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Sample records for 241-an-107 caustic addition

  1. Structural evaluation of mixer pump installed in Tank 241-AN-107 for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1995-06-16

    This report documents the structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump and caustic addition system to be used in Tank 107-AN. This pump will be installed in the central pump pit of this double- shell tank for the purpose of bringing the hydroxide ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications.

  2. Safety basis for the 241-AN-107 mixer pump installation and caustic addition

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1994-10-05

    This safety Basis was prepared to determine whether or not the proposed activities of installing a 76 HP jet mixer pump and the addition of approximately 50,000 gallons of 19 M (50:50 wt %) aqueous caustic are within the safety envelope as described by Tank Farms (chapter six of WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001, Rev. 0). The safety basis covers the components, structures and systems for the caustic addition and mixer pump installation. These include: installation of the mixer pump and monitoring equipment; operation of the mixer pump, process monitoring equipment and caustic addition; the pump stand, caustic addition skid, the electrical skid, the video camera system and the two densitometers. Also covered is the removal and decontamination of the mixer pump and process monitoring system. Authority for this safety basis is WHC-IP-0842 (Waste Tank Administration). Section 15.9, Rev. 2 (Unreviewed Safety Questions) of WHC-IP-0842 requires that an evaluation be performed for all physical modifications.

  3. Test report - caustic addition system operability test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.E.

    1995-10-13

    This Operability Test Report documents the test results of test procedure WHC-SD-WM-OTP-167 ``Caustic Addition System Operability Test Procedure``. The Objective of the test was to verify the operability of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System. The objective of the test was met

  4. Acceptance/operational test procedure 241-AN-107 Video Camera System

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, L.T.

    1994-11-18

    This procedure will document the satisfactory operation of the 241-AN-107 Video Camera System. The camera assembly, including camera mast, pan-and-tilt unit, camera, and lights, will be installed in Tank 241-AN-107 to monitor activities during the Caustic Addition Project. The camera focus, zoom, and iris remote controls will be functionally tested. The resolution and color rendition of the camera will be verified using standard reference charts. The pan-and-tilt unit will be tested for required ranges of motion, and the camera lights will be functionally tested. The master control station equipment, including the monitor, VCRs, printer, character generator, and video micrometer will be set up and performance tested in accordance with original equipment manufacturer`s specifications. The accuracy of the video micrometer to measure objects in the range of 0.25 inches to 67 inches will be verified. The gas drying distribution system will be tested to ensure that a drying gas can be flowed over the camera and lens in the event that condensation forms on these components. This test will be performed by attaching the gas input connector, located in the upper junction box, to a pressurized gas supply and verifying that the check valve, located in the camera housing, opens to exhaust the compressed gas. The 241-AN-107 camera system will also be tested to assure acceptable resolution of the camera imaging components utilizing the camera system lights.

  5. Results of tank 241-AN-107 ultrasonic examination

    SciTech Connect

    LESHIKAR, G.A.

    1999-05-18

    A tank examination supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to examine a limited area of Tank 241-AN-107 primary tank wall. The exam found no indications of wall thinning, pits, or cracks in excess of the acceptance criteria.

  6. TANK 241-AN-107 CORROSION COUPON LABORATORY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; ANANTATMULA RP

    2001-09-27

    To support the corrosion study for Tank 241-AN-107, corrosion coupons consisting of C-rings and pins were removed from four detectors of the corrosion probe retrieved from the tank. The detectors were located as follows: one in the sludge layer, one in the liquid layer, one in the lower head space and the last in the upper head space. ASTM Method G-190 was used to determine the amount of corrosion product present.

  7. Thermodynamic Modeling of Hanford Waste Tank 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.

    2005-09-07

    The high level waste storage double-shell tanks at the Hanford site are highly basic. The high basicity is a key factor in controlling the chemical behavior of different components of the waste and in influencing the corrosion rate of the carbon steel primary tanks. However, the introduction of atmospheric CO2 can act to reduce the pH of the tank wastes over time and possibly alter the corrosion rate of the carbon steel tanks. In order to at least partially address this issue for waste tank 241-AN-107, thermodynamic modeling calculations were performed to predict the changes in pH and carbonate concentration that could occur as CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere. The calculations extended to complete equilibrium with the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere (i.e. pCO2 = 10-3.5 atm). Simulations were performed for both the “upper” segments of tank 241-AN-107, which have been influenced by the introduction of high concentrations of NaOH to the supernatant, and for the “lower” segments where the salt cake/interstitial liquid have not been substantially altered by the introduction of base concentration.

  8. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AN-107. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  9. Examination report: Remote video examination of air slots under the primary tank at 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, L.T.

    1998-02-23

    This report documents the results of remote video examination of air slots in the insulating concrete slab beneath the primary tank at 241-AN-107. Life Extension Equipment Engineering has selected tank 241-AN-107 for ultrasonic evaluation of tank wall, knuckle, and floor plates. Access to the primary tank floor plates is via the air slots which were formed into the insulating concrete slab during tank construction (reference drawings H-2-71105 and H-2-71160). Prior to deployment of the ultrasonic inspection equipment it is desirable to examine the air slots for obstructions and debris which could impede the ultrasonic equipment. The criteria, equipment description, deliverables, and responsibilities for examination of the air slots are described in HNF-1949, Rev. 0, ``Engineering Task Plan for Remote Video Examination of Air Slots Under the Primary Tank at 241-AN-107``.

  10. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-04-13

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORROSION PROBE COUPONS EXPOSED IN TANK 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    ANANTATMULA, R.P.

    2003-12-16

    C-Ring and Pin electrodes from Corrosion Probe retrieved from Tank 241-AN-107 were examined visually and by weight loss measurements. The weight loss measurements were carried out according to ASTM Method G-190. Corrosion rates estimated from the weight loss measurements indicated extremely limited corrosion with no visually observable pitting or cracking. The extremely low corrosion rates are in agreement with the results of ultrasonic examination of the primary tank wall.

  12. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-107. Examination Completed March 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-04-01

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-107. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AN-107 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AN-107 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of four vertical welds and one horizontal weld, the upper portion of the knuckle region, four small areas of the lower portion of the knuckle region within the air slot entrances, and the lower portion of the knuckle utilizing a multiple V path technique qualified for the extended Y-arm scanner from Riser 26. The examination also included two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 25. The examination was performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  13. Corrosion data from Hanford high-level waste tank 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    Edgemon, G.L.; Nelson, J.L.; Bell, G.E.C.

    1999-07-01

    In an effort to improve corrosion monitoring and control at the Hanford Site, an eight-channel electrochemical noise (EN) based corrosion monitoring system was designed, fabricated and installed into double-shell tank 241-AN-107 in September 1997. This system is a larger scale version of a prototype system installed in double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 in August 1996 and monitors eight three-electrode channels positioned at different elevations in the tank. The system is capable of detecting the onset of pitting and stress corrosion cracking should tank waste conditions change to allow these mechanisms to occur. No finding was provided for troubleshooting and data analysis for nearly a year following installation. When these activities were finally permitted, it was found that most of the data collected was corrupted to some degree by an unknown source of electrical interference. The source of this disturbance has not yet been located. Data collected between 10/97 and 1/98 do not appear to have been affected by the disturbances and signal interference that plague much of the rest of the data. Both summary statistical data and raw data collected during this time period indicate that uniform corrosion is the dominant active corrosion mechanism in tank 241-AN-107. Uniform corrosion rates were calculated from EN data. Despite correction for differences in surface area uniform corrosion rates calculated from noise data collected on small pin-type electrodes do not agree well with rates measured on larger C-ring type electrodes. Between 10/97 and 1/98, C-rings in the supernate showed an average uniform corrosion rate of approximately 7 roils per year (mpy). Pin electrodes in the supernate over the same time period showed a uniform corrosion rate of less than 1 mpy. Which value is correct and the source of the difference have not yet been determined.

  14. Development and Demonstration of a Sulfate Precipitation Process for Hanford Waste Tank 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    SK Fiskum; DE Kurath; BM Rapko

    2000-08-16

    A series of precipitation experiments were conducted on Hanford waste tank 241-AN-107 samples in an effort to remove sulfate from the matrix. Calcium nitrate was added directly to AN-107 sub-samples to yield several combinations of Ca:CO{sub 3} mole ratios spanning a range of 0:1 to 3:1 to remove carbonate as insoluble CaCO{sub 3}. Similarly barium nitrate was added directly to the AN-107 aliquots, or to the calcium pretreated AN-107 aliquots, giving of Ba:SO{sub 4} mole ratios spanning a range of 1:1 to 5:1 to precipitate sulfate as BaSO{sub 4}. Initial bulk carbonate removal was required for successful follow-on barium sulfate precipitation. A {ge} 1:1 mole ratio of Ca:CO{sub 3} was found to lower the carbonate concentration such that Ba would react preferentially with the sulfate. A follow-on 1:1 mole ratio of Ba:SO{sub 4} resulted in 70% sulfate removal. The experiment was scaled up with a 735-mL aliquot of AN-107 for more complete testing. Calcium carbonate and barium sulfate settling rates were determined and fates of selected cations, anions, and radionuclides were followed through the various process steps. Seventy percent of the sulfate was removed in the scale-up test while recovering 63% of the filtrate volume. Surprisingly, during the scale-up test a sub-sample of the CaCO{sub 3}/241-AN-107 slurry was found to lose fluidity upon standing for {le} 2 days. Metathesis with BaCO{sub 3} at ambient temperature was also evaluated using batch contacts at various BaCO{sub 3}:SO{sub 4} mole ratios with no measurable success.

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDIES FOR TANK 241-AN-107 CORE 309 SEGMENTS 21R1 & 21R2

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-11-13

    Liquid waste in tank 241-AN-107 is below Technical Safety Requirements Administrative Control 5.16 (AC 5.16) limits. Electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on Core 309, Segments 21R1 and 21R2, to provide information on the conductivity and corrosive tendencies of the tank saltcake and interstitial liquid. This report describes data obtained under the execution of RPP-PLAN-29001, 'Electrochemical Corrosion Studies for Tank 241-AN-107 Core 309, Segments 21R1 and 21R2'. Analytical results are presented that show supernatant was within the limits while the interstitial liquid remained below the limits for the analytical cores. Applicable AC 5.16 chemistry control limits for AN-107 are presented.

  16. RESULTS OF THE EXAMINATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE PROBE SPECIMENS REMOVED FROM TANK 241-AN-107 JUNE 2010

    SciTech Connect

    COOKE GA; WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2010-11-11

    An Integrated Multi-function Corrosion Probe (IMCP) was installed in Tank 241-AN-107 on September 20, 2006. A portion of the probe was retrieved on June 8, 2010 and the sections holding the detectors were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for analysis. The examination and disassembly of the probe sections encountered a number of challenges. However, disassembly and relevant analyses were successfully completed. The following summarizes our observations. Brittle failure of the fiberglass probe in the middle of detector 2 resulted in the recovery of only three vapor space C-rings and six supernatant bullet specimens. The design of the bullets and how they were attached to the probe made the recovery of the components more difficult. The use of glue/epoxy on the bullets and the attachment of the flat bottom of the bullets to the curved surface of the fiberglass probe body meant that weight loss on cleaning and surface area of the specimens could not be determined with acceptable accuracy. Macrophotography of all specimens reveals that corrosion was slight in the vapor space and extremely slight in the supernatant. The one pre-cracked C-ring recovered from the vapor space still had the stress bulge visible on the polished surface, indicating that crack propagation had not occurred in the tank. No photographs were taken of the C-ring before deployment. No further analysis was conducted on this specimen. A detailed discussion and photographic documentation are provided in this report.

  17. Test Procedure - pumping system for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    This test procedure provides the requirements for sub-system testing and integrated operational testing of the submersible mixer pump and caustic addition equipment by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  18. Ion Exchange Studies for Removal of Sulfate from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (241-AN-107) Using SuperLig 655 Resin

    SciTech Connect

    DE Kurath; JR Bontha; DL Blanchard; SK Fiskum; BM Rapko

    2000-08-23

    BNFL Inc. is evaluating various pretreatment technologies to mitigate the impacts of sulfate on the LAW vitrification system. One pretreatment technology for separating sulfate from LAW solutions involves the use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 655 (SL-655), a proprietary ion exchange material developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report describes testing of SL-655 with diluted ([Na] {approximately} 5 M) waste from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division. Batch contact studies were conducted from 4 to 96 hours to determine the sulfate distribution coefficient and reaction kinetics. A small-scale ion exchange column test was conducted to evaluate sulfate removal, loading, breakthrough, and elution from the SL-655. In all of these tests, an archived 241-AN-107 tank waste sample (pretreated to remove Cs, Sr, and transuranics elements) was used. The experimental details and results are described in this report. Under the test conditions, SL-655 was found to have no significant ion exchange affinity for sulfate in this matrix. The batch contact study resulted in no measurable difference in the aqueous sulfate concentration following resin contact (K{sub d} {approximately} 0). The column test also demonstrated SL-655 had no practical affinity for sulfate in the tested matrix. Within experimental error, the sulfate concentration in the column effluent was equal to the concentration in the feed after passing 3 bed volumes of sample through the columns. Furthermore, some, if not all, of the decreased sulfate concentration in these first three column volumes of effluent can be ascribed to mixing and dilution of the 241-AN-107 feed with the interstitial liquid present in the column at the start of the loading cycle. Finally, ICP-AES measurements on the eluate solutions showed the presence of barium as soon as contact with the feed solution is completed. Barium is a metal not detected in the feed solution. Should the

  19. FINAL ANALYTICAL RESULTS FROM THE EXAMINATION OF CORROSION ON SECTIONS OF CORROSION PROBE REMOVED FROM TANK 241-AN-107 ON 08/10/2006

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2007-03-22

    Tank Farms Operations removed an electrochemical noise probe from Tank 241-AN-107. In the field, the probe was cut into four sections, wrapped, and placed in a 55-gallon drum, This drum was delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. The 222 S Laboratory unpackaged the sections of the AN-107 electrochemical noise probe and examined the material for evidence of corrosion. Each of the four sections contained three C-ring and three bullet specimens. The specimens were examined for pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the stressed C-ring specimens. Minor pitting was evident on some surfaces. Crevice corrosion was the dominant type of corrosion observed.

  20. Small Column Testing of Superlig 639 for Removal of 99Tc from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (Tank 241-AN-107)

    SciTech Connect

    DL Blanchard; DE Kurath; BM Rapko

    2000-06-28

    The current BNFL Inc. flow sheet for pretreating Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig(reg.sign)639 (SL-639) in a dual column system for removing technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) from the aqueous fraction of the waste. This sorbent material has been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report documents the results of testing the SL-639 sorbent with diluted waste [Na{sup +}] {approx} 5 M from Tank 241-AN-107 (an Envelope C waste, abbreviated AN-107) at Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The equilibrium behavior was assessed with batch contacts between the sorbent and the waste. Two AN-107 samples were used: (1) an archived sample from previous testing and (2) a more recent sample collected specifically for BNFL. A portion of the archive sample and all of the BNFL sample were treated to remove Sr-90 and transuranic elements (TRU). All samples had also been Cs decontaminated by ion exchange (IX), and were spiked with a technetium-95m ({sup 95m}Tc) pertechnetate tracer, {sup 95m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}.The TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and total Tc K{sub d} values, assumed equal to the {sup 95m}Tc and {sup 99}Tc K{sub d}'s, respectively, are shown in Table S1. Values are averages of duplicates, which showed significant scatter. The total Tc K{sub d} for the BNFL sample is much lower than the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, indicating that a large fraction of the {sup 99}Tc is not pertechnetate.

  1. Small Column Ion Exchange Testing of Superlig 644 for Removal of 137Cs from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (Tank 241-AN-107)

    SciTech Connect

    DE Kurath; DL Blanchard; JR Bontha

    2000-06-28

    The current BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment of the Hanford high-level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig{reg_sign} materials for removing {sup 137}Cs from the aqueous fraction of the waste. The Superlig materials applicable to cesium removal include the cesium-selective Superlig 632and Superlig 644. These materials have been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, Utah. This report describes the testing of the Superlig 644 ion exchange material in a small dual-column system. The bed volume of the lead column was 18.6 mL (L/D = 7), and the bed volume of the lag column was 15.9 mL (L/D = 6) during the loading phase. The sample processed was approximately 1.6 L of diluted waste ([Na{sup +}] = 4.84 M) from Tank 241-AN-107 (Envelope C). This sample had been previously treated for removal of Sr/transuranic (TRU) values and clarified in a single tube cross-flow filtration unit. All ion exchange process steps were tested, including resin-bed preparation, loading, feed displacement, water rinse, elution, eluant rinse, and resin regeneration. A summary of performance measures for both columns is shown in Table S1. The Cs {lambda} values represent a measure of the effective capacity of the SL-644 resin. The Cs {lambda} of 20 for the lead column is much lower than the estimated 150 obtained by the Savannah River Technology Center during Phase 1A testing. Equilibrium data obtained with batch contacts using the AN-107 Cs IX feed predicts a Cs {lambda} of 183. A Cs {lambda} for the lag column could not be determined due to insufficient breakthrough, but it appeared to work well and removed nearly all of the cesium not removed by the lead column. The low value for the lead column indicates that it did not perform as expected. This may have been due to air or gas in the bed that caused fluid channeling or blinding of the resin. The maximum decontamination factor (DF) for {sup 137}Cs listed in Table S1 is based on {sup 137}Cs

  2. Using tank 107-AN caustic addition for confirmation of mixing scale relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    A subscale jet mixing program was carried out in two scale tanks to extend the basis of previous subscale tests to include in-tank geometry associated with tank AN-107. The laboratory data will be correlated with the data to be collected in the upcoming tank AN-107 mixing and caustic addition test. The objective is to verify the scaling relationship used in the MWTF mixer design.

  3. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to <0.01M and the moisture content of the pulp increased from 93% to 97% (wet basis), showing the removal of caustic salts from the waste. Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts. PMID:27542486

  4. Inner caustics of cold dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Aravind; Sikivie, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We prove that a flow of cold collisionless particles from all directions in and out of a region necessarily forms a caustic. A corollary is that, in cold dark matter cosmology, galactic halos have inner caustics in addition to the more obvious outer caustics. The outer caustics are fold catastrophes located on topological spheres surrounding the galaxy. To obtain the catastrophe structure of the inner caustics, we simulate the infall of cold collisionless particles in a fixed gravitational potential. The structure of inner caustics depends on the angular momentum distribution of the infalling particles. We confirm a previous result that the inner caustic is a “tricusp ring” when the initial velocity field is dominated by net overall rotation. A tricusp ring is a closed tube whose cross section is a section of an elliptic umbilic catastrophe. However, tidal torque theory predicts that the initial velocity field is irrotational. For irrotational initial velocity fields, we find the inner caustic to have a tentlike structure which we describe in detail in terms of the known catastrophes. We also show how the tent caustic transforms into a tricusp ring when a rotational component is added to the initial velocity field.

  5. Inner caustics of cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, Aravind; Sikivie, Pierre

    2006-01-15

    We prove that a flow of cold collisionless particles from all directions in and out of a region necessarily forms a caustic. A corollary is that, in cold dark matter cosmology, galactic halos have inner caustics in addition to the more obvious outer caustics. The outer caustics are fold catastrophes located on topological spheres surrounding the galaxy. To obtain the catastrophe structure of the inner caustics, we simulate the infall of cold collisionless particles in a fixed gravitational potential. The structure of inner caustics depends on the angular momentum distribution of the infalling particles. We confirm a previous result that the inner caustic is a 'tricusp ring' when the initial velocity field is dominated by net overall rotation. A tricusp ring is a closed tube whose cross section is a section of an elliptic umbilic catastrophe. However, tidal torque theory predicts that the initial velocity field is irrotational. For irrotational initial velocity fields, we find the inner caustic to have a tentlike structure which we describe in detail in terms of the known catastrophes. We also show how the tent caustic transforms into a tricusp ring when a rotational component is added to the initial velocity field.

  6. IMPACT OF SB4 TANK 40 DECANT AND ARP/MCU ADDITIONS WITH/WITHOUT ADDED CAUSTIC ON DWPF CPC PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D; David Best, D; Frances Williams, F

    2008-04-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to investigate the impact of decanting supernate from the Sludge Batch four (SB4) feed in Tank 40. The specific questions concerned the potential impact on the stoichiometric acid window determined for SB4 with respect to overall hydrogen generation rates, nitrite destruction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the rheology of the sludge, SRAT product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product slurries. The scope included considering an addition of sodium hydroxide to Tank 40 to partially offset the sodium lost during decanting as well as considering the impact of bounding quantities of Actinide Removal Process (ARP) feed and Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) feed on these same parameters. Simulated SB4 waste was first adjusted to match the dilution that has occurred in Tank 40 during the initial period of SB4 operations in the DWPF. The adjusted simulant was decanted an equivalent of 100,000 gallons relative to 413,740 gallons projected supernate volume. The decanted simulant was divided into two equal parts. One part received an addition of sodium hydroxide to increase the Na{sub 2}O content of the calcined sludge solids by about 3%. The baseline decanted simulant and caustic adjusted simulant were each tested in three pairs of DWPF process simulations of the SRAT and SME cycles. The simulations were at the nominal SB4 acid stoichiometry of 130% with and without bounding ARP/MCU additions and at 170% of acid without ARP/MCU. The 170% case without ARP/MCU was considered bounding relative to 170% with ARP/MCU based on calculated acid requirements. No significant negative impacts on the proposed acid operating window for the SRAT and SME cycles were noted in the simulations. Nitrite was successfully destroyed and mercury reduced in all six SRAT cycles. Hydrogen was produced in all six SRAT and SME cycles, but the levels were below the DWPF SRAT and SME cycle limits in all

  7. Analytical caustic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the determination of caustic surfaces in terms of rays, reflectors, and wavefronts. Analytical caustics are obtained as a family of lines, a set of points, and several types of equations for geometries encountered in optics and microwave applications. Standard methods of differential geometry are applied under different approaches: directly to reflector surfaces, and alternatively, to wavefronts, to obtain analytical caustics of two sheets or branches. Gauss/Seidel aberrations are introduced into the wavefront approach, forcing the retention of all three coefficients of both the first- and the second-fundamental forms of differential geometry. An existing method for obtaining caustic surfaces through exploitation of the singularities in flux density is examined, and several constant-intensity contour maps are developed using only the intrinsic Gaussian, mean, and normal curvatures of the reflector. Numerous references are provided for extending the material of the present document to the morphologies of caustics and their associated diffraction patterns.

  8. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOEpatents

    Nowak, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  9. Edge diffracted caustic fields. [spacecraft antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The fields near a caustic created by an edge diffraction process are computed using the equivalent current concept. These fields are shown to have the property commonly associated with ray optical analysis or the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD), e.g., a 90 deg phase shift as the ray passes through the caustic. The present effort is directed toward consideration of the caustic created by an edge diffraction process. Particular attention is focused on electromagnetic excitation. The acoustic excitation for the hard boundary condition is outlined in an appendix. In addition, goal is to establish the extent of the caustic region. This is of particular importance when a ray optical solution involves multiply-diffracted terms in that the minimum size of the body that can be analyzed may be restricted by the extent of the caustic, i.e., the 90 deg phase shift used in ray optical analysis may be introduced only if the caustic is contained on the surface being studied.

  10. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  11. Spectral Caustics in Attosecond Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, O.; Pedatzur, O.; Bruner, B. D.; Dudovich, N.

    2013-03-01

    A unique type of singularity common in wave phenomena, known as caustics, links processes observed in many different branches of physics [1]. We investigate the role of caustics in attosecond science and in particular the physical process behind high harmonic generation. By exploiting singularities of the three-step model that describes HHG, we can manipulate and enhance specific features in the emitted harmonic spectrum. This new level of control holds promises in both scientific and technological aspects of attosecond science, and provides a deeper insight into the basic mechanism underlying the high harmonic generation process.

  12. Biotreatment of refinery spent sulfidic caustics

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Rajganesh, B.; Woolsey, M.; Plato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Caustics are used in petroleum refinering to remove hydrogen sulfide from various hydrocarbon streams. Spent sulfidic caustics from two Conoco refineries have been successfully biotreated on bench and pilot scale, resulting in neutralization and removal of active sulfides. Sulfides were completely oxidized to sulfate by Thiobacillus denitrificans. Microbial oxidation of sulfide produced acid, which at least partially neutralized the caustic.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESONANT CAUSTIC PERTURBATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju

    2009-11-01

    Four of nine exoplanets found by microlensing were detected by the resonant caustic, which represents the merging of the planetary and central caustics at the position when the projected separation of a host star and a bounded planet is s approx 1. One of the resonant caustic lensing events, OGLE-2005-BLG-169, was a caustic-crossing high-magnification event with A {sub max}approx 800 and the source star was much smaller than the caustic, nevertheless the perturbation was not obviously apparent on the light curve of the event. In this paper, we investigate the perturbation pattern of the resonant caustic to understand why the perturbations induced by the caustic do not leave strong traces on the light curves of high-magnification events despite a small source/caustic size ratio. From this study, we find that the regions with small magnification excess around the center of the resonant caustic are rather widely formed, and the event passing the small-excess region produces a high-magnification event with a weak perturbation that is small relative to the amplification caused by the star and thus does not noticeably appear on the light curve of the event. We also find that the positive excess of the inside edge of the resonant caustic and the negative excess inside the caustic become stronger and wider as q increases, and thus the resonant caustic-crossing high-magnification events with the weak perturbation occur in the range of q <= 10{sup -4}. We determine the probability of the occurrence of events with the small excess |epsilon| <= 3% in high-magnification events induced by a resonant caustic. As a result, we find that for Earth-mass planets with a separation of approx2.5 AU the resonant caustic high-magnification events with the weak perturbation can occur with a significant frequency.

  14. The optical method of caustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gdoutos, Emmanuel E.

    2016-04-01

    An overview of the basic principles of the optical method of caustics for the determination of stress intensity factors in crack problems is presented. The method is based on the assumption that the state of stress in the neighborhood of the crack tip is plane stress. However, the state of stress changes from plane strain very close to the tip to plane stress at a critical distance from the tip through an intermediate region where the stress field is three-dimensional. The caustic is the image of the so-called initial curve on the specimen and, therefore, depends on the state of stress along the initial curve. For the determination of stress intensity factors the values of the stress-optical constants are needed. These values depend strongly on the state of stress being plane stress, plane strain or three-dimensional. This complicated the experimental determination of stress intensity factors. For the characterization of the state of affairs near the crack tip a phenomenological triaxiality factor is introduced. A methodology based on the use of optically birefringent materials is developed for the determination of stress intensity factors without paying attention to the location of the initial curve in the plane stress, plane strain or three-dimensional region. Finally, a comparison of the methods of photoelasticity and caustics takes place, and the potentialities and limitations of both methods for the solution of crack problems are explored.

  15. Caustics, catastrophes, and symmetries in curved beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaveliuk, Pablo; Lencina, Alberto; Rodrigo, José A.; Matos, Oscar Martinez

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a meaningful classification of optical caustic beams in two dimensions is presented. It is demonstrated that the phase symmetry of the beam's angular spectrum governs the optical catastrophe, which describes the wave properties of ray singularities, for cusp (symmetric phase) and fold (antisymmetric phase) caustics. In contrast to the established idea, the caustic classification arises from the phase symmetry rather than from the phase power, thus breaking the commonly accepted concept that fold and cusp caustics are related to the Airy and Pearcey functions, respectively. Nevertheless, the role played by the spectral phase power is to control the degree of caustic curvature. These findings provide straightforward engineering of caustic beams by addressing the spectral phase into a spatial light modulator or glass plate.

  16. Economic Feasibility of Electrochemical Caustic Recycling at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Poloski, Adam P.; Kurath, Dean E.; Holton, Langdon K.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2009-03-01

    This report contains a review of potential cost benefits of NaSICON Ceramic membranes for the separation of sodium from Hanford tank waste. The primary application is for caustic recycle to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreatment leaching operation. The report includes a description of the waste, the benefits and costs for a caustic-recycle facility, and Monte Carlo results obtained from a model of these costs and benefits. The use of existing cost information has been limited to publicly available sources. This study is intended to be an initial evaluation of the economic feasibility of a caustic recycle facility based on NaSICON technology. The current pretreatment flowsheet indicates that approximately 6,500 metric tons (MT) of Na will be added to the tank waste, primarily for removing Al from the high-level waste (HLW) sludge (Kirkbride et al. 2007). An assessment (Alexander et al. 2004) of the pretreatment flowsheet, equilibrium chemistry, and laboratory results indicates that the quantity of Na required for sludge leaching will increase by 6,000 to 12,000 MT in order to dissolve sufficient Al from the tank-waste sludge material to maintain the number of HLW canisters produced at 9,400 canisters as defined in the Office of River Protection (ORP) System Plan (Certa 2003). This additional Na will significantly increase the volume of LAW glass and extend the processing time of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Future estimates on sodium requirements for caustic leaching are expected to significantly exceed the 12,000-MT value and approach 40,000-MT of total sodium addition for leaching (Gilbert, 2007). The cost benefit for caustic recycling is assumed to consist of four major contributions: 1) the cost savings realized by not producing additional immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass, 2) caustic recycle capital investment, 3) caustic recycle operating and maintenance costs, and 4) research and technology costs

  17. Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Ananya

    susceptibility. Annealed and water quenched specimens were found to be immune to SCC in caustic environment. Aging treatment at 800°C gave rise to sigma and chi precipitates in the DSS. However, these sigma and chi precipitates, known to initiate cracking in DSS in chloride environment did not cause any cracking of DSS in caustic solutions. Aging of DSS at 475°C had resulted in '475°C embrittlement' and caused cracks to initiate in the ferrite phase. This was in contrast to the cracks initiating in the austenite phase in the as-received DSS. Alloy composition and microstructure of DSS as well as solution composition (dissolved ionic species) was also found to affect the electrochemical behavior and passivation of DSS which in turn plays a major role in stress corrosion crack initiation and propagation. Corrosion rates and SCC susceptibility of DSS was found to increase with addition of sulfide to caustic solutions. Corrosion films on DSS, characterized using XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated that the metal sulfide compounds were formed along with oxides at the metal surface in the presence of sulfide containing caustic environments. These metal sulfide containing passive films are unstable and hence breaks down under mechanical straining, leading to SCC initiations. The overall results from this study helped in understanding the mechanism of SCC in caustic solutions. Favorable slip systems in the austenite phase of DSS favors slip-induced local film damage thereby initiating a stress corrosion crack. Repeated film repassivation and breaking, followed by crack tip dissolution results in crack propagation in the austenite phase of DSS alloys. Result from this study will have a significant impact in terms of identifying the alloy compositions, fabrication processes, microstructures, and environmental conditions that may be avoided to mitigate corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of DSS in caustic solutions.

  18. Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2008-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

  19. Observation of diffraction caustics for ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Rui-qi; Adler, Laszlo; Doyle, P. A.

    1983-05-01

    The formation of caustics due to the diffraction of ultrasound is observed by scanning in the shadow region close behind an elliptical obstacle in water. Good agreement is obtained between experiment and the theoretical geometry of the caustic, which is an astroid centered in that shadow region.

  20. Caustic ingestion and esophageal function

    SciTech Connect

    Cadranel, S.; Di Lorenzo, C.; Rodesch, P.; Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R. )

    1990-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate esophageal motor function by means of krypton-81m esophageal transit scintigraphy and to compare the results with the functional and morphological data obtained by means of triple lumen manometry and endoscopy. In acute and subacute stages of the disease, all clinical, anatomical, and functional parameters were in good agreement, revealing significant impairment. In chronic stages, the severity of the dysphagia was not correlated to the importance of the residual stenosis. Conversely, 81mKr esophageal transit and manometric's findings were in good agreement with the clinical symptoms, during the entire follow-up period ranging between 3 months to 7 years. The 81mKr test is undoubtedly the easiest and probably the most physiological technique currently available for long-term functional evaluation of caustic esophagitis.

  1. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos.

  2. Scaling-Free Electrochemical Production of Caustic and Oxygen for Sulfide Control in Sewers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2015-10-01

    Caustic shock-loading and oxygen injection are commonly used by the water industry for biofilm and sulfide control in sewers. Caustic can be produced onsite from wastewater using a two-compartment electrochemical cell. This avoids the need for import and storage of caustic soda, which typically represents a cost and a hazard. An issue limiting the practical implementation of this approach is the occurrence of membrane scaling due to the almost universal presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in wastewater. It results in a rapid increase in the cell voltage, thereby increasing the energy consumption of the system. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an innovative solution for this problem involving the inclusion of a middle compartment between the anode and cathode compartments. Caustic was efficiently produced from wastewater over a period of 12 weeks and had an average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 84.1 ± 1.1% at practically relevant caustic strengths (∼3 wt %). Neither membrane scaling nor an increase in the cell voltage was observed throughout the experiments. In addition, dissolved oxygen was produced in the anode, resulting in continuously oxygenated wastewater leaving the three-compartment cell. This membrane-scaling control strategy represents a major step forward toward practical implementation of on-site simultaneous electrochemical caustic and oxygen generation for sulfide control in sewers and also has the potential to be applied to other (bio)electrochemical systems receiving wastewater as source for product recovery. PMID:26377687

  3. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND CONTAMINATION ON MPCMS ELECTRODES IN 241-AY-101 AND 241-AN-107 TANK WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    CATO DM; DAHL MM; PHILO GL; EDGEMON GL; BELL DR.JLS; MOORE CG

    2010-03-26

    This report documents the results of tests designed to characterize the relationship between temperature and the measured potential of electrodes installed on multi-probe corrosion monitoring systems in waste tanks. This report also documents the results of tests designed to demonstrate the impact of liquid in-leakage into electrode bodies as well as the contamination of primary reference electrodes by diffusion through the electrode tip.

  4. Caustics and Rogue Waves in an Optical Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Amaury; Froehly, Luc; Toenger, Shanti; Dias, Frédéric; Genty, Goëry; Dudley, John M.

    2015-08-01

    There are many examples in physics of systems showing rogue wave behaviour, the generation of high amplitude events at low probability. Although initially studied in oceanography, rogue waves have now been seen in many other domains, with particular recent interest in optics. Although most studies in optics have focussed on how nonlinearity can drive rogue wave emergence, purely linear effects have also been shown to induce extreme wave amplitudes. In this paper, we report a detailed experimental study of linear rogue waves in an optical system, using a spatial light modulator to impose random phase structure on a coherent optical field. After free space propagation, different random intensity patterns are generated, including partially-developed speckle, a broadband caustic network, and an intermediate pattern with characteristics of both speckle and caustic structures. Intensity peaks satisfying statistical criteria for rogue waves are seen especially in the case of the caustic network, and are associated with broader spatial spectra. In addition, the electric field statistics of the intermediate pattern shows properties of an “optical sea” with near-Gaussian statistics in elevation amplitude, and trough-to-crest statistics that are near-Rayleigh distributed but with an extended tail where a number of rogue wave events are observed.

  5. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  6. Caustics and Caustic-Interference in Measurements of Contact Angle and Flow Visualization Through Laser Shadowgraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Neng-Li

    2002-01-01

    As one of the basic elements of the shadowgraphy optical system, the image of the far field from the droplet implicates plentiful information on the droplet profile. An analysis of caustics by wave theory shows that a droplet with a cylindrically symmetric Gaussian-hill-type profile produces a circular directional caustic in far field, which arises from the singularities (inflection line on the surface). The sessile liquid droplets, which profiles are restricted by surface tension, usually have a 'protruding foot' where the surface inflects. Simple geometrical optics indicates that the circular caustic stemming from the surface inflection at the protruding-foot takes the shape of the outmost ring on the image of the far field. It is the diameter of the outmost ring that is used as one of the key parameters in the measurements of contact angle through the laser shadowgraphic method. Different surface characteristics of the droplets produce different type of caustics, and therefore, the shape of the caustics can be used to determine the surface property of the sessile droplets. The present paper describes the measurement method of contact angIe using the circular caustics and the estimation of the protruding-foot height through the caustic interference.

  7. DRY CAUSTIC PEELING OF CLINGSTONE PEACHES. CAPSULE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling system was operated in p...

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, R.M.; Howard, B.H.; Soong, Y.; Griffith, C.; Hedges,S.W.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Morreale, B.; Baltrus, J.P.; Allen, D.E.; Fu, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ex-situ carbonation of mixtures of caustic byproduct materials and produced oil-field brine provides a niche opportunity to sequester anthropogenic CO2, while concomitantly reducing the basicity of the reactive slurry. A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the COrbearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGO) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO2 balanced by nitrogen gas (N2) fed at a rate of 300mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and COrbearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGO spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO2 reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO2, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO2 at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO2 in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/ acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

  10. HYPERFILTRATION FOR TEXTILE PREPARATION CAUSTIC DISCHARGE REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, joining a hyperfiltration (HF) system with an operating caustic scour and preparation range in an integrated textile dye and finishing plant. (HF is a membrane separation technique widely used in desalination of natural water and in some indus...

  11. Intercontinental comparison of caustic ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Hazrati, Hakimeh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the caustic ingestion in children among different continents according to demographic characteristics (core purpose), main symptoms, common caustic agents, signs and symptoms, management, treatment and complications. Methods This systematic review was performed by searching the databases Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and PubMed, electronically and manually. We included studies that were published from 1980 to 2013, at University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz, Iran. A strategic search was performed with keywords including caustic, corrosive, ingestion and children, and was limited to articles in English and Persian. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS ver. 18. Results Of 63 selected articles of caustic ingestion with 9,888 samples, the proportion of Africa was 3 articles (4.8%) and 95 samples (1%), America 9 articles (14.3%) and 305 sample (3%), Asia 29 articles (46%) and 2,780 samples (28.1%), Europe 17 articles (27%) and 3,002 samples (30.4%), and Oceania 5 articles (7.9%) and 3,706 samples (37.5%). The average age was in the Africa 3.07±2.02 years, America 3.17±1.83 years, Asia 3.34±1.58 years, Europe 3.58±2.09 years and Oceania 3.52±2.02 years. Sex distribution was in Africa 76 males (0.91%) and 19 females (0.23%), America 49 males (0.58%) and 41 females (0.49%), Asia 1,575 males (18.76%) and 1,087 females (12.95%), Europe 1,018 males (12.13%) and 823 females (9.8%), and Oceania 1,918 males (22.85%) and 1,788 females (21.3%). Statistical analysis of the data indicated higher consumption in Europe and Oceania in the boys with higher average age of years. Conclusion The comparison of caustic ingestion indicated that the cause substances of caustic ingestion in children are different among continents, therefore prevention strategy and different treatment guidelines among continents will be needed. PMID:26770225

  12. Diffraction and Dissipation of Atmospheric Waves in the Vicinity of Caustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    A large and increasing number of ground-based and satellite-borne instruments has been demonstrated to reliably reveal ionospheric manifestations of natural hazards such as large earthquakes, strong tsunamis, and powerful tornadoes. To transition from detection of ionospheric manifestations of natural hazards to characterization of the hazards for the purposes of improving early warning systems and contributing to disaster recovery, it is necessary to relate quantitatively characteristics of the observed ionospheric disturbances and the underlying natural hazard and, in particular, accurately model propagation of atmospheric waves from the ground or ocean surface to the ionosphere. The ray theory has been used extensively to model propagation of atmospheric waves and proved to be very efficient in elucidating the effects of atmospheric variability on ionospheric signatures of natural hazards. However, the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified in the vicinity of caustics. This paper presents an asymptotic theory that describes diffraction, focusing and increased dissipation of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of caustics and turning points. Air temperature, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and wind velocity are assumed to vary gradually with height and horizontal coordinates, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. Uniform asymptotics of the wave field are expressed in terms of Airy functions and their derivatives. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In addition to the wave field in the vicinity of the caustic, these asymptotics describe wave reflection from the caustic and the evanescent wave field beyond the caustic. The evanescent wave field is found to play an important role in ionospheric manifestations of tsunamis.

  13. A geometric optics method for high-frequency electromagnetic fields computations near fold caustics--Part II. The energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamou, J.-D.; Lafitte, O.; Solliec, I.; Sentis, R.

    2004-05-01

    We present the computation of the amplitudes needed to evaluate the energy deposited by the laser wave in a plasma when a fold caustic forms. We first recall the Eulerian method designed in Benamou et al. (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 156 (2003) 93) to compute the caustic location and the phases associated to the two ray branches on its illuminated side. We then turn to the computation of the amplitudes needed to evaluate the energy. We use the classical geometrical form of the amplitudes to avoid the blow up problem at the caustic. As our proposed method is Eulerian we have to consider transport equations for these geometrical quantities where the advection field depends on the ray flow. The associated vector field structurally vanishes like the square root of the distance to the caustic when approaching the caustic. This introduces an additional difficulty as traditional finite difference scheme do not retain their accuracy for such advection fields. We propose a new scheme which remains of order 1 at the caustic and present a partial theoretical analysis as well as a numerical validation. We also test the capability of our Eulerian geometrical algorithm to produce numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation and attempt to check their frequency asymptotic accuracy.

  14. Tunable caustic phenomena in electron wavefields.

    PubMed

    Tavabi, Amir Hossein; Migunov, Vadim; Dwyer, Christian; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Pozzi, Giulio

    2015-10-01

    Novel caustic phenomena, which contain fold, butterfly and elliptic umbilic catastrophes, are observed in defocused images of two approximately collinear oppositely biased metallic tips in a transmission electron microscope. The observed patterns depend sensitively on defocus, on the applied voltage between the tips and on their separation and lateral offset. Their main features are interpreted on the basis of a projected electrostatic potential model for the electron-optical phase shift. PMID:26069930

  15. Caustics and the growth of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindarajan, Rama; Ravichandran, S.; Ray, Samriddhi; Deepu, P.

    Caustics are formed when inertial particles of very different velocities collide in a flow, and are a consequence of the dissipative nature of particle motion in a suspension. Using a model vortex-dominated flow with heavy droplets in a saturated environment, we suggest that sling caustics form only within a neighbourhood around a vortex, the square of whose radius is proportional to the product of circulation and particle inertia. Droplets starting close to this critical radius congregate very close together, resulting in large spikes in (Lagrangian) number density. Allowing for merger when droplets collide, we show that droplets starting out close to the critical radius display a much more rapid growth in size than those starting elsewhere, and a large fraction of the large droplets are those that originate within the caustics-forming region. We test these predictions in a two-dimensional simulation of turbulent flow. We hope that our study will be of interest in long-standing problems of physical interest such as the mechanism of broadening of droplet spectra in a turbulent flow. Support from the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India for the project Coupled physical processes in the Bay of Bengal and monsoon air-sea interaction under OMM is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  17. Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, R.M.; Howard, B.H.; Soong, Y.; Griffith, C.; Hedges, S.W.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Morreale, B.; Baltrus, J.P.; Allen, D.E.; Fu, J.K.

    2009-08-15

    A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the CO{sub 2}-bearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGD) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO{sub 2} balanced by nitrogen gas fed at a rate of 300 mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and CO{sub 2}-bearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGD spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO{sub 2} reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO{sub 2}, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO{sub 2} at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO{sub 2} in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

  18. Gravitational lensing and structural stability of dark matter caustic rings

    SciTech Connect

    Onemli, V. K.

    2006-12-15

    In a cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, density perturbations enter the nonlinear regime of structure formation where shell crossings occur, and caustics form. A dark matter caustic is generically a surface in space where the CDM particles are naturally focussed, and hence, the density is very large. The caustic ring model of galactic halo formation predicts a minimal caustic structure classified as outer caustics and caustic rings at certain locations in the halos. It provides a well-defined density profile and geometry near the caustics. Using this model, I show that the gravitational lensing by the cusps (A{sub -3} catastrophes) of caustic rings at cosmological distances may offer the tantalizing opportunity to detect CDM indirectly, and discriminate between axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The lensing effects of the caustic rings increase as the line of sight approaches to the cusps where it diverges in the limit of zero velocity dispersion. In the presence of finite velocity dispersion, the caustics are smeared out in space, and hence, the divergence is cut off. Primordial smearing distance of caustics may be used to obtain an upper bound for the lensing effects. Evidences found for the caustic rings, on the other hand, were used to estimate an upper bound for the smearing distance, which may be used to obtain a lower bound for the lensing effects. In that range of smearing out, the magnification of a cosmological axion caustic ring is constrained between 3% and 2800% at the outer cusp, and between 2% and 46% at the nonplanar cusps. For a cosmological WIMP caustic ring, the magnification is constrained between 3% and 28% at the outer cusp, and between 2% and 5% at the nonplanar cusps. As pointlike background sources cross behind the axion (WIMP) folds, the time scale of brightness change is about an hour (a year). Thus, they may be used to probe the cusps and discriminate between axions and WIMPs by present instruments. Finally, I derive

  19. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Caustic soda, liquid. 21.102 Section 21.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.102 Caustic soda, liquid. (a) The...

  20. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal before molten caustic leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, S.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1993-10-01

    A hydrothermal pretreatment of coal samples before caustic leaching results in efficient sulfur removal using reduced amounts of caustic and to recovery of a higher fraction of the energy content of the feed coal than caustic leaching without the pretreatment. Pretreating an Illinois No. 6 coal with boiling water followed by a float-sink separation using 50% aqueous NaOH as the heavy medium, and then leaching the floated coal with only the caustic adhering to the float portion (less than 1 part caustic to 1 part water to 1 part coal) at 390{degrees}C for 15 minutes led to the same residual levels of sulfur in the cleaned coal (0.5%) as was obtained performing the float-sink procedure and leaching procedures on a non-prewashed coal using 2.4 parts caustic to 1 part coal. When prewashed Illinois No. 6 coal was leached with lesser amounts of caustic, the energy recoveries in the cleaned coal were about 5--10% higher than when non-prewashed coal was leached with the larger amounts of caustic.

  1. Properties and Detection Limits of Planetary Caustic Perturbation Induced by a Wide-separation Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Chung, Sun-Ju; Lee, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Seek; Han, Du-Hwan

    2016-03-01

    Microlensing experiments are entering a next generation of survey types to monitor a wide field of view continuously with a frequent sampling. The theoretically predicted sensitivity of a planet detection on the lensing parameters can be used for the establishment of observational strategies for maximal planet detections. Hence, we investigate the detection condition of planetary signals caused by the planetary caustic. We calculate the deviation area induced by the planetary caustic for various lensing parameters and find that the deviation area generally increases according to the increase of the source radius. However, after the normalized source radius approaches a certain value the deviation area rapidly decreases and disappears at the same normalized source radius, regardless of the mass ratio and the separation between the planet and its host star. We find a simple relation between the normalized source radius and the deviation threshold for the largest and smallest deviation areas. From this relation we also find an analytic condition for the detection limit of the planetary signal as the function of the source radius and the deviation threshold. In addition, we compare the deviation areas and the light curves between the planetary caustic perturbation and a free-floating planet. We find that the planetary caustic perturbation can be approximated by the single-lensing light curve of the planet itself perturbed by the planetary caustic. Finally, we can expect to find a low-mass planet with the Earth’s mass or even that of the Earth's moon from the detection condition and conclude that our findings may help for maximal planet detections considering the source type and the photometric accuracy.

  2. Progress in caustic dezincing of galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1997-08-01

    In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, processes are being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. In the process discussed here, zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. Pilot testing has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana, now in its second generation, has dezinced in a continuous process mode about 1,800 tonnes of loose clips and shredded stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.05% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews caustic dezincing pilot plant performance and economics.

  3. Sequestration of CO 2 in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, Robert M.; Howard, Bret H.; Soong, Yee; Griffith, Craig; Hedges, Sheila W.; DeGalbo, Angelo D.; Morreale, Bryan; Baltrus, John P.; Allen, Douglas E.; Fu, Jaw K.

    2009-08-01

    Ex-situ carbonation of mixtures of caustic byproduct materials and produced oil-field brine provides a niche opportunity to sequester anthropogenic CO2, while concomitantly reducing the basicity of the reactive slurry. A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the CO2-bearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGD) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO2 balanced by nitrogen gas (N-2) fed at a rate of 300 mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and CO2-bearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGD spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO2 reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO2, at 2.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO2 at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO2 in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was

  4. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, Robert M.; Howard, Bret H.; Soong, Yee; Griffith, Craig; Hedges, Sheila W.; DeGalbo, Angelo D.; Morreale, Bryan; Baltrus, John P.; Allen, Douglas E.; Fu, Jaw K.

    2009-08-01

    Ex-situ carbonation of mixtures of caustic byproduct materials and produced oil-field brine provides a niche opportunity to sequester anthropogenic CO2, while concomitantly reducing the basicity of the reactive slurry. A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the CO2-bearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGD) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO2 balanced by nitrogen gas (N-2) fed at a rate of 300 mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and CO2-bearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGD spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO2 reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO2, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO2 at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO2 in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was

  5. Caustics and Caustic-Diffraction in Laser Shadowgraphy of a Sessile Drop and Identification of Profile Near Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Neng-Li; Chao, David F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an optical method based on the caustics and caustic-difraction in laser shadowgaphy of a sessile drop to identify and estimate the drop profile near the contact line. A parallel laser beam passes through a liquid sessile drop placed on a transparent substrate to produce a shadowgraphic image of the drop on the screen far from the substrate. Along the inflection line of the drop the Gaussian curvature of the wavefront deformed by the drop vanishes, and therefore the inflection line gives caustics in the far field of the wave, which can be seen on the screen. The neighboring light rays at both sides of the inflection line interfere with each other to form interference fringes at the inner side of the caustics. According to the pattern of the caustics, the drop-profile shape can be identified and estimated.

  6. The internal caustic structure of illuminated liquid droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.; Hovenac, Edward A.

    1991-01-01

    The internal electric field of an illuminated liquid droplet is studied in detail using both wave theory and ray theory. The internal field obtains its maximum values on the caustics within the droplet. Ray theory is used to determine the equations of these caustics and the density of rays on them. The Debye series expansion of the interior field Mie amplitudes is used to calculate the wave theory version of these caustics. The physical interpretation of the sources of stimulated Raman scattering and fluorescence emission within a liquid droplet is then given.

  7. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant

  8. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below

  9. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is

  10. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  11. Formation of caustics in k-essence and Horndeski theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, Eugeny

    2016-04-01

    We study propagation of waves and appearance of caustics in k-essence and galileon theories. First we show that previously known solutions for travelling waves in k-essence and galileon models correspond to very specific fine-tuned initial conditions. On the contrary, as we demonstrate by the method of characteristics, generic initial conditions leads to a wave in k-essence which ends up with formation of caustics. Finally, we find that any wave solution in pure k-essence is also a solution for a galileon theory with the same k-essence term. Thus in the Horndeski theory with a k-essence term formation of caustics is generic. We discuss physical consequences of the caustics formation and possible ways to cure the problem.

  12. Test report - 241-AN-274 Caustic Pump Control Building

    SciTech Connect

    Paintner, G.P.

    1995-05-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents the test results of test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATP-135 `Acceptance Test Procedure for the 241-AN- 274 Caustic Pump Control Building.` The objective of the test was to verify that the 241-AN-274 Caustic Pump Control Building functions properly based on design specifications per applicable H-2-85573 drawings and associated ECN`s. The objective of the test was met.

  13. Caustic Leaching of Sludges from Selected Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this project was to measure the caustic dissolution behavior of sludge components from selected Hanford waste tank sludge samples under different conditions. The dissolution of aluminum, chromium, and other constituents of actual sludge samples in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was evaluated using various values of temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration, volume of caustic solution per unit mass of sludge (liquid:solids ratio), and leaching time.

  14. Caustic effects due to sunlight reflections from skyscrapers: simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.; Möllmann, K.-P.

    2012-09-01

    Reflections from glass fronts of curved shape buildings are discussed. Irradiance within the respective caustics can become quite large with regard to regular sun irradiance and can lead to thermal effects. These may cause problems as has been reported for some existing buildings. The phenomena are theoretically discussed for a variety of systems made of segments of cylindrical mirrors using ray tracing models. In particular, six parameters are varied which have an influence on the caustic: building height, building width, radius of curvature, building orientation as well as sun elevation and azimuth angles. In addition, experiments have been performed for various curved shape mirrors and small-scale models of an existing building, for which problems are known to exist. In particular, we investigated the resulting caustic forms visually as well as with infrared cameras to visualize respective thermal effects. Results can explain all features of reported problems. Providing a link to everyday life and modern architecture, the topic is suitable for introducing mirror optics experimentally at school and undergraduate as well as theoretically at undergraduate and graduate level.

  15. An unconventional method for the recovery of caustic soda from spent Al-rich pickling solutions.

    PubMed

    Aprea, Paolo; de Gennaro, Bruno; Colella, Carmine

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an unconventional procedure for the recovery of spent Al-rich caustic soda solutions from the pickling of dies for the production of aluminium extrusions. Caustic soda was regenerated at roughly 70%, by precipitating aluminate, after addition of a silica source, in the form of zeolite A, a microporous material that is widely used in many technological sectors. It was shown that the process is reliable and can be repeated for several cycles, provided the concentration of the caustic soda solution is suitably restored. The by-product obtained, zeolite A, proved to be a high-grade material with performance as a cation exchanger and physical sorbent that is certainly comparable to that reported in literature (e.g., cation exchange capacity equal to 5.14 meq g(-1) vs. 5.48 meq g(-1) and water vapour adsorption capacity of 26.5% vs. 27.6% at 16 torr and 298 K). The economics of the process, although not examined yet, would appear generally favourable, considering that zeolite A is a valuable by-product which widely covers the costs for the recovery of the spent solutions. There are, therefore, significant prospects for the use of zeolite A, particularly as a builder in detergent formulation. PMID:21458911

  16. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The objective of the task (Task 6) covered in this document was to operate the refurbished/modified test circuit of the Gravimeh Process in a continuous integrated manner to obtain the engineering and operational data necessary to assess the technical performance and reliability of the circuit. This data is critical to the development of this technology as a feasible means of producing premium clean burning fuels that meet New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Significant refurbishments and design modifications had been made to the facility (in particular to the vacuum filtration and evaporation units) during Tasks 1 and 2, followed by off-line testing (Task 3). Two weeks of continuous around-the-clock operation of the refurbished/modified MCL test circuit were performed. During the second week of testing, all sections of the plant were operated in an integrated fashion for an extended period of time, including a substantial number of hours of on-stream time for the vacuum filters and the caustic evaporation unit. A new process configuration was tested in which centrate from the acid wash train (without acid addition) was used as the water makeup for the water wash train, thus-eliminating the one remaining process waste water stream. A 9-inch centrifuge was tested at various solids loadings and at flow rates up to 400 lbs/hr of coal feed to obtain a twenty-fold scaleup factor over the MCL integrated test facility centrifuge performance data.

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION REPORT FOR TANKS 241-AW-103 & 241-AZ-102 & 241-AN-106 & 241-AN-107 & 241-AY-101 & 241-AY-102

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-08-22

    Corrosion rates using supernatant samples retrieved from near the top of the liquid layer were determined for the tanks. Corrosion rates using settled solids (saltcake) were determined. The supernatant samples were tested as received without argon sparging. The settled solid sample segments were extruded under anaerobic condition and kept under a sweep of humidified argon gas during 'the electrochemical corrosion testing. The class of steel used to construct the tank in question was used, and test coupons were allowed to equilibrate for a minimum of 18 hours before a Tafel scan was initiated. The coupons were scanned from -250 mV to +250 mV from the rest or open circuit potential. The corrosion rate is reported along with the corrosion current measurement, open circuit potential, and a chi-square statistic generated by the instrument controlling and analysis algorithm.

  18. Caustic consumption by a sandstone at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, K.; Handy, L.L.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of temperature on caustic loss due to its reaction with a representative sandstone was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Consumption was measured for sodium hydroxide concentrations from 0.01 to 0.1 N at temperatures from 80/sup 0/ to 180/sup 0/C in fired and unfired Berea sandstone. Three types of experiment were performed. One of these was a static, batch experiment with disaggregated sandstone for different contact times. The others were flow experiments in consolidated cores at various flow rates. In one case caustic was injected and effluent concentration were measured, and, in the other case, the produced fluids were recycled through the core. The results show that caustic concentration is caused by a fast reversible Langmuir-type ion exchange and an irreversible reaction of dissolution of silica. An increase in temperature results in a higher amount of ion exchange for the same initial concentration and a higher rate of dissolution. The heat of the ion exchange reaction is constant in the range of temperature studied and as a result the equilibrium constant of ion exchange can be found for other temperatures. Dissolution for the lowest caustic initial concentration (0.01 N) can be represented by first order reaction but not for the higher injection concentration. Batch experimental results show that equilibrium is established in the caustic-silica reaction with stabilization of pH.

  19. Caustic Structures and Detectability of Circumbinary Planets in Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhn, Jacob K.; Penny, Matthew T.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2016-08-01

    Recent discoveries of circumbinary planets in Kepler data show that there is a viable channel of planet formation around binary main-sequence stars. Motivated by these discoveries, we have investigated the caustic structures and detectability of circumbinary planets in microlensing events. We have produced a suite of animations of caustics as a function of the projected separation and angle of the binary host to efficiently explore caustic structures over the entire circumbinary parameter space. Aided by these animations, we have derived a semi-empirical analytic expression for the location of planetary caustics, which are displaced in circumbinary lenses relative to those of planets with a single host. We have used this expression to show that the dominant source of caustic motion will be due to the planet’s orbital motion and not that of the binary star. Finally, we estimate the fraction of circumbinary microlensing events that are recognizable as such to be significant (5%–50%) for binary projected separations in the range 0.1–0.5 in units of Einstein radii.

  20. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

  1. Extraction of Uranium, Neptunium and Plutonium from Caustic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia H.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Engle, Nancy L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Xu, Jade

    2004-03-28

    5 Fundamental research on uranium, neptunium and plutonium separation from alkaline media using solvent extraction is being conducted. Specific extractants for these actinides from alkaline media have been synthesized to investigate the feasibility of selective removal of these elements. Two families of extractants have been studied: terephthalamide and tetra(hydroxybenzyl)ethylene diamine derivatives. Fundamental studies were conducted to characterize their extraction behavior from a wide variety of aqueous conditions. The terephthalamide derivatives exhibit a significant extraction strength along with a discriminatory behavior among the actinides, plutonium being extracted the most strongly. Quantitative extraction of plutonium and moderate extraction of neptunium and uranium was achieved from a simple caustic solution. Interestingly, strontium is also quantitatively extracted by these derivatives. However, their stability to highly caustic solutions still needs to be imp roved. Tetra(hydroxybenzyl)ethylene diamine derivatives exhibit a very good stability to caustic conditions and are currently being studied.

  2. Caustic ingestion: a possible cause of eosinophilic esophagitis?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok; Liacouras, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease in both pediatric and adult patients. It is a chronic disease of the esophagus and refers to intense eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophageal epithelium in the absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In most patients, EoE is thought to be part of an allergic response to food antigens or aeroallergens. One such trigger could be caustic damage of the mucosa. To the best of our knowledge, the following case report describes for the first time the possible association between caustic injury of the esophagus and EoE. PMID:23478872

  3. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison... SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of determining whether an article containing...

  4. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison... SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of determining whether an article containing...

  5. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison... SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of determining whether an article containing...

  6. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison... SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of determining whether an article containing...

  7. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison... SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of determining whether an article containing...

  8. Time Motion Study for Modular Caustic Solvent Extraction Unit

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG, ROBERTC.

    2004-10-30

    The Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is used to process high-level radioactive waste from the Tank Farm into borosilicate glass to reduce the mobility of the radionuclides and has processed and vitrified nuclear wastes into canisters for long-term disposal since FY96. All wastes vitrified to date in DWPF are ''sludge only'' wastes. The old salt waste processing technology, ITP, was suspended in FY98 due to benzene build-up inside the tank. The new selected technologies for treating the salt waste are Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process (CSSX). The Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) is a cesium removal process that will be operated downstream of the ARP. The MCU is a short-term method for cesium removal, which uses the same technology as the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Once the SWPF becomes operational, the MCU will be shut down. The modeling request is from the MCU project to verify the validity of its Concept Design Package. The modeling task is not typical because there are five different facilities/projects/processes involved, i.e., Tank Farm, ARP, MCU, Saltstone, and DWPF. Each facility, project, and process has their own management team and organization, with its own fiscal responsibility and performance accountability. In addition, from a task cost perspective, MCU desires to minimize modeling not directly associated with their facility. The balancing of comprehensive analysis with limited granularity is challenging. The customer expectation is the model should be small and delivered within weeks. Modeling a stand-alone MCU will not yield overall meaningful results because it can be expected that most problems will occur at interfaces with other facilities. This paper discusses how we set out our modeling strategy, overcame obstacles, avoided touchy issues, and delivered the modeling result on time and on budget.

  9. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and 50 ml of distilled water. Titrate with 0.25 N hydrochloric acid to the disappearance of the pink color. Not less than 25 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required to neutralize the sample of diluted 50 percent caustic soda, and not less than 36.5 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required...

  10. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and 50 ml of distilled water. Titrate with 0.25 N hydrochloric acid to the disappearance of the pink color. Not less than 25 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required to neutralize the sample of diluted 50 percent caustic soda, and not less than 36.5 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required...

  11. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and 50 ml of distilled water. Titrate with 0.25 N hydrochloric acid to the disappearance of the pink color. Not less than 25 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required to neutralize the sample of diluted 50 percent caustic soda, and not less than 36.5 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required...

  12. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and 50 ml of distilled water. Titrate with 0.25 N hydrochloric acid to the disappearance of the pink color. Not less than 25 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required to neutralize the sample of diluted 50 percent caustic soda, and not less than 36.5 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required...

  13. Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank S-110 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carson, Katharine J.; Darnell, Lori P.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoopes, Francis V.; Sell, Richard L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, John J.

    2001-10-31

    This report describes the Hanford Tank S-110 sludge caustic leaching test conducted in FY 2001 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The data presented here can be used to develop the baseline and alternative flowsheets for pretreating Hanford tank sludge. The U.S. Department of Energy funded the work through the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP; EM﷓50).

  14. Superboom Caustic Analysis and Measurement Program (SCAMP) Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Ken; Hobbs, Chris; Sparrow, Vic; Salamone, Joe; Cowart, Robbie; Elmer, Kevin; Welge, H. Robert; Ladd, John; Maglieri, Domenic; Piacsek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the Superboom Caustic Analysis and Measurement (SCAMP) Program were to develop and validate, via flight-test measurements, analytical models for sonic boom signatures in and around focal zones as they are expected to occur during commercial aircraft transition from subsonic to supersonic flight, and to apply these models to focus boom prediction of low-boom aircraft designs. The SCAMP program has successfully investigated sonic boom focusing both analytically and experimentally, while gathering a comprehensive empirical flight test and acoustic dataset, and developing a suite of focused sonic boom prediction tools. An experimental flight and acoustic measurement test was designed during the initial year of the SCAMP program, with execution of the SCAMP flight test occurring in May 2011. The current SCAMP team, led by Wyle, includes partners from the Boeing Company, Pennsylvania State University, Gulfstream Aerospace, Eagle Aeronautics, and Central Washington University. Numerous collaborators have also participated by supporting the experiment with human and equipment resources at their own expense. The experiment involved precision flight of a McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F-18B executing different maneuvers that created focused sonic booms. The maneuvers were designed to center on the flight regime expected for commercial supersonic aircraft transonic transition, and also span a range of caustic curvatures in order to provide a variety of conditions for code validations. The SCAMP experiment was designed to capture concurrent F-18B on-board flight instrumentation data, high-fidelity ground-based and airborne acoustic data, and surface and upper air meteorological data. Close coordination with NASA Dryden resulted in the development of new experimental instrumentation and techniques to facilitate the SCAMP flight-test execution, including the development of an F-18B Mach rate cockpit display, TG-14 powered glider in-flight sonic boom measurement

  15. PEP Integrated Test D Run Report Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2009-12-11

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes" of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario (Test B and D) has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario (Test A) has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In Test D, 19M sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic) was added to the waste slurry in the UFP VSL T02 vessel after the solids were concentrated to ~20% undissolved solids. The NaOH was added to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by heating to 85°C using direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. The main difference of Test D compared to Test B is that the leach temperature is 85°C for 24 hrs as compared to 100°C for 12 hours. The other difference is the Test D simulant had Cr in the

  16. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, and parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During fourth quarter 1992, a sample from well PAC 6 exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Iron and manganese each exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 2, 5, and 6. No analytes exceeded the final PDWS in wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during 1992.

  17. Ingestion of caustic hair relaxer: is endoscopy necessary?

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; Eisenbeis, J F

    1997-07-01

    Hair relaxer, a commercially available alkaline product, is commonly the offending agent in caustic ingestion. These patients often experience oral cavity and facial burns; however, no clinically significant esophageal injuries have been reported. Therefore, we questioned the therapeutic and economic efficacy of the "standard treatment protocol" that includes hospitalization and endoscopic evaluation. Twenty-six patients over a 7-year period presented to our institution having ingested hair relaxer. Presenting signs and symptoms, esophageal findings, and cost of the standard treatment protocol were reviewed. Also, we analyzed the caustic potential and current packaging of hair relaxer. Our findings support modifications in the standard treatment protocol for hair relaxer ingestion including elimination of hospitalization and endoscopy in most patients. We also question compliance with childproof packaging laws and suggest avenues for prevention of hair relaxer ingestion. PMID:9217127

  18. Caustics in a field negatively refracted at a plane interface.

    PubMed

    Shendeleva, M L

    2008-03-01

    An electromagnetic field radiated by a line source situated near a plane interface between a medium with positive refractive index and a medium with negative refractive index is considered by using the geometrical optics approach. Rays and wave fronts of the refracted field are constructed using Fermat's principle. It is shown that the negatively refracted rays intersecting in pairs create 2-fold caustics that meet at a cusp point. The cusp of the caustic is directed towards the interface for |n| > 1 and away from the interface for |n| < 1, where n is the relative refractive index. It is also shown that wave fronts of the refracted field propagate towards the interface, in the direction from negative to positive optical path lengths. PMID:18331494

  19. Formation of caustic beams in a refractive oceanic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, Yu. V.; Burdukovskaya, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    We consider the patterns in the formation of the spatial interference structure of an acoustic field excited in the near-surface channel of a vertical array consisting of point sources emitting a tonal signal inphase. It is established that when the array aperture is increased to a certain optimal size, only one caustic beam forms in the channel. As the array aperture further increases, the sequential formation of a certain number of beams after the first is observed.

  20. Static and dynamic photoelasticity and caustics recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lagarde, A.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental principles and applications of photoelastic analysis and NDE are examined in chapters contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include integrated photoelasticity; coherent-light photoelastic NDE with applications to two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems in statics, contact stresses, fracture mechanics, and dynamic impulse; dynamic photoelasticity and its application to stress-wave propagation, fracture mechanics, and fracture control; and the shadow-optics method of caustics. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and sample images are provided.

  1. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This is a report of the maintenance, refurbishment, modifications, and off-line circuit component testing of the integrated test circuit of the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The project is sponsored by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC22-86-PC91257.

  2. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  3. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for indicator parameters, turbidity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, with summary results for the year, are presented in this report. No constituents exceeded the PDWS at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin. Iron and total organic halogens exceeded Flag 2 criteria in sidegradient-to-downgradient well KAC 7 but not in other KAC wells. No priority pollutants (EPA, 1990) exceeded the PDWS or the Flag 2 criteria in wells KAC 1 and 3. None of the KAC wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well KAC 7 during first quarter. No other constituent exceeded the PDWS at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during the year.

  4. Evaluation and Management of Caustic Injuries from Ingestion of Acid or Alkaline Substances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although the numbers have decreased compared with in the past, cases of patients who ingest caustic substances and visit the emergency room are not rare. However, well-summarized data about caustic injuries are insufficient. Therefore, in this article, I will discuss the etiologic causative agents, injury mechanism, and clinical characteristics, as well as the endoscopic evaluation of the degree of injury and proper management of the patient, in gastrointestinal caustic injury. PMID:25133115

  5. Specific imaging of caustics upon refraction of structured laser radiation in stratified media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskovskaya, I. L.

    2015-06-01

    Conditions for caustic formation upon longitudinal probing of stratified optically inhomogeneous media by structured laser beams that are visualized in the cross section as families of geometrical figures are studied. In the plane of observation at the exit from the medium, the projection of the caustic surface is imaged as an envelope of extrema of refractive deflection of beam-structure elements. This circumstance makes it possible to experimentally determine the caustic position in the absence of intensity measurements in the refraction image. The measured geometrical parameters of caustics are employed in the solution of the inverse problem of refraction to reconstruct physical parameters of the medium that control nonuniformity of refractive index.

  6. STATISTICS OF MICROLENSING CAUSTIC CROSSINGS IN Q 2237+0305: PECULIAR VELOCITY OF THE LENS GALAXY AND ACCRETION DISK SIZE

    SciTech Connect

    Mediavilla, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Mediavilla, T.; Ariza, O.

    2015-01-10

    We use the statistics of caustic crossings induced by microlensing in the lens system Q 2237+0305 to study the lens galaxy peculiar velocity. We calculate the caustic crossing rates for a comprehensive family of stellar mass functions and find a dependence of the average number of caustic crossings with the effective transverse velocity and the average mass, 〈n〉∝v{sub eff}/√(〈m〉), equivalent to the theoretical prediction for the case of microlenses with identical masses. We explore the possibilities of the method to measure v {sub eff} using the ∼12 yr of Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment monitoring of the four images of Q 2237+0305. To determine a lower limit for v {sub eff}, we count, conservatively, a single caustic crossing for each one of the four high magnification events identified in the literature (plus one additional proposed by us) obtaining v{sub eff}≳240√(〈m〉/0.17 M{sub ⊙}) km s{sup −1} at 68% of confidence. From this value and the average FWHM of the four high magnification events, we obtain a lower limit of r{sub s}≳1.4√(〈m〉/0.17 M{sub ⊙}) light-days for the radius of the source (r{sub s} = FWHM/2.35). Tentative identification of three additional caustic crossing events leads to estimates of v{sub eff}≃(493±246)√(〈m〉/0.17 M{sub ⊙}) km s{sup −1} for the effective transverse velocity and of r{sub s}≃(2.7±1.3)√(〈m〉/0.17 M{sub ⊙}) light-days for the source size. The estimated transverse peculiar velocity of the galaxy is v{sub t}≃(429±246)√(〈m〉/0.17 M{sub ⊙}) km s{sup −1}.

  7. TeVeS gets caught on caustics

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.; Wiseman, Toby; Withers, Benjamin

    2008-08-15

    TeVeS uses a dynamical vector field with timelike unit-norm constraint to specify a preferred local frame. When matter moves slowly in this frame--the so-called quasistatic regime--modified Newtonian dynamics results. Theories with such vectors (such as Einstein-Aether) are prone to the vector dynamics forming singularities that render their classical evolution problematic. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the vector in TeVeS in various situations. We begin by analytically showing that the vacuum solution of TeVeS forms caustic singularities under a large class of physically reasonably initial perturbations. This shows the classical evolution of TeVeS appears problematic in the absence of matter. We then consider matter by investigating black hole solutions. We find large classes of new black hole solutions with static geometries, where the curves generated by the vector field are attracted to the black hole and may form caustics. We go on to consider the full dynamics with matter by numerically simulating, assuming spherical symmetry, the gravitational collapse of a scalar, and the evolution of an initially nearly static boson star. We find that in both cases our initial data evolves so that the vector field develops caustic singularities on a time scale of order the gravitational in-fall time. Having shown singularity formation is generic with or without matter, Bekenstein's original formulation of TeVeS appears dynamically problematic. We argue that by modifying the vector field kinetic terms to the more general form used by Einstein-Aether, this problem may be avoided.

  8. Probe of Multielectron Dynamics in Xenon by Caustics in High-Order Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Faccialà, D; Pabst, S; Bruner, B D; Ciriolo, A G; De Silvestri, S; Devetta, M; Negro, M; Soifer, H; Stagira, S; Dudovich, N; Vozzi, C

    2016-08-26

    We investigated the giant resonance in xenon by high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy driven by a two-color field. The addition of a nonperturbative second harmonic component parallel to the driving field breaks the symmetry between neighboring subcycles resulting in the appearance of spectral caustics at two distinct cutoff energies. By controlling the phase delay between the two color components it is possible to tailor the harmonic emission in order to amplify and isolate the spectral feature of interest. In this Letter we demonstrate how this control scheme can be used to investigate the role of electron correlations that give birth to the giant resonance in xenon. The collective excitations of the giant dipole resonance in xenon combined with the spectral manipulation associated with the two-color driving field allow us to see features that are normally not accessible and to obtain a good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions. PMID:27610855

  9. Eikonal waves, caustics and mode conversion in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaun, A.; Tracy, E. R.; Kaufman, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    Ray optics is used to model the propagation of short electromagnetic plasma waves in toroidal geometry. The new RAYCON code evolves each ray independently in phase space, together with its amplitude, phase and focusing tensor to describe the transport of power along the ray. Particular emphasis is laid on caustics and mode conversion layers, where a linear phenomenon splits a single incoming ray into two. The complete mode conversion algorithm is described and tested for the first time, using the two space dimensions that are relevant in a tokamak. Applications are shown, using a cold plasma model to account for mode conversion at the ion-hybrid resonance in the Joint European Torus.

  10. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) System Integration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This is a report of the results obtained from the operation of an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The objectives of operational testing of the 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit are: (1) to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); (2) to determine the range of effective process operation; (3) to test process conditions aimed at significantly lower costs; and (4) to deliver product coal.

  11. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS only in well HAC 1 during first quarter 1993. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron was elevated in well HAC 1, 2, and 3. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  12. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the seven older KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, and other constituents. New wells FAC 8 and 9 received the first of four quarters of comprehensive analyses and GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  13. Spectral caustics in laser assisted Breit-Wheeler process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Electron-positron pair production by the Breit-Wheeler process embedded in a strong laser pulse is analyzed. The transverse momentum spectrum displays prominent peaks which are interpreted as caustics, the positions of which are accessible by the stationary phases. Examples are given for the superposition of an XFEL beam with an optical high-intensity laser beam. Such a configuration is available, e.g., at LCLS at present and at European XFEL in near future. It requires a counter propagating probe photon beam with high energy which can be generated by synchronized inverse Compton backscattering.

  14. MITOMYCIN C IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PEDIATRIC CAUSTIC ESOPHAGEAL STRICTURES. A CASE REPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the incidence of caustic ingestion is declining, the management of caustic esophageal strictures remains a challenge. Mitomycin C (MMC) inhibits fibroblast proliferation and is effective in reducing scar in animal experiments. We report the case of a child with a distal esophageal stricture...

  15. Beneficial effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on caustic esophageal injuries: an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Akbal, E; Köklü, S; Karaca, G; Astarci, H M; Koçak, E; Taş, A; Beyazit, Y; Topcu, G; Haznedaroğlu, I C

    2012-04-01

    comparable among the groups. Treatment with ABS prevents inflammation, scar formation, weight loss, and mortality in esophageal caustic injuries. Additional studies to evaluate the clinical benefits of ABS in esophageal caustic injury are recommended. PMID:21819483

  16. Formation of caustics in Dirac-Born-Infeld type scalar field systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, U. D.; Nandan, H.; Sami, M.

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the formation of caustics in the Dirac-Born-Infeld type scalar field systems for generic classes of potentials, viz., massive rolling scalar with potential, V({phi})=V{sub 0}e{sup {+-}(1/2)M2{phi}2} and inverse power-law potentials with V({phi})=V{sub 0}/{phi}{sup n}, 0caustics in the field configuration. However there are no caustics in the case of exponentially increasing potential. We show that the formation of caustics is inevitable for the inverse power-law potentials under consideration in Minkowski space time whereas caustics do not form in this case in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe.

  17. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C.; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G.; Lee, Denise L.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Roach, Benjamin D.; Szczygiel, Patricia L.; Frederick V. Sloop, Jr.; Stoner, Erica L.; Williams, Neil J.

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  18. Predictability of outcome of caustic ingestion by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ezer, Semire Serin; Ince, Emine; Hicsonmez, Akgun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the necessity of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) to predict the outcome of caustic ingestion in children. METHODS: The study included 206 children who underwent EGD because of ingestion of caustic substances between January 2005 and August 2010. Retrospective analysis of data of the patients was performed. RESULTS: The male/female ratio was 1.6 and mean age was 38.1 ± 28.8 mo. The caustic substances were acidic in 72 (34.9%) cases, alkaline in 56 (27.2%), liquid household bleach in 62 (30.1%), and unknown in 16 (7.8%). Fifty-seven (27.7%) patients were symptom-free. Significant clinical findings were observed in 149 (72.3%) patients. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings of esophageal injury were grade 0 in 86 (41.7%) patients, grade 1 in 49 (23.8%), grade 2a in 42 (20.4%), grade 2b in 28 (13.6%), and grade 3a in 1 (0.5%) patient. 35 patients with grade 2a, 2b, and 3a injuries underwent esophageal dilation at second week of ingestion. Esophageal stricture, which necessitated a regular dilation program developed in 13 of the aforementioned 35 patients. There is no statistically significant difference in the rate of development of esophageal stricture between the patients who ingested acidic (15.3%) and alkaline (8.9%) substances (P = 0.32). Severe gastric injury was detected in 38 (18.5%) patients. The rate of development of gastric injury was significantly higher in the acidic group (14%) than in the alkaline group (2.9%) (P = 0.001). Out of 149 patients with clinical findings, 49 (32.9%) patients had no esophageal injury and 117 (78.5%) patients had no gastric lesion. Esophageal and severe gastric injuries were detected in 20 (35.1%) and 8 (14%) of patients with no clinical findings respectively. Pyloric stenosis developed in 6 patients. Pyloric obstruction improved with balloon dilation in 2 patients. Mean hospitalization time were 1.2 ± 0.5 d for grade 0 and 2.3 ± 5 d for grade 1 and 6.3 ± 6.2 d for grade 2a and 15.8 ± 18.6 d for grade 2

  19. Testing the Caustic Ring Dark Matter Halo Model Against Observations in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Julie; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Niedzielski, Bethany; Susser, Adam; Thompson, Jeffery M.; Weiss, Jake; Lewis, Kim M.

    2016-06-01

    One prediction of axion dark matter models is they can form Bose-Einstein condensates and rigid caustic rings as a halo collapses in the non-linear regime. In this thesis, we undertake the first study of a caustic ring model for the Milky Way halo (Duffy & Sikivie 2008), paying particular attention to observational consequences. We first present the formalism for calculating the gravitational acceleration of a caustic ring halo. The caustic ring dark matter theory reproduces a roughly logarithmic halo, with large perturbations near the rings. We show that this halo can reasonably match the known Galactic rotation curve. We are not able to confirm or rule out an association between the positions of the caustic rings and oscillations in the observed rotation curve, due to insufficient rotation curve data. We explore the effects of dark matter caustic rings on dwarf galaxy tidal disruption with N-body simulations. Simulations of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy in a caustic ring halo potential, with disk and bulge parameters that are tuned to match the Galactic rotation curve, match observations of the Sgr trailing tidal tails as far as 90 kpc from the Galactic center. Like the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) halo, they are, however, unable to match the leading tidal tail. None of the caustic, NFW, or triaxial logarithmic halos are able to simultaneously match observations of the leading and trailing arms of the Sagittarius stream. We further show that simulations of dwarf galaxies that move through caustic rings are qualitatively similar to those moving in a logarithmic halo. This research was funded by NSF grant AST 10-09670, the NASA-NY Space Grant, and the American Fellowship from AAUW.

  20. Caustic-induced features in microlensing magnification probability distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, Kevin P.; Mao, Shude; Wambsganss, Joachim; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulations have uncovered a previously unrecognized 'bump' in the macroimage magnification probabilities produced by a planar distribution of point masses. The result could be relevant to cases of microlensing by star fields in single galaxies, for which this lensing geometry is an excellent approximation. The bump is produced by bright pairs of microimages formed by sources lying near the caustics of the lens. The numerically calculated probabilities for the magnifications in the range between 3 and 30 are significantly higher than those given by the asymptotic relation derived by Schneider. The bump present in the two-dimensional lenses appears not to exist in the magnification probability distribution produced by a fully three-dimensional lens.

  1. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. New wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6 and 7, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in new well KAC 9. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  2. H-area acid/caustic basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the PDWS in HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during first quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 appeared similar to tritium levels in well HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in wells HAC 2 and 3, respectively. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  3. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for indicator parameters, turbidity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, with summary results for the year, are the focus of this report. Tritium activities exceeded the PDWS in 4 wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in 1 well, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 2. No priority pollutant (EPA, 1990) exceeded the PDWS or Flag 2 criteria in 2 wells. None of the HAC wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Elevated tritium activities were found in all four HAC wells every quarter. Elevated total radium occurred in well HAC 2 during third quarter.

  4. Wild bearded capuchins process cashew nuts without contacting caustic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Giulia; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    Complex and flexible food processing was a key element for the evolutionary success of hominins, enlarging the range of exploitable foods while enabling occupation of new habitats. Only a few primate species crack open encased food by using percussive tools and/or avoid physical contact with irritant compounds by removing the structures containing them. We describe, for the first time, how a population of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) accesses the nutritious kernel of cashew nuts avoiding the caustic chemicals protecting it. Two processing strategies, namely rubbing/piercing and stone tool use, are used according to maturity of the nuts. The frequency of cashew nuts processing increases with capuchin age, and the same set of processing strategies appears to be absent in other capuchin populations, making cashew nuts processing an excellent candidate for social transmission. PMID:23300054

  5. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) system integration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The objectives of the tasks covered in this document are to design, construct, and shakedown a 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). These objectives were met with the construction and shakedown of the integrated test circuit. Although mild kiln conditions (340{degree}C and 2 hours residence time) and a low caustic to coal ratio (1 to 1) were used, the combination of continuous operation and rigorous exclusion of air from the system allowed the production of MCL coal, from high sulfur, high ash coal, which has virtually no carbonate and volatiles loss, which does not form excessively wet cakes in during washing, and which has low alkali retention by the product MCL coal. Equipment performance was generally consistent with design requirements.

  6. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford Tank C-106 sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Hoopes, F.V.; Steele, R.T.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale washing and caustic leaching test performed on sludge from Hanford Tank C-106. The purpose of this test was to determine the behavior of important sludge components when subjected to washing with dilute or concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. The results of this laboratory-scale test were used to support the design of a bench-scale washing and leaching process used to prepare several hundred grams of high-level waste solids for vitrification tests to be done by private contractors. The laboratory-scale test was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1996 as part of the Hanford privatization effort. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS; EM-30).

  7. Fermat's principle, caustics, and the classification of gravitational lens images

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, R.; Narayan, R.

    1986-11-01

    A scalar description of gravitational lensing based on Fermat's principle is described. The lensing mass is assumed to be confined to a single plane between the source and the observer, and a time delay is associated with each position in the sky of a potential image. The extrema of this time surface then give the true positions of the images. A topological classification of image configurations is presented, and the results are generalized to cases of three and five-image lensing geometries. A computer-graphical approach to the study of lensing by model galaxies and clusters is described, and the design of a simple optical apparatus which could be used for fast modelling of image geometries is outlined. The connection between the Fermat approach and the classical theory of caustics and the more recent general theory of catastrophies is developed. The extension of the results to multiple scattering is considered. 42 references.

  8. Simulation of optical caustics associated with the tertiary rainbow of oblate droplets.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lulu; Yu, Haitao; Shen, Jianqi; Tropea, Cameron

    2016-08-10

    In this paper, a vector ray tracing (VRT) model is used to simulate optical caustic structures, including rainbow and hyperbolic umbilic (HU) fringes, in the tertiary rainbow region of light scattering from oblate spheroidal droplets. In order to apply the optical caustic structures to particle diagnostics, the evolution of rainbow and HU fringes with an increase in the aspect ratio of oblate spheroidal droplets is investigated in detail, and the curvature of rainbow fringes are calculated. Next, on the basis of the VRT model, the location of cusp caustics is calculated and compared with theoretical prediction. PMID:27534493

  9. Industrial Experience on the Caustic Cracking of Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2005-10-09

    Caustic environments are present in several industries, from nuclear power generation to the fabrication of alkalis and alumina. The most common material of construction is carbon steel but its application is limited to a maximum temperature of approximately 80 C. The use of Nickel (Ni) alloys is recommended at higher temperatures. Commercially pure Ni is the most resistant material for caustic applications both from the general corrosion and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) perspectives. Nickel rich alloys also offer a good performance. The most important alloying elements are Ni and chromium (Cr). Molybdenum (Mo) is not a beneficial alloying element and it dissolves preferentially from the alloy in presence of caustic environments. Austenitic stainless steels such as type 304 and 316 seem less resistant to caustic conditions than even plain carbon steel. Experimental evidence shows that the most likely mechanism for SCC is anodic dissolution.

  10. Structured caustic vector vortex optical field: manipulating optical angular momentum flux and polarization rotation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system. PMID:26024434

  11. Effect of heat treatment on caustic stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloy 600

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, J.K.

    1999-12-01

    Constant elongation rate tests (CERT) were conducted to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of alloy 600 (UNS NO6600) in 140 C and 50% caustic solution at {minus}900 mV vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Results showed: (1) Heat treatment at low temperature for a long time (600 C for 260 h) led to a material that was not susceptible to caustic intergranular (IG) cracking. Increase in heat treatment temperature enhanced IG cracking susceptibility. Caustic IGSCC susceptibility was at maximum near the carbon solubility limit. However, when the heat treatment temperature was higher than the carbon solubility limit, a significant decrease in crack growth rate was observed. (2) Grain boundaries acted as a preferential crack path when grain boundary carbon segregation was likely. Thermodynamic considerations suggested that severe caustic IGSCC susceptibility near the carbon solubility limit could be explained in terms of carbon segregation at the grain boundaries. (3) IGSCC in caustic solution did not seem to be caused by chromium depletion. (4) Although formation of semi-continuous IG carbides and IGSCC resistance seemed to exhibit a similar chronological response with heat treatment, it was unlikely that grain boundary IG carbides played a role in caustic IGSCC susceptibility.

  12. Testing the Dark Matter Caustic Theory Against Observations in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Julie; Newberg, Heidi J.; Niedzielski, Bethany; Susser, Adam; Thompson, Jeffery M.

    2015-01-01

    We test a particular theory of dark matter, in which dark matter axions form ring 'caustics' in the plane of the Milky Way. According to this theory, cold collisionless dark matter particles with angular momentum flow in and out of the Milky Way as it forms. These flows form caustic rings (at the positions of the rings, the density of the flow is infinite) at the locations of closest approach to the Galactic center. We show that the caustic ring dark matter theory reproduces a roughly logarithmic halo, with large perturbations near the rings. We show that the theory can reasonably match the known Galaxy rotation curve. We explore the effects of the caustic rings on dwarf galaxy tidal disruption using N-body simulations. Simulations of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy in a caustic halo potential match observations as far as 90 kpc from the Galactic center. The source code for calculating the caustic halo acceleration has been made publicly available in the NEMO Stellar Dynamics Toolbox and the Milkyway@home client repository. This research was funded by NSF grant AST 10-09670, the NASA-NY Space Grant, and the American Fellowship from AAUW.

  13. Testing the Dark Matter Caustic Theory against Observations in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Julie; Newberg, Heidi J.; Niedzielski, Bethany; Susser, Adam; Thompson, Jeffery M.; Weiss, Jake; Lewis, Kim M.

    2015-09-01

    We test a particular theory of dark matter in which dark matter axions form ring “caustics” in the plane of the Milky Way against actual observations of Milky Way stars. According to this theory, cold, collisionless dark matter particles with angular momentum flow in and out of the Milky Way on sheets. These flows form caustic rings (at the positions of the rings, the density of the flow is formally infinite) at the locations of closest approach to the Galactic center. We show that the caustic ring dark matter theory reproduces a roughly logarithmic halo, with large perturbations near the rings. We show that the theory can reasonably match the observed rotation curve of the Milky Way. We explore the effects of the caustic rings on dwarf galaxy tidal disruption using N-body simulations. In particular, simulations of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy tidal disruption in a caustic ring halo potential match observations of the trailing tidal tail as far as 90 kpc from the Galactic center; they do not, however, match the leading tidal tail. None of the caustic ring, Navarro–Frenk–White, or triaxial logarithmic halos fit all of the data. The source code for calculating the acceleration due to a caustic ring halo has been made publicly available in the NEMO Stellar Dynamics Toolbox and the Milkyway@home client repository.

  14. RESULTS OF CAUSTIC DISSOLUTION OF ALUMINOSILICATE SCALE AND CHARACTERIZATION DATA FOR SAMPLES FROM THE EVAPORATOR POT AND GRAVITY DRAIN LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Rita Sullivan, R; Chris Martino, C

    2006-08-21

    The build-up of sodium aluminosilicate scale in the 2H Evaporator system continues to cause operational difficulties. The use of a nitric acid cleaning operation proved successful in 2001. However, the operation required additional facilities to support spent cleaning solution neutralization and was quite costly. A proposed caustic cleaning flowsheet has many advantages over the acid flowsheet. Therefore, samples were retrieved from the evaporator system (gravity drain line and pot) for both chemical and radiological characterization and dissolution testing. The characterization of these scale samples showed the presence of nitrated cancrinite along with a dehydrated zeolite. Small amounts of depleted uranium were also found in these samples as expected and the amount of uranium ranged from 0.5 wt% to 2 wt%. Dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions of various caustic concentrations showed that the scale slowly dissolves at elevated temperature (90 C). Data from similar testing indicate that the scale removed from the GDL in 2005 dissolves slower than that removed in 1997. Differences in the particle size of these samples of scale may well explain the measured dissolution rate differences.

  15. Caustic stress corrosion cracking of NiCrMoV rotor steels—The effects of impurity segregation and variation in alloy composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, N.; Briant, C. L.

    1983-10-01

    This paper reports a study of the effects of phosphorus, tin, and molybdenum on the caustic stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of NiCrMoV rotor steels. Constant load tests were performed on these steels in 9M NaOH at 98 ± 1 °C at a controlled potential of either -800 mVHg/Hgo or -400 mVHg/Hgo. Times to failure were measured. The results show that at a potential of -400 mVHg/Hgo the segregation of phosphorus to grain boundaries lowers the resistance of these steels to caustic stress corrosion cracking. When molybdenum is removed from a steel that has phosphorus segregated to the grain boundaries, the steel’s resistance to stress corrosion cracking is improved. High purity alloys, both with and without molybdenum, show very good resistance to caustic cracking at this potential. At-800 mVHg/Hgo segregated phophorus has no effect; only molybdenum additions lower the resistance of the steel to caustic stress corrosion cracking. Segregated tin has little effect at either potential. Metallographic examination shows that one explanation for these results is that molybdenum and phosphorus, probably as anions precipitated from solution, aid in passivating the sides of the crack and thus help keep the crack tip sharp. This sharpness will increase the speed with which the crack will propagate through the sample. Furthermore, removal of molybdenum greatly increases the number of cracks which nucleate. This higher crack density would increase the relative area of the anode to the cathode and thus act to decrease the crack growth rate.

  16. Intergranular failures of Alloy 600 in high temperature caustic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, R.; Roberge, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the results of our investigation of two commonly observed modes of failure of Alloy 600 in high temperature caustic environment namely, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and intergranular attack (IGA). Specimens are studied as C-rings under constant deflection, wires with and without any externally applied load, and as straining electrodes. The potential dependence of average crack propagation rate is established in a single test by using several C-rings held at different potentials, by using a modification of the static potential gradient method of Seys and Van Haute. SCC appears to be governed by a film rupture mechanism and its propagation rate is significantly influenced by the electrochemical potential and associated surface film formation. The maximum crack propagation rate for C-rings and constant load specimens is very similar but much smaller than that calculated for a straining electrode at the same potential. IGA occurs over a wide range of potential - starting from a few tens of millivolts cathodic to the corrosion potential up to the lower end of anodic potentials normally required for SCC. IGA seems to be rather independent of stress and is generally more pronounced in the crevice area under the nuts used in C-rings. Examination of several creviced coupons shows that outside the crevice, enrichment of iron and chromium occurs on the surface as the potential is raised anodically, whereas the Ni:Fe and Ni:Cr ratios remain relatively independent of potential within the crevice.

  17. Differential optics for illumination design in the presence of caustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, P.; Yu, L.

    2012-05-01

    Alternatively to using time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations the irradiation at a target plane can also be calculated by differential optics methods. In the case of caustics, these methods yield to infinite irradiance and its results are not directly comparable to those of Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper, a differential based algorithm for an on axis point source and a rotationally symmetric optical system is presented, which yields to the same results as a Monte-Carlo simulation. However, the differential optical methods are about three orders of magnitude faster than the latter one, thus allowing fast trial and error design of such kind of illumination systems. An applet is presented that uses sliders to change the shape of the lens and other properties of the illumination system whereas the irradiance profile is nearly immediately perceived. For beginners in the field, this does not only accelerate the design process itself but also the learning process is improved considerably. Some extensions and special cases are shortly discussed.

  18. Nonlinear focusing of acoustic shock waves at a caustic cusp.

    PubMed

    Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2005-02-01

    The present study investigates the focusing of acoustical weak shock waves incoming on a cusped caustic. The theoretical model is based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya equation and its specific boundary conditions. Based on the so-called Guiraud's similitude law for a step shock, a new explanation about the wavefront unfolding due to nonlinear self-refraction is proposed. This effect is shown to be associated not only to nonlinearities, as expected by previous authors, but also to the nonlocal geometry of the wavefront. Numerical simulations confirm the sensitivity of the process to wavefront geometry. Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations are substantiated by an original experiment. This one is carried out in two steps. First, the canonical Pearcey function is synthesized in linear regime by the inverse filter technique. In the second step, the same wavefront is emitted but with a high amplitude to generate shock waves during the propagation. The experimental results are compared with remarkable agreement to the numerical ones. Finally, applications to sonic boom are briefly discussed. PMID:15759678

  19. Morbidity and Mortality of Caustic Ingestion in Rural Children: Experience in a New Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpe, E. E.; Ette, V.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Inspite of the fact that accidental caustic ingestion is an entirely easily preventable problem, it has however persisted in rural Nigerian communities because the commonly implicated agent which is caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) is sold in open markets without restrictive legislations. This study aims to identify the perpetuating factors of paediatric caustic ingestion and recommend preventive measures. Method. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of our paediatric patients who presented following caustic ingestion between November 2006 and November 2010 was made for demography, socioeconomic status of parent(s), caustic substance ingested with amount (where known), circumstance of ingestion, means of oesophageal evaluation, treatment and outcome. Results. There were 16 paediatric cases of caustic ingestion during the study period with age ranging from 1 to 18 years with mode in the 1–3 years group and male : female ratio 4.3 : 1. In 100% of the cases, the caustic ingestion was accidental, while caustic soda was the agent in 93.7%, and 87.5% of the parents were into local soap and detergent production. In all patients, the oesophagus was evaluated with late barium swallow/meal and oesophagoscopy before treatment. Conclusion. Caustic ingestion among rural children in Nigeria can be prevented. PMID:22778986

  20. Revisiting Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel in Caustic Solutions for Developing Cracking Susceptibility Diagrams for Improved Applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sarvesh; Raman, R. K. Singh; Ibrahim, R. N.

    2012-06-01

    Stress corrosion cracking tests were conducted using Bayer solutions of different chemistry at different temperatures for extraction of alumina from bauxite ores. The validity of the commonly used caustic cracking susceptibility (CS) diagram for steels exposed to plain caustic solutions was assessed by testing the notched and precracked specimens. This study presents first results toward the development of a model susceptibility diagram for actual Bayer solutions, and for improved applicability of the traditional plain caustic diagram. For mechanistic understanding of caustic cracking, tests were also carried out under imposed electrochemical conditions.

  1. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    SciTech Connect

    Samadi, Azadeh

    2013-07-01

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  2. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2. Topical report for test circuit operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The objective of the task (Task 6) covered in this document was to operate the refurbished/modified test circuit of the Gravimeh Process in a continuous integrated manner to obtain the engineering and operational data necessary to assess the technical performance and reliability of the circuit. This data is critical to the development of this technology as a feasible means of producing premium clean burning fuels that meet New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Significant refurbishments and design modifications had been made to the facility (in particular to the vacuum filtration and evaporation units) during Tasks 1 and 2, followed by off-line testing (Task 3). Two weeks of continuous around-the-clock operation of the refurbished/modified MCL test circuit were performed. During the second week of testing, all sections of the plant were operated in an integrated fashion for an extended period of time, including a substantial number of hours of on-stream time for the vacuum filters and the caustic evaporation unit. A new process configuration was tested in which centrate from the acid wash train (without acid addition) was used as the water makeup for the water wash train, thus-eliminating the one remaining process waste water stream. A 9-inch centrifuge was tested at various solids loadings and at flow rates up to 400 lbs/hr of coal feed to obtain a twenty-fold scaleup factor over the MCL integrated test facility centrifuge performance data.

  3. MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING OF CAUSTIC CRACKING OF CARBON STEELS

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Diaz, B.; Roy, A.

    2009-10-19

    Liquid waste generated by the PUREX process for separation of nuclear materials is concentrated and stored in Type IV single-shell carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Type IV tanks for this waste do not have cooling coils and have not undergone heat treatment to stress-relieve the tanks. After the waste is concentrated by evaporation, it becomes very alkaline and can cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and pitting corrosion of the tank materials. SRS has experienced leakage from non-stress-relieved waste tanks constructed of A285 carbon steel and pitting of A212 carbon steel tanks in the vapor space. An investigation of tank materials has been undertaken at SRS to develop a basic understanding of caustic SCC of A285 and A212 grade carbon steels exposed to aqueous solutions, primarily containing sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}), and sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) at temperatures relevant to the operating conditions of both the F and H area plants. This report presents the results of this corrosion testing program. Electrochemical tests were designed using unstressed coupons in a simulated tank environment. The purpose of this testing was to determine the corrosion susceptibility of the tank materials as a function of chemical concentration, pH, and temperature. A285 and A516 (simulates A212 carbon steel) coupons were used to investigate differences in the corrosion of these carbon steels. Electrochemical testing included measurement of the corrosion potential and polarization resistance as well as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) testing of coupons. From the CPP experiments, corrosion characteristics were determined including: corrosion potential (E{sub corr}), pitting or breakdown potential (E{sub pit}), and repassivation potential (E{sub prot}). CPP results showed no indications of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and all samples showed the formation of a stable passive layer as evidenced by the positive

  4. SEEN AND UNSEEN TIDAL CAUSTICS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, R. E.; Bertschinger, E.

    2010-12-20

    Indirect detection of high-energy particles from dark matter interactions is a promising avenue for learning more about dark matter, but is hampered by the frequent coincidence of high-energy astrophysical sources of such particles with putative high-density regions of dark matter. We calculate the boost factor and gamma-ray flux from dark matter associated with two shell-like caustics of luminous tidal debris recently discovered around the Andromeda galaxy, under the assumption that dark matter is its own supersymmetric antiparticle. These shell features could be a good candidate for indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays because they are located far from the primary confusion sources at the galaxy's center, and because the shapes of the shells indicate that most of the mass has piled up near the apocenter. Using a numerical estimator specifically calibrated to estimate densities in N-body representations with sharp features and a previously determined N-body model of the shells, we find that the largest boost factors do occur in the shells but are only a few percent. We also find that the gamma-ray flux is an order of magnitude too low to be detected with Fermi for likely dark matter parameters, and about two orders of magnitude less than the signal that would have come from the dwarf galaxy that produces the shells in the N-body model. We further show that the radial density profiles and relative radial spacing of the shells, in either dark or luminous matter, is relatively insensitive to the details of the potential of the host galaxy but depends in a predictable way on the velocity dispersion of the progenitor galaxy.

  5. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) system integration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this program were to design, construct, shakedown and operate an integrated MCL test circuit to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), to test process conditions aimed at lower costs, and to deliver product coal. These objectives were met by the procurement, construction, and operation of the integrated test circuit. Shakedown and a 63-test process matrix resulted in the production of about 3,700 pounds of treated coal. Product MCL coal may be used to displace oil in some turbine and diesel engines and may be used in the retrofit of oil-fired boilers. Two high sulfur, high ash coals and one medium sulfur, high ash coal representative of the Eastern United States coal production were processed: Pittsburgh No. 8 (Powhatan No. 6 mine), Kentucky No. 9, and Pittsburgh No. 8 (Blacksville No. 2 mine). Although mild kiln operating conditions (325 to 415{degree}C and 1 to 2.3 hours residence time) and low caustic to coal ratios (1:1 to 3:1) were used, the combination of continuous operation and rigorous exclusion of air from the system allowed the production of MCL coal that had product sulfur content was well below NSPS standards, very low carbonate production, very little volatile losses, and low alkali retention by the product MCL coal. Optimization testing resulted in a product coal containing 0.2 to 0.4 percent sulfur (0.26 to 0.6 lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu) and 0.15 to 0.5 percent ash with more than 90 percent organic sulfur removal, {approximately}95 percent SO{sub 2} reduction from run-of-mine coal, {approximately}91 percent SO{sub 2} reduction from precleaned process feed coal, and with heat content of about 14,000 Btu per pound.

  6. Intergranular failures of alloy 600 in high temperature caustic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.; Roberge, R.

    1985-03-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation of two commonly observed modes of failure of Alloy 600 in high temperature caustic environment, namely, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and intergranular attack (IGA). Specimens are studied as C-rings under constant deflection, wires with and without any externally applied load, and as straining electrodes. The potential dependence of average crack propagation rate is established in a single test in which several C-rings are held at different potentials by using a modification of the static potential gradient method of Seys and Van Haute. SCC appears to be governed by a film rupture mechanism, and its propagation rate is significantly influenced by the electrochemical potential and associated surface film formation. The maximum crack propagation rate for C-rings and constant load specimens is very similar but much smaller than that calculated for a straining electrode at the same potential. IGA occurs over a wide range of potential, starting from a few multiples of ten millivolts cathodic to the corrosion potential up to the lower end of anodic potentials normally required for SCC. IGA seems to be rather independent of stress and is generally more pronounced in the crevice area under the nuts used in C-rings. Examination of several creviced coupons shows that outside the crevice, enrichment of iron and chromium occurs on the surface as the potential is raised anodically, whereas the Ni:Fe and Ni:Cr ratios remain relatively independent of potential within the crevice. It is believed that a better knowledge of the crevice chemistry and its mass transport characteristics will provide a clue to the origin and extent of IGA.

  7. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Solvent-Composition Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.

    2002-05-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected caustic-side solvent extraction as the preferred cesium removal technology for the treatment of high-level waste stored at the Savannah River Site. Data for the solubility of the extractant, calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), acquired and reported for the Salt Processing Program down-select decision, showed the original solvent composition to be supersaturated with respect to the extractant. Although solvent samples have been observed for approximately 1 year without any solids formation, work was completed to define a new solvent composition that was thermodynamically stable with respect to solids formation and to expand the operating temperature with respect to third-phase formation. Chemical and physical data as a function of solvent component concentrations were collected. The data included calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6) solubility; cesium distribution ratio under extraction, scrub, and strip conditions; flow sheet robustness; temperature range of third-phase formation; dispersion numbers for the solvent against waste simulant, scrub and strip acids, and sodium hydroxide wash solutions; solvent density; viscosity; and surface and interfacial tension. These data were mapped against a set of predefined performance criteria. The composition of 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine in the diluent Isopar{reg_sign} L provided the best match between the measured properties and the performance criteria. Therefore, it is recommended as the new baseline solvent composition.

  8. Determination of caustic surfaces using point spread function and ray Jacobian and Hessian matrices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Psang Dain

    2014-09-10

    Existing methods for determining caustic surfaces involve computing either the flux density singularity or the center of curvature of the wavefront. However, such methods rely rather heavily on ray tracing and finite difference methods for estimating the first- and second-order derivative matrices (i.e., Jacobian and Hessian matrices) of a ray. The main reason is that previously the analytical expressions of these two matrices have been tedious or even impossible. Accordingly, the present study proposes a robust numerical method for determining caustic surfaces based on a point spread function and the established analytical Jacobian and Hessian matrices of a ray by our group. It is shown that the proposed method provides a convenient and computationally straightforward means of determining the caustic surfaces of both simple and complex optical systems without the need for analytical equations, and is substantially different from the two existing methods. PMID:25321667

  9. The chemistry of sludge washing and caustic leaching processes for selected Hanford tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, B.M.; Blanchard, D.L.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Liu, J.; Lumetta, G.J.

    1996-03-01

    A broad-based study on washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges was performed in FY 1995 to gain a better understanding of the basic chemical processes that underlie this process. This approach involved testing of the baseline sludge washing and caustic leaching method on several Hanford tank sludges, and characterization of the solids both before and after testing by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A thermodynamically based model was employed to help understand the factors involved in individual specie distribution in the various stages of the sludge washing and caustic leaching treatment. The behavior of the important chemical and radiochemical components throughout the testing is summarized and reviewed in this report.

  10. A PLANETARY LENSING FEATURE IN CAUSTIC-CROSSING HIGH-MAGNIFICATION MICROLENSING EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Hwang, Kyu-Ha; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Uk E-mail: kyuha@kasi.re.kr E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2012-05-20

    Current microlensing follow-up observations focus on high-magnification events because of the high efficiency of planet detection. However, central perturbations of high-magnification events caused by a planet can also be produced by a very close or a very wide binary companion, and the two kinds of central perturbations are not generally distinguished without time consuming detailed modeling (a planet-binary degeneracy). Hence, it is important to resolve the planet-binary degeneracy that occurs in high-magnification events. In this paper, we investigate caustic-crossing high-magnification events caused by a planet and a wide binary companion. From this investigation, we find that because of the different magnification excess patterns inside the central caustics induced by the planet and the binary companion, the light curves of the caustic-crossing planetary-lensing events exhibit a feature that is discriminated from those of the caustic-crossing binary-lensing events, and the feature can be used to immediately distinguish between the planetary and binary companions. The planetary-lensing feature appears in the interpeak region between the two peaks of the caustic-crossings. The structure of the interpeak region for the planetary-lensing events is smooth and convex or boxy, whereas the structure for the binary-lensing events is smooth and concave. We also investigate the effect of a finite background source star on the planetary-lensing feature in the caustic-crossing high-magnification events. From this, we find that the convex-shaped interpeak structure appears in a certain range that changes with the mass ratio of the planet to the planet-hosting star.

  11. Clinical Spectrum and Management of Caustic Ingestion: A Case Series Presenting Three Opposing Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vezakis, Antonios I.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Sakellariou, Vasileios; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Gkiokas, Georgios; Polydorou, Andreas A.; Fragulidis, Georgios P.

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: Fenale, 77 • Female, 46 • Female, 33 Final Diagnosis: Caustic injury Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgery Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Ingestion of caustic substances is a medical emergency in both the adult and pediatric population and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The extent of injuries after ingestion of caustic substances depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. Acutely, caustic substances may cause massive hemorrhage and gastrointestinal tract perforation; the most markedly affected cases require urgent surgical treatment. Patients surviving the initial event may present with aorto-enteric or gastrocolic fistulae, esophageal strictures, dysphagia, and increased risk of esophageal cancer as long term sequelae. Case Report: The features of three cases of caustic ingestion are reported to demonstrate significantly different complaints presented at the emergency department. Two patients had free gastric perforation, one at presentation, and one delayed. The third patient presented with late severe strictures of the esophagus and pylorus. The outcomes of the three patients are discussed in detail along with the most current management strategies. Conclusions: Among adults, ingestion of caustic substances is usually associated with more severe lesions due to the increased amount of ingested substance, as compared with pediatric patients. The most serious presentation is that of visceral perforation, most commonly of the stomach and rarely of the esophagus. Management involves urgent resuscitation with correction of fluid and electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities and immediate surgical exploration in those patients with signs of perforation. Once the perioperative period is managed successfully, the long-term results can be satisfactory. Managing of strictures or else reconstructive procedures must be well timed to

  12. Generalization of the theory of far-field caustics by the catastrophe theory.

    PubMed

    Theocaris, P S; Michopoulos, J G

    1982-03-15

    To generalize the theory of far-field caustics, three theorems and several corollaries are presented in this paper. Using the law of reflection and catastrophe theory we have established conditions to predict caustic patterns in a 3-D space, which were created from the reflection of a light beam from an analytically known surface. The general theory was readily reduced to the already known cases of diffraction, indicating the validity of the general theory. Experimental evidence in two simple cases of reflectors, consisting of triangular and rectangular membranes, corroborated the results of the theory. PMID:20389809

  13. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum and iron exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K- Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  14. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Chemical and Physical Properties Progress in FY 2000 and FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, BA

    2002-04-17

    The purpose of this work was to provide chemical- and physical-property data addressing the technical risks of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process as applied specifically to the removal of cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. As part of the overall Salt Processing Project, this effort supported decision-making in regards to selecting a preferred technology among three alternatives: (1) CSSX, (2) nonelutable ion-exchange with an inorganic silicotitanate material and (3) precipitation with tetraphenylborate. High risks, innate to CSSX, that needed specific attention included: (1) chemical stability of the solvent matrix, (2) radiolytic stability of the solvent matrix, (3) proof-of-concept performance of the proposed process flowsheet with simulated waste, and (4) performance of the CSSX flowsheet with actual SRS high-level waste. This body of work directly addressed the chemical-stability risk and additionally provided supporting information that served to plan, carry out, and evaluate experiments conducted by other CSSX investigators addressing the other high risks. Information on cesium distribution in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping served as input for flowsheet design, provided a baseline for evaluating solvent performance under numerous stresses, and contributed to a broad understanding of the effects of expected process variables. In parallel, other measurements were directed toward learning how other system components distribute in the flowsheet. Such components include the solvent components themselves, constituents of the waste, and solvent-degradation products. Upon understanding which components influence flowsheet performance, it was then possible to address in a rational fashion how to clean up the solvent and maintain its stable function.

  15. 16 CFR 1500.129 - Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act. 1500.129 Section 1500.129 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.129 Substances named in...

  16. Unmodified versus caustics-impregnated carbons for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions from sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bandosz, T.J.; Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Turk, A.

    2000-03-15

    Unmodified and caustic-impregnated carbons were compared as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide in the North River Water Pollution Control Plant in New York City over a period of 2 years. The carbons were characterized using accelerated H{sub 2}S breakthrough capacity tests, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, and thermal analysis. The accelerated laboratory tests indicate that the initial capacity of caustic-impregnated carbons exceeds that of unmodified carbon, but the nature of real-life challenge streams, particularly their lower H{sub 2}S concentrations, nullifies this advantage. As the caustic content of the impregnated carbon is consumed, the situation reverses, and the unmodified carbon becomes more effective. When the concentration of H{sub 2}S is low, the developed surface area and pore volume along with the affinity to retain water create a favorable environment for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen sulfide and its oxidation to elemental sulfur, S{sup 4+}, and S{sup 6+}. In the case of the caustic carbon, the catalytic impact of the carbon surface is limited, and its good performance lasts only while active base is present. The results also show the significant differences in performance of unmodified carbons due to combined effects of their porosity and surface chemistry.

  17. Caustics of 1/rn binary gravitational lenses: from galactic haloes to exotic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, V.; Melchiorre, C.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the caustic topologies for binary gravitational lenses made up of two objects whose gravitational potential declines as 1/rn. With n<1 this corresponds to power-law dust distributions like the singular isothermal sphere. The n>1 regime can be obtained with some violations of the energy conditions, one famous example being the Ellis wormhole. Gravitational lensing provides a natural arena to distinguish and identify such exotic objects in our Universe. We find that there are still three topologies for caustics as in the standard Schwarzschild binary lens, with the main novelty coming from the secondary caustics of the close topology, which become huge at higher n. After drawing caustics by numerical methods, we derive a large amount of analytical formulae in all limits that are useful to provide deeper insight in the mathematics of the problem. Our study is useful to better understand the phenomenology of galaxy lensing in clusters as well as the distinct signatures of exotic matter in complex systems.

  18. Chemical cleaning of coal by molten caustic leaching after pretreatment by low-temperature devolatilization

    DOEpatents

    Chriswell, Colin D.; Kaushik, Surender M.; Shah, Navin D.; Markuszewski, Richard

    1989-08-22

    Pretreatment of coal by devolatization at temperatures ranging from about 420.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for from about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes before leaching with molten caustic leads to a significant reduction in carbonate formation, greatly reducing the cost of cleaning coal on a per ton basis.

  19. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us. PMID:27424019

  20. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  1. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  2. Caustic leaching of composite AZ-101/AZ-102 Hanford tank sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, B.M.; Wagner, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    To reduce the quantity (and hence the cost) of glass canisters needed for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes from the Hanford tank farms, pretreatment processes are needed to remove as much nonradioactive material as possible. This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale caustic leaching test performed on a composite derived from a combination of 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 Hanford Tank sludges. The goals of this FY 1996 test were to evaluate the effectiveness of caustic leaching on removing key components from the sludge and to evaluate the effectiveness of varying the free-hydroxide concentrations by incrementally increasing the free hydroxide concentration of the leach steps up to 3 {und M} free hydroxide. Particle-size analysis of the treated and untreated sludge indicated that the size and range of the sludge particles remained essentially unchanged by the caustic leaching treatment. Both before and after caustic leaching, a particle range of 0.2 {micro}m to 50 {micro}m was observed, with mean particle diameters of 8.5 to 9 {micro}m based on the volume distribution and mean particle diameters of 0.3 to 0.4 {micro}m based on the number distribution.

  3. Analysis of Copper in the In-Tank Precipitation Process Caustic Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tovo, L.L.; Boyce, W.T.

    1996-12-12

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) procedures for measuring Cu in In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) caustic samples have been tested and implemented in the Analytical Development Section at the Savannah River Technology Center.

  4. Clinical Spectrum and Management of Caustic Ingestion: A Case Series Presenting Three Opposing Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vezakis, Antonios I; Pantiora, Eirini V; Kontis, Elissaios A; Sakellariou, Vasileios; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Gkiokas, Georgios; Polydorou, Andreas A; Fragulidis, Georgios P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ingestion of caustic substances is a medical emergency in both the adult and pediatric population and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The extent of injuries after ingestion of caustic substances depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. Acutely, caustic substances may cause massive hemorrhage and gastrointestinal tract perforation; the most markedly affected cases require urgent surgical treatment. Patients surviving the initial event may present with aorto-enteric or gastrocolic fistulae, esophageal strictures, dysphagia, and increased risk of esophageal cancer as long term sequelae. CASE REPORT The features of three cases of caustic ingestion are reported to demonstrate significantly different complaints presented at the emergency department. Two patients had free gastric perforation, one at presentation, and one delayed. The third patient presented with late severe strictures of the esophagus and pylorus. The outcomes of the three patients are discussed in detail along with the most current management strategies. CONCLUSIONS Among adults, ingestion of caustic substances is usually associated with more severe lesions due to the increased amount of ingested substance, as compared with pediatric patients. The most serious presentation is that of visceral perforation, most commonly of the stomach and rarely of the esophagus. Management involves urgent resuscitation with correction of fluid and electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities and immediate surgical exploration in those patients with signs of perforation. Once the perioperative period is managed successfully, the long-term results can be satisfactory. Managing of strictures or else reconstructive procedures must be well timed to allow for psychological and nutritional rehabilitation. PMID:27197994

  5. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  6. Role of microstructure in caustic stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 690

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, D.A.; Duda, P.T.; Pica, P.N.; Spahr, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Alloy 690 has been selected for nuclear heat transport system tubing application in recent commercial reactor plants due to its resistance to multiple types of corrosion attack. Typical corn final heat treatments for this material are a mill-anneal (MA, approximately 1,070 C) to completely dissolve the carbides and develop the final grain structure plus a thermal treatment (TT, approximately 700 C) to precipitate carbides at the grain boundaries. Tubing with grain boundary carbides and no or few intragranular carbides has been found resistant to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in caustic environments. In this work, first, Alloy 690 plate was subjected to a variety of MA and MA-TT heat treatments to create microstructures of carbide-decorated grain boundaries and undecorated boundaries. Caustic IGSCC test results were consistent with tubing data. Second, experiments were conducted to understand the mechanism by which caustic-corrosion resistance is imparted to Alloy 690 by grain boundary carbides. Tubing with a fully-developed MA-TT carbide microstructure was strained and heat-treated to create a mixed microstructure of new grain boundaries with no carbide precipitate decoration, intermixed with intragranular carbide strings from prior grain boundaries. Caustic SCC performance of this material was identical to that of material with the MA-TT carbide-decorated grain boundaries. This work suggests that the fundamental cause of good IGSCC resistance of MA-TT Alloy 690 in caustic does not derive solely from grain boundary carbides. It is suggested that matrix strength, as measured by yield stress, could be a controlling factor.

  7. The point-characteristic function, wavefronts, and caustic of a spherical wave refracted by an arbitrary smooth surface.

    PubMed

    Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Navarro-Morales, Esperanza; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Santiago, José Guadalupe; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Suárez-Xique, Román

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to obtain expressions for the k-function, the wavefront train, and the caustic associated with the light rays refracted by an arbitrary smooth surface after being emitted by a point light source located at an arbitrary position in a three-dimensional homogeneous optical medium. The general results are applied to a parabolic refracting surface. For this case, we find that when the point light source is off the optical axis, the caustic locally has singularities of the hyperbolic umbilic type, while the refracted wavefront, at the caustic region, locally has singularities of the cusp ridge and swallowtail types. PMID:22673435

  8. High-frequency expression for the field in the caustic region of a cylindrical reflector using Maslov's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, Kohei; Ji, Yu

    1987-06-01

    High-frequency expressions in the caustic region are derived for the wave reflected by a circular and a parabolic cylindrical reflector using Maslov's method when a plane wave is incident obliquely. Maslov's method is a systematic procedure for predicting the field in the caustic region combining the simplicity of ray and generality of the transform method. Numerical computations are made for the field pattern around the caustic or cusp region and the variation of peak positions of the reflected field with respect to the incident angle.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

    2011-11-29

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Sample Treatment in a Fully Automated Flow-Based Instrument: Oxidation of Reduced Technetium Species in the Analysis of Total Technetium-99 in Caustic Aged Nuclear Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2004-07-15

    An automated flow-based instrument for microwave-assisted treatment of liquid samples has been developed and characterized. The instrument utilizes a flow-through reaction vessel design that facilitates the addition of multiple reagents during sample treatment, removal of the gaseous reaction products, and enables quantitative removal of liquids from the reaction vessel for carryover-free operations. Matrix modification and speciation control chemistries that are required for the radiochemical determination of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste samples have been investigated. A rapid and quantitative oxidation procedure using peroxydisulfate in acidic solution was developed to convert reduced technetium species to pertechnetate in samples with high content of reducing organics. The effectiveness of the automated sample treatment procedures has been validated in the radiochemical analysis of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste matrixes from the Hanford site.

  11. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-10-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

  12. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  13. Monitoring caustic injuries from emergency department databases using automatic keyword recognition software

    PubMed Central

    Vignally, P.; Fondi, G.; Taggi, F.; Pitidis, A.; National Injury Database and National Information System on Accidents in the Home Surveillance Groups

    2011-01-01

    Summary In Italy the European Union Injury Database reports the involvement of chemical products in 0.9% of home and leisure accidents. The Emergency Department registry on domestic accidents in Italy and the Poison Control Centres record that 90% of cases of exposure to toxic substances occur in the home. It is not rare for the effects of chemical agents to be observed in hospitals, with a high potential risk of damage - the rate of this cause of hospital admission is double the domestic injury average. The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of injuries caused by caustic agents in Italy using automatic free-text recognition in Emergency Department medical databases. We created a Stata software program to automatically identify caustic or corrosive injury cases using an agent-specific list of keywords. We focused attention on the procedure’s sensitivity and specificity. Ten hospitals in six regions of Italy participated in the study. The program identified 112 cases of injury by caustic or corrosive agents. Checking the cases by quality controls (based on manual reading of ED reports), we assessed 99 cases as true positive, i.e. 88.4% of the patients were automatically recognized by the software as being affected by caustic substances (99% CI: 80.6%- 96.2%), that is to say 0.59% (99% CI: 0.45%-0.76%) of the whole sample of home injuries, a value almost three times as high as that expected (p < 0.0001) from European codified information. False positives were 11.6% of the recognized cases (99% CI: 5.1%- 21.5%). Our automatic procedure for caustic agent identification proved to have excellent product recognition capacity with an acceptable level of excess sensitivity. Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, the automatic recognition system provided a level of identification of agents possessing caustic effects that was significantly much greater than was predictable on the basis of the values from current codifications reported in the European Database. PMID

  14. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Partitioning of PCBs in Dissolver Solution After Neutralization/Precipitation (Caustic Adjustment)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Hoppe, E.W.; Mong, G.M.; Silvers, K.L.; Slate, S.O.

    1999-01-04

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to gain a better understanding of how PCB congeners present in a simulated K Basin sludge dissolver solution will partition upon neutralization and precipitation (i.e., caustic adjustment). In a previous study (Mong et al. 1998),the entire series of sludge conditioning steps (acid dissolution, filtration, and caustic adjustment) were examined during integrated testing. In the work described here, the caustic adjustment step was isolated to examine the fate of PCBs in more detail within this processing step. For this testing, solutions of dissolver simulant (containing no solids) with a known initial concentration of PCB congeners were neutralized with caustic to generate a clarified supernatant and a settled sludge phase. PCBs were quantified in each phase (including the PCBs associated with the test vessel rinsates), and material balance information was collected.

  15. Influence of the orthotropy of the ductile materials and the stress-assisted diffusion on the caustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, George A.

    1991-12-01

    The optical method of reflected caustics has been applied to various elastic problems containing singularities and especially to problems with cracked plates from isotropic materials. In this paper the influence of the stress-assisted diffusion is studied. Around the crack tip, a core region is developed by the stress-assisted diffusion. This core region is a strongly brittle area that depends on the sum of the principle stresses at the crack tip and on phenomenological coefficients. So, this core region influences the initial curve of the caustic and, consequently, the shape and size of the caustic. Also, the effect of line-plastic zones developed ahead of crack tip in orthotopic plates on the shape and size of reflected caustics is discussed.

  16. Asymptotic evaluation of high-frequency fields near a caustic - An introduction to Maslov's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, R. W.; Deschamps, G. A.

    1984-08-01

    Methods attributable in part to Maslov that can be applied to evaluate the field near a caustic where geometrical optics (GO) fail are discussed. Geometrical optics is briefly reviewed and applied to two examples: plane wave propagation in a linear layer medium and propagation near a cusp caustic in a homogeneous medium. The phase space approach to GO is discussed. Hamilton's equations and the associated flow, the Lagrangian submanifold, and amplitude half-densities are introduced, and their connection with standard GO quantities is shown. The canonical operator and the resultant representation of the field are defined. Two alternate descriptions of that representation are given, and Maslov's method is applied to the aforementioned examples. The major elements of Maslov's approach are summarized.

  17. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and total organic halogens exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  18. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, and parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During fourth quarter 1992, a sample from well PAC 6 exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Iron and manganese each exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 2, 5, and 6. No analytes exceeded the final PDWS in wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during 1992.

  19. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, first quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report. No constituent exceeded the PDWS in the PAC wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin and no wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard during first quarter 1992. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6; iron exceeded the Flag 2 Criterion in Wells PAC 2, 5, and 6; and manganese exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 5 and 6.

  20. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Samples from piezometer FAC 5P were analyzed only for volatile organic compounds. Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha and nonvolatile beta exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, radium-226, and total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  1. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum and iron exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  2. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the seven KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report. No constituent exceeded the PDWS in the KAC wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during first quarter 1992. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6, and 7, and iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 6. Well KAC 2 was the only well in the KAC well series to exceed the SRS turbidity standard.

  3. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, are discussed in this report. Sulfate exceeded the PDWS in well PAC 5 at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin. No wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard during second quarter 1992. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well PAC 1; iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 1, 2, and 6; and manganese exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 2, 5, and 6.

  4. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During third quarter 1994, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in all six PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while turbidity was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  5. Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt

    1998-12-11

    Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

  6. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  7. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), or Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria such as the SRS turbidity standard (50 NTU) are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum and iron exceeded SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  8. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, adionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During first quarter 1995, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in all six PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while turbidity was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  9. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria such as the SRS turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During second quarter 1995, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in four of the six PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells (PAC 2, 5, and 6). Radium-228 exceeded Level 2 Flagging Criteria in one well (PAC 2); however this was an estimated value because quantitation in the sample did not meet specifications. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  10. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples from the KAC-monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, of the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum, iron, and specific conductance exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Total organic halogens was elevated in upgradient well KAC 3. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  11. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, radium-226, radium-228, turbidity, and comprehensive constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During second quarter 1994, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in five PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while specific conductance was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  12. Two-Pole Caustic Model for High-Energy Lightcurves of Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyks, J.; Rudak, B.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new model of high-energy lightcurves from rotation powered pulsars. The key ingredient of the model is the gap region (i.e. the region where particle acceleration is taking place and high-energy photons originate) which satisfies the following assumptions: i) the gap region extends from each polar cap to the light cylinder; ii) the gap is thin and confined to the surface of last open magnetic-field lines; iii) photon emissivity is uniform within the gap region. The model lightcurves are dominated by strong peaks (either double or single) of caustic origin. Unlike in other pulsar models with caustic effects, the double peaks arise due to crossing two caustics, each of which is associated with a different magnetic pole. The generic features of the lightcurves are consistent with the observed characteristics of pulsar lightcurves: 1) the most natural (in terms of probability) shape consists of two peaks (separated by 0.4 to 0.5 in phase for large viewing angles); 2) the peaks possess well developed wings; 3) there is a bridge (inter-peak) emission component; 4) there is a non-vanishing off-pulse emission level; 5) the radio pulse occurs before the leading high-energy peak. The model is well suited for four gamma-ray pulsars - Crab, Vela, Geminga and B1951+32 - with double-peak lightcurves exhibiting the peak separation of 0.4 to 0.5 in phase. Hereby, we apply the model to the Vela pulsar. Moreover, we indicate the limitation of the model in accurate reproducing of the lightcurves with single pulses and narrowly separated (about 0.2 in phase) pulse peaks. We also discuss the optical polarization properties for the Crab pulsar in the context of the two-pole caustic model.

  13. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for indicator parameters, turbidity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, with summary results for the year, are presented in this report.

  14. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report.

  15. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  16. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, and parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  17. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, and parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  18. Bound soda incorporation during hydrate precipitation -- Effects of caustic, temperature and organics

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, L.; Hunter, J.; McCormick, K.; Warren, H.

    1996-10-01

    Soda is incorporated into aluminum tri-hydroxide (hydrate) during the precipitation stage of the Bayer Process. A review of literature shows the predominant effect is alumina supersaturation. This research extends the literature by quantifying the secondary effects of temperature, caustic and organics on soda incorporation beyond the primary effect through alumina supersaturation. This work advances industry knowledge towards better control of soda incorporation in the refinery in the pursuit of higher and more consistent product quality for smelter grade alumina.

  19. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  20. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  1. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  2. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994, Groundwater Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-12-22

    During fourth quarter 1994, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P was dry and could not be sampled. New monitoring wells FAC 9C, 10C, 11C, and 12C were sampled for the first time during third quarter.

  3. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  4. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  5. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, major ions, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during fourth quarter are the focus of this report.

  6. The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in caustic esophagus injury: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kantarcioglu, Murat; Caliskan, Bahadir; Demirci, Hakan; Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Kekilli, Murat; Polat, Zulfikar; Gunal, Armagan; Akinci, Melih; Uysal, Cagri; Eksert, Sami; Gurel, Hasan; Celebi, Gurkan; Avcu, Ferit; Ural, Ali Ugur; Bagci, Sait

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Ingestion of corrosive substances may lead to stricture formation in esophagus as a late complication. Full thickness injury seems to exterminate tissue stem cells of esophagus. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into specific cell lineages and have the capacity of homing in sites of injury. Aim and Methods. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of MSC transplantation, on prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after caustic esophagus injury in rats. 54 rats were allocated into four groups; 4 rats were sacrificed for MSC production. Group 1, untreated controls (n: 10). Group 2, membrane labeled MSCs-treated rats (n: 20). Group 3, biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose labeled MSCs via positron emission tomography (PET) imaging (n: 10). Group 4, sham operated (n: 10). Standard caustic esophageal burns were created and MSCs were transplanted 24 hours after. All rats were sacrificed at the 21st days. Results. PET scan images revealed the homing behavior of MSCs to the injury site. The histopathology damage score was not significantly different from controls. However, we demonstrated Dil labeled epithelial and muscle cells which were originating from transplanted MSCs. Conclusion. MSC transplantation after caustic esophageal injury may be a helpful treatment modality; however, probably repeated infusions are needed. PMID:24876849

  7. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for indicator parameters, turbidity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, with summary results for the year, are presented in this report. No constituents exceeded the PDWS at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin. Iron and total organic halogens exceeded Flag 2 criteria in sidegradient-to-downgradient well KAC 7 but not in other KAC wells. No priority pollutants (EPA, 1990) exceeded the PDWS or the Flag 2 criteria in wells KAC 1 and 3. None of the KAC wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well KAC 7 during first quarter. No other constituent exceeded the PDWS at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during the year.

  8. The Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Caustic Esophagus Injury: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Kantarcioglu, Murat; Caliskan, Bahadir; Demirci, Hakan; Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Kekilli, Murat; Polat, Zulfikar; Gunal, Armagan; Akinci, Melih; Uysal, Cagri; Eksert, Sami; Gurel, Hasan; Celebi, Gurkan; Avcu, Ferit; Ural, Ali Ugur; Bagci, Sait

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Ingestion of corrosive substances may lead to stricture formation in esophagus as a late complication. Full thickness injury seems to exterminate tissue stem cells of esophagus. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into specific cell lineages and have the capacity of homing in sites of injury. Aim and Methods. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of MSC transplantation, on prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after caustic esophagus injury in rats. 54 rats were allocated into four groups; 4 rats were sacrificed for MSC production. Group 1, untreated controls (n: 10). Group 2, membrane labeled MSCs-treated rats (n: 20). Group 3, biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose labeled MSCs via positron emission tomography (PET) imaging (n: 10). Group 4, sham operated (n: 10). Standard caustic esophageal burns were created and MSCs were transplanted 24 hours after. All rats were sacrificed at the 21st days. Results. PET scan images revealed the homing behavior of MSCs to the injury site. The histopathology damage score was not significantly different from controls. However, we demonstrated Dil labeled epithelial and muscle cells which were originating from transplanted MSCs. Conclusion. MSC transplantation after caustic esophageal injury may be a helpful treatment modality; however, probably repeated infusions are needed. PMID:24876849

  9. [Caustic stenosis of the esophagus in Libreville. Results of the surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Ondo N'Dong, F; Eyamame, D; Makaya, J; Mabamba, C; Aldunate, R S; Mbumbe King, A; Bellamy, J; Diane, C

    1992-04-01

    41 cases of caustic stenosis of the oesophagus were treated surgically by the thoracic and visceral surgical teams of La Fodation Jeanne Ebori and L'Hopital Pédiatrique d'Owendo in Libreville. The lesions were due to bleach ingestion in 38 cases, caustic soda in 2 cases and sulfuric acid in 1 case. Ingestion was an accident in 29 cases and voluntary in 12. There were 32 men and 9 women. Among them, there were 32 infants and 9 adults. The mean age was 4.5 years for the infants and 25 years for the adults. The surgical procedures were gastrostomy, followed by dilatations of the stenosis in 19 cases, esophagoplasty using the stomach, with pyloroplasty and jejunostomy in 4 cases, and gastrostomy associated with esophagoplasty using the colon in 18 cases. Mortality rate was 2.4%. It was about 1 patient, from general causes. Cervical or thoracic fistulae occurred in 4 patients, all of them successfully treated by medical means, and 3 patients had regressive pulmonary infections. The mean follow-up was 4 years, with good results. The authors suggest a surgical attitude in the management of caustic stenosis, every time the medical management is unsuccessfull. PMID:1527196

  10. Gravitational microlensing - Powerful combination of ray-shooting and parametric representation of caustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambsganss, J.; Witt, H. J.; Schneider, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present a combination of two very different methods for numerically calculating the effects of gravitational microlensing: the backward-ray-tracing that results in two-dimensional magnification patterns, and the parametric representation of caustic lines; they are in a way complementary to each other. The combination of these methods is much more powerful than the sum of its parts. It allows to determine the total magnification and the number of microimages as a function of source position. The mean number of microimages is calculated analytically and compared to the numerical results. The peaks in the lightcurves, as obtained from one-dimensional tracks through the magnification pattern, can now be divided into two groups: those which correspond to a source crossing a caustic, and those which are due to sources passing outside cusps. We determine the frequencies of those two types of events as a function of the surface mass density, and the probability distributions of their magnitudes. We find that for low surface mass density as many as 40 percent of all events in a lightcurve are not due to caustic crossings, but rather due to passings outside cusps.

  11. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

    1997-08-01

    The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

  12. FACILITY UPGRADES FOR RECEIPT FROM ACTINIDE REMOVAL AND MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T; Stephen Phillips, S; Benjamin Culbertson, B; Beverly02 Davis, B; Aaron Staub, A

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently on an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). As a part of that program, two new processes will be brought on-line to assist in emptying the HLW tanks. These processes are in addition to the current sludge removal process and are called the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Process. In order to accept and process the streams generated from these two new processes, several facility modifications are required and are broken down into several projects. These projects are handling the facility modifications required for the Tank Farm (241-96H), and DWPF vitrification facility (221-S), and DWPF ancillary facilities (511-S, and 512-S). Additional modifications to the 221-S building were required to address the flammability concern from the solvent carryover from the MCU process. This paper will describe a summary of the modifications impacting the 511-S, 512-S, and the 221-S facilities in order to receive the new streams from the ARP and MCU processes at the DWPF.

  13. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  14. Caustic ingestion in adults: The role of endoscopic classification in predicting outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hao-Tsai; Cheng, Chi-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Chu, Yin-Yi; Liu, Nai-Jen; Chen, Pang-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Background The ingestion of caustic substances induces an extensive spectrum of injuries to the aerodigestive tract which include extensive necrosis and perforation of the esophagus and stomach. The gold standard of safely assessing depth, extent of injury, and appropriate therapeutic regimen is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The objective of this study was to report our clinical experience and to evaluate the role of a 6-point EGD classification system of injury in predicting outcomes in adult patients diagnosed with caustic agent ingestion. Methods The study was a retrospective medical chart review from 273 patients admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Tao-Yuan, Taiwan between June 1999 and July 2006 for treatment of caustic ingestion. The patients underwent EGD within 24 hours of admission and mucosal damage was graded using Zagar's modified endoscopic classification scheme. After treatment, patients were followed in the outpatient clinic for a minimum of 6 months. Results A total of 273 patients were included for analysis. Grade 3b injury was the most common caustic injury (n = 82, 30.03%), followed by grade 2b injuries (n = 62, 22.71%). Stricture was the most common complication (n = 66, 24.18%), followed by aspiration pneumonia (n = 31, 11.36%), and respiratory failure (n = 21, 7.69%). Compared to grade 3a mucosal injury, grade 3b mucosal injuries were at greater risk of prolonged hospital stay (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–4.80), ICU admission (OR: 10.82; 95% CI: 2.05–200.39), and gastrointestinal (OR: 4.15; 95% CI: 1.55–13.29) and systemic complications (OR: 4.07; 95% CI: 1.81–14.07). Conclusion In patients with caustic ingestion, EGD should be performed within 12 to 24 hours and categorized according to a 6-point scale. Patients with grade 3b burns identified on endoscopy have high rates of morbidity. The 6-point scale is useful for predicting immediate and long-term complications, and guiding appropriate

  15. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  16. A study of the electrochemical behavior in tungsten and caustic solutions and platinum/iridium in chloride solutions, informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Vitus, C.M.; Isaacs, H.S.; Schroeder, V.

    1994-11-22

    Platinum/iridium and tungsten wires were electronically etched in chloride and caustic solution, respectively, to produce tips with high aspect ratio. A direct relationship between the meniscus and the aspect ratio of etched tips was established. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that higher aspect ratios were obtained by changing the geometry of the meniscus during the etch either by an increase in the applied a.c. voltage or with the addition of a nonpolar layer above the electrolytic solution during the etching process. Above the breakdown voltage, two possible mechanisms appeared to control the etching process by expediting chemical dissolution: cavitation and sparking. Cavitation caused erosion due to the force of evolved gases against the electrode and sparking attacked the surface by vaporizing the metal. Sparking commenced on both wires near 24V. This voltage corresponded to a minimum in the plot of total etch time versus voltage. From light emission studies, sparking on Pt/Ir was associated with the ionization of Pt, Ir, Ca, and Cl. A compositional analysis of insoluble black particles produced during a.c. and d.c. etching of Pt/Ir revealed Pt and Ir as the major constituents of the product. The sparking process was shown to have a potential use in micromachining.

  17. Consequence analysis of an unmitigated NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    Toxicological consequences were calculated for a postulated maximum caustic soda (NaOH) solution spray leak during addition to a waste tank to adjust tank pH. Although onsite risk guidelines were exceeded for the unmitigated release, site boundary consequences were below the level of concern. Means of mitigating the release so as to greatly reduce the onsite consequences were recommended.

  18. Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking of S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel in Caustic Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Ananya; Singh, Preet M.

    2009-06-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) have generally performed very well in caustic environments. However, some corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DSSs have been reported in different pulp mill environments employing caustic solutions. Studies have shown that the corrosion and SCC susceptibility of DSSs depend on the alloy composition and microstructure of the steel. In this study, the effect of a sulfide-containing caustic environment (pulping liquor) and material properties (DSS alloy composition and microstructure) on the corrosion and SCC of DSSs was evaluated. During metal fabrication processes, localized areas of DSSs may be exposed to different temperatures and cooling rates, which may lead to changes in the microstructure in these regions. This change in microstructure, in turn, may affect the general and localized corrosion or SCC susceptibility of the affected area as compared to the rest of the metal. Hence, the effect of different annealing and aging temperatures as well as cooling rates on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of S32205 DSSs in caustic environment was evaluated. The results showed that changes in the microstructure of S32205 DSSs due to selected heat treatments did not have a significant effect on the general corrosion susceptibility of the steel in caustic environment, but its SCC susceptibility varied with changes in microstructures.

  19. Ingested cylindrical batteries in an incarcerated male: a caustic tale!

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Louise; Maatouk, Mohamed; Raja, Mazhar; O'Hara, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old incarcerated man presented to the accident and emergency department following the deliberate ingestion of eight cylindrical batteries. He also admitted to inserting a razor blade wrapped in cling-film into his rectum; in addition, he sustained a self-inflicted laceration to his left antecubital fossa, using the metal casing from a battery. His medical history included a borderline and emotionally unstable personality disorder. He had ingested several batteries 12 months previously and required an emergency laparotomy to retrieve them. On the present admission, as there was no clinical evidence of small bowel obstruction, he was treated conservatively with serial radiographs. Following conservative management, the batteries failed to progress through the gastrointestinal tract, hence a laparotomy was performed and all the batteries were extricated. This paper discusses the management and associated sequelae of patients presenting following the intentional ingestion of a battery. PMID:26420691

  20. Resolving the inner structure of QSO discs through fold-caustic-crossing events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolmasov, P.; Shakura, N. I.

    2012-06-01

    Although the bulk of the observed optical flux from the discs of intermediate-redshift lensed quasars is formed well outside the region of strong relativistic boosting and light bending, relativistic effects have an important influence on microlensing curves. The reason lies in the divergent nature of amplification factors near fold caustics, which are increasingly sensitive to small spatial size details. Higher-order disc images produced by strong light bending around the black hole may affect the amplification curves, making a contribution of up to several per cent near maximum amplification. In accordance with theoretical predictions, some of the observed high-amplification events possess fine structure. Here we consider three putative caustic-crossing events, one by SBS J1520+530 and two events for individual images of Einstein's cross (QSO J2237+0305). Using relativistic disc models allows us to improve the fits but the required inclinations are high, ?. Such high inclinations apparently contradict the absence of any strong absorption that is likely to arise if a disc is observed edge-on through a dust torus. Still, high inclinations are required only for the central parts of the disc, which allows the disc itself initially to be tilted by 60-90° with respect to the black hole and aligned toward the black hole equatorial plane near the last stable orbit radius. For SBS J1520+530, an alternative explanation for the observed amplification curve is a superposition of two subsequent fold-caustic crossings. While relativistic disc models favour black hole masses ˜1010 M⊙ (several times higher than the virial estimates) or small Eddington ratios, this model is consistent with the observed distribution of galaxies over peculiar velocities only if the black hole mass is ?.

  1. Characterization of solids deposited on the modular caustic-side solvent extraction unit (MCU) coalescer media removed in May and October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2015-10-01

    During routine maintenance, the coalescers utilized in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing of Salt Batch 6 and a portion of Salt Batch 7 were sampled and submitted to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization, for the purpose of identifying solid phase constituents that may be accumulating in these coalescers. Specifically, two samples were received and characterized: A decontaminated salt solution (DSS) coalescer sample and a strip effluent (SE) coalescer sample. Aliquots of the samples were analyzed by XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, SEM, and EDS. Other aliquots of the samples were leached in acid solution, and the leachates were analyzed by ICP-AES. In addition, modeling was performed to provide a basis for comparison of the analytical results.

  2. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) System Integration Project. Topical report for test circuit operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This is a report of the results obtained from the operation of an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The objectives of operational testing of the 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit are: (1) to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); (2) to determine the range of effective process operation; (3) to test process conditions aimed at significantly lower costs; and (4) to deliver product coal.

  3. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  4. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  5. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the seven older KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, and other constituents. New wells FAC 8 and 9 received the first of four quarters of comprehensive analyses and GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  6. K-Area acid/caustic basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum, iron, total organic halogens, and turbidity exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. The upgradient KAC wells contained no elevated constituents.

  7. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameter, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. New wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  8. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During fourth quarter 1993, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum and iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in five wells. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in three wells, while specific conductance exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in one well.

  9. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameter, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. New wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  10. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOEpatents

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  11. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During first quarter 1994, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in all six PAC wells. Iron exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in four wells, while manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in three wells.

  12. Tracheoplasty With Use of an Intercostal Muscle Flap for Caustic Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Naamee, Adel; Galvaing, Geraud; Chadeyras, Jean Baptiste; Farhat, Mehdi; Page, Jean Philippe; Bony-Collangettes, Estelle; Tardy, Marie M; Filaire, Marc

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of intercostal muscle flap used in tracheobronchial reconstruction for extensive necrosis after burn lesions of the posterior wall. A 32-year-old man attempted suicide by ingestion of caustic material. He underwent emergency total esogastrectomy, tracheostomy, and feeding jejunostomy. Ten days later, endoscopy showed complete destruction of the membranous trachea, extending from the tracheostomy to the carina. Reconstruction was conducted with the patient under venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by use of a pedicled intercostal muscle flap. The patient was weaned from respiratory support on the 14th postoperative day. Examination of a biopsy specimen from the flap 7 months after tracheoplasty showed ciliated neoepithelium. PMID:26522573

  13. Methane production and solids destruction in an anaerobic solid waste reactor due to post-reactor caustic and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Distefano, T D; Ambulkar, A

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of caustic and heat treatment of sludge from a dry anaerobic reactor (DAR) with respect to increased methane production and solids destruction. The DAR was operated semi-continuously at 55 degrees C on sized-reduced municipal solid waste at a solids retention time of 15 days. A respirometer was employed to monitor the extent and rate of methane production from anaerobic biodegradation of DAR sludge that was treated with caustic and heat. Results indicate that caustic and heat treatment at 50 degrees C and 175 degrees C increased methane production by 22% and 52%, respectively. Also, volatile solids destruction increased from 46% to 58% and 83%, respectively. Based on these results, economic analysis for a full-scale 10(5) kg/d facility suggests that annual project revenue for 50 degrees C and 175 degrees C treatment is estimated at $21,000 and $445,000, respectively. PMID:16784187

  14. The magnification of stars crossing a caustic. I - Lenses with smooth potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    1991-01-01

    The possibility is explored of observing highly magnified images of individual stars within the long arcs that have been observed in rich clusters of galaxies. These images appear when a star crosses a caustic of the cluster's potential. When the cluster mass is distributed smoothly, the maximum magnification reached is typically of the order of 10 to the 7th. The star's image appears suddenly and reaches the maximum magnification in a few hours; then the magnification decreases slowly as the inverse of the square root of the time. This can also occur in the reverse order in time. For typical arcs, stars with bolometric luminosities of around 300 solar luminosities reach a maximum visual apparent magnitude of about 25. If brighter events are detected, the rate of detection is of the order of one every five years, for every arc intersecting a caustic. If the source galaxy is forming stars with a Saltpeter IMF, the probability that a 30-solar-mass star is magnified to a magnitude of 28 at any time is of the order of 20 percent.

  15. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-02-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource.

  16. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. New monitoring wells FAC 9C, 10C, 11C, and 12C were sampled for the first time during third quarter. Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in wells FAC 3 and 10C. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  17. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses (exclusive of boron and lithium) and turbidity measurements. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during second quarter 1994. Carbon tetrachloride exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 3. Specific conductance and total organic halogens were elevated in well HAC 2. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Groundwater flow direction in the water stable beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the west during second quarter 1994. During previous quarters, the groundwater flow direction has been consistently to the northwest or the north-northwest. This apparent change in flow direction may be attributed to the lack of water elevations for wells HTF 16 and 17 and the anomalous water elevations for well HAC 2 during second quarter.

  18. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource. PMID:26848031

  19. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource. PMID:26848031

  20. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. New monitoring wells FAC 9C, 10C, 11C, and 12C were completed in the Barnwell/McBean aquifer and were sampled for the first time during third quarter 1994 (first quarter 1995 is the third of four quarters of data required to support the closure of the basin). Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard (50 NTU) in wells FAC 3 and 11C. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  1. Microbial Fuel Cell-driven caustic potash production from wastewater for carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Santoro, Carlo; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on the novel formation of caustic potash (KOH) directly on the MFC cathode locking carbon dioxide into potassium bicarbonate salt (kalicinite) while producing, instead of consuming electrical power. Using potassium-rich wastewater as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber, has resulted in the formation of caustic catholyte directly on the surface of the cathode electrode. Analysis of this liquid has shown to be highly alkaline (pH>13) and act as a CO2 sorbent. It has been later mineralised to kalicinite thus locking carbon dioxide into potassium bicarbonate salt. This work demonstrates an electricity generation method as a simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly route towards CO2 sequestration that perhaps leads to a carbon negative economy. Moreover, it shows a potential application for both electricity production and nutrient recovery in the form of minerals from nutrient-rich wastewater streams such as urine for use as fertiliser in the future. PMID:27133363

  2. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The six monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin are sampled quarterly as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the terms of a consent decree signed May 26, 1988, by the US District Court (District of South Carolina, Aiken Division). During second quarter 1993, samples from the monitoring wells were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria or turbidity standard are discussed in this report. During second quarter 1993, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS in wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin. Aluminum exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Iron and manganese each exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 2, 3, 5, and 6. Lead was elevated above its Flag 2 criterion in well PAC 5, and radium-228 was above its proposed DWS (Flag 2) in wells PAC 3 and 6. Radium-228 results that exceeded nonvolatile beta activities were reported in these and other wells.

  3. CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    2010-01-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) is the first, production-scale Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction process for cesium separation to be constructed. The process utilizes an engineered solvent to remove cesium from waste alkaline salt solution resulting from nuclear processes. While the application of this solvent extraction process is unique, the process uses commercially available centrifugal contactors for the primary unit operation as well as other common methods of physical separation of immiscible liquids. The fission product, cesium-137, is the primary focus of the process due to the hazards associated with its decay. The cesium is extracted from the waste, concentrated, and stripped out of the solvent resulting in a low-level waste salt solution and a concentrated cesium nitrate stream. The concentrated cesium stream can be vitrified into borosilicate glass with almost no increase in glass volume, and the salt solution can be dispositioned as a low-level grout. The unit is deployed as an interim process to disposition waste prior to start-up of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The Salt Waste Processing Facility utilizes the same cesium removal technology, but will treat more contaminated waste. The MCU is not only fulfilling a critical need, it is the first demonstration of the process at production-scale.

  4. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. New monitoring wells FAC 9C, 10C, 11C, and 12C were completed in the Barnwell/McBean aquifer and were sampled for the first time during third quarter 1994 (second quarter 1995 is the fourth of four quarters of data required to support the closure of the basin). Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria such as the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and radium-226 exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard (50 NTU) in well FAC 3. Groundwater flow direction in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the west at a rate of 1300 feet per year. Groundwater flow in the Barnwell/McBean was to the northeast at a rate of 50 feet per year.

  5. Mechanism of Phosphorus Removal from Hanford Tank Sludge by Caustic Leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2008-03-05

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the mechanism by which phosphorus is removed from Hanford tank sludge by caustic leaching. In the first experiment, a series of phosphate salts were treated with 3 M NaOH under conditions prototypic of the actual leaching process to be performed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The phosphates used were aluminum phosphate, bismuth phosphate, chromium(III) phosphate, and β-tri-calcium phosphate; all of these phases have previously been determined to exist in Hanford tank sludge. The leachate solution was sampled at selected time intervals and analyzed for the specific metal ion involved (Al, Bi, Ca, or Cr) and for P (total and as phosphate). The solids remaining after completion of the caustic leaching step were analyzed to determine the reaction product. In the second experiment, the dependence of P removal from bismuth phosphate was examined as a function of the hydroxide ion concentration. It was anticipated that a plot of log[phosphate] versus log[hydroxide] would provide insight into the phosphorus-removal mechanism. This report describes the test activities outlined in Section 6.3.2.1, Preliminary Investigation of Phosphate Dissolution, in Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, Rev.1. The objectives, success criteria, and test conditions of Section 6.3.2.1 are summarized here.

  6. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The four monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin are sampled quarterly as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with a consent decree signed May 26, 1988, by the US District Court (District of South Carolina, Aiken Division). During second quarter 1995, groundwater from the HAC wells was analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, major ions, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), the SRS flagging criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are the focus of this report. During second quarter 1995, tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells, with activities from 2.3E + 01 to 4.47E + 01 pCi/mL. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in all four HAC wells, ranging from 77.1 to 178 {micro}g/L. Iron exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3; the maximum value was 1,680 {micro}g/L in well HAC 2. Groundwater flow direction in the water table beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the northwest during second quarter 1995, consistent with historical trends. Throughout the last two years, the groundwater flow direction has been consistently to the northwest or the north-northwest.

  7. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, major ions, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during third quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during third quarter 1994. Carbon tetrachloride exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in all four HAC wells. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 3, and total organic halogens was elevated in well HAC 2. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Groundwater flow direction in the water table beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the northwest during third quarter 1994. This data is consistent with previous quarters, when the flow direction has been to the northwest or the north-northwest.

  8. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, major ions, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during third quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during first quarter 1995. Carbon tetrachloride exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in all four HAC wells. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 2 and 3. Total organic halogens was elevated in well HAC 3. The HAC 3 sample also exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Groundwater flow direction in the water table beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the northwest during first quarter 1995. This data is consistent with previous quarters, when the flow direction has been to the northwest or the north- northwest.

  9. Turbulence Scales, Rise Times, Caustics, and the Simulation of Sonic Boom Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Allan D.

    1996-01-01

    The general topic of atmospheric turbulence effects on sonic boom propagation is addressed with especial emphasis on taking proper and efficient account of the contributions of the portion oi the turbulence that is associated with extremely high wavenumber components. The recent work reported by Bart Lipkens in his doctoral thesis is reexamined to determine whether the good agreement between his measured rise times with the 1971 theory of the author is fortuitous. It is argued that Lipken's estimate of the distance to the first caustic was a gross overestimate because of the use of a sound speed correlation function shaped like a gaussian curve. In particular, it is argued that the expected distance to the first caustic varies with the kinematic viscosity nu and the energy epsilon dissipated per unit mass per unit time, and the sound speed c as : d(sub first caustic) = nu(exp 7/12) c(exp 2/3)/ epsilon(exp 5/12)(nu x epsilon/c(exp 4))(exp a), where the exponent a is greater than -7/12 and can be argued to be either O or 1/24. In any event, the surprising aspect of the relationship is that it actually goes to zero as the viscosity goes to zero with s held constant. It is argued that the apparent overabundance of caustics can be grossly reduced by a general computational and analytical perspective that partitions the turbulence into two parts, divided by a wavenumber k(sub c). Wavenumbers higher than kc correspond to small-scale turbulence, and the associated turbulence can be taken into account by a renormalization of the ambient sound speed so that the result has a small frequency dependence that results from a spatial averaging over of the smaller-scale turbulent fluctuations. Selection of k(sub c). can be made so large that only a very small number of caustics are encountered if one adopts the premise that the frequency dispersion of pulses is caused by that part of the turbulence spectrum which lies in the inertial range originally predicted by Kolmogoroff. The

  10. Field-scale application of spent sulfidic caustic as a source of alternative electron donor for autotrophic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeung-Jin; Choi, Gi-Choong; Byun, Im-Gyu; Park, Tae-Joo; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Biological reuse of spent sulfidic caustic (SSC) originating from oil refineries is a promising method for the petrochemical industry because of low handling cost. SSC typically contains high concentrations of sulfur, with the most dominant sulfur compounds being sulfide (S(2-)). SSC is also characterized by a high pH and elevated alkalinity up to 5-15% by weight. Because of these characteristics, SSC can be used for denitrification of NO3(-)-N in the biological nitrogen removal process as both the electron donor and buffering agent in sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification. In this study, two kinds of SSC (SSC I, SSC II) produced from two petrochemical companies were used for autotrophic denitrification in a field-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The effluent total nitrogen (TN) concentration in this process was about 10.5 mg/L without any external carbon sources and the nitrification efficiency was low, about 93.0%, because of alkalinity deficiency in the influent. The injection of SSC I, but not SSC II, promoted nitrification efficiency, which was attributed to the difference in the NaOH/S ratio between SSC I and II. SSC was injected based on sulfide concentration of SSC required to denitrify NO3(-)-N in the WWTP. SSC I had higher NaOH/S than SSC II and thus could supply more alkalinity for nitrification than SSC II. On the other hand, additional TN removal of about 9.0% was achieved with the injection of both SSCs. However, denitrification efficiency was not proportionally increased with increasing SSC injection because of NO3(-)-N deficiency in the anoxic tank due to the limited capacity of the recycling pump. For the same reason, sulfate concentration, which is the end product of sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrificaiton in the effluent, was also not increased with increasing SSC injection. PMID:23863444

  11. Final Report: Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, Peggy A.; Chorover, J.; Mueller, K.T.; Serne, R.J.

    2006-12-11

    The principal goal of this project was to assess the molecular nature and stability of radionuclide (137-Cs, 90-Sr, and 129-I) immobilization during weathering reactions in bulk Hanford sediments and their high surface area clay mineral constituents. We focused on the unique aqueous geochemical conditions that are representative of waste-impacted locations in the Hanford site vadose zone: high ionic strength, high pH and high Al concentrations. The specific objectives of the work were to (i) measure the coupling of clay mineral weathering and contaminant uptake kinetics of Cs+, Sr2+ and I-; (ii) determine the molecular structure of contaminant binding sites and their change with weathering time during and after exposure to synthetic tank waste leachate (STWL); (iii) establish the stability of neoformed weathering products and their sequestered contaminants upon exposure of the solids to more “natural” soil solutions (i.e., after removal of the caustic waste source); and (iv) integrate macroscopic, microscopic and spectroscopic data to distinguish labile from non-labile contaminant binding environments, including their dependence on system composition and weathering time. During this funding period, we completed a large set of bench-scale collaborative experiments and product characterization aimed at elucidating the coupling between mineral transformation reactions and contaminant sequestration/stabilization. Our experiments included three representative Hanford sediments: course and fine sediments collected from the Hanford Formation and Ringold Silt, in addition to investigations with specimen clay minerals illite, vermiculite, smectite and kaolinite. These experiments combined macroscopic measurements of element release, contaminant uptake and subsequent neoformed mineral dissolution behavior, with detailed studies of solid phase products using SEM and TEM microscopy, NMR, XAS and FTIR spectroscopy. Our studies have shown direct coupling between mineral

  12. Intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature caustic solutions containing contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, R.; Roberge, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1985-06-01

    Concentrated caustic is a primary cause of stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack of Alloy 600 tubing in PWRs. However, temperature, electrochemical potential, stress, and metallurgical state all play a role. This study provides the quantitative evidence needed to develop models of crack growth and to devise effective countermeasures.

  13. Consequence analysis of a NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J.; Lancing, L.C.

    1997-07-08

    Toxicological consequences are presented for three postulated accidents involving caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) addition to a waste tank to adjust the tank waste pH. These are spray from the skid mounted delivery system, spray from a cargo tank truck, and rupture of a cargo tank truck. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated.

  14. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

  15. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-30

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a semicrystalline polymer with excellent engineering plastic properties and suitable processing temperatures. PPS can also be made containing branches (using a trifunctional monomer) and with crosslinked microstructure (when curing the monomer at high temperature in the presence of oxygen). PPS is made from the condensation reaction between para-dichlorobenzene and sodium sulfide with the assistance of a catalyst (to lower the activation barrier). The synthesis conditions for making PPS has evolved since its invention in the 1960's to the optimal conditions developed by the Philips Corporation in the 1970's. The resulting polymer consists of chemically stable molecular moieties such as benzene rings and ether like sulfur linkages between the aromatic rings. Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 3.3 E8 rad (330 Mrad), or the equivalent of 11 years of gamma irradiation (assuming a stripping solution concentration of 7.5 Ci/gal), and several months of exposures to 3M caustic solution and caustic salt simulant, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, demonstrates PPS is stable to the new solvent.

  16. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    During second quarter 1993, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses and turbidity measurements. The herbicide/pesticide suite for all four wells and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric volatile organic analyses requested for well HAC 3 were not performed due to clerical error at the laboratory. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during second quarter 1993. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  17. K-Area/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-09-01

    During second quarter 1993, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. No analytes exceeded the final PDWS during second quarter 1993. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6, 7, and 9. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6 and 7, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 9. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  18. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. One of the FAC piezometers was scheduled for these analyses but was dry. Analytical results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Dichloromethane was detected above the final PDWS in four of the wells. Gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS in three wells. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in five wells. Manganese and iron exceeded standards in two wells each. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in wells FAC 3 and 8.

  19. H-area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses (exclusive of boron and lithium) and turbidity measurements. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during first quarter 1994. Carbon tetrachloride and heptachlor epoxide exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1 and 2. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 3. Total organic halogens was elevated in wells HAC 2 and 3. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  20. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during second quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 appeared similar to tritium levels in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Total organic halogens exceeded Flag 2 criteria in wells HAC 1 and 3; manganese was elevated in well HAC 3. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  1. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Dichloromethane exceeded the final PDWS in four wells, including upgradient well FAC 3. Gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS in three wells, including upgradient well FAC 3. Aluminum and iron each exceeded Flag 2 criteria in five of the six wells. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in three wells, manganese in two, and total alpha-emitting radium, total organic carbon, and lead in one each. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3.

  2. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. New wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6 and 7, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in new well KAC 9. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  3. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during second quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 appeared similar to tritium levels in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Total organic halogens exceeded Flag 2 criteria in wells HAC 1 and 3; manganese was elevated in well HAC 3. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  4. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6, 7, 8, and 9. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6, 7, and 8, lead was elevated in well KAC 7, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 9. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  5. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses and turbidity measurements. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in all four HAC wells during third quarter 1993. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Chromium was reported above the final PDWS in well HAC 2. Lead exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in HAC 1, specific conductance in HAC 3, and manganese in HAC 3. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  6. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for indicator parameters, turbidity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, with summary results for the year, are the focus of this report. Tritium activities exceeded the PDWS in 4 wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in 1 well, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 2. No priority pollutant (EPA, 1990) exceeded the PDWS or Flag 2 criteria in 2 wells. None of the HAC wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Elevated tritium activities were found in all four HAC wells every quarter. Elevated total radium occurred in well HAC 2 during third quarter.

  7. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Dichloromethane was detected slightly above its final PDWS in well KAC 8 during third quarter 1993. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 4, 6, 7, and 9. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 4, 6 and 7, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 9. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  8. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in wells HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during fourth quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 were similar to tritium levels in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Iron was elevated in well HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance and manganese were elevated in one downgradient well each. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. During 1992, tritium was the only constituent that exceeded the final PDWS. It did so consistently in all four wells during all four quarters, with little variability in activity.

  9. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. One of the FAC piezometers was scheduled for these analyses but was dry. Analytical results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS in two wells. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in five wells. Iron exceeded standards in four wells, manganese exceeded standards in two wells, and total organic halogens exceeded standards in one well. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3.

  10. H-area acid/caustic basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the PDWS in HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during first quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 appeared similar to tritium levels in well HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in wells HAC 2 and 3, respectively. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  11. Monocular catadioptric panoramic depth estimation via caustics-based virtual scene transition.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Wang, Lingxue; Cai, Yi; Xue, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Existing catadioptric panoramic depth estimation systems usually require two panoramic imaging subsystems to achieve binocular disparity. The system structures are complicated and only sparse depth maps can be obtained. We present a novel monocular catadioptric panoramic depth estimation method that achieves dense depth maps of panoramic scenes using a single unmodified conventional catadioptric panoramic imaging system. Caustics model the reflection of the curved mirror and establish the distance relationship between the virtual and real panoramic scenes to overcome the nonlinear problem of the curved mirror. Virtual scene depth is then obtained by applying our structure classification regularization to depth from defocus. Finally, real panoramic scene depth is recovered using the distance relationship. Our method's effectiveness is demonstrated in experiments. PMID:27607512

  12. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS in downgradient well FAC 4. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in 5 of the 6 wells; a change in sampling procedure accounts for marked increases. Three samples were elevated for each of the following constituents: manganese, total organic carbon, and total organic halogens. Turbidity equaled or exceeded the SRS standard in wells FAC 7 and 8.

  13. Mechanical pretreatment improving hemicelluloses removal from cellulosic fibers during cold caustic extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Liu, Yishan; Duan, Chao; Zhang, Hongjie; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Hemicelluloses removal is a prerequisite for the production of high-quality cellulose (also known as dissolving pulp), and further recovery and utilization of hemicelluloses, which can be considered as a typical Integrated Forest Biorefinery concept. In this paper, a process of combined mechanical refining and cold caustic extraction (CCE), which was applied to a softwood sulfite sample, was investigated. The results showed that the hemicelluloses removal efficiency and selectivity were higher for the combined treatment than that for the CCE alone. The combined treatment can thus decrease the alkali concentration (from 8% to 4%) to achieve a similar hemicelluloses removal. The improved results were due to the fact that the mechanical refining resulted in increases in pore volume and diameter, water retention value (WRV) and specific surface area (SSA), all of which can make positive contributions to the hemicelluloses removal in the subsequent CCE process. PMID:26081626

  14. Effect of molten caustic leaching on demineralization and desulfurization of asphaltite

    SciTech Connect

    Duz, M.Z.; Erdogan, S.; Saydut, A.; Merdivan, M.; Hamamci, C.

    2008-07-01

    Molten caustic leaching process is effective in reducing significant amounts of ash-forming minerals, pyritic sulfur, and organic sulfur from solid fossil fuels. The effect of leaching asphaltite samples from Seguruk and Harbul collieries of Sirnak and Silopi asphaltite fields (situated in the Southeast Anatolia region of Turkey) with molten sodium hydroxide and followed by mild acid on demineralization and desulfurization was investigated. The effects of alkali/asphaltite ratio, time, and temperature on the leaching efficiency were detailed, and the experimental results are presented here. Chemical demineralization and desulfurization of asphaltite samples using molten sodium hydroxide were investigated in the temperature range of 200-400{sup o}C. The percentage of demineralization and desulfurization increased with the increase in alkali/asphaltite ratio. The removal of total sulfur and ash increased with increasing leaching temperature and time. Most of the inorganic sulfur and a significant portion of the organic sulfur were removed.

  15. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges: results of FY 1996 studies. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

    1996-08-01

    During the past few years, the primary mission at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has changed from producing plutonium to restoring the environment. Large volumes of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW), generated during past Pu production and other operations, are stored in underground tanks on site. The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix and then disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of borosilicate glass produced in disposing of the tank wastes. On this basis, a pretreatment plan is being developed. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching test conducted to create a Hanford tank sludge pretreatment flowsheet.

  16. Caustic Leaching of SRS Tank 12H Sludge With and Without Chelating Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    2003-04-30

    The primary objective of this study was to measure the effect of adding triethanolamine (TEA) to caustic leaching solutions to improve the solubility of aluminum in actual tank-waste sludge. High-level radioactive waste sludge that had a high aluminum assay was used for the tests. This waste, which originated with the processing of aluminum-clad/aluminum-alloy fuels, generates high levels of heat because of the high {sup 90}Sr concentration and contains hard-to-dissolve boehmite phases. In concept, a chelating agent, such as TEA, can both improve the dissolution rate and increase the concentration in the liquid phase. For this reason, TEA could also increase the solubility of other sludge components that are potentially problematic to downstream processing. Tests were conducted to determine if this were the case. Because of its relatively high vapor pressure, process design should include methods to minimize losses of the TEA. Sludge was retrieved from tank 12H at the Savannah River Site by on-site personnel, and then shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the study. The sludge contained a small quantity of rocky debris. One slate-like flat piece, which had approximate dimensions of 1 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/8 in., was recovered. Additional gravel-like fragments with approximate diameters ranging from 1/8 to 1/4 in. were also recovered by sieving the sludge slurry through a 1.4-mm square-pitch stainless steel mesh. These particles ranged from a yellow quartz-like material to grey-colored gravel. Of the 32.50 g of sludge received, the mass of the debris was only 0.89 g, and the finely divided sludge comprised {approx}97% of the mass. The sludge was successfully subdivided into uniform aliquots during hot-cell operations. Analytical measurements confirmed the uniformity of the samples. The smaller sludge samples were then used as needed for leaching experiments conducted in a glove box. Six tests were performed with leachate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 m Na

  17. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-31

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System.

  18. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Susan Kay; Orchard, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System.

  19. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  20. Model boiler testing to evaluate inhibitors for caustic induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Daret, J.; Paine, J.P.N.; Partridge, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A series of model boiler tests, using a mixture of precracked and non-precracked (virgin) tube-to-tube support plate intersections was performed. The testing supported the qualification of inhibitors for mitigating the secondary side corrosion of alloy 600 steam generator tubes. Many utilities suspect that the caustic impurities come from the feedwater. Candidate inhibitors included boric acid (as a reference), cerous acetate, and two forms of titanium dioxide: a laboratory produced titania-silica sol-gel, and manometer sized anatase The latter was combined with a 150 C pre-soaking with a titanium lactate, and was tested with and without a zeta potential treatment by sodium aluminate. Effectiveness of boric acid to prevent and retard caustic induced intergranular corrosion was confirmed in all crevice configurations (open and packed). The cerous acetate treatment multiplied by two to four the time necessary to detect a primary-to-secondary leak on virgin tubes, and reduced the propagation rate on precracked tubes. Cerium was found intimately mixed, as cerianite, with the free span and crevice deposits, when the crevices were sufficiently accessible. Due to its very low solubility and large particle size, the titania-silica sol-gel was unable to penetrate the crevices and had no effect on the degradation process. The nanometric particle size titania treatment and/or the preceding soaking with soluble titanium lactate drastically increased the titanium concentration in free span and open crevice deposit (with no added sodium aluminate, titania reacted with magnetite to form ilmenite) and showed undeniable capacity to prevent tubing degradation. Its effectiveness, in the case of packed crevices and for arresting cracks, was not so conclusive.

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  2. Descartes glare points in scattering by icicles: color photographs and a tilted dielectric cylinder model of caustic and glare-point evolution.

    PubMed

    Marston, P L

    1998-03-20

    Glare points associated with the Airy caustics of once and twice internally reflected rays are visible in the scattering by sunlit icicles. Supporting color photographs include an image of the far-field scattering. Relevant rays are analogous to the Descartes rays of primary and secondary rainbows of drops; however, the caustic conditions for the icicle are predicted to be affected by tilt of the illumination relative to the axis of the icicle. A model for the caustic evolution, given for a circular dielectric cylinder, manifests a transition in which the Airy caustic (and associated glare points) merge in the meridional plane at a critical tilt. At this critical tilt the merged glare point is predicted to be very bright. The calculations use the Bravais effective refractive index and generalized ray tracing. PMID:18268747

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. The effect of concentration on the structure and crystallinity of a cementitious waste form for caustic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Turo, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John S.

    2013-06-01

    Cement-based waste forms have long been considered economical technologies for disposal of various types of waste. A solidified cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, was developed to immobilize the radioactive secondary waste from vitrification processes. In this work, Cast Stone was considered for a Na-based caustic liquid waste, and its physical properties were analyzed as a function of liquid waste loading up to 2 M Na. Differences in crystallinity (phase composition), microstructure, mesostructure (pore size distribution, surface area), and macrostructure (density, compressive strength) were investigated using various analytical techniques, in order to assess the suitability of Cast Stone as a chemically durable waste. It was found that the concentration of secondary waste simulant (caustic waste) had little effect on the relevant engineering properties of Cast Stone, showing that Cast Stone could be an effective and tolerant waste form for a wide range of concentrations of high sodium waste.

  5. Determination of the dynamic stress intensity factors for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy using the reflected caustic method

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukagoshi, Seiji; Takahashi, Susumu; Shimamoto, Akira

    1996-12-31

    Dynamic fracture initiation and propagation in Al 7075-T6 was investigated experimentally using the optical method of reflected caustics combined with a simplified high speed photography. A crack propagation testing configuration consisting of a three point bending specimen loaded In a drop weighting was used. It was found that prior to crack initiation the stress intensity factor time record calculated using the dynamic impact load and a static formula disagrees with the actual stress Intensity factor measured by caustics. The impact fracture tests are performed. With use of Al 7075-T6 band plate test specimens with a V-notch on their one side. The dynamic stress intensity factor K{sub id} are given. With this, the authors experimentally calculated the dynamic fracture toughness K{sub ID}.

  6. The effect of concentration on the structure and crystallinity of a cementitious waste form for caustic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Turo, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John S.

    2013-06-01

    Cement-based waste forms have long been considered economical technologies for disposal of various types of waste. A solidified cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, has been identified to immobilize the radioactive secondary waste from vitrification processes. In this work, Cast Stone was considered for a Na-based caustic liquid waste, and its physical properties were analyzed as a function of liquid waste loading up to 2 M Na. Differences in crystallinity (phase composition), microstructure, mesostructure (pore size distribution and surface area), and macrostructure (density and compressive strength) were investigated using various analytical techniques, in order to assess the suitability of Cast Stone as a chemically durable waste. It was found that the concentration of secondary waste simulant (caustic waste) had little effect on the relevant engineering properties of Cast Stone, showing that Cast Stone could be an effective and tolerant waste form for a wide range of concentrations of high sodium waste.

  7. Production of densely sintered periclase clinker from the product of the chemical beneficiation of caustic magnesite dust

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, K.V.

    1986-11-01

    A dense clinker with a concentration of 99% MgO has been obtained from the product of the chemical beneficiation of caustic magnesite dust cleaned out from the waste gas of rotary furnaces during the firing of magnesite. The production process includes the calcination of the product of chemical beneficiation (Mg(OH)/sub 2/), the hot dry briquetting of the MgO without binder, and firing of the hot briquette with comparatively low pressing pressure and firing temperature.

  8. Conservative management of caustic substance ingestion in a pediatric department setting, short-term and long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, T; Agakidis, C H; Chryssostomidou, S; Arvanitidis, K; Tsepis, K

    2011-02-01

    Patients with caustic substance ingestion are usually referred to surgery departments where endoscopic evaluation is the first step towards appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of conservative management of caustic substance ingestion in a pediatric department setting following a standard protocol including endoscopy in selected cases and conservative treatment based on clinical and endoscopy criteria. In this single center observational study, all children admitted for caustic substance ingestion to a pediatric department over an 8-year-period were managed according to a standard protocol that included endoscopy within 24 hours, if the endoscopy criteria were met, and conservative treatment as judged appropriate according to endoscopic classification. Patients were followed up for 8-10 years. Of the 24 patients (age 4/12 to 6 years) admitted, 14 met the endoscopy criteria. Grade II and III esophageal burns were found in 10/14 patients, and they were treated with H2-blockers, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and nutritional support (parenteral in 8/10). Patients with grade II or III esophageal burns necessitated prolonged hospitalization (x ± standard deviation, 23 ± 3 days; range, 21-30 days). Complications included esophageal strictures (n = 1), treated successfully with dilatations, and bleeding (n = 1) treated conservatively. During the 8- to 10-year follow-up all patients were recorded being well. Based on the study findings it is concluded that conservative management of children with caustic substance ingestion using a standard protocol, including endoscopy as indicated, is feasible within the pediatric department, and conservative treatment on demand is safe and effective in preventing short-term and long-term complications. PMID:20659141

  9. Loading Capacities for Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium in High Caustic Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks Containing Selected Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    OJI, LAWRENCE

    2004-11-16

    In this study the loading capacities of selected actinides onto some of the most common sorbent materials which are present in caustic nuclear waste storage tanks have been determined. Some of these transition metal oxides and activated carbons easily absorb or precipitate plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, which if care is not taken may lead to unwanted accumulation of some of these fissile materials in nuclear waste tanks during waste processing. Based on a caustic synthetic salt solution simulant bearing plutonium, uranium and neptunium and ''real'' nuclear waste supernate solution, the loading capacities of these actinides onto iron oxide (hematite), activated carbon and anhydrous sodium phosphate have been determined. The loading capacities for plutonium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 3.4 0.22 plus or minus and 5.5 plus or minus 0.38 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for plutonium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 2.01 microgram per gram of sludge solids. The loading capacities for neptunium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 7.9 plus or minus 0.52 and greater than 10 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for neptunium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 4.48 microgram per gram of sludge solids. A typical nuclear waste storage tank solid material did not show any significant affinity for uranium. Sodium phosphate showed significant affinity for both neptunium and uranium, with loading capacities of 6.8 and 184.6 plus or minus 18.5 microgram per gram of sorbent, respectively.

  10. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  11. Sub-grain scale mineralogy of Hanford sand after reaction with caustic tank wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Um, W.; Lindquist, W.

    2010-12-01

    Reactions of caustic tank waste with vadose-zone sediments at the DOE Hanford, WA site cause dissolution of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals and precipitation of secondary minerals, sodalite and cancrinite. In this study, Hanford sediments from reactive column experiments were examined using 2-D imaging technologies. Mineralogy was examined at the sub-grain scale through image analysis of SEM backscattered electron (BSE) images supplemented with elemental mapping from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The thin sections were made from cross-sections of epoxied sediments in the experimental columns, before and after reaction with simulated tank waste leachate. The image analysis method developed for this work identifies the important minerals and quantifies their accessibility to pore fluids, information that may be used to improve reactive transport modeling of water-rock reactions. Current reactive transport models use mineralogical information obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of crushed samples. Such analysis provides reliable information on the relative quantities of minerals present in macroscopic samples. However, the absence of information on sub-grain scale mineralogy may lead to erroneous interpretation in the context of reactive transport. Preliminary findings indicate the presence of grain inclusions and secondary mineral coatings which may significantly impact the accessibility of minerals to pore waters and thus alter the predicted water -rock reactions.

  12. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  13. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  14. Changes in the pore network structure of Hanford sediment after reaction with caustic tank wastes.

    PubMed

    Crandell, L E; Peters, C A; Um, W; Jones, K W; Lindquist, W B

    2012-04-01

    At the former nuclear weapon production site in Hanford, WA, caustic radioactive tank waste leaks into subsurface sediments and causes dissolution of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals, and precipitation of sodalite and cancrinite. This work examines changes in pore structure due to these reactions in a previously-conducted column experiment. The column was sectioned and 2D images of the pore space were generated using backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A pre-precipitation scenario was created by digitally removing mineral matter identified as secondary precipitates. Porosity, determined by segmenting the images to distinguish pore space from mineral matter, was up to 0.11 less after reaction. Erosion-dilation analysis was used to compute pore and throat size distributions. Images with precipitation had more small and fewer large pores. Precipitation decreased throat sizes and the abundance of large throats. These findings agree with previous findings based on 3D X-ray CMT imaging, observing decreased porosity, clogging of small throats, and little change in large throats. However, 2D imaging found an increase in small pores, mainly in intragranular regions or below the resolution of the 3D images. Also, an increase in large pores observed via 3D imaging was not observed in the 2D analysis. Changes in flow conducting throats that are the key permeability-controlling features were observed in both methods. PMID:22360994

  15. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  16. Numerical simulation of shock wave focusing at fold caustics, with application to sonic boom.

    PubMed

    Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Grenon, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Weak shock wave focusing at fold caustics is described by the mixed type elliptic/hyperbolic nonlinear Tricomi equation. This paper presents a new and original numerical method for solving this equation, using a potential formulation and an "exact" numerical solver for handling nonlinearities. Validation tests demonstrate quantitatively the efficiency of the algorithm, which is able to handle complex waveforms as may come out from "optimized" aircraft designed to minimize sonic booms. It provides a real alternative to the approximate method of the hodograph transform. This motivated the application to evaluate the ground track focusing of sonic boom for an accelerating aircraft, by coupling CFD Euler simulations performed around the mock-up on an adaptated mesh grid, atmospheric propagation modeling, and the Tricomi algorithm. The chosen configuration is the European Eurosup mock-up. Convergence of the focused boom at the ground level as a function of the matching distance is investigated to demonstrate the efficiency of the numerical process. As a conclusion, it is indicated how the present work may pave the way towards a study on sonic superboom (focused boom) mitigation. PMID:14587578

  17. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The four monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin are sampled quarterly as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with a consent decree signed May 26, 1988, by the US District Court (District of South Carolina, Aiken Division). During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the monitoring wells received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), the SRS flagging criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are the focus of this report. During fourth quarter 1993, tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells, with activities between 3.8E + 01 and 4.6E + 01 pCi/mL. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance was elevated in well HAC 2, total organic halogens exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2 and 3, and manganese was elevated in wells HAC 3 and 4. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  18. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Fourth quarterly 1993 and 1993 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Tritium exceeded its final PDWS in well KAC 7 during fourth quarter 1993. The tritium value reported by the laboratory was approximately fifty times the concentration of any previous sample from that well. The well was resampled and yielded a low, historically-consistent tritium concentration. Therefore, the high tritium value reported this quarter is believed to be the result of a laboratory error. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6, 7, and 9. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 6, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 9. Total organic halogens exceeded standards in wells KAC 4 and 6. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  19. Trace metal partitioning in caustic calcined magnesia produced from natural magnesite.

    PubMed

    Chimenos, J M; Fernández, A I; Haurie, L; Calaf, M

    2012-01-01

    Caustic calcined magnesia from natural magnesite has been widely employed as a source of magnesium. This mineral, depending on the origin, may contain heavy metals and metalloids that can exceed the regulatory limits in some applications. In most cases, heavy metals and metalloids form solid solutions with the mineral phases of the main impurities, or even magnesium oxide itself, replacing other ions in the crystal lattice. Compared with magnesium oxide, most of these impurities such as silica and silicates are much more chemically stable even in concentrated mineral acids under normal temperature and pressure conditions. In this study, the partitioning of the trace metals was monitored using a sequential extraction procedure (SEP), and their potential solubility was determined using the pH-static leaching test. Only a small fraction of magnesium oxide derived from heavily calcined magnesia is soluble in slightly acidic media. The release of the trace metals and metalloids contained in the soluble fractions was less than 40% as determined by total digestion. It can be concluded that SEP is more accurate than total chemical digestion for setting the maximum limits of the undesirable trace metals. PMID:22217087

  20. F-Area/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-09-01

    During second quarter 1993, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. One of the FAC piezometers was scheduled for these analyses but yielded only enough water for analysis of total organic carbon, volatile organics, and total activity. Analytical results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Unlike last quarter, dichloromethane was not detected above the final PDWS in any of the wells. Gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS in all six wells. Nonvolatile beta was above its screening standard in upgradient well FAC 3. Aluminum and iron each exceeded Flag 2 criteria in all six wells. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in four wells, manganese in three, and radium-226 in one. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in wells FAC 3, 7, and 8.

  1. Results from Alloy 600 And Alloy 690 Caustic SCC Model Boiler Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Frederick D.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2009-08-03

    A versatile model boiler test methodology was developed and used to compare caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of mill annealed Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690. The model boiler included simulated crevice devices that efficiently and consistently concentrated Na2CO3, resulting in volatilization of CO2 with the steam and concentration of NaOH at the tube surfaces. The test methodology also included variation in tube stress, either produced by the primary to secondary side pressure differential, or by a novel method that reproducibly yields a higher stress condition on the tube. The significant effect of residual stress on tube SCC was also considered. SCC of both Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 were evaluated as a function of temperature and stress. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) evaluations of the cracks and the grain boundaries ahead of the cracks were performed, providing insight into the SCC mechanism. This model boiler test methodology may be applicable to a range of bulkwater secondary chemistries that concentrate to produce aggressive crevice environments.

  2. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges: Results of FY 1995 studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, B.M.; Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.

    1995-08-11

    During the past few years, the primary mission at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has changed from producing plutonium to environmental restoration. Large volumes of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW), generated during past Pu production and other operations, are stored in underground tanks on site. The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW immobilization and disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of borosilicate glass produced in processing the tank wastes. This document describes sludge washing and caustic leaching tests conducted in FY 1995 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. These tests were performed using sludges from seven Hanford waste tanks -- B-111, BX-107, C-103, S-104, SY-103, T-104, and T-111. The primary and secondary types of waste stored in each of these tanks are given in Table 1. 1. The data collected in this effort will be used to support the March 1998 Tri-Party Agreement decision on the extent of pretreatment to be performed on the Hanford tank sludges (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 1994).

  3. Elimination of the calcium cycle: direct electrolytic causticizing of Kraft smelt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.; Winnick, J.

    1999-01-19

    An electrochemical molten salt alternative to the classic Kraft causticizing process has been investigated and the feasibility of the process was successfully shown. The experiments include (A) the determination of background thermal decomposition gases, (B) the electrolysis of a sodium carbonate only smelt to show that sodium oxide can be electrochemically produced, and (C) electrolysis of a synthetic smelt containing 80 mole % Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 20 mole % Na{sub 2}S. The experiments show, that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was produced by the electrochemical reduction of sodium carbonate to sodium oxide in the molten state. In the experiment containing sodium sulfide, there was formation of less than 5 mole % of polysulfide. Energy savings on the order of 500,000 BTU per ton of kraft pulp produced are estimated, based on the energy used by the mill. Operating costs are estimated to be currently similar to conventional processing. However, price increases of fossil fuels and increased co-generation of electricity in the mill will give the electrolytical process significant cost advantages.

  4. Elimination of the Calcium Cycle: Direct Electrolytic Causticizing of Kraft Smelt, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    P. Pfromm, J. Winnick

    1999-01-31

    An electrochemical molten salt alternative to the classic kraft causticizing process has been investigated and the feasibility of the process was successfully shown. The experiments included (a) determination of background thermal decomposition gases, (b) the electrolysis of a sodium-carbonate-only smelt to show that sodium oxide can be electrochemically produced, and (c) electrolysis of a synthetic smelt containing 80 mole% Na2-CO3 and 20 mole% Na2-S. The experiments show that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was produced by the electrochemical reduction of sodium carbonate to sodium oxide in the molten state. In the experiment containing sodium sulfide, there was formation of less than 5 mole% of polysulfide. Energy savings on the order of 500,000 BTU per ton of kraft pulp produced are estimated, based on the energy used by the mill. Operating costs are estimated to be currently similar to conventional processing. However, price increases of fossil fuels and increased co-generation of electricity in the mill will give the electrolytical process significant cost advantages.

  5. Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium and Uranium with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

    SciTech Connect

    VISSER, ANN E.; BRONIKOWSKI, MICHAEL G.; RUDISILL, TRACY S.

    2005-10-18

    The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from Pu and U-containing waste solutions has been investigated to determine whether gadolinium (Gd) could be used as a neutron poison for precipitation with greater than a fissile mass containing both Pu and enriched U. Precipitation experiments were performed using both process solution samples and simulant solutions with a range of 2.6-5.16 g/L U and 0-4.3:1 U:Pu. Analyses were performed on solutions at intermediate pH to determine the partitioning of elements for accident scenarios. When both Pu and U were present in the solution, precipitation began at pH 4.5 and by pH 7, 99% of Pu and U had precipitated. When complete neutralization was achieved at pH > 14 with 1.2 M excess OH{sup -}, greater than 99% of Pu, U, and Gd had precipitated. At pH > 14, the particles sizes were larger and the distribution was a single mode. The ratio of hydrogen:fissile atoms in the precipitate was determined after both settling and centrifuging and indicates that sufficient water was associated with the precipitates to provide the needed neutron moderation for Gd to prevent a criticality in solutions containing up to 4.3:1 U:Pu and up to 5.16 g/L U.

  6. Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium and Uranium with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

    SciTech Connect

    ANN, VISSER

    2005-04-14

    The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from Pu and U containing waste solutions has been investigated to determine whether gadolinium (Gd) could be used as a neutron poison for precipitation with greater than a fissile mass containing both Pu and enriched U. Precipitation experiments were performed using both actual samples and simulant solutions with a range of 2.6-5.16 g/L U and 0-4.3 to 1 U to Pu. Analyses were performed on solutions at intermediate pH to determine the partitioning of elements for accident scenarios. When both Pu and U were present in the solution, precipitation began at pH 4.5 and by pH 7, 99 percent of Pu and U had precipitated. When complete neutralization was achieved at pH greater than 14 with 1.2 M excess OH-, greater than 99 percent of Pu, U, and Gd had precipitated. At pH greater than 14, the particles sizes were larger and the distribution was a single mode. The ratio of hydrogen to fissile atoms in the precipitate was determined after both settling and centrifuging and indicates that sufficient water was associated with the precipitates to provide the needed neutron moderation for Gd to prevent a criticality in solutions containing up to 4.3 to 1 U to Pu and up to 5.16 g/L U.

  7. Changes in the pore network structure of Hanford sediment after reaction with caustic tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Crandell, L. E.; Peters, Catherine A.; Um, Wooyong; Jones, Keith W.; Lindquist, W.Brent

    2012-04-01

    At the former nuclear weapon production site in Hanford, WA, caustic radioactive tank waste leaks into subsurface sediments and causes dissolution of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals, and precipitation of sodalite and cancrinite. This work examines changes in pore structure due to these reactions in a previously-conducted column experiment. The column was sectioned and 2D images of the pore space were generated using backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A pre-precipitation scenario was created by digitally removing mineral matter identified as secondary precipitates. Porosity, determined by segmenting the images to distinguish pore space from mineral matter, was up to 0.11 less after reaction. Erosion-dilation analysis was used to compute pore and throat size distributions. Images with precipitation had more small and fewer large pores. Precipitation decreased throat sizes and the abundance of large throats. These findings agree with previous findings based on 3D X-ray CMT imaging, observing decreased porosity, clogging of small throats, and little change in large throats. However, 2D imaging found an increase in small pores, mainly in intragranular regions or below the resolution of the 3D images. Also, an increase in large pores observed via 3D imaging was not observed in the 2D analysis. Changes in flow conducting throats that are the key permeability-controlling features were observed in both methods.

  8. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  9. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  10. Batch-Equilibrium Hot-Cell Tests of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) with SRS Simulant Waste and Internal 137Cs Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.

    2001-09-17

    The solvent was loaded with {sup 137}Cs and subsamples were stored on a shaker table while in contact with the extract, scrub, or strip aqueous phases. Evidence of solvent degradation was evaluated at exposure times of 0, 20, 54, and 83 days. This resulted in estimated solvent doses ranging up to 1.24 Mrad, equivalent to the dose expected to be received during 16.5 years of operation at the plant proposed for the Savannah River Site. The break times and distribution of cesium of the batch samples remained constant within experimental error; in addition, no third-phase formation was observed. The solvent concentrations of calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetra-fluoroproproxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol remained constant within experimental error. Solvent degradation with irradiation was evidenced by a decrease in the trioctylamine (TOA) concentration in the solvent and an increase in the solvent concentration of the degradation product 4-sec-butylphenol. No decline in extraction or scrubbing performance of the irradiated solvents was observed. The stripping performance of the solvent was seriously impaired with irradiation; however, a mild caustic wash and replenishment of the TOA concentration restored the ability to strip the irradiated solvent.

  11. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  12. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B

    2005-05-26

    This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and AlO{sub 2}{sup -}) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable

  14. TUNGSTEN SHIELDS FOR CS-137 INLINE MONITORS IN THE CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V; Mark Hogue, M; Javier Reyes-Jimenez, J; Paul Filpus-Luyckx, P; Timothy Riley, T; Fred Ogden, F; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-10

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The CSSX process is a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from highly radioactive waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. In-line analyses are performed with gamma-ray monitors to measure the C-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and in the strip effluent (SE). Sodium iodide (NaI) monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration before the DSS Hold Tank, while Geiger-Mueller (GM) monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the SE hold tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to provide the needed reduction of the process background radiation at the detector positions. A one-inch tungsten cylindrical shield reduced the background radiation by a factor of fifty that was adequate for the GM detectors, while a three-and-one-half-inch tungsten cylindrical shield was required for the NaI detectors. Testing of the NaI shield was performed at the SRS Instrument Calibration Facility. Based on this testing, the as-built shield is predicted to be able to detect the MCU DSS stream at concentrations above 0.003 Ci/gal under the ''worst case'' field conditions with a MCU feed solution of 1.1 Ci/gal and all of the process tanks completely full. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, testing and implementation of the tungsten shields in the MCU facility.

  15. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  16. Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon D.

    2003-06-01

    We are studying Cs, Sr and I uptake and release during clay mineral weathering under conditions representative of caustic tank waste leachate. Cesium sorption after 1 year reaction was the greatest in the order of vermiculite, illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite. Vermiculite showed highest Sr sorption, followed by kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite. Secondary phase products were feldspathoid sodium aluminum nitrate silicate, sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate, Na-Al chabazite and zeolite X. Discrete Sr phases were found in kaolinite and illite systems after at 10{sup -3} M Cs/Sr. Transmission electron microscopy with EDS indicates a high single Sr phase in illite systems. Spheroidal secondary phases are common in all clay consisting of intergrown Na-containing sodalite and cancrinite. In the case of illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, Cs or Sr are found in association with these neoformed spheroidal secondary phases, but this is not the case in vermiculite systems. In vermiculite, most of Cs and Sr is associated with clay particle, presumably because of its high charge density, rather than secondary phases. For detailed investigations of Cs/Sr coprecipitation with neoformed alumosilicate during the clay weathering process, we are conducting homogeneous nucleation experiments in the absence of clay minerals. Silica is reacted with synthetic tank waste to elucidate sites of Cs, Sr and I uptake in products. We are varying the Si/Al and the initial Cs, Sr and I concentrations to examine effects on mineral formation and uptake rate. To date, we have observed that precipitation kinetics and the nature of reaction products varies with initial Cs, Sr and I concentration. Solid phase products are being investigated by XRD, FTIR, NMR and EXAFS, and are also being subjected to dissolution kinetics studies to assess long term stability.

  17. AMDTreat 5.0+ with PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic chemical quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Means, Brent P; Arthur, Willam; McKenzie, Robert M; Parkhurst, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline chemicals are commonly added to discharges from coal mines to increase pH and decrease concentrations of acidity and dissolved aluminum, iron, manganese, and associated metals. The annual cost of chemical treatment depends on the type and quantities of chemicals added and sludge produced. The AMDTreat computer program, initially developed in 2003, is widely used to compute such costs on the basis of the user-specified flow rate and water quality data for the untreated AMD. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration of net-acidic or net-alkaline effluent with caustic chemicals to accurately estimate costs for treatment, such empirical data are rarely available. A titration simulation module using the geochemical program PHREEQC has been incorporated with AMDTreat 5.0+ to improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate: (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the chemical composition of the treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment. The simulated titration results for selected caustic chemicals (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) without aeration or with pre-aeration can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities, treated effluent composition, sludge volume (precipitated metals plus unreacted chemical), and associated treatment costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module with the new AMDTreat 5.0+ computer program available at http://www.amd.osmre.gov/.

  18. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 1 MOLARAND 3 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-23

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  19. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC LIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 16 MOLAR AND 8 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  20. Experimental simulation of supersonic superboom in a water tank: nonlinear focusing of weak shock waves at a fold caustic.

    PubMed

    Marchiano, Régis; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Coulouvrat, François

    2003-10-31

    An accelerating supersonic aircraft produces noisy superboom due to acoustical shock wave focusing at a fold caustic. This phenomenon is modeled by the mixed-type nonlinear Tricomi equation. An innovative experimental simulation in a water tank has been carried out, with perfect similitude to sonic boom in air. In the linear regime, the canonical Airy function is reproduced using the inverse filter technique. In the nonlinear regime (weak shock waves), the experiment demonstrates the key role of nonlinear effects: they limit the field amplitude, distort the sonic line, and strongly alter the phase of the signal, in agreement with numerical simulations. PMID:14611285

  1. MEASUREMENT OF ENTRAINED ORGANIC DROPLET SIZES AND TOTAL CONCENTRATION FOR AQUEOUS STREAMS FROM THE CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C; Samuel Fink, S; Michael Restivo, M; Dan Burns, D; Wallace Smith, W; S Crump, S; Zane Nelson, Z; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Michael Norato, M

    2007-02-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility will remove radioactive cesium from Savannah River Site supernate wastes using an organic solvent system. Both designs include decanters and coalescers to reduce carryover of organic solvent droplets. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel conducted experimental demonstrations using a series of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors. They also examined organic carryover during operation of a CINC (Costner Industries Nevada Corporation) V-5 contactor under prototypical conditions covering the range of expected MCU operation. This report details the findings from those studies and the implications on design for the MCU.

  2. Experimental Simulation of Supersonic Superboom in a Water Tank: Nonlinear Focusing of Weak Shock Waves at a Fold Caustic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiano, Régis; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Coulouvrat, François

    2003-10-01

    An accelerating supersonic aircraft produces noisy superboom due to acoustical shock wave focusing at a fold caustic. This phenomenon is modeled by the mixed-type nonlinear Tricomi equation. An innovative experimental simulation in a water tank has been carried out, with perfect similitude to sonic boom in air. In the linear regime, the canonical Airy function is reproduced using the inverse filter technique. In the nonlinear regime (weak shock waves), the experiment demonstrates the key role of nonlinear effects: they limit the field amplitude, distort the sonic line, and strongly alter the phase of the signal, in agreement with numerical simulations.

  3. Evolution of singularities of potential flows in collisionfree media and the metamorphosis of caustics in three dimensional space

    SciTech Connect

    Arnol'd, V.I.

    1986-02-10

    The authors describe the critical values of the maps at time''t'' and their evolution as ''t'' changes for potential initial velocity fields in general position under the assumption that the force field is potential. The paper is concerned with the structure and evolution of caustics of a general one-parameter family of Lagrangian maps of manifolds of dimension not exceeding three. For each type of evolution, the authors give a detailed geometric description of the structure of the singularity. The investigation required new algebraic information about the manifold of polynomials with multiple roots; these are given in the paper.

  4. Production of concentrated caustic soda and hydrochloride acid solutions from sodium chloride by electrodialysis with the aid of bipolar ion-exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Greben', V.P.; Pivovarov, N.Ya.; Latskov, V.L.

    1988-10-20

    This paper gives a comparative analysis of the action of electrodialyzers containing three and five compartments in the structural unit, and equipped with bipolar, cation-exchange, and anion-exchange membranes, used for production of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda from sodium chloride solutions. It was shown that an electrodialyzer with five compartments gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda for 2.5-3 M concentration with 0.2-0.3 current efficiency, whereas an electrodialyzer with three compartments in the structural unit gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda concentrations of about 1.2 M at the same current efficiency. The performance of the electrodialyzers was analyzed and equations were derived for calculating the current efficiencies for acid and alkali under conditions of acidification of the salt solution; this was based on determination of the transport numbers of ions passing through the membranes.

  5. Design of Hartmann type null screens for testing a plano-convex aspheric lens with a CCD sensor inside the caustic.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Santiago, Gabriel; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2016-08-22

    A new method to design Hartmann type null screens to test either qualitatively or quantitatively fast plano-convex aspherical lenses is presented. We design both radial and square null screens that produce arrays of circular spots uniformly distributed at predefined planes, considering that the CCD sensor is solely placed inside the caustic region. The designs of these null screens are based on knowledge of the caustic by refraction and on exact ray tracing. The null screens also serve to improve the alignment in optical systems. PMID:27557218

  6. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  7. Cyclic stress effect on stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel in chloride and caustic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Di

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is a dual-phase material with approximately equal volume amount of austenite and ferrite. It has both great mechanical properties (good ductility and high tensile/fatigue strength) and excellent corrosion resistance due to the mixture of the two phases. Cyclic loadings with high stress level and low frequency are experienced by many structures. However, the existing study on corrosion fatigue (CF) study of various metallic materials has mainly concentrated on relatively high frequency range. No systematic study has been done to understand the ultra-low frequency (˜10-5 Hz) cyclic loading effect on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DSSs. In this study, the ultra-low frequency cyclic loading effect on SCC of DSS 2205 was studied in acidified sodium chloride and caustic white liquor (WL) solutions. The research work focused on the environmental effect on SCC of DSS 2205, the cyclic stress effect on strain accumulation behavior of DSS 2205, and the combined environmental and cyclic stress effect on the stress corrosion crack initiation of DSS 2205 in the above environments. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to investigate the electrochemical behavior of DSS 2205 in acidic NaCl solution. Series of slow strain rate tests (SSRTs) at different applied potential values were conducted to reveal the optimum applied potential value for SCC to happen. Room temperature static and cyclic creep tests were performed in air to illustrate the strain accumulation effect of cyclic stresses. Test results showed that cyclic loading could enhance strain accumulation in DSS 2205 compared to static loading. Moreover, the strain accumulation behavior of DSS 2205 was found to be controlled by the two phases of DSS 2205 with different crystal structures. The B.C.C. ferrite phase enhanced strain accumulation due to extensive cross-slips of the dislocations, whereas the F.C.C. austenite phase resisted strain accumulation due to cyclic strain

  8. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU

  9. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The

  10. Nutritional management in an elderly man with esophageal and gastric necrosis after caustic soda ingestion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Peroni, Gabriella; Miccono, Alessandra; Guerriero, Fabio; Guido, Davide; Perna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of corrosive industrial chemical agents, such as caustic soda, that are mostly used for household cleaning, usually occurs accidentally or for suicidal purposes. Multiple protocols are based on documented success in preventing impending complications. In this study, we present a case of a 70-year-old man who swallowed caustic soda in a suicide attempt, causing a development of strong esophageal and gastric necrosis with subsequent gastrectomy and digiunostomy. Initially, the recommended nutritional approach was via percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy by a polymer and high-caloric formula, with an elevated content of soluble fiber. After 5 months, the medical team removed the percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy and the patient switched from enteral to oral nutrition. In this step, it was decided to introduce two oral, high-caloric supplements: an energy supplement in powder, based on maltodextrin, immediately soluble in foods or in hot/cold drinks and a high-energy and protein drink, enriched with arginine, vitamin C, zinc, and antioxidants. Oral administration (per os) was well tolerated by consuming homogenized food mixed in water. After 1 month, the patient was discharged from the hospital and was able to eat a regular meal. PMID:26917962

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

  12. Nutritional management in an elderly man with esophageal and gastric necrosis after caustic soda ingestion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Peroni, Gabriella; Miccono, Alessandra; Guerriero, Fabio; Guido, Davide; Perna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of corrosive industrial chemical agents, such as caustic soda, that are mostly used for household cleaning, usually occurs accidentally or for suicidal purposes. Multiple protocols are based on documented success in preventing impending complications. In this study, we present a case of a 70-year-old man who swallowed caustic soda in a suicide attempt, causing a development of strong esophageal and gastric necrosis with subsequent gastrectomy and digiunostomy. Initially, the recommended nutritional approach was via percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy by a polymer and high-caloric formula, with an elevated content of soluble fiber. After 5 months, the medical team removed the percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy and the patient switched from enteral to oral nutrition. In this step, it was decided to introduce two oral, high-caloric supplements: an energy supplement in powder, based on maltodextrin, immediately soluble in foods or in hot/cold drinks and a high-energy and protein drink, enriched with arginine, vitamin C, zinc, and antioxidants. Oral administration (per os) was well tolerated by consuming homogenized food mixed in water. After 1 month, the patient was discharged from the hospital and was able to eat a regular meal. PMID:26917962

  13. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO(2) capture.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2012-04-01

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO(2) abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO(2) capture and CO(2) offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden. PMID:22342037

  14. POTENTIAL FOR STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS CONTAINING HIGHLY CAUSTIC SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Stripling, C.; Fisher, D.; Elder, J.

    2010-04-26

    The evaporator recycle streams of nuclear waste tanks may contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that exceeds the current corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history found that two of these A537 carbon steel tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved tanks of similar construction. Therefore, it appears that the efficacy of stress relief of welding residual stress is the primary corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test A537 carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (30.48 x 30.38 x 2.54 cm) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in these nuclear waste tanks. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test was completed after 12 weeks of immersion in a similar solution at 125 C except that the aluminate concentration was reduced to 0.3 M. Visual inspection of the plate revealed that stress corrosion cracking had not initiated from the machined crack tips in the weld or in the heat affected zone. NDE ultrasonic testing also confirmed subsurface cracking did not occur. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the environmental condition of these tests was unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the test periods for the small welded U-bends and for the large plates, which were welded with an identical procedure as used in the construction of the actual nuclear waste tanks in the 1960s. The

  15. A comparative study of the treatment of ethylene plant spent caustic by neutralization and classical and advanced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hawari, Alaa; Ramadan, Hasanat; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim; Ouederni, Mabrouk

    2015-03-15

    The treatment of spent caustic produced from an ethylene plant was investigated. In the case of neutralization alone it was found that the maximum removal of sulfide was at pH values below 5.5. The higher percentage removal of sulfides (99% at pH = 1.5) was accompanied with the highest COD removal (88%). For classical oxidation using H2O2 the maximum COD removal percentage reached 89% at pH = 2.5 and at a hydrogen peroxide concentration of 19 mM/L. For the advanced oxidation using Fenton's process it was found that the maximum COD removal of 96.5% was achieved at a hydrogen peroxide/ferrous sulfate ratio of (7:1). PMID:25546845

  16. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF A CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM TO REMOVE CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Earl Brass, E; Stanley Brown, S; Mark Geeting, M; Lcurtis Johnson, L; Charles02 Coleman, C; S Crump, S; Mark Barnes, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-10-15

    Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have completed construction and assembly of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility. Following assembly, they conducted testing to evaluate the ability of the process to remove non-radioactive cesium and to separate the aqueous and organic phases. They conducted tests at salt solution flow rates of 3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 gpm. During testing, the MCU Facility collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar{reg_sign} L, and Modifier [1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol]. SRNL personnel analyzed the aqueous samples for cesium by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the solvent samples for cesium using a Parr Bomb Digestion followed by ICP-MS. They analyzed aqueous samples for Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier by gas chromatography (GC).

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CAUSTIC STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.

    2009-10-15

    The evaporator recycle streams contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that may be outside of the current waste tank corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history (1998-2008) of Tanks 30 and 32 showed that these tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved F-Area tanks. Therefore, for the Type III/IIIA waste tanks the efficacy of the stress relief of welding residual stress is the only corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (12 x 12 x 1 in.) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in Tanks 30 and 32. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test is currently in progress, but no cracking has been observed after 9 weeks of immersion. Based on the preliminary results, it appears that the environmental conditions of the tests are unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the duration of these tests.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC MODEL OF BOEHMITE DISSOLUTION IN CAUSTIC SOLUTIONS APPLIED TO OPTIMIZE HANFORD WASTE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    Boehmite (e.g., aluminum oxyhydroxide) is a major non-radioactive component in Hanford and Savannah River nuclear tank waste sludge. Boehmite dissolution from sludge using caustic at elevated temperatures is being planned at Hanford to minimize the mass of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW) during operation of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). To more thoroughly understand the chemistry of this dissolution process, we have developed an empirical kinetic model for aluminate production due to boehmite dissolution. Application of this model to Hanford tank wastes would allow predictability and optimization of the caustic leaching of aluminum solids, potentially yielding significant improvements to overall processing time, disposal cost, and schedule. This report presents an empirical kinetic model that can be used to estimate the aluminate production from the leaching of boehmite in Hanford waste as a function of the following parameters: (1) hydroxide concentration; (2) temperature; (3) specific surface area of boehmite; (4) initial soluble aluminate plus gibbsite present in waste; (5) concentration of boehmite in the waste; and (6) (pre-fit) Arrhenius kinetic parameters. The model was fit to laboratory, non-radioactive (e.g. 'simulant boehmite') leaching results, providing best-fit values of the Arrhenius A-factor, A, and apparent activation energy, E{sub A}, of A = 5.0 x 10{sup 12} hour{sup -1} and E{sub A} = 90 kJ/mole. These parameters were then used to predict boehmite leaching behavior observed in previously reported actual waste leaching studies. Acceptable aluminate versus leaching time profiles were predicted for waste leaching data from both Hanford and Savannah River site studies.

  19. A uniform geometrical optics and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for evaluating high frequency EM fields near smooth caustics and composite shadow boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniform geometrical optics (UGO) and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (EUTD) are developed for evaluating high frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields within transition regions associated with a two and three dimensional smooth caustic of reflected rays and a composite shadow boundary formed by the caustic termination or the confluence of the caustic with the reflection shadow boundary (RSB). The UGO is a uniform version of the classic geometrical optics (GO). It retains the simple ray optical expressions of classic GO and employs a new set of uniform reflection coefficients. The UGO also includes a uniform version of the complex GO ray field that exists on the dark side of the smooth caustic. The EUTD is an extension of the classic uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) and accounts for the non-ray optical behavior of the UGO reflected field near caustics by using a two-variable transition function in the expressions for the edge diffraction coefficients. It also uniformly recovers the classic UTD behavior of the edge diffracted field outside the composite shadow boundary transition region. The approach employed for constructing the UGO/EUTD solution is based on a spatial domain physical optics (PO) radiation integral representation for the fields which is then reduced using uniform asymptotic procedures. The UGO/EUTD analysis is also employed to investigate the far-zone RCS problem of plane wave scattering from two and three dimensional polynomial defined surfaces, and uniform reflection, zero-curvature, and edge diffraction coefficients are derived. Numerical results for the scattering and diffraction from cubic and fourth order polynomial strips are also shown and the UGO/EUTD solution is validated by comparison to an independent moment method (MM) solution. The UGO/EUTD solution is also compared with the classic GO/UTD solution. The failure of the classic techniques near caustics and composite shadow boundaries is clearly

  20. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C

    2006-04-21

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of testing

  1. Point Diffraction Interferometry to Measure Local Curvatures and Caustics of Noisy Wave Fronts: Application for Determining Optical Properties of Fish Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallmitjana, S.; Ricart, I.; Bosch, S.; Gargallo, A.; Acosta, E.

    2015-02-01

    The study of caustics is important because they contain information about the image formation properties of optical systems. In this work we use the concept of caustic as a set of focal points, and we have developed a second order approach theory to determine local slopes and curvatures of a wavefront emerging from an optical system. The method is based on the use of a point diffraction interferometer, and the analysis of the interferograms allows us to compute the focal region. Experimental results obtained with a plano-convex lens demonstrate the accuracy of the combined theoretical-experimental method here developed. Application to noisy wavefronts such as those produced by biological samples, specifically in crystalline lenses of fish eyes, are also exposed.

  2. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2. Topical report for test circuit maintenance, refurbishment, modification, and off-line operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This is a report of the maintenance, refurbishment, modifications, and off-line circuit component testing of the integrated test circuit of the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The project is sponsored by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC22-86-PC91257.

  3. Caustic burn caused by intradermal self administration of muriatic acid for suicidal attempt: optimal wound healing and functional recovery with a non surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    FINO, P.; SPAGNOLI, A.M.; RUGGIERI, M.; ONESTI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Caustic burns are burns of third and fourth degree caused by strong acids or strong bases. Muriatic acid is often used for suicidal attempt by ingestion. We describe a case of a caustic skin lesion caused by intravenous failed attempt of suicide by injection of Muriatic acid in a woman affected with bipolar-syndrome. Generally, caustic burns are treated by cleansing, escarectomy and coverage with skin grafts. Case report We treated the patient with a non invasive technique with collagenase and hyaluronic acid sodium salt cream (Bionect start®), hyaluronic acid-based matrix (Hyalomatrix®) and Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) Therapy®. Results We obtained complete healing in 6 weeks. Conclusions Combined use of non invasive techniques seems to ensure only advantages for both the patients and the Health System. It reduces health care costs and risks for the patients such as nosocomial infections. Patient’s compliance is high, as its quality of life. Complete healing of the wound is fast and recovery of function is full. PMID:26712258

  4. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

  5. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, And Caustic Wash Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 4 Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-10-25

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) samples from several of the ?microbatches? of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (?Macrobatch?) 4 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES). Furthermore, samples from the CWT have been analyzed by a variety of methods to investigate a decline in the decontamination factor (DF) of the cesium observed at MCU. The results indicate good decontamination performance within process design expectations. While the data set is sparse, the results of this set and the previous set of results for Macrobatch 3 samples indicate generally consistent operations. There is no indication of a disruption in plutonium and strontium removal. The average cesium DF and concentration factor (CF) for samples obtained from Macrobatch 4 are slightly lower than for Macrobatch 3, but still well within operating parameters. The DSSHT samples show continued presence of titanium, likely from leaching of the monosodium titanate in Actinide Removal Process (ARP).

  6. Agent neutralization study IV. VX-caustic peroxide reactions. Final report, August 1993-February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanec, J.W.; Albizo, J.M.; Henderson, V.D.; Yang, Y.C.

    1994-08-01

    The use of concentrated mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide for the chemical neutralization (detoxification) of VX has been examined. The reaction of VX in 4 N sodium hydroxide/11% hydrogen peroxide is rapid and exothermic. Care must be taken to avoid temperature increases which can induce peroxide decomposition. This can be done by controlling the addition of VX to the reaction. (Author).

  7. Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium Using Gadolinium as the Neutron Poison for Disposition to High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronikowski, M.G.

    2002-06-24

    Nuclear Materials Management Division (NMMD) has proposed that up to 100 kg of the plutonium (Pu) solutions stored in H-Canyon be precipitated with a nuclear poison and dispositioned to H-Area Tank Farm. The use of gadolinium (Gd) as the poison would greatly reduce the number of additional glass logs resulting from this disposition. This report summarizes the characteristics of the precipitation process and addresses criticality concerns in the Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation. No problems were found with the nature of the precipitate or the neutralization process.

  8. Intragranular porosity in Hanford sand grains after reaction with caustic tank wastes: Quantification and implications for reactive transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Reactions of caustic tank waste with sediments in the 200 East Area of the Hanford site cause quartz and primary aluminosilicate minerals to dissolve. Secondary minerals of sodalite and cancrinite have been shown to nucleate on, and cement together, quartz grains. These secondary precipitates have been found to uptake radionuclides in their network of channels and cages. In this work, thin sections from unreacted and reacted column experiments packed with Hanford sand grains were imaged using 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM image analysis reveals large amounts of intragranular pore space in both the reacted and unreacted sands. Grayscale Backscattered Electron (BSE) images were thresholded to separate grain and pore pixels. To quantify the amount of intragranular pore space, a set of images were manually created with the intragranular pore space removed, or the grains filled-in. Porosity, and intragranular porosity, was determined by counting and comparing the number of pore pixels in each pair of images. Intragranular pore space accounts for up to 14% of total porosity. Quartz dissolution in intragranular regions increases the proportion of intragranular pore space in reacted samples. Diffusion of tank waste into these free silica rich areas provides a favorable environment for cancrinite precipitates to form and a potential significant trapping mechanism for radionuclides. Part of this work was to quantify where, within a single pore and a network of pores, precipitation occurred. While the bulk amount of cancrinite precipitation occurred on grain surfaces, cancrinite precipitates were also found in intragranular pore spaces. Up to 10% of total precipitation occurred in intragranular pore space. However, as the system recovers and clean water flow returns, radionuclides incorporated into precipitates in intragranular regions may act as a secondary long term leaching source for contaminants. To determine the trapping or leaching potential from

  9. CHARACTERIZING LOW-MASS BINARIES FROM OBSERVATION OF LONG-TIMESCALE CAUSTIC-CROSSING GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Sumi, T.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Fouque, P.; Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; muFUN Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; and others

    2012-08-20

    Despite the astrophysical importance of binary star systems, detections are limited to those located in small ranges of separations, distances, and masses and thus it is necessary to use a variety of observational techniques for a complete view of stellar multiplicity across a broad range of physical parameters. In this paper, we report the detections and measurements of two binaries discovered from observations of microlensing events MOA-2011-BLG-090 and OGLE-2011-BLG-0417. Determinations of the binary masses are possible by simultaneously measuring the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured masses of the binary components are 0.43 M{sub Sun} and 0.39 M{sub Sun} for MOA-2011-BLG-090 and 0.57 M{sub Sun} and 0.17 M{sub Sun} for OGLE-2011-BLG-0417 and thus both lens components of MOA-2011-BLG-090 and one component of OGLE-2011-BLG-0417 are M dwarfs, demonstrating the usefulness of microlensing in detecting binaries composed of low-mass components. From modeling of the light curves considering full Keplerian motion of the lens, we also measure the orbital parameters of the binaries. The blended light of OGLE-2011-BLG-0417 comes very likely from the lens itself, making it possible to check the microlensing orbital solution by follow-up radial-velocity observation. For both events, the caustic-crossing parts of the light curves, which are critical for determining the physical lens parameters, were resolved by high-cadence survey observations and thus it is expected that the number of microlensing binaries with measured physical parameters will increase in the future.

  10. Clay mineral weathering and contaminant dynamics in a caustic aqueous system. I. Wet chemistry and aging effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sunkyung; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Chorover, Jon

    2005-09-01

    Caustic high level radioactive waste induces mineral weathering reactions that can influence the fate of radionuclides released in the vicinity of leaking storage tanks. The uptake and release of Cs I and Sr II were studied in batch reactors of 2:1 layer-type silicates—illite (Il), vermiculite (Vm) and montmorillonite (Mt)—under geochemical conditions characteristic of leaking tank waste at the Hanford Site in WA (0.05 m Al T, 2 m Na +, 1 m NO 3-, pH ˜14, Cs and Sr present as co-contaminants). Time series (0 to 369 d) experiments were conducted at 298 K, with initial [Cs] 0 and [Sr] 0 concentrations from 10 -5 to 10 -3 mol kg -1. Clay mineral type affected the rates of (i) hydroxide promoted dissolution of Si, Al and Fe, (ii) precipitation of secondary solids and (iii) uptake of Cs and Sr. Initial Si release to solution followed the order Mt > Vm > Il. An abrupt decrease in soluble Si and/or Al after 33 d for Mt and Vm systems, and after 190 d for Il suspensions was concurrent with accumulation of secondary aluminosilicate precipitates. Strontium uptake exceeded that of Cs in both rate and extent, although sorbed Cs was generally more recalcitrant to subsequent desorption and dissolution. After 369 d reaction time, reacted Il, Vm and Mt solids retained up to 17, 47 and 14 mmol kg -1 (0.18, 0.24 and 0.02 μmol m -2) of Cs, and 0, 27 and 22 mmol kg -1 (0, 0.14 and 0.03 μmol m -2) Sr, respectively, which were not removed in subsequent Mg exchange or oxalic acid dissolution reactions. Solubility of Al and Si decreased with initial Cs and Sr concentration in Mt and Il, but not in Vm. High co-contaminant sorption to the Vm clay, therefore, appears to diminish the influence of those ions on mineral transformation rates.

  11. Clay mineral weathering and contaminant dynamics in a caustic aqueous system I. Wet chemistry and aging effects

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sunkyung; Amistadi, Mary K.; Chorover, Jon

    2005-04-08

    Caustic high level radioactive waste induces mineral weathering reactions that can influence the fate of radionuclides released in the vicinity of leaking storage tanks. The uptake and release of CsI and SrII were studied in batch reactors of 2:1 layer-type silicates?illite (Il), vermiculite (Vm) and montmorillonite (Mt)?under geochemical conditions characteristic of leaking tank waste at the Hanford Site in WA (0.05 mAlT, 2 m Na*, 1 m NO3 *, pH *14, Cs and Sr present as co-contaminants). Time series (0 to 369 d) experiments were conducted at 298 K, with initial [Cs]0 and [Sr]0 concentrations from 10*5 to 10*3 mol kg*1. Clay mineral type affected the rates of (1) hydroxide promoted dissolution of Si, Al and Fe, (2) precipitation of secondary solids and (3) uptake of Cs and Sr. Initial Si release to solution followed the order Mt * Vm * Il. An abrupt decrease in soluble Si and/or Al after 33 d for Mt and Vm systems, and after 190 d for Il suspensions was concurrent with accumulation of secondary aluminosilicate precipitates. Strontium uptake exceeded that of Cs in both rate and extent, although sorbed Cs was generally more recalcitrant to subsequent desorption and dissolution. After 369 d reaction time, reacted Il, Vm and Mt solids retained up to 17, 47 and 14 mmol kg*1 (0.18, 0.24 and 0.02 *mol m*2) of Cs, and 0, 27 and 22 mmol kg*1 (0, 0.14 and 0.03 *molm*2) Sr, respectively, which were not removed in subsequent Mg exchange or oxalic acid dissolution reactions. Solubility of Al and Si decreased with initial Cs and Sr concentration in Mt and Il, but not in Vm. High co-contaminant sorption to the Vm clay, therefore, appears to diminish the influence of those ions on mineral transformation rates.

  12. Radiolytic Treatment of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) Solvent and its Effect on the NGS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Duncan, Nathan C.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Lee, Denise L.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-01

    We show in this work that the solvent used in the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process can withstand a radiation dose well in excess of the dose it would receive in multiple years of treating legacy salt waste at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. The solvent was subjected to a maximum of 50 kGy of gamma radiation while in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS−15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). Bench-top testing of irradiated solvent confirmed that irradiation has inconsequential impact on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping performance of the solvent up to 13 times the estimated 0.73 kGy/y annual absorbed dose. Lastly, stripping performance is the most sensitive step to radiation, deteriorating more due to buildup of p-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and possibly other proton-ionizable products than to degradation of the guanidine suppressor, as shown by chemical analyses.

  13. Radiolytic Treatment of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) Solvent and its Effect on the NGS Process

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Duncan, Nathan C.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Lee, Denise L.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-01

    We show in this work that the solvent used in the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process can withstand a radiation dose well in excess of the dose it would receive in multiple years of treating legacy salt waste at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. The solvent was subjected to a maximum of 50 kGy of gamma radiation while in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS−15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). Bench-top testing ofmore » irradiated solvent confirmed that irradiation has inconsequential impact on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping performance of the solvent up to 13 times the estimated 0.73 kGy/y annual absorbed dose. Lastly, stripping performance is the most sensitive step to radiation, deteriorating more due to buildup of p-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and possibly other proton-ionizable products than to degradation of the guanidine suppressor, as shown by chemical analyses.« less

  14. The efficiency of quartz addition on electric arc furnace (EAF) carbon steel slag stability.

    PubMed

    Mombelli, D; Mapelli, C; Barella, S; Gruttadauria, A; Le Saout, G; Garcia-Diaz, E

    2014-08-30

    Electric arc furnace slag (EAF) has the potential to be re-utilized as an alternative to stone material, however, only if it remains chemically stable on contact with water. The presence of hydraulic phases such as larnite (2CaO SiO2) could cause dangerous elements to be released into the environment, i.e. Ba, V, Cr. Chemical treatment appears to be the only way to guarantee a completely stable structure, especially for long-term applications. This study presents the efficiency of silica addition during the deslagging period. Microstructural characterization of modified slag was performed by SEM and XRD analysis. Elution tests were performed according to the EN 12457-2 standard, with the addition of silica and without, and the obtained results were compared. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the inertization process: the added silica induces the formation of gehlenite, which, even in caustic environments, does not exhibit hydraulic behaviour. PMID:25113518

  15. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  16. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  17. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  19. PEP Run Report for Integrated Test A, Caustic Leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A, Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Su, Yin-Fong; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, Dennese M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Young, Joan K.

    2009-12-04

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.”(a) The PEP, located in the Process Engineering Laboratory-West (PDLW) located in Richland, Washington, is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  20. Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2009-12-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  1. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Anti-Caking Surfactants Found to be Cause of Apparent Effect of High Nitrite Concentration on Cesium Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    Experiments conducted in FY01 previously indicated a potential cesium stripping problem in the CSSX process due to the presence of nitrite in the waste simulant. The stripping issue seemed all the more important as the nitrite concentration increased. Experiments presented in this work have demonstrated that the true reason for the cesium stripping problem was in fact the presence of an anti-caking agent in the,sodium nitrite. used for the preparation of the simulants. The anti-caking agent is actually a mixture of well-known surfactants, sodium mono- and di-methyl naphthalene sulfonate that can partition into the organic-phase on extraction, then retain cesium upon stripping. The effect was demonstrated by adding known amounts of the anti-caking agent to clean systems. Data suggest that rejuvenation of the solvent can be obtained by a caustic wash following the stripping stage.

  2. The effect of microstructural changes on the caustic stress corrosion cracking resistance of a NiCrMoV rotor steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, N.; Briant, C. L.; Hall, E. L.

    1985-07-01

    This paper presents a study of the effects of microstructural changes on the caustic stress corrosion cracking resistance of a NiCrMoV rotor steel. All tests were run in 9 M NaOH at 98 °C and at an electrochemical potential of -400 mVHg/Hgo. Different microstructures were obtained by tempering martensitic samples for different times at 600 °C or by using a slow controlled cool from the austenite to produce a bainitic structure. The results show that heat treatments which produced large, chromiumrich carbides are beneficial. These carbides are preferentially corroded and cause pits to form at the crack tip. We propose that these pits cause crack tip blunting and slow crack propagation. It is further shown that, although changes in microstructure can produce improvements in the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, these changes cannot compensate for the detrimental effects of phosphorus segregation to grain boundaries.

  3. Effects of caustic sodium concentration and molecular ratio of Na2O to Al2O3 on agglomeration in the precipitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanwei; Chen, Wenmi; Li, Wangxing

    2010-11-01

    The supersaturation of sodium aluminate solution (liquor) is a prerequisite for agglomeration and the key factors that determine supersaturation of liquor are caustic sodium concentration (Nk) and molecular ratio of Na2O to Al2O3 (αk). In this paper, the effects of Nk and αk on the agglomeration process of seeded precipitation were studied. The results show that the Nk plays an important role in the agglomeration process. The supersaturation of liquor decreases with the increasing of Nk and so not only does the precipitation ratio of liquor decrease but also the particle size of agglomerate decreases. The supersaturation of liquor decreases with the increasing of αk and so the precipitation rate and depth of liquor decrease and thus the agglomeration of fine particles is weakened.

  4. Time-dependent Measurements of Dissolution-precipitation Reactions Caused by Caustic Waste Solutions At the Hanford Site Using Synchrotron Computed Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Jones, K. W.; Um, W.; Rockhold, M. L.; Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    Leaking of caustic (hyper-alkaline) radioactive wastes, generated from plutonium production during the Cold War and stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford Site (Richland, WA), has been detected in the subsurface. The caustic wastes leachate induces primary mineral dissolution (releasing Si) and subsequent secondary precipitation (feldspathoids, such as sodalite and cancrinite) in the sediments. The dissolution-precipitation reactions affect the transport of radioactive elements (90Sr and 137Cs) in the sub-surface through changing the morphology of the sediments. We studied here the changes of the morphology of the sediments caused by exposure of quartz sand or Hanford sediments to simulated tank waste leachates (2 M Na+, 1 M OH-, 1.053 M NO3-, 0.05 M Al3+ and 10-5 M Sr2+) using a series of steady-state-flow saturated column experiments. The 3D structures were determined using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Sequential measurements were made at intervals over an exposure time of up to ~620 days with a pixel size of 4 μm in mini columns (ID2.1 mm) packed with quartz sand, or with a pixel size of 11 μm in intermediate size columns (ID19 mm) packed with Hanford sediments. Values for porosity as a function of treatment time were obtained showing major changes. Good agreement was found between the microstructure porosity determinations with results obtained from measurements on the composition of the treatment fluids. The results also show the changes in the three dimensional morphology of the sediment structures as a function of the treatment time. Good agreement was also found between observed and simulated porosity and aqueous chemistry obtained using the reactive transport simulator STOMP. A comparison of the CMT results with complementary high-resolution scanning electron microscopy scans will also be presented.

  5. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  6. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  7. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  8. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  12. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  13. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  17. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  18. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  19. Corrosion Study of Super Ferritic Stainless Steel UNS S44660 (26Cr-3Ni-3Mo) and Several Other Stainless Steel Grades (UNS S31603, S32101, and S32205) in Caustic Solution Containing Sodium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasse, Kevin R.; Singh, Preet M.

    2013-11-01

    Electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used in this study to show how the corrosion mechanism of several commercial grades of stainless steel in hot caustic solution is strongly influenced by the presence of sodium sulfide. Experimental results from super ferritic stainless steel UNS S44660 (26Cr-3Ni-3Mo) were compared to austenitic stainless steel UNS S31603, lean duplex stainless steel (DSS) UNS S32101, and standard DSS UNS S32205 in caustic solution, with and without sodium sulfide, at 443 K (170 °C). Weight loss measurements indicated that corrosion rates of UNS44660 were much lower than the other grades of stainless steel in the presence of the sodium sulfide. Potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization resistance measurements showed that the electrochemical behavior was altered by the adhesion of sulfur species, which reduced the polarization resistances and increased the anodic current densities. SEM and XPS results imply that the surface films that formed in caustic solution containing sodium sulfide were defective due to the adsorption of sulfide, which destabilized the passive film and led to the formation of insoluble metal sulfide compounds.

  20. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  1. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  2. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  3. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  4. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  5. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  7. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  8. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  9. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF NEXT GENERATION CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 3, 8, AND 16 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-30

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, initially organo-nitrate groups are generated and attach to the modifier and that with time oxidation reactions convert the modifier into a tarry substance with gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO) evolving. Calorimetric analysis of the organonitrate revealed the reaction products are not explosive nor will they deflagrate. NGS exposure to 3 M nitric acid resulted in much slower reaction kinetics and that the generated products were not energetic. We recommended conducting Accelerated Rate calorimetry on the materials generated in the 16 M and 8 M nitric acid test. Also, we recommend continue monitoring of the samples contacting NGS with 3 M nitric acid.

  10. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  11. An efficient model to predict guided wave radiation by finite-sized sources in multilayered anisotropic plates with account of caustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stévenin, M.; Lhémery, A.; Grondel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Elastic guided waves (GW) are used in various non-destructive testing (NDT) methods to inspect plate-like structures, generated by finite-sized transducers. Thanks to GW long range propagation, using a few transducers at permanent positions can provide a full coverage of the plate. Transducer diffraction effects take place, leading to complex radiated fields. Optimizing transducers positioning makes it necessary to accurately predict the GW field radiated by a transducer. Fraunhofer-like approximations applied to GW in isotropic homogeneous plates lead to fast and accurate field computation but can fail when applied to multi-layered anisotropic composite plates, as shown by some examples given. Here, a model is proposed for composite plates, based on the computation of the approximate Green's tensor describing modal propagation from a source point, with account of caustics typically seen when strong anisotropy is concerned. Modal solutions are otherwise obtained by the Semi-Analytic Finite Element method. Transducer diffraction effects are accounted for by means of an angular integration over the transducer surface as seen from the calculation point, that is, over energy paths involved, which are mode-dependent. The model is validated by comparing its predictions with those computed by means of a full convolution integration of the Green's tensor with the source over transducer surface. Examples given concern disk and rectangular shaped transducers commonly used in NDT.

  12. Thermal And Spectroscopic Analyses Of Next Generation Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Contacted With 3, 8, And 16 Molar Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2011-12-07

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. The NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU{sup a} and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. Reaction rates are much faster in 8 M and 16 M nitric acid than in 3 M nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, the nitric acid reacts with the extractant to produce initially organo-nitrate species. The reaction also releases soluble fluorinated alcohols such as tetrafluoropropanol. With longer contact time, the modifier reacts to produce a tarry substance with evolved gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO). Calorimetric analysis of the reaction product mixtures revealed that the organo-nitrates reaction products are not explosive and will not deflagrate.

  13. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  14. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  15. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  16. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  17. EFFECTS OF CHEMISTRY AND OTHER VARIABLES ON CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN MH

    2008-11-13

    Laboratory testing was performed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the corrosivity of the tank wastes stored in Double-Shell Tanks using simulants primarily from Tanks 241-AP-105, 241-SY-103 and 241-AW-105. Additional tests were conducted using simulants of the waste stored in 241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-AN-107, and 241-AY-101. This test program placed particular emphasis on defining the range of tank waste chemistries that do not induce the onset of localized forms of corrosion, particularly pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This document summarizes the key findings of the research program.

  18. RESULTS OF ROUTINE STRIP EFFLUENT HOLD TANK AND DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT DURING MACROBATCH 3 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-10

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the 'microbatches' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch ('Macrobatch') 3 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results indicate good decontamination performance within process design expectations. While the data set is sparse, the results of this set and the previous set of results for Macrobatch 3 samples indicate consistent operations. However, the Decontamination Factors for plutonium and strontium removal have declined in Macrobatch 3, compared to Macrobatch 2. This may be due to the differences in the Pu concentration or the bulk chemical concentrations in the feed material. SRNL is considering the possible reasons for this decline. The DSSHT samples show continued presence of titanium, likely from leaching of the monosodium titanate in ARP. During operation of the ISDP, quantities of salt waste are processed through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and MCU in batches of {approx}3800 gallons. Monosodium titanate (MST) is used in ARP to adsorb actinides and strontium from the salt waste and the waste slurry is then filtered prior to sending the clarified salt solution to MCU. The MCU uses solvent extraction technology to extract cesium from salt waste and concentrate cesium in an acidic aqueous stream (Strip Effluent - SE), leaving a decontaminated caustic salt aqueous stream (Decontaminated Salt Solution - DSS). Sampling occurs in the Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) and Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) in the MCU process. The MCU sample plan requires that batches be sampled and analyzed for plutonium and strontium content by Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) to determine MST effectiveness. The cesium measurement is used to monitor cesium removal effectiveness and the inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES) is

  19. Development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from High-Level Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Bonnesen, Peter V; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Lee, Denise L; Leonard, Ralph; Fink, Samuel D; Peters, Thomas B.; Geeting, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical performance of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process in its current state of development for removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level tank wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the US Department of Energy (USDOE) complex. Overall, motivation for seeking a major enhancement in performance for the currently deployed CSSX process stems from needs for accelerating the cleanup schedule and reducing the cost of salt-waste disposition. The primary target of the NG-CSSX development campaign in the past year has been to formulate a solvent system and to design a corresponding flowsheet that boosts the performance of the SRS Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) from a current minimum decontamination factor of 12 to 40,000. The chemical approach entails use of a more soluble calixarene-crown ether, called MaxCalix, allowing the attainment of much higher cesium distribution ratios (DCs) on extraction. Concurrently decreasing the Cs-7SB modifier concentration is anticipated to promote better hydraulics. A new stripping chemistry has been devised using a vitrification-friendly aqueous boric acid strip solution and a guanidine suppressor in the solvent, resulting in sharply decreased DCs on stripping. Results are reported herein on solvent phase behavior and batch Cs distribution for waste simulants and real waste together with a preliminary flowsheet applicable for implementation in the MCU. The new solvent will enable MCU to process a much wider range of salt feeds and thereby extend its service lifetime beyond its design life of three years. Other potential benefits of NG-CSSX include increased throughput of the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), currently under construction, and an alternative modular near-tank application at Hanford.

  20. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  1. Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Original Millisecond and Black Widow Pulsars: A Case for Caustic Radio Emission?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Kerr, M.; Pancrazi, B.; Livingstone, M.; Janssen, G. H.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Kramer, M.; Cognard, I.; Stappers, B. W.; Harding, A. K.; Camilo, F.; Espinoza, C. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gargano, F.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Michelson, P. F.; Noutsos, A.; Parent, D.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Shannon, R.; Smith, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-ray emission from the fast millisecond pulsars (MSPs) B1937+21 (also known as J1939+2134) and B1957+20 (J1959+2048) using 18 months of survey data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and timing solutions based on radio observations conducted at the Westerbork and Nancay radio telescopes. In addition, we analyzed archival RXTE and XMM-Newton X-ray data for the two MSPs, confirming the X-ray emission properties of PSR B1937+21 and finding evidence (approx. 4(sigma)) for pulsed emission from PSR B1957+20 for the first time. In both cases the gamma-ray emission profile is characterized by two peaks separated by half a rotation and are in close alignment with components observed in radio and X-rays. These two pulsars join PSRs J0034..0534 and J2214+3000 to form an emerging class of gamma-ray MSPs with phase-aligned peaks in different energy bands. The modeling of the radio and gamma-ray emission pro les suggests co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere.

  2. Alternatives to Nitric Acid Stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from Alkaline High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Haverlock, Tamara; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Ditto, Mary E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSX process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the

  3. Caustic reaction caused by cement.

    PubMed

    Rados, Jaka; Lipozencić, Jasna; Milavec-Puretić, Visnja

    2005-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient who developed full thickness chemical burns of the skin after a prolonged contact while working with wet cement. The history, course of disease, and therapy are described. Cement is an alkaline substance (pH >12) leading to colliquative necrosis. Tissue damage is due to the exothermic reaction of calcium oxide and water forming calcium hydroxide. Patch test was performed to test sensitization to chromium, chromate and cobalt, the usual cement ingredients. In our opinion, such lesions may not be rare because cement is widely used in construction, but are rarely described or under-recognized. PMID:16324425

  4. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  5. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  6. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  7. Conceptual Design of a Simplified Skid-Mounted Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Removal of Cesium from Savannah Rive Site High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, JR.J.F.

    2004-05-12

    This report presents the results of a conceptual design of a solvent extraction process for the selective removal of {sup 137}Cs from high-level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). This study establishes the need for and feasibility of deploying a simplified version of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process; cost/benefit ratios ranging from 33 to 55 strongly support the considered deployment. Based on projected compositions, 18 million gallons of dissolved salt cake waste has been identified as having {sup 137}Cs concentrations that are substantially lower than the worst-case design basis for the CSSX system that is to be deployed as part of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) but that does not meet the waste acceptance criteria for immobilization as grout in the Saltstone Manufacturing and Disposal Facility at SRS. Absent deployment of an alternative cesium removal process, this material will require treatment in the SWPF CSSX system, even though the cesium decontamination factor required is far less than that provided by that system. A conceptual design of a CSSX processing system designed for rapid deployment and having reduced cesium decontamination factor capability has been performed. The proposed accelerated-deployment CSSX system (CSSX-A) has been designed to have a processing rate of 3 million gallons per year, assuming 90% availability. At a more conservative availability of 75% (reflecting the novelty of the process), the annual processing capacity is 2.5 million gallons. The primary component of the process is a 20-stage cascade of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors. The decontamination and concentration factors are 40 and 15, respectively. The solvent, scrub, strip, and wash solutions are to have the same compositions as those planned for the SWPF CSSX system. As in the SWPF CSSX system, the solvent and scrub flow rates are equal. The system is

  8. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  9. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  10. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  11. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  12. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  13. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  14. Acceptance Test Report for Fourth Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe cabinets destined for installation on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. This ATR will be performed by the manufacturer on each cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinets to be installed on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. One cabinet will be installed on each tank. Each cabinet will contain corrosion monitoring hardware to be connected to existing corrosion probes already installed in each tank. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation (input a known signal and see if the instrumentation records the proper value).

  15. Acceptance test plan for fourth generation Hanford corrosion monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-07-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe cabinets destined for installation on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer on each cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinets to be installed on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. One cabinet will be installed on each tank. Each cabinet will contain corrosion monitoring hardware to be connected to existing corrosion probes already installed in each tank. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation (input a known signal and see if the instrumentation records the proper value).

  16. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  17. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  19. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIFUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Caldwell, T.; Pak, D; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.

    2011-09-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. Conclusions from this work include the following. The CSSX process is capable of reducing {sup 137}Cs in high level radioactive waste by a factor of more than 40,000 using five extraction, two scrub, and five strip stages. Tests demonstrated extraction and strip section stage efficiencies of greater than 93% for the Tank 49H waste test and greater than 88% for the simulant waste test. During a test with HLW, researchers processed 39 liters of Tank 49H solution and the waste raffinate had an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.78E+04, with a maximum of 1.08E+05. A simulant waste solution ({approx}34.5 liters) with an initial Cs concentration of 83.1 mg/L was processed and had an average DF greater than 5.9E+03, with a maximum DF of greater than 6.6E+03. The difference may be attributable to differences in contactor stage efficiencies. Test results showed the solvent can be stripped of cesium and recycled for {approx}25 solvent turnovers without the occurrence of any measurable solvent degradation or negative effects from minor components. Based on the performance of the 12-stage 2-cm apparatus with the Tank 49H HLW, the projected DF for MCU with seven extraction, two scrub, and seven strip stages operating at a nominal efficiency of 90% is {approx}388,000. At 95% stage efficiency, the DF in MCU would be {approx}3.2 million. Carryover of organic solvent in aqueous streams (and aqueous in organic

  2. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  3. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  4. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  5. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  6. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  7. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  8. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  9. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  10. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  11. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  12. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  13. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  15. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  16. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  17. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  18. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  19. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  20. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  1. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  2. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  3. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  4. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  5. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  6. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  7. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  8. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  9. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  10. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  11. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  12. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  13. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  14. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  15. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  16. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  17. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  18. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  19. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  20. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  1. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  2. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  3. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  4. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  5. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  6. Process Development for Permanganate Addition During Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tanks Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.; Peterson, Reid A.; Blanchard, David L.

    2007-10-30

    Previous Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI)-sponsored studies have targeted optimizing sodium permanganate for the selective oxidation of chromium from washed Hanford tank sludges (Rapko et al. 2004; Rapko et al. 2005). The recommendation from previous work was that contact with sodium permanganate in a minimally caustic solution, i.e., 0.1 to 0.25 M [OH-] initially, provided maximum Cr dissolution while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution. At the request of BNI, further work on oxidative alkaline leaching was performed.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  8. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  9. 20 CFR 901.72 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional rules. 901.72 Section 901.72... Additional rules. The Joint Board may, in notice or other guidance of general applicability, provide additional rules regarding the enrollment of actuaries. Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 17776, Mar. 31,...

  10. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  11. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10...) REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading...

  12. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  13. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  14. 77 FR 49783 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/22/2012 (77 FR 37659-37660), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  15. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  16. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  17. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to determine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section...

  18. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 5/31/2013 (78 FR 32631-32632); 6/7/2013 (78 FR 34350-34351); and 6/14/2013 (78 FR... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  20. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information. 75.231 Section 75.231 Education... Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  1. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  2. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  3. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  4. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  5. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  6. 12 CFR 1249.19 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional provisions. 1249.19 Section 1249.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 1249.19 Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under this part, an Enterprise may require such...

  7. 75 FR 33269 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  8. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  9. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  10. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  11. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  12. 76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/16/2009 (74 FR 58949-58950), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 75 FR 54114 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/2/2010 (75 FR 38467-38468) and 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  15. 77 FR 53180 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/29/2012 (77 FR 38775-38776), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 76 FR 19751 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  17. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  18. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition to those established in...

  19. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  20. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...