacteria, and fungi. In this review, we will summarize recent findings regarding sRNA in plant-pathogen interactions.

  9. Modular synthetic inverters from zinc finger proteins and small RNAs

    DOE PAGES

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. In conclusion, our chosenmore » parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.« less

  10. Modular synthetic inverters from zinc finger proteins and small RNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Arcak, Murat; Keasling, Jay D.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2016-02-17

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. In conclusion, our chosen parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.

  11. Multiple roles for small RNAs during plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Van Ex, Frédéric; Jacob, Yannick; Martienssen, Robert A

    2011-10-01

    Germline development and early embryogenesis in eukaryotes are characterized by large-scale genome reprogramming events. In companion cells of the Arabidopsis male gametophyte, epigenome reorganization leads to loss of heterochromatin and production of a distinct small RNA (sRNA) population. A specific class of sRNA derived from transposons appears to be mobile and can accumulate in germ cells. In the germline of maize, rice, and Arabidopsis, specific ARGONAUTE-sRNA silencing complexes appear to play key roles in reproductive development, including meiosis and regulation of germ cell fate. These results reveal new roles for sRNAs during plant reproduction and suggest that mobility of sRNAs could be critical for some of these functions.

  12. Transposable elements and small RNAs: Genomic fuel for species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Federico G; McGuire, Liam P; Counterman, Brian A; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    While transposable elements (TE) have long been suspected of involvement in species diversification, identifying specific roles has been difficult. We recently found evidence of TE-derived regulatory RNAs in a species-rich family of bats. The TE-derived small RNAs are temporally associated with the burst of species diversification, suggesting that they may have been involved in the processes that led to the diversification. In this commentary, we expand on the ideas that were briefly touched upon in that manuscript. Specifically, we suggest avenues of research that may help to identify the roles that TEs may play in perturbing regulatory pathways. Such research endeavors may serve to inform evolutionary biologists of the ways that TEs have influenced the genomic and taxonomic diversity around us. PMID:26904375

  13. RNA interference in the nucleus: roles for small RNAs in transcription, epigenetics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Castel, Stephane E; Martienssen, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    A growing number of functions are emerging for RNA interference (RNAi) in the nucleus, in addition to well-characterized roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing in the cytoplasm. Epigenetic modifications directed by small RNAs have been shown to cause transcriptional repression in plants, fungi and animals. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that RNAi regulates transcription through interaction with transcriptional machinery. Nuclear small RNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and are implicated in nuclear processes such as transposon regulation, heterochromatin formation, developmental gene regulation and genome stability.

  14. Genome-wide identification of endogenous RNA-directed DNA methylation loci associated with abundant 21-nucleotide siRNAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian-Hua; Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Ding, Shou-Wei; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mediates RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of transposable elements (TEs). In the present study, we examined genome-wide changes in DNA methylation and siRNA accumulation in Arabidopsis induced by expression of the Cucumber mosaic virus silencing suppressor protein 2b known to directly bind to both the 21/24-nt siRNAs as well as their associated Argonaute proteins. We demonstrated a genome-wide reduction of CHH and CHG methylation in the 2b-transgenic plants. We found that 2b suppressed RdDM not only at the previously annotated loci directed by 24-nt siRNAs but also a new set of loci associated with 21/22-nt siRNAs. Further analysis showed that the reduced methylation of TEs and coding genes targeted by 21/22-nt siRNAs was associated with sequestration of the duplex siRNAs by the 2b protein but not with changes in either siRNA production or transcription. Notably, we detected both the deletion and/or the transposition of multicopy TEs associated with 2b-induced hypomethylation, suggesting potential TE reactivation. We propose that the silencing of many TEs in Arabidopsis is controlled by the 24- and 21-nt endogenous siRNAs analogous to Drosophila TE silencing by PIWI-interacting RNAs and siRNAs. PMID:27786269

  15. Mouse ES cells express endogenous shRNAs, siRNAs, and other Microprocessor-independent, Dicer-dependent small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Babiarz, Joshua E.; Ruby, J. Graham; Wang, Yangming; Bartel, David P.; Blelloch, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) require two processing steps: the first by the Microprocessor, a complex of DGCR8 and Drosha, and the second by a complex of TRBP and Dicer. dgcr8Δ/Δ mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have less severe phenotypes than dicer1Δ/Δ mESCs, suggesting a physiological role for Microprocessor-independent, Dicer-dependent small RNAs. To identify these small RNAs with unusual biogenesis, we performed high-throughput sequencing from wild-type, dgcr8Δ/Δ, and dicer1Δ/Δ mESCs. Several of the resulting DGCR8-independent, Dicer-dependent RNAs were noncanonical miRNAs. These derived from mirtrons and a newly identified subclass of miRNA precursors, which appears to be the endogenous counterpart of shRNAs. Our analyses also revealed endogenous siRNAs resulting from Dicer cleavage of long hairpins, the vast majority of which originated from one genomic locus with tandem, inverted short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Our results extend the known diversity of mammalian small RNA-generating pathways and show that mammalian siRNAs exist in cell types other than oocytes. PMID:18923076

  16. Mouse ES cells express endogenous shRNAs, siRNAs, and other Microprocessor-independent, Dicer-dependent small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Babiarz, Joshua E; Ruby, J Graham; Wang, Yangming; Bartel, David P; Blelloch, Robert

    2008-10-15

    Canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) require two processing steps: the first by the Microprocessor, a complex of DGCR8 and Drosha, and the second by a complex of TRBP and Dicer. dgcr8Delta/Delta mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have less severe phenotypes than dicer1Delta/Delta mESCs, suggesting a physiological role for Microprocessor-independent, Dicer-dependent small RNAs. To identify these small RNAs with unusual biogenesis, we performed high-throughput sequencing from wild-type, dgcr8Delta/Delta, and dicer1Delta/Delta mESCs. Several of the resulting DGCR8-independent, Dicer-dependent RNAs were noncanonical miRNAs. These derived from mirtrons and a newly identified subclass of miRNA precursors, which appears to be the endogenous counterpart of shRNAs. Our analyses also revealed endogenous siRNAs resulting from Dicer cleavage of long hairpins, the vast majority of which originated from one genomic locus with tandem, inverted short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Our results extend the known diversity of mammalian small RNA-generating pathways and show that mammalian siRNAs exist in cell types other than oocytes.

  17. A rapid, quantitative assay for direct detection of microRNAs and other small RNAs using splinted ligation

    PubMed Central

    Maroney, Patricia A.; Chamnongpol, Sangpen; Souret, Frédéric; Nilsen, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    The discovery and characterization of microRNAs (miRNAs) and other families of short RNAs has led to a rapid expansion of research directed at elucidating their expression patterns and regulatory functions. Here, we describe a convenient, sensitive, and straightforward method to detect and quantitate specific miRNA levels in unfractionated total RNA samples. The method, based on splinted ligation, does not require specialized equipment or any amplification step, and is significantly faster and more sensitive than Northern blotting. We demonstrate that the method can be used to detect various classes of small regulatory RNAs from different organisms. PMID:17456563

  18. In plants, decapping prevents RDR6-dependent production of small interfering RNAs from endogenous mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Martínez de Alba, Angel Emilio; Moreno, Ana Beatriz; Gabriel, Marc; Mallory, Allison C.; Christ, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Balzergue, Sandrine; Aubourg, Sebastien; Gautheret, Daniel; Crespi, Martin D.; Vaucheret, Hervé; Maizel, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic degradation of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of RNA quality control (RQC) and often relies on the removal of the 5′ cap structure and their subsequent 5′ to 3′ degradation in cytoplasmic processing (P-)bodies. In parallel, many eukaryotes degrade exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). In plants, PTGS depends on small interfering (si)RNAs produced after the conversion of single-stranded RNAs to double-stranded RNAs by the cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) in cytoplasmic siRNA-bodies. PTGS and RQC compete for transgene-derived RNAs, but it is unknown whether this competition also occurs for endogenous transcripts. We show that the lethality of decapping mutants is suppressed by impairing RDR6 activity. We establish that upon decapping impairment hundreds of endogenous mRNAs give rise to a new class of rqc-siRNAs, that over-accumulate when RQC processes are impaired, a subset of which depending on RDR6 for their production. We observe that P- and siRNA-bodies often are dynamically juxtaposed, potentially allowing for cross-talk of the two machineries. Our results suggest that the decapping of endogenous RNA limits their entry into the PTGS pathway. We anticipate that the rqc-siRNAs identified in decapping mutants represent a subset of a larger ensemble of endogenous siRNAs. PMID:25694514

  19. In plants, decapping prevents RDR6-dependent production of small interfering RNAs from endogenous mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Alba, Angel Emilio; Moreno, Ana Beatriz; Gabriel, Marc; Mallory, Allison C; Christ, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Balzergue, Sandrine; Aubourg, Sebastien; Gautheret, Daniel; Crespi, Martin D; Vaucheret, Hervé; Maizel, Alexis

    2015-03-11

    Cytoplasmic degradation of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of RNA quality control (RQC) and often relies on the removal of the 5' cap structure and their subsequent 5' to 3' degradation in cytoplasmic processing (P-)bodies. In parallel, many eukaryotes degrade exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). In plants, PTGS depends on small interfering (si)RNAs produced after the conversion of single-stranded RNAs to double-stranded RNAs by the cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) in cytoplasmic siRNA-bodies. PTGS and RQC compete for transgene-derived RNAs, but it is unknown whether this competition also occurs for endogenous transcripts. We show that the lethality of decapping mutants is suppressed by impairing RDR6 activity. We establish that upon decapping impairment hundreds of endogenous mRNAs give rise to a new class of rqc-siRNAs, that over-accumulate when RQC processes are impaired, a subset of which depending on RDR6 for their production. We observe that P- and siRNA-bodies often are dynamically juxtaposed, potentially allowing for cross-talk of the two machineries. Our results suggest that the decapping of endogenous RNA limits their entry into the PTGS pathway. We anticipate that the rqc-siRNAs identified in decapping mutants represent a subset of a larger ensemble of endogenous siRNAs. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Deep sequencing of small RNAs in tomato for virus and viroid identification and strain differentiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small RNAs (sRNA), including microRNAs (miRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNA), are produced abundantly in plants and animals and function in regulating gene expression or in defense against virus or viroid infection. Analysis of siRNA profiles upon virus infection in plant may allow for virus i...

  1. Identification and Characterization of Small Noncoding RNAs in Genome Sequences of the Edible Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jibin; Zhao, Mengran; Hsiang, Tom; Feng, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Jinxia; Huang, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6%) were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56%) were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Small Noncoding RNAs in Genome Sequences of the Edible Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengran; Hsiang, Tom; Feng, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6%) were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56%) were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi. PMID:27703969

  3. DNA methylation and small interference RNAs participate in the regulation of MADS-box genes involved in dormancy in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Rothkegel, Karin; Sánchez, Evelyn; Montes, Christian; Greve, Macarena; Tapia, Sebastián; Bravo, Soraya; Prieto, Humberto; Almeida, Andréa Miyasaka

    2017-05-24

    Epigenetic modifications can yield information about connections between genotype, phenotype variation and environmental conditions. Bud dormancy release in temperate perennial fruit trees depends on internal and environmental signals such as cold accumulation and photoperiod. Previous investigations have noted the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the control of this physiological process. We examined whether epigenetic modifications were modulated in MADS-box genes, potential candidates for the regulation of bud dormancy and flowering in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). We identified and cloned two MADS-box genes homologous to the already-characterized dormancy regulators DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-box (DAM3 and DAM5) from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Bisulfite sequencing of the identified genes (PavMADS1 and PavMADS2), Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation and small RNA deep sequencing were performed to analyze the presence of DNA methylations that could be guided by non-coding RNAs in the floral buds exposed to differential chilling hours. The results obtained reveal an increase in the level of DNA methylation and abundance of matching small interference RNAs (siRNAs) in the promoter of PavMADS1 when the chilling requirement is complete. For the first intron and 5' UTR of PavMADS1, de novo DNA methylation could be associated with the increase in the abundance of 24-nt siRNA matching the promoter area. Also, in the second large intron of PavMADS1, maintenance DNA methylation in all cytosine contexts is associated with the presence of homologous siRNAs in that zone. For PavMADS2, only maintenance methylation was present in the CG context, and no matching siRNAs were detected. Silencing of PavMADS1 and PavMADS2 coincided with an increase in Flowering Locus T expression during dormancy. In conclusion, DNA methylations and siRNAs appear to be involved in the silencing of PavMADS1 during cold accumulation and dormancy release in sweet cherry. © The Author 2017

  4. Bombyx small RNAs: genomic defense system against transposons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kawaoka, Shinpei; Hayashi, Nobumitsu; Katsuma, Susumu; Kishino, Hirohisa; Kohara, Yuji; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2008-12-01

    Selfish genetic elements called transposons can insert themselves at new locations in host genomes to modify gene structure and alter gene expression. Expansion of transposons can occur when novel transposition events are transmitted to subsequent generations after germline hopping. Therefore, organisms seem likely to have evolved defense mechanisms to silence transposons in the germline. Recently, small RNAs interacting with Piwi proteins (piwi-interacting RNAs: piRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in genomic defense mechanism against transposons. Here, we show that piRNA-like small RNAs are present abundantly in the Bombyx ovary. We cloned 38,493 kinds of Bombyx small RNA from the ovary and performed functional characterization. Bombyx small RNAs showed a unimodal length distribution with a peak at 28nt and a strong bias for U at the 5' end. We found that 12,869 kinds of Bombyx small RNAs were associated with transposons or repetitive sequences. We classified them as repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs), a subclass of piRNAs. Notably, antisense rasiRNAs have a strong bias toward U at 5' ends; in contrast, sense rasiRNAs have a strong bias toward A at nucleotide position 10, indicating that the piRNA amplification loop proposed in Drosophila is evolutionarily conserved in Bombyx. These results suggest that Bombyx small RNAs regulate transposon activity.

  5. Exploration of small RNA-seq data for small non-coding RNAs in Human Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koduru, Srinivas V; Tiwari, Amit K; Hazard, Sprague W; Mahajan, Milind; Ravnic, Dino J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improved healthcare and recent breakthroughs in technology have substantially reduced cancer mortality rates worldwide. Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have allowed genomic analysis of the human transcriptome. Now, using NGS we can further look into small non-coding regions of RNAs (sncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs), Piwi-interacting-RNAs (piRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs (sn/snoRNAs) among others. Recent studies looking at sncRNAs indicate their role in important biological processes such as cancer progression and predict their role as biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Results: In the present study, we data mined publically available small RNA sequencing data from colorectal tissue samples of eight matched patients (benign, tumor, and metastasis) and remapped the data for various small RNA annotations. We identified aberrant expression of 13 miRNAs in tumor and metastasis specimens [tumor vs benign group (19 miRNAs) and metastasis vs benign group (38 miRNAs)] of which five were upregulated, and eight were downregulated, during disease progression. Pathway analysis of aberrantly expressed miRNAs showed that the majority of miRNAs involved in colon cancer were also involved in other cancers. Analysis of piRNAs revealed six to be over-expressed in the tumor vs benign cohort and 24 in the metastasis vs benign group. Only two piRNAs were shared between the two cohorts. Examining other types of small RNAs [sn/snoRNAs, mt_rRNA, miscRNA, nonsense mediated decay (NMD), and rRNAs] identified 15 sncRNAs in the tumor vs benign group and 104 in the metastasis vs benign group, with only four others being commonly expressed. Conclusion: In summary, our comprehensive analysis on publicly available small RNA-seq data identified multiple differentially expressed sncRNAs during colorectal cancer progression at different stages compared to normal colon tissue. We speculate that

  6. Exploration of small RNA-seq data for small non-coding RNAs in Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Srinivas V; Tiwari, Amit K; Hazard, Sprague W; Mahajan, Milind; Ravnic, Dino J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improved healthcare and recent breakthroughs in technology have substantially reduced cancer mortality rates worldwide. Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have allowed genomic analysis of the human transcriptome. Now, using NGS we can further look into small non-coding regions of RNAs (sncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs), Piwi-interacting-RNAs (piRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs (sn/snoRNAs) among others. Recent studies looking at sncRNAs indicate their role in important biological processes such as cancer progression and predict their role as biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Results: In the present study, we data mined publically available small RNA sequencing data from colorectal tissue samples of eight matched patients (benign, tumor, and metastasis) and remapped the data for various small RNA annotations. We identified aberrant expression of 13 miRNAs in tumor and metastasis specimens [tumor vs benign group (19 miRNAs) and metastasis vs benign group (38 miRNAs)] of which five were upregulated, and eight were downregulated, during disease progression. Pathway analysis of aberrantly expressed miRNAs showed that the majority of miRNAs involved in colon cancer were also involved in other cancers. Analysis of piRNAs revealed six to be over-expressed in the tumor vs benign cohort and 24 in the metastasis vs benign group. Only two piRNAs were shared between the two cohorts. Examining other types of small RNAs [sn/snoRNAs, mt_rRNA, miscRNA, nonsense mediated decay (NMD), and rRNAs] identified 15 sncRNAs in the tumor vs benign group and 104 in the metastasis vs benign group, with only four others being commonly expressed. Conclusion: In summary, our comprehensive analysis on publicly available small RNA-seq data identified multiple differentially expressed sncRNAs during colorectal cancer progression at different stages compared to normal colon tissue. We speculate that

  7. Deep sequencing reveals as-yet-undiscovered small RNAs in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Escherichia coli, approximately 100 regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified experimentally and many more have been predicted by various methods. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs, we analysed the low-molecular-weight RNAs (< 200 nt) of E. coli with deep sequencing, because the regulatory RNAs in bacteria are usually 50-200 nt in length. Results We discovered 229 novel candidate sRNAs (≥ 50 nt) with computational or experimental evidence of transcription initiation. Among them, the expression of seven intergenic sRNAs and three cis-antisense sRNAs was detected by northern blot analysis. Interestingly, five novel sRNAs are expressed from prophage regions and we note that these sRNAs have several specific characteristics. Furthermore, we conducted an evolutionary conservation analysis of the candidate sRNAs and summarised the data among closely related bacterial strains. Conclusions This comprehensive screen for E. coli sRNAs using a deep sequencing approach has shown that many as-yet-undiscovered sRNAs are potentially encoded in the E. coli genome. We constructed the Escherichia coli Small RNA Browser (ECSBrowser; http://rna.iab.keio.ac.jp/), which integrates the data for previously identified sRNAs and the novel sRNAs found in this study. PMID:21864382

  8. Deep sequencing of virus-infected cells reveals HIV-encoded small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Schopman, Nick C.T.; Willemsen, Marcel; Liu, Ying Poi; Bradley, Ted; van Kampen, Antoine; Baas, Frank; Berkhout, Ben; Haasnoot, Joost

    2012-01-01

    Small virus-derived interfering RNAs (viRNAs) play an important role in antiviral defence in plants, insects and nematodes by triggering the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The role of RNAi as an antiviral defence mechanism in mammalian cells has been obscure due to the lack of viRNA detection. Although viRNAs from different mammalian viruses have recently been identified, their functions and possible impact on viral replication remain unknown. To identify viRNAs derived from HIV-1, we used the extremely sensitive SOLiDTM 3 Plus System to analyse viRNA accumulation in HIV-1-infected T lymphocytes. We detected numerous small RNAs that correspond to the HIV-1 RNA genome. The majority of these sequences have a positive polarity (98.1%) and could be derived from miRNAs encoded by structured segments of the HIV-1 RNA genome (vmiRNAs). A small portion of the viRNAs is of negative polarity and most of them are encoded within the 3′-UTR, which may represent viral siRNAs (vsiRNAs). The identified vsiRNAs can potently repress HIV-1 production, whereas suppression of the vsiRNAs by antagomirs stimulate virus production. These results suggest that HIV-1 triggers the production of vsiRNAs and vmiRNAs to modulate cellular and/or viral gene expression. PMID:21911362

  9. Isolation and detection of small RNAs from plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil A; Eamens, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    In plants, several classes of non-coding small RNA (sRNA) have been shown to be important regulators of gene expression in a wide variety of biological processes. The two main classes of sRNA, the small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) classes, are well documented and several experimental approaches have been developed to allow for their routine isolation and detection from plant tissues. Here, we describe the current methods used for the isolation of total RNA and the subsequent enrichment of low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA species, as well as to outline how sRNAs are detected from such nucleic acid preparations.

  10. Small RNA profiling of Xenopus embryos reveals novel miRNAs and a new class of small RNAs derived from intronic transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Harding, Joanne L; Horswell, Stuart; Heliot, Claire; Armisen, Javier; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Miska, Eric A; Hill, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Small RNA control of gene expression is critical for developmental processes in vertebrate embryos. To determine the dynamics of small RNA expression and to uncover novel small RNAs in the early vertebrate embryo, we performed high-throughput sequencing of all small RNAs in Xenopus tropicalis embryos at three developmental time points and in dissected halves of gastrula embryos. This analysis allowed us to identify novel microRNAs and we show that microRNA expression is highly dynamic and spatially localized in early embryos. In addition, we have developed a microRNA prediction pipeline and demonstrate that it has the power to predict new miRNAs that are experimentally detectable in frogs, mice, and humans. By combining the small RNA sequencing with mRNA profiling at the different developmental stages, we identify a new class of small noncoding RNAs that we name siteRNAs, which align in clusters to introns of protein-coding genes. We show that siteRNAs are derived from remnants of transposable elements present in the introns. We find that genes containing clusters of siteRNAs are transcriptionally repressed as compared with all genes. Furthermore, we show that this is true for individual genes containing siteRNA clusters, and that these genes are enriched in specific repressive histone modifications. Our data thus suggest a new mechanism of siteRNA-mediated gene silencing in vertebrates, and provide an example of how mobile elements can affect gene regulation.

  11. Deep sequencing uncovers rice long siRNAs and its involvement in immunity against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dongdong; Zhang, Xin; Song, Xiaoou; Wang, Zhihui; Li, Yanqiang; Qiao, Lulu; Wang, Zhaoyun; Liu, Junzhong; Deng, Yiwen; He, Zuhua; Yang, Donglei; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Yangli; Zhao, Hongwei

    2017-09-06

    Small RNA (sRNA) is a class of non-coding RNA that can silence the expression of target genes. In rice, the majority of characterized sRNAs are within the range of 21 to 24 nucleotide long, whose biogenesis and function are associated with a specific sets of components, such as Dicer-like (OsDCLs) and Argonaute proteins (OsAGOs). Rice sRNAs longer than 24 nt are occasionally reported, with biogenesis and functional mechanism uninvestigated, especially in a context of defense responses against pathogen infection. By using deep sequencing, we identified a group of rice long small interfering RNAs (lsiRNAs) that are within the range of 25-40 nt in length. Our results show that some rice lsiRNAs are differentially expressed upon infection of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of the rice sheath blight disease. Bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation indicate that some rice lsiRNAs can target defense-related genes. We further demonstrate that rice lsiRNAs are neither derived from RNA degradation nor originated as secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Moreover, lsiRNAs requires OsDCL4 for biogenesis and OsAGO18 for function. Therefore, our study indicate that rice lsiRNAs are a unique class of endogenous sRNAs produced in rice, which may participate in response against pathogens.

  12. Novel small Cajal-body-specific RNAs identified in Drosophila: probing guide RNA function

    PubMed Central

    Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gall, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    The spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are modified post-transcriptionally by introduction of pseudouridines and 2′-O-methyl modifications, which are mediated by box H/ACA and box C/D guide RNAs, respectively. Because of their concentration in the nuclear Cajal body (CB), these guide RNAs are known as small CB-specific (sca) RNAs. In the cell, scaRNAs are associated with the WD-repeat protein WDR79. We used coimmunoprecipitation with WDR79 to recover seven new scaRNAs from Drosophila cell lysates. We demonstrated concentration of these new scaRNAs in the CB by in situ hybridization, and we verified experimentally that they can modify their putative target RNAs. Surprisingly, one of the new scaRNAs targets U6 snRNA, whose modification is generally assumed to occur in the nucleolus, not in the CB. Two other scaRNAs have dual guide functions, one for an snRNA and one for 28S rRNA. Again, the modification of 28S rRNA is assumed to take place in the nucleolus. These findings suggest that canonical scaRNAs may have functions in addition to their established role in modifying U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNAs. We discuss the likelihood that processing by scaRNAs is not limited to the CB. PMID:24149844

  13. Small Cajal body-specific RNAs of Drosophila function in the absence of Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gall, Joseph G

    2009-12-01

    During their biogenesis small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) undergo multiple covalent modifications that require guide RNAs to direct methylase and pseudouridylase enzymes to the appropriate nucleotides. Because of their localization in the nuclear Cajal body (CB), these guide RNAs are known as small CB-specific RNAs (scaRNAs). Using a fluorescent primer extension technique, we mapped the modified nucleotides in Drosophila U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNAs. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) we showed that seven Drosophila scaRNAs are concentrated in easily detectable CBs. We used two assays based on Xenopus oocyte nuclei to demonstrate that three of these Drosophila scaRNAs do, in fact, function as guide RNAs. In flies null for the CB marker protein coilin, CBs are absent and there are no localized FISH signals for the scaRNAs. Nevertheless, biochemical experiments show that scaRNAs are present at normal levels and snRNAs are properly modified. Our experiments demonstrate that several scaRNAs are concentrated as expected in the CBs of wild-type Drosophila, but they function equally well in the nucleoplasm of mutant flies that lack CBs. We propose that the snRNA modification machinery is not limited to CBs, but is dispersed throughout the nucleoplasm of cells in general.

  14. RNA sequencing reveals small RNAs differentially expressed between incipient Japanese threespine sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-coding small RNAs, ranging from 20 to 30 nucleotides in length, mediate the regulation of gene expression and play important roles in many biological processes. One class of small RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), are highly conserved across taxa and mediate the regulation of the chromatin state and the post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA). Another class of small RNAs is the Piwi-interacting RNAs, which play important roles in the silencing of transposons and other functional genes. Although the biological functions of the different small RNAs have been elucidated in several laboratory animals, little is known regarding naturally occurring variation in small RNA transcriptomes among closely related species. Results We employed next-generation sequencing technology to compare the expression profiles of brain small RNAs between sympatric species of the Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We identified several small RNAs that were differentially expressed between sympatric Pacific Ocean and Japan Sea sticklebacks. Potential targets of several small RNAs were identified as repetitive sequences. Female-biased miRNA expression from the old X chromosome was also observed, and it was attributed to the degeneration of the Y chromosome. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression patterns of small RNA can differ between incipient species and may be a potential mechanism underlying differential mRNA expression and transposon activity. PMID:23547919

  15. Roles of small RNAs in soybean defense against Phytophthora sojae infection.

    PubMed

    Wong, James; Gao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhai, Jixian; Arikit, Siwaret; Yu, Yu; Duan, Shuyi; Chan, Vicky; Xiong, Qin; Yan, Jun; Li, Shengben; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Tang, Guiliang; Meyers, Blake C; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of many notorious pathogens of crops and forestry trees. At present, battling Phytophthora diseases is challenging due to a lack of understanding of their pathogenesis. We investigated the role of small RNAs in regulating soybean defense in response to infection by Phytophthora sojae, the second most destructive pathogen of soybean. Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes. We identified known and novel small RNAs that differentially accumulated during P. sojae infection in soybean roots. Among them, miR393 and miR166 were induced by heat-inactivated P. sojae hyphae, indicating that they may be involved in soybean basal defense. Indeed, knocking down the level of mature miR393 led to enhanced susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae; furthermore, the expression of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes was drastically reduced in miR393 knockdown roots. These data suggest that miR393 promotes soybean defense against P. sojae. In addition to miRNAs, P. sojae infection also resulted in increased accumulation of phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that are predominantly generated from canonical resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat proteins and genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins. This work identifies specific miRNAs and phasiRNAs that regulate defense-associated genes in soybean during Phytophthora infection.

  16. Riding in silence: a little snowboarding, a lot of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ameres, Stefan L; Fukunaga, Ryuya

    2010-03-15

    The recent symposium, RNA silencing: Mechanism, Biology and Applications, organized by Phillip D. Zamore (University of Massachusetts Medical School) and Beverly Davidson (University of Iowa), and held in Keystone, Colorado, brought together scientists working on diverse aspects of RNA silencing, a field that comprises a multitude of gene regulatory pathways guided by microRNAs, small interfering RNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs.

  17. Small RNAs and heritable epigenetic variation in plants.

    PubMed

    Bond, Donna M; Baulcombe, David C

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that inheritance of phenotypes in plants is more likely to involve epigenetics than in mammals. There are two reasons for this difference. First, there is a RNA-based system in plants involving small (s)RNAs that influences de novo establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation at many sites in plant genomes. These regions of methylated DNA are epigenetic marks with the potential to affect gene expression that are transmitted between dividing cells of the same generation. Second, unlike mammals, DNA methyltransferases in plants are active during gametogenesis and embryogenesis so that patterns of DNA methylation can persist from parent to progeny and do not need to be reset. We discuss how the effects of stress and genome interactions in hybrid plants are two systems that illustrate how RNA-based mechanisms can influence heritable phenotypes in plants.

  18. Role of miRNAs in development and disease: Lessons learnt from small organisms.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Swati; Vimal, Divya; Sharma, Divya; Rai, Vipin; Gupta, Subash Chandra; Chowdhuri, D Kar

    2017-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small (18-22 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and many other small organisms have been instrumental in deciphering the biological functions of miRNAs. While some miRNAs from small organisms are highly conserved across the taxa, others are organism specific. The miRNAs are known to play a crucial role during development and in various cellular functions such as cell survival, cell proliferation, and differentiation. The miRNAs associated with fragile X syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, cancer, malaria, infectious diseases and several other human diseases have been identified from small organisms. These organisms have been used as platforms in deciphering the functions of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of human diseases and to study miRNA biogenesis. Small organisms have also been used in the development of miRNA-based diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. The molecular techniques such as genome sequencing, northern blot analysis, and quantitative RT-PCR, have been used in deciphering the functions of miRNAs in small organisms. How miRNAs from small organisms especially those from Drosophila and C. elegans regulate development and disease pathogenesis is the focus of this review. The outstanding questions raised by our current understanding are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Big roles for small RNAs in polyploidy, hybrid vigor, and hybrid incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Ng, Danny W-K; Lu, Jie; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2012-04-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs), mediate gene expression and epigenetic regulation. While siRNAs are highly diverged, miRNAs and ta-siRNAs are generally conserved but many are differentially expressed between related species and in interspecific hybrids and allopolyploids. On one hand, combination of diverged maternal and paternal siRNAs in the same nucleus may exert cis-acting and trans-acting effects on transposable elements (TEs) and TE-associated genes, leading to genomic instability and endosperm and embryo failures, constituting a bottleneck for the evolution of hybrids and polyploids. On the other hand, cis and trans-acting small RNAs induce quantitative and qualitative changes in epigenetic regulation, leading to morphological variation and hybrid vigor in F1 hybrids and stable allopolyploids as well as transgressive phenotypes in the progeny, increasing a potential for adaptive evolution.

  20. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    PubMed

    Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  1. Small RNAs in the peripheral blood discriminate metastasized from non-metastasized seminoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to better discriminate metastasized (lymphogen/occult/both combined) from non-metastasized seminoma based on post-transcriptional changes examined in the peripheral blood. Methods Total RNAs including small RNAs were isolated from the peripheral blood of patients suffering from metastasized testicular tumours (lymphogen, n = 5, clinical stage IIb/c; occult, n = 5, clinical stage I) and non-metastasized patients (n = 5, clinical stage I). Small RNA next generation sequencing (SOLID, Life Technologies) was employed to examine post-transcriptional changes. We searched for small RNAs showing at least 50 reads and a significant ≥ 2-fold difference using peripheral blood small RNAs of non-metastasized tumours as the reference group. Candidate small RNAs were examined in univariate logistic regression analysis and combinations of two small RNAs were further examined using support vector machines. Results On average 1.3x107, 1.2x107 and 1.2x107 small RNA reads were detectable in non-metastasized, lymphogen and occult metastasized seminoma, respectively of which 73-76% remained after trimming. From these between 80-82% represented annotated reads and 7.2-7.8% (1.6-1.7x104) were annotated small RNA tags. Of them 137 small RNAs showed > 50 reads and a ≥ two-fold difference to the reference. In univariate analysis we detected 33-35 different small RNAs which significantly discriminated lymphogen/occult/combined metastasized from non-metastasized seminoma and among these different comparisons it were the same small RNAs in 44-79%. Many combinations of two of these small RNAs completely discriminated metastasized from non-metastasized seminoma irrespective of the metastasis subtype. Conclusions Metastasized (either lymphogen or occult) seminoma can be completely discriminated from non-metastasized seminoma with a combination of two small RNAs measured in the peripheral blood. PMID:24597607

  2. Small RNAs in the peripheral blood discriminate metastasized from non-metastasized seminoma.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Christian G; Dinger, Daniela; Port, Matthias; Schmelz, Hans-Ulrich; Wagner, Walter; Matthies, Cord; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Meineke, Viktor; Abend, Michael

    2014-03-06

    We aimed to better discriminate metastasized (lymphogen/occult/both combined) from non-metastasized seminoma based on post-transcriptional changes examined in the peripheral blood. Total RNAs including small RNAs were isolated from the peripheral blood of patients suffering from metastasized testicular tumours (lymphogen, n = 5, clinical stage IIb/c; occult, n = 5, clinical stage I) and non-metastasized patients (n = 5, clinical stage I). Small RNA next generation sequencing (SOLID, Life Technologies) was employed to examine post-transcriptional changes. We searched for small RNAs showing at least 50 reads and a significant  ≥ 2-fold difference using peripheral blood small RNAs of non-metastasized tumours as the reference group. Candidate small RNAs were examined in univariate logistic regression analysis and combinations of two small RNAs were further examined using support vector machines. On average 1.3 x 10(7), 1.2 x 10(7) and 1.2 x 10(7) small RNA reads were detectable in non-metastasized, lymphogen and occult metastasized seminoma, respectively of which 73-76% remained after trimming. From these between 80-82% represented annotated reads and 7.2-7.8% (1.6-1.7 x 10(4)) were annotated small RNA tags. Of them 137 small RNAs showed > 50 reads and a ≥ two-fold difference to the reference. In univariate analysis we detected 33-35 different small RNAs which significantly discriminated lymphogen/occult/combined metastasized from non-metastasized seminoma and among these different comparisons it were the same small RNAs in 44-79%. Many combinations of two of these small RNAs completely discriminated metastasized from non-metastasized seminoma irrespective of the metastasis subtype. Metastasized (either lymphogen or occult) seminoma can be completely discriminated from non-metastasized seminoma with a combination of two small RNAs measured in the peripheral blood.

  3. Genome-wide discovery and analysis of microRNAs and other small RNAs from rice embryogenic callus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong-Jian; liu, Qing; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Qu, Liang-Hu; Chen, Yue-Qin; Gautheret, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs constitute a new and unanticipated layer of gene regulation present in the three domains of life. In plants, all organs are ultimately derived from a few pluripotent stem cells localized in specialized structures called apical meristems. The development of meristems involves a coordinated balance between undifferentiated growth and differentiation, a phenomenon requiring a tight regulation of gene expression. We used in vitro cultured embryogenic calli as a model to investigate the roles of meristem-associated small RNAs. Using high throughput sequencing, we sequenced 20 million short reads with size of 18-30 nt from rice undifferentiated and differentiated calli. We confirmed 50 known microRNA families, representing one third of annotated rice microRNAs. Using a specific computational pipeline for plant microRNA identification, we identified 24 novel microRNA families. Among them, 53 microRNA or microRNA* sequences appear to vary in expression between differentiated and undifferentiated calli, suggesting a role in meristem development. Our analysis also revealed a new class of plant small RNAs derived from 5' or 3' ends of mature tRNA analogous to the tRFs in human cancer cell. We independently verified the expression of these small RNAs from 5' end of mature tRNA using qRT-PCR. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  4. Base pairing small RNAs and their roles in global regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Beisel, Chase L.; Storz, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria employ a range of RNA regulators collectively termed small RNAs (sRNAs) to help respond to changes in the environment. Many sRNAs regulate their target mRNAs through limited base pairing interactions. Ongoing characterization of base pairing sRNAs in bacteria has started to reveal how these sRNAs participate in global regulatory networks. These networks can be broken down into smaller regulatory circuits that have characteristic behaviors and functions. In this review, we describe the specific regulatory circuits that incorporate base pairing sRNAs and the importance of each circuit in global regulation. Since most of these circuits were originally identified as network motifs in transcriptional networks, we also discuss why sRNAs may be employed over protein transcription factors to help transduce environmental signals. PMID:20662934

  5. Biogenic mechanisms and utilization of small RNAs derived from human protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Valen, Eivind; Preker, Pascal; Andersen, Peter Refsing; Zhao, Xiaobei; Chen, Yun; Ender, Christine; Dueck, Anne; Meister, Gunter; Sandelin, Albin; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2011-08-07

    Efforts to catalog eukaryotic transcripts have uncovered many small RNAs (sRNAs) derived from gene termini and splice sites. Their biogenesis pathways are largely unknown, but a mechanism based on backtracking of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) has been suggested. By sequencing transcripts 12-100 nucleotides in length from cells depleted of major RNA degradation enzymes and RNAs associated with Argonaute (AGO1/2) effector proteins, we provide mechanistic models for sRNA production. We suggest that neither splice site-associated (SSa) nor transcription start site-associated (TSSa) RNAs arise from RNAPII backtracking. Instead, SSa RNAs are largely degradation products of splicing intermediates, whereas TSSa RNAs probably derive from nascent RNAs protected by stalled RNAPII against nucleolysis. We also reveal new AGO1/2-associated RNAs derived from 3' ends of introns and from mRNA 3' UTRs that appear to draw from noncanonical microRNA biogenesis pathways.

  6. Reducing ligation bias of small RNAs in libraries for next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sorefan, Karim; Pais, Helio; Hall, Adam E; Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Moulton, Vincent; Dalmay, Tamas

    2012-05-30

    The use of nucleic acid-modifying enzymes has driven the rapid advancement in molecular biology. Understanding their function is important for modifying or improving their activity. However, functional analysis usually relies upon low-throughput experiments. Here we present a method for functional analysis of nucleic acid-modifying enzymes using next generation sequencing. We demonstrate that sequencing data of libraries generated by RNA ligases can reveal novel secondary structure preferences of these enzymes, which are used in small RNA cloning and library preparation for NGS. Using this knowledge we demonstrate that the cloning bias in small RNA libraries is RNA ligase-dependent. We developed a high definition (HD) protocol that reduces the RNA ligase-dependent cloning bias. The HD protocol doubled read coverage, is quantitative and found previously unidentified microRNAs. In addition, we show that microRNAs in miRBase are those preferred by the adapters of the main sequencing platform. Sequencing bias of small RNAs partially influenced which microRNAs have been studied in depth; therefore most previous small RNA profiling experiments should be re-evaluated. New microRNAs are likely to be found, which were selected against by existing adapters. Preference of currently used adapters towards known microRNAs suggests that the annotation of all existing small RNAs, including miRNAs, siRNAs and piRNAs, has been biased.

  7. Endogenous Small-Noncoding RNAs and Potential Functions in Desiccation Tolerance in Physcomitrella Patens

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Wang, Xiaoqin; Perroud, Pierre-François; He, Yikun; Quatrano, Ralph; Zhang, Weixiong

    2016-01-01

    Early land plants like moss Physcomitrella patens have developed remarkable drought tolerance. Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) protects seeds during water stress by activating genes through transcription factors such as ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE (ABI3). Small noncoding RNA (sncRNA), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), are key gene regulators in eukaryotes, playing critical roles in stress tolerance in plants. Combining next-generation sequencing and computational analysis, we profiled and characterized sncRNA species from two ABI3 deletion mutants and the wild type P. patens that were subject to ABA treatment in dehydration and rehydration stages. Small RNA profiling using deep sequencing helped identify 22 novel miRNAs and 6 genomic loci producing trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) including TAS3a to TAS3e and TAS6. Data from degradome profiling showed that ABI3 genes (ABI3a/b/c) are potentially regulated by the plant-specific miR536 and that other ABA-relevant genes are regulated by miRNAs and ta-siRNAs. We also observed broad variations of miRNAs and ta-siRNAs expression across different stages, suggesting that they could potentially influence desiccation tolerance. This study provided evidence on the potential roles of sncRNA in mediating desiccation-responsive pathways in early land plants. PMID:27443635

  8. Exploring microRNA-like small RNAs in the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Jiang, Nan; Jiang, Qiyan; Sun, Xianjun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    RNA silencing such as quelling and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD) and several other classes of special small RNAs have been discovered in filamentous fungi recently. More than four different mechanisms of microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) production have been illustrated in the model fungus Neurospora crassa including a dicer-independent pathway. To date, very little work focusing on small RNAs in fungi has been reported and no universal or particular characteristic of milRNAs were defined clearly. In this study, small RNA and degradome libraries were constructed and subsequently deep sequenced for investigating milRNAs and their potential cleavage targets on the genome level in the filamentous fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. As a result, there is no intersection of conserved miRNAs found by BLASTing against the miRBase. Further analysis showed that the small RNA population of F. oxysporum shared many common features with the small RNAs from N. crassa and other fungi. According to the known standards of miRNA prediction in plants and animals, milRNA candidates from 8 families (comprising 19 members) were screened out and identified. However, none of them could trigger target cleavage based on the degradome data. Moreover, most major signals of cleavage in transcripts could not match appropriate complementary small RNAs, suggesting that other predominant modes for milRNA-mediated gene regulation could exist in F. oxysporum. In addition, the PAREsnip program was utilized for comprehensive analysis and 3 families of small RNAs leading to transcript cleavage were experimentally validated. Altogether, our findings provided valuable information and important hints for better understanding the functions of the small RNAs and milRNAs in the fungal kingdom.

  9. Novel microRNA-like viral small regulatory RNAs arising during human hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs.

  10. RNA-Seq of the nucleolus reveals abundant SNORD44-derived small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Baoyan; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Wheelan, Sarah J; Laiho, Marikki

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs represent RNA species that are not translated to proteins, but which have diverse and broad functional activities in physiological and pathophysiological states. The knowledge of these small RNAs is rapidly expanding in part through the use of massive parallel (deep) sequencing efforts. We present here the first deep sequencing of small RNomes in subcellular compartments with particular emphasis on small RNAs (sRNA) associated with the nucleolus. The vast majority of the cellular, cytoplasmic and nuclear sRNAs were identified as miRNAs. In contrast, the nucleolar sRNAs had a unique size distribution consisting of 19-20 and 25 nt RNAs, which were predominantly composed of small snoRNA-derived box C/D RNAs (termed as sdRNA). Sequences from 47 sdRNAs were identified, which mapped to both 5' and 3' ends of the snoRNAs, and retained conserved box C or D motifs. SdRNA reads mapping to SNORD44 comprised 74% of all nucleolar sdRNAs, and were confirmed by Northern blotting as comprising both 20 and 25 nt RNAs. A novel 120 nt SNORD44 form was also identified. The expression of the SNORD44 sdRNA and 120 nt form was independent of Dicer/Drosha-mediated processing pathways but was dependent on the box C/D snoRNP proteins/sno-ribonucleoproteins fibrillarin and NOP58. The 120 nt SNORD44-derived RNA bound to fibrillarin suggesting that C/D sno-ribonucleoproteins are involved in regulating the stability or processing of SNORD44. This study reveals sRNA cell-compartment specific expression and the distinctive unique composition of the nucleolar sRNAs.

  11. Novel and conserved microRNAs in soybean floral whorls.

    PubMed

    Kulcheski, F R; Molina, L G; da Fonseca, G C; de Morais, G L; de Oliveira, L F V; Margis, R

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) correspond to a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs (19-24 nt) that regulates the gene expression, through mRNA target cleavage or translation inhibition. In plants, miRNAs have been shown to play pivotal roles in a wide variety of metabolic and biological processes like plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide, due to the production of oil and its high protein content. The reproductive phase is considered the most important for soybean yield, which is mainly intended to produce the grains. The identification of miRNAs is not yet saturated in soybean, and there are no studies linking them to the different floral organs. In this study, three different mature soybean floral whorls were used in the construction of sRNA libraries. The sequencing of petal, carpel and stamen libraries generated a total of 10,165,661 sequences. Subsequent analyses identified 200 miRNAs sequences, among which, 41 were novel miRNAs, 80 were conserved soybean miRNAs, 31 were new antisense conserved soybean miRNAs and 46 were soybean miRNAs isoforms. We also found a new miRNA conserved in other plant species, and finally one miRNA-sibling of a soybean conserved miRNA. Conserved and novel miRNAs were evaluated by RT-qPCR. We observed a differential expression across the three whorls for six miRNAs. Computational predicted targets for miRNAs analyzed by RT-qPCR were identified and present functions related to reproductive process in plants. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific and novel miRNAs in different whorls indicates that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network in soybean flower.

  12. Small nucleolar RNAs that guide modification in trypanosomatids: repertoire, targets, genome organisation, and unique functions.

    PubMed

    Uliel, Shai; Liang, Xue-hai; Unger, Ron; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2004-03-29

    Small nucleolar RNAs constitute a family of newly discovered non-coding small RNAs, most of which function in guiding RNA modifications. Two prevalent types of modifications are 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation. The modification is directed by the formation of a canonical small nucleolar RNA-target duplex. Initially, RNA-guided modification was shown to take place on rRNA, but recent studies suggest that small nuclear RNA, mRNA, tRNA, and the trypanosome spliced leader RNA also undergo guided modifications. Trypanosomes contain more modifications and potentially more small nucleolar RNAs than yeast, and the increased number of modifications may help to preserve ribosome function under adverse environmental conditions during the cycling between the insect and mammalian host. The genome organisation in clusters carrying the two types of small nucleolar RNAs, C/D and H/ACA-like RNAs, resembles that in plants. However, the trypanosomatid H/ACA RNAs are similar to those found in Archaea and are composed of a single hairpin that may represent the primordial H/ACA RNA. In this review we summarise this new field of trypanosome small nucleolar RNAs, emphasising the open questions regarding the number of small nucleolar RNAs, the repertoire, genome organisation, and the unique function of guided modifications in these protozoan parasites.

  13. Small RNA pyrosequencing in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica reveals strain-specific small RNAs that target virulence genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small RNA mediated gene silencing is a well-conserved regulatory pathway. In the parasite Entamoeba histolytica an endogenous RNAi pathway exists, however, the depth and diversity of the small RNA population remains unknown. Results To characterize the small RNA population that associates with E. histolytica Argonaute-2 (EhAGO2-2), we immunoprecipitated small RNAs that associate with it and performed one full pyrosequencing run. Data analysis revealed new features of the 27nt small RNAs including the 5′-G predominance, distinct small RNA distribution patterns on protein coding genes, small RNAs mapping to both introns and exon-exon junctions, and small RNA targeted genes that are clustered particularly in sections of genome duplication. Characterization of genomic loci to which both sense and antisense small RNAs mapped showed that both sets of small RNAs have 5′-polyphosphate termini; strand-specific RT-PCR detected transcripts in both directions at these loci suggesting that both transcripts may serve as template for small RNA generation. In order to determine whether small RNA abundance patterns account for strain-specific gene expression profiles of E. histolytica virulent and non-virulent strains, we sequenced small RNAs from a non-virulent strain and found that small RNAs mapped to genes in a manner consistent with their regulation of strain-specific virulence genes. Conclusions We provided a full spectrum analysis for E. histolytica AGO2-2 associated 27nt small RNAs. Additionally, comparative analysis of small RNA populations from virulent and non-virulent amebic strains indicates that small RNA populations may regulate virulence genes. PMID:23347563

  14. Sensitive whole mount in situ localization of small RNAs in plants.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Dastidar, Mouli; Mosiolek, Magdalena; Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Nodine, Michael D; Maizel, Alexis

    2016-11-01

    Small RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), regulate gene expression and play important roles in many plant processes. Although our knowledge of their biogenesis and mode of action has significantly progressed, we still have comparatively little information about their biological functions. In particular, knowledge about their spatio-temporal expression patterns rely on either indirect detection by use of reporter constructs or labor-intensive direct detection by in situ hybridization on sectioned material. None of the current approaches allows a systematic investigation of small RNA expression patterns. Here, we present a sensitive method for in situ detection of miRNAs and siRNAs in intact plant tissues that utilizes both double-labeled probes and a specific cross-linker. We determined the expression patterns of several small RNAs in diverse plant tissues.

  15. High throughput sequencing of small RNAs transcriptomes in two Crassostrea oysters identifies microRNAs involved in osmotic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuelin; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Liu, Shikai; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. However, the role of miRNAs involved in osmotic plasticity remains largely unknown in marine bivalves. In the present study, we performed low salinity challenge with two Crassostrea species (C. gigas and C. hongkongensis), and conducted high-throughput sequencing of four small RNA libraries constructed from the gill tissues. A total of 202 and 87 miRNAs were identified from C. gigas and C. hongkongensis, respectively. Six miRNAs in C. gigas and two in C. hongkongensis were differentially expressed in response to osmotic stress. The expression profiles of these eight miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Based on GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis, genes associated with microtubule-based process and cellular component movement were enriched in both species. In addition, five miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs that showed opposite expression patterns were identified in the C. hongkongensis, Differential expression analysis identified the miRNAs that play important regulatory roles in response to low salinity stress, providing insights into molecular mechanisms that are essential for salinity tolerance in marine bivalves. PMID:26940974

  16. Biogenesis, Function, and Applications of Virus-Derived Small RNAs in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Zujian; Li, Yi; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing, an evolutionarily conserved and sequence-specific gene-inactivation system, has a pivotal role in antiviral defense in most eukaryotic organisms. In plants, a class of exogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) originating from the infecting virus called virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) are predominantly responsible for RNA silencing-mediated antiviral immunity. Nowadays, the process of vsiRNA formation and the role of vsiRNAs in plant viral defense have been revealed through deep sequencing of sRNAs and diverse genetic analysis. The biogenesis of vsiRNAs is analogous to that of endogenous sRNAs, which require diverse essential components including dicer-like (DCL), argonaute (AGO), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins. vsiRNAs trigger antiviral defense through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of viral RNA, and they hijack the host RNA silencing system to target complementary host transcripts. Additionally, several applications that take advantage of the current knowledge of vsiRNAs research are being used, such as breeding antiviral plants through genetic engineering technology, reconstructing of viral genomes, and surveying viral ecology and populations. Here, we will provide an overview of vsiRNA pathways, with a primary focus on the advances in vsiRNA biogenesis and function, and discuss their potential applications as well as the future challenges in vsiRNAs research. PMID:26617580

  17. New and emerging roles of small RNAs in neurodegeneration, muscle, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Li, Bei; Kyburz, Diego; Krützfeld, Jan; Landmesser, Ulf; Aguzzi, Adriano; Polymenidou, Magdalini

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs (snRNAs) were discovered more than two decades ago, yet it was not until relatively recently that their important role in genome regulation was recognised. With such a substantial role in genome regulation, it is not surprising that snRNAs are crucial contributors to an ever-increasing number of diseases, as evidenced by the long list of published studies. Currently, microRNAs (miRNAs) represent the most intensively studied snRNAs. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been confirmed in numerous diseases, and changes in their levels could play an essential role in disease onset and progression and could be used for prognosis and potential therapy. Indeed, disease-altered miRNAs may either signify a direct trigger or a consequence of the disease. Therefore, miRNAs represent unique targets for disease intervention through their down- or up-regulation. Importantly, miRNAs may facilitate disease monitoring by detection of disease-altered miRNAs in easily accessible bodily fluids, such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, study of these events is of utmost importance for understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive disease, as well as for diagnosis and therapy. Here we attempted to synthesise a large number of studies to highlight the crucial role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, muscle, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

  18. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL) ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt) long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases. PMID:21864377

  19. Small RNAs: the qualified candidates for gene manipulation in diverse clinical pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Rishi, Parveen; Puri, Sanjeev; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has become a tool of choice to analyze and target the in vitro and in vivo function of mammalian genes. RNAi down-regulates gene expression by inducing enzyme-dependent degradation of targeted mRNA. This can be achieved using small double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), micro RNAs, and piwi RNAs. These active, small dsRNAs can regulate endogenous genes in both somatic and germ cells such that they can defend the genome from invasive nucleic acids. Extension of the concept of RNAi to preclinical studies indicates its probable application in the treatment of cancers, viral infections, arterial stenosis, and genetic disorders. Exciting results from ongoing clinical trials have raised the expectations of the scientific community for the use of RNAi in "real cures". Rational pharmaceutical design of these molecules can further open a Pandora's box of newer therapeutic options. However, efficient delivery of these small dsRNAs to target tissues or cells and their unanticipated nonspecific effects comprise a few important issues that still need to be addressed. In this review, we offer an overview of different small dsRNAs, their biogenesis, and their applicability in therapeutics. Current delivery strategies and formulation techniques to achieve the desired transfection capability and RNAi products in clinical trials are also discussed.

  20. Identification of associations between small molecule drugs and miRNAs based on functional similarity

    PubMed Central

    Dai, EnYu; Yang, Feng; Wang, Shuyuan; Chen, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yuwen; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Increasing evidences show aberrant expression of miRNAs in varieties of diseases. Targeting the dysregulated miRNAs with small molecule drugs has become a novel therapy for many human diseases, especially cancer. Here, we proposed a novel computational approach to identify associations between small molecules and miRNAs based on functional similarity of differentially expressed genes. At the significance level of p < 0.01, we constructed the small molecule and miRNA functional similarity network involving 111 small molecules and 20 miRNAs. Moreover, we also predicted associations between drugs and diseases through integrating our identified small molecule-miRNA associations with experimentally validated disease related miRNAs. As a result, we identified 2265 associations between FDA approved drugs and diseases, in which ~35% associations have been validated by comprehensive literature reviews. For breast cancer, we identified 19 potential drugs, in which 12 drugs were supported by previous studies. In addition, we performed survival analysis for the patients from TCGA and GEO database, which indicated that the associated miRNAs of 4 drugs might be good prognosis markers in breast cancer. Collectively, this study proposed a novel approach to predict small molecule and miRNA associations based on functional similarity, which may pave a new way for miRNA-targeted therapy and drug repositioning. PMID:27232942

  1. Small regulatory RNAs from low-GC Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brantl, Sabine; Brückner, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that act by base-pairing were first discovered in so-called accessory DNA elements—plasmids, phages, and transposons—where they control replication, maintenance, and transposition. Since 2001, a huge body of work has been performed to predict and identify sRNAs in a multitude of bacterial genomes. The majority of chromosome-encoded sRNAs have been investigated in E. coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. However, during the past five years an increasing number of sRNAs were found in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we outline our current knowledge on chromosome-encoded sRNAs from low-GC Gram-positive species that act by base-pairing, i.e., an antisense mechanism. We will focus on sRNAs with known targets and defined regulatory mechanisms with special emphasis on Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24576839

  2. Using machine learning and high-throughput RNA sequencing to classify the precursors of small non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ryvkin, Paul; Leung, Yuk Yee; Ungar, Lyle H; Gregory, Brian D; Wang, Li-San

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing allow researchers to examine the transcriptome in more detail than ever before. Using a method known as high-throughput small RNA-sequencing, we can now profile the expression of small regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with a great deal of sensitivity. However, there are many other types of small RNAs (<50nt) present in the cell, including fragments derived from snoRNAs (small nucleolar RNAs), snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs), scRNAs (small cytoplasmic RNAs), tRNAs (transfer RNAs), and transposon-derived RNAs. Here, we present a user's guide for CoRAL (Classification of RNAs by Analysis of Length), a computational method for discriminating between different classes of RNA using high-throughput small RNA-sequencing data. Not only can CoRAL distinguish between RNA classes with high accuracy, but it also uses features that are relevant to small RNA biogenesis pathways. By doing so, CoRAL can give biologists a glimpse into the characteristics of different RNA processing pathways and how these might differ between tissue types, biological conditions, or even different species. CoRAL is available at http://wanglab.pcbi.upenn.edu/coral/.

  3. Transcriptome of Small Regulatory RNAs in the Development of the Zoonotic Parasite Trichinella spiralis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bin; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Peng, Shuai; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Jigang; Liu, Mingyuan; Chen, Qijun

    2011-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis is a parasite with unique features. It is a multicellular organism but with an intracellular parasitization and development stage. T. spiralis is the helminthic pathogen that causes zoonotic trichinellosis and afflicts more than 10 million people worldwide, whereas the parasite's biology, especially the developmental regulation is largely unknown. In other organisms, small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNA) execute post-transcriptional regulation by translational repression or mRNA degradation, and a large number of miRNAs have been identified in diverse species. In T. spiralis, the profile of small non-coding RNAs and their function remains poorly understood. Methodology and Principal Findings Here, the transcriptional profiles of miRNA and siRNA in three developmental stages of T. spiralis in the rat host were investigated, and compared by high-throughput cDNA sequencing technique (“RNA-seq”). 5,443,641 unique sequence tags were obtained. Of these, 21 represented conserved miRNAs related to 13 previously identified metazoan miRNA families and 213 were novel miRNAs so far unique to T. spiralis. Some of these miRNAs exhibited stage-specific expression. Expression of miRNAs was confirmed in three stages of the life cycle by qRT-PCR and northern blot analysis. In addition, endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) were found mainly derived from natural antisense transcripts (NAT) and transposable elements (TE) in the parasite. Conclusions and Significance We provide evidence for the presence of miRNAs and endo-siRNAs in T. spiralis. The miRNAs accounted for the major proportion of the small regulatory RNA population of T. spiralis, while fewer endogenous siRNAs were found. The finding of stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs in different developmental stages of T. spiralis suggests that miRNAs may play important roles in parasite development. Our data provide a basis for further

  4. Profiling of Small Nucleolar RNAs by Next Generation Sequencing: Potential New Players for Breast Cancer Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Preethi; Ghosh, Sunita; Wang, Bo; Heyns, Mieke; Graham, Kathryn; Mackey, John R.; Kovalchuk, Olga; Damaraju, Sambasivarao

    2016-01-01

    One of the most abundant, yet least explored, classes of RNA is the small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which are well known for their involvement in post-transcriptional modifications of other RNAs. Although snoRNAs were only considered to perform housekeeping functions for a long time, recent studies have highlighted their importance as regulators of gene expression and as diagnostic/prognostic markers. However, the prognostic potential of these RNAs has not been interrogated for breast cancer (BC). The objective of the current study was to identify snoRNAs as prognostic markers for BC. Small RNA sequencing (Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx) was performed for 104 BC cases and 11 normal breast tissues. Partek Genomics Suite was used for analyzing the sequencing files. Two independent and proven approaches were used to identify prognostic markers: case-control (CC) and case-only (CO). For both approaches, snoRNAs significant in the permutation test, following univariate Cox proportional hazards regression model were used for constructing risk scores. Risk scores were subsequently adjusted for potential confounders in a multivariate Cox model. For both approaches, thirteen snoRNAs were associated with overall survival and/or recurrence free survival. Patients belonging to the high-risk group were associated with poor outcomes, and the risk score was significant after adjusting for confounders. Validation of representative snoRNAs (SNORD46 and SNORD89) using qRT-PCR confirmed the observations from sequencing experiments. We also observed 64 snoRNAs harboring piwi-interacting RNAs and/or microRNAs that were predicted to target genes (mRNAs) involved in tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate the potential of snoRNAs to serve (i) as novel prognostic markers for BC and (ii) as indirect regulators of gene expression. PMID:27631501

  5. Isolation of small interfering RNAs using viral suppressors of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    van den Beek, Marius; Antoniewski, Christophe; Carré, Clément

    2014-01-01

    The tombusvirus P19 VSR (viral suppressor of RNA interference) binds siRNAs with high affinity, whereas the Flockhouse Virus (FHV) B2 VSR binds both long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Both VSRs are small proteins and function in plant and animal cells. Fusing a Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) to the N-terminus shifts the localization of the VSR from cytoplasmic to nuclear, allowing researchers to specifically probe the subcellular distribution of siRNAs, and to investigate the function of nuclear and cytoplasmic siRNAs. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for the immunoprecipitation of siRNAs bound to epitope-tagged VSR and subsequent analysis by 3'-end-labeling using cytidine-3',5'-bis phosphate ([5'-(32)P]pCp) and northern blotting.

  6. A small nucleolar RNP protein is required for pseudouridylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Henry, Y; G'elugne, J P; Caizergues-Ferrer, M; Kiss, T

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic rRNAs possess numerous post-transcriptionally modified nucleotides. The most abundant modifications, 2'-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation, occur in the nucleolus during rRNA processing. The nucleolus contains a large number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) most of which can be classified into two distinct families defined by conserved sequence boxes and common associated proteins. The C and D box-containing snoRNAs are associated with fibrillarin, and most of them function as guide RNAs in site-specific ribose methylation of rRNAs. The nucleolar function of the other class of snoRNAs, which share box H and ACA elements and are associated with a glycine- and arginine-rich nucleolar protein, Gar1p, remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gar1 snoRNP protein plays an essential and specific role in the overall pseudouridylation of yeast rRNAs. These results establish a novel function for Gar1 protein and indicate that the box H/ACA snoRNAs, or at least a subset of these snoRNAs, function in the site-specific pseudouridylation of rRNAs. PMID:9303321

  7. Sibling rivalry: related bacterial small RNAs and their redundant and non-redundant roles

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Clayton C.; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G.; Murphy, Erin R.

    2014-01-01

    Small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are now recognized as key regulators controlling bacterial gene expression, as sRNAs provide a quick and efficient means of positively or negatively altering the expression of specific genes. To date, numerous sRNAs have been identified and characterized in a myriad of bacterial species, but more recently, a theme in bacterial sRNAs has emerged: the presence of more than one highly related sRNAs produced by a given bacterium, here termed sibling sRNAs. Sibling sRNAs are those that are highly similar at the nucleotide level, and while it might be expected that sibling sRNAs exert identical regulatory functions on the expression of target genes based on their high degree of relatedness, emerging evidence is demonstrating that this is not always the case. Indeed, there are several examples of bacterial sibling sRNAs with non-redundant regulatory functions, but there are also instances of apparent regulatory redundancy between sibling sRNAs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of bacterial sibling sRNAs, and also discusses important questions about the significance and evolutionary implications of this emerging class of regulators. PMID:25389522

  8. Novel Small Noncoding RNAs in Mouse Spermatozoa, Zygotes and Early Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Mitsuoki; Kawaji, Hideya; Grandjean, Valérie; Kiani, Jafar; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a significant amount of RNA in spermatozoa contradicted the previously held belief that paternal contribution was limited to one copy of the genome. Furthermore, detection of RNA in sperm raised the intriguing question of its possible role in embryonic development. The possibility that RNAs may serve as epigenetic determinants was supported by experiments showing inheritance of epigenetic traits in mice mediated by RNA. We used high-throughput, large-scale sequencing technology to analyze sperm RNA. The RNA sequences generated were diverse in terms of length and included mRNAs, rRNAs, piRNAs, and miRNAs. We studied two small noncoding RNAs enriched in mature sperm, designated sperm RNAs (spR) −12 and −13. They are both encoded in a piRNA locus on chromosome 17, but neither their length (20–21 nt), nor their sequences correspond to known piRNAs or miRNAs. They are resistant to periodate-oxidation-mediated reaction, implying that they undergo terminal post-transcriptional modification. Both were detected in sperm and ovulated unfertilized oocytes, present in one-cell embryos and maintained in preimplantation stages, but not at later differentiation stages. These findings offer a new perspective regarding a possibly important role for gamete-specific small RNAs in early embryogenesis. PMID:22984523

  9. Novel small noncoding RNAs in mouse spermatozoa, zygotes and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Mitsuoki; Kawaji, Hideya; Grandjean, Valérie; Kiani, Jafar; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a significant amount of RNA in spermatozoa contradicted the previously held belief that paternal contribution was limited to one copy of the genome. Furthermore, detection of RNA in sperm raised the intriguing question of its possible role in embryonic development. The possibility that RNAs may serve as epigenetic determinants was supported by experiments showing inheritance of epigenetic traits in mice mediated by RNA. We used high-throughput, large-scale sequencing technology to analyze sperm RNA. The RNA sequences generated were diverse in terms of length and included mRNAs, rRNAs, piRNAs, and miRNAs. We studied two small noncoding RNAs enriched in mature sperm, designated sperm RNAs (spR) -12 and -13. They are both encoded in a piRNA locus on chromosome 17, but neither their length (20-21 nt), nor their sequences correspond to known piRNAs or miRNAs. They are resistant to periodate-oxidation-mediated reaction, implying that they undergo terminal post-transcriptional modification. Both were detected in sperm and ovulated unfertilized oocytes, present in one-cell embryos and maintained in preimplantation stages, but not at later differentiation stages. These findings offer a new perspective regarding a possibly important role for gamete-specific small RNAs in early embryogenesis.

  10. Introduction: MicroRNAs in human reproduction: small molecules with crucial regulatory roles.

    PubMed

    Imbar, Tal; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio; Laufer, Neri

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. In this issue's Views and Reviews, the authors present the current knowledge regarding the involvement of microRNAs in several aspects of human reproduction and discuss its future implications for clinical practice.

  11. Riding in silence: a little snowboarding, a lot of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The recent symposium, RNA silencing: Mechanism, Biology and Applications, organized by Phillip D. Zamore (University of Massachusetts Medical School) and Beverly Davidson (University of Iowa), and held in Keystone, Colorado, brought together scientists working on diverse aspects of RNA silencing, a field that comprises a multitude of gene regulatory pathways guided by microRNAs, small interfering RNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs. PMID:20230614

  12. Small non-coding RNAs in plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, Ulrike; Schmidtke, Cornelius; Bonas, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The genus Xanthomonas comprises a large group of plant-pathogenic bacteria. The infection and bacterial multiplication in the plant tissue depends on the type III secretion system and other virulence determinants. Recent studies revealed that bacterial virulence is also controlled at the post-transcriptional level by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). In this review, we highlight our current knowledge about sRNAs and RNA-binding proteins in Xanthomonas species.

  13. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses as potential vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Campillo-Pedroza, Natalia; Almazán, Fernando; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C

    2013-06-07

    Viral vectors have become the best option for the delivery of therapeutic genes in conventional and RNA interference-based gene therapies. The current viral vectors for the delivery of small regulatory RNAs are based on DNA viruses and retroviruses/lentiviruses. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses have been excluded as viral vectors for RNAi therapy because of the nuclear localization of the microprocessor complex and the potential degradation of the viral RNA genome during the excision of any virus-encoded pre-microRNAs. However, in the last few years, the presence of several species of small RNAs (e.g., virus-derived small interfering RNAs, virus-derived short RNAs, and unusually small RNAs) in animals and cell cultures that are infected with cytoplasmic RNA viruses has suggested the existence of a non-canonical mechanism of microRNA biogenesis. Several studies have been conducted on the tick-borne encephalitis virus and on the Sindbis virus in which microRNA precursors were artificially incorporated and demonstrated the production of mature microRNAs. The ability of these viruses to recruit Drosha to the cytoplasm during infection resulted in the efficient processing of virus-encoded microRNA without the viral genome entering the nucleus. In this review, we discuss the relevance of these findings with an emphasis on the potential use of cytoplasmic RNA viruses as vehicles for the efficient delivery of therapeutic small RNAs.

  14. Novel long non-protein coding RNAs involved in Arabidopsis differentiation and stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Ben Amor, Besma; Wirth, Sonia; Merchan, Francisco; Laporte, Philippe; d’Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Hirsch, Judith; Maizel, Alexis; Mallory, Allison; Lucas, Antoine; Deragon, Jean Marc; Vaucheret, Herve; Thermes, Claude; Crespi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Long non-protein coding RNAs (npcRNA) represent an emerging class of riboregulators, which either act directly in this long form or are processed to shorter miRNA and siRNA. Genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of full-length cDNA databases identified 76 Arabidopsis npcRNAs. Fourteen npcRNAs were antisense to protein-coding mRNAs, suggesting cis-regulatory roles. Numerous 24-nt siRNA matched to five different npcRNAs, suggesting that these npcRNAs are precursors of this type of siRNA. Expression analyses of the 76 npcRNAs identified a novel npcRNA that accumulates in a dcl1 mutant but does not appear to produce trans-acting siRNA or miRNA. Additionally, another npcRNA was the precursor of miR869 and shown to be up-regulated in dcl4 but not in dcl1 mutants, indicative of a young miRNA gene. Abiotic stress altered the accumulation of 22 npcRNAs among the 76, a fraction significantly higher than that observed for the RNA binding protein-coding fraction of the transcriptome. Overexpression analyses in Arabidopsis identified two npcRNAs as regulators of root growth during salt stress and leaf morphology, respectively. Hence, together with small RNAs, long npcRNAs encompass a sensitive component of the transcriptome that have diverse roles during growth and differentiation. PMID:18997003

  15. A Comprehensive Expression Profile of MicroRNAs and Other Classes of Non-Coding Small RNAs in Barley Under Phosphorous-Deficient and -Sufficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Michael; Huang, Po-Jung; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Shi, Bu-Jun; Gustafson, Perry; Langridge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in phosphate homeostasis. However, little is known about P effect on miRNA expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In this study, we used Illumina's next-generation sequencing technology to sequence small RNAs (sRNAs) in barley grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. We identified 221 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs, of which 55 were only present in P-deficient treatment while 32 only existed in P-sufficient treatment. Total 47 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between the two P treatments (|log2| > 1). We also identified many other classes of sRNAs, including sense and antisense sRNAs, repeat-associated sRNAs, transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived sRNAs and chloroplast-derived sRNAs, and some of which were also significantly differentially expressed between the two P treatments. Of all the sRNAs identified, antisense sRNAs were the most abundant sRNA class in both P treatments. Surprisingly, about one-fourth of sRNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome, and a chloroplast-encoded tRNA-derived sRNA was the most abundant sRNA of all the sRNAs sequenced. Our data provide valuable clues for understanding the properties of sRNAs and new insights into the potential roles of miRNAs and other classes of sRNAs in the control of phosphate homeostasis. PMID:23266877

  16. Both endo-siRNAs and tRNA-derived small RNAs are involved in the differentiation of primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jian-You; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Yan; Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Zhou, Hui; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J.; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of Giardia when GLDICER, essential for the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, was knocked down. Endo-siRNAs are not the only sRNA regulators in Giardia differentiation, because a great number of tRNAs-derived sRNAs showed more dramatic expression changes than endo-siRNAs in this process. We totally identified five novel kinds of tRNAs-derived sRNAs and found that the biogenesis in four of them might be correlated with that of stress-induced tRNA-derived RNA (sitRNA), which was discovered in our previous studies. Our studies reveal an unexpected complex panorama of sRNA in G. lamblia and shed light on the origin and functional evolution of eukaryotic sRNAs. PMID:25225396

  17. Both endo-siRNAs and tRNA-derived small RNAs are involved in the differentiation of primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jian-You; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Yan; Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Zhou, Hui; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2014-09-30

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of Giardia when GLDICER, essential for the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, was knocked down. Endo-siRNAs are not the only sRNA regulators in Giardia differentiation, because a great number of tRNAs-derived sRNAs showed more dramatic expression changes than endo-siRNAs in this process. We totally identified five novel kinds of tRNAs-derived sRNAs and found that the biogenesis in four of them might be correlated with that of stress-induced tRNA-derived RNA (sitRNA), which was discovered in our previous studies. Our studies reveal an unexpected complex panorama of sRNA in G. lamblia and shed light on the origin and functional evolution of eukaryotic sRNAs.

  18. Global small RNA chaperone Hfq and regulatory small RNAs are important virulence regulators in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quan; McNally, R Ryan; Sundin, George W

    2013-04-01

    Hfq is a global small RNA (sRNA) chaperone that interacts with Hfq-regulated sRNAs and functions in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this work, we identified Hfq to be a virulence regulator in the Gram-negative fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Deletion of hfq in E. amylovora Ea1189 significantly reduced bacterial virulence in both immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Analysis of virulence determinants in strain Ea1189Δhfq showed that Hfq exerts pleiotropic regulation of amylovoran exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, and the type III secretion system (T3SS). Further characterization of biofilm regulation by Hfq demonstrated that Hfq limits bacterial attachment to solid surfaces while promoting biofilm maturation. Characterization of T3SS regulation by Hfq revealed that Hfq positively regulates the translocation and secretion of the major type III effector DspE and negatively controls the secretion of the putative translocator HrpK and the type III effector Eop1. Lastly, 10 Hfq-regulated sRNAs were identified using a computational method, and two of these sRNAs, RprA and RyhA, were found to be required for the full virulence of E. amylovora.

  19. Identification of MicroRNA-like small RNAs from fungus parasite Nosema ceranae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously found transcripts encoding Dicer and Argonaute in the honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae. Since these proteins are involved in the production of regulatory microRNAs we carried out controlled infections and genetic screens in order to identify microRNAs in Nosema . We sequenced small R...

  20. Tailor: a computational framework for detecting non-templated tailing of small silencing RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chou, Min-Te; Han, Bo W; Hsiao, Chiung-Po; Zamore, Phillip D; Weng, Zhiping; Hung, Jui-Hung

    2015-09-30

    Small silencing RNAs, including microRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), have been shown to play important roles in fine-tuning gene expression, defending virus and controlling transposons. Loss of small silencing RNAs or components in their pathways often leads to severe developmental defects, including lethality and sterility. Recently, non-templated addition of nucleotides to the 3' end, namely tailing, was found to associate with the processing and stability of small silencing RNAs. Next Generation Sequencing has made it possible to detect such modifications at nucleotide resolution in an unprecedented throughput. Unfortunately, detecting such events from millions of short reads confounded by sequencing errors and RNA editing is still a tricky problem. Here, we developed a computational framework, Tailor, driven by an efficient and accurate aligner specifically designed for capturing the tailing events directly from the alignments without extensive post-processing. The performance of Tailor was fully tested and compared favorably with other general-purpose aligners using both simulated and real datasets for tailing analysis. Moreover, to show the broad utility of Tailor, we used Tailor to reanalyze published datasets and revealed novel findings worth further experimental validation. The source code and the executable binaries are freely available at https://github.com/jhhung/Tailor.

  1. Modulation of Gene Expression by Polymer Nanocapsule Delivery of DNA Cassettes Encoding Small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Wen, Jing; Liang, Min; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs, including siRNAs, gRNAs and miRNAs, modulate gene expression and serve as potential therapies for human diseases. Delivery to target cells remains the fundamental limitation for use of these RNAs in humans. To address this challenge, we have developed a nanocapsule delivery technology that encapsulates small DNA molecules encoding RNAs into a small (30 nm) polymer nanocapsule. For proof of concept, we transduced DNA expression cassettes for three small RNAs. In one application, the DNA cassette encodes an shRNA transcriptional unit that downregulates CCR5 and protects from HIV-1 infection. The DNA cassette nanocapsules were further engineered for timed release of the DNA cargo for prolonged knockdown of CCR5. Secondly, the nanocapsules provide an efficient means for delivery of gRNAs in the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate integrated HIV-1. Finally, delivery of microRNA-125b to mobilized human CD34+ cells enhances survival and expansion of the CD34+ cells in culture.

  2. The coilin interactome identifies hundreds of small noncoding RNAs that traffic through Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Machyna, Martin; Kehr, Stephanie; Straube, Korinna; Kappei, Dennis; Buchholz, Frank; Butter, Falk; Ule, Jernej; Hertel, Jana; Stadler, Peter F; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2014-11-06

    Coilin protein scaffolds Cajal bodies (CBs)-subnuclear compartments enriched in small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)-and promotes efficient spliceosomal snRNP assembly. The molecular function of coilin, which is intrinsically disordered with no defined motifs, is poorly understood. We use UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) to determine whether mammalian coilin binds RNA in vivo and to identify targets. Robust detection of snRNA transcripts correlated with coilin ChIP-seq peaks on snRNA genes, indicating that coilin binding to nascent snRNAs is a site-specific CB nucleator. Surprisingly, several hundred small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were identified as coilin interactors, including numerous unannotated mouse and human snoRNAs. We show that all classes of snoRNAs concentrate in CBs. Moreover, snoRNAs lacking specific CB retention signals traffic through CBs en route to nucleoli, consistent with the role of CBs in small RNP assembly. Thus, coilin couples snRNA and snoRNA biogenesis, making CBs the cellular hub of small ncRNA metabolism.

  3. Tailored enrichment strategy detects low abundant small noncoding RNAs in HIV-1 infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The various classes of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression across divergent types of organisms. While a rapidly increasing number of sncRNAs has been identified over recent years, the isolation of sncRNAs of low abundance remains challenging. Virally encoded sncRNAs, particularly those of RNA viruses, can be expressed at very low levels. This is best illustrated by HIV-1 where virus encoded sncRNAs represent approximately 0.1-1.0% of all sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected cells or were found to be undetected. Thus, we applied a novel, sequence targeted enrichment strategy to capture HIV-1 derived sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes and macrophages that allows a greater than 100-fold enrichment of low abundant sncRNAs. Results Eight hundred and ninety-two individual HIV-1 sncRNAs were cloned and sequenced from nine different sncRNA libraries derived from five independent experiments. These clones represent up to 90% of all sncRNA clones in the generated libraries. Two hundred and sixteen HIV-1 sncRNAs were distinguishable as unique clones. They are spread throughout the HIV-1 genome, however, forming certain clusters, and almost 10% show an antisense orientation. The length of HIV-1 sncRNAs varies between 16 and 89 nucleotides with an unexpected peak at 31 to 50 nucleotides, thus, longer than cellular microRNAs or short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Exemplary HIV-1 sncRNAs were also generated in cells infected with different primary HIV-1 isolates and can inhibit HIV-1 replication. Conclusions HIV-1 infected cells generate virally encoded sncRNAs, which might play a role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Furthermore, the enormous capacity to enrich low abundance sncRNAs in a sequence specific manner highly recommends our selection strategy for any type of investigation where origin or target sequences of the sought-after sncRNAs are known. PMID:22458358

  4. Conservation and divergence of small RNA pathways and microRNAs in land plants.

    PubMed

    You, Chenjiang; Cui, Jie; Wang, Hui; Qi, Xinping; Kuo, Li-Yaung; Ma, Hong; Gao, Lei; Mo, Beixin; Chen, Xuemei

    2017-08-23

    As key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes, small RNAs have been characterized in many seed plants, and pathways for their biogenesis, degradation, and action have been defined in model angiosperms. However, both small RNAs themselves and small RNA pathways are not well characterized in other land plants such as lycophytes and ferns, preventing a comprehensive evolutionary perspective on small RNAs in land plants. Using 25 representatives from major lineages of lycophytes and ferns, most of which lack sequenced genomes, we characterized small RNAs and small RNA pathways in these plants. We identified homologs of DICER-LIKE (DCL), ARGONAUTE (AGO), and other genes involved in small RNA pathways, predicted over 2600 conserved microRNA (miRNA) candidates, and performed phylogenetic analyses on small RNA pathways as well as miRNAs. Pathways underlying miRNA biogenesis, degradation, and activity were established in the common ancestor of land plants, but the 24-nucleotide siRNA pathway that guides DNA methylation is incomplete in sister species of seed plants, especially lycophytes. We show that the functional diversification of key gene families such as DCL and AGO as observed in angiosperms occurred early in land plants followed by parallel expansion of the AGO family in ferns and angiosperms. We uncovered a conserved AGO subfamily absent in angiosperms. Our phylogenetic analyses of miRNAs in bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns, and angiosperms refine the time-of-origin for conserved miRNA families as well as small RNA machinery in land plants.

  5. A simple and efficient method for isolating small RNAs from different plant species

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Small RNAs emerged over the last decade as key regulators in diverse biological processes in eukaryotic organisms. To identify and study small RNAs, good and efficient protocols are necessary to isolate them, which sometimes may be challenging due to the composition of specific tissues of certain plant species. Here we describe a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species. Results We developed a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species by first comparing different total RNA extraction protocols, followed by streamlining the best one, finally resulting in a small RNA extraction method that has no need of first total RNA extraction and is not based on the commercially available TRIzol® Reagent or columns. This small RNA extraction method not only works well for plant tissues with high polysaccharide content, like cactus, agave, banana, and tomato, but also for plant species like Arabidopsis or tobacco. Furthermore, the obtained small RNA samples were successfully used in northern blot assays. Conclusion Here we provide a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species, such as cactus, agave, banana, tomato, Arabidopsis, and tobacco, and the small RNAs from this simplified and low cost method is suitable for downstream handling like northern blot assays. PMID:21349188

  6. Expression of microRNAs and other small RNAs in prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depressed subjects.

    PubMed

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Lugli, Giovanni; Zhang, Hui; Rizavi, Hooriyah; Cook, Edwin H; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Because of the role played by miRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation of an array of genes, their impact in neuropsychiatric disease pathophysiology has increasingly been evident. In the present study, we assessed microRNA expression in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10) of a well-characterized cohort of major depressed, bipolar, and schizophrenia subjects (obtained from Stanley Neuropathology Consortium; n = 15 in each group), using high throughput RT-PCR plates. Discrete miRNA alterations were observed in all disorders, as well as in suicide subjects (pooled across diagnostic categories) compared to all non-suicide subjects. The changes in the schizophrenia group were partially similar to those in the bipolar group, but distinct from changes in depression and suicide. Intriguingly, those miRNAs which were down-regulated in the schizophrenia group tended to be synaptically enriched, whereas up-regulated miRNAs tended not to be. To follow this up, we purified synaptosomes from pooled samples of the schizophrenia vs. control groups and subjected them to Illumina deep sequencing. There was a significant loss of small RNA expression in schizophrenia synaptosomes only for certain sequence lengths within the miRNA range. Moreover, 73 miRNAs were significantly down-regulated whereas only one was up-regulated. Strikingly, across all expressed miRNAs in synaptosomes, there was a significant inverse correlation between the fold-change of a given miRNA seen in schizophrenia and its synaptic enrichment ratio observed in controls. Thus, synaptic miRNAs tended to be down-regulated in schizophrenia, and the more highly synaptically enriched miRNAs tended to show greater down-regulation. These findings point to some deficit in miRNA biogenesis, transport, processing or turnover in schizophrenia that is selective for the synaptic compartment. A novel class of ncRNA-derived small RNAs, shown to be strongly induced during an early phase of learning in mouse, is also

  7. High-throughput sequencing of small RNAs and anatomical characteristics associated with leaf development in celery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Ling; Li, Meng-Yao; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-06-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit diverse and important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses and regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Knowledge about the diversity of miRNAs and their roles in leaf development in celery remains unknown. To elucidate the roles of miRNAs in celery leaf development, we identified leaf development-related miRNAs through high-throughput sequencing. Small RNA libraries were constructed using leaves from three stages (10, 20, and 30 cm) of celery cv.'Ventura' and then subjected to high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. At Stage 1, Stage 2, and Stage 3 of 'Ventura', a total of 333, 329, and 344 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 35, 35, and 32 families, respectively) were identified. A total of 131 miRNAs were identified as novel in 'Ventura'. Potential miRNA target genes were predicted and annotated using the eggNOG, GO, and KEGG databases to explore gene functions. The abundance of five conserved miRNAs and their corresponding potential target genes were validated. Expression profiles of novel potential miRNAs were also detected. Anatomical characteristics of the leaf blades and petioles at three leaf stages were further analyzed. This study contributes to our understanding on the functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in celery leaf development.

  8. Therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs/micro interfering RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara

    2015-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective, especially for the advanced forms of the disease. In the last year, short double stranded RNA molecules termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro interfering RNAs (miRNA), emerged as interesting molecules with potential therapeutic value for HCC. The practical use of these molecules is however limited by the identification of optimal molecular targets and especially by the lack of effective and targeted HCC delivery systems. Here we focus our discussion on the most recent advances in the identification of siRNAs/miRNAs molecular targets and on the development of suitable siRNA/miRNAs delivery systems.

  9. Retinal expression of small non-coding RNAs in a murine model of proliferative retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Wang, Zhongxiao; Sun, Ye; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization is a leading cause of blindness in proliferative retinopathy. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play critical roles in both vascular and neuronal development of the retina through post-transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. To identify the function and therapeutic potential of sncRNAs in retinopathy, we assessed the expression profile of retinal sncRNAs in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) with pathologic proliferation of neovessels. Approximately 2% of all analyzed sncRNAs were significantly altered in OIR retinas compared with normoxic controls. Twenty three microRNAs with substantial up- or down-regulation were identified, including miR-351, -762, -210, 145, -155, -129-5p, -150, -203, and -375, which were further analyzed for their potential target genes in angiogenic, hypoxic, and immune response-related pathways. In addition, nineteen small nucleolar RNAs also revealed differential expression in OIR retinas compared with control retinas. A decrease of overall microRNA expression in OIR retinas was consistent with reduced microRNA processing enzyme Dicer, and increased expression of Alu element in OIR. Together, our findings elucidated a group of differentially expressed sncRNAs in a murine model of proliferative retinopathy. These sncRNAs may exert critical post-transcriptional regulatory roles in regulating pathological neovascularization in eye diseases. PMID:27653551

  10. Rapid and selective extraction, isolation, preconcentration, and quantitation of small RNAs from cell lysate using on-chip isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Reto B; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-08-07

    We present a technique which enables the separation of small RNAs-such as microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs)-from >or=66 nucleotide RNAs and other biomolecules contained in a cell lysate. In particular, the method achieves separation of small RNAs from precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) in less than 3 min. We use on-chip isotachophoresis (ITP) for the simultaneous extraction, isolation, preconcentration and quantitation of small RNAs (approximately 22 nucleotides) and employ the high-efficiency sieving matrix Pluronic F-127; a thermo-responsive triblock copolymer which allows convenient microchannel loading at low temperature. We present the isolation of small RNAs from the lysate of 293A human kidney cells, and quantitate the number of short RNA molecules per cell to be 2.9x10(7). We estimate this quantity is an aggregate of roughly 500 types of short RNA molecules per 293A cell. Currently, the minimal cell number for small RNA extraction and detection with our method is approximately 900 (from a 5 microL sample volume), and we believe that small RNA analysis from tens of cells is realizable. Techniques for rapid and sensitive extraction and isolation of small RNAs from cell lysate are much-needed to further uncover their full range and functionality, including RNA interference studies.

  11. Genetic analysis of small nuclear RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: viable sextuple mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, R; Simmons, T; Shuster, E O; Siliciano, P G; Guthrie, C

    1988-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains at least 24 distinct small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), several of which are known to be essential for viability and to participate in the splicing of pre-mRNAs; the RNAs in this subset contain binding sites for the Sm antigen, a hallmark of metazoan snRNAs involved in mRNA processing. In contrast, we showed previously that the single-copy genes for three other snRNAs (snR3, snR4, and snR10) are not required for viability, although cells lacking snR10 are growth impaired at low temperature. None of these RNAs associates with the Sm antigen. To assess this apparent correlation, we cloned and sequenced the genes encoding three additional non-Sm snRNAs. Comparison of these genes with nine additional yeast snRNA genes revealed a highly conserved TATA box located 92 +/- 8 nucleotides 5' of the transcriptional start site. By using the technique of gene replacement with null alleles, each of these three single copy genes was shown to be completely dispensable. We constructed multiple mutants to test the hypothesis that, individually, each of these snRNAs is nonessential because the snRNAs play functionally overlapping roles. A mutant lacking five snRNAs (snR3, snR4, snR5, snR8, snR9) was indistinguishable from the wild type, and growth of the sextuple mutant was no more impaired than that in strains lacking only snR10. This widespread dispensability of snRNAs was completely unexpected and forces us to reconsider the possible roles of these ubiquitous RNAs. Images PMID:2905424

  12. Methodologies for In Vitro Cloning of Small RNAs and Application for Plant Genome(s)

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Eric J.; Huang, Lingyan; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.

    2009-01-01

    The “RNA revolution” that started at the end of the 20th century with the discovery of post-transcriptional gene silencing and its mechanism via RNA interference (RNAi) placed tiny 21-24 nucleotide long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the forefront of biology as one of the most important regulatory elements in a host of physiologic processes. The discovery of new classes of ncRNAs including endogenous small interfering RNAs, microRNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs is a hallmark in the understanding of RNA-dependent gene regulation. New generation high-throughput sequencing technologies further accelerated the studies of this “tiny world” and provided their global characterization and validation in many biological systems with sequenced genomes. Nevertheless, for the many “yet-unsequenced” plant genomes, the discovery of small RNA world requires in vitro cloning from purified cellular RNAs. Thus, reproducible methods for in vitro small RNA cloning are of paramount importance and will remain so into the foreseeable future. In this paper, we present a description of existing small RNA cloning methods as well as next-generation sequencing methods that have accelerated this research along with a description of the application of one in vitro cloning method in an initial small RNA survey in the “still unsequenced” allotetraploid cotton genome. PMID:19551152

  13. Methodologies for in vitro cloning of small RNAs and application for plant genome(s).

    PubMed

    Devor, Eric J; Huang, Lingyan; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2009-01-01

    The "RNA revolution" that started at the end of the 20th century with the discovery of post-transcriptional gene silencing and its mechanism via RNA interference (RNAi) placed tiny 21-24 nucleotide long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the forefront of biology as one of the most important regulatory elements in a host of physiologic processes. The discovery of new classes of ncRNAs including endogenous small interfering RNAs, microRNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs is a hallmark in the understanding of RNA-dependent gene regulation. New generation high-throughput sequencing technologies further accelerated the studies of this "tiny world" and provided their global characterization and validation in many biological systems with sequenced genomes. Nevertheless, for the many "yet-unsequenced" plant genomes, the discovery of small RNA world requires in vitro cloning from purified cellular RNAs. Thus, reproducible methods for in vitro small RNA cloning are of paramount importance and will remain so into the foreseeable future. In this paper, we present a description of existing small RNA cloning methods as well as next-generation sequencing methods that have accelerated this research along with a description of the application of one in vitro cloning method in an initial small RNA survey in the "still unsequenced" allotetraploid cotton genome.

  14. The Complexity of Posttranscriptional Small RNA Regulatory Networks Revealed by In Silico Analysis of Gossypium arboreum L. Leaf, Flower and Boll Small Regulatory RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongtao; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Singh, Narendra K.; Weaver, David B.; Goertzen, Leslie R.; Singh, Shree R.; Locy, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and secondary small interfering RNAs (principally phased siRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs) are two distinct subfamilies of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are emerging as key regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression in plants. Both miRNAs and secondary-siRNAs (sec-siRNAs) are processed from longer RNA precursors by DICER-LIKE proteins (DCLs). Gossypium arboreum L., also known as tree cotton or Asian cotton, is a diploid, possibly ancestral relative of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., the predominant type of commercially grown cotton worldwide known as upland cotton. To understand the biological significance of these gene regulators in G. arboreum, a bioinformatics analysis was performed on G. arboreum small RNAs produced from G. arboreum leaf, flower, and boll tissues. Consequently, 263 miRNAs derived from 353 precursors, including 155 conserved miRNAs (cs-miRNAs) and 108 novel lineage-specific miRNAs (ls-miRNAs). Along with miRNAs, 2,033 miRNA variants (isomiRNAs) were identified as well. Those isomiRNAs with variation at the 3’-miRNA end were expressed at the highest levels, compared to other types of variants. In addition, 755 pha-siRNAs derived 319 pha-siRNA gene transcripts (PGTs) were identified, and the potential pha-siRNA initiators were predicted. Also, 2,251 non-phased siRNAs were found as well, of which 1,088 appeared to be produced by so-called cis- or trans-cleavage of the PGTs observed at positions differing from pha-siRNAs. Of those sRNAs, 148 miRNAs/isomiRNAs and 274 phased/non-phased siRNAs were differentially expressed in one or more pairs of tissues examined. Target analysis revealed that target genes for both miRNAs and pha-siRNAs are involved a broad range of metabolic and enzymatic activities. We demonstrate that secondary siRNA production could result from initial cleavage of precursors by both miRNAs or isomiRNAs, and that subsequently produced phased and unphased siRNAs could result that also serve as triggers of a

  15. Small and Smaller—sRNAs and MicroRNAs in the Regulation of Toxin Gene Expression in Prokaryotic Cells: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Sylwia; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified in the wide range of bacteria (also pathogenic species) and found to play an important role in the regulation of many processes, including toxin gene expression. The best characterized prokaryotic sRNAs regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets and fall into two broad classes: cis-encoded sRNAs (also called antisense RNA) and trans-acting sRNAs. Molecules from the second class are frequently considered as the most related to eukaryotic microRNAs. Interestingly, typical microRNA-size RNA molecules have also been reported in prokaryotic cells, although they have received little attention up to now. In this work we have collected information about all three types of small prokaryotic RNAs in the context of the regulation of toxin gene expression. PMID:28556797

  16. Small and Smaller-sRNAs and MicroRNAs in the Regulation of Toxin Gene Expression in Prokaryotic Cells: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Sylwia; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena

    2017-05-30

    Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified in the wide range of bacteria (also pathogenic species) and found to play an important role in the regulation of many processes, including toxin gene expression. The best characterized prokaryotic sRNAs regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets and fall into two broad classes: cis-encoded sRNAs (also called antisense RNA) and trans-acting sRNAs. Molecules from the second class are frequently considered as the most related to eukaryotic microRNAs. Interestingly, typical microRNA-size RNA molecules have also been reported in prokaryotic cells, although they have received little attention up to now. In this work we have collected information about all three types of small prokaryotic RNAs in the context of the regulation of toxin gene expression.

  17. A big role for small RNAs in HDL homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Mireille; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins play a central role in systemic cholesterol homeostasis by stimulating the efflux of excess cellular cholesterol and transporting it to the liver for biliary excretion. HDL has long been touted as the “good cholesterol” because of the strong inverse correlation of plasma HDL cholesterol levels with coronary heart disease. However, the disappointing outcomes of recent clinical trials involving therapeutic elevations of HDL cholesterol have called this moniker into question and revealed our lack of understanding of this complex lipoprotein. At the same time, the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate HDL biogenesis and function have led to a surge in our understanding of the posttranscriptional mechanisms regulating plasma levels of HDL. Furthermore, HDL has recently been shown to selectively transport miRNAs and thereby facilitate cellular communication by shuttling these potent gene regulators to distal tissues. Finally, that miRNA cargo carried by HDL may be altered during disease states further broadened our perspective of how this lipoprotein can have complex effects on target cells and tissues. The unraveling of how these tiny RNAs govern HDL metabolism and contribute to its actions promises to reveal new therapeutic strategies to optimize cardiovascular health. PMID:23509405

  18. RNomics: an experimental approach that identifies 201 candidates for novel, small, non-messenger RNAs in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Kiefmann, Martin; Meier-Ewert, Sebastian; O’Brien, John; Lehrach, Hans; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre; Brosius, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    In mouse brain cDNA libraries generated from small RNA molecules we have identified a total of 201 different expressed RNA sequences potentially encoding novel small non-messenger RNA species (snmRNAs). Based on sequence and structural motifs, 113 of these RNAs can be assigned to the C/D box or H/ACA box subclass of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), known as guide RNAs for rRNA. While 30 RNAs represent mouse homologues of previously identified human C/D or H/ACA snoRNAs, 83 correspond to entirely novel snoRNAs. Among these, for the first time, we identified four C/D box snoRNAs and four H/ACA box snoRNAs predicted to direct modifications within U2, U4 or U6 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Furthermore, 25 snoRNAs from either class lacked antisense elements for rRNAs or snRNAs. Therefore, additional snoRNA targets have to be considered. Surprisingly, six C/D box snoRNAs and one H/ACA box snoRNA were expressed exclusively in brain. Of the 88 RNAs not belonging to either snoRNA subclass, at least 26 are probably derived from truncated heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) or mRNAs. Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are located on five RNA sequences and may represent rare examples of transcribed SINEs. The remaining RNA species could not as yet be assigned either to any snmRNA class or to a part of a larger hnRNA/mRNA. It is likely that at least some of the latter will represent novel, unclassified snmRNAs. PMID:11387227

  19. CsrA interacting small RNAs in Haemophilus spp genomes: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Jayavel; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Rafi, Ziauddin Ahamed

    2009-05-01

    The csrA is a carbon storage regulator gene that encodes a protein with multiple RNA interaction sites. Bacterial non-coding small RNAs like csrB, csrC and their counterparts in diverse bacterial genus are identified to control the regulatory activities of CsrA and its orthologs. An attempt has been made in this study to identify 'novel' non-coding small RNAs that are involved in the regulatory activities of csrA gene. All CsrA-interacting small RNAs are computationally fingerprinted to have multiple occurrence of 7-nucleotide CsrA interacting repeats [CAGGA(U/A/C)G] along with a 18-nucleotide upstream binding site. However, in several of the genomes like Haemophilus spp, the upstream binding site is not identified. The current methodology overcomes this difficulty by identifying small RNA-specific orphan transcriptional units within the intergenic regions of the genome. The results could identify all known CsrA-interacting small RNAs in E. coli, Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomes and additionally has picked six new possible CsrA-interacting small RNA regions in E. coli. Our computational analysis indicates that known rygD and rprA sRNAs in E. coli could possibly interact with CsrA proteins. The study is extended to three of the Haemophilus genomes that could identify seven new possible CsrA interacting small RNAs.

  20. Rapid and efficient isolation of high-quality small RNAs from recalcitrant plant species rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Xia, Zihao; Chen, Ling; Shi, Minjing; Pu, Jinji; Guo, Jianrong; Fan, Zaifeng

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are important regulators of plant development and gene expression. The acquisition of high-quality small RNAs is the first step in the study of its expression and function analysis, yet the extraction method of small RNAs in recalcitrant plant tissues with various secondary metabolites is not well established, especially for tropical and subtropical plant species rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols. Here, we developed a simple and efficient method for high quality small RNAs extraction from recalcitrant plant species. Prior to RNA isolation, a precursory step with a CTAB-PVPP buffer system could efficiently remove compounds and secondary metabolites interfering with RNAs from homogenized lysates. Then, total RNAs were extracted by Trizol reagents followed by a differential precipitation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) RNAs using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. Finally, small RNAs could be easily recovered from supernatant by ethanol precipitation without extra elimination steps. The isolated small RNAs from papaya showed high quality through a clear background on gel and a distinct northern blotting signal with miR159a probe, compared with other published protocols. Additionally, the small RNAs extracted from papaya were successfully used for validation of both predicted miRNAs and the putative conserved tasiARFs. Furthermore, the extraction method described here was also tested with several other subtropical and tropical plant tissues. The purity of the isolated small RNAs was sufficient for such applications as end-point stem-loop RT-PCR and northern blotting analysis, respectively. The simple and feasible extraction method reported here is expected to have excellent potential for isolation of small RNAs from recalcitrant plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.

  1. Rapid and Efficient Isolation of High-Quality Small RNAs from Recalcitrant Plant Species Rich in Polyphenols and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jinji; Guo, Jianrong; Fan, Zaifeng

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are important regulators of plant development and gene expression. The acquisition of high-quality small RNAs is the first step in the study of its expression and function analysis, yet the extraction method of small RNAs in recalcitrant plant tissues with various secondary metabolites is not well established, especially for tropical and subtropical plant species rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols. Here, we developed a simple and efficient method for high quality small RNAs extraction from recalcitrant plant species. Prior to RNA isolation, a precursory step with a CTAB-PVPP buffer system could efficiently remove compounds and secondary metabolites interfering with RNAs from homogenized lysates. Then, total RNAs were extracted by Trizol reagents followed by a differential precipitation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) RNAs using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. Finally, small RNAs could be easily recovered from supernatant by ethanol precipitation without extra elimination steps. The isolated small RNAs from papaya showed high quality through a clear background on gel and a distinct northern blotting signal with miR159a probe, compared with other published protocols. Additionally, the small RNAs extracted from papaya were successfully used for validation of both predicted miRNAs and the putative conserved tasiARFs. Furthermore, the extraction method described here was also tested with several other subtropical and tropical plant tissues. The purity of the isolated small RNAs was sufficient for such applications as end-point stem-loop RT-PCR and northern blotting analysis, respectively. The simple and feasible extraction method reported here is expected to have excellent potential for isolation of small RNAs from recalcitrant plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides. PMID:24787387

  2. Exploration of small non coding RNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yingyin; Sun, Qixin

    2012-09-01

    Large numbers of noncoding RNA transcripts (ncRNAs) are being revealed in animals and plants, which can function at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional level to negatively regulate or control genes, repetitive sequences, viruses, and mobile elements. With the identification of microRNA and siRNAs in diverse organisms, increasing evidences indicate that these short npcRNAs play important roles in development, stress response and diseases by cleavage of target mRNA or interfere with translation of target genes. To explore the small RNA transcriptome in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a couple of small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced by high throughput sequencing method. In this review, we focused on the discovery of wheat small RNAs including miRNA and some other non coding small RNAs, then have a view of miRNAs conservations and differences among wheat and other plant species. We also summarized the developmental and stress responsive expression of wheat miRNAs and these observations could serve as a foundation for future functional studies.

  3. Engineering artificial small RNAs for conditional gene silencing in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vandana; Yamamura, Asami; Yokobayashi, Yohei

    2012-01-20

    It has become increasingly evident that noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) play a significant and global role in bacterial gene regulation. A majority of the trans-acting sRNAs in bacteria interact with the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and/or the translation initiation region of the targeted mRNAs via imperfect base pairing, resulting in reduced translation efficiency and/or mRNA stability. Additionally, bacterial sRNAs often contain distinct scaffolds that recruit RNA chaperones such as Hfq to facilitate gene regulation. In this study, we describe a strategy to engineer artificial sRNAs that can regulate desired endogenous genes in Escherichia coli. Using a fluorescent reporter gene that was translationally fused to a native 5' mRNA leader sequence, active artificial sRNAs were screened from libraries in which natural sRNA scaffolds were fused to a randomized antisense domain. Artificial sRNAs that posttranscriptionally repress two endogenous genes ompF and fliC were isolated and characterized. We anticipate that the artificial sRNAs will be useful for dynamic control and fine-tuning of endogenous gene expression in bacteria for applications in synthetic biology.

  4. Roles for small noncoding RNAs in silencing of retrotransposons in the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sayan; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Fioriti, Luana; Melnick, Ari M; Hébert, Jean M; Mason, Christopher E; Rajasethupathy, Priyamvada; Kandel, Eric R

    2016-10-24

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), long thought to be restricted to germline, have recently been discovered in neurons of Aplysia, with a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression underlying long-term memory. We here ask whether piwi/piRNAs are also expressed and have functional roles in the mammalian brain. Large-scale RNA sequencing and subsequent analysis of protein expression revealed the presence in brain of several piRNA biogenesis factors including a mouse piwi (Mili), as well as small RNAs, albeit at low levels, resembling conserved piRNAs in mouse testes [primarily LINE1 (long interspersed nuclear element1) retrotransposon-derived]. Despite the seeming low expression of these putative piRNAs, single-base pair CpG methylation analyses across the genome of Mili/piRNA-deficient (Mili(-/-)) mice demonstrate that brain genomic DNA is preferentially hypomethylated within intergenic areas and LINE1 promoter areas of the genome. Furthermore, Mili mutant mice exhibit behavioral deficits such as hyperactivity and reduced anxiety. These results suggest that putative piRNAs exist in mammalian brain, and similar to the role of piRNAs in testes, they may be involved in the silencing of retrotransposons, which in brain have critical roles in contributing to genomic heterogeneity underlying adaptation, stress response, and brain pathology. We also describe the presence of another class of small RNAs in the brain, with features of endogenous siRNAs, which may have taken over the role of invertebrate piRNAs in their capacity to target both transposons, as well as protein-coding genes. Thus, RNA interference through gene and retrotransposon silencing previously encountered in Aplysia may also have potential roles in the mammalian brain.

  5. A computational strategy for the search of regulatory small RNAs in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ciro C.; Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Kate A.; Langford, Paul R.; Bazzolli, Denise M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. PMID:27402897

  6. A computational strategy for the search of regulatory small RNAs in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ciro C; Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A; Gould, Kate A; Langford, Paul R; Bazzolli, Denise M S

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. © 2016 Rossi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  7. Evolutionary Dynamics of Small RNAs in 27 Escherichia coli and Shigella Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Skippington, Elizabeth; Ragan, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are widespread in bacteria and play critical roles in regulating physiological processes. They are best characterized in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, where 83 sRNAs constitute nearly 2% of the gene complement. Most sRNAs act by base pairing with a target mRNA, modulating its translation and/or stability; many of these RNAs share only limited complementarity to their mRNA target, and require the chaperone Hfq to facilitate base pairing. Little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of bacterial sRNAs. Here, we apply phylogenetic and network analyses to investigate the evolutionary processes and principles that govern sRNA gene distribution in 27 E. coli and Shigella genomes. We identify core (encoded in all 27 genomes) and variable sRNAs; more than two-thirds of the E. coli K-12 MG1655 sRNAs are core, whereas the others show patterns of presence and absence that are principally due to genetic loss, not duplication or lateral genetic transfer. We present evidence that variable sRNAs are less tightly integrated into cellular genetic regulatory networks than are the core sRNAs, and that Hfq facilitates posttranscriptional cross talk between the E. coli–Shigella core and variable genomes. Finally, we present evidence that more than 80% of genes targeted by Hfq-associated core sRNAs have been transferred within the E. coli–Shigella clade, and that most of these genes have been transferred intact. These results suggest that Hfq and sRNAs help integrate laterally acquired genes into established regulatory networks. PMID:22223756

  8. Argonaute-bound small RNAs from promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, Jesse R; Kelly, Timothy J; Sharp, Phillip A

    2014-02-27

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins mediate posttranscriptional gene repression by binding guide miRNAs to regulate targeted RNAs. To confidently assess Ago-bound small RNAs, we adapted a mouse embryonic stem cell system to express a single epitope-tagged Ago protein family member in an inducible manner. Here, we report the small RNA profile of Ago-deficient cells and show that Ago-dependent stability is a common feature of mammalian miRNAs. Using this criteria and immunopurification, we identified an Ago-dependent class of noncanonical miRNAs derived from protein-coding gene promoters, which we name transcriptional start site miRNAs (TSS-miRNAs). A subset of promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) complexes produces hairpin RNAs that are processed in a DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (Dgcr8)/Drosha-independent but Dicer-dependent manner. TSS-miRNA activity is detectable from endogenous levels and following overexpression of mRNA constructs. Finally, we present evidence of differential expression and conservation in humans, suggesting important roles in gene regulation.

  9. CsrA and three redundant small RNAs regulate quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Derrick H; Miller, Melissa B; Zhu, Jun; Kulkarni, Rahul V; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2005-11-01

    Bacteria communicate using a process called quorum sensing which involves production, secretion and detection of signalling molecules called autoinducers. Quorum sensing allows populations of bacteria to simultaneously regulate gene expression in response to changes in cell density. The human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, uses a quorum-sensing circuit composed of parallel systems that transduce information through four redundant regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) called quorum regulatory RNAs (Qrr) to control the expression of numerous genes, most notably those required for virulence. We show that the VarS/VarA two-component sensory system comprises an additional regulatory input controlling quorum-sensing-dependent gene expression in V. cholerae. VarS/VarA controls transcription of three previously unidentified small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that are similar to the sRNAs CsrB and CsrC of Escherichia coli. The three V. cholerae sRNAs, which we name CsrB, CsrC and CsrD, act redundantly to control the activity of the global regulatory protein, CsrA. The VarS/VarA-CsrA/BCD system converges with the V. cholerae quorum-sensing systems to regulate the expression of the Qrr sRNAs, and thus, the entire quorum-sensing regulon.

  10. Involvement of Small RNAs in Phosphorus and Sulfur Sensing, Signaling and Stress: Current Update

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Smita; Verma, Saurabh; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2017-01-01

    Plants require several essential mineral nutrients for their growth and development. These nutrients are required to maintain physiological processes and structural integrity in plants. The root architecture has evolved to absorb nutrients from soil and transport them to other parts of the plant. Nutrient deficiency affects several physiological and biological processes in plants and leads to reduction in crop productivity and yield. To compensate this adversity, plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to enhance the acquisition, conservation, and mobilization of these nutrients under deficient or adverse conditions. In addition, plants have evolved an intricate nexus of complex signaling cascades, which help in nutrient sensing and uptake as well as to maintain nutrient homeostasis. In recent years, small non-coding RNAs such as micro RNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs have emerged as important component in regulating plant stress responses. A set of these small RNAs (sRNAs) have been implicated in regulating various processes involved in nutrient uptake, assimilation, and deficiency. In response to phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) deficiencies, role of sRNAs, miR395 and miR399, have been identified to be instrumental; however, many more miRNAs might be involved in regulating the plant response to these nutrient stresses. These sRNAs modulate expression of target genes in response to P and S deficiencies and regulate their uptake and utilization for proper growth and development of the plant. This review summarizes the current understanding of uptake, sensing, and signaling of P and S and highlights the regulatory role of sRNAs in adaptive responses to these nutrient stresses in plants. PMID:28344582

  11. A genome-wide identification and characterization of mircoRNAs and their targets in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group).

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingfeng; Qian, Minjie; Liu, Guoqin; Yang, Fengxia; Teng, Yuanwen

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that are endogenous regulators of gene expression. miRNAs play a crucial role in cells via degradation of target mRNAs or by inhibition of target protein translation. In the present study, 186 new potentially conserved pear miRNAs belonging to 37 families were identified. The length of mature miRNAs ranged from 19 to 24 nt, and most of the miRNAs (154 out of 186) were 21 nt in length. The length of pre-miRNAs in pear was also found to vary from 62 to 282 nt with an average of 105 ± 43 nt. The potential miRNAs belonged to 29 clusters involving 20 different miRNA families. Using these potential miRNAs, we further scoured of the pear genome and found 326 potential target genes, which included transcription factors, stress responsive genes, and the genes involved in transmembrane transport and signal transduction. Gene ontology analysis of these potential targets suggested that 47 biological processes were potentially regulated by miRNAs, including oxidation-reduction, stress response, transport, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the identified miRNAs were found in 15 metabolism networks which were related to starch and sucrose metabolism, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, among others. Our study will help in the further understanding of the essential role of miRNAs in growth and development and stress response of pear.

  12. Virus-derived small RNAs in the penaeid shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during acute infection of the DNA virus WSSV

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Yumiao; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Yang, Hui; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are two classes of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are critical for virus-host interplay via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. One virus-derived siRNA and numerous miRNAs has been reported for the double-stranded DNA virus white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), however, the expression profiles of these different types of sRNAs have not been assessed. Here, by sequencing the sRNAs and mRNAs of WSSV-infected Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis), we found that the viral transcripts were universally targeted by WSSV-derived siRNAs, supporting a pivotal role for RNAi in the anti-viral immunity of shrimp. The genesis of WSSV-derived siRNAs was associated with long RNA structures. Moreover, by separating miRNAs from siRNAs, 12 WSSV miRNAs were identified. Investigation of conserved viral miRNA targets in different host species indicated the involvement of viral miRNAs in host immune responses. Collectively, our data provide new insights into the role of the RNAi pathway in the interplay between DNA viruses and crustaceans. PMID:27349643

  13. Cell contact-dependent acquisition of cellular and viral nonautonomously encoded small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Rechavi, Oded; Erlich, Yaniv; Amram, Hila; Flomenblit, Lena; Karginov, Fedor V.; Goldstein, Itamar; Hannon, Gregory J.; Kloog, Yoel

    2009-01-01

    In some organisms, small RNA pathways can act nonautonomously, with responses spreading from cell to cell. Dedicated intercellular RNA delivery pathways have not yet been characterized in mammals, although secretory compartments have been found to contain RNA. Here we show that, upon cell contact, T cells acquire from B cells small RNAs that can impact the expression of target genes in the recipient T cells. Synthetic microRNA (miRNA) mimetics, viral miRNAs expressed by infected B cells, and endogenous miRNAs could all be transferred into T cells. These mechanisms may allow small RNA-mediated communication between immune cells. The documented transfer of viral miRNAs raises the possible exploitation of these pathways for viral manipulation of the host immune response. PMID:19684116

  14. Comparative Small RNA Analysis of Pollen Development in Autotetraploid and Diploid Rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Wu, Jinwen; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2016-04-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant reproduction. However, knowledge on microRNAome analysis in autotetraploid rice is rather limited. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze miRNAomes during pollen development in diploid and polyploid rice. A total of 172 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEM) were detected in autotetraploid rice compared to its diploid counterpart, and 57 miRNAs were specifically expressed in autotetraploid rice. Of the 172 DEM, 115 and 61 miRNAs exhibited up- and down-regulation, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis on the targets of up-regulated DEM showed that they were enriched in transport and membrane in pre-meiotic interphase, reproduction in meiosis, and nucleotide binding in single microspore stage. osa-miR5788 and osa-miR1432-5p_R+1 were up-regulated in meiosis and their targets revealed interaction with the meiosis-related genes, suggesting that they may involve in the genes regulation associated with the chromosome behavior. Abundant 24 nt siRNAs associated with transposable elements were found in autotetraploid rice during pollen development; however, they significantly declined in diploid rice, suggesting that 24 nt siRNAs may play a role in pollen development. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the effect of polyploidy on small RNA expression patterns during pollen development that cause pollen sterility in autotetraploid rice.

  15. Comparative Small RNA Analysis of Pollen Development in Autotetraploid and Diploid Rice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Wu, Jinwen; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant reproduction. However, knowledge on microRNAome analysis in autotetraploid rice is rather limited. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze miRNAomes during pollen development in diploid and polyploid rice. A total of 172 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEM) were detected in autotetraploid rice compared to its diploid counterpart, and 57 miRNAs were specifically expressed in autotetraploid rice. Of the 172 DEM, 115 and 61 miRNAs exhibited up- and down-regulation, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis on the targets of up-regulated DEM showed that they were enriched in transport and membrane in pre-meiotic interphase, reproduction in meiosis, and nucleotide binding in single microspore stage. osa-miR5788 and osa-miR1432-5p_R+1 were up-regulated in meiosis and their targets revealed interaction with the meiosis-related genes, suggesting that they may involve in the genes regulation associated with the chromosome behavior. Abundant 24 nt siRNAs associated with transposable elements were found in autotetraploid rice during pollen development; however, they significantly declined in diploid rice, suggesting that 24 nt siRNAs may play a role in pollen development. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the effect of polyploidy on small RNA expression patterns during pollen development that cause pollen sterility in autotetraploid rice. PMID:27077850

  16. The small RNA content of human sperm reveals pseudogene-derived piRNAs complementary to protein-coding genes

    PubMed Central

    Pantano, Lorena; Jodar, Meritxell; Bak, Mads; Ballescà, Josep Lluís; Tommerup, Niels; Oliva, Rafael; Vavouri, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    At the end of mammalian sperm development, sperm cells expel most of their cytoplasm and dispose of the majority of their RNA. Yet, hundreds of RNA molecules remain in mature sperm. The biological significance of the vast majority of these molecules is unclear. To better understand the processes that generate sperm small RNAs and what roles they may have, we sequenced and characterized the small RNA content of sperm samples from two human fertile individuals. We detected 182 microRNAs, some of which are highly abundant. The most abundant microRNA in sperm is miR-1246 with predicted targets among sperm-specific genes. The most abundant class of small noncoding RNAs in sperm are PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Surprisingly, we found that human sperm cells contain piRNAs processed from pseudogenes. Clusters of piRNAs from human testes contain pseudogenes transcribed in the antisense strand and processed into small RNAs. Several human protein-coding genes contain antisense predicted targets of pseudogene-derived piRNAs in the male germline and these piRNAs are still found in mature sperm. Our study provides the most extensive data set and annotation of human sperm small RNAs to date and is a resource for further functional studies on the roles of sperm small RNAs. In addition, we propose that some of the pseudogene-derived human piRNAs may regulate expression of their parent gene in the male germline. PMID:25904136

  17. Identification of Hop stunt viroid infecting Citrus limon in China using small RNAs deep sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiu; Fu, Shuai; Qian, Yajuan; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Xueping

    2015-07-07

    The advent of next generation sequencing technology has allowed for significant advances in plant virus discovery, particularly for identification of covert viruses and previously undescribed viruses. The Citrus limon Burm. f. (C. limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and . China is the world's top lemon-producing nation. In this work, lemon samples were collected from southwestern of China, where an unknown disease outbreak had caused huge losses in the lemon production industry. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing and the assembly of small RNAs, we showed that the Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) was present in C. limon leaf sample. The majority of it is a main lemon producing agricultural cultivarHop stunt viroid derived siRNAs (HSVd-siRNAs) in C. limon were 21 nucleotides in length, and nearly equal amount of HSVd-siRNAs originated from the plus-genomic RNA strand as from the complementary strand. A bias of HSVd-siRNAs toward sequences beginning with a 5'-Guanine was observed. Furthermore, hotspot analysis showed that a large amount of HSVd-siRNAs derived from the central and variant domains of the HSVd genome. Our results suggest that C. limon could set up a small RNA-mediated gene silencing response to Hop stunt viroid, Interestingly, based on bioinformatics analysis, our results also suggest that the large amounts of HSVd-siRNAs from central and variant domains might be involved in interference with host gene expression and affect symptom development.

  18. Identification of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and biogenesis of their siRNAs in the Solanaceae: new functional implications for MITEs.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hanhui; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Li, Feng; Kamei, Ayako; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Ouyang, Shu; Jiang, Jiming; Buell, C Robin; Baker, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Small RNAs regulate the genome by guiding transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing machinery to specific target sequences, including genes and transposable elements (TEs). Although miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are closely associated with euchromatic genes, the broader functional impact of these short TE insertions in genes is largely unknown. We identified 22 families of MITEs in the Solanaceae (MiS1-MiS22) and found abundant MiS insertions in Solanaceae genomic DNA and expressed sequence tags (EST). Several Solanaceae MITEs generate genome changes that potentially affect gene function and regulation, most notably, a MiS insertion that provides a functionally indispensable alternative exon in the tobacco mosaic virus N resistance gene. We show that MITEs generate small RNAs that are primarily 24 nt in length, as detected by Northern blot hybridization and by sequencing small RNAs of Solanum demissum, Nicotiana glutinosa, and Nicotiana benthamiana. Additionally, we show that stable RNAi lines silencing DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3) in tobacco and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) in potato cause a reduction in 24-nt MITE siRNAs, suggesting that, as in Arabidopsis, TE-derived siRNA biogenesis is DCL3 and RDR2 dependent. We provide evidence that DICER-LIKE4 (DCL4) may also play a role in MITE siRNA generation in the Solanaceae.

  19. Identification of Conserved and Potentially Regulatory Small RNAs in Heterocystous Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Brenes-Álvarez, Manuel; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Vioque, Agustín; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are a growing class of non-protein-coding transcripts that participate in the regulation of virtually every aspect of bacterial physiology. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic organisms that exhibit multicellular behavior and developmental alternatives involving specific transcriptomes exclusive of a given physiological condition or even a cell type. In the context of our ongoing effort to understand developmental decisions in these organisms we have undertaken an approach to the global identification of sRNAs. Using differential RNA-Seq we have previously identified transcriptional start sites for the model heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Here we combine this dataset with a prediction of Rho-independent transcriptional terminators and an analysis of phylogenetic conservation of potential sRNAs among 89 available cyanobacterial genomes. In contrast to predictive genome-wide approaches, the use of an experimental dataset comprising all active transcriptional start sites (differential RNA-Seq) facilitates the identification of bona fide sRNAs. The output of our approach is a dataset of predicted potential sRNAs in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, with different degrees of phylogenetic conservation across the 89 cyanobacterial genomes analyzed. Previously described sRNAs appear among the predicted sRNAs, demonstrating the performance of the algorithm. In addition, new predicted sRNAs are now identified that can be involved in regulation of different aspects of cyanobacterial physiology, including adaptation to nitrogen stress, the condition that triggers differentiation of heterocysts (specialized nitrogen-fixing cells). Transcription of several predicted sRNAs that appear exclusively in the genomes of heterocystous cyanobacteria is experimentally verified by Northern blot. Cell-specific transcription of one of these sRNAs, NsiR8 (nitrogen stress-induced RNA 8), in developing heterocysts is also demonstrated.

  20. Identification of Conserved and Potentially Regulatory Small RNAs in Heterocystous Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Álvarez, Manuel; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Vioque, Agustín; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are a growing class of non-protein-coding transcripts that participate in the regulation of virtually every aspect of bacterial physiology. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic organisms that exhibit multicellular behavior and developmental alternatives involving specific transcriptomes exclusive of a given physiological condition or even a cell type. In the context of our ongoing effort to understand developmental decisions in these organisms we have undertaken an approach to the global identification of sRNAs. Using differential RNA-Seq we have previously identified transcriptional start sites for the model heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Here we combine this dataset with a prediction of Rho-independent transcriptional terminators and an analysis of phylogenetic conservation of potential sRNAs among 89 available cyanobacterial genomes. In contrast to predictive genome-wide approaches, the use of an experimental dataset comprising all active transcriptional start sites (differential RNA-Seq) facilitates the identification of bona fide sRNAs. The output of our approach is a dataset of predicted potential sRNAs in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, with different degrees of phylogenetic conservation across the 89 cyanobacterial genomes analyzed. Previously described sRNAs appear among the predicted sRNAs, demonstrating the performance of the algorithm. In addition, new predicted sRNAs are now identified that can be involved in regulation of different aspects of cyanobacterial physiology, including adaptation to nitrogen stress, the condition that triggers differentiation of heterocysts (specialized nitrogen-fixing cells). Transcription of several predicted sRNAs that appear exclusively in the genomes of heterocystous cyanobacteria is experimentally verified by Northern blot. Cell-specific transcription of one of these sRNAs, NsiR8 (nitrogen stress-induced RNA 8), in developing heterocysts is also demonstrated. PMID

  1. Wolbachia small noncoding RNAs and their role in cross-kingdom communications.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Jaime G; Hussain, Mazhar; Joubert, D Albert; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; O'Neill, Scott L; Asgari, Sassan

    2014-12-30

    In prokaryotes, small noncoding RNAs (snRNAs) of 50-500 nt are produced that are important in bacterial virulence and response to environmental stimuli. Here, we identified and characterized snRNAs from the endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia, which are widespread in invertebrates and cause reproductive manipulations. Most importantly, some strains of Wolbachia inhibit replication of several vector-borne pathogens in insects. We demonstrate that two abundant snRNAs, WsnRNA-46 and WsnRNA-49, are expressed in Wolbachia from noncoding RNA transcripts that contain precursors with stem-loop structures. WsnRNAs were detected in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with the wMelPop-CLA strain of Wolbachia and in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans infected with wMelPop and wAu strains, respectively, indicating that the WsnRNAs are conserved across species and strains. In addition, we show that the WsnRNAs may potentially regulate host genes and Wolbachia genes. Our findings provide evidence for the production of functional snRNAs by Wolbachia that play roles in cross-kingdom communication between the endosymbiont and the host.

  2. Biased transcription and selective degradation of small RNAs shape the pattern of DNA elimination in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Schoeberl, Ursula E.; Kurth, Henriette M.; Noto, Tomoko; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2012-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena undergoes extensive programmed DNA elimination when the germline micronucleus produces the new macronucleus during sexual reproduction. DNA elimination is epigenetically controlled by DNA sequences of the parental macronuclear genome, and this epigenetic regulation is mediated by small RNAs (scan RNAs [scnRNAs]) of ∼28–30 nucleotides that are produced and function by an RNAi-related mechanism. Here, we examine scnRNA production and turnover by deep sequencing. scnRNAs are produced exclusively from the micronucleus and nonhomogeneously from a variety of chromosomal locations. scnRNAs are preferentially derived from the eliminated sequences, and this preference is mainly determined at the level of transcription. Despite this bias, a significant fraction of scnRNAs is also derived from the macronuclear-destined sequences, and these scnRNAs are degraded during the course of sexual reproduction. These results indicate that the pattern of DNA elimination in the new macronucleus is shaped by the biased transcription in the micronucleus and the selective degradation of scnRNAs in the parental macronucleus. PMID:22855833

  3. Deep sequencing-based identification of small regulatory RNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Chen, Hui; He, Chen-Liu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a genetically tractable model organism for photosynthesis research. The genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 consists of a circular chromosome and seven plasmids. The importance of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) as mediators of a number of cellular processes in bacteria has begun to be recognized. However, little is known regarding sRNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs in this model organism, the sRNAs of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were analyzed using deep sequencing, and 7,951,189 reads were obtained. High quality mapping reads (6,127,890) were mapped onto the genome and assembled into 16,192 transcribed regions (clusters) based on read overlap. A total number of 5211 putative sRNAs were revealed from the genome and the 4 megaplasmids, and 27 of these molecules, including four from plasmids, were confirmed by RT-PCR. In addition, possible target genes regulated by all of the putative sRNAs identified in this study were predicted by IntaRNA and analyzed for functional categorization and biological pathways, which provided evidence that sRNAs are indeed involved in many different metabolic pathways, including basic metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the citrate cycle, fatty acid metabolism and adaptations to environmentally stress-induced changes. The information from this study provides a valuable reservoir for understanding the sRNA-mediated regulation of the complex physiology and metabolic processes of cyanobacteria.

  4. Archaeal homologs of eukaryotic methylation guide small nucleolar RNAs: lessons from the Pyrococcus genomes.

    PubMed

    Gaspin, C; Cavaillé, J; Erauso, G; Bachellerie, J P

    2000-04-07

    Ribose methylation is a prevalent type of nucleotide modification in rRNA. Eukaryotic rRNAs display a complex pattern of ribose methylations, amounting to 55 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and about 100 in vertebrates. Ribose methylations of eukaryotic rRNAs are each guided by a cognate small RNA, belonging to the family of box C/D antisense snoRNAs, through transient formation of a specific base-pairing at the rRNA modification site. In prokaryotes, the pattern of rRNA ribose methylations has been fully characterized in a single species so far, Escherichia coli, which contains only four ribose methylated rRNA nucleotides. However, the hyperthermophile archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus contains, like eukaryotes, a large number of (yet unmapped) rRNA ribose methylations and homologs of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar ribonuclear proteins have been identified in archaeal genomes. We have therefore searched archaeal genomes for potential homologs of eukaryotic methylation guide small nucleolar RNAs, by combining searches for structured motifs with homology searches. We have identified a family of 46 small RNAs, conserved in the genomes of three hyperthermophile Pyrococcus species, which we have experimentally characterized in Pyrococcus abyssi. The Pyrococcus small RNAs, the first reported homologs of methylation guide small nucleolar RNAs in organisms devoid of a nucleus, appear as a paradigm of minimalist box C/D antisense RNAs. They differ from their eukaryotic homologs by their outstanding structural homogeneity, extended consensus box motifs and the quasi-systematic presence of two (instead of one) rRNA antisense elements. Remarkably, for each small RNA the two antisense elements always match rRNA sequences close to each other in rRNA structure, suggesting an important role in rRNA folding. Only a few of the predicted P. abyssi rRNA ribose methylations have been detected so far. Further analysis of these archaeal small RNAs could provide new insights into

  5. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S.; Harlow, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5′ ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission. PMID:26446566

  6. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA).

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2015-10-08

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission.

  7. SARS-CoV-Encoded Small RNAs Contribute to Infection-Associated Lung Pathology.

    PubMed

    Morales, Lucía; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Fernandez-Delgado, Raúl; tenOever, Benjamin Robert; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2017-03-08

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes lethal disease in humans, which is characterized by exacerbated inflammatory response and extensive lung pathology. To address the relevance of small non-coding RNAs in SARS-CoV pathology, we deep sequenced RNAs from the lungs of infected mice and discovered three 18-22 nt small viral RNAs (svRNAs). The three svRNAs were derived from the nsp3 (svRNA-nsp3.1 and -nsp3.2) and N (svRNA-N) genomic regions of SARS-CoV. Biogenesis of CoV svRNAs was RNase III, cell type, and host species independent, but it was dependent on the extent of viral replication. Antagomir-mediated inhibition of svRNA-N significantly reduced in vivo lung pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Taken together, these data indicate that svRNAs contribute to SARS-CoV pathogenesis and highlight the potential of svRNA-N antagomirs as antivirals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Small interfering RNAs as a tool to assign Rho GTPase exchange-factor function in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Gampel, Alexandra; Mellor, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Rho GTPases control a complex network of intracellular signalling pathways. Whereas progress has been made in identifying downstream signalling partners for these proteins, the characterization of Rho upstream regulatory guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) has been hampered by a lack of suitable research tools. Here we use small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to examine the cellular regulation of the RhoB GTPase, and show that RhoB is activated downstream of the epidermal-growth-factor receptor through the Vav2 exchange factor. These studies demonstrate that siRNAs are an ideal research tool for the assignment of Rho GEF function in vivo. PMID:12113653

  9. Superinfection exclusion by Citrus tristeza virus does not correlate with the production of viral small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Harper, Scott J; Leonard, Michael T; Triplett, Eric W; Shilts, Turksen

    2014-11-01

    Superinfection exclusion (SIE), a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been described for different viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. Several mechanisms acting at various stages of the viral life cycle have been proposed to explain SIE. Most cases of SIE in plant virus systems were attributed to induction of RNA silencing, a host defense mechanism that is mediated by small RNAs. Here we show that SIE by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) does not correlate with the production of viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). CTV variants, which differed in the SIE ability, had similar siRNAs profiles. Along with our previous observations that the exclusion phenomenon requires a specific viral protein, p33, the new data suggest that SIE by CTV is highly complex and appears to use different mechanisms than those proposed for other viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure based approaches for targeting non-coding RNAs with small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, Matthew D.; Varani, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The increasing appreciation of the central role of non-coding RNAs (miRNAs and long non coding RNAs) in chronic and degenerative human disease makes them attractive therapeutic targets. This would not be unprecedented: the bacterial ribosomal RNA is a mainstay for antibacterial treatment, while the conservation and functional importance of viral RNA regulatory elements has long suggested they would constitute attractive targets for new antivirals. Oligonucleotide-based chemistry has obvious appeals but also considerable pharmacological limitations that are yet to be addressed satisfactorily. Recent studies identifying small molecules targeting non-coding RNAs may provide an alternative approach to oligonucleotide methods. Here we review recent work investigating new structural and chemical principles for targeting RNA with small molecules. PMID:25687935

  11. High-throughput sequencing of small RNAs and analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs associated with pistil development in Japanese apricot

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by mediating gene silencing at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in high plants. However, the diversity of miRNAs and their roles in floral development in Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc) remains largely unexplored. Imperfect flowers with pistil abortion seriously decrease production yields. To understand the role of miRNAs in pistil development, pistil development-related miRNAs were identified by Solexa sequencing in Japanese apricot. Results Solexa sequencing was used to identify and quantitatively profile small RNAs from perfect and imperfect flower buds of Japanese apricot. A total of 22,561,972 and 24,952,690 reads were sequenced from two small RNA libraries constructed from perfect and imperfect flower buds, respectively. Sixty-one known miRNAs, belonging to 24 families, were identified. Comparative profiling revealed that seven known miRNAs exhibited significant differential expression between perfect and imperfect flower buds. A total of 61 potentially novel miRNAs/new members of known miRNA families were also identified by the presence of mature miRNAs and corresponding miRNA*s in the sRNA libraries. Comparative analysis showed that six potentially novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between perfect and imperfect flower buds. Target predictions of the 13 differentially expressed miRNAs resulted in 212 target genes. Gene ontology (GO) annotation revealed that high-ranking miRNA target genes are those implicated in the developmental process, the regulation of transcription and response to stress. Conclusions This study represents the first comparative identification of miRNAomes between perfect and imperfect Japanese apricot flowers. Seven known miRNAs and six potentially novel miRNAs associated with pistil development were identified, using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs. The findings, both computationally

  12. Small RNA profiling in two Brassica napus cultivars identifies microRNAs with oil production- and development-correlated expression and new small RNA classes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Tao; Wang, Meng; Fu, San-Xiong; Yang, Wei-Cai; Qi, Cun-Kou; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2012-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs are important regulators of plant development and seed formation, yet their population and abundance in the oil crop Brassica napus are still not well understood, especially at different developmental stages and among cultivars with varied seed oil contents. Here, we systematically analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of Brassica napus seeds at early embryonic developmental stages in high-oil-content and low-oil-content B. napus cultivars, both cultured in two environments. A total of 50 conserved miRNAs and 9 new miRNAs were identified, together with some new miRNA targets. Expression analysis revealed some miRNAs with varied expression levels in different seed oil content cultivars or at different embryonic developmental stages. A large number of 23-nucleotide small RNAs with specific nucleotide composition preferences were also identified, which may present new classes of functional small RNAs.

  13. Small RNAs and the competing endogenous RNA network in high grade serous ovarian cancer tumor spread

    PubMed Central

    Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Auer, Katharina; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Deycmar, Simon; Reiner, Agnes T.; Polterauer, Stephan; Dekan, Sabine; Pils, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is among the most deadly malignancies in women, frequently involving peritoneal tumor spread. Understanding molecular mechanisms of peritoneal metastasis is essential to develop urgently needed targeted therapies. We described two peritoneal tumor spread types in HGSOC apparent during surgery: miliary (numerous millet-sized implants) and non-miliary (few big, bulky implants). The former one is defined by a more epithelial-like tumor cell characteristic with less immune cell reactivity and with significant worse prognosis, even if corrected for typical clinicopathologic factors. 23 HGSOC patients were enrolled in this study. Isolated tumor cells from fresh tumor tissues of ovarian and peritoneal origin and from ascites were used for ribosomal RNA depleted RNA and small RNA sequencing. RT-qPCR was used to validate results and an independent cohort of 32 patients to validate the impact on survival. Large and small RNA sequencing data were integrated and a new gene-miRNA set analysis method was developed. Thousands of new small RNAs (miRNAs and piwi-interacting RNAs) were predicted and a 13 small RNA signature was developed to predict spread type from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Furthermore, integrative analyses of RNA sequencing and small RNA sequencing data revealed a global upregulation of the competing endogenous RNA network in tumor tissues of non-miliary compared to miliary spread, i.e. higher expression of circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs compared to coding RNAs but unchanged abundance of small RNAs. This global deregulated expression pattern could be co-responsible for the spread characteristic, miliary or non-miliary, in ovarian cancer. PMID:27172797

  14. Small RNAs in plant defense responses during viral and bacterial interactions: similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    Peláez, Pablo; Sanchez, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs constitute an important class of gene expression regulators that control different biological processes in most eukaryotes. In plants, several small RNA (sRNA) silencing pathways have evolved to produce a wide range of small RNAs with specialized functions. Evidence for the diverse mode of action of the small RNA pathways has been highlighted during plant–microbe interactions. Host sRNAs and small RNA silencing pathways have been recognized as essential components of plant immunity. One way plants respond and defend against pathogen infections is through the small RNA silencing immune system. To deal with plant defense responses, pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid and counterattack this defense strategy. The relevance of the small RNA-mediated plant defense responses during viral infections has been well-established. Recent evidence points out its importance also during plant–bacteria interactions. Herein, this review discusses recent findings, similarities and differences about the small RNA-mediated arms race between plants and these two groups of microbes, including the small RNA silencing pathway components that contribute to plant immune responses, the pathogen-responsive endogenous sRNAs and the pathogen-delivered effector proteins. PMID:24046772

  15. Small RNAs in plant defense responses during viral and bacterial interactions: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Pablo; Sanchez, Federico

    2013-09-05

    Small non-coding RNAs constitute an important class of gene expression regulators that control different biological processes in most eukaryotes. In plants, several small RNA (sRNA) silencing pathways have evolved to produce a wide range of small RNAs with specialized functions. Evidence for the diverse mode of action of the small RNA pathways has been highlighted during plant-microbe interactions. Host sRNAs and small RNA silencing pathways have been recognized as essential components of plant immunity. One way plants respond and defend against pathogen infections is through the small RNA silencing immune system. To deal with plant defense responses, pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid and counterattack this defense strategy. The relevance of the small RNA-mediated plant defense responses during viral infections has been well-established. Recent evidence points out its importance also during plant-bacteria interactions. Herein, this review discusses recent findings, similarities and differences about the small RNA-mediated arms race between plants and these two groups of microbes, including the small RNA silencing pathway components that contribute to plant immune responses, the pathogen-responsive endogenous sRNAs and the pathogen-delivered effector proteins.

  16. High-Resolution Profiling and Analysis of Viral and Host Small RNAs during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Thomas J.; Arnold, Justin D.; Spector, Deborah H.

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) contributes its own set of microRNAs (miRNAs) during lytic infection of cells, likely fine-tuning conditions important for viral replication. To enhance our understanding of this component of the HCMV-host transcriptome, we have conducted deep-sequencing analysis of small RNAs (smRNA-seq) from infected human fibroblast cells. We found that HCMV-encoded miRNAs accumulate to ∼20% of the total smRNA population at late stages of infection, and our analysis led to improvements in viral miRNA annotations and identification of two novel HCMV miRNAs, miR-US22 and miR-US33as. Both of these miRNAs were capable of functionally repressing synthetic targets in transient transfection experiments. Additionally, through cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) of Argonaute (Ago)-bound RNAs from infected cells, followed by high-throughput sequencing, we have obtained direct evidence for incorporation of all HCMV miRNAs into the endogenous host silencing machinery. Surprisingly, three HCMV miRNA precursors exhibited differential incorporation of their mature miRNA arms between Ago2 and Ago1 complexes. Host miRNA abundances were also affected by HCMV infection, with significant upregulation observed for an miRNA cluster containing miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183. In addition to miRNAs, we also identified novel forms of virus-derived smRNAs, revealing greater complexity within the smRNA population during HCMV infection. PMID:22013051

  17. Non-coding RNAs: Epigenetic regulators of bone development and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad Q; Tye, Coralee E; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B

    2015-12-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have evolved in eukaryotes as epigenetic regulators of gene expression. The most abundant regulatory ncRNAs are the 20-24 nt small microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, <200 nt). Each class of ncRNAs operates through distinct mechanisms, but their pathways to regulating gene expression are interrelated in ways that are just being recognized. While the importance of lncRNAs in epigenetic control of transcription, developmental processes and human traits is emerging, the identity of lncRNAs in skeletal biology is scarcely known. However, since the first profiling studies of miRNA at stages during osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, over 1100 publications related to bone biology and pathologies can be found, as well as many recent comprehensive reviews summarizing miRNA in skeletal cells. Delineating the activities and targets of specific miRNAs regulating differentiation of osteogenic and resorptive bone cells, coupled with in vivo gain- and loss-of-function studies, discovered unique mechanisms that support bone development and bone homeostasis in adults. We present here "guiding principles" for addressing biological control of bone tissue formation by ncRNAs. This review emphasizes recent advances in understanding regulation of the process of miRNA biogenesis that impact on osteogenic lineage commitment, transcription factors and signaling pathways. Also discussed are the approaches to be pursued for an understanding of the role of lncRNAs in bone and the challenges in addressing their multiple and complex functions. Based on new knowledge of epigenetic control of gene expression to be gained for ncRNA regulation of the skeleton, new directions for translating the miRNAs and lncRNAs into therapeutic targets for skeletal disorders are possible. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Epigenetics and Bone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Small RNAs and Evidence for MicroRNA-Like RNAs in the Penicillin Producing Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmann, Tim A.; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate gene expression in a wide range of eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed regulatory sRNAs in Penicillium chrysogenum, the industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin. To identify sRNAs and microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) on a global approach, two sRNA sequencing libraries were constructed. One library was created with pooled total RNA, obtained from twelve differently grown cultures (RNA Mix), and the other with total RNA from a single submerged cultivation (∆ku70FRT2). Illumina sequencing of both RNA libraries produced 84,322,825 mapped reads. To distinguish between Dicer-dependent and independent sRNA formation, we further constructed two single dicer gene mutants (∆dcl2 and ∆dcl1) and a dicer double mutant (∆dcl2∆dcl1) and analyzed an sRNA library from the Dicer-deficient double-mutant. We identified 661 Dicer-dependent loci and in silico prediction revealed 34 milRNAs. Northern blot hybridization of two milRNAs provided evidence for mature milRNAs that are processed either in a complete or partial Dicer-dependent manner from an RNA precursor. Identified milRNAs share typical characteristics of previously discovered fungal milRNAs, like a strong preference for a 5' uracil and the typical length distribution. The detection of potential milRNA target sites in the genome suggests that milRNAs might play a role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Our data will further increase our knowledge of sRNA dependent gene regulation processes, which is an important prerequisite to develop more effective strategies for improving industrial fermentations with P. chrysogenum. PMID:25955857

  19. Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Small RNAs and Evidence for MicroRNA-Like RNAs in the Penicillin Producing Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Dahlmann, Tim A; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate gene expression in a wide range of eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed regulatory sRNAs in Penicillium chrysogenum, the industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin. To identify sRNAs and microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) on a global approach, two sRNA sequencing libraries were constructed. One library was created with pooled total RNA, obtained from twelve differently grown cultures (RNA Mix), and the other with total RNA from a single submerged cultivation (∆ku70FRT2). Illumina sequencing of both RNA libraries produced 84,322,825 mapped reads. To distinguish between Dicer-dependent and independent sRNA formation, we further constructed two single dicer gene mutants (∆dcl2 and ∆dcl1) and a dicer double mutant (∆dcl2∆dcl1) and analyzed an sRNA library from the Dicer-deficient double-mutant. We identified 661 Dicer-dependent loci and in silico prediction revealed 34 milRNAs. Northern blot hybridization of two milRNAs provided evidence for mature milRNAs that are processed either in a complete or partial Dicer-dependent manner from an RNA precursor. Identified milRNAs share typical characteristics of previously discovered fungal milRNAs, like a strong preference for a 5' uracil and the typical length distribution. The detection of potential milRNA target sites in the genome suggests that milRNAs might play a role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Our data will further increase our knowledge of sRNA dependent gene regulation processes, which is an important prerequisite to develop more effective strategies for improving industrial fermentations with P. chrysogenum.

  20. β-Cell MicroRNAs: Small but Powerful

    PubMed Central

    Filios, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding RNA and especially microRNAs (miRs) have emerged as important regulators of key processes in cell biology, including development, differentiation, and survival. Currently, over 2,500 mature miRs have been reported in humans, and considering that each miR has multiple targets, the number of genes and pathways potentially affected is huge. Not surprisingly, many miRs have also been implicated in diabetes, and more recently, some have been discovered to play important roles in the pancreatic islet, including β-cell function, proliferation, and survival. The goal of this Perspective is to offer an overview of this rapidly evolving field and the miRs involved, reveal novel networks of β-cell miR signaling, and provide an outlook of the opportunities and challenges ahead. PMID:26494215

  1. A Transgenic Transcription Factor (TaDREB3) in Barley Affects the Expression of MicroRNAs and Other Small Non-Coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Michael; Shi, Bu-Jun; Gustafson, Perry; Langridge, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and other functional non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are important gene regulators. Comparison of sRNA expression profiles between transgenic barley over-expressing a drought tolerant TF (TaDREB3) and non-transgenic control barley revealed many group-specific sRNAs. In addition, 42% of the shared sRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups (|log2| >1). Furthermore, TaDREB3-derived sRNAs were only detected in transgenic barley despite the existence of homologous genes in non-transgenic barley. These results demonstrate that the TF strongly affects the expression of sRNAs and siRNAs could in turn affect the TF stability. The TF also affects size distribution and abundance of sRNAs including miRNAs. About half of the sRNAs in each group were derived from chloroplast. A sRNA derived from tRNA-His(GUG) encoded by the chloroplast genome is the most abundant sRNA, accounting for 42.2% of the total sRNAs in transgenic barley and 28.9% in non-transgenic barley. This sRNA, which targets a gene (TC245676) involved in biological processes, was only present in barley leaves but not roots. 124 and 136 miRNAs were detected in transgenic and non-transgenic barley, respectively. miR156 was the most abundant miRNA and up-regulated in transgenic barley, while miR168 was the most abundant miRNA and up-regulated in non-transgenic barley. Eight out of 20 predicted novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. All the predicted novel miRNA targets were validated using a degradome library. Our data provide an insight into the effect of TF on the expression of sRNAs in barley. PMID:22870277

  2. Prediction of non-small cell lung cancer metastasis-associated microRNAs using bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Shu, Yong-Qian

    2015-01-01

    Distant metastasis is one of the most common causes for failure in treatment of advanced NSCLC, and it is a key factor to determine the patients’ prognosis. This study aims to screen the microRNAs associated with non-small cell lung cancer metastasis, so as to provide theoretical basis for investigating their roles in non-small cell lung cancer metastasis. In this study, the fluorescent transfected human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines H460 developed tumors subcutaneously, which were then in situ transplanted into the left lung of nude mice to obtain the tissue specimens of primary tumor and metastatic tumor. The differentially expressed microRNAs associated with non-small cell lung cancer metastasis were identified using the microRNA microarray and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, and bioinformatics analysis of the microRNAs was performed. The microarray analysis results revealed that 17 microRNAs with up-regulated expression and 7 with down-regulated expression between the non-small cell lung cancer metastatic primary loci and the non-metastatic primary loci (Group A), while 20 microRNAs with up-regulated expression (ratio > 1.5 times, P < 0.05) and 16 with down-regulated expression (ratio < 0.65 times, P < 0.05) between the non-small cell lung cancer metastatic loci and the metastatic primary loci (Group B). RT-PCR validation and bioinformatics analysis of some microRNAs identified 2 microRNAs with up-regulated expression, miR-10b and miR-144, and 3 microRNAs with down-regulated expression, miR-9, miR-31 and miR-34b in Group A; and 4 microRNAs with down-regulated expression, miR-25, miR-92a, miR-202 and miR-326 in Group B, which may be mediated by transcription factors activator protein 1 (AP-1), p53, STATs and NF-κB, regulate cell development, proliferation and cycle, DNA and RNA metabolism and signal transduction pathway, and promote tumor growth and metastasis through the effects on target genes like RARβ, RASSF1

  3. Stochastic Modeling of Regulation of Gene Expression by Multiple Competing Small RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles; Jia, Tao; Kulkarni, Rahul

    2011-03-01

    A wealth of new research has highlighted the critical roles of small RNAs (sRNAs) in diverse processes such as quorum sensing and cellular responses to stress. The pathways controlling these processes often have a central motif comprised of a key protein regulated by multiple sRNAs. However, the regulation of stochastic gene expression of a single target gene by multiple sRNAs is currently not well understood. To address this issue, we analyze a stochastic model of regulation of gene expression by multiple sRNAs. For this model, we derive exact analytic results for the regulated protein distribution including compact expressions for its mean and variance. The derived results provide novel insights into the roles of multiple sRNAs in fine-tuning the noise in gene expression. In particular, we show that, in contrast to regulation by a single sRNA, multiple sRNAs provide a mechanism for independently controlling the mean and variance of the regulated protein distribution.

  4. Stochastic modeling of regulation of gene expression by multiple small RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles; Jia, Tao; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

    2012-06-01

    A wealth of new research has highlighted the critical roles of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in diverse processes, such as quorum sensing and cellular responses to stress. The pathways controlling these processes often have a central motif composed of a master regulator protein whose expression is controlled by multiple sRNAs. However, the stochastic gene expression of a single target gene regulated by multiple sRNAs is currently not well understood. To address this issue, we analyze a stochastic model of regulation of gene expression by multiple sRNAs. For this model, we derive exact analytic results for the regulated protein distribution, including compact expressions for its mean and variance. The derived results provide insights into the roles of multiple sRNAs in fine-tuning the noise in gene expression. In particular, we show that, in contrast to regulation by a single sRNA, multiple sRNAs provide a mechanism for independently controlling the mean and variance of the regulated protein distribution.

  5. Ancestral vinclozolin exposure alters the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm small noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Andrew; Skinner, Michael K.; Yan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin during gestation promotes a higher incidence of various diseases in the subsequent unexposed F3 and F4 generations. This phenomenon is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown to in part involve alterations in DNA methylation, but the role of other epigenetic mechanisms remains unknown. The current study investigated the alterations in small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) in the sperm from F3 generation control and vinclozolin lineage rats. Over 200 differentially expressed sncRNAs were identified and the tRNA-derived sncRNAs, namely 5′ halves of mature tRNAs (5′ halves), displayed the most dramatic changes. Gene targets of the altered miRNAs and tRNA 5′ halves revealed associations between the altered sncRNAs and differentially DNA methylated regions. Dysregulated sncRNAs appear to correlate with mRNA profiles associated with the previously observed vinclozolin-induced disease phenotypes. Data suggest potential connections between sperm-borne RNAs and the vinclozolin-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomenon. PMID:27390623

  6. miRNAs: small genes with big potential in metazoan phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Tarver, James E; Sperling, Erik A; Nailor, Audrey; Heimberg, Alysha M; Robinson, Jeffrey M; King, Benjamin L; Pisani, Davide; Donoghue, Philip C J; Peterson, Kevin J

    2013-11-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a key component of gene regulatory networks and have been implicated in the regulation of virtually every biological process found in multicellular eukaryotes. What makes them interesting from a phylogenetic perspective is the high conservation of primary sequence between taxa, their accrual in metazoan genomes through evolutionary time, and the rarity of secondary loss in most metazoan taxa. Despite these properties, the use of miRNAs as phylogenetic markers has not yet been discussed within a clear conceptual framework. Here we highlight five properties of miRNAs that underlie their utility in phylogenetics: 1) The processes of miRNA biogenesis enable the identification of novel miRNAs without prior knowledge of sequence; 2) The continuous addition of miRNA families to metazoan genomes through evolutionary time; 3) The low level of secondary gene loss in most metazoan taxa; 4) The low substitution rate in the mature miRNA sequence; and 5) The small probability of convergent evolution of two miRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses using both Bayesian and parsimony methods on a eumetazoan miRNA data set highlight the potential of miRNAs to become an invaluable new tool, especially when used as an additional line of evidence, to resolve previously intractable nodes within the tree of life.

  7. The ribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase can interact with small regulatory RNAs in both protective and degradative modes

    PubMed Central

    Bandyra, Katarzyna J.; Sinha, Dhriti; Syrjanen, Johanna; Luisi, Ben F.; De Lay, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    In all bacterial species examined thus far, small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) contribute to intricate patterns of dynamic genetic regulation. Many of the actions of these nucleic acids are mediated by well-characterized chaperones such as the Hfq protein, but genetic screens have also recently identified the 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) as an unexpected stabilizer and facilitator of sRNAs in vivo. To understand how a ribonuclease might mediate these effects, we tested the interactions of PNPase with sRNAs and found that the enzyme can readily degrade these nucleic acids in vitro but, nonetheless, copurifies from cell extracts with the same sRNAs without discernible degradation or modification to their 3′ ends, suggesting that the associated RNA is protected against the destructive activity of the ribonuclease. In vitro, PNPase, Hfq, and sRNA can form a ternary complex in which the ribonuclease plays a nondestructive, structural role. Such ternary complexes might be formed transiently in vivo, but could help to stabilize particular sRNAs and remodel their population on Hfq. Taken together, our results indicate that PNPase can be programmed to act on RNA in either destructive or stabilizing modes in vivo and may form complex, protective ribonucleoprotein assemblies that shape the landscape of sRNAs available for action. PMID:26759452

  8. Design of small molecule-responsive microRNAs based on structural requirements for Drosha processing

    PubMed Central

    Beisel, Chase L.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Culler, Stephanie J.; Hoff, Kevin G.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are prevalent regulatory RNAs that mediate gene silencing and play key roles in diverse cellular processes. While synthetic RNA-based regulatory systems that integrate regulatory and sensing functions have been demonstrated, the lack of detail on miRNA structure–function relationships has limited the development of integrated control systems based on miRNA silencing. Using an elucidated relationship between Drosha processing and the single-stranded nature of the miRNA basal segments, we developed a strategy for designing ligand-responsive miRNAs. We demonstrate that ligand binding to an aptamer integrated into the miRNA basal segments inhibits Drosha processing, resulting in titratable control over gene silencing. The generality of this control strategy was shown for three aptamer–small molecule ligand pairs. The platform can be extended to the design of synthetic miRNAs clusters, cis-acting miRNAs and self-targeting miRNAs that act both in cis and trans, enabling fine-tuning of the regulatory strength and dynamics. The ability of our ligand-responsive miRNA platform to respond to user-defined inputs, undergo regulatory performance tuning and display scalable combinatorial control schemes will help advance applications in biological research and applied medicine. PMID:21149259

  9. Ancestral vinclozolin exposure alters the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm small noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Andrew; Skinner, Michael K; Yan, Wei

    Exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin during gestation promotes a higher incidence of various diseases in the subsequent unexposed F3 and F4 generations. This phenomenon is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown to in part involve alterations in DNA methylation, but the role of other epigenetic mechanisms remains unknown. The current study investigated the alterations in small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) in the sperm from F3 generation control and vinclozolin lineage rats. Over 200 differentially expressed sncRNAs were identified and the tRNA-derived sncRNAs, namely 5' halves of mature tRNAs (5' halves), displayed the most dramatic changes. Gene targets of the altered miRNAs and tRNA 5' halves revealed associations between the altered sncRNAs and differentially DNA methylated regions. Dysregulated sncRNAs appear to correlate with mRNA profiles associated with the previously observed vinclozolin-induced disease phenotypes. Data suggest potential connections between sperm-borne RNAs and the vinclozolin-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomenon.

  10. Monitoring the Spatiotemporal Activities of miRNAs in Small Animal Models Using Molecular Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Baril, Patrick; Ezzine, Safia; Pichon, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy. PMID:25749473

  11. Discovery of putative small non-coding RNAs from the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis.

    PubMed

    Woolfit, Megan; Algama, Manjula; Keith, Jonathan M; McGraw, Elizabeth A; Popovici, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that induces a wide range of effects in its insect hosts, including manipulation of reproduction and protection against pathogens. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-Wolbachia interaction, though it is likely to be mediated via the secretion of proteins or other factors. There is an increasing amount of evidence that bacteria regulate many cellular processes, including secretion of virulence factors, using small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), but sRNAs have not previously been described from Wolbachia. We have used two independent approaches, one based on comparative genomics and the other using RNA-Seq data generated for gene expression studies, to identify candidate sRNAs in Wolbachia. We experimentally characterized the expression of one of these candidates in four Wolbachia strains, and showed that it is differentially regulated in different host tissues and sexes. Given the roles played by sRNAs in other host-associated bacteria, the conservation of the candidate sRNAs between different Wolbachia strains, and the sex- and tissue-specific differential regulation we have identified, we hypothesise that sRNAs may play a significant role in the biology of Wolbachia, and in particular in its interactions with its host.

  12. MicroRNAs in Amoebozoa: Deep sequencing of the small RNA population in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum reveals developmentally regulated microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Avesson, Lotta; Reimegård, Johan; Wagner, E. Gerhart H.; Söderbom, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The RNA interference machinery has served as a guardian of eukaryotic genomes since the divergence from prokaryotes. Although the basic components have a shared origin, silencing pathways directed by small RNAs have evolved in diverse directions in different eukaryotic lineages. Micro (mi)RNAs regulate protein-coding genes and play vital roles in plants and animals, but less is known about their functions in other organisms. Here, we report, for the first time, deep sequencing of small RNAs from the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. RNA from growing single-cell amoebae as well as from two multicellular developmental stages was sequenced. Computational analyses combined with experimental data reveal the expression of miRNAs, several of them exhibiting distinct expression patterns during development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNAs in the Amoebozoa supergroup. We also show that overexpressed miRNA precursors generate miRNAs and, in most cases, miRNA* sequences, whose biogenesis is dependent on the Dicer-like protein DrnB, further supporting the presence of miRNAs in D. discoideum. In addition, we find miRNAs processed from hairpin structures originating from an intron as well as from a class of repetitive elements. We believe that these repetitive elements are sources for newly evolved miRNAs. PMID:22875808

  13. Fast-forward generation of effective artificial small RNAs for enhanced antiviral defense in plants.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Alberto; Carrington, James C; Daròs, José-Antonio

    Artificial small RNAs (sRNAs) are short ≈21-nt non-coding RNAs engineered to inactivate sequence complementary RNAs. In plants, they have been extensively used to silence cellular transcripts in gene function analyses and to target invading RNA viruses to induce resistance. Current artificial sRNA-based antiviral resistance in plants is mainly limited to a single virus, and is jeopardized by the emergence of mutations in the artificial sRNA target site or by the presence of co-infecting viruses. Hence, there is a need to further develop the artificial sRNA approach to generate more broad and durable antiviral resistance in plants. A recently developed toolbox allows for the time and cost-effective large-scale production of artificial sRNA constructs in plants. The toolbox includes the P-SAMS web tool for the automated design of artificial sRNAs, and a new generation of artificial microRNA and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNA (syn-tasiRNA) vectors for direct cloning and high expression of artificial sRNAs. Here we describe how the simplicity and high-throughput capability of these new technologies should accelerate the study of artificial sRNA-based antiviral resistance in plants. In particular, we discuss the potential of the syn-tasiRNA approach as a promising strategy for developing more effective, durable and broad antiviral resistance in plants.

  14. Small RNA Sequencing Based Identification of MiRNAs in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ercan Selçuk; Gordon, Donna M; Telli, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA molecules are short, non-coding RNAs identified for their crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation. A well-studied example includes miRNAs (microRNAs) which have been identified in several model organisms including the freshwater flea and planktonic crustacean Daphnia. A model for epigenetic-based studies with an available genome database, the identification of miRNAs and their potential role in regulating Daphnia gene expression has only recently garnered interest. Computational-based work using Daphnia pulex, has indicated the existence of 45 miRNAs, 14 of which have been experimentally verified. To extend this study, we took a sequencing approach towards identifying miRNAs present in a small RNA library isolated from Daphnia magna. Using Perl codes designed for comparative genomic analysis, 815,699 reads were obtained from 4 million raw reads and run against a database file of known miRNA sequences. Using this approach, we have identified 205 putative mature miRNA sequences belonging to 188 distinct miRNA families. Data from this study provides critical information necessary to begin an investigation into a role for these transcripts in the epigenetic regulation of Daphnia magna.

  15. Development of RNA interference-based therapeutics and application of multi-target small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiejun; Wu, Meihua; Zhu, York Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Li

    2014-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been proven in recent years to be a newly advanced and powerful tool for development of therapeutic agents toward various unmet medical needs such as cancer, in particular, a great attention has been paid to the development of antineoplastic agents. Recent success in clinical trials related to RNAi-based therapeutics on cancer and ocular disease has validated that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) constitute a new promising class of therapeutics. Currently, a great wealth of multi-target based siRNA structural modifications is available for promoting siRNA-mediated gene silencing with low side effects. Here, the latest developments in RNAi-based therapeutics and novel structural modifications described for siRNAs--in particular multi-target siRNAs--are reviewed.

  16. MicroRNA-Like Small RNAs Prediction in the Development of Antrodia cinnamomea

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan-Liang; Ma, Li-Ting; Lee, Yi-Ru; Lin, Shih-Shun; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a precious, host-specific brown-rot fungus that has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for centuries is known to have diverse bioactive compounds with potent pharmaceutical activity. In this study, different fermentation states of A. cinnamomea (wild-type fruiting bodies and liquid cultured mycelium) were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique. A 45.58 Mb genome encoding 6,522 predicted genes was obtained. High quality reads were assembled into a total of 13,109 unigenes. Using a previously constructed pipeline to search for microRNAs (miRNAs), we then identified 4 predicted conserved miRNA and 63 novel predicted miRNA-like small RNA (milRNA) candidates. Target prediction revealed several interesting proteins involved in tri-terpenoid synthesis, mating type recognition, chemical or physical sensory protein and transporters predicted to be regulated by the miRNAs and milRNAs. PMID:25860872

  17. Metatranscriptomic analysis of small RNAs present in soybean deep sequencing libraries

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Lorrayne Gomes; da Fonseca, Guilherme Cordenonsi; de Morais, Guilherme Loss; de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Valter; de Carvalho, Joseane Biso; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    A large number of small RNAs unrelated to the soybean genome were identified after deep sequencing of soybean small RNA libraries. A metatranscriptomic analysis was carried out to identify the origin of these sequences. Comparative analyses of small interference RNAs (siRNAs) present in samples collected in open areas corresponding to soybean field plantations and samples from soybean cultivated in greenhouses under a controlled environment were made. Different pathogenic, symbiotic and free-living organisms were identified from samples of both growth systems. They included viruses, bacteria and different groups of fungi. This approach can be useful not only to identify potentially unknown pathogens and pests, but also to understand the relations that soybean plants establish with microorganisms that may affect, directly or indirectly, plant health and crop production. PMID:22802714

  18. Metatranscriptomic analysis of small RNAs present in soybean deep sequencing libraries.

    PubMed

    Molina, Lorrayne Gomes; da Fonseca, Guilherme Cordenonsi; de Morais, Guilherme Loss; de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Valter; de Carvalho, Joseane Biso; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-06-01

    A large number of small RNAs unrelated to the soybean genome were identified after deep sequencing of soybean small RNA libraries. A metatranscriptomic analysis was carried out to identify the origin of these sequences. Comparative analyses of small interference RNAs (siRNAs) present in samples collected in open areas corresponding to soybean field plantations and samples from soybean cultivated in greenhouses under a controlled environment were made. Different pathogenic, symbiotic and free-living organisms were identified from samples of both growth systems. They included viruses, bacteria and different groups of fungi. This approach can be useful not only to identify potentially unknown pathogens and pests, but also to understand the relations that soybean plants establish with microorganisms that may affect, directly or indirectly, plant health and crop production.

  19. MicroRNAs As Potential Targets for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Shriram, Varsha; Kumar, Vinay; Devarumath, Rachayya M.; Khare, Tushar S.; Wani, Shabir H.

    2016-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20–24 nt) sized, non-coding, single stranded riboregulator RNAs abundant in higher organisms. Recent findings have established that plants assign miRNAs as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in sequence-specific manner to respond to numerous abiotic stresses they face during their growth cycle. These small RNAs regulate gene expression via translational inhibition. Usually, stress induced miRNAs downregulate their target mRNAs, whereas, their downregulation leads to accumulation and function of positive regulators. In the past decade, investigations were mainly aimed to identify plant miRNAs, responsive to individual or multiple environmental factors, profiling their expression patterns and recognizing their roles in stress responses and tolerance. Altered expressions of miRNAs implicated in plant growth and development have been reported in several plant species subjected to abiotic stress conditions such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, nutrient deprivation, and heavy metals. These findings indicate that miRNAs may hold the key as potential targets for genetic manipulations to engineer abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is aimed to provide recent updates on plant miRNAs, their biogenesis and functions, target prediction and identification, computational tools and databases available for plant miRNAs, and their roles in abiotic stress-responses and adaptive mechanisms in major crop plants. Besides, the recent case studies for overexpressing the selected miRNAs for miRNA-mediated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance of transgenic plants have been discussed. PMID:27379117

  20. Novel functional small RNAs are selectively loaded onto mammalian Ago1.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Natsuko; Okuyama, Kazuki; Ogata, Jun; Kanai, Akinori; Helwak, Aleksandra; Takamatsu, Masako; Imadome, Ken-ichi; Takakura, Kohei; Chanda, Bidisha; Kurosaki, Natsumi; Yamamoto, Haruna; Ando, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hirotaka; Inaba, Toshiya; Kotani, Ai

    2014-04-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins function in RNA silencing as components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). In lower organisms, the small interfering RNA and miRNA pathways diverge due in part to sorting mechanisms that direct distinct small RNA (sRNA) duplexes onto specific Ago-RISCs. However, such sorting mechanisms appear to be lost in mammals. miRNAs appear not to distinguish among Ago1-4. To determine the effect of viral infection on the sorting system, we compared the content of deep-sequenced RNA extracted from immunoprecipitation experiments with the Ago1 and Ago2 proteins using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells. Consistent with previous observations, sequence tags derived from miRNA loci in EBV and humans globally associate in approximately equivalent amounts with Ago1 and Ago2. Interestingly, additional sRNAs, which have not been registered as miRNAs, were associated with Ago1. Among them, some unique sequence tags derived from tandem loci in the human genome associate exclusively with Ago1 but not, or rarely, with Ago2. This is supported by the observation that the expression of the unique sRNAs in the cells is highly dependent on Ago1 proteins. When we knocked down Ago1, the expression of the Ago1-specific sRNAs decreased dramatically. Most importantly, the Ago1-specific sRNAs bound to mRNAs and regulated target genes and were dramatically upregulated, depending on the EBV life cycle. Therefore, even in mammals, the sorting mechanism in the Ago1-4 family is functional. Moreover, the existence of Ago1-specific sRNAs implies vital roles in some aspects of mammalian biology.

  1. Novel functional small RNAs are selectively loaded onto mammalian Ago1

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Natsuko; Okuyama, Kazuki; Ogata, Jun; Kanai, Akinori; Helwak, Aleksandra; Takamatsu, Masako; Imadome, Ken-ichi; Takakura, Kohei; Chanda, Bidisha; Kurosaki, Natsumi; Yamamoto, Haruna; Ando, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hirotaka; Inaba, Toshiya; Kotani, Ai

    2014-01-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins function in RNA silencing as components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). In lower organisms, the small interfering RNA and miRNA pathways diverge due in part to sorting mechanisms that direct distinct small RNA (sRNA) duplexes onto specific Ago-RISCs. However, such sorting mechanisms appear to be lost in mammals. miRNAs appear not to distinguish among Ago1–4. To determine the effect of viral infection on the sorting system, we compared the content of deep-sequenced RNA extracted from immunoprecipitation experiments with the Ago1 and Ago2 proteins using Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells. Consistent with previous observations, sequence tags derived from miRNA loci in EBV and humans globally associate in approximately equivalent amounts with Ago1 and Ago2. Interestingly, additional sRNAs, which have not been registered as miRNAs, were associated with Ago1. Among them, some unique sequence tags derived from tandem loci in the human genome associate exclusively with Ago1 but not, or rarely, with Ago2. This is supported by the observation that the expression of the unique sRNAs in the cells is highly dependent on Ago1 proteins. When we knocked down Ago1, the expression of the Ago1-specific sRNAs decreased dramatically. Most importantly, the Ago1-specific sRNAs bound to mRNAs and regulated target genes and were dramatically upregulated, depending on the EBV life cycle. Therefore, even in mammals, the sorting mechanism in the Ago1–4 family is functional. Moreover, the existence of Ago1-specific sRNAs implies vital roles in some aspects of mammalian biology. PMID:24627180

  2. Identification and Characterization of Argonaute Protein, Ago2 and Its Associated Small RNAs in Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Pengfei; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Liu, Shuai; Wang, Heng; Chen, Qijun

    2012-01-01

    Background The complex life cycle of the genus Schistosoma drives the parasites to employ subtle developmentally dependent gene regulatory machineries. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are essential gene regulatory factors that, through their impact on mRNA and genome stability, control stage-specific gene expression. Abundant sncRNAs have been identified in this genus. However, their functionally associated partners, Argonaute family proteins, which are the key components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), have not yet been fully explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to Schistosoma japonicum Argonaute protein Ago2 (SjAgo2), but not SjAgo1 and SjAgo3, were generated. Soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was subjected to immunoprecipitation with the mAbs and the captured SjAgo2 protein was subsequently confirmed by Western blot and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The small RNA population associated with native SjAgo2 in adult parasites was extracted from the immunoprecipitated complex and subjected to library construction. High-through-put sequencing of these libraries yielded a total of ≈50 million high-quality reads. Classification of these small RNAs showed that endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) generated from transposable elements (TEs), especially from the subclasses of LINE and LTR, were prominent. Further bioinformatics analysis revealed that siRNAs derived from ten types of well-defined retrotransposons were dramatically enriched in the SjAgo2-specific libraries compared to small RNA libraries constructed with total small RNAs from separated adult worms. These results suggest that a key function of SjAgo2 is to maintain genome stability through suppressing the activities of retrotransposons. Conclusions/Significance In this study, we identified and characterized one of the three S. japonicum Argonautes, SjAgo2, and its associated small RNAs were found to be predominantly derived from particular

  3. Differential expression of small non-coding RNAs in serum from cattle challenged with viruses causing bovine respiratory disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MicroRNAs and tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are the two most abundant groups of small non-coding RNAs. The potential for microRNAs and tRFs to be used as pathogen exposure indicators is yet to be fully explored. Our objective was to identify microRNAs and tRFs in cattle challenged with a non-cy...

  4. Differential expression of small non-coding RNAs in serum from cattle challenged with viruses causing bovine respiratory disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MicroRNAs and tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are the two most abundant groups of small non-coding RNAs. The potential for microRNAs and tRFs to be used as pathogen exposure indicators is yet to be fully explored. Our objective was to identify microRNAs and tRFs in cattle challenged with a non-cy...

  5. Identification of novel microRNAs in primates by using the synteny information and small RNA deep sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhidong; Liu, Hongde; Nie, Yumin; Ding, Suping; Yan, Mingli; Tan, Shuhua; Jin, Yuanchang; Sun, Xiao

    2013-10-16

    Current technologies that are used for genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) prediction are mainly based on BLAST tool. They often produce a large number of false positives. Here, we describe an effective approach for identifying orthologous pre-miRNAs in several primates based on syntenic information. Some of them have been validated by small RNA high throughput sequencing data. This approach uses the synteny information and experimentally validated miRNAs of human, and incorporates currently available algorithms and tools to identify the pre-miRNAs in five other primates. First, we identified 929 potential pre-miRNAs in the marmoset in which miRNAs have not yet been reported. Then, we predicted the miRNAs in other primates, and we successfully re-identified most of the published miRNAs and found 721, 979, 650 and 639 new potential pre-miRNAs in chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan and rhesus macaque, respectively. Furthermore, the miRNA transcriptome in the four primates have been re-analyzed and some novel predicted miRNAs have been supported by the small RNA sequencing data. Finally, we analyzed the potential functions of those validated miRNAs and explored the regulatory elements and transcription factors of some validated miRNA genes of interest. The results show that our approach can effectively identify novel miRNAs and some miRNAs that supported by small RNA sequencing data maybe play roles in the nervous system.

  6. Prediction of CsrA-regulating small RNAs in bacteria and their experimental verification in Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Prajna R; Cui, Xiaohui; Williams, Joshua W; Stevens, Ann M; Kulkarni, Rahul V

    2006-01-01

    The role of small RNAs as critical components of global regulatory networks has been highlighted by several recent studies. An important class of such small RNAs is represented by CsrB and CsrC of Escherichia coli, which control the activity of the global regulator CsrA. Given the critical role played by CsrA in several bacterial species, an important problem is the identification of CsrA-regulating small RNAs. In this paper, we develop a computer program (CSRNA_FIND) designed to locate potential CsrA-regulating small RNAs in bacteria. Using CSRNA_FIND to search the genomes of bacteria having homologs of CsrA, we identify all the experimentally known CsrA-regulating small RNAs and also make predictions for several novel small RNAs. We have verified experimentally our predictions for two CsrA-regulating small RNAs in Vibrio fischeri. As more genomes are sequenced, CSRNA_FIND can be used to locate the corresponding small RNAs that regulate CsrA homologs. This work thus opens up several avenues of research in understanding the mode of CsrA regulation through small RNAs in bacteria.

  7. The small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) are involved in regulating the latent-to-lytic switch in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Beatrix; Strehle, Martin; Sattler, Christine; Bund, Dagmar; Flach, Britta; Stoeger, Tobias; Haas, Jürgen G.; Adler, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The human gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), which are associated with a variety of diseases including tumors, produce various small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Like all herpesviruses, they show two stages in their life cycle: lytic replication and latency. During latency, hardly any viral proteins are expressed to avoid recognition by the immune system. Thus, sncRNAs might be exploited since they are less likely to be recognized. Specifically, it has been proposed that sncRNAs might contribute to the maintenance of latency. This has already been shown in vitro, but the respective evidence in vivo is very limited. A natural model system to explore this question in vivo is infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68). We used this model to analyze a MHV-68 mutant lacking the expression of all miRNAs. In the absence of the miRNAs, we observed a higher viral genomic load during late latency in the spleens of mice. We propose that this is due to a disturbed regulation of the latent-to-lytic switch, altering the balance between latent and lytic infection. Hence, we provide for the first time evidence that gammaherpesvirus sncRNAs contribute to the maintenance of latency in vivo. PMID:27561205

  8. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  9. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  10. Involvement of Enterococcus faecalis Small RNAs in Stress Response and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Michaux, Charlotte; Hartke, Axel; Martini, Cecilia; Reiss, Swantje; Albrecht, Dirk; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Engelmann, Susanne; Hain, Torsten; Verneuil, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) have recently been identified in Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, and six of these candidate sRNAs with unknown functions were selected for a functional study. Deletion mutants and complemented strains were constructed, and their virulence was tested. We were unable to obtain the ef0869-0870 mutant, likely due to an essential role, and the ef0820-0821 sRNA seemed not to be involved in virulence. In contrast, the mutant lacking ef0408-0409 sRNA, homologous to the RNAII component of the toxin-antitoxin system, appeared more virulent and more able to colonize mouse organs. The three other mutants showed reduced virulence. In addition, we checked the responses of these mutant strains to several stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal tract or during the infection process. In parallel, the activities of the sRNA promoters were measured using transcriptional fusion constructions. To attempt to identify the regulons of these candidate sRNAs, proteomics profiles of the mutant strains were compared with that of the wild type. This showed that the selected sRNAs controlled the expression of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes and the stress response. The combined data highlight the roles of certain candidate sRNAs in the adaptation of E. faecalis to environmental changes and in the complex transition process from a commensal to a pathogen. PMID:24914223

  11. Small Non-coding RNAs Associated with Viral Infectious Diseases of Veterinary Importance: Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Samir, Mohamed; Pessler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) molecules that can regulate mRNAs by inducing their degradation or by blocking translation. Considering that miRNAs are ubiquitous, stable, and conserved across animal species, it seems feasible to exploit them for clinical applications. Unlike in human viral diseases, where some miRNA-based molecules have progressed to clinical application, in veterinary medicine, this concept is just starting to come into view. Clinically, miRNAs could represent powerful diagnostic tools to pinpoint animal viral diseases and/or prognostic tools to follow up disease progression or remission. Additionally, the possible consequences of miRNA dysregulation make them potential therapeutic targets and open the possibilities to use them as tools to generate viral disease-resistant livestock. This review presents an update of preclinical studies on using sncRNAs to combat viral diseases that affect pet and farm animals. Moreover, we discuss the possibilities and challenges of bringing these bench-based discoveries to the veterinary clinic. PMID:27092305

  12. Small regulatory RNAs and the fine-tuning of plant–bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Harfouche, Lamia; Haichar, Feth el Zahar; Achouak, Wafa

    2015-04-01

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) play a key role in many physiological and adaptive responses in bacteria. Faced with rapidly changing environments, it is more advantageous for bacteria to use sRNA-mediated responses than regulation by protein transcriptional factors, as sRNAs act at the post-transcriptional level and require less energy and time for their synthesis and turnover. The use of RNA deep sequencing has provided hundreds of sRNA candidates in different bacterial species that interact with plants. Here, we review the most recent results for the involvement of bacterial sRNAs in beneficial as well as deleterious plant–bacteria interactions. We describe the current view for the role of sRNAs, which are suggested to improve competition for both niches and resources in plant-interacting bacteria. These sRNAs also help plant-associated bacteria individually adapt to the rapidly changing conditions to which they are exposed, during different stages of this interaction.

  13. Genome-wide analyses of small non-coding RNAs in streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Patenge, Nadja; Pappesch, Roberto; Khani, Afsaneh; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Streptococci represent a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria, which colonize a wide range of hosts among animals and humans. Streptococcal species occur as commensal as well as pathogenic organisms. Many of the pathogenic species can cause severe, invasive infections in their hosts leading to a high morbidity and mortality. The consequence is a tremendous suffering on the part of men and livestock besides the significant financial burden in the agricultural and healthcare sectors. An environmentally stimulated and tightly controlled expression of virulence factor genes is of fundamental importance for streptococcal pathogenicity. Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) modulate the expression of genes involved in stress response, sugar metabolism, surface composition, and other properties that are related to bacterial virulence. Even though the regulatory character is shared by this class of RNAs, variation on the molecular level results in a high diversity of functional mechanisms. The knowledge about the role of sRNAs in streptococci is still limited, but in recent years, genome-wide screens for sRNAs have been conducted in an increasing number of species. Bioinformatics prediction approaches have been employed as well as expression analyses by classical array techniques or next generation sequencing. This review will give an overview of whole genome screens for sRNAs in streptococci with a focus on describing the different methods and comparing their outcome considering sRNA conservation among species, functional similarities, and relevance for streptococcal infection. PMID:26042151

  14. Involvement of Enterococcus faecalis small RNAs in stress response and virulence.

    PubMed

    Michaux, Charlotte; Hartke, Axel; Martini, Cecilia; Reiss, Swantje; Albrecht, Dirk; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Engelmann, Susanne; Hain, Torsten; Verneuil, Nicolas; Giard, Jean-Christophe

    2014-09-01

    Candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) have recently been identified in Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, and six of these candidate sRNAs with unknown functions were selected for a functional study. Deletion mutants and complemented strains were constructed, and their virulence was tested. We were unable to obtain the ef0869-0870 mutant, likely due to an essential role, and the ef0820-0821 sRNA seemed not to be involved in virulence. In contrast, the mutant lacking ef0408-0409 sRNA, homologous to the RNAII component of the toxin-antitoxin system, appeared more virulent and more able to colonize mouse organs. The three other mutants showed reduced virulence. In addition, we checked the responses of these mutant strains to several stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal tract or during the infection process. In parallel, the activities of the sRNA promoters were measured using transcriptional fusion constructions. To attempt to identify the regulons of these candidate sRNAs, proteomics profiles of the mutant strains were compared with that of the wild type. This showed that the selected sRNAs controlled the expression of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes and the stress response. The combined data highlight the roles of certain candidate sRNAs in the adaptation of E. faecalis to environmental changes and in the complex transition process from a commensal to a pathogen.

  15. Small regulatory RNAs controlled by genomic imprinting and their contribution to human disease

    PubMed Central

    Girardot, Michael; Cavaillé, Jérôme; Feil, Robert

    2012-01-01

    More than a hundred protein-coding genes are controlled by genomic imprinting in humans. These atypical genes are organized in chromosomal domains, each of which is controlled by a differentially methylated "imprinting control region" (ICR). How ICRs mediate the parental allele-specific expression of close-by genes is now becoming understood. At several imprinted domains, this epigenetic mechanism involves the action of long non-coding RNAs. It is less well appreciated that imprinted gene domains also transcribe hundreds of microRNA and small nucleolar RNA genes and that these represent the densest clusters of small RNA genes in mammalian genomes. The evolutionary reasons for this remarkable enrichment of small regulatory RNAs at imprinted domains remain unclear. However, recent studies show that imprinted small RNAs modulate specific functions in development and metabolism and also are frequently perturbed in cancer. Here, we review our current understanding of imprinted small RNAs in the human genome and discuss how perturbation of their expression contributes to disease. PMID:23154539

  16. Small regulatory RNAs controlled by genomic imprinting and their contribution to human disease.

    PubMed

    Girardot, Michael; Cavaillé, Jérôme; Feil, Robert

    2012-12-01

    More than a hundred protein-coding genes are controlled by genomic imprinting in humans. These atypical genes are organized in chromosomal domains, each of which is controlled by a differentially methylated "imprinting control region" (ICR). How ICRs mediate the parental allele-specific expression of close-by genes is now becoming understood. At several imprinted domains, this epigenetic mechanism involves the action of long non-coding RNAs. It is less well appreciated that imprinted gene domains also transcribe hundreds of microRNA and small nucleolar RNA genes and that these represent the densest clusters of small RNA genes in mammalian genomes. The evolutionary reasons for this remarkable enrichment of small regulatory RNAs at imprinted domains remain unclear. However, recent studies show that imprinted small RNAs modulate specific functions in development and metabolism and also are frequently perturbed in cancer. Here, we review our current understanding of imprinted small RNAs in the human genome and discuss how perturbation of their expression contributes to disease.

  17. Plant development: small RNAs and the metamorphosis of leaves.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, Daniel H; Sinha, Neelima R

    2014-11-17

    In many plant species, the degree of serration and complexity in successive leaves increases. A new study suggests that small-RNA-mediated licensing of competitive interactions between transcription factors links the developmental clock regulating vegetative phase change with leaf morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterisation of the Small RNAs in the Biomedically Important Green-Bottle Blowfly Lucilia sericata

    PubMed Central

    Blenkiron, Cherie; Tsai, Peter; Brown, Lisa A.; Askelund, Kathryn J.; Windsor, John A.; Phillips, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The green bottle fly maggot, Lucilia sericata, is a species with importance in medicine, agriculture and forensics. Improved understanding of this species’ biology is of great potential benefit to many research communities. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a short non-protein coding regulatory RNA, which directly regulate a host of protein coding genes at the translational level. They have been shown to have developmental and tissue specific distributions where they impact directly on gene regulation. In order to improve understanding of the biology of L. sericata maggots we have performed small RNA-sequencing of their secretions and tissue at different developmental stages. Results We have successfully isolated RNA from the secretions of L. sericata maggots. Illumina small RNA-sequencing of these secretions and the three tissues (crop, salivary gland, gut) revealed that the most common small RNA fragments were derived from ribosomal RNA and transfer RNAs of both insect and bacterial origins. These RNA fragments were highly specific, with the most common tRNAs, such as GlyGCC, predominantly represented by reads derived from the 5’ end of the mature maggot tRNA. Each library also had a unique profile of miRNAs with a high abundance of miR-10-5p in the maggot secretions and gut and miR-8 in the food storage organ the crop and salivary glands. The pattern of small RNAs in the bioactive maggot secretions suggests they originate from a combination of saliva, foregut and hindgut tissues. Droplet digital RT-PCR validation of the RNA-sequencing data shows that not only are there differences in the tissue profiles for miRNAs and small RNA fragments but that these are also modulated through developmental stages of the insect. Conclusions We have identified the small-RNAome of the medicinal maggots L. sericata and shown that there are distinct subsets of miRNAs expressed in specific tissues that also alter during the development of the insect. Furthermore there are very

  19. New Neurons in Aging Brains: Molecular Control by Small Non-Coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Marijn; Buijink, M. Renate; Lucassen, Paul J.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis generates functional neurons from neural stem cells present in specific brain regions. It is largely confined to two main regions: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG), in the hippocampus. With age, the function of the hippocampus and particularly the DG is impaired. For instance, adult neurogenesis is decreased with aging, in both proliferating and differentiation of newborn cells, while in parallel an age-associated decline in cognitive performance is often seen. Surprisingly, the synaptogenic potential of adult-born neurons is only marginally influenced by aging. Therefore, although proliferation, differentiation, and synaptogenesis of adult-born new neurons in the DG are closely related to each other, they are differentially affected by aging. In this review we discuss the crucial roles of a novel class of recently discovered modulators of gene expression, the small non-coding RNAs, in the regulation of adult neurogenesis. Multiple small non-coding RNAs are differentially expressed in the hippocampus. In particular a subgroup of the small non-coding RNAs, the microRNAs, fine-tune the progression of adult neurogenesis. This makes small non-coding RNAs appealing candidates to orchestrate the functional alterations in adult neurogenesis and cognition associated with aging. Finally, we summarize observations that link changes in circulating levels of steroid hormones with alterations in adult neurogenesis, cognitive decline, and vulnerability to psychopathology in advanced age, and discuss a potential interplay between steroid hormone receptors and microRNAs in cognitive decline in aging individuals. PMID:22363255

  20. The Role of Ctk1 Kinase in Termination of Small Non-Coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lenstra, Tineke L.; Tudek, Agnieszka; Clauder, Sandra; Xu, Zhenyu; Pachis, Spyridon T.; van Leenen, Dik; Kemmeren, Patrick; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Libri, Domenico; Holstege, Frank C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be performed by at least two distinct pathways and is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Late termination of mRNAs is performed by the CPF/CF complex, the recruitment of which is dependent on CTD-Ser2 phosphorylation (Ser2P). Early termination of shorter cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) and small nucleolar/nuclear RNAs (sno/snRNAs) is performed by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) complex that binds phosphorylated CTD-Ser5 (Ser5P) via the CTD-interacting domain (CID) of Nrd1p. In this study, mutants of the different termination pathways were compared by genome-wide expression analysis. Surprisingly, the expression changes observed upon loss of the CTD-Ser2 kinase Ctk1p are more similar to those derived from alterations in the Ser5P-dependent NNS pathway, than from loss of CTD-Ser2P binding factors. Tiling array analysis of ctk1Δ cells reveals readthrough at snoRNAs, at many cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) and stable uncharacterized transcripts (SUTs), but only at some mRNAs. Despite the suggested predominant role in termination of mRNAs, we observed that a CTK1 deletion or a Pol II CTD mutant lacking all Ser2 positions does not result in a global mRNA termination defect. Rather, termination defects in these strains are widely observed at NNS-dependent genes. These results indicate that Ctk1p and Ser2 CTD phosphorylation have a wide impact in termination of small non-coding RNAs but only affect a subset of mRNA coding genes. PMID:24324601

  1. Small RNAs and Gene Network in a Durable Disease Resistance Gene—Mediated Defense Responses in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haitao; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating data have suggested that small RNAs (sRNAs) have important functions in plant responses to pathogen invasion. However, it is largely unknown whether and how sRNAs are involved in the regulation of rice responses to the invasion of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes bacterial blight, the most devastating bacterial disease of rice worldwide. We performed simultaneous genome-wide analyses of the expression of sRNAs and genes during early defense responses of rice to Xoo mediated by a major disease resistance gene, Xa3/Xa26, which confers durable and race-specific qualitative resistance. A large number of sRNAs and genes showed differential expression in Xa3/Xa26-mediated resistance. These differentially expressed sRNAs include known microRNAs (miRNAs), unreported miRNAs, and small interfering RNAs. The candidate genes, with expression that was negatively correlated with the expression of sRNAs, were identified, indicating that these genes may be regulated by sRNAs in disease resistance in rice. These results provide a new perspective regarding the putative roles of sRNA candidates and their putative target genes in durable disease resistance in rice. PMID:26335702

  2. MicroRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Keiko; Mataki, Hiroko; Seki, Naohiko; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Kamikawaji, Kazuto; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    In spite of advances in the diagnosis and current molecular target therapies of lung cancer, this disease remains the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Approximately 80% of lung cancers is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 5-year survival rate of the disease is ~20%. On the other hand, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology. IPF is refractory to treatment and has a very low survival rate. Moreover, IPF is frequently associated with lung cancer. However, the common mechanisms shared by these two diseases remain poorly understood. In the post-genome sequence era, the discovery of noncoding RNAs, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), has had a major impact on most biomedical fields, and these small molecules have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of NSCLC and IPF. Investigation of novel RNA networks mediated by miRNAs has improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these diseases. This review summarizes our current knowledge on aberrantly expressed miRNAs regulating NSCLC and IPF based on miRNA expression signatures.

  3. Small RNA sequencing revealed dysregulated piRNAs in Alzheimer's disease and their probable role in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jyoti; Sarkar, Arijita; Parida, Sibun; Ghosh, Zhumur; Mallick, Bibekanand

    2017-02-28

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), ∼23-36 nucleotide-long small non-coding RNAs, earlier believed to be germline-specific, have now been identified in somatic cells including neural cells. However, piRNAs have not yet been studied in the human brain (HB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-affected brain. In this study, by next-generation small RNA sequencing, 564 and 451 piRNAs were identified in the HB and AD-affected brain respectively. The majority of the neuronal piRNAs have intronic origin wherein primary piRNAs are mostly from the negative strand. piRNAs originating from the coding sequence of mRNAs and tRNAs are highly conserved compared to other genomic contexts. We found 1923 mRNAs significantly down-regulated in AD as the predicted targets of 125 up-regulated piRNAs. The filtering of targets based on our criteria coupled with pathway enrichment analysis of all the predicted targets resulted in five most significant AD-associated pathways enriched with four genes (CYCS, LIN7C, KPNA6, and RAB11A) found to be regulated by four piRNAs. The qRT-PCR study verified the reciprocal expression of piRNAs and their targets. This study provides the first evidence of piRNAs in the HB and AD which will provide the foundation for future studies to unravel the regulatory role of piRNAs in the human brain and associated diseases. The sequencing data have been submitted to the GEO database (Accession no. GSE85075).

  4. The Phloem-Delivered RNA Pool Contains Small Noncoding RNAs and Interferes with Translation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shoudong; Sun, Li; Kragler, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    In plants, the vascular tissue contains the enucleated sieve tubes facilitating long-distance transport of nutrients, hormones, and proteins. In addition, several mRNAs and small interfering RNAs/microRNAs were shown to be delivered via sieve tubes whose content is embodied by the phloem sap (PS). A number of these phloem transcripts are transported from source to sink tissues and function at targeted tissues. To gain additional insights into phloem-delivered RNAs and their potential role in signaling, we isolated and characterized PS RNA molecules distinct from microRNAs/small interfering RNAs with a size ranging from 30 to 90 bases. We detected a high number of full-length and phloem-specific fragments of noncoding RNAs such as tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and spliceosomal RNAs in the PS of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). In vitro assays show that small quantities of PS RNA molecules efficiently inhibit translation in an unspecific manner. Proof of concept that PS-specific tRNA fragments may interfere with ribosomal activity was obtained with artificially produced tRNA fragments. The results are discussed in terms of a functional role for long distance delivered noncoding PS RNAs. PMID:19261735

  5. Psmir: a database of potential associations between small molecules and miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanlin; Wang, Jing; Dai, Enyu; Yang, Feng; Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Liu, Dianming; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    miRNAs are key post-transcriptional regulators of many essential biological processes, and their dysregulation has been validated in almost all human cancers. Restoring aberrantly expressed miRNAs might be a novel therapeutics. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that small molecular compounds can affect miRNA expression. Thus, prediction of associations between small molecules and miRNAs is important for investigation of miRNA-targeted drugs. Here, we analyzed 39 miRNA-perturbed gene expression profiles, and then calculated the similarity of transcription responses between miRNA perturbation and drug treatment to predict drug-miRNA associations. At the significance level of 0.05, we obtained 6501 candidate associations between 1295 small molecules and 25 miRNAs, which included 624 FDA approved drugs. Finally, we constructed the Psmir database to store all potential associations and the related materials. In a word, Psmir served as a valuable resource for dissecting the biological significance in small molecules’ effects on miRNA expression, which will facilitate developing novel potential therapeutic targets or treatments for human cancers. Psmir is supported by all major browsers, and is freely available at http://www.bio-bigdata.com/Psmir/. PMID:26759061

  6. Psmir: a database of potential associations between small molecules and miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanlin; Wang, Jing; Dai, Enyu; Yang, Feng; Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Liu, Dianming; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-13

    miRNAs are key post-transcriptional regulators of many essential biological processes, and their dysregulation has been validated in almost all human cancers. Restoring aberrantly expressed miRNAs might be a novel therapeutics. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that small molecular compounds can affect miRNA expression. Thus, prediction of associations between small molecules and miRNAs is important for investigation of miRNA-targeted drugs. Here, we analyzed 39 miRNA-perturbed gene expression profiles, and then calculated the similarity of transcription responses between miRNA perturbation and drug treatment to predict drug-miRNA associations. At the significance level of 0.05, we obtained 6501 candidate associations between 1295 small molecules and 25 miRNAs, which included 624 FDA approved drugs. Finally, we constructed the Psmir database to store all potential associations and the related materials. In a word, Psmir served as a valuable resource for dissecting the biological significance in small molecules' effects on miRNA expression, which will facilitate developing novel potential therapeutic targets or treatments for human cancers. Psmir is supported by all major browsers, and is freely available at http://www.bio-bigdata.com/Psmir/.

  7. Genomic prediction and validation of Pospiviroidae-derived small RNAs and their targets during tomato infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Viroids are small, covalently-closed, circular non-coding RNAs that act as pathogens in flowering plants. It is proposed that the symptoms of viroid pathogenesis result from a direct interaction between the viroid genomic RNA and unknown host plant factors. Using a comparative genomic approach we t...

  8. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20–30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focuse...

  9. CRISPR transcript processing: a mechanism for generating a large number of small interfering RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated sequences) is a recently discovered prokaryotic defense system against foreign DNA, including viruses and plasmids. CRISPR cassette is transcribed as a continuous transcript (pre-crRNA), which is processed by Cas proteins into small RNA molecules (crRNAs) that are responsible for defense against invading viruses. Experiments in E. coli report that overexpression of cas genes generates a large number of crRNAs, from only few pre-crRNAs. Results We here develop a minimal model of CRISPR processing, which we parameterize based on available experimental data. From the model, we show that the system can generate a large amount of crRNAs, based on only a small decrease in the amount of pre-crRNAs. The relationship between the decrease of pre-crRNAs and the increase of crRNAs corresponds to strong linear amplification. Interestingly, this strong amplification crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of pre-crRNA by an unidentified nuclease. We show that overexpression of cas genes above a certain level does not result in further increase of crRNA, but that this saturation can be relieved if the rate of CRISPR transcription is increased. We furthermore show that a small increase of CRISPR transcription rate can substantially decrease the extent of cas gene activation necessary to achieve a desired amount of crRNA. Conclusions The simple mathematical model developed here is able to explain existing experimental observations on CRISPR transcript processing in Escherichia coli. The model shows that a competition between specific pre-crRNA processing and non-specific degradation determines the steady-state levels of crRNA and is responsible for strong linear amplification of crRNAs when cas genes are overexpressed. The model further shows how disappearance of only a few pre-crRNA molecules normally present in the cell can lead to a large (two orders of magnitude

  10. CRISPR transcript processing: a mechanism for generating a large number of small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena; Severinov, Konstantin

    2012-07-31

    CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated sequences) is a recently discovered prokaryotic defense system against foreign DNA, including viruses and plasmids. CRISPR cassette is transcribed as a continuous transcript (pre-crRNA), which is processed by Cas proteins into small RNA molecules (crRNAs) that are responsible for defense against invading viruses. Experiments in E. coli report that overexpression of cas genes generates a large number of crRNAs, from only few pre-crRNAs. We here develop a minimal model of CRISPR processing, which we parameterize based on available experimental data. From the model, we show that the system can generate a large amount of crRNAs, based on only a small decrease in the amount of pre-crRNAs. The relationship between the decrease of pre-crRNAs and the increase of crRNAs corresponds to strong linear amplification. Interestingly, this strong amplification crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of pre-crRNA by an unidentified nuclease. We show that overexpression of cas genes above a certain level does not result in further increase of crRNA, but that this saturation can be relieved if the rate of CRISPR transcription is increased. We furthermore show that a small increase of CRISPR transcription rate can substantially decrease the extent of cas gene activation necessary to achieve a desired amount of crRNA. The simple mathematical model developed here is able to explain existing experimental observations on CRISPR transcript processing in Escherichia coli. The model shows that a competition between specific pre-crRNA processing and non-specific degradation determines the steady-state levels of crRNA and is responsible for strong linear amplification of crRNAs when cas genes are overexpressed. The model further shows how disappearance of only a few pre-crRNA molecules normally present in the cell can lead to a large (two orders of magnitude) increase of crRNAs upon cas

  11. Global analyses of endonucleolytic cleavage in mammals reveal expanded repertoires of cleavage-inducing small RNAs and their targets.

    PubMed

    Cass, Ashley A; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Greer, Christopher; Lin, Xianzhi; Kim, Yong; Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Xiao, Xinshu

    2016-04-20

    In mammals, small RNAs are important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. While their roles in mRNA destabilization and translational repression are well appreciated, their involvement in endonucleolytic cleavage of target RNAs is poorly understood. Very few microRNAs are known to guide RNA cleavage. Endogenous small interfering RNAs are expected to induce target cleavage, but their target genes remain largely unknown. We report a systematic study of small RNA-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage in mouse through integrative analysis of small RNA and degradome sequencing data without imposing any bias toward known small RNAs. Hundreds of small cleavage-inducing RNAs and their cognate target genes were identified, significantly expanding the repertoire of known small RNA-guided cleavage events. Strikingly, both small RNAs and their target sites demonstrated significant overlap with retrotransposons, providing evidence for the long-standing speculation that retrotransposable elements in mRNAs are leveraged as signals for gene targeting. Furthermore, our analysis showed that the RNA cleavage pathway is also present in human cells but affecting a different repertoire of retrotransposons. These results show that small RNA-guided cleavage is more widespread than previously appreciated. Their impact on retrotransposons in non-coding regions shed light on important aspects of mammalian gene regulation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Small RNAs as important regulators for the hybrid vigour of super-hybrid rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Peng, Yonggang; Wei, Xiaoli; Dai, Yan; Yuan, Dawei; Lu, Yufei; Pan, Yangyang; Zhu, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Heterosis is an important biological phenomenon; however, the role of small RNA (sRNA) in heterosis of hybrid rice remains poorly described. Here, we performed sRNA profiling of F1 super-hybrid rice LYP9 and its parents using high-throughput sequencing technology, and identified 355 distinct mature microRNAs and trans-acting small interfering RNAs, 69 of which were differentially expressed sRNAs (DES) between the hybrid and the mid-parental value. Among these, 34 DES were predicted to target 176 transcripts, of which 112 encoded 94 transcription factors. Further analysis showed that 67.6% of DES expression levels were negatively correlated with their target mRNAs either in flag leaves or panicles. The target genes of DES were significantly enriched in some important biological processes, including the auxin signalling pathway, in which existed a regulatory network mediated by DES and their targets, closely associated with plant growth and development. Overall, 20.8% of DES and their target genes were significantly enriched in quantitative trait loci of small intervals related to important rice agronomic traits including growth vigour, grain yield, and plant architecture, suggesting that the interaction between sRNAs and their targets contributes to the heterotic phenotypes of hybrid rice. Our findings revealed that sRNAs might play important roles in hybrid vigour of super-hybrid rice by regulating their target genes, especially in controlling the auxin signalling pathway. The above finding provides a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of heterosis.

  13. Contributions of the Hfq protein to translation regulation by small noncoding RNAs binding to the mRNA coding sequence.

    PubMed

    Wroblewska, Zuzanna; Olejniczak, Mikolaj

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial Sm-like protein Hfq affects the regulation of translation by small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs). In this way, Hfq participates in the cell adaptation to environmental stress, regulation of cellular metabolism, and bacterial virulence. The majority of known sRNAs bind complementary sequences in the 5'-untranslated mRNA regions. However, recent studies have shown that sRNAs can also target the mRNA coding sequence, even far downstream of the AUG start codon. In this review, we discuss how Hfq contributes to the translation regulation by those sRNAs which bind to the mRNA coding sequence.

  14. The RNAi Universe in Fungi: A Varied Landscape of Small RNAs and Biological Functions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2017-09-08

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that uses small RNA molecules to suppress gene expression through sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation, translational repression, or transcriptional inhibition. In filamentous fungi, the protective function of RNAi in the maintenance of genome integrity is well known. However, knowledge of the regulatory role of RNAi in fungi has had to wait until the recent identification of different endogenous small RNA classes, which are generated by distinct RNAi pathways. In addition, RNAi research on new fungal models has uncovered the role of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in the regulation of diverse biological functions. In this review, we give an up-to-date overview of the different classes of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in fungi and their roles in the defense of genome integrity and regulation of fungal physiology and development, as well as in the interaction of fungi with biotic and abiotic environments.

  15. Silencing of antibiotic resistance in E. coli with engineered phage bearing small regulatory RNAs.

    PubMed

    Libis, Vincent K; Bernheim, Aude G; Basier, Clovis; Jaramillo-Riveri, Sebastián; Deyell, Matthew; Aghoghogbe, Idonnya; Atanaskovic, Iva; Bencherif, Amel Camélia; Benony, Marguerite; Koutsoubelis, Nicolas; Löchner, Anne C; Marinkovic, Zoran S; Zahra, Sarah; Zegman, Yonatan; Lindner, Ariel B; Wintermute, Edwin H

    2014-12-19

    In response to emergent antibiotic resistance, new strategies are needed to enhance the effectiveness of existing antibiotics. Here, we describe a phagemid-delivered, RNA-mediated system capable of directly knocking down antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) were designed to specifically inhibit translation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and kanamycin phosphotransferase. Nonlytic phagemids coding for sRNA expression were able to infect and restore chloramphenicol and kanamycin sensitivity to populations of otherwise resistant E. coli. This modular system could easily be extended to other bacteria with resistance profiles that depend on specific transcripts.

  16. Metabolism of small RNAs in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, K; Choudhury, I; Eliceiri, G L

    1989-02-01

    There are gaps in what is known about the metabolism of some mammalian small RNA species. Our present observations can be summarized as follows. The level of radiolabeled mature U1 RNA doubled between 2 and 24 hr of label chase, while that of all other small RNA species tested did not change. These results are compatible with the possibility that the nucleotide precursor pool for U1 RNA transcription may be partly segregated, or that there may be a second pathway of U1 RNA formation. Precursors of nucleolar U3 RNA were detected whose electrophoretic mobilities are equivalent to those of transcripts approximately 14 and approximately 8 nucleotides longer than the mature species, and which are apparently cytoplasmic. The ladder of U2 RNA precursors showed a gap, suggesting that some of the cleavages during U2 RNA processing are endonucleolytic. We detected an apparent U5 RNA precursor whose electrophoretic mobility is equivalent to that of a species approximately 1 nucleotide longer than mature U5 RNA. There was a predominant band in the middle of the ladder of U4 RNA precursors (apparently approximately 3 nucleotides longer than mature U4 RNA) which suggests that U4 RNA maturation may pause briefly at that intermediate. There are apparently two additional species of mature hY3 RNA, which are less abundant and are about 1 and 2 bases longer than the major hY3 RNA species. An apparent hY3 RNA precursor was detected, which may be approximately 2-3 nucleotides longer than the main mature hY3 RNA species.

  17. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  18. Small RNAs in Plant Responses to Abiotic Stresses: Regulatory Roles and Study Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Yee-Shan; Wong, Johanna Wing-Hang; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Hui, Jerome Ho-Lam; Chan, Ting-Fung; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To survive under abiotic stresses in the environment, plants trigger a reprogramming of gene expression, by transcriptional regulation or translational regulation, to turn on protective mechanisms. The current focus of research on how plants cope with abiotic stresses has transitioned from transcriptomic analyses to small RNA investigations. In this review, we have summarized and evaluated the current methodologies used in the identification and validation of small RNAs and their targets, in the context of plant responses to abiotic stresses. PMID:26501263

  19. Active role of small non-coding RNAs derived from SINE/B1 retrotransposon during early mouse development.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yusuke; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko

    2012-02-01

    Small RNAs derived from repetitive sequences appear to play essential roles in mammalian gametogenesis and early development. In this study we focused on the short interspersed nucleotide element B1 (SINE/B1) small RNAs, which were zygotically expressed in pre-implantation mouse embryos; and we investigated whether the SINE/B1 small RNAs played an active role in gene silencing during early mouse development. The results indicated that the level of silencing activity involving the SINE/B1 small RNAs as mediators was significantly reduced in Dicer-knockdown mouse embryos. In addition, when the SINE/B1 small RNAs were mapped to a full-length SINE/B1 sequence, phase-distribution of the small RNAs appeared, suggesting possible enzymatic involvement. Therefore, our present study suggested that the zygotically expressed SINE/B1 small RNAs in pre-implantation mouse embryos contain active small RNAs, which were presumably processed by Dicer and involved in gene silencing.

  20. Accumulation of Potato spindle tuber viroid-specific small RNAs is accompanied by specific changes in tomato gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing appears to play a key role in viroid pathogenicity. To better understand the biogenesis of viroid-specific small RNAs and their possible role in disease induction, we have examined the accumulation of these small RNAs in the leaves and stems of potato spindle tub...

  1. Evolution of small nuclear RNAs in S. cerevisiae, C. albicans, and other hemiascomycetous yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovich, Quinn M.; Guthrie, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The spliceosome is a large, dynamic ribonuclear protein complex, required for the removal of intron sequences from newly synthesized eukaryotic RNAs. The spliceosome contains five essential small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs): U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6. Phylogenetic comparisons of snRNAs from protists to mammals have long demonstrated remarkable conservation in both primary sequence and secondary structure. In contrast, the snRNAs of the hemiascomycetous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have highly unusual features that set them apart from the snRNAs of other eukaryotes. With an emphasis on the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, we have now identified and compared snRNAs from newly sequenced yeast genomes, providing a perspective on spliceosome evolution within the hemiascomycetes. In addition to tracing the origins of previously identified snRNA variations present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have found numerous unexpected changes occurring throughout the hemiascomycetous lineages. Our observations reveal interesting examples of RNA and protein coevolution, giving rise to altered interaction domains, losses of deeply conserved snRNA-binding proteins, and unique snRNA sequence changes within the catalytic center of the spliceosome. These same yeast lineages have experienced exceptionally high rates of intron loss, such that modern hemiascomycetous genomes contain introns in only ∼5% of their genes. Also, the splice site sequences of those introns that remain adhere to an unusually strict consensus. Some of the snRNA variations we observe may thus reflect the altered intron landscape with which the hemiascomycetous spliceosome must contend. PMID:17956975

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of Small RNAs in the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583

    PubMed Central

    Shioya, Kouki; Michaux, Charlotte; Kuenne, Carsten; Hain, Torsten; Verneuil, Nicolas; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Hartsch, Thomas; Hartke, Axel; Giard, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are key mediators of virulence and stress inducible gene expressions in some pathogens. In this work we identify sRNAs in the Gram positive opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. We characterized 11 sRNAs by tiling microarray analysis, 5′ and 3′ RACE-PCR, and Northern blot analysis. Six sRNAs were specifically expressed at exponential phase, two sRNAs were observed at stationary phase, and three were detected during both phases. Searches of putative functions revealed that three of them (EFA0080_EFA0081 and EFB0062_EFB0063 on pTF1 and pTF2 plasmids, respectively, and EF0408_EF04092 located on the chromosome) are similar to antisense RNA involved in plasmid addiction modules. Moreover, EF1097_EF1098 shares strong homologies with tmRNA (bi-functional RNA acting as both a tRNA and an mRNA) and EF2205_EF2206 appears homologous to 4.5S RNA member of the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) ribonucleoprotein complex. In addition, proteomic analysis of the ΔEF3314_EF3315 sRNA mutant suggests that it may be involved in the turnover of some abundant proteins. The expression patterns of these transcripts were evaluated by tiling array hybridizations performed with samples from cells grown under eleven different conditions some of which may be encountered during infection. Finally, distribution of these sRNAs among genome sequences of 54 E. faecalis strains was assessed. This is the first experimental genome-wide identification of sRNAs in E. faecalis and provides impetus to the understanding of gene regulation in this important human pathogen. PMID:21912655

  3. Genome-wide identification of small RNAs in the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583.

    PubMed

    Shioya, Kouki; Michaux, Charlotte; Kuenne, Carsten; Hain, Torsten; Verneuil, Nicolas; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Hartsch, Thomas; Hartke, Axel; Giard, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are key mediators of virulence and stress inducible gene expressions in some pathogens. In this work we identify sRNAs in the gram positive opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. We characterized 11 sRNAs by tiling microarray analysis, 5' and 3' RACE-PCR, and Northern blot analysis. Six sRNAs were specifically expressed at exponential phase, two sRNAs were observed at stationary phase, and three were detected during both phases. Searches of putative functions revealed that three of them (EFA0080_EFA0081 and EFB0062_EFB0063 on pTF1 and pTF2 plasmids, respectively, and EF0408_EF04092 located on the chromosome) are similar to antisense RNA involved in plasmid addiction modules. Moreover, EF1097_EF1098 shares strong homologies with tmRNA (bi-functional RNA acting as both a tRNA and an mRNA) and EF2205_EF2206 appears homologous to 4.5S RNA member of the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) ribonucleoprotein complex. In addition, proteomic analysis of the ΔEF3314_EF3315 sRNA mutant suggests that it may be involved in the turnover of some abundant proteins. The expression patterns of these transcripts were evaluated by tiling array hybridizations performed with samples from cells grown under eleven different conditions some of which may be encountered during infection. Finally, distribution of these sRNAs among genome sequences of 54 E. faecalis strains was assessed. This is the first experimental genome-wide identification of sRNAs in E. faecalis and provides impetus to the understanding of gene regulation in this important human pathogen.

  4. Post-transcriptional regulation of MTA family by microRNAs in the context of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 20–24 nt small non-coding RNAs that regulate a wide range of biological processes through changing the stability and translation of their target mRNA genes. Shortly after their identification, many miRNA genes have been found dysregulated in a variety of human cancers, indicating a pathological function of this gene class in mediating cancer progression. Over the past decade, accumulated literature has shown that miRNAs participate in numerous cancer-relevant processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, metabolism and importantly, metastasis, which accounts for the mortality of approximately 90% of cancer patients. Several recent publications have linked miRNAs with metastasis-associated protein (MTA) family members. Given the fact that the MTA family members are widely overexpressed in human cancers and their nature of serving as both corepressor and coactivator in gene regulation, it is intriguing to study whether certain miRNAs regulate cancer progression through modulating the expression of MTA family members. In this review, we will focus on recent advances in understanding the regulatory relationship between certain miRNAs and MTA family members. PMID:25332146

  5. Identification of small RNAs in extracellular vesicles from the commensal yeast Malassezia sympodialis

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Simon; Bruhn, Sören; Vallhov, Helen; Andersson, Anna; Billmyre, R. Blake; Scheynius, Annika

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia is the dominant fungus in the human skin mycobiome and is associated with common skin disorders including atopic eczema (AE)/dermatitis. Recently, it was found that Malassezia sympodialis secretes nanosized exosome-like vesicles, designated MalaEx, that carry allergens and can induce inflammatory cytokine responses. Extracellular vesicles from different cell-types including fungi have been found to deliver functional RNAs to recipient cells. In this study we assessed the presence of small RNAs in MalaEx and addressed if the levels of these RNAs differ when M. sympodialis is cultured at normal human skin pH versus the elevated pH present on the skin of patients with AE. The total number and the protein concentration of the released MalaEx harvested after 48 h culture did not differ significantly between the two pH conditions nor did the size of the vesicles. From small RNA sequence data, we identified a set of reads with well-defined start and stop positions, in a length range of 16 to 22 nucleotides consistently present in the MalaEx. The levels of small RNAs were not significantly differentially expressed between the two different pH conditions indicating that they are not influenced by the elevated pH level observed on the AE skin. PMID:28051166

  6. Plasma and EBC microRNAs as early biomarkers of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mozzoni, Paola; Banda, Iris; Goldoni, Matteo; Corradi, Massimo; Tiseo, Marcello; Acampa, Olga; Balestra, Valeria; Ampollini, Luca; Casalini, Angelo; Carbognani, Paolo; Mutti, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of death in Western countries. Current screening methods are invasive and still lead to a high percentage of false positives. There is, therefore, a need to find biomarkers that increase the probability of detecting lung cancer early. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are stable molecules in blood plasma and exhaled breath condensate (EBC). We quantified miRNA-21 and miRNA-486 expression from plasma and EBC samples from patients with a diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and controls. miRNA-21 was significantly higher in plasma and in EBC of the NSCLC patients and miRNA-486 was significantly lower. This difference indicates a significantly improved diagnostic value, and suggests that these miRNAs could be clinically used as a first-line screening test in high-risk subjects.

  7. Small RNAs tackle large viruses: RNA interference-based antiviral defense against DNA viruses in insects.

    PubMed

    Bronkhorst, Alfred W; Miesen, Pascal; van Rij, Ronald P

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway processes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) that guide the recognition and cleavage of complementary viral target RNAs. In RNA virus infections, viral replication intermediates, dsRNA genomes or viral structured RNAs have been implicated as Dicer-2 substrates. In a recent publication, we demonstrated that a double-stranded DNA virus, Invertebrate iridescent virus 6, is a target of the Drosophila RNAi machinery, and we proposed that overlapping converging transcripts base pair to form the dsRNA substrates for vsiRNA biogenesis. Here, we discuss the role of RNAi in antiviral defense to DNA viruses in Drosophila and other invertebrate model systems.

  8. Small RNAs of Borrelia burgdorferi: Characterizing Functional Regulators in a Sea of sRNAs


    PubMed Central

    Lybecker, Meghan C.; Samuels, D. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and closely related genospecies are the causative agents of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease north of the equator. The bacterium, a member of the spirochete phylum, is acquired by a tick vector that feeds on an infected vertebrate host and is transmitted to another vertebrate during subsequent feeding by the next tick stage. The precise navigation of this enzootic cycle entails the regulation of genes required for these two host-specific phases as well as the transitions between them. Recently, an expansive swath of small RNAs has been identified in B. burgdorferi and likely many, if not most, are involved in regulating gene expression. Regardless, with only a few exceptions, the functions of these RNAs are completely unknown. However, several state-of-the-art approaches are available to identify the targets of these RNAs and provide insight into their role in the enzootic cycle and infection. PMID:28656017

  9. Genome-wide analysis of microRNAs identifies the lipid metabolism pathway to be a defining factor in adipose tissue from different sheep.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Qin, Xiaoyu; Guo, Yuntao

    2015-12-22

    MicroRNAs are short (17-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. In recent years, deep sequencing of the transcriptome is increasingly being utilized with the promise of higher sensitivity for the identification of differential expression patterns as well as the opportunity to discover new transcripts, including new alternative isoforms and miRNAs. Here, we utilized RNA-seq technology to perform a genome-wide analysis of miRNAs from the adipose tissue of the two species of sheep to look for clues that might explain the fat deposition differences between the sheep. The RNA-seq analysis detected 3132 miRNAs from the adipose tissue of the Small-tail Han and Dorset sheep, of which 2893 were defined as potential new miRNAs. In addition, 54 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two breeds of sheep. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the predicted target genes that negatively associated with the differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that there was less active lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of Small Tail Han sheep. This study can help understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the morphological differences related to fat deposition between two breeds of sheep.

  10. Regulation of Small RNAs and Corresponding Targets in Nod Factor-Induced Phaseolus vulgaris Root Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2016-06-04

    A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean-rhizobia symbiosis.

  11. Regulation of Small RNAs and Corresponding Targets in Nod Factor-Induced Phaseolus vulgaris Root Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean–rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27271618

  12. Profiling and Characterization of Small RNAs in the Liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, Belonging to the First Diverged Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Masayuki; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kurihara, Yukio; Matsui, Minami; Bowman, John L; Kohchi, Takayuki; Hamada, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in gene regulation during plant development. Previous studies revealed that some miRNAs are highly shared by most land plants. Recently, the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, has been studied by molecular genetic approaches, and sequencing of its genome is currently underway. The expression pattern and the detailed functions of miRNAs during Marchantia development are unknown. Here, we profiled the small RNAs expressed in thalli, antheridiophores and archegoniophores of M. polymorpha using high-throughput RNA sequencing. We revealed that a limited number of miRNAs are shared between M. polymorpha and the moss, Physcomitrella patens, and that a number of miRNAs are M. polymorpha specific. Like other land plants, cognate target genes corresponding to conserved miRNAs could be found in the genome database and were experimentally confirmed to guide cleavage of target mRNAs. The results suggested that two genes in the SPL (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE) transcription factor family, which are regulated by miR156 in most land plants, were instead targeted by two distinct miRNAs in M. polymorpha. In order to demonstrate the physiological roles of miRNAs in M. polymorpha, we constructed an miRNA ectopic expression system to establish overexpression transformants for conserved miRNAs, miR166 and miR319. Ectopic expression of these miRNAs induced abnormal development of the thallus and gemma cups, suggesting that balanced expression of miRNA/target mRNAs has a crucial role in developmental regulation in M. polymorpha. Profiling data on miRNA together with the ectopic expression system would provide new information on the liverwort small RNA world and evolutionary divergence/conservation of small RNA function among land plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Alphavirus-derived small RNAs modulate pathogenesis in disease vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Kevin M.; Wiley, Michael R.; Morazzani, Elaine M.; Adelman, Zach N.

    2008-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses cause significant levels of morbidity and mortality in humans and domesticated animals. Maintenance of mosquito-borne viruses in nature requires a biological transmission cycle that involves alternating virus replication in a susceptible vertebrate and mosquito host. Although the vertebrate infection is acute and often associated with disease, continual transmission of these viruses in nature depends on the establishment of a persistent, nonpathogenic infection in the mosquito vector. An antiviral RNAi response has been shown to limit the replication of RNA viruses in flies. However, the importance of the RNAi pathway as an antiviral defense in mammals is unclear. Differences in the immune responses of mammals and mosquitoes may explain why these viruses are not generally associated with pathology in the invertebrate host. We identified virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs), 21 nt in length, in Aedes aegypti infected with the mosquito-borne virus, Sindbis (SINV). viRNAs had an asymmetric distribution that spanned the length of the SINV genome. To determine the role of viRNAs in controlling pathogenic potential, mosquitoes were infected with recombinant alphaviruses expressing suppressors of RNA silencing. Decreased survival was observed in mosquitoes in which the accumulation of viRNAs was suppressed. These results suggest that an exogenous siRNA pathway is essential to the survival of mosquitoes infected with alphaviruses and, thus, the maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:19047642

  14. Regulation of spermatogenesis by small non-coding RNAs: role of the germ granule.

    PubMed

    de Mateo, Sara; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The spermatogenic process relays in highly regulated gene expression mechanisms at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels to generate the male gamete that is needed for the perpetuation of the species. Small non-coding RNA pathways have been determined to participate in the post-transcriptional regulatory processes of germ cells. The most important sncRNA molecules that are critically involved in spermatogenesis belong to the miRNA and piRNAs pathways as illustrated by animal models where ablation of specific protein components displays male infertility. Several elements of these regulatory pathways have been found in the nuage or germ granule, a non-membranous cytoplasmatic structure that can be seen in spermatocytes and spermatids. This notion suggests that germ granules may act as organizer centers for silencing pathways in the germline. In general, miRNAs regulate spermatogenesis through targeting and down-regulation of specific transcripts to eventually promote sperm development. However, piRNAs are powerful repressors of transposon elements expression in the spermatogenic process. Here we describe the suggested functions that miRNA and piRNAs pathways execute in the regulation of spermatogenesis and include some recent studies in the field. Despite major strides on the detailed molecular mechanisms of sncRNAs in relation to spermatogenesis, there is plenty to discover on this fascinating regulatory program.

  15. Nicotine biosynthesis is regulated by two more layers: Small and long non-protein-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiahua; Fan, Longjiang

    2016-06-02

    In recent years, many small RNAs and long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified and characterized. They have been proved to play essential regulatory roles in gene expression in both primary and secondary metabolisms. In nature, many plants produce alkaloids. However, there are only few reports on the involvement of non-coding RNAs in alkaloid biosynthesis. Nicotine is major alkaloid in tobacco plants. Its biosynthesis and regulation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) have been well studied; and major structural genes involved in the nicotine biosynthesis and transcriptional regulators related to its biosynthesis have been identified and characterized. In our recent studies, we identified a microRNA (nta-miRX27) and also a lncRNA (nta-eTMX27) as an endogenous target mimicry (eTM) in tobacco targeting the nicotine biosynthesis key gene QPT2 encoding quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPT) and thereby regulating the nicotine content. Their regulatory pattern leads us to conclude that nicotine biosynthesis is regulated by 2 more layers besides previously known mechanisms. Future study on the relationship between the non-coding RNAs and transcription factors in nicotine biosynthesis was discussed in this article.

  16. Diverse Functions of Small RNAs in Different Plant–Pathogen Communications

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Yang, Meiling; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism that utilizes small RNAs (sRNAs) to direct the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Plants utilizing RNA silencing machinery to defend pathogen infection was first identified in plant–virus interaction and later was observed in distinct plant–pathogen interactions. RNA silencing is not only responsible for suppressing RNA accumulation and movement of virus and viroid, but also facilitates plant immune responses against bacterial, oomycete, and fungal infection. Interestingly, even the same plant sRNA can perform different roles when encounters with different pathogens. On the other side, pathogens counteract by generating sRNAs that directly regulate pathogen gene expression to increase virulence or target host genes to facilitate pathogen infection. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the characterization and biogenesis of host- and pathogen-derived sRNAs, as well as the different RNA silencing machineries that plants utilize to defend against different pathogens. The functions of these sRNAs in defense and counter-defense and their mechanisms for regulation during different plant–pathogen interactions are also discussed. PMID:27757103

  17. Identification and profiling of novel microRNAs in the Brassica rapa genome based on small RNA deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the functional non-coding small RNAs involved in the epigenetic control of the plant genome. Although plants contain both evolutionary conserved miRNAs and species-specific miRNAs within their genomes, computational methods often only identify evolutionary conserved miRNAs. The recent sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome enables us to identify miRNAs and their putative target genes. In this study, we sought to provide a more comprehensive prediction of B. rapa miRNAs based on high throughput small RNA deep sequencing. Results We sequenced small RNAs from five types of tissue: seedlings, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers. By analyzing 2.75 million unique reads that mapped to the B. rapa genome, we identified 216 novel and 196 conserved miRNAs that were predicted to target approximately 20% of the genome’s protein coding genes. Quantitative analysis of miRNAs from the five types of tissue revealed that novel miRNAs were expressed in diverse tissues but their expression levels were lower than those of the conserved miRNAs. Comparative analysis of the miRNAs between the B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes demonstrated that redundant copies of conserved miRNAs in the B. rapa genome may have been deleted after whole genome triplication. Novel miRNA members seemed to have spontaneously arisen from the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes, suggesting the species-specific expansion of miRNAs. We have made this data publicly available in a miRNA database of B. rapa called BraMRs. The database allows the user to retrieve miRNA sequences, their expression profiles, and a description of their target genes from the five tissue types investigated here. Conclusions This is the first report to identify novel miRNAs from Brassica crops using genome-wide high throughput techniques. The combination of computational methods and small RNA deep sequencing provides robust predictions of miRNAs in the genome. The finding of numerous novel miRNAs

  18. Next-generation sequencing of small RNAs from HIV-infected cells identifies phased microrna expression patterns and candidate novel microRNAs differentially expressed upon infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Stewart T; Thomas, Matthew J; Sova, Pavel; Green, Richard R; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2013-02-05

    HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells induces a range of host transcriptional changes in mRNAs as well as microRNAs that may coordinate changes in mRNAs. To survey these dynamic changes, we applied next-generation sequencing, analyzing the small RNA fraction of HIV-infected cells at 5, 12, and 24 h postinfection (RNA-Seq). These time points afforded a view of the transcriptomic changes occurring both before and during viral replication. In the resulting small RNA-Seq data set, we detected a phased pattern of microRNA expression. Largely distinct sets of microRNAs were found to be suppressed at 5 and 12 h postinfection, and both sets of changes rebounded later in infection. A larger set of microRNA changes was observed at 24 h postinfection. When integrated with mRNA expression data, the small RNA-Seq data indicated a role for microRNAs in transcriptional regulation, T cell activation, and cell cycle during HIV infection. As a unique benefit of next-generation sequencing, we also detected candidate novel host microRNAs differentially expressed during infection, including one whose downregulation at 24 h postinfection may allow full replication of HIV to proceed. Collectively, our data provide a uniquely comprehensive view of the changes in host microRNAs induced by HIV during cellular infection. IMPORTANCE New sequencing technologies allow unprecedented views into changes occurring in virus-infected cells, including comprehensive and largely unbiased measurements of different types of RNA. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile dynamic changes in cellular microRNAs occurring in HIV-infected cells. The sensitivity afforded by sequencing allowed us to detect changes in microRNA expression early in infection, before the onset of viral replication. A phased pattern of expression was evident among these microRNAs, and many that were initially suppressed were later overexpressed at the height of infection, providing unique signatures of infection. By

  19. Dynamics and Mechanism of A Quorum Sensing Network Regulated by Small RNAs in Vibrio Harveyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian-Wei

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) has attracted much interests and it is an important process of cell communication. Recently, Bassler et al. studied the phenomena of QS regulated by small RNAs and the experimental data showed that small RNAs played important role in the QS of Vibrio harveyi and it can permit the fine-tuning of gene regulation and maintenance of homeostasis. According to Michaelis—Menten kinetics and mass action law in this paper, we construct a mathematical model to investigate the mechanism induced QS by coexist of small RNA and signal molecular (AI) and show that there are periodic oscillation when the time delay and Hill coefficient exceed a critical value and the periodic oscillation produces the change of concentration and induces QS. These results are fit to the experimental results. In the meanwhile, we also get some theoretical value of Hopf Bifurcation on time deday. In addition, we also find this network is robust against noise.

  20. Conifers have a unique small RNA silencing signature

    PubMed Central

    Dolgosheina, Elena V.; Morin, Ryan D.; Aksay, Gozde; Sahinalp, S. Cenk; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Mattsson, Jim; Unrau, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants produce small RNAs to negatively regulate genes, viral nucleic acids, and repetitive elements at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level in a process that is referred to as RNA silencing. While RNA silencing has been extensively studied across the different phyla of the animal kingdom (e.g., mouse, fly, worm), similar studies in the plant kingdom have focused primarily on angiosperms, thus limiting evolutionary studies of RNA silencing in plants. Here we report on an unexpected phylogenetic difference in the size distribution of small RNAs among the vascular plants. By extracting total RNA from freshly growing shoot tissue, we conducted a survey of small RNAs in 24 vascular plant species. We find that conifers, which radiated from the other seed-bearing plants ∼260 million years ago, fail to produce significant amounts of 24-nucleotide (nt) RNAs that are known to guide DNA methylation and heterochromatin formation in angiosperms. Instead, they synthesize a diverse population of small RNAs that are exactly 21-nt long. This finding was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing of the small RNA sequences from a conifer, Pinus contorta. A conifer EST search revealed the presence of a novel Dicer-like (DCL) family, which may be responsible for the observed change in small RNA expression. No evidence for DCL3, an enzyme that matures 24-nt RNAs in angiosperms, was found. We hypothesize that the diverse class of 21-nt RNAs found in conifers may help to maintain organization of their unusually large genomes. PMID:18566193

  1. Anatomy of RISC: how do small RNAs and chaperones activate Argonaute proteins?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a eukaryote‐specific phenomenon in which microRNAs and small interfering RNAs degrade messenger RNAs containing a complementary sequence. To this end, these small RNAs need to be loaded onto an Argonaute protein (AGO protein) to form the effector complex referred to as RNA‐induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC assembly undergoes multiple and sequential steps with the aid of Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. The molecular mechanisms for this assembly process remain unclear, despite their significance for the development of gene silencing techniques and RNA interference‐based therapeutics. This review dissects the currently available structures of AGO proteins and proposes models and hypotheses for RISC assembly, covering the conformation of unloaded AGO proteins, the chaperone‐assisted duplex loading, and the slicer‐dependent and slicer‐independent duplex separation. The differences in the properties of RISC between prokaryotes and eukaryotes will also be clarified. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:637–660. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1356 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27184117

  2. Extraordinary transgressive phenotypes of hybrid tomato are influenced by epigenetics and small silencing RNAs.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, Padubidri V; Dunn, Ruth M; Santos, Bruno Acm; Bassett, Andrew; Baulcombe, David C

    2012-01-18

    Hybrid organisms may fail to develop, be sterile or they may be more vigorous than either of the parents. Examples of hybrid vigour or hybrid necrosis in the F1 are often not inherited stably in subsequent generations if they are associated with overdominance. There can also be transgressive phenotypes that are inherited stably in these later generations, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we have investigated the possibility that stable transgressive phenotypes in the progeny of crosses between cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. M82) and a wild relative (Solanum pennellii, accession LA716) are associated with micro or small interfering(si) RNAs. We identified loci from which these small(s)RNAs were more abundant in hybrids than in either parent and we show that accumulation of such transgressive sRNAs correlated with suppression of the corresponding target genes. In one instance this effect was associated with hypermethylation of the corresponding genomic DNA. Our results illustrate a potential role of transgressive sRNAs in plant breeding and in natural evolution with wild plants.

  3. Extraordinary transgressive phenotypes of hybrid tomato are influenced by epigenetics and small silencing RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprasad, Padubidri V; Dunn, Ruth M; Santos, Bruno ACM; Bassett, Andrew; Baulcombe, David C

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid organisms may fail to develop, be sterile or they may be more vigorous than either of the parents. Examples of hybrid vigour or hybrid necrosis in the F1 are often not inherited stably in subsequent generations if they are associated with overdominance. There can also be transgressive phenotypes that are inherited stably in these later generations, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we have investigated the possibility that stable transgressive phenotypes in the progeny of crosses between cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. M82) and a wild relative (Solanum pennellii, accession LA716) are associated with micro or small interfering(si) RNAs. We identified loci from which these small(s)RNAs were more abundant in hybrids than in either parent and we show that accumulation of such transgressive sRNAs correlated with suppression of the corresponding target genes. In one instance this effect was associated with hypermethylation of the corresponding genomic DNA. Our results illustrate a potential role of transgressive sRNAs in plant breeding and in natural evolution with wild plants. PMID:22179699

  4. Genome-Wide Detection of Small Regulatory RNAs in Deep-Sea Bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad Z; Jian, Huahua; He, Ying; Xiong, Lei; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2017-01-01

    Shewanella are one of the most abundant Proteobacteria in the deep-sea and are renowned for their versatile electron accepting capacities. The molecular mechanisms involved in their adaptation to diverse and extreme environments are not well understood. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are known for modulating the gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, subsequently playing a key role in microbial adaptation. To understand the potential roles of sRNAs in the adaptation of Shewanella toward deep-sea environments, here an in silico approach was utilized to detect the sRNAs in the genome of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, a piezotolerant and psychrotolerant deep-sea iron reducing bacterium. After scanning 3673 sets of 5' and 3' UTRs of orthologous genes, 209 sRNA candidates were identified with high confidence in S. piezotolerans WP3. About 92% (193 out of 209) of these putative sRNAs belong to the class trans-encoded RNAs, suggesting that trans-regulatory RNAs are the dominant class of sRNAs in S. piezotolerans WP3. The remaining 16 cis-regulatory RNAs were validated through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Five cis-sRNAs were further shown to act as cold regulated sRNAs. Our study provided additional evidence at the transcriptional level to decipher the microbial adaptation mechanisms to extreme environmental conditions.

  5. A Genome-Wide Prediction and Identification of Intergenic Small RNAs by Comparative Analysis in Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R

    PubMed Central

    Fuli, Xie; Wenlong, Zhao; Xiao, Wang; Jing, Zhang; Baohai, Hao; Zhengzheng, Zou; Bin-Guang, Ma; Youguo, Li

    2017-01-01

    In bacteria, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are critical regulators of cellular adaptation to changes in metabolism, physiology, or the external environment. In the last decade, more than 2000 of sRNA families have been reported in the Rfam database and have been shown to exert various regulatory functions in bacterial transcription and translation. However, little is known about sRNAs and their functions in Mesorhizobium. Here, we predicted putative sRNAs in the intergenic regions (IGRs) of M. huakuii 7653R by genome-wide comparisons with four related Mesorhizobial strains. The expression and transcribed regions of candidate sRNAs were analyzed using a set of high-throughput RNA deep sequencing data. In all, 39 candidate sRNAs were found, with 5 located in the symbiotic megaplasmids and 34 in the chromosome of M. huakuii 7653R. Of these, 24 were annotated as functional sRNAs in the Rfam database and 15 were recognized as putative novel sRNAs. The expression of nine selected sRNAs was confirmed by Northern blotting, and most of the nine selected sRNAs were highly expressed in 28 dpi nodules and under symbiosis-mimicking conditions. For those putative novel sRNAs, functional categorizations of their target genes were performed by analyzing the enriched GO terms. In addition, MH_s15 was shown to be an abundant and conserved sRNA. PMID:28943874

  6. An improved method for identification of small non-coding RNAs in bacteria using support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Das, Santasabuj

    2017-04-06

    Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are not translated into proteins, but act as functional RNAs. They are involved in diverse biological processes like virulence, stress response and quorum sensing. Several high-throughput techniques have enabled identification of sRNAs in bacteria, but experimental detection remains a challenge and grossly incomplete for most species. Thus, there is a need to develop computational tools to predict bacterial sRNAs. Here, we propose a computational method to identify sRNAs in bacteria using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The primary sequence and secondary structure features of experimentally-validated sRNAs of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (SLT2) was used to build the optimal SVM model. We found that a tri-nucleotide composition feature of sRNAs achieved an accuracy of 88.35% for SLT2. We validated the SVM model also on the experimentally-detected sRNAs of E. coli and Salmonella Typhi. The proposed model had robustly attained an accuracy of 81.25% and 88.82% for E. coli K-12 and S. Typhi Ty2, respectively. We confirmed that this method significantly improved the identification of sRNAs in bacteria. Furthermore, we used a sliding window-based method and identified sRNAs from complete genomes of SLT2, S. Typhi Ty2 and E. coli K-12 with sensitivities of 89.09%, 83.33% and 67.39%, respectively.

  7. An improved method for identification of small non-coding RNAs in bacteria using support vector machine

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Das, Santasabuj

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are not translated into proteins, but act as functional RNAs. They are involved in diverse biological processes like virulence, stress response and quorum sensing. Several high-throughput techniques have enabled identification of sRNAs in bacteria, but experimental detection remains a challenge and grossly incomplete for most species. Thus, there is a need to develop computational tools to predict bacterial sRNAs. Here, we propose a computational method to identify sRNAs in bacteria using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The primary sequence and secondary structure features of experimentally-validated sRNAs of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (SLT2) was used to build the optimal SVM model. We found that a tri-nucleotide composition feature of sRNAs achieved an accuracy of 88.35% for SLT2. We validated the SVM model also on the experimentally-detected sRNAs of E. coli and Salmonella Typhi. The proposed model had robustly attained an accuracy of 81.25% and 88.82% for E. coli K-12 and S. Typhi Ty2, respectively. We confirmed that this method significantly improved the identification of sRNAs in bacteria. Furthermore, we used a sliding window-based method and identified sRNAs from complete genomes of SLT2, S. Typhi Ty2 and E. coli K-12 with sensitivities of 89.09%, 83.33% and 67.39%, respectively. PMID:28383059

  8. An improved method for identification of small non-coding RNAs in bacteria using support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Das, Santasabuj

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are not translated into proteins, but act as functional RNAs. They are involved in diverse biological processes like virulence, stress response and quorum sensing. Several high-throughput techniques have enabled identification of sRNAs in bacteria, but experimental detection remains a challenge and grossly incomplete for most species. Thus, there is a need to develop computational tools to predict bacterial sRNAs. Here, we propose a computational method to identify sRNAs in bacteria using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The primary sequence and secondary structure features of experimentally-validated sRNAs of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (SLT2) was used to build the optimal SVM model. We found that a tri-nucleotide composition feature of sRNAs achieved an accuracy of 88.35% for SLT2. We validated the SVM model also on the experimentally-detected sRNAs of E. coli and Salmonella Typhi. The proposed model had robustly attained an accuracy of 81.25% and 88.82% for E. coli K-12 and S. Typhi Ty2, respectively. We confirmed that this method significantly improved the identification of sRNAs in bacteria. Furthermore, we used a sliding window-based method and identified sRNAs from complete genomes of SLT2, S. Typhi Ty2 and E. coli K-12 with sensitivities of 89.09%, 83.33% and 67.39%, respectively.

  9. Small RNAs from Bemisia tabaci Are Transferred to Solanum lycopersicum Phloem during Feeding

    PubMed Central

    van Kleeff, Paula J. M.; Galland, Marc; Schuurink, Robert C.; Bleeker, Petra M.

    2016-01-01

    The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest to a broad range of host plants, including many economically important crops such as tomato. These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating host-defense responses, potentially mediated by effector molecules in the whitefly saliva. We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA) are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses. There is already evidence to suggest that sRNAs can mediate the host-pathogen dialogue. It has been shown that Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold disease, takes advantage of the plant sRNA machinery to selectively silence host genes involved in defense signaling. Here we identified sRNAs originating from B. tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants on which they are feeding. sRNAs were isolated and sequenced from tomato phloem of whitefly-infested and control plants as well as from the nymphs themselves, control leaflets, and from the infested leaflets. Using stem-loop RT-PCR, three whitefly sRNAs have been verified to be present in whitefly-infested leaflets that were also present in the whitefly-infested phloem sample. Our results show that whitefly sRNAs are indeed present in tomato tissues upon feeding, and they appear to be mobile in the phloem. Their role in the host-insect interaction can now be investigated. PMID:27933079

  10. PIWIL1 Is Expressed in the Canine Testis, Increases with Sexual Maturity, and Binds Small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Stalker, Leanne; Russell, Stewart J; Co, Carmon; Foster, Robert A; LaMarre, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly regulated process leading to the development of functional spermatozoa through meiotic division and subsequent maturation. Recent studies have suggested that a novel class of Argonaute proteins, known as the PIWI clade, plays important roles in multiple stages of spermatogenesis. PIWI proteins bind specific small noncoding RNAs, called PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These piRNAs guide the PIWI-piRNA complex to retrotransposon targets that become expressed during meiosis. Retrotransposons are subsequently silenced, either through PIWI "slicer" activity or through PIWI-directed methylation of the retrotransposon locus. Most mammalian studies have employed mouse models where sterility follows PIWI inactivation. The goal of this study was to characterize canine PIWIL1 to determine whether expression pattern and functional characteristics support a similar function in that species. Canine PIWIL1 cDNA is a 2.6-kb transcript that encodes an 861-amino acid protein showing high homology to other mammalian PIWIL1 proteins and containing features consistent with PIWI family members (PAZ, PIWI domains). Analysis of PIWIL1 protein and transcript levels revealed that PIWIL1 expression is limited to the testes and is associated with sexual maturity, with mature dogs showing higher levels of PIWIL1 expression. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression primarily in seminiferous tubules and confirmed higher levels of PIWIL1 in mature dogs. Functional characterization by RNA immunoprecipitation demonstrated that canine PIWIL1 binds short RNAs consistent in size with piRNAs (27-32 nucleotides). Together, these studies represent the first characterization of a PIWI protein in the dog and suggest that it is a functional piRNA-binding protein most highly expressed in the mature testes. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. A sensitive non-radioactive northern blot method to detect small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Li, Zhihua; Moore, Patrick S; Monaghan, A Paula; Chang, Yuan; Nichols, Mark; John, Bino

    2010-04-01

    The continuing discoveries of potentially active small RNAs at an unprecedented rate using high-throughput sequencing have raised the need for methods that can reliably detect and quantitate the expression levels of small RNAs. Currently, northern blot is the most widely used method for validating small RNAs that are identified by methods such as high-throughput sequencing. We describe a new northern blot-based protocol (LED) for small RNA (approximately 15-40 bases) detection using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing locked nucleic acids (LNA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide for cross-linking the RNA to the membrane. LED generates clearly visible signals for RNA amounts as low as 0.05 fmol. This method requires as little as a few seconds of membrane exposure to outperform the signal intensity using overnight exposure of isotope-based methods, corresponding to approximately 1000-fold improvement in exposure-time. In contrast to commonly used radioisotope-based methods, which require freshly prepared and hazardous probes, LED probes can be stored for at least 6 months, facilitate faster and more cost-effective experiments, and are more environmentally friendly. A detailed protocol of LED is provided in the Supplementary Data.

  12. Roles of small RNAs in the effects of nutrition on apoptosis and spermatogenesis in the adult testis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yongjuan; Liang, Guanxiang; Hawken, Penelope A. R.; Malecki, Irek A.; Cozens, Greg; Vercoe, Philip E.; Martin, Graeme B.; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether reductions in spermatozoal quality induced by under-nutrition are associated with increased germ cell apoptosis and disrupted spermatogenesis, and whether these effects are mediated by small RNAs. Groups of 8 male sheep were fed for a 10% increase or 10% decrease in body mass over 65 days. Underfeeding increased the number of apoptotic germ cells (P < 0.05) and increased the expression of apoptosis-related genes (P < 0.05) in testicular tissue. We identified 44 miRNAs and 35 putative piRNAs that were differentially expressed in well-fed and underfed males (FDR < 0.05). Some were related to reproductive system development, apoptosis (miRNAs), and sperm production and quality (piRNAs). Novel-miR-144 (miR-98), was found to target three apoptotic genes (TP53, CASP3, FASL). The proportion of miRNAs as a total of small RNAs was greater in well-fed males than in underfed males (P < 0.05) and was correlated (r = 0.8, P < 0.05) with the proportion of piRNAs in well-fed and underfed males. In conclusion, the reductions in spermatozoal quality induced by under-nutrition are caused, at least partly, by disruptions to Sertoli cell function and increased germ cell apoptosis, mediated by changes in the expression of miRNAs and piRNAs. PMID:25996545

  13. Identification of 88 regulatory small RNAs in the TIGR4 strain of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Acebo, Paloma; Martin-Galiano, Antonio J.; Navarro, Sara; Zaballos, Ángel; Amblar, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia and a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children and the elderly. Genome sequencing of several pneumococcal strains revealed valuable information about the potential proteins and genetic diversity of this prevalent human pathogen. However, little is known about its transcriptional regulation and its small regulatory noncoding RNAs. In this study, we performed deep sequencing of the S. pneumoniae TIGR4 strain RNome to identify small regulatory RNA candidates expressed in this pathogen. We discovered 1047 potential small RNAs including intragenic, 5′- and/or 3′-overlapping RNAs and 88 small RNAs encoded in intergenic regions. With this approach, we recovered many of the previously identified intergenic small RNAs and identified 68 novel candidates, most of which are conserved in both sequence and genomic context in other S. pneumoniae strains. We confirmed the independent expression of 17 intergenic small RNAs and predicted putative mRNA targets for six of them using bioinformatics tools. Preliminary results suggest that one of these six is a key player in the regulation of competence development. This study is the biggest catalog of small noncoding RNAs reported to date in S. pneumoniae and provides a highly complete view of the small RNA network in this pathogen. PMID:22274957

  14. Transcriptome-Wide Discovery of PASRs (Promoter-Associated Small RNAs) and TASRs (Terminus-Associated Small RNAs) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chaogang; Meng, Yijun

    2017-01-01

    Hints from animals point to the existence of two novel small RNA (sRNA) species surrounding the transcription start sites (TSSs) and the termini of the genes, respectively. In this study, we performed a comprehensive search for the two sRNA species named promoter-associated sRNAs (PASRs) and terminus-associated sRNAs (TASRs) in Arabidopsis. By using sRNA sequencing data from wild type plants and several mutants related to the sRNA biogenesis, Argonaute (AGO) 1- and AGO4-associated sRNA sequencing data, double-stranded RNA sequencing (dsRNA-seq) data, and DNA methylation profiling data, the biogenesis and action pathways of the PASRs and the TASRs were investigated. PASR and TASR peaks were identified on hundreds of the protein-coding genes. Deep analysis uncovered that some of the sRNA peaks were covered by dsRNA-seq reads, and these peaks were significantly repressed in specific mutants. Besides, certain PASRs and TASRs were preferentially recruited by AGO4, and site-specific DNA methylation signals encompassing the genomic loci of these sRNAs were also detected. Accordingly, we proposed a model that certain PASRs and TASRs were generated through a specific Pol IV-, RDR-, DCL-dependent pathway, and they were associated with AGO4 to perform site-specific DNA methylation on their host genes. The above results indicate the existence of PASRs and TASRs in plants. The proposed biogenesis pathway and action mode of the PASRs and TASRs could facilitate us to perform in-depth functional studies on these novel sRNA species. PMID:28046132

  15. Identification and expression profiling of Vigna mungo microRNAs from leaf small RNA transcriptome by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sujay; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been characterized to date, predominantly from the plant species whose genome is well characterized. However, information on the variability of these regulatory RNAs in economically important but genetically less characterized crop species are limited. Vigna mungo is an important grain legume, which is grown primarily for its protein-rich edible seeds. miRNAs from this species have not been identified to date due to lack of genome sequence information. To identify miRNAs from V. mungo, a small RNA library was constructed from young leaves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic analysis of the small RNA reads led to the identification of 66 miRNA loci represented by 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 19 families and eight non-conserved miRNAs belonging to seven families. Besides, 13 novel miRNA candidates in V. mungo were also identified. Expression patterns of selected conserved, non-conserved, and novel miRNA candidates have been demonstrated in leaf, stem, and root tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and potential target genes were predicted for most of the conserved miRNAs. This information offers genomic resources for better understanding of miRNA mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation.

  16. Neisseria meningitidis Uses Sibling Small Regulatory RNAs To Switch from Cataplerotic to Anaplerotic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Huis in ‘t Veld, Robert A. G.; Schipper, Kim; Bovenkerk, Sandra; Kramer, Gertjan; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik; Speijer, Dave; van der Ende, Arie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus) is primarily a commensal of the human oropharynx that sporadically causes septicemia and meningitis. Meningococci adapt to diverse local host conditions differing in nutrient supply, like the nasopharynx, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid, by changing metabolism and protein repertoire. However, regulatory transcription factors and two-component systems in meningococci involved in adaptation to local nutrient variations are limited. We identified novel sibling small regulatory RNAs (Neisseria metabolic switch regulators [NmsRs]) regulating switches between cataplerotic and anaplerotic metabolism in this pathogen. Overexpression of NmsRs was tolerated in blood but not in cerebrospinal fluid. Expression of six tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes was downregulated by direct action of NmsRs. Expression of the NmsRs themselves was under the control of the stringent response through the action of RelA. Small sibling regulatory RNAs of meningococci, controlling general metabolic switches, add an exciting twist to their versatile repertoire in bacterial pathogens. PMID:28325760

  17. Characterization of Small Interfering RNAs Derived from the Geminivirus/Betasatellite Complex Using Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiuling; Wang, Yu; Guo, Wei; Xie, Yan; Xie, Qi; Fan, Longjiang; Zhou, Xueping

    2011-01-01

    Background Small RNA (sRNA)-guided RNA silencing is a critical antiviral defense mechanism employed by a variety of eukaryotic organisms. Although the induction of RNA silencing by bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses has been described in plants, the nature of begomovirus/betasatellite complexes remains undefined. Methodology/Principal Findings Solanum lycopersicum plant leaves systemically infected with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) alone or together with its associated betasatellite (TYLCCNB), and Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaves systemically infected with TYLCCNV alone, or together with TYLCCNB or with mutant TYLCCNB were harvested for RNA extraction; sRNA cDNA libraries were then constructed and submitted to Solexa-based deep sequencing. Both sense and anti-sense TYLCCNV and TYLCCNB-derived sRNAs (V-sRNAs and S-sRNAs) accumulated preferentially as 22 nucleotide species in infected S. lycopersicum and N. benthamiana plants. High resolution mapping of V-sRNAs and S-sRNAs revealed heterogeneous distribution of V-sRNA and S-sRNA sequences across the TYLCCNV and TYLCCNB genomes. In TYLCCNV-infected S. lycopersicum or N. benthamiana and TYLCCNV and βC1-mutant TYLCCNB co-infected N. benthamiana plants, the primary TYLCCNV targets were AV2 and the 5′ terminus of AV1. In TYLCCNV and betasatellite-infected plants, the number of V-sRNAs targeting this region decreased and the production of V-sRNAs increased corresponding to the overlapping regions of AC2 and AC3, as well as the 3′ terminal of AC1. βC1 is the primary determinant mediating symptom induction and also the primary silencing target of the TYLCCNB genome even in its mutated form. Conclusions/Significance We report the first high-resolution sRNA map for a monopartite begomovirus and its associated betasatellite using Solexa-based deep sequencing. Our results suggest that viral transcript might act as RDR substrates resulting in dsRNA and secondary siRNA production. In addition, the

  18. Prediction and Characterization of Small Non-Coding RNAs Related to Secondary Metabolites in Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Bing; Shi, Yang; Yao, Li-Li; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2013-01-01

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea produces a large number of secondary metabolites with biological activities, including erythromycin. Elucidation of the mechanisms through which the production of these secondary metabolites is regulated may help to identify new strategies for improved biosynthesis of erythromycin. In this paper, we describe the systematic prediction and analysis of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in S. erythraea, with the aim to elucidate sRNA-mediated regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In silico and deep-sequencing technologies were applied to predict sRNAs in S. erythraea. Six hundred and forty-seven potential sRNA loci were identified, of which 382 cis-encoded antisense RNA are complementary to protein-coding regions and 265 predicted transcripts are located in intergenic regions. Six candidate sRNAs (sernc292, sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, sernc361, and sernc389) belong to four gene clusters (tpc3, pke, pks6, and nrps5) that are involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Deep-sequencing data showed that the expression of all sRNAs in the strain HL3168 E3 (E3) was higher than that in NRRL23338 (M), except for sernc292 and sernc361 expression. The relative expression of six sRNAs in strain M and E3 were validated by qRT-PCR at three different time points (24, 48, and 72 h). The results showed that, at each time point, the transcription levels of sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, and sernc389 were higher in E3 than in M, with the largest difference observed at 72 h, whereas no signals for sernc292 and sernc361 were detected. sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, and sernc389 probably regulate iron transport, terpene metabolism, geosmin synthesis, and polyketide biosynthesis, respectively. The major significance of this study is the successful prediction and identification of sRNAs in genomic regions close to the secondary metabolism-related genes in S. erythraea. A better understanding of the sRNA-target interaction would help to elucidate the

  19. Do EBV Encoded Small RNAs Interfere With Tumor Suppressor APC in EBV Associated Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    fibroadenomas of the breast in immuno compromised patients. In all latently infected cells EBV expresses two small non-polyadenylated RNAs (EBERs).Recent studies...numbers of rapidly growing fibroadenomas of the breast in immunocompromised patients.1 Because of close association of EBV with various epithelial and...estrogen receptor negative invasive breast cancers. EBV has also been detected in large numbers of rapidly growing fibroadenomas of the breast in immuno

  20. Characterization of Small Interfering RNAs Derived from Sugarcane Mosaic Virus in Infected Maize Plants by Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zihao; Peng, Jun; Li, Yongqiang; Chen, Ling; Li, Shuai; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Zaifeng

    2014-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved surveillance mechanism against viruses in plants. It is mediated by Dicer-like (DCL) proteins producing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which guide specific Argonaute (AGO)-containing complexes to inactivate viral genomes and may promote the silencing of host mRNAs. In this study, we obtained the profile of virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs) from Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) in infected maize (Zea mays L.) plants by deep sequencing. Our data showed that vsiRNAs which derived almost equally from sense and antisense SCMV RNA strands accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) species and had an adenosine bias at the 5′-terminus. The single-nucleotide resolution maps revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously but heterogeneously distributed throughout the SCMV genome and the hotspots of sense and antisense strands were mainly distributed in the HC-Pro coding region. Moreover, dozens of host transcripts targeted by vsiRNAs were predicted, several of which encode putative proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis and in biotic and abiotic stresses. We also found that ZmDCL2 mRNAs were up-regulated in SCMV-infected maize plants, which may be the cause of abundant 22-nt vsiRNAs production. However, ZmDCL4 mRNAs were down-regulated slightly regardless of the most abundant 21-nt vsiRNAs. Our results also showed that SCMV infection induced the accumulation of AGO2 mRNAs, which may indicate a role for AGO2 in antiviral defense. To our knowledge, this is the first report on vsiRNAs in maize plants. PMID:24819114

  1. Rational Design of Small Molecules Targeting Oncogenic Noncoding RNAs from Sequence.

    PubMed

    Disney, Matthew D; Angelbello, Alicia J

    2016-12-20

    The discovery of RNA catalysis in the 1980s and the dissemination of the human genome sequence at the start of this century inspired investigations of the regulatory roles of noncoding RNAs in biology. In fact, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has shown that only 1-2% of the human genome encodes protein, yet 75% is transcribed into RNA. Functional studies both preceding and following the ENCODE project have shown that these noncoding RNAs have important roles in regulating gene expression, developmental timing, and other critical functions. RNA's diverse roles are often a consequence of the various folds that it adopts. The single-stranded nature of the biopolymer enables it to adopt intramolecular folds with noncanonical pairings to lower its free energy. These folds can be scaffolds to bind proteins or to form frameworks to interact with other RNAs. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of certain noncoding RNAs has been shown to be causative of disease. Given this as the background, it is easy to see why it would be useful to develop methods that target RNA and manipulate its biology in rational and predictable ways. The antisense approach has afforded strategies to target RNAs via Watson-Crick base pairing and has typically focused on targeting partially unstructured regions of RNA. Small molecule strategies to target RNA would be desirable not only because compounds could be lead optimized via medicinal chemistry but also because structured regions within an RNA of interest could be targeted to directly interfere with RNA folds that contribute to disease. Additionally, small molecules have historically been the most successful drug candidates. Until recently, the ability to design small molecules that target non-ribosomal RNAs has been elusive, creating the perception that they are "undruggable". In this Account, approaches to demystify targeting RNA with small molecules are described. Rather than bulk screening for compounds that bind to singular

  2. Comparative Profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Reveals Differential Expression of Novel Unique and Conserved Small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Silvia; Brugnoli, Margherita; De Bonis, Angela; Righetti, Francesco; Delvillani, Francesco; Dehò, Gianni; Horner, David; Briani, Federica; Bertoni, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly adaptable bacterium that thrives in a broad range of ecological niches and can infect multiple hosts as diverse as plants, nematodes and mammals. In humans, it is an important opportunistic pathogen. This wide adaptability correlates with its broad genetic diversity. In this study, we used a deep-sequencing approach to explore the complement of small RNAs (sRNAs) in P. aeruginosa as the number of such regulatory molecules previously identified in this organism is relatively low, considering its genome size, phenotypic diversity and adaptability. We have performed a comparative analysis of PAO1 and PA14 strains which share the same host range but differ in virulence, PA14 being considerably more virulent in several model organisms. Altogether, we have identified more than 150 novel candidate sRNAs and validated a third of them by Northern blotting. Interestingly, a number of these novel sRNAs are strain-specific or showed strain-specific expression, strongly suggesting that they could be involved in determining specific phenotypic traits. PMID:22590564

  3. Nicotine exposure and transgenerational impact: a prospective study on small regulatory microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Faten A.; Pan, Xiaoping; Lee, Myon-Hee; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-01-01

    Early developmental stages are highly sensitive to stress and it has been reported that pre-conditioning with tobacco smoking during adolescence predisposes those youngsters to become smokers as adults. However, the molecular mechanisms of nicotine-induced transgenerational consequences are unknown. In this study, we genome-widely investigated the impact of nicotine exposure on small regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) and its implication on health disorders at a transgenerational aspect. Our results demonstrate that nicotine exposure, even at the low dose, affected the global expression profiles of miRNAs not only in the treated worms (F0 parent generation) but also in two subsequent generations (F1 and F2, children and grandchildren). Some miRNAs were commonly affected by nicotine across two or more generations while others were specific to one. The general miRNA patterns followed a “two-hit” model as a function of nicotine exposure and abstinence. Target prediction and pathway enrichment analyses showed daf-4, daf-1, fos-1, cmk-1, and unc-30 to be potential effectors of nicotine addiction. These genes are involved in physiological states and phenotypes that paralleled previously published nicotine induced behavior. Our study offered new insights and further awareness on the transgenerational effects of nicotine exposed during the vulnerable post-embryonic stages, and identified new biomarkers for nicotine addiction. PMID:25515333

  4. Evidence for Small RNAs Homologous to Effector-Encoding Genes and Transposable Elements in the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Vetukuri, Ramesh R.; Åsman, Anna K. M.; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Jahan, Sultana N.; Reimegård, Johan; Fogelqvist, Johan; Savenkov, Eugene; Söderbom, Fredrik; Avrova, Anna O.; Whisson, Stephen C.; Dixelius, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the oomycete pathogen responsible for the devastating late blight disease on potato and tomato. There is presently an intense research focus on the role(s) of effectors in promoting late blight disease development. However, little is known about how they are regulated, or how diversity in their expression may be generated among different isolates. Here we present data from investigation of RNA silencing processes, characterized by non-coding small RNA molecules (sRNA) of 19–40 nt. From deep sequencing of sRNAs we have identified sRNAs matching numerous RxLR and Crinkler (CRN) effector protein genes in two isolates differing in pathogenicity. Effector gene-derived sRNAs were present in both isolates, but exhibited marked differences in abundance, especially for CRN effectors. Small RNAs in P. infestans grouped into three clear size classes of 21, 25/26 and 32 nt. Small RNAs from all size classes mapped to RxLR effector genes, but notably 21 nt sRNAs were the predominant size class mapping to CRN effector genes. Some effector genes, such as PiAvr3a, to which sRNAs were found, also exhibited differences in transcript accumulation between the two isolates. The P. infestans genome is rich in transposable elements, and the majority of sRNAs of all size classes mapped to these sequences, predominantly to long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. RNA silencing of Dicer and Argonaute genes provided evidence that generation of 21 nt sRNAs is Dicer-dependent, while accumulation of longer sRNAs was impacted by silencing of Argonaute genes. Additionally, we identified six microRNA (miRNA) candidates from our sequencing data, their precursor sequences from the genome sequence, and target mRNAs. These miRNA candidates have features characteristic of both plant and metazoan miRNAs. PMID:23272103

  5. Small regulatory RNAs in lambdoid bacteriophages and phage-derived plasmids: Not only antisense.

    PubMed

    Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena; Bloch, Sylwia; Licznerska, Katarzyna; Felczykowska, Agnieszka; Dydecka, Aleksandra; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Until recently, only two small regulatory RNAs encoded by lambdoid bacteriophages were known. These transcripts are derived from paQ and pO promoters. The former one is supposed to act as an antisense RNA for expression of the Q gene, encoding a transcription antitermination protein. The latter transcript, called oop RNA, was initially proposed to have a double role, in establishing expression of the cI gene and in providing a primer for DNA replication. Although the initially proposed mechanisms by which oop RNA could influence the choice between two alternative developmental pathways of the phage and the initiation of phage DNA replication were found not true, the pO promoter has been demonstrated to be important for both regulation of phage development and control of DNA replication. Namely, the pO-derived transcript is an antisense RNA for expression of the cII gene, and pO is a part of a dual promoter system responsible for regulation of initiation of DNA synthesis from the oriλ region. Very recent studies identified a battery of small RNAs encoded by lambdoid bacteriophages existing as prophages in chromosomes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains. Some of them have very interesting functions, like anti-small RNAs.

  6. Small Genetic Circuits and MicroRNAs: Big Players in Polymerase II Transcriptional Control in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cumbie, Jason S.; Ivanchenko, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) regulatory cascades involving transcription factors (TFs) and their targets orchestrate the genetic circuitry of every eukaryotic organism. In order to understand how these cascades function, they can be dissected into small genetic networks, each containing just a few Pol II transcribed genes, that generate specific signal-processing outcomes. Small RNA regulatory circuits involve direct regulation of a small RNA by a TF and/or direct regulation of a TF by a small RNA and have been shown to play unique roles in many organisms. Here, we will focus on small RNA regulatory circuits containing Pol II transcribed microRNAs (miRNAs). While the role of miRNA-containing regulatory circuits as modular building blocks for the function of complex networks has long been on the forefront of studies in the animal kingdom, plant studies are poised to take a lead role in this area because of their advantages in probing transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of Pol II genes. The relative simplicity of tissue- and cell-type organization, miRNA targeting, and genomic structure make the Arabidopsis thaliana plant model uniquely amenable for small RNA regulatory circuit studies in a multicellular organism. In this Review, we cover analysis, tools, and validation methods for probing the component interactions in miRNA-containing regulatory circuits. We then review the important roles that plant miRNAs are playing in these circuits and summarize methods for the identification of small genetic circuits that strongly influence plant function. We conclude by noting areas of opportunity where new plant studies are imminently needed. PMID:26869700

  7. Small Genetic Circuits and MicroRNAs: Big Players in Polymerase II Transcriptional Control in Plants.

    PubMed

    Megraw, Molly; Cumbie, Jason S; Ivanchenko, Maria G; Filichkin, Sergei A

    2016-02-01

    RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) regulatory cascades involving transcription factors (TFs) and their targets orchestrate the genetic circuitry of every eukaryotic organism. In order to understand how these cascades function, they can be dissected into small genetic networks, each containing just a few Pol II transcribed genes, that generate specific signal-processing outcomes. Small RNA regulatory circuits involve direct regulation of a small RNA by a TF and/or direct regulation of a TF by a small RNA and have been shown to play unique roles in many organisms. Here, we will focus on small RNA regulatory circuits containing Pol II transcribed microRNAs (miRNAs). While the role of miRNA-containing regulatory circuits as modular building blocks for the function of complex networks has long been on the forefront of studies in the animal kingdom, plant studies are poised to take a lead role in this area because of their advantages in probing transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of Pol II genes. The relative simplicity of tissue- and cell-type organization, miRNA targeting, and genomic structure make the Arabidopsis thaliana plant model uniquely amenable for small RNA regulatory circuit studies in a multicellular organism. In this Review, we cover analysis, tools, and validation methods for probing the component interactions in miRNA-containing regulatory circuits. We then review the important roles that plant miRNAs are playing in these circuits and summarize methods for the identification of small genetic circuits that strongly influence plant function. We conclude by noting areas of opportunity where new plant studies are imminently needed. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Binding of tobamovirus replication protein with small RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yukio; Inaba, Naoko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Takeda, Atsushi; Tagami, Yuko; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2007-08-01

    The sequence profiles of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in Arabidopsis infected with the crucifer tobamovirus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-Cg were determined by using a small RNA cloning technique. The majority of TMV-derived siRNAs were 21 nt in length. The size of the most abundant endogenous small RNAs in TMV-infected plants was 21 nt, whilst in mock-inoculated plants, it was 24 nt. Northern blot analysis revealed that some microRNAs (miRNAs) accumulated more in TMV-infected plants than in mock-inoculated plants. The question of whether the TMV-Cg-encoded 126K replication protein, an RNA-silencing suppressor, caused small RNA enrichment was examined. Transient expression of the replication protein did not change the pattern of miRNA processing. However, miRNA, miRNA* (the opposite strand of the miRNA duplex) and hairpin-derived siRNA all co-immunoprecipitated with the replication protein. Gel mobility-shift assays indicated that the replication protein binds small RNA duplexes. These results suggest that the tobamovirus replication protein functions as a silencing suppressor by binding small RNA duplexes, changing the small RNA profile in infected plants.

  9. Global Analyses of Small Interfering RNAs from Sour Orange seedlings Infected with Different Citrus tristeza virus Genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific regulatory mechanism in development and maintenance of genome integrity and functions in plant antiviral defense mechanisms. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key mediators of RNA silencing. To study CTV-host interactions and disease expression, profiles of v...

  10. Ancient and Novel Small RNA Pathways Compensate for the Loss of piRNAs in Multiple Independent Nematode Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Sarkies, Peter; Selkirk, Murray E.; Jones, John T.; Blok, Vivian; Boothby, Thomas; Goldstein, Bob; Hanelt, Ben; Ardila-Garcia, Alex; Fast, Naomi M.; Schiffer, Phillip M.; Kraus, Christopher; Taylor, Mark J.; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L.; Miska, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA pathways act at the front line of defence against transposable elements across the Eukaryota. In animals, Piwi interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) are a crucial arm of this defence. However, the evolutionary relationships among piRNAs and other small RNA pathways targeting transposable elements are poorly resolved. To address this question we sequenced small RNAs from multiple, diverse nematode species, producing the first phylum-wide analysis of how small RNA pathways evolve. Surprisingly, despite their prominence in Caenorhabditis elegans and closely related nematodes, piRNAs are absent in all other nematode lineages. We found that there are at least two evolutionarily distinct mechanisms that compensate for the absence of piRNAs, both involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). Whilst one pathway is unique to nematodes, the second involves Dicer-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, hitherto unknown in animals, and bears striking similarity to transposon-control mechanisms in fungi and plants. Our results highlight the rapid, context-dependent evolution of small RNA pathways and suggest piRNAs in animals may have replaced an ancient eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase pathway to control transposable elements. PMID:25668728

  11. Ancient and novel small RNA pathways compensate for the loss of piRNAs in multiple independent nematode lineages.

    PubMed

    Sarkies, Peter; Selkirk, Murray E; Jones, John T; Blok, Vivian; Boothby, Thomas; Goldstein, Bob; Hanelt, Ben; Ardila-Garcia, Alex; Fast, Naomi M; Schiffer, Phillip M; Kraus, Christopher; Taylor, Mark J; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L; Miska, Eric A

    2015-02-01

    Small RNA pathways act at the front line of defence against transposable elements across the Eukaryota. In animals, Piwi interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) are a crucial arm of this defence. However, the evolutionary relationships among piRNAs and other small RNA pathways targeting transposable elements are poorly resolved. To address this question we sequenced small RNAs from multiple, diverse nematode species, producing the first phylum-wide analysis of how small RNA pathways evolve. Surprisingly, despite their prominence in Caenorhabditis elegans and closely related nematodes, piRNAs are absent in all other nematode lineages. We found that there are at least two evolutionarily distinct mechanisms that compensate for the absence of piRNAs, both involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). Whilst one pathway is unique to nematodes, the second involves Dicer-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, hitherto unknown in animals, and bears striking similarity to transposon-control mechanisms in fungi and plants. Our results highlight the rapid, context-dependent evolution of small RNA pathways and suggest piRNAs in animals may have replaced an ancient eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase pathway to control transposable elements.

  12. Production of Small Noncoding RNAs from the flamenco Locus Is Regulated by the gypsy Retrotransposon of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Guida, Vincenzo; Cernilogar, Filippo M; Filograna, Angela; De Gregorio, Roberto; Ishizu, Hirotsugu; Siomi, Mikiko C; Schotta, Gunnar; Bellenchi, Gian Carlo; Andrenacci, Davide

    2016-10-01

    Protective mechanisms based on RNA silencing directed against the propagation of transposable elements are highly conserved in eukaryotes. The control of transposable elements is mediated by small noncoding RNAs, which derive from transposon-rich heterochromatic regions that function as small RNA-generating loci. These clusters are transcribed and the precursor transcripts are processed to generate Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), which silence transposable elements in gonads and somatic tissues. The flamenco locus is a Drosophila melanogaster small RNA cluster that controls gypsy and other transposable elements, and has played an important role in understanding how small noncoding RNAs repress transposable elements. In this study, we describe a cosuppression mechanism triggered by new euchromatic gypsy insertions in genetic backgrounds carrying flamenco alleles defective in gypsy suppression. We found that the silencing of gypsy is accompanied by the silencing of other transposons regulated by flamenco, and of specific flamenco sequences from which small RNAs against gypsy originate. This cosuppression mechanism seems to depend on a post-transcriptional regulation that involves both endo-siRNA and piRNA pathways and is associated with the occurrence of developmental defects. In conclusion, we propose that new gypsy euchromatic insertions trigger a post-transcriptional silencing of gypsy sense and antisense sequences, which modifies the flamenco activity. This cosuppression mechanism interferes with some developmental processes, presumably by influencing the expression of specific genes. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Small RNAs, big impact: small RNA pathways in transposon control and their effect on the host stress response.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Bayly S

    2013-12-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are a major constituent of most genomes. Organisms regulate transposable element expression, transposition, and insertion site preference, mitigating the genome instability caused by uncontrolled transposition. A recent burst of research has demonstrated the critical role of small non-coding RNAs in regulating transposition in fungi, plants, and animals. While mechanistically distinct, these pathways work through a conserved paradigm. The presence of a transposon is communicated by the presence of its RNA or by its integration into specific genomic loci. These signals are then translated into small non-coding RNAs that guide epigenetic modifications and gene silencing back to the transposon. In addition to being regulated by the host, transposable elements are themselves capable of influencing host gene expression. Transposon expression is responsive to environmental signals, and many transposons are activated by various cellular stresses. TEs can confer local gene regulation by acting as enhancers and can also confer global gene regulation through their non-coding RNAs. Thus, transposable elements can act as stress-responsive regulators that control host gene expression in cis and trans.

  14. Plastic germline reprogramming of heritable small RNAs enables maintenance or erasure of epigenetic memories

    PubMed Central

    Houri-Ze'evi, Leah; Rechavi, Oded

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Caenorhabditis elegans small RNAs can regulate genes across generations. The mysterious tendency of heritable RNA interference (RNAi) responses to terminate after 3–5 generations has been referred to as “the bottleneck to RNAi inheritance.” We have recently shown that the re-setting of epigenetic inheritance after 3–5 generations is not due to passive dilution of the original RNA trigger, but instead results from an active, multigenerational, and small RNA-mediated regulatory pathway. In this “Point of View” manuscript we suggest that the process that leads to the erasure of the ancestral small RNA-encoded memory is a specialized type of germline reprogramming mechanism, analogous to the processes that robustly remove parental DNA methylation and histone modifications early in development in different organisms. Traditionally, germline reprogramming mechanisms that re-set chromatin are thought to stand in the way of inheritance of memories of parental experiences. We found that reprogramming of heritable small RNAs takes multiple generations to complete, enabling long-term inheritance of small RNA responses. Moreover, the duration of this reprogramming process can be prolonged significantly if new heritable RNAi responses are provoked. A dedicated signaling pathway that is responsive to environmental cues can tune the epigenetic state of the RNAi inheritance system, so that inheritance of particular small RNA species can be extended. PMID:27592591

  15. Small RNAs regulate the biocontrol property of fluorescent Pseudomonas strain Psd.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Anamika; Kochar, Mandira; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Tripathy, Soumya; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat; Srivastava, Sheela

    2017-03-01

    The production of biocontrol factors by Pseudomonads is reported to be controlled at the post-transcriptional level by the GacS/GacA signal transduction pathway. This involves RNA-binding translational repressor proteins, RsmA and RsmE, and the small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) RsmX, RsmY, and RsmZ. While the former represses genes involved in secondary metabolite production, the latter relieves this repression at the end of exponential growth. We have studied the fluorescent Pseudomonas strain Psd, possessing good biocontrol potential, and confirmed the presence of rsmY and rsmZ by PCR amplification. Gene constructs for all the three small RNAs (RsmX, RsmY and RsmZ) carried on broad host-range plasmid, pME6032 were mobilized into strain Psd. Expression analysis of gacA in the recombinant strains over-expressing rsmX (Psd-pME7320), rsmY (Psd-pME6359) and rsmZ (Psd-pME6918) revealed a significant upregulation of the response regulator. Besides, a remarkable down-regulation of rsmA was also reported in all the strains. The variant strains were found to produce comparatively higher levels of phenazines. Indole acetic acid levels were higher to some extent, and strain Psd-pME6918 also showed elevated production of HCN. The tomato seedlings infected with Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in the presence of culture filtrate of the recombinant strains showed better plant protection response in comparison to the wild-type strain Psd. These results suggest that small RNAs are important determinants in regulation of the biocontrol property of strain Psd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Deregulation of small non-coding RNAs at the DLK1-DIO3 imprinted locus predicts lung cancer patient outcome

    PubMed Central

    Enfield, Katey S.S.; Martinez, Victor D.; Marshall, Erin A.; Stewart, Greg L.; Kung, Sonia H.Y.; Enterina, Jhon R.; Lam, Wan L.

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 locus at chromosome 14q32.1-14q32.31 has been associated with developmental and respiratory disorders, including cancer. In lung cancer, deregulation of imprinting at DLK1-DIO3 was recently described in smokers. Deregulated expression of a microRNA (miRNA) cluster mapping to this locus was also associated with patient outcome, suggesting the importance of this locus to lung cancer disease phenotypes. The DLK1-DIO3 locus is complex, and encodes several protein-coding genes, in addition to long and short non-coding RNAs. While the role of miRNAs is established, the biological importance of another relevant class of small RNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), has not been investigated. When somatically expressed, piRNAs regulate gene transcription through DNA methylation. Interestingly, their expression patterns have been observed to be altered in cancer and correlated with patient outcome. Here, we characterize the somatic expression of piRNAs encoded at DLK1-DIO3 in two independent cohorts of lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma and investigate their associations with patient outcome. We find that the expression of piRNAs encoded at DLK1-DIO3 enhances the prognostic potential of small non-coding RNAs specific to this locus in predicting patient outcome, further emphasizing the importance of regulation at this locus in lung cancer. PMID:27829231

  17. Transcriptome landscape of Lactococcus lactis reveals many novel RNAs including a small regulatory RNA involved in carbon uptake and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B.; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA sequencing has revolutionized genome-wide transcriptome analyses, and the identification of non-coding regulatory RNAs in bacteria has thus increased concurrently. Here we reveal the transcriptome map of the lactic acid bacterial paradigm Lactococcus lactis MG1363 by employing differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) and a combination of manual and automated transcriptome mining. This resulted in a high-resolution genome annotation of L. lactis and the identification of 60 cis-encoded antisense RNAs (asRNAs), 186 trans-encoded putative regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and 134 novel small ORFs. Based on the putative targets of asRNAs, a novel classification is proposed. Several transcription factor DNA binding motifs were identified in the promoter sequences of (a)sRNAs, providing insight in the interplay between lactococcal regulatory RNAs and transcription factors. The presence and lengths of 14 putative sRNAs were experimentally confirmed by differential Northern hybridization, including the abundant RNA 6S that is differentially expressed depending on the available carbon source. For another sRNA, LLMGnc_147, functional analysis revealed that it is involved in carbon uptake and metabolism. L. lactis contains 13% leaderless mRNAs (lmRNAs) that, from an analysis of overrepresentation in GO classes, seem predominantly involved in nucleotide metabolism and DNA/RNA binding. Moreover, an A-rich sequence motif immediately following the start codon was uncovered, which could provide novel insight in the translation of lmRNAs. Altogether, this first experimental genome-wide assessment of the transcriptome landscape of L. lactis and subsequent sRNA studies provide an extensive basis for the investigation of regulatory RNAs in L. lactis and related lactococcal species. PMID:26950529

  18. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication.

  19. Isolation and characterization of the genes for two small RNAs of herpesvirus papio and their comparison with Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBER RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, J G; Shu, M D

    1988-01-01

    Genes for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs), two low-molecular-weight RNAs encoded by the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hybridize to two small RNAs in a baboon cell line that contains a similar virus, herpesvirus papio (HVP). The genes for the HVP RNAs (HVP-1 and HVP-2) are located together in the small unique region at the left end of the viral genome and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III in a rightward direction, similar to the EBERs. There is significant similarity between EBER1 and HVP-1 RNA, except for an insert of 22 nucleotides which increases the length of HVP-1 RNA to 190 nucleotides. There is less similarity between the sequences of EBER2 and HVP-2 RNA, but both have a length of about 170 nucleotides. The predicted secondary structure of each HVP RNA is remarkably similar to that of the respective EBER, implying that the secondary structures are important for function. Upstream from the initiation sites of all four RNA genes are several highly conserved sequences which may function in the regulation of transcription. The HVP RNAs, together with the EBERs, are highly abundant in transformed cells and are efficiently bound by the cellular La protein. Images PMID:2839701

  20. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species) and DNA methylation (24-nt-species), respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome. PMID:22747909

  1. Small Open Reading Frames, Non-Coding RNAs and Repetitive Elements in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Julia; Tsoy, Olga V.; Thalmann, Sebastian; Čuklina, Jelena; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    Small open reading frames (sORFs) and genes for non-coding RNAs are poorly investigated components of most genomes. Our analysis of 1391 ORFs recently annotated in the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 revealed that 78% of them contain less than 80 codons. Twenty-one of these sORFs are conserved in or outside Alphaproteobacteria and most of them are similar to genes found in transposable elements, in line with their broad distribution. Stabilizing selection was demonstrated for sORFs with proteomic evidence and bll1319_ISGA which is conserved at the nucleotide level in 16 alphaproteobacterial species, 79 species from other taxa and 49 other Proteobacteria. Further we used Northern blot hybridization to validate ten small RNAs (BjsR1 to BjsR10) belonging to new RNA families. We found that BjsR1 and BjsR3 have homologs outside the genus Bradyrhizobium, and BjsR5, BjsR6, BjsR7, and BjsR10 have up to four imperfect copies in Bradyrhizobium genomes. BjsR8, BjsR9, and BjsR10 are present exclusively in nodules, while the other sRNAs are also expressed in liquid cultures. We also found that the level of BjsR4 decreases after exposure to tellurite and iron, and this down-regulation contributes to survival under high iron conditions. Analysis of additional small RNAs overlapping with 3’-UTRs revealed two new repetitive elements named Br-REP1 and Br-REP2. These REP elements may play roles in the genomic plasticity and gene regulation and could be useful for strain identification by PCR-fingerprinting. Furthermore, we studied two potential toxin genes in the symbiotic island and confirmed toxicity of the yhaV homolog bll1687 but not of the newly annotated higB homolog blr0229_ISGA in E. coli. Finally, we revealed transcription interference resulting in an antisense RNA complementary to blr1853, a gene induced in symbiosis. The presented results expand our knowledge on sORFs, non-coding RNAs and repetitive elements in B. japonicum and related bacteria. PMID

  2. The pivotal role of small non-coding RNAs in the regulation of seed development.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andreia S; Miguel, Célia M

    2017-03-13

    Seeds represent a crucial stage of the seed plants life cycle. It is during seed development that the foundations of the future plant body, and the ability to give rise to a new plant capable of growing under sometimes adverse environmental conditions, are established. Small non-coding RNAs are major regulators of gene expression both at the post-transcriptional and transcriptional levels and, not surprisingly, these elements play major roles in seed development and germination. We review here the current knowledge about small RNA expression and functions in seed development, going from the morphogenesis phase comprehending embryo development and patterning, to the several steps of the maturation phase, ending in the transition to the germination. A special focus is given to the small RNAs for which functional studies have been conducted and their participation in regulatory networks operating in seeds. Many challenges remain ahead for dissecting the complex small RNA landscape in seeds, but this is a highly relevant issue in plant biology and advances in this area will most certainly impact plant breeding.

  3. Analysis of Small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans under Acid Stress—A New Insight for Caries Research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanshan; Tao, Ye; Yu, Lixia; Zhuang, Peilin; Zhi, Qinghui; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Huancai

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major clinical pathogen responsible for dental caries. Its acid tolerance has been identified as a significant virulence factor for its survival and cariogenicity in acidic conditions. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are recognized as key regulators of virulence and stress adaptation. Here, we constructed three libraries of sRNAs with small size exposed to acidic conditions for the first time, followed by verification using qRT-PCR. The levels of two sRNAs and target genes predicted to be bioinformatically related to acid tolerance were further evaluated under different acid stress conditions (pH 7.5, 6.5, 5.5, and 4.5) at three time points (0.5, 1, and 2 h). Meanwhile, bacterial growth characteristics and vitality were assessed. We obtained 1879 sRNAs with read counts of at least 100. One hundred and ten sRNAs were perfectly mapped to reported msRNAs in S. mutans. Ten out of 18 sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The survival of bacteria declined as the acid was increased from pH 7.5 to 4.5 at each time point. The bacteria can proliferate under each pH except pH 4.5 with time. The levels of sRNAs gradually decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.5, and slightly increased in pH 4.5; however, the expression levels of target mRNAs were up-regulated in acidic conditions than in pH 7.5. These results indicate that some sRNAs are specially induced at acid stress conditions, involving acid adaptation, and provide a new insight into exploring the complex acid tolerance for S. mutans. PMID:27649155

  4. Global analysis of the sugarcane microtranscriptome reveals a unique composition of small RNAs associated with axillary bud outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Morea, Fausto A.; Vicentini, Renato; Silva, Geraldo F.F.; Silva, Eder M.; Carrer, Helaine; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Nogueira, Fabio T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Axillary bud outgrowth determines shoot architecture and is under the control of endogenous hormones and a fine-tuned gene-expression network, which probably includes small RNAs (sRNAs). Although it is well known that sRNAs act broadly in plant development, our understanding about their roles in vegetative bud outgrowth remains limited. Moreover, the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets within axillary buds are largely unknown. Here, we employed sRNA next-generation sequencing as well as computational and gene-expression analysis to identify and quantify sRNAs and their targets in vegetative axillary buds of the biofuel crop sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Computational analysis allowed the identification of 26 conserved miRNA families and two putative novel miRNAs, as well as a number of trans-acting small interfering RNAs. sRNAs associated with transposable elements and protein-encoding genes were similarly represented in both inactive and developing bud libraries. Conversely, sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that specific miRNAs were differentially expressed in developing buds, and some correlated negatively with the expression of their targets at specific stages of axillary bud development. For instance, the expression patterns of miR159 and its target GAMYB suggested that they may play roles in regulating abscisic acid-signalling pathways during sugarcane bud outgrowth. Our work reveals, for the first time, differences in the composition and expression profiles of diverse sRNAs and targets between inactive and developing vegetative buds that, together with the endogenous balance of specific hormones, may be important in regulating axillary bud outgrowth. PMID:23564956

  5. Induction of Silencing in Plants by High-Pressure Spraying of In vitro-Synthesized Small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Dalakouras, Athanasios; Wassenegger, Michèle; McMillan, John N.; Cardoza, Vinitha; Maegele, Ira; Dadami, Elena; Runne, Miriam; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe a method for the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into plant cells. In vitro synthesized siRNAs that were designed to target the coding region of a GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) transgene were applied by various methods onto GFP-expressing transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants to trigger RNA silencing. In contrast to mere siRNA applications, including spraying, syringe injection, and infiltration of siRNAs that all failed to induce RNA silencing, high pressure spraying of siRNAs resulted in efficient local and systemic silencing of the GFP transgene, with comparable efficiency as was achieved with biolistic siRNA introduction. High-pressure spraying of siRNAs with sizes of 21, 22, and 24 nucleotides (nt) led to local GFP silencing. Small RNA deep sequencing revealed that no shearing of siRNAs was detectable by high-pressure spraying. Systemic silencing was basically detected upon spraying of 22 nt siRNAs. Local and systemic silencing developed faster and more extensively upon targeting the apical meristem than spraying of mature leaves. PMID:27625678

  6. Systematic analysis of plant mitochondrial and chloroplast small RNAs suggests organelle-specific mRNA stabilization mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ruwe, Hannes; Wang, Gongwei; Gusewski, Sandra; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2016-09-06

    Land plant organellar genomes encode a small number of genes, many of which are essential for respiration and photosynthesis. Organellar gene expression is characterized by a multitude of RNA processing events that lead to stable, translatable transcripts. RNA binding proteins (RBPs), have been shown to generate and protect transcript termini and eventually induce the accumulation of short RNA footprints. We applied knowledge of such RBP-derived footprints to develop software (sRNA miner) that enables identification of RBP footprints, or other clusters of small RNAs, in organelles. We used this tool to determine mitochondrial and chloroplast cosRNAs (clustered organellar sRNAs) in Arabidopsis. We found that in mitochondria, cosRNAs coincide with transcript 3'-ends, but are largely absent from 5'-ends. In chloroplasts this bias is absent, suggesting a different mode of 5' processing, possibly owing to different sets of RNases. Furthermore, we identified a large number of cosRNAs that represent silenced insertions of mitochondrial DNA in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. Steady-state RNA analyses demonstrate that cosRNAs display differential accumulation during development. Finally, we demonstrate that the chloroplast RBP PPR10 associates in vivo with its cognate cosRNA. A hypothetical role of cosRNAs as competitors of mRNAs for PPR proteins is discussed. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Characterization of the Small RNA Transcriptome of the Marine Coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Gamarra, Jaime; Castro, Steven; Carrasco, Estela; Hernandez, Aaron; Mock, Thomas; Hadaegh, Ahmad R.; Read, Betsy A.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (smRNAs) control a variety of cellular processes by silencing target genes at the transcriptional or post-transcription level. While extensively studied in plants, relatively little is known about smRNAs and their targets in marine phytoplankton, such as Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi). Deep sequencing was performed of smRNAs extracted at different time points as E. huxleyi cells transition from logarithmic to stationary phase growth in batch culture. Computational analyses predicted 18 E. huxleyi specific miRNAs. The 18 miRNA candidates and their precursors vary in length (18–24 nt and 71–252 nt, respectively), genome copy number (3–1,459), and the number of genes targeted (2–107). Stem-loop real time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to validate miRNA expression which varied by nearly three orders of magnitude when growth slows and cells enter stationary phase. Stem-loop RT PCR was also used to examine the expression profiles of miRNA in calcifying and non-calcifying cultures, and a small subset was found to be differentially expressed when nutrients become limiting and calcification is enhanced. In addition to miRNAs, endogenous small RNAs such as ra-siRNAs, ta-siRNAs, nat-siRNAs, and piwiRNAs were predicted along with the machinery for the biogenesis and processing of si-RNAs. This study is the first genome-wide investigation smRNAs pathways in E. huxleyi. Results provide new insights into the importance of smRNAs in regulating aspects of physiological growth and adaptation in marine phytoplankton and further challenge the notion that smRNAs evolved with multicellularity, expanding our perspective of these ancient regulatory pathways. PMID:27101007

  8. FASTmiR: an RNA-based sensor for in vitro quantification and live-cell localization of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Doyle, Francis; Wurz, Zachary E; Tenenbaum, Scott A; Hammond, Reza K; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Meyers, Blake C

    2017-08-21

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play a variety of important regulatory roles in many eukaryotes. Their small size has made it challenging to study them directly in live cells. Here we describe an RNA-based fluorescent sensor for small RNA detection both in vitro and in vivo, adaptable for any small RNA. It utilizes an sxRNA switch for detection of miRNA-mRNA interactions combined with a fluorophore-binding sequence 'Spinach', a GFP-like RNA aptamer for which the RNA-fluorophore complex exhibits strong and consistent fluorescence under an excitation wavelength. Two example sensors, FASTmiR171 and FASTmiR122, can rapidly detect and quantify the levels of miR171 and miR122 in vitro. The sensors can determine relative levels of miRNAs in total RNA extracts with sensitivity similar to small RNA sequencing and northern blots. FASTmiR sensors were also used to estimate the copy number range of miRNAs in total RNA extracts. To localize and analyze the spatial distribution of small RNAs in live, single cells, tandem copies of FASTmiR122 were expressed in different cell lines. FASTmiR122 was able to quantitatively detect the differences in miR122 levels in Huh7 and HEK293T cells demonstrating its potential for tracking miRNA expression and localization in vivo. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Comprehensive Identification of Meningococcal Genes and Small Noncoding RNAs Required for Host Cell Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Capel, Elena; Zomer, Aldert L.; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bole, Christine; Izac, Brigitte; Frapy, Eric; Meyer, Julie; Bouzinba-Ségard, Haniaa; Bille, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Anne; Cavau, Anne; Letourneur, Franck; Bourdoulous, Sandrine; Rattei, Thomas; Coureuil, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia, affecting infants and adults worldwide. N. meningitidis is also a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx and, as such, is highly adapted to its niche. During bacteremia, N. meningitidis gains access to the blood compartment, where it adheres to endothelial cells of blood vessels and causes dramatic vascular damage. Colonization of the nasopharyngeal niche and communication with the different human cell types is a major issue of the N. meningitidis life cycle that is poorly understood. Here, highly saturated random transposon insertion libraries of N. meningitidis were engineered, and the fitness of mutations during routine growth and that of colonization of endothelial and epithelial cells in a flow device were assessed in a transposon insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) analysis. This allowed the identification of genes essential for bacterial growth and genes specifically required for host cell colonization. In addition, after having identified the small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) located in intergenic regions, the phenotypes associated with mutations in those sRNAs were defined. A total of 383 genes and 8 intergenic regions containing sRNA candidates were identified to be essential for growth, while 288 genes and 33 intergenic regions containing sRNA candidates were found to be specifically required for host cell colonization. PMID:27486197

  10. Experimental discovery of small RNAs in Staphylococcus aureus reveals a riboregulator of central metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Chantal; Rigoulay, Candice; Chabelskaya, Svetlana; Sharma, Cynthia M; Marchais, Antonin; Skorski, Patricia; Borezée-Durant, Elise; Barbet, Romain; Jacquet, Eric; Jacq, Annick; Gautheret, Daniel; Felden, Brice; Vogel, Jörg; Bouloc, Philippe

    2010-10-01

    Using an experimental approach, we investigated the RNome of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus to identify 30 small RNAs (sRNAs) including 14 that are newly confirmed. Among the latter, 10 are encoded in intergenic regions, three are generated by premature transcription termination associated with riboswitch activities, and one is expressed from the complementary strand of a transposase gene. The expression of four sRNAs increases during the transition from exponential to stationary phase. We focused our study on RsaE, an sRNA that is highly conserved in the bacillales order and is deleterious when over-expressed. We show that RsaE interacts in vitro with the 5' region of opp3A mRNA, encoding an ABC transporter component, to prevent formation of the ribosomal initiation complex. A previous report showed that RsaE targets opp3B which is co-transcribed with opp3A. Thus, our results identify an unusual case of riboregulation where the same sRNA controls an operon mRNA by targeting two of its cistrons. A combination of biocomputational and transcriptional analyses revealed a remarkably coordinated RsaE-dependent downregulation of numerous metabolic enzymes involved in the citrate cycle and the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. As we observed that RsaE accumulates transiently in late exponential growth, we propose that RsaE functions to ensure a coordinate downregulation of the central metabolism when carbon sources become scarce.

  11. Experimental discovery of small RNAs in Staphylococcus aureus reveals a riboregulator of central metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Chantal; Rigoulay, Candice; Chabelskaya, Svetlana; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Marchais, Antonin; Skorski, Patricia; Borezée-Durant, Elise; Barbet, Romain; Jacquet, Eric; Jacq, Annick; Gautheret, Daniel; Felden, Brice; Vogel, Jörg; Bouloc, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, we investigated the RNome of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus to identify 30 small RNAs (sRNAs) including 14 that are newly confirmed. Among the latter, 10 are encoded in intergenic regions, three are generated by premature transcription termination associated with riboswitch activities, and one is expressed from the complementary strand of a transposase gene. The expression of four sRNAs increases during the transition from exponential to stationary phase. We focused our study on RsaE, an sRNA that is highly conserved in the bacillales order and is deleterious when over-expressed. We show that RsaE interacts in vitro with the 5′ region of opp3A mRNA, encoding an ABC transporter component, to prevent formation of the ribosomal initiation complex. A previous report showed that RsaE targets opp3B which is co-transcribed with opp3A. Thus, our results identify an unusual case of riboregulation where the same sRNA controls an operon mRNA by targeting two of its cistrons. A combination of biocomputational and transcriptional analyses revealed a remarkably coordinated RsaE-dependent downregulation of numerous metabolic enzymes involved in the citrate cycle and the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. As we observed that RsaE accumulates transiently in late exponential growth, we propose that RsaE functions to ensure a coordinate downregulation of the central metabolism when carbon sources become scarce. PMID:20511587

  12. Robust gene silencing mediated by antisense small RNAs in the pathogenic protist Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Morf, Laura; Pearson, Richard J.; Wang, Angelia S.; Singh, Upinder

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference uses small RNAs (sRNA), which target genes for sequence-specific silencing. The parasite Entamoeba histolytica contains an abundant repertoire of 27 nt antisense (AS) sRNA with 5′-polyphosphate termini, but their roles in regulating gene expression have not been well established. We demonstrate that a gene-coding region to which large numbers of AS sRNAs map can serve as a ‘trigger’ and silence the gene fused to it. Silencing is mediated by generation of AS sRNAs with 5′-polyphosphate termini that have sequence specificity to the fused gene. The mechanism of silencing is independent of the placement of the trigger relative to the silenced gene but is dependent on the sRNA concentration to the trigger. Silencing requires transcription of the trigger-gene fusion and is maintained despite loss of the trigger plasmid. We used this approach to silence multiple amebic genes, including an E. histolytica Myb gene, which is upregulated during oxidative stress response. Silencing of the EhMyb gene decreased parasite viability under oxidative stress conditions. Thus, we have developed a new tool for genetic manipulation in E. histolytica with many advantages over currently available technologies. Additionally, these data shed mechanistic insights into a eukaryotic RNA interference pathway with many novel aspects. PMID:23935116

  13. Human Virus-Derived Small RNAs Can Confer Antiviral Immunity in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Xu, Yanpeng; Zhang, Yao; Zhou, Hui; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Feng; Miao, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhong, Bo; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Wu, Ligang; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhou, Xi

    2017-06-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) functions as a potent antiviral immunity in plants and invertebrates; however, whether RNAi plays antiviral roles in mammals remains unclear. Here, using human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) as a model, we showed HEV71 3A protein as an authentic viral suppressor of RNAi during viral infection. When the 3A-mediated RNAi suppression was impaired, the mutant HEV71 readily triggered the production of abundant HEV71-derived small RNAs with canonical siRNA properties in cells and mice. These virus-derived siRNAs were produced from viral dsRNA replicative intermediates in a Dicer-dependent manner and loaded into AGO, and they were fully active in degrading cognate viral RNAs. Recombinant HEV71 deficient in 3A-mediated RNAi suppression was significantly restricted in human somatic cells and mice, whereas Dicer deficiency rescued HEV71 infection independently of type I interferon response. Thus, RNAi can function as an antiviral immunity, which is induced and suppressed by a human virus, in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2011-01-01

    Plant endogenous non-coding short small RNAs (20–24 nt), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs), play important role in gene expression regulatory networks (GRNs). For example, many transcription factors and development-related genes have been reported as targets of these regulatory small RNAs. Although a number of miRNA target prediction algorithms and programs have been developed, most of them were designed for animal miRNAs which are significantly different from plant miRNAs in the target recognition process. These differences demand the development of separate plant miRNA (and ta-siRNA) target analysis tool(s). We present psRNATarget, a plant small RNA target analysis server, which features two important analysis functions: (i) reverse complementary matching between small RNA and target transcript using a proven scoring schema, and (ii) target-site accessibility evaluation by calculating unpaired energy (UPE) required to ‘open’ secondary structure around small RNA’s target site on mRNA. The psRNATarget incorporates recent discoveries in plant miRNA target recognition, e.g. it distinguishes translational and post-transcriptional inhibition, and it reports the number of small RNA/target site pairs that may affect small RNA binding activity to target transcript. The psRNATarget server is designed for high-throughput analysis of next-generation data with an efficient distributed computing back-end pipeline that runs on a Linux cluster. The server front-end integrates three simplified user-friendly interfaces to accept user-submitted or preloaded small RNAs and transcript sequences; and outputs a comprehensive list of small RNA/target pairs along with the online tools for batch downloading, key word searching and results sorting. The psRNATarget server is freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/psRNATarget/. PMID:21622958

  15. Expression of Drosophila virilis Retroelements and Role of Small RNAs in Their Intrastrain Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V.; Zelentsova, Elena S.; Shostak, Natalia G.; Evgen'ev, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Transposition of two retroelements (Ulysses and Penelope) mobilized in the course of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis has been investigated by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes in two D. virilis strains of different cytotypes routinely used to get dysgenic progeny. The analysis has been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, and has revealed transpositions of Penelope in one of the strains, while, in the other strain, the LTR-containing element Ulysses was found to be transpositionally active. The gypsy retroelement, which has been previously shown to be transpositionally inactive in D. virilis strains, was also included in the analysis. Whole mount is situ hybridization with the ovaries revealed different subcellular distribution of the transposable elements transcripts in the strains studied. Ulysses transpositions occur only in the strain where antisense piRNAs homologous to this TE are virtually absent and the ping-pong amplification loop apparently does not take place. On the other hand small RNAs homologous to Penelope found in the other strain, belong predominantly to the siRNA category (21nt), and consist of sense and antisense species observed in approximately equal proportion. The number of Penelope copies in the latter strain has significantly increased during the last decades, probably because Penelope-derived siRNAs are not maternally inherited, while the low level of Penelope-piRNAs, which are faithfully transmitted from mother to the embryo, is not sufficient to silence this element completely. Therefore, we speculate that intrastrain transposition of the three retroelements studied is controlled predominantly at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21779346

  16. Expression of Drosophila virilis retroelements and role of small RNAs in their intrastrain transposition.

    PubMed

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V; Zelentsova, Elena S; Shostak, Natalia G; Evgen'ev, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Transposition of two retroelements (Ulysses and Penelope) mobilized in the course of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis has been investigated by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes in two D. virilis strains of different cytotypes routinely used to get dysgenic progeny. The analysis has been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, and has revealed transpositions of Penelope in one of the strains, while, in the other strain, the LTR-containing element Ulysses was found to be transpositionally active. The gypsy retroelement, which has been previously shown to be transpositionally inactive in D. virilis strains, was also included in the analysis. Whole mount is situ hybridization with the ovaries revealed different subcellular distribution of the transposable elements transcripts in the strains studied. Ulysses transpositions occur only in the strain where antisense piRNAs homologous to this TE are virtually absent and the ping-pong amplification loop apparently does not take place. On the other hand small RNAs homologous to Penelope found in the other strain, belong predominantly to the siRNA category (21nt), and consist of sense and antisense species observed in approximately equal proportion. The number of Penelope copies in the latter strain has significantly increased during the last decades, probably because Penelope-derived siRNAs are not maternally inherited, while the low level of Penelope-piRNAs, which are faithfully transmitted from mother to the embryo, is not sufficient to silence this element completely. Therefore, we speculate that intrastrain transposition of the three retroelements studied is controlled predominantly at the post-transcriptional level.

  17. Somatostatin Analogs Treated Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor Patients Circulating MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su-Chen; Khan, Mohid; Caplin, Martyn; Meyer, Tim; Öberg, Kjell; Giandomenico, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    We previously detected and investigated nine altered microRNAs in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor (SI-NET) tissues at different stages of disease. The aims of this study are to: 1) analyze whether SI-NET tissue microRNAs can be also detected in patient serum samples, 2) investigate a potential somatostatin analogs (SSAs) role on microRNA levels regulation in SSA-treated patient samples and 3) elucidate whether the serum microRNA levels in samples collected in different hospitals are predictable and steady. Our results show that tissue microRNAs are detectable in patient serum samples, and miR-96, -182, -183, -196a and -200a levels are lower in SI-NET untreated patients than in SSA-treated patients at all different stages. Conversely, miR-31, -129-5p, -133a and -215 levels do not show any difference in untreated SI-NET patients and SSA-treated patients at all different stages. Our findings also show that miR-200a exhibits an atypical behavior with high levels in both untreated and SSA-treated patients at liver metastasis stage, and unequivocally never at the earlier stages. Serum samples collected in two hospitals keep alike microRNA level pattern, elucidating that the results are not dependent on samples handling. In conclusion, SI-NET tissue microRNAs are always detectable in untreated and SSA-treated patient serum samples, SSAs play an unknown role in eliciting SSA-treated patients’ microRNA levels higher than in untreated patients, and this study enlightens that miR-200a might be involved in the liver metastasis during SI-NET progression. PMID:25942502

  18. Modification of Small RNAs Associated with Suppression of RNA Silencing by Tobamovirus Replicase Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Hannes; Akbergenov, Rashid; Shivaprasad, Padubidri V.; Dang, Vy; Fasler, Monika; Kwon, Myoung-Ok; Zhanybekova, Saule; Hohn, Thomas; Heinlein, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Plant viruses act as triggers and targets of RNA silencing and have evolved proteins to suppress this plant defense response during infection. Although Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) triggers the production of virus-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), this does not lead to efficient silencing of TMV nor is a TMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) hybrid able to induce silencing of a GFP-transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana, indicating that a TMV silencing suppressor is active and acts downstream of siRNA production. On the other hand, TMV-GFP is unable to spread into cells in which GFP silencing is established, suggesting that the viral silencing suppressor cannot revert silencing that is already established. Although previous evidence indicates that the tobamovirus silencing suppressing activity resides in the viral 126-kDa small replicase subunit, the mechanism of silencing suppression by this virus family is not known. Here, we connect the silencing suppressing activity of this protein with our previous finding that Oilseed rape mosaic tobamovirus infection leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of siRNA and micro-RNA (miRNA). We demonstrate that TMV infection similarly leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of small RNAs and that this interference and the formation of virus-induced disease symptoms are linked to the silencing suppressor activity of the 126-kDa protein. Moreover, we show that also Turnip crinkle virus interferes with the methylation of siRNA but, in contrast to tobamoviruses, not with the methylation of miRNA. PMID:17634237

  19. Modification of small RNAs associated with suppression of RNA silencing by tobamovirus replicase protein.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Hannes; Akbergenov, Rashid; Shivaprasad, Padubidri V; Dang, Vy; Fasler, Monika; Kwon, Myoung-Ok; Zhanybekova, Saule; Hohn, Thomas; Heinlein, Manfred

    2007-10-01

    Plant viruses act as triggers and targets of RNA silencing and have evolved proteins to suppress this plant defense response during infection. Although Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) triggers the production of virus-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), this does not lead to efficient silencing of TMV nor is a TMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) hybrid able to induce silencing of a GFP-transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana, indicating that a TMV silencing suppressor is active and acts downstream of siRNA production. On the other hand, TMV-GFP is unable to spread into cells in which GFP silencing is established, suggesting that the viral silencing suppressor cannot revert silencing that is already established. Although previous evidence indicates that the tobamovirus silencing suppressing activity resides in the viral 126-kDa small replicase subunit, the mechanism of silencing suppression by this virus family is not known. Here, we connect the silencing suppressing activity of this protein with our previous finding that Oilseed rape mosaic tobamovirus infection leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of siRNA and micro-RNA (miRNA). We demonstrate that TMV infection similarly leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of small RNAs and that this interference and the formation of virus-induced disease symptoms are linked to the silencing suppressor activity of the 126-kDa protein. Moreover, we show that also Turnip crinkle virus interferes with the methylation of siRNA but, in contrast to tobamoviruses, not with the methylation of miRNA.

  20. Small RNAs Repress Expression of Polysaccharide Utilization Loci of Gut Bacteroides Species.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-09-15

    Bacteroides species can metabolize numerous plant polysaccharides and host glycans present in the mammalian gut. The regulatory systems governing the induction of particular polysaccharide utilization loci when the cognate glycan is present are known, but how expression is repressed when a higher-priority glycan is present is largely unknown. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Cao et al. (J. Bacteriol. 198:2410-2418, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00381-16) reveal a conserved mechanism in Bacteroides whereby antisense small RNAs (sRNA) repress expression of genes involved in utilization of host glycans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. NucBase, an easy to use read mapper for small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Dufourt, Jeremy; Pouchin, Pierre; Peyret, Pierre; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput deep-sequencing technology has generated an unprecedented number of expressed sequence reads that offer the opportunity to get insight into biological systems. Several databases report the sequence of small regulatory RNAs which play a prominent role in the control of transposable elements (TE). However, the huge amount of data reported in these databases remains mostly unexplored because the available tools are hard for biologists to use. Here we report NucBase, a new program designed to make an exhaustive search for sequence matches and to align short sequence reads from large nucleic acid databases to genomes or input sequences. NucBase includes a graphical interface which allows biologists to align sequences with ease and immediately visualize matched sequences, their number and their genomic position. NucBase identifies nucleic motives with strict identity to input sequences, and it capably finds candidates with one or several mismatches. It offers the opportunity to identify "core sequences" comprised of a chosen number of consecutive matching nucleotides. This software can be run locally on any Windows, Linux or Mac OS computer with 32-bit architecture compatibility. Since this software is easy to use and can detect reads that were undetected by other software, we believe that it will be useful for biologists involved in the field of TE silencing by small non-coding RNAs. We hope NucBase will be useful for a larger community of researchers, since it makes exploration of small nucleic sequences in any organism much easier.

  2. Repertoire of virus-derived small RNAs produced by mosquito and mammalian cells in response to dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schirtzinger, Erin E; Andrade, Christy C; Devitt, Nicholas; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Jacobi, Jennifer L; Schilkey, Faye; Hanley, Kathryn A

    2015-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the major defense of many arthropods against arthropod-borne RNA viruses (arboviruses), but the role of RNAi in vertebrate immunity to arboviruses is not clear. RNA viruses can trigger RNAi in vertebrate cells, but the vertebrate interferon response may obscure this interaction. We quantified virus-derived small RNAs (vRNAs) generated by mosquito (U4.4) cells and interferon-deficient (Vero) and interferon-competent (HuH-7) mammalian cells infected with a single isolate of mosquito-borne dengue virus. Mosquito cells produced significantly more vRNAs than mammalian cells, and mosquito cell vRNAs were derived from both the positive- and negative-sense dengue genomes whereas mammalian cell vRNAs were derived primarily from positive-sense genome. Mosquito cell vRNAs were predominantly 21 nucleotides in length whereas mammalian cell vRNAs were between 12 and 36 nucleotides with a modest peak at 24 nucleotides. Hot-spots, regions of the virus genome that generated a disproportionate number of vRNAs, overlapped among the cell lines.

  3. Plant small RNAs: the essential epigenetic regulators of gene expression for salt-stress responses and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Khare, Tushar; Shriram, Varsha; Wani, Shabir H

    2017-09-26

    Saline environment cues distort the plant growth, development and crop yield. Epigenetics has emerged as one of the prime themes in plant functional genomics for molecular-stress-physiology research, as copious studies have provided new visions into the epigenetic control of stress adaptations. The epigenetic control is associated with the regulation of the expression of stress-related genes which also comprises many steady alterations inherited in next cellular generation as stress memory. These epigenetic amendments also implicate induction of small RNA (sRNA)-mediated fine-tuning of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression. These tiny (19-24 nt) RNA species, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs) besides endogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) have emerged as important responsive entities for epigenetic modulation of salt-stress effects on plants. There is a recent upsurge in development of tools and databases useful for prediction, identification and validation of small RNAs (sRNAs) and their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Therefore, these small but key regulatory molecules have received a wide attention in post-genomic era as potential targets for engineering stress tolerance in major glycophytic crops, though it is yet to be explored optimally. This review aims to provide critical updates on plant sRNAs as key epigenetic regulators of plant salt-stress responses, their target prediction and validation, computational tools and databases available for plant small RNAs, besides discussing their roles in salt-stress regulatory networks and adaptive mechanisms in plants, with special emphasis on their exploration for engineering salinity tolerance in plants.

  4. Synergistic and independent actions of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shuxin; Dou, Yongchao; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Xuemei; Yu, Bin; Ren, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    All types of small RNAs in plants, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in animals and a subset of siRNAs in Drosophila and C. elegans are subject to HEN1 mediated 3' terminal 2'-O-methylation. This modification plays a pivotal role in protecting small RNAs from 3' uridylation, trimming and degradation. In Arabidopsis, HESO1 is a major enzyme that uridylates small RNAs to trigger their degradation. However, U-tail is still present in null hen1 heso1 mutants, suggesting the existence of (an) enzymatic activities redundant with HESO1. Here, we report that UTP: RNA uridylyltransferase (URT1) is a functional paralog of HESO1. URT1 interacts with AGO1 and plays a predominant role in miRNA uridylation when HESO1 is absent. Uridylation of miRNA is globally abolished in a hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant, accompanied by an extensive increase of 3'-to-5' trimming. In contrast, disruption of URT1 appears not to affect the heterochromatic siRNA uridylation. This indicates the involvement of additional nucleotidyl transferases in the siRNA pathway. Analysis of miRNA tailings in the hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant also reveals the existence of previously unknown enzymatic activities that can add non-uridine nucleotides. Importantly, we show HESO1 may also act redundantly with URT1 in miRNA uridylation when HEN1 is fully competent. Taken together, our data not only reveal a synergistic action of HESO1 and URT1 in the 3' uridylation of miRNAs, but also independent activities of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs and an antagonistic relationship between uridylation and trimming. Our results may provide further insight into the mechanisms of small RNA 3' end modification and stability control.

  5. Daily Expression Pattern of Protein-Encoding Genes and Small Noncoding RNAs in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christian; Hertel, Stefanie; Rediger, Anne; Lehmann, Robert; Wiegard, Anika; Kölsch, Adrian; Heilmann, Beate; Georg, Jens; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-01-01

    Many organisms harbor circadian clocks with periods close to 24 h. These cellular clocks allow organisms to anticipate the environmental cycles of day and night by synchronizing circadian rhythms with the rising and setting of the sun. These rhythms originate from the oscillator components of circadian clocks and control global gene expression and various cellular processes. The oscillator of photosynthetic cyanobacteria is composed of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, linked to a complex regulatory network. Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 possesses the standard cyanobacterial kaiABC gene cluster plus multiple kaiB and kaiC gene copies and antisense RNAs for almost every kai transcript. However, there is no clear evidence of circadian rhythms in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under various experimental conditions. It is also still unknown if and to what extent the multiple kai gene copies and kai antisense RNAs affect circadian timing. Moreover, a large number of small noncoding RNAs whose accumulation dynamics over time have not yet been monitored are known for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Here we performed a 48-h time series transcriptome analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, taking into account periodic light-dark phases, continuous light, and continuous darkness. We found that expression of functionally related genes occurred in different phases of day and night. Moreover, we found day-peaking and night-peaking transcripts among the small RNAs; in particular, the amounts of kai antisense RNAs correlated or anticorrelated with those of their respective kai target mRNAs, pointing toward the regulatory relevance of these antisense RNAs. Surprisingly, we observed that the amounts of 16S and 23S rRNAs in this cyanobacterium fluctuated in light-dark periods, showing maximum accumulation in the dark phase. Importantly, the amounts of all transcripts, including small noncoding RNAs, did not show any rhythm under continuous light or darkness, indicating the absence

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PrrF Small RNAs Regulate Iron Homeostasis during Acute Murine Lung Infection.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Alexandria A; Nguyen, Angela T; Brewer, Luke K; Bevere, Justin; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Damron, F Heath; Barbier, Mariette; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G

    2017-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that requires iron for virulence. Iron homeostasis is maintained in part by the PrrF1 and PrrF2 small RNAs (sRNAs), which block the expression of iron-containing proteins under iron-depleted conditions. The PrrF sRNAs also promote the production of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a quorum sensing molecule that activates the expression of several virulence genes. The tandem arrangement of the prrF genes allows for expression of a third sRNA, PrrH, which is predicted to regulate gene expression through its unique sequence derived from the prrF1-prrF2 intergenic (IG) sequence (the PrrHIG sequence). Previous studies showed that the prrF locus is required for acute lung infection. However, the individual functions of the PrrF and PrrH sRNAs were not determined. Here, we describe a system for differentiating PrrF and PrrH functions by deleting the PrrHIG sequence [prrF(ΔHIG)]. Our analyses of this construct indicate that the PrrF sRNAs, but not PrrH, are required for acute lung infection by P. aeruginosa Moreover, we show that the virulence defect of the ΔprrF1-prrF2 mutant is due to decreased bacterial burden during acute lung infection. In vivo analysis of gene expression in lung homogenates shows that PrrF-mediated regulation of genes for iron-containing proteins is disrupted in the ΔprrF1-prrF2 mutant during infection, while the expression of genes that mediate PrrF-regulated PQS production are not affected by prrF deletion in vivo Combined, these studies demonstrate that regulation of iron utilization plays a critical role in P. aeruginosa's ability to survive during infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Delivery of small interfering RNAs in human cervical cancer cells by polyethylenimine-functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, I-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2013-06-06

    Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method. PEI functionalization increased the positive charge on the surface of SWNTs and MWNTs, allowing carbon nanotubes to interact electrostatically with the negatively charged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and to serve as nonviral gene delivery reagents. PEI-NH-MWNTs and PEI-NH-SWNTs had a better solubility in water than pristine carbon nanotubes, and further removal of large aggregates by centrifugation produced a stable suspension of reduced particle size and improved homogeneity and dispersity. The amount of grafted PEI estimated by thermogravimetric analysis was 5.08% (w/w) and 5.28% (w/w) for PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs, respectively. For the assessment of cytotoxicity, various concentrations of PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs were incubated with human cervical cancer cells, HeLa-S3, for 48 h. PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs induced cell deaths in a dose-dependent manner but were less cytotoxic compared to pure PEI. As determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, siRNAs directed against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGAPDH) were completely associated with PEI-NH-SWNTs or PEI-NH-MWNTs at a PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH or PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratio of 80:1 or 160:1, respectively. Furthermore, PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs successfully delivered siGAPDH into HeLa-S3 cells at PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH and PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratios of 1:1 to 20:1, resulting in suppression of the mRNA level of GAPDH to an extent similar to that of DharmaFECT, a common transfection

  8. Delivery of small interfering RNAs in human cervical cancer cells by polyethylenimine-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, I.-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method. PEI functionalization increased the positive charge on the surface of SWNTs and MWNTs, allowing carbon nanotubes to interact electrostatically with the negatively charged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and to serve as nonviral gene delivery reagents. PEI-NH-MWNTs and PEI-NH-SWNTs had a better solubility in water than pristine carbon nanotubes, and further removal of large aggregates by centrifugation produced a stable suspension of reduced particle size and improved homogeneity and dispersity. The amount of grafted PEI estimated by thermogravimetric analysis was 5.08% ( w/ w) and 5.28% ( w/ w) for PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs, respectively. For the assessment of cytotoxicity, various concentrations of PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs were incubated with human cervical cancer cells, HeLa-S3, for 48 h. PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs induced cell deaths in a dose-dependent manner but were less cytotoxic compared to pure PEI. As determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, siRNAs directed against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGAPDH) were completely associated with PEI-NH-SWNTs or PEI-NH-MWNTs at a PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH or PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratio of 80:1 or 160:1, respectively. Furthermore, PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs successfully delivered siGAPDH into HeLa-S3 cells at PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH and PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratios of 1:1 to 20:1, resulting in suppression of the mRNA level of GAPDH to an extent similar to that of DharmaFECT, a common transfection

  9. A new layer of rRNA regulation by small interference RNAs and the nuclear RNAi pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xufei; Chen, Xiangyang; Wang, Yun; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

    2017-06-22

    Ribosome biogenesis drives cell growth and proliferation, but mechanisms that modulate this process remain poorly understood. For a long time, small rRNA sequences have been widely treated as non-specific degradation products and neglected as garbage sequences. Recently, we identified a new class of antisense ribosomal siRNAs (risiRNAs) that downregulate pre-rRNA through the nuclear RNAi pathway in C. elegans. risiRNAs exhibit sequence characteristics similar to 22G RNA while complement to 18S and 26S rRNA. risiRNAs elicit the translocation of the nuclear Argonaute protein NRDE-3 from the cytoplasm to nucleus and nucleolus, in which the risiRNA/NRDE complex binds to pre-rRNA and silences rRNA expression. Interestingly, when C. elegans is exposed to environmental stimuli, such as cold shock and ultraviolet illumination, risiRNAs accumulate and further turn on the nuclear RNAi-mediated gene silencing pathway. risiRNA may act in a quality control mechanism of rRNA homeostasis. When the exoribonuclease SUSI-1(ceDis3L2) is mutated, risiRNAs are dramatically increased. In this Point of View article, we will summarize our understanding of the small antisense ribosomal siRNAs in a variety of organisms, especially C. elegans, and their possible roles in the quality control mechanism of rRNA homeostasis.

  10. Quantification of Small Non-Coding RNAs Allows an Accurate Comparison of miRNA Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Masotti, Andrea; Caputo, Viviana; Da Sacco, Letizia; Pizzuti, Antonio; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bottazzo, Gian Franco

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved ∼22-mer RNA molecules, encoded by plants and animals that regulate the expression of genes binding to the 3′-UTR of specific target mRNAs. The amount of miRNAs in a total RNA sample depends on the recovery efficiency that may be significantly affected by the different purification methods employed. Traditional approaches may be inefficient at recovering small RNAs, and common spectrophotometric determination is not adequate to quantify selectively these low molecular weight (LMW) species from total RNA samples. Here, we describe the use of qualitative and quantitative lab-on-a-chip tools for the analysis of these LMW RNA species. Our data emphasize the close correlation of LMW RNAs with the expression levels of some miRNAs. We therefore applied our result to the comparison of some miRNA expression profiles in different tissues. Finally, the methods we used in this paper allowed us to analyze the efficiency of extraction protocols, to study the small (but significant) differences among various preparations and to allow a proper comparison of some miRNA expression profiles in various tissues. PMID:19727414

  11. Frequency modulation of stochastic gene expression bursts by strongly interacting small RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Jia, Tao; Zarringhalam, Kourosh; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

    2016-10-01

    The sporadic nature of gene expression at the single-cell level—long periods of inactivity punctuated by bursts of mRNA or protein production—plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes. To elucidate the cellular role of bursting in gene expression, synthetic biology approaches have been used to design simple genetic circuits with bursty mRNA or protein production. Understanding how such genetic circuits can be designed with the ability to control burst-related parameters requires the development of quantitative stochastic models of gene expression. In this work, we analyze stochastic models for the regulation of gene expression bursts by strongly interacting small RNAs. For the parameter range considered, results based on mean-field approaches are significantly inaccurate and alternative analytical approaches are needed. Using simplifying approximations, we obtain analytical results for the corresponding steady-state distributions that are in agreement with results from stochastic simulations. These results indicate that regulation by small RNAs, in the strong interaction limit, can be used to effectively modulate the frequency of bursting. We explore the consequences of such regulation for simple genetic circuits involving feedback effects and switching between promoter states.

  12. “Guest list” or “Black list”? Heritable Small RNAs as Immunogenic Memories

    PubMed Central

    Rechavi, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA-mediated gene silencing plays a pivotal role in genome immunity by recognizing and eliminating viruses and transposons which otherwise may colonize the genome. However, this can be challenging since individual genomic parasites are highly diverse, and employ multiple immune evasion techniques. In this review, I discuss a new theory proposing that the integrity of the germline is maintained by transgenerationally-transmitted RNA “memories” that record ancestral gene expression patterns, and delineate “Self” from “Foreign” sequences. To maintain such recollection two tactics are employed in parallel: “black listing” of invading nucleic acids, and “guest listing” of endogenous genes. Studies in a number of organisms have shown that this memorization is used by the next generation small RNAs to act as “Inherited Vaccines” that ambush invading elements, or as “Inherited Licenses” that grant the transcription of autogenous sequences. PMID:24231398

  13. Small RNA Sequencing for Profiling MicroRNAs in Long-Term Preserved Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumor Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kannisto, Eric; Jones, David R.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The preservation of microRNAs in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue makes them particularly useful for biomarker studies. The utility of small RNA sequencing for microRNA expression profiling of FFPE samples has yet to be determined. Methods Total RNA was extracted from de-paraffinized and proteinase K-treated FFPE specimens (15–20 years old) of 8 human lung adenocarcinoma tumors by affinity chromatography on silica columns. MicroRNAs in the RNA preparations were quantified by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform with sequencing libraries prepared with the TruSeq Small RNA Sample Preparation Kit (version 2.0) to obtain unpaired reads of 50 b for small RNA fragments. MicroRNAs were also quantified using Agilent Human miRNA (release 16.0) microarrays that can detect 1,205 mature microRNAs and by quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays. Results Between 9.1–16.9 million reads were obtained by small RNA sequencing of extracted RNA samples. Of these, only 0.6–2.3% (mean = 1.5%) represented microRNAs. The sequencing method detected 454–625 microRNAs/sample (mean = 550) compared with 200–349 (mean = 286) microRNAs detected by microarray. In Spearman correlation analyses, the average correlation coefficient for the 126 microRNAs detected in all samples by both methods was 0.37, and >0.5 for 63 microRNAs. In correlation analyses of the sequencing- and RT-PCR-based measurements, the coefficients were 0.19–0.95 (mean = 0.73) and >0.7, respectively, for 7 of 9 examined microRNAs. The average inter-replicate Spearman correlation coefficient for the sequencing method was 0.81. Conclusions Small RNA sequencing can be used to obtain microRNA profiles of FFPE tissue specimens with performance characteristics similar to those of microarrays, in spite of the fragmentation of ribosomal and messenger RNAs that reduces the method's informative capacity. The accuracy of the method can conceivably be improved by increasing sequencing

  14. Construction of gene regulatory networks mediated by vegetative and reproductive stage-specific small RNAs in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Meng, Yijun; Shao, Chaogang; Wang, Huizhong; Ma, Xiaoxia; Chen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Although huge amounts of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data are available, limited systematic analyses have been performed by integrating these valuable resources. Based on small RNA (sRNA), RNA and degradome HTS data, the sRNAs specifically expressed at vegetative and reproductive stages were identified separately in rice. Two distinct groups of sRNA HTS data, which were prepared during the vegetative and the reproductive stages, were utilized to extract stage-specific sRNAs. Degradome sequencing data were employed for sRNA target validation. RNA sequencing data were used to construct expression-based, sRNA-mediated networks. As a result, 26 microRNAs and 413 sRNAs were specifically expressed at the vegetative stage, and 79 microRNAs and 539 sRNAs were specifically expressed at the reproductive stage. In addition to the microRNAs, numerous stage-specific sRNAs enriched in ARGONAUTE1 showed great potential to perform cleavage-based repression on the targets. Several stage-specific sRNAs were indicated to result from the wobble effect of Dicer-like 1-mediated processing of microRNA precursors. The expression patterns of the sRNA targets, and the stage-specific cleavage signals strongly indicated the reliability of the constructed networks. A set of rice stage-specific sRNAs along with the regulatory cascades, which have great potential in regulating specific developmental stages, were provided for further investigation. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Identification of Mitochondrial Genome-Encoded Small RNAs Related to Egg Deterioration Caused by Postovulatory Aging in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hao; Weber, Gregory M; Wei, Hairong; Yao, Jianbo

    2016-10-01

    Many factors have been reported to affect rainbow trout egg quality, among which, postovulatory aging is one of the most significant causes as reared rainbow trout do not usually volitionally oviposit the ovulated eggs. In order to uncover the genetic regulation underling egg deterioration caused by postovulatory aging in rainbow trout, mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNA (mitosRNAs) were analyzed from unfertilized eggs on Days 1, 7, and 14 postovulation with fertilization rates of 91.8, 73.4, and less than 50 %, respectively. A total of 248 mitosRNAs were identified from Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the small RNA libraries derived from the eggs of ten females. Ninety-eight of the small RNAs exhibited more than a threefold difference in expression between eggs from females exhibiting high fertilization rates at Day 1 and low fertilization rates at Day 14. The differentially expressed mitosRNAs were predominantly derived from mitochondrial D-loop, tRNA, rRNA, COII, and Cytb gene regions. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was carried out for 14 differentially expressed mitosRNAs, of which, 12 were confirmed to be consistent with the sequencing reads. Further characterization of the differentially expressed mitosRNAs may lead to the development of new biomarkers for egg quality in rainbow trout.

  16. An in silico model for identification of small RNAs in whole bacterial genomes: characterization of antisense RNAs in pathogenic Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Christophe; du Merle, Laurence; Caliot, Marie Elise; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Le Bouguénec, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of small non-coding ribonucleic acids (sRNA) among the large volume of data generated by high-throughput RNA-seq or tiling microarray analyses remains a challenge. Thus, there is still a need for accurate in silico prediction methods to identify sRNAs within a given bacterial species. After years of effort, dedicated software were developed based on comparative genomic analyses or mathematical/statistical models. Although these genomic analyses enabled sRNAs in intergenic regions to be efficiently identified, they all failed to predict antisense sRNA genes (asRNA), i.e. RNA genes located on the DNA strand complementary to that which encodes the protein. The statistical models enabled any genomic region to be analyzed theorically but not efficiently. We present a new model for in silico identification of sRNA and asRNA candidates within an entire bacterial genome. This model was successfully used to analyze the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Streptococcus agalactiae. In both bacteria, numerous asRNAs are transcribed from the complementary strand of genes located in pathogenicity islands, strongly suggesting that these asRNAs are regulators of the virulence expression. In particular, we characterized an asRNA that acted as an enhancer-like regulator of the type 1 fimbriae production involved in the virulence of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. PMID:22139924

  17. New roles for large and small viral RNAs in evading host defences.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Christopher S

    2008-07-01

    It has been known for decades that some clinically important viruses encode abundant amounts of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) during infection. Until recently, the number of viral ncRNAs identified was few and their functions were mostly unknown. Although our understanding is still in its infancy, several recent reports have identified new functions for viral microRNAs and larger ncRNAs. These results so far show that different classes of viral ncRNAs act to autoregulate viral gene expression and evade host antiviral defences such as apoptosis and the immune response.

  18. The nuclear poly(A)-binding protein interacts with the exosome to promote synthesis of noncoding small nucleolar RNAs.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Jean-François; D'Amours, Annie; Lemieux, Caroline; Lackner, Daniel H; St-Sauveur, Valérie G; Bähler, Jürg; Bachand, François

    2010-01-15

    Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) are important to eukaryotic gene expression. In the nucleus, the PABP PABPN1 is thought to function in polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. Deletion of fission yeast pab2, the homolog of mammalian PABPN1, results in transcripts with markedly longer poly(A) tails, but the nature of the hyperadenylated transcripts and the mechanism that leads to RNA hyperadenylation remain unclear. Here we report that Pab2 functions in the synthesis of noncoding RNAs, contrary to the notion that PABPs function exclusively on protein-coding mRNAs. Accordingly, the absence of Pab2 leads to the accumulation of polyadenylated small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). Our findings suggest that Pab2 promotes poly(A) tail trimming from pre-snoRNAs by recruiting the nuclear exosome. This work unveils a function for the nuclear PABP in snoRNA synthesis and provides insights into exosome recruitment to polyadenylated RNAs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental RNomics in Aquifex aeolicus: identification of small non-coding RNAs and the putative 6S RNA homolog

    PubMed Central

    Willkomm, Dagmar K.; Minnerup, Jens; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Hartmann, Roland K.

    2005-01-01

    By an experimental RNomics approach, we have generated a cDNA library from small RNAs expressed from the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. The library included RNAs that were antisense to mRNAs and tRNAs as well as RNAs encoded in intergenic regions. Substantial steady-state levels in A.aeolicus cells were confirmed for several of the cloned RNAs by northern blot analysis. The most abundant intergenic RNA of the library was identified as the 6S RNA homolog of A.aeolicus. Although shorter in size (150 nt) than its γ-proteobacterial homologs (∼185 nt), it is predicted to have the most stable structure among known 6S RNAs. As in the γ-proteobacteria, the A.aeolicus 6S RNA gene (ssrS) is located immediately upstream of the ygfA gene encoding a widely conserved 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase. We identifed novel 6S RNA candidates within the γ-proteobacteria but were unable to identify reasonable 6S RNA candidates in other bacterial branches, utilizing mfold analyses of the region immediately upstream of ygfA combined with 6S RNA blastn searches. By RACE experiments, we mapped the major transcription initiation site of A.aeolicus 6S RNA primary transcripts, located within the pheT gene preceding ygfA, as well as three processing sites. PMID:15814812

  20. A role for H/ACA and C/D small nucleolar RNAs in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Murray, James L; Sheng, Jinsong; Rubin, Donald H

    2014-05-01

    We have employed gene-trap insertional mutagenesis to identify candidate genes whose disruption confer phenotypic resistance to lytic infection, in independent studies using 12 distinct viruses and several different cell lines. Analysis of >2,000 virus-resistant clones revealed >1,000 candidate host genes, approximately 20 % of which were disrupted in clones surviving separate infections with 2-6 viruses. Interestingly, there were 83 instances in which the insertional mutagenesis vector disrupted transcripts encoding H/ACA-class and C/D-class small nucleolar RNAs (SNORAs and SNORDs, respectively). Of these, 79 SNORAs and SNORDs reside within introns of 29 genes (predominantly protein-coding), while 4 appear to be independent transcription units. siRNA studies targeting candidate SNORA/Ds provided independent confirmation of their roles in infection when tested against cowpox virus, Dengue Fever virus, influenza A virus, human rhinovirus 16, herpes simplex virus 2, or respiratory syncytial virus. Significantly, eight of the nine SNORA/Ds targeted with siRNAs enhanced cellular resistance to multiple viruses suggesting widespread involvement of SNORA/Ds in virus-host interactions and/or virus-induced cell death.

  1. Improving fold activation of small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) with rational RNA engineering strategies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sarai; Chappell, James; Sankar, Sitara; Chew, Rebecca; Lucks, Julius B

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory RNAs have become integral components of the synthetic biology and bioengineering toolbox for controlling gene expression. We recently expanded this toolbox by creating small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) that act by disrupting the formation of a target transcriptional terminator hairpin placed upstream of a gene. While STARs are a promising addition to the repertoire of RNA regulators, much work remains to be done to optimize the fold activation of these systems. Here we apply rational RNA engineering strategies to improve the fold activation of two STAR regulators. We demonstrate that a combination of promoter strength tuning and multiple RNA engineering strategies can improve fold activation from 5.4-fold to 13.4-fold for a STAR regulator derived from the pbuE riboswitch terminator. We then validate the generality of our approach and show that these same strategies improve fold activation from 2.1-fold to 14.6-fold for an unrelated STAR regulator, opening the door to creating a range of additional STARs to use in a broad array of biotechnologies. We also establish that the optimizations preserve the orthogonality of these STARs between themselves and a set of RNA transcriptional repressors, enabling these optimized STARs to be used in sophisticated circuits.

  2. Micropathogen Community Analysis in Hyalomma rufipes via High-Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Min-Xuan; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Chen, Ze; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Hao, Jia-Wei; Wu, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Luo, Jian-Xun; Yin, Hong; Wang, Hui; Liu, Guang-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors in the transmission of a broad range of micropathogens to vertebrates, including humans. Because of the role of ticks in disease transmission, identifying and characterizing the micropathogen profiles of tick populations have become increasingly important. The objective of this study was to survey the micropathogens of Hyalomma rufipes ticks. Illumina HiSeq2000 technology was utilized to perform deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) extracted from field-collected H. rufipes ticks in Gansu Province, China. The resultant sRNA library data revealed that the surveyed tick populations produced reads that were homologous to St. Croix River Virus (SCRV) sequences. We also observed many reads that were homologous to microbial and/or pathogenic isolates, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. As part of this analysis, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to display the relationships among the homologous sequences that were identified. The study offered a unique opportunity to gain insight into the micropathogens of H. rufipes ticks. The effective control of arthropod vectors in the future will require knowledge of the micropathogen composition of vectors harboring infectious agents. Understanding the ecological factors that regulate vector propagation in association with the prevalence and persistence of micropathogen lineages is also imperative. These interactions may affect the evolution of micropathogen lineages, especially if the micropathogens rely on the vector or host for dispersal. The sRNA deep-sequencing approach used in this analysis provides an intuitive method to survey micropathogen prevalence in ticks and other vector species.

  3. Genome-defence small RNAs exapted for epigenetic mating-type inheritance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepankar Pratap; Saudemont, Baptiste; Guglielmi, Gérard; Arnaiz, Olivier; Goût, Jean-François; Prajer, Malgorzata; Potekhin, Alexey; Przybòs, Ewa; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne; Bhullar, Simran; Bouhouche, Khaled; Lhuillier-Akakpo, Maoussi; Tanty, Véronique; Blugeon, Corinne; Alberti, Adriana; Labadie, Karine; Aury, Jean-Marc; Sperling, Linda; Duharcourt, Sandra; Meyer, Eric

    2014-05-22

    In the ciliate Paramecium, transposable elements and their single-copy remnants are deleted during the development of somatic macronuclei from germline micronuclei, at each sexual generation. Deletions are targeted by scnRNAs, small RNAs produced from the germ line during meiosis that first scan the maternal macronuclear genome to identify missing sequences, and then allow the zygotic macronucleus to reproduce the same deletions. Here we show that this process accounts for the maternal inheritance of mating types in Paramecium tetraurelia, a long-standing problem in epigenetics. Mating type E depends on expression of the transmembrane protein mtA, and the default type O is determined during development by scnRNA-dependent excision of the mtA promoter. In the sibling species Paramecium septaurelia, mating type O is determined by coding-sequence deletions in a different gene, mtB, which is specifically required for mtA expression. These independently evolved mechanisms suggest frequent exaptation of the scnRNA pathway to regulate cellular genes and mediate transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of essential phenotypic polymorphisms.

  4. RNAi pathways in Mucor: A tale of proteins, small RNAs and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2016-05-01

    The existence of an RNA-mediated silencing mechanism in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides was first described in the early 2000. Since then, Mucor has reached an outstanding position within the fungal kingdom as a model system to achieve a deeper understanding of regulation of endogenous functions by the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery. M. circinelloides combines diverse components of its RNAi machinery to carry out functions not only limited to the defense against invasive nucleic acids, but also to regulate expression of its own genes by producing different classes of endogenous small RNA molecules (esRNAs). The recent discovery of a novel RNase that participates in a new RNA degradation pathway adds more elements to the gene silencing-mediated regulation. This review focuses on esRNAs in M. circinelloides, the different pathways involved in their biogenesis, and their roles in regulating specific physiological and developmental processes in response to environmental signals, highlighting the complexity of silencing-mediated regulation in fungi.

  5. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E.C.; Taylor, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21–24 nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21 nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5′-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. PMID:26811902

  6. A ruler protein in a complex for antiviral defense determines the length of small interfering CRISPR RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Samai, Poulami; Maniv, Inbal; Jiang, Wenyan; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2013-09-27

    Small RNAs undergo maturation events that precisely determine the length and structure required for their function. CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) encode small RNAs (crRNAs) that together with CRISPR-associated (cas) genes constitute a sequence-specific prokaryotic immune system for anti-viral and anti-plasmid defense. crRNAs are subject to multiple processing events during their biogenesis, and little is known about the mechanism of the final maturation step. We show that in the Staphylococcus epidermidis type III CRISPR-Cas system, mature crRNAs are measured in a Cas10·Csm ribonucleoprotein complex to yield discrete lengths that differ by 6-nucleotide increments. We looked for mutants that impact this crRNA size pattern and found that an alanine substitution of a conserved aspartate residue of Csm3 eliminates the 6-nucleotide increments in the length of crRNAs. In vitro, recombinant Csm3 binds RNA molecules at multiple sites, producing gel-shift patterns that suggest that each protein binds 6 nucleotides of substrate. In vivo, changes in the levels of Csm3 modulate the crRNA size distribution without disrupting the 6-nucleotide periodicity. Our data support a model in which multiple Csm3 molecules within the Cas10·Csm complex bind the crRNA with a 6-nucleotide periodicity to function as a ruler that measures the extent of crRNA maturation.

  7. Small RNAs Derived from the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in Hairy Roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Peláez, Pablo; Hernández-López, Alejandrina; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Sanchez, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a pathogenic bacteria that causes hairy root disease by transferring bacterial DNA into the plant genome. It is an essential tool for industry and research due to its capacity to produce genetically modified roots and whole organisms. Here, we identified and characterized small RNAs generated from the transfer DNA (T-DNA) of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Distinct abundant A. rhizogenes T-DNA-derived small RNAs (ArT-sRNAs) belonging to several oncogenes were detected in hairy roots using high-throughput sequencing. The most abundant and diverse species of ArT-sRNAs were those of 21- and 22-nucleotides in length. Many T-DNA encoded genes constituted phasiRNA producing loci (PHAS loci). Interestingly, degradome analysis revealed that ArT-sRNAs potentially target genes of P. vulgaris. In addition, we detected low levels of ArT-sRNAs in the A. rhizogenes-induced calli generated at the wound site before hairy root emergence. These results suggest that RNA silencing targets several genes from T-DNA of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean. Therefore, the role of RNA silencing observed in this study has implications in our understanding and usage of this unique plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:28203245

  8. Identification of microRNAs by small RNA deep sequencing for synthetic microRNA mimics to control Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Liang; Huang, Qi Xing; Yin, Guo Hua; Lee, Samantha; Jia, Rui Zong; Liu, Zhi Xin; Yu, Nai Tong; Pennerman, Kayla K; Chen, Xin; Guo, An Ping

    2015-02-25

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a major pest of cotton around the world. With the increase of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in transgenic cotton plants, there is a need to develop an alternative control approach that can be used in combination with Bt transgenic crops as part of resistance management strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a non-coding small RNA family (18-25 nt), play crucial roles in various biological processes and over-expression of miRNAs has been shown to interfere with the normal development of insects. In this study, we identified 127 conserved miRNAs in S. exigua by using small RNA deep sequencing technology. From this, we tested the effects of 11 miRNAs on larval development. We found three miRNAs, Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9, to be differentially expressed during larval stages of S. exigua. Oral feeding experiments using synthetic miRNA mimics of Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9 resulted in suppressed growth of S. exigua and mortality. Over-expression of Sex-miR-4924 caused a significant reduction in the expression level of chitinase 1 and caused abortive molting in the insects. Therefore, we demonstrated a novel approach of using miRNA mimics to control S. exigua development.

  9. Small RNAs Derived from the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in Hairy Roots of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Pablo; Hernández-López, Alejandrina; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Sanchez, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a pathogenic bacteria that causes hairy root disease by transferring bacterial DNA into the plant genome. It is an essential tool for industry and research due to its capacity to produce genetically modified roots and whole organisms. Here, we identified and characterized small RNAs generated from the transfer DNA (T-DNA) of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Distinct abundant A. rhizogenes T-DNA-derived small RNAs (ArT-sRNAs) belonging to several oncogenes were detected in hairy roots using high-throughput sequencing. The most abundant and diverse species of ArT-sRNAs were those of 21- and 22-nucleotides in length. Many T-DNA encoded genes constituted phasiRNA producing loci (PHAS loci). Interestingly, degradome analysis revealed that ArT-sRNAs potentially target genes of P. vulgaris. In addition, we detected low levels of ArT-sRNAs in the A. rhizogenes-induced calli generated at the wound site before hairy root emergence. These results suggest that RNA silencing targets several genes from T-DNA of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean. Therefore, the role of RNA silencing observed in this study has implications in our understanding and usage of this unique plant-bacteria interaction.

  10. Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in Aquilaria sinensis based on small RNA sequencing and transcriptome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Hui; Wei, Jian-He; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Huan-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Ting

    2012-08-15

    Agarwood is in great demand for its high value in medicine, incense, and perfume across Asia, Middle East, and Europe. As agarwood is formed only when the Aquilaria trees are wounded or infected by some microbes, overharvesting and habitat loss are threatening some populations of agarwood-producing species. Aquilaria sinensis is such a significant economic tree species. To promote the production efficiency and protect the resource of A. sinensis, it would be critical to reveal the regulation mechanisms of stress-induced agarwood formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a key gene expression regulator involved in various plant stress response and metabolic processes, might function in agarwood formation, but no report concerning miRNAs in Aquilaria is available. In this study, the small RNA high-throughput sequencing and 454 transcriptome data were adopted to identify both conserved and novel miRNAs in A. sinensis. Deep sequencing showed that the small RNA (sRNA) population of A. sinensis was complex and the length of sRNAs varied. By in silico analysis of the small RNA deep sequencing data and transcriptome data, we discovered 27 novel miRNAs in A. sinensis. Based on the mature miRNA sequence conservation, we identified 74 putative conserved miRNAs from A. sinensis and 10 of them were confirmed with hairpin forming precursor. Interestingly, a novel miRNA sequence was determined to be the miRNA of asi-miR408, but with accumulation much higher than asi-miR408. The expression levels of ten stress-responsive miRNAs were examined during the time-course after wound treatment. Eight were shown to be wound-responsive. This not only shows the existence of miRNAs in this Asian economically significant tree species but also indicated its critical role in stress-induced agarwood formation. The highly accumulated miRNA of asi-miR408 implied miRNAs would be functional as well as miRNAs in plants.

  11. Small Non-Coding RNAs: New Insights in Modulation of Host Immune Response by Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Waqas; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria possess intricate regulatory networks that temporally control the production of virulence factors and enable the bacteria to survive and proliferate within host cell. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified as important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological contexts. Recent research has shown bacterial sRNAs involved in growth and development, cell proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, cell signaling, and immune response through regulating protein–protein interactions or via their ability to base pair with RNA and DNA. In this review, we provide a brief overview of mechanism of action employed by immune-related sRNAs, their known functions in immunity, and how they can be integrated into regulatory circuits that govern virulence, which will facilitate our understanding of pathogenesis and the development of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches to treat infections caused by intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:27803700

  12. The 25–26 nt Small RNAs in Phytophthora parasitica Are Associated with Efficient Silencing of Homologous Endogenous Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jinbu; Lu, Wenqin; Zhong, Chengcheng; Zhou, Ran; Xu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Gou, Xiuhong; Wang, Qinhu; Yin, Junliang; Xu, Cheng; Shan, Weixing

    2017-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important non-coding RNA regulators, playing key roles in developmental regulation, transposon suppression, environmental response, host–pathogen interaction and other diverse biological processes. However, their roles in oomycetes are poorly understood. Here, we performed sRNA sequencing and RNA sequencing of Phytophthora parasitica at stages of vegetative growth and infection of Arabidopsis roots to examine diversity and function of sRNAs in P. parasitica, a model hemibiotrophic oomycete plant pathogen. Our results indicate that there are two distinct types of sRNA-generating loci in P. parasitica genome, giving rise to clusters of 25–26 nt and 21 nt sRNAs, respectively, with no significant strand-biases. The 25–26 nt sRNA loci lie predominantly in gene-sparse and repeat-rich regions, and overlap with over 7000 endogenous gene loci. These overlapped genes are typically P. parasitica species-specific, with no homologies to the sister species P. infestans. They include approximately 40% RXLR effector genes, 50% CRN effector genes and some elicitor genes. The transcripts of most of these genes could not be detected at both the vegetative mycelium and infection stages as revealed by RNA sequencing, indicating that the 25–26 nt sRNAs are associated with efficient silencing of these genes. The 21 nt sRNA loci typically overlap with the exon regions of highly expressed genes, suggesting that the biogenesis of the 21 nt sRNAs may be dependent on the level of gene transcription and that these sRNAs do not mediate efficient silencing of homologous genes. Analyses of the published P. infestans sRNA and mRNA sequencing data consistently show that the 25–26 nt sRNAs, but not the 21 nt sRNAs, may mediate efficient gene silencing in Phytophthora. PMID:28512457

  13. The 25-26 nt Small RNAs in Phytophthora parasitica Are Associated with Efficient Silencing of Homologous Endogenous Genes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinbu; Lu, Wenqin; Zhong, Chengcheng; Zhou, Ran; Xu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Gou, Xiuhong; Wang, Qinhu; Yin, Junliang; Xu, Cheng; Shan, Weixing

    2017-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important non-coding RNA regulators, playing key roles in developmental regulation, transposon suppression, environmental response, host-pathogen interaction and other diverse biological processes. However, their roles in oomycetes are poorly understood. Here, we performed sRNA sequencing and RNA sequencing of Phytophthora parasitica at stages of vegetative growth and infection of Arabidopsis roots to examine diversity and function of sRNAs in P. parasitica, a model hemibiotrophic oomycete plant pathogen. Our results indicate that there are two distinct types of sRNA-generating loci in P. parasitica genome, giving rise to clusters of 25-26 nt and 21 nt sRNAs, respectively, with no significant strand-biases. The 25-26 nt sRNA loci lie predominantly in gene-sparse and repeat-rich regions, and overlap with over 7000 endogenous gene loci. These overlapped genes are typically P. parasitica species-specific, with no homologies to the sister species P. infestans. They include approximately 40% RXLR effector genes, 50% CRN effector genes and some elicitor genes. The transcripts of most of these genes could not be detected at both the vegetative mycelium and infection stages as revealed by RNA sequencing, indicating that the 25-26 nt sRNAs are associated with efficient silencing of these genes. The 21 nt sRNA loci typically overlap with the exon regions of highly expressed genes, suggesting that the biogenesis of the 21 nt sRNAs may be dependent on the level of gene transcription and that these sRNAs do not mediate efficient silencing of homologous genes. Analyses of the published P. infestans sRNA and mRNA sequencing data consistently show that the 25-26 nt sRNAs, but not the 21 nt sRNAs, may mediate efficient gene silencing in Phytophthora.

  14. Deep sequencing of small RNAs confirms an annelid affinity of Myzostomida.

    PubMed

    Helm, Conrad; Bernhart, Stephan H; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian; Nickel, Birgit; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Myzostomida comprise a group of marine worms associated mainly with echinoderms since the Carboniferous. Due to their unusual morphology the phylogenetic position in relation to other Lophotrochozoa is discussed since their description. According to different morphological and molecular markers the Myzostomida are either close to Platyzoa or Annelida. Here we investigated small non-coding RNAs of Myzostoma cirriferum to infer the phylogenetic position of myzostomids. Based on transcriptomic data collected by Illumina Deep Sequencing we analyzed the microRNA (miRNA) families occurring in M. cirriferum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of 13 miRNA-families exclusively shared by Annelida (including Sipuncula) and Myzostomida, as such highly significantly supporting an annelid origin of myzostomids. Furthermore, using a mapping-approach and secondary structure models we predicted several miRNA-candidates unique for myzostomids.

  15. RNY (YRNA)-derived small RNAs regulate cell death and inflammation in monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hizir, Zoheir; Bottini, Silvia; Grandjean, Valerie; Trabucchi, Michele; Repetto, Emanuela

    2017-01-05

    The recent discovery of new classes of small RNAs has opened unknown territories to explore new regulations of physiopathological events. We have recently demonstrated that RNY (or Y RNA)-derived small RNAs (referred to as s-RNYs) are an independent class of clinical biomarkers to detect coronary artery lesions and are associated with atherosclerosis burden. Here, we have studied the role of s-RNYs in human and mouse monocytes/macrophages and have shown that in lipid-laden monocytes/macrophages s-RNY expression is timely correlated to the activation of both NF-κB and caspase 3-dependent cell death pathways. Loss- or gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that s-RNYs activate caspase 3 and NF-κB signaling pathways ultimately promoting cell death and inflammatory responses. As, in atherosclerosis, Ro60-associated s-RNYs generated by apoptotic macrophages are released in the blood of patients, we have investigated the extracellular function of the s-RNY/Ro60 complex. Our data demonstrated that s-RNY/Ro60 complex induces caspase 3-dependent cell death and NF-κB-dependent inflammation, when added to the medium of cultured monocytes/macrophages. Finally, we have shown that s-RNY function is mediated by Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). Indeed using chloroquine, which disrupts signaling of endosome-localized TLRs 3, 7, 8 and 9 or the more specific TLR7/9 antagonist, the phosphorothioated oligonucleotide IRS954, we blocked the effect of either intracellular or extracellular s-RNYs. These results position s-RNYs as relevant novel functional molecules that impacts on macrophage physiopathology, indicating their potential role as mediators of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

  16. Experimental RNomics and genomic comparative analysis reveal a large group of species-specific small non-message RNAs in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Kun; Jiao, Zhujin; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Skogerboe, Geir; Guo, Xiangqian; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bi, Lijun; Huang, Yongping; Dong, Shuanglin; Chen, Runsheng; Kan, Yunchao

    2011-05-01

    Accumulating evidences show that small non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in development, stress response and other cellular processes. The silkworm is an important model for studies on insect genetics and control of lepidopterous pests. Here, we have performed the first systematic identification and analysis of intermediate size ncRNAs (50-500 nt) in the silkworm. We identified 189 novel ncRNAs, including 141 snoRNAs, six snRNAs, three tRNAs, one SRP and 38 unclassified ncRNAs. Forty ncRNAs showed significantly altered expression during silkworm development or across specific stage transitions. Genomic comparisons revealed that 123 of these ncRNAs are potentially silkworm-specific. Analysis of the genomic organization of the ncRNA loci showed that 32.62% of the novel snoRNA loci are intergenic, and that all the intronic snoRNAs follow the pattern of one-snoRNA-per-intron. Target site analysis predicted a total of 95 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation modification sites of rRNAs, snRNAs and tRNAs. Together, these findings provide new clues for future functional study of ncRNA during insect development and evolution.

  17. Experimental RNomics and genomic comparative analysis reveal a large group of species-specific small non-message RNAs in the silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dandan; Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Kun; Jiao, Zhujin; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Skogerboe, Geir; Guo, Xiangqian; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bi, Lijun; Huang, Yongping; Dong, Shuanglin; Chen, Runsheng; Kan, Yunchao

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidences show that small non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in development, stress response and other cellular processes. The silkworm is an important model for studies on insect genetics and control of lepidopterous pests. Here, we have performed the first systematic identification and analysis of intermediate size ncRNAs (50–500 nt) in the silkworm. We identified 189 novel ncRNAs, including 141 snoRNAs, six snRNAs, three tRNAs, one SRP and 38 unclassified ncRNAs. Forty ncRNAs showed significantly altered expression during silkworm development or across specific stage transitions. Genomic comparisons revealed that 123 of these ncRNAs are potentially silkworm-specific. Analysis of the genomic organization of the ncRNA loci showed that 32.62% of the novel snoRNA loci are intergenic, and that all the intronic snoRNAs follow the pattern of one-snoRNA-per-intron. Target site analysis predicted a total of 95 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation modification sites of rRNAs, snRNAs and tRNAs. Together, these findings provide new clues for future functional study of ncRNA during insect development and evolution. PMID:21227919

  18. Deep sequencing of small RNAs from human skin reveals major alterations in the psoriasis miRNAome

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Cailin E.; Zhou, Xiang; Xia, Jing; Ryan, Caitriona; Thrash, Breck; Menter, Alan; Zhang, Weixiong; Bowcock, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic and complex inflammatory skin disease with lesions displaying dramatically altered mRNA expression profiles. However, much less is known about the expression of small RNAs. Here, we describe a comprehensive analysis of the normal and psoriatic skin miRNAome with next-generation sequencing in a large patient cohort. We generated 6.7 × 108 small RNA reads representing 717 known and 284 putative novel microRNAs (miRNAs). We also observed widespread expression of isomiRs and miRNA*s derived from known and novel miRNA loci, and a low frequency of miRNA editing in normal and psoriatic skin. The expression and processing of selected novel miRNAs were confirmed with qRT-PCR in skin and other human tissues or cell lines. Eighty known and 18 novel miRNAs were 2–42-fold differentially expressed in psoriatic skin. Of particular significance was the 2.7-fold upregulation of a validated novel miRNA derived from the antisense strand of the miR-203 locus, which plays a role in epithelial differentiation. Other differentially expressed miRNAs included hematopoietic-specific miRNAs such as miR-142-3p and miR-223/223*, and angiogenic miRNAs such as miR-21, miR-378, miR-100 and miR-31, which was the most highly upregulated miRNA in psoriatic skin. The functions of these miRNAs are consistent with the inflammatory and hyperproliferative phenotype of psoriatic lesions. In situ hybridization of differentially expressed miRNAs revealed stratified epidermal expression of an uncharacterized keratinocyte-derived miRNA, miR-135b, as well as the epidermal infiltration of the hematopoietic-specific miRNA, miR-142-3p, in psoriatic lesions. This study lays a critical framework for functional characterization of miRNAs in healthy and diseased skin. PMID:21807764

  19. A complex dominance hierarchy is controlled by polymorphism of small RNAs and their targets.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shinsuke; Wada, Yuko; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Miura-Uno, Eiko; Murase, Kohji; Fujii, Sota; Hioki, Tomoya; Shimoda, Taiki; Takada, Yoshinobu; Shiba, Hiroshi; Takasaki-Yasuda, Takeshi; Suzuki, Go; Watanabe, Masao; Takayama, Seiji

    2016-12-22

    In diploid organisms, phenotypic traits are often biased by effects known as Mendelian dominant-recessive interactions between inherited alleles. Phenotypic expression of SP11 alleles, which encodes the male determinants of self-incompatibility in Brassica rapa, is governed by a complex dominance hierarchy(1-3). Here, we show that a single polymorphic 24 nucleotide small RNA, named SP11 methylation inducer 2 (Smi2), controls the linear dominance hierarchy of the four SP11 alleles (S44 > S60 > S40 > S29). In all dominant-recessive interactions, small RNA variants derived from the linked region of dominant SP11 alleles exhibited high sequence similarity to the promoter regions of recessive SP11 alleles and acted in trans to epigenetically silence their expression. Together with our previous study(4), we propose a new model: sequence similarity between polymorphic small RNAs and their target regulates mono-allelic gene expression, which explains the entire five-phased linear dominance hierarchy of the SP11 phenotypic expression in Brassica.

  20. In silico reconstruction of viral genomes from small RNAs improves virus-derived small interfering RNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Vodovar, Nicolas; Goic, Bertsy; Blanc, Hervé; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2011-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the essential component of antiviral immunity in invertebrates and plants. One of the landmarks of the antiviral RNAi response is the production of virus-derived small interfering RNA (vsiRNA) from viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). vsiRNAs constitute a fragmented image of the viral genome sequence that results from Dicer cleavage. vsiRNA sequence profiling is used extensively as a surrogate to study the antiviral RNAi response by determining the nature of the viral dsRNA molecules exposed to and processed by the RNAi machinery. The accuracy of these profiles depends on the actual viral genome sequence used as a reference to align vsiRNA reads, and the interpretation of inaccurate profiles can be misleading. Using Flock house virus and Drosophila melanogaster as a model RNAi-competent organism, we show accurate reconstruction of full-length virus reference sequence from vsiRNAs and prediction of the structure of defective interfering particles (DIs). We developed a Perl script, named Paparazzi, that reconstitutes viral genomes through an iterative alignment/consensus call procedure using a related reference sequence as scaffold. As prevalent DI-derived reads introduce artifacts during reconstruction, Paparazzi eliminates DI-specific reads to improve the quality of the reconstructed genome. Paparazzi constitutes a promising alternative to Sanger sequencing in this context and an effective tool to study antiviral RNAi mechanisms by accurately quantifying vsiRNA along the replicating viral genome. We further discuss Paparazzi as a companion tool for virus discovery as it provides full-length genome sequences and corrects for potential artifacts of assembly.

  1. A Genome-Wide Identification Analysis of Small Regulatory RNAs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by RNA-Seq and Conservation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosi, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Di Serio, Clelia

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for smallRNAs (sRNAs) identification. First we build an effective target genome (ETG) by means of a strand-specific procedure. Then we propose a new bioinformatic pipeline based mainly on the combination of two types of information: the first provides an expression map based on RNA-seq data (Reads Map) and the second applies principles of comparative genomics leading to a Conservation Map. By superimposing these two maps, a robust method for the search of sRNAs is obtained. We apply this methodology to investigate sRNAs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. This bioinformatic procedure leads to a total list of 1948 candidate sRNAs. The size of the candidate list is strictly related to the aim of the study and to the technology used during the verification process. We provide performance measures of the algorithm in identifying annotated sRNAs reported in three recent published studies. PMID:22470422

  2. Phytophthora infestans Argonaute 1 binds microRNA and small RNAs from effector genes and transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Åsman, Anna K M; Fogelqvist, Johan; Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Dixelius, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Phytophthora spp. encode large sets of effector proteins and distinct populations of small RNAs (sRNAs). Recent evidence has suggested that pathogen-derived sRNAs can modulate the expression of plant defense genes. Here, we studied the sRNA classes and functions associated with Phytophthora infestans Argonaute (Ago) proteins. sRNAs were co-immunoprecipitated with three PiAgo proteins and deep sequenced. Twenty- to twenty-two-nucleotide (nt) sRNAs were identified as the main interaction partners of PiAgo1 and high enrichment of 24-26-nt sRNAs was seen in the PiAgo4-bound sample. The frequencies and sizes of transposable element (TE)-derived sRNAs in the different PiAgo libraries suggested diversified roles of the PiAgo proteins in the control of different TE classes. We further provide evidence for the involvement of PiAgo1 in the P. infestans microRNA (miRNA) pathway. Protein-coding genes are probably regulated by the shared action of PiAgo1 and PiAgo5, as demonstrated by analysis of differential expression. An abundance of sRNAs from genes encoding host cell death-inducing Crinkler (CRN) effectors was bound to PiAgo1, implicating this protein in the regulation of the expanded CRN gene family. The data suggest that PiAgo1 plays an essential role in gene regulation and that at least two RNA silencing pathways regulate TEs in the plant-pathogenic oomycete P. infestans.

  3. cis-Encoded Small RNAs, a Conserved Mechanism for Repression of Polysaccharide Utilization in Bacteroides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanlu; Förstner, Konrad U; Vogel, Jörg; Smith, C Jeffrey

    2016-09-15

    Bacteroides is a major component of the human gut microbiota which has a broad impact on the development and physiology of its host and a potential role in a wide range of disease syndromes. The predominance of this genus is due in large part to expansion of paralogous gene clusters, termed polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs), dedicated to the uptake and catabolism of host-derived and dietary polysaccharides. The nutritive value and availability of polysaccharides in the gut vary greatly; thus, their utilization is hierarchical and strictly controlled. A typical PUL includes regulatory genes that induce PUL expression in response to the presence of specific glycan substrates. However, the existence of additional regulatory mechanisms has been predicted to explain phenomena such as hierarchical control and catabolite repression. In this report, a previously unknown layer of regulatory control was discovered in Bacteroides fragilis Exploratory transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed the presence of cis-encoded antisense small RNAs (sRNAs) associated with 15 (30%) of the B. fragilis PULs. A model system using the Don (degradation of N-glycans) PUL showed that the donS sRNA negatively regulated Don expression at the transcriptional level, resulting in a decrease in N-glycan utilization. Additional studies performed with other Bacteroides species indicated that this regulatory mechanism is highly conserved and, interestingly, that the regulated PULs appear to be closely linked to the utilization of host-derived glycans rather than dietary plant polysaccharides. The findings described here demonstrate a global control mechanism underlying known PUL regulatory circuits and provide insight into regulation of Bacteroides physiology. The human gut is colonized by a dense microbiota which is essential to the health and normal development of the host. A key to gut homeostasis is the preservation of a stable, diverse microbiota. Bacteroides is a dominant genus

  4. Secretion of small/microRNAs including miR-638 into extracellular spaces by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shiori; Chiba, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Miki; Sakamoto, Maki; Watanabe, Narumi

    2015-01-01

    A recent study demonstrated that intracellular small/microRNAs are released from cells, and some of these extracellular RNAs are embedded in vesicles, such as ceramide-rich exosomes, on lipid-bilayer membranes. In the present study, we examined the effects of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3), which generates ceramide from sphingomyelin, on the release of small/microRNAs from intracellular to extracellular spaces. In these experiments, SW480 human colorectal and HuH-7 human hepatocellular cancer cells were cultured for 48 h in serum-free media. Culture supernatants were then collected, and floating cells and debris were removed by centrifugation and filtration through a 0.22-µm filter. Extracellular small RNAs in purified culture supernatants were stable for 4 weeks at room temperature, after 20 freeze-thaw cycles and exposure to pH 2.0, and were resistant to ribonuclease A degradation. Amino acid sequence analyses of SMPD3 showed high homology between mammals, indicating evolutionary conservation. Therefore, to investigate the mechanisms of cellular small/microRNA export, SW480 and HuH-7 cells were treated with the SMPD3 inhibitor GW4869 in serum-free media. Culture supernatants were collected for microarray and/or reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) experiments. The number of microRNAs in culture supernatants was decreased following treatment with GW4869. Among these, extracellular and intracellular miR-638 were dose-dependently decreased and increased, respectively. These data suggest that SMPD3 plays an important role in the release of microRNAs into extracellular spaces.

  5. A deletion of the HBII-85 class of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) is associated with hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    de Smith, Adam J.; Purmann, Carolin; Walters, Robin G.; Ellis, Richard J.; Holder, Susan E.; Van Haelst, Mieke M.; Brady, Angela F.; Fairbrother, Una L.; Dattani, Mehul; Keogh, Julia M.; Henning, Elana; Yeo, Giles S.H.; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Froguel, Philippe; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies in patients with severe early-onset obesity have provided insights into the molecular and physiological pathways that regulate body weight in humans. We report a 19-year-old male with hyperphagia and severe obesity, mild learning difficulties and hypogonadism, in whom diagnostic tests for Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) had been negative. We carried out detailed clinical and metabolic phenotyping of this patient and investigated the genetic basis of this obesity syndrome using Agilent 185 k array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping arrays. The identified deletion was validated using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and long-range PCR, followed by breakpoint sequencing which enabled precise localization of the deletion. We identified a ∼187 kb microdeletion at chromosome 15q11–13 that encompasses non-coding small nucleolar RNAs (including HBII-85 snoRNAs) which were not expressed in peripheral lymphocytes from the patient. Characterization of the clinical phenotype revealed increased ad libitum food intake, normal basal metabolic rate when adjusted for fat-free mass, partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and growth failure. We have identified a novel deletion on chromosome 15q11–13 in an individual with hyperphagia, obesity, hypogonadism and other features associated with PWS, which is normally caused by deficiency of several paternally expressed imprinted transcripts within chromosome 15q11–13, a region that includes multiple protein-coding genes as well as several non-coding snoRNAs. These findings provide direct evidence for the role of a particular family of non-coding RNAs, the HBII-85 snoRNA cluster, in human energy homeostasis, growth and reproduction. PMID:19498035

  6. Deep sequencing of mycovirus-derived small RNAs from Botrytis species.

    PubMed

    Donaire, Livia; Ayllón, María A

    2016-08-31

    RNA silencing is an ancient regulatory mechanism operating in all eukaryotic cells. In fungi, it was first discovered in Neurospora crassa, although its potential as a defence mechanism against mycoviruses was first reported in Cryphonectria parasitica and, later, in several fungal species. There is little evidence of the antiviral potential of RNA silencing in the phytopathogenic species of the fungal genus Botrytis. Moreover, little is known about the RNA silencing components in these fungi, although the analysis of public genome databases identified two Dicer-like genes in B. cinerea, as in most of the ascomycetes sequenced to date. In this work, we used deep sequencing to study the virus-derived small RNA (vsiRNA) populations from different mycoviruses infecting field isolates of Botrytis spp. The mycoviruses under study belong to different genera and species, and have different types of genome [double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), (+)single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and (-)ssRNA]. In general, vsiRNAs derived from mycoviruses are mostly of 21, 20 and 22 nucleotides in length, possess sense or antisense orientation, either in a similar ratio or with a predominance of sense polarity depending on the virus species, have predominantly U at their 5' end, and are unevenly distributed along the viral genome, showing conspicuous hotspots of vsiRNA accumulation. These characteristics reveal striking similarities with vsiRNAs produced by plant viruses, suggesting similar pathways of viral targeting in plants and fungi. We have shown that the fungal RNA silencing machinery acts against the mycoviruses used in this work in a similar manner independent of their viral or fungal origin.

  7. A diversity of U1 small nuclear RNAs in the silk moth Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Montes, J M; Pereira-Simon, S; Freund, A V; Ruiz, L M; Szmulewicz, M N; Herrera, R J

    2003-01-01

    Variants of U1 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) have been previously detected in a permanent cell line (BmN) of the silk moth Bombyx mori. In this study, the existence of U1 snRNA isoforms in the silk gland (SG) of the organism is investigated. The polyploidy (approximately 200,000X the 2N somatic value) state of the B. mori silk gland cells represents a unique system to explore the potential presence and differential expression of multiple U1 variants in a normal tissue. B. mori U1-specific RT-PCR libraries from the silk gland were generated and five U1 isoforms were isolated and characterized. Nucleotide differences, structural alterations, as well as protein and RNA interaction sites were examined in these variants and compared to the previously reported isoforms from the transformed BmN cell line. In all these SG U1 variants, variant sites and inter-species differences are located in moderately conserved regions. Substitutional or compensatory changes were found in the double stranded areas and clustered in moderately conserved regions. Some of the changes generate stronger base pairing. Calculated free energy (DeltaG) values for the entire U1 snRNA secondary structures and for the individual stem/loops (I, II, III and IV) domains of the isoforms were generated and compared to determine their structural stability. Using phylogenetic analysis, an evolutionary parallelism is observed between the polymorphic sites in B. mori and variant locations found among animal and plant species.