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Sample records for 241-az-101 ultrasonic interface

  1. Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.E.

    2000-03-28

    This document comprises the Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components functioned as designed following construction completion and turnover to operations.

  2. Acceptance Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.E.

    2000-01-27

    This document comprises the Acceptance Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer. This document presents the results of Acceptance Testing of the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzers (URSILLAs). Testing of the URSILLAs was performed in accordance with ATP-260-001, ''URSILLA Pre-installation Acceptance Test Procedure''. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components function in accordance with design specifications and original equipment manufacturer's specifications.

  3. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 ultrasonic inspection

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-08-23

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AZ-101. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found one reportable indication of thinning and no reportable pitting, corrosion, or cracking.

  4. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AZ-101. Examination Completed July 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-08-12

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AZ-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AZ-101 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M HILL and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M HILL, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AZ-101 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of five vertical welds and one horizontal weld from Riser 89. The examination also included two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 90. The examination was performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  5. SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

    1997-06-09

    This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by

  6. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-10-17

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its` related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed.

  7. Operational test procedure 241-AZ-101 waste tank color video camera system

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.S.

    1996-10-30

    The purpose of this procedure is to provide a documented means of verifying that all of the functional components of the 241-AZ- 101 Waste Tank Video Camera System operate properly before and after installation.

  8. System Description for Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    ROMERO, S.G.

    2000-02-14

    The proposed activity provides the description of the Data Acquisition System for Tank 241-AZ-101. This description is documented in HNF-5572, Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System (DAS). This activity supports the planned mixer pump tests for Tank 241-AZ-101. Tank 241-AZ-101 has been selected for the first full-scale demonstration of a mixer pump system. The tank currently holds over 960,000 gallons of neutralized current acid waste, including approximately 12.7 inches of settling solids (sludge) at the bottom of the tank. As described in Addendum 4 of the FSAR (LMHC 2000a), two 300 HP mixer pumps with associated measurement and monitoring equipment have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101. The purpose of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to provide monitoring and data acquisition of key parameters in order to confirm the effectiveness of the mixer pumps utilized for suspending solids in the tank. The suspension of solids in Tank 241-AZ-101 is necessary for pretreatment of the neutralized current acid waste and eventual disposal as glass via the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. HNF-5572 provides a basic description of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system DAS, including the field instrumentation and application software. The DAS is provided to fulfill requirements for data collection and monitoring. This document is not an operations procedure or is it intended to describe the mixing operation. This USQ screening provides evaluation of HNF-5572 (Revision 1) including the changes as documented on ECN 654001. The changes include (1) add information on historical trending and data backup, (2) modify DAS I/O list in Appendix E to reflect actual conditions in the field, and (3) delete IP address in Appendix F per Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. request.

  9. System Description for Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    ROMERO, S.G.

    2000-01-10

    Describes the hardware and software for the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Data Acquisition System. The purpose of the tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to provide monitoring and data acquisition of key parameters in order to confirm the effectiveness of the mixer pumps utilized for suspending solids in the tank. The suspension of solids in Tank 241-AZ-101 is necessary for pretreatment of the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), and eventual disposal as glass via the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant.

  10. Tank 241-AZ-101 steam bumping and settling Process Test report

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, C.M.

    1995-12-04

    This report summarizes the process test in which the airlift circulators in Tank 241-AZ-101 were shutdown. The test was successful, in that no extreme temperature excursions occurred. Only general data was obtianed through the use of a gamma energy probe.

  11. Structural evaluation of thermocouple probes for 241-AZ-101 waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Kanjilal, S.K.

    1994-12-06

    This document reports on the structural analysis of the thermocouple probe to be installed in 241-AZ-101 waste tank. The thermocouple probe is analyzed for normal pump mixing operation and potential earthquake induced loads required by the Hanford Site Design Criteria SDC-4.1.

  12. Tank 241-AZ-101 and tank 241-AZ-102, airlift circulator operation vapor sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-06-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs). The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-AZ-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No.2E98-082 and No.2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds.

  13. Tank 241-AZ-101 and Tank 241-AZ-102 Airlift Circulator Operation Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-12-07

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs) and during the initial operation (''bump'') of the tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pumps. The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-142-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No. 2E98-082 and No. 2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). In addition the last two vapor samples will be collected from the headspace of tank 241-AZ-101 during the operation of the mixer pumps. Each mixer pump will be operated for approximately 5 minutes. Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval

  14. Tank 241-AZ-101 prototype corrosion probe four month status report

    SciTech Connect

    Edgemon, G.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-12

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford Site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks. The installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring system into double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 was completed in August, 1996. The system monitors fluctuations in corrosion current and potential (electrochemical noise) occurring on three electrode arrays immersed in the waste liquid and in the vapor space above the waste. The system also supports the use of Tafel and linear polarization resistance testing. By monitoring and analyzing the data from these techniques, changes in the corrosive characteristics of the waste have been rapidly detected and correlated with operational changes in the tank.

  15. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  16. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  17. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  18. 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    2000-03-01

    Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including: depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

  19. Ultrasonic characterization of metallic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.D. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    A set of diffusion bonded copper samples was prepared at different temperatures and times, allowing the bonding to proceed across the planar interfaces. To obtain a second set, interfaces were roughened to various degrees followed by diffusion bonding at a designated time/temperature condition. On all samples, ultrasonic reflection coefficient (R) maps of the bonded interfaces were obtained over a broad frequency range. In addition, the bond strengths, ..sigma.., of the interfaces were determined, thus providing an empirical ..sigma..-R correlation. Nearly all of the specimens tested failed along the interfaces, exposing fracture planes with distinctive features indicating originally bonded and unbonded areas. These features, examined metallographically, allowed for the successful testing of the ''distributed spring model'' by Baik and Thompson (J. NDE 4, 177, 1984). This model was used as an intermediate step in the development of a bond strength model to explain the observed ..sigma..-R correlation, the beginnings of which are discussed. 32 refs., 22 figs.

  20. Ultrasonic characterization of interfaces in composite bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Cantrell, J. H.

    2011-06-23

    The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

  1. Ultrasonic Characterization of Interfaces in Composite Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Cantrell, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

  2. Ultrasonic interface level analyzer shop test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    1999-05-24

    The Royce Instrument Corporation Model 2511 Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA) system uses an ultrasonic ranging technique (SONAR) to measure sludge depths in holding tanks. Three URSILLA instrument assemblies provided by the W-151 project are planned to be used during mixer pump testing to provide data for determining sludge mobilization effectiveness of the mixer pumps and sludge settling rates. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the three URSILLA instruments operate properly. Successful completion of this Shop Test Procedure (STP) is a prerequisite for installation in the AZ-101 tank. The objective of the test is to verify the operation of the URSILLA instruments and to verify data collection using a stand alone software program.

  3. Evaluation of ultrasonic signals from diffusion and eutectic bond interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    1980-12-01

    A research program is in progress at Rocky Flats to determine correlations between ultrasonic signal content and diffusion or eutectic bond joint condition, and to develop a computer-controlled scanning, data acquisition and analysis system which utilizes these correlations and waveform analysis techniques. The initial efforts to determine effective ultrasonic waveform parameters to characterize the strength of bond interfaces is complete. A development version of a computer-controlled, automated scanning and data acquisition system is in operation.

  4. 241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    WERRY, S.M.

    2000-03-23

    This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

  5. Project specific quality assurance plan, W-151, Tank 241-AZ-101 waste retrieval system. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Manthei, M.E.

    1994-11-21

    This project specific quality assurance program plan establishes the responsibility for the implementation of QA requirements, defines and documents the QA requirements associated with design, procurement, and construction, and defines and documents the degree of QA reviews and verifications on the design and construction necessary to assure compliance to project and DOE requirements. Revision 2 updates the QAPP to provide concurrence with approved work scope deletion. In addition, the Quality Assurance Program Index is being updated to reflect the current Quality Assurance Program requirements per DOE Order 5700.6C.

  6. Ceramic joint interface diagnostics with ultrasonic reflection signal energies

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, K.L.; Walter, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    The properties of silicon nitride ceramic joints, prepared by hot isostatic pressing, have been investigated by recording the reflected ultrasonic elastic wave off the joint interface. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the reflected signal energy has shown that properties of the joint interface such as thickness, joining compound composition, inclusions, and voids, can be imaged over the joint plane. A model incorporating plane waves shows that the reflected signal energy is a function of joint thickness, joint/host acoustic impedence and transducer bandwidth. For joint thicknesses less than the average ultrasonic wavelength in the joint, the reflected signal energy depends quadratically on the thickness. This dependence was verified by for several joints by direct measurement. In the opposite regime, where the joint thickness is greater than the ultrasonic wavelength, the reflected signal energy is independent of thickness and only a function of the joint/host acoustic impedence mismatch. This regime was not accessible with the bandwidth transducers. The results suggest that for a given range of thicknesses, measurement of the joint energy with broadband transducers with different center frequencies could provide a means of determining both the joint thickness and joint/host acoustic impedence mismatch. Joint thickness is the most prominent parameter that can be probed with ultrasonics and its effect on fracture toughness should be an important parameter in determining the quality of joints. Qualitatively, the reflected signal energy method of data analysis is a rapid means for assessing joint quality with respect to thickness, inclusions, and voids.

  7. 2008 ULTRASONIC BENCHMARK STUDIES OF INTERFACE CURVATURE--A SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerr, L. W.; Huang, R.; Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.; Leymarie, N.; Lonne, S.; Spies, M.; Lupien, V.

    2009-03-03

    In the 2008 QNDE ultrasonic benchmark session researchers from five different institutions around the world examined the influence that the curvature of a cylindrical fluid-solid interface has on the measured NDE immersion pulse-echo response of a flat-bottom hole (FBH) reflector. This was a repeat of a study conducted in the 2007 benchmark to try to determine the sources of differences seen in 2007 between model-based predictions and experiments. Here, we will summarize the results obtained in 2008 and analyze the model-based results and the experiments.

  8. Power optimization of ultrasonic friction-modulation tactile interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wiertlewski, Michael; Colgate, J Edward

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic friction-modulation devices provide rich tactile sensation on flat surfaces and have the potential to restore tangibility to touchscreens. To date, their adoption into consumer electronics has been in part limited by relatively high power consumption, incompatible with the requirements of battery-powered devices. This paper introduces a method that optimizes the energy efficiency and performance of this class of devices. It considers optimal energy transfer to the impedance provided by the finger interacting with the surface. Constitutive equations are determined from the mode shape of the interface and the piezoelectric coupling of the actuator. The optimization procedure employs a lumped parameter model to simplify the treatment of the problem. Examples and an experimental study show the evolution of the optimal design as a function of the impedance of the finger. PMID:25314710

  9. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer having liquid/wedge and gas/wedge interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic liquid densitometer that uses a material wedge having two sections, one with a liquid/wedge interface and another with a gas/wedge interface. It is preferred that the wedge have an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the liquid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the liquid. Ultrasonic signals are internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a liquid is determined by immersing the wedge into the liquid and measuring reflections of ultrasound at the liquid/wedge interface and at the gas/wedge interface.

  10. Ultrasonic wave's interaction at fluid-porous piezoelectric layered interface.

    PubMed

    Vashishth, Anil K; Gupta, Vishakha

    2013-02-01

    The complete description of acoustic propagation in a multilayered system is of great interest in a variety of applications such as non-destructive evaluation and acoustic design and there is need for a flexible model that can describe the reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves in these media. The reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves from a fluid loaded porous piezoelectric layered structure is studied analytically. The layered structure is considered to be consisting of n number of layers of porous piezoelectric materials. Transfer matrix technique is used to study the layered materials. The analytical expressions for the reflected, transmitted, interaction energy ratios and surface impedance are obtained. The effects of frequency, porosity, angle of incidence, layer thickness and number of layers on the energy ratios and surface impedance are studied for different configurations of the layered materials. The results obtained are deduced for the poro-elastic and fluid loaded porous piezoelectric half space case, which are in agreement with earlier established results. A comparison of the results, obtained by alternate numerical techniques, is made. PMID:23021387

  11. Nano features of Al/Au ultrasonic bond interface observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Hongjun; Li Mingyu Kim, Jong-Myung; Kim, Dae-Won; Wang Chunqing

    2008-10-15

    Nano-scale interfacial details of ultrasonic AlSi1 wire wedge bonding to a Au/Ni/Cu pad were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The intermetallic phase Au{sub 8}Al{sub 3} formed locally due to diffusion and reaction activated by ultrasound at the Al/Au bond interface. Multilayer sub-interfaces roughly parallel to the wire/pad interface were observed among this phase, and interdiffusional features near the Au pad resembled interference patterns, alternately dark and bright bars. Solid-state diffusion theory cannot be used to explain why such a thick compound formed within milliseconds at room temperature. The major formation of metallurgical bonds was attributed to ultrasonic cyclic vibration.

  12. Adhesive joint evaluation by ultrasonic interface and lamb waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokhlin, S. I.

    1986-01-01

    Some results on the application of interface and Lamb waves for the study of curing of thin adhesive layers were summarized. In the case of thick substrates (thickness much more than the wave length) the interface waves can be used. In this case the experimental data can be inverted and the shear modulus of the adhesive film may be explicitly found based on the measured interface wave velocity. It is shown that interface waves can be used for the study of curing of structural adhesives as a function of different temperatures and other experimental conditions. The kinetics of curing was studied. In the case of thin substrates the wave phenomena are much more complicated. It is shown that for successful measurements proper selection of experimental conditions is very important. This can be done based on theoretical estimations. For correctly selected experimental conditions the Lamb waves may be a sensitive probe of adhesive bond quality and may be used or cure monitoring.

  13. Tests of the Royce ultrasonic interface level analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    WITWER, K.S.

    1999-02-24

    This document describes testing carried out in 1995 on the Royce Interface Level Analyzer. The testing was carried out in the 305 Bldg., Engineering Testing Laboratory, 300 Area. The Level Analyzer was shown to be able to effectively locate the solid liquid interface layer of two different simulants under various conditions and was able to do so after being irradiated with over 5 million RADS gamma from a Cobalt 60 source.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Ultrasonic Waves Due to Bi-material Interface Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, S.; Saitoh, T.

    2014-06-01

    Boundary integral equations are formulated to investigate nonlinear waves generated by a debonding interface of bi-material subjected to an incident plane wave. For the numerical simulation, the IRK (Implicit Runge-Kutta method) based CQ-BEM (Convolution Quadrature-Boundary Element Method) is developed. The interface conditions for a debonding area, consisting of three phases of separation, stick, and slip, are developed for the simulation of nonlinear ultrasonic waves. Numerical results are obtained and discussed for normal incidence of a plane longitudinal wave onto the nonlinear interface with a static compressive stress.

  15. Ultrasonic guided wave nondestructive evaluation using generalized anisotropic interface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Michael D.

    The motivation for this work is a goal to inspect interfaces between thick layers of materials that can be anisotropic. The specific application is a thick composite bonded to a metal substrate. The interface is inspected for disbonds between the metal and composite. The large thickness allows the problem to be modeled as a half space. The theory behind guided waves in plates is presented. This theory includes the calculation and analysis of dispersion curves and the resulting wave structure. It is noted that for high frequency-thickness values, certain modes will converge to the half-space waves, e.g. the Rayleigh wave and the Stoneley wave. Points of high energy, especially shear energy, at the interface are desirable for interfacial inspection. Therefore, the wave structure for all modes and frequencies is searched for ideal inspection points. Interface waves are inherently good modes to use for interface inspection. Results from the dispersion curves and wave structures are verified in the finite element model software package called Abaqus. It is confirmed that the group speeds and wave structures of the modes match the predicted values. A theoretical development of interface waves is given wherein Rayleigh, Stoneley, and generalized interface waves are discussed. This is applied to both isotropic and anisotropic materials. It is shown that the Stoneley wave only exists for a certain range of material parameters. Because the Stoneley wave is the interface wave between two solid half spaces, it might appear that only certain pairs of solids would allow for inspection via interface wave. However, it is shown that for perturbations of the Stoneley-wave-valid material properties, interface waves which leak energy away from the interface can still propagate. They can also be used for inspection. Certain choices of materials will leak less energy and will therefore allow for longer inspection distances. The solutions to the isotropic leaky wave problem exist on

  16. Ultrasonic guided interface waves at a soft-stiff boundary.

    PubMed

    Bostron, Jason H; Rose, Joseph L; Moose, Clark A

    2013-12-01

    Interface waves traveling along the boundary between two solids have been studied for nearly a century. However, little attention has been given to the case where interface waves travel at the boundary between a soft and stiff solid and when the soft material is relatively light and viscoelastic. In this paper, the characteristics of interface waves that propagate along a soft-stiff boundary are described. These waves are similar to a leaky Rayleigh-like wave on the stiff solid in terms of the wave velocity and displacement wave structure. Analytical and finite element models are used to model and simulate wave propagation. An example problem of bond evaluation for coatings on metal structures is considered. Experiments on 2.5 cm thick steel plate with 2.5 cm viscoelastic coatings show good agreement to models. Additionally, the results of models and experiments show several promising features that may be used to evaluate bonds in a non-destructive evaluation approach. PMID:25669246

  17. Ultrasonically treated liquid interfaces for progress in cleaning and separation processes.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound and acoustic cavitation enable ergonomic and eco-friendly treatment of complex liquids with outstanding performance in cleaning, separation and recycling of resources. A key element of ultrasonic-based technology is the high speed of mixing by streams, flows and jets (or shock waves), which is accompanied by sonochemical reactions. Mass transfer across the phase boundary with a great variety of catalytic processes is substantially enhanced through acoustic emulsification. Encapsulation, separation and recovery of liquids are fast with high production yield if applied by ultrasound. Here we discuss the state of knowledge of these processes by ultrasound and acoustic cavitation from a perspective of a physico-chemical model in order to predict and control the outcome. We focus on the physical interpretation and quantification of ultrasonic parameters and properties of liquids to understand the chemistry of liquid/liquid interfaces in acoustic fields. The roles of thermodynamic enthalpy and entropy (incl. Laplace and osmotic pressure) in the context of sonochemical reactions (separation, catalysis, degradation, cross-linking, ion exchange and phase transfer) are outlined. The synergy of ultrasound and electric fields or continuous flow chemistry for cleaning and separation via emulsification is highlighted by specific strategies involving polymers and ultrasonic membranes. PMID:26435267

  18. Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. E.; Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is discussed as a primary means of nondestructive evaluation of subsurface flaws. The advantages and disadvantages are listed. The elementary principles, basic components of test units, scan modes, resonance testing, detection of fatigue cracks, monitoring fatigue crack growth, and determination of residual stress are discussed.

  19. Microstructural Characterization of Bonding Interfaces in Aluminum 3003 Blocks Fabricated by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, D. E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Lippold, John C; Hahnlen, R.M.; Dapino, M.J.; Dehoff, Ryan R; Collins, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a process by which hybrid and near-netshaped products can be manufactured from thin metallic tapes. One of the main concerns of UAM is the development of anisotropic mechanical properties. In this work, the microstructures in the bond regions are characterized with optical and electron microscopy. Recrystallization and grain growth across the interface are proposed as a mechanism for the bond formation. The presence of voids or unbonded areas, which reduce the load-bearing cross section and create a stress intensity factor, is attributed to the transfer of the sonotrode texture to the new foil layer. This results in large peaks and valleys that are not filled in during processing. Tensile testing revealed the weld interface strength was 15% of the bulk foil. Shear tests of the weld interfaces showed almost 50% of the bulk shear strength of the material. Finally, optical microscopy of the fracture surfaces from the tensile tests revealed 34% of the interface area was unbonded.

  20. Models for ultrasonic characterization of environmental degradation of interfaces in adhesive joints

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrentyev, A.I.; Rokhlin, S.I. )

    1994-10-15

    In this paper we discuss two models of environmental degradation of adhesive joints developed from experimental observation of the joint failure mode. It is found that after severe degradation, failure is dominated by the interfacial mode, i.e., by failure at the interface between adhesive and adherend. The fraction of failure in the interfacial mode was found to be related to the joint strength and to be proportional to the frequency shift of a minimum in the spectrum of the reflected ultrasonic signal. One model considers an interface as an interphase in the form of a nonhomogeneous layer composed of two phases: soft'' which is viscoelastic (degraded part of the interphase) and stiff'' corresponding to the nondamaged interphase. Increase of the soft'' phase fraction corresponds to the process of degradation in the interphase. The second model describes degradation in a form of disbonds filled by absorbed water at the interface. The disbonded interface is modeled by transverse spring boundary conditions, with the complex spring stiffness representing the quality of the bond. The influence of different disbond growth scenarios is considered. Advantages and drawbacks of these models are discussed.

  1. Reflection at a liquid-solid interface of a transient ultrasonic field radiated by a linear phased array transducer.

    PubMed

    Maghlaoui, Nadir; Belgroune, Djema; Ourak, Mohamed; Djelouah, Hakim

    2016-09-01

    In order to put in evidence the specular reflection and the non-specular reflection in the transient case, we have used a model for the study of the transient ultrasonic waves radiated by a linear phased array transducer in a liquid and reflected by a solid plane interface. This method is an extension of the angular spectrum method to the transient case where the reflection at the plane interface is taken into account by using the reflection coefficient for harmonic plane waves. The results obtained highlighted the different components of the ultrasonic field: the direct and edge waves as well as the longitudinal head waves or leaky Rayleigh waves. The transient representation of these waves have been carefully analyzed and discussed by the rays model. Instantaneous cartographies allowed a clear description of all the waves which appear at the liquid-solid interface. The obtained results have been compared to those obtained with a finite element method package. PMID:27290651

  2. Transmission of ultrasonic waves at oblique incidence to composite laminates with spring-type interlayer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yosuke; Biwa, Shiro

    2015-11-01

    The transmission characteristics of ultrasonic waves at oblique incidence to composite laminates are analyzed theoretically by the stiffness matrix method. The analysis takes into account the presence of thin resin-rich regions between adjacent plies as spring-type interfaces with normal and shear stiffnesses. The amplitude transmission coefficient of longitudinal wave through a unidirectional laminate immersed in water is shown to be significantly influenced by the frequency, the interlayer interfacial stiffnesses, and the incident angle. Using Floquet's theorem, the dispersion relation of the infinitely extended laminate structure is calculated and compared to the transmission coefficient of laminates of finite thickness. This reveals that the ranges of frequency and interfacial stiffnesses where the Floquet waves lie in the band-gaps agree well with those where the transmission coefficient of the finite layered structure is relatively small, indicating that the band-gaps appear even in the laminate with a finite number of plies. The amplitude transmission coefficient for an 11-ply carbon-epoxy unidirectional composite laminate is experimentally obtained for various frequencies and incident angles. The low-transmission zones observed in the experimental results, which are due to the critical angle of the quasi-longitudinal wave and the Bragg reflection, are shown to be favorably compared with the theory. PMID:26627756

  3. Imaging through a convex interface with unknown position and shape using an ultrasonic linear array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuda, Marcelo Y.; Buiochi, Flávio; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a technique for improving the internal imaging of a solid object immersed in water using an ultrasonic array. This technique consists in determining the position and shape of a convex object surface using a combination of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) and sign coherence factor (SCF) methods. The SCF attenuates the grating lobe noise. The technique is applied to a cylindrical aluminium object with internal holes simulating defects. The first step is the acquisition of a sequence of STA images with SCF, using a distinct group of adjacent array elements for each image. In the second step, a circle is fitted to the positions of the peak values in each image. Finally, using the Fermat's principle and this circle as the interface between the water and the metallic object, the propagation delays from the array elements to the image grid points may be calculated and used in another STA image. In this final image, the small holes in the cylindrical object can clearly be identified. The effects of the SCF for a large diameter circular reflector are simulated and compared with experimental data.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite-to-metal bond interface of a wind turbine blade using an acousto-ultrasonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.; Rumsey, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    An acousto-ultrasonic inspection technique was developed to evaluate the structural integrity of the epoxy bond interface between a metal insert and the fiber glass epoxy composite of a wind turbine blade. Data was generated manually as well as with a PC based data acquisition and display system. C-scan imaging using a portable ultrasonic scanning system provided an area mapping of the delamination or disbond due to fatigue testing and normal field operation conditions of the turbine blade. Comparison of the inspection data with a destructive visual examination of the bond interface to determine the extent of the disbond showed good agreement between the acousto-ultrasonic inspection data and the visual data.

  5. Ultrasonic sensor and in-situ correction for the monitoring of indistinct interface level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huimin

    2000-05-01

    In clarifier tanks in water plant or treatment plant it is necessary to locate and control the sludge level in order for efficient production and environment protection. In tanks, where sedimentary reaction take place, the sludge concentration vary gradually in vertical, normal abrupt- change based measurement techniques will fail. In this paper a concentration-dependent level measurement technique is described. The concentration-related signal is obtained through the measurement of attenuation of ultrasonic wave in water. The level is then resolved according to either the sludge concentration itself or the vertical concentration gradient. An ultrasonic sensor probe is designed. It operates at 10 MHz frequency in order to obtain required sensitivity. The probe is of immersed, and is non- interceptive to sediment thus will not disturb the concentration contribution. As temperature and contaminant will affect sensor response, an in-situ auto correction technique is developed to eliminate such response change. In the system three sensors are incorporated in, an ultrasonic sensor, a temperature sensor and a position sensor. A micro control unit controls the whole system. The attenuation property of sludge water is presented. The system has found its usage in water plant and is proved to be successful.

  6. Ultrasonic measurements of the reflection coefficient at a water/polyurethane foam interface.

    PubMed

    Sagers, Jason D; Haberman, Michael R; Wilson, Preston S

    2013-09-01

    Measured ultrasonic reflection coefficients as a function of normal incidence angle are reported for several samples of polyurethane foam submerged in a water bath. Three reflection coefficient models are employed as needed in this analysis to approximate the measured data: (1) an infinite plane wave impinging on an elastic halfspace, (2) an infinite plane wave impinging on a single fluid layer overlying a fluid halfspace, and (3) a finite acoustic beam impinging on an elastic halfspace. The compressional wave speed in each sample is calculated by minimizing the sum of squared error (SSE) between the measured and modeled data. PMID:23968059

  7. Interaction behaviors at the interface between liquid Al-Si and solid Ti-6Al-4V in ultrasonic-assisted brazing in air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Yan, Jiuchun; Gao, Fei; Wei, Jinghui; Xu, Zhiwu; Fan, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Power ultrasonic vibration (20 kHz, 6 μm) was applied to assist the interaction between a liquid Al-Si alloy and solid Ti-6Al-4V substrate in air. The interaction behaviors, including breakage of the oxide film on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, chemical dissolution of solid Ti-6Al-4V, and interfacial chemical reactions, were investigated. Experimental results showed that numerous 2-20 μm diameter-sized pits formed on the Ti-6Al-4V surface. Propagation of ultrasonic waves in the liquid Al-Si alloy resulted in ultrasonic cavitation. When this cavitation occurred at or near the liquid/solid interface, many complex effects were generated at the small zones during the bubble implosion, including micro-jets, hot spots, and acoustic streaming. The breakage behavior of oxide films on the solid Ti-6Al-4V substrate, excessive chemical dissolution of solid Ti-6Al-4V into liquid Al-Si, abnormal interfacial chemical reactions at the interface, and phase transformation between the intermetallic compounds could be wholly ascribed to these ultrasonic effects. An effective bond between Al-Si and Ti-6Al-4V can be produced by ultrasonic-assisted brazing in air. PMID:22824641

  8. A novel ultrasonic NDE for shrink fit welded structures using interface waves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaesun; Park, Junpil; Cho, Younho

    2016-05-01

    Reactor vessel inspection is a critical part of safety maintenance in a nuclear power plant. The inspection of shrink fit welded structures in a reactor nozzle can be a challenging task due to the complicated geometry. Nozzle inspection using pseudo interface waves allows us to inspect the nozzle from outside of the nuclear reactor. In this study, layered concentric pipes were manufactured with perfect shrink fit conditions using stainless steel 316. The displacement distributions were calculated with boundary conditions for a shrink fit welded structure. A multi-transducer guided wave phased array system was employed to monitor the welding quality of the nozzle end at a distance from a fixed position. The complicated geometry of a shrink fit welded structure can be overcome by using the pseudo interface waves in identifying the location and size of defects. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting weld delamination and defects. PMID:26859431

  9. Picosecond ultrasonics in single cells: Interface step motion for thin animal cells and Brillouin scattering for thick vegetal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducousso, M.; Dehoux, T.; Audoin, B.; Zouani, O.; Chollet, C.; Durrieu, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the mechanical properties of single biological cells using a picosecond laser-ultrasonic method is proposed. A pump-probe set-up based on ultrafast laser (100 fs pulses) is used to generate and detect acoustic frequencies in the GHz range in a cell on a metallic substrate. The time resolution is about 1 ps and the laser focusing allows a 1 μm lateral resolution. We carry out experiments in both animal and vegetal cells. A semi-analytical simulation model of the physical phenomena involved in experiments is presented. The coupled heat and stress equations are solved including a thermal boundary resistance at the cell/substrate interface and strong acoustic absorption. The optical detection resulting from the interaction between the acoustic wave and the laser light is also modelled. Simulations allow the analysis of experimental signals in both vegetal and animal cells. The results support the potentialities of the non-invasive technique for bioengineering and medical applications.

  10. Development of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic detection of coal seam interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, D. D.; Ben-Bassat, M.

    1976-01-01

    A pattern recognition system is presented for determining the thickness of coal remaining on the roof and floor of a coal seam. The system was developed to recognize reflected pulse echo signals that are generated by an acoustical transducer and reflected from the coal seam interface. The flexibility of the system, however, should enable it to identify pulse-echo signals generated by radar or other techniques. The main difference being the specific features extracted from the recorded data as a basis for pattern recognition.

  11. Particle size and density of a slurry from ultrasonic backscattering measurements at a solid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Margaret Stautberg

    2012-09-01

    The pivotal experiment was performed with a setup in which a plastic cylinder was mounted on the top of a horizontal Rexolite plate and a transducer mounted directly below the cylinder; a single layer of stationary 1588-μm acrylic spheres was placed in the cylinder filled with water. Two well-separated signals were received by the transducer operating in the pulse-echo mode: (1) a signal due to the reflection from water at the interface and (2) a time-delayed signal resulting from the backscattering from the spheres of diameter D. The important observation was that the time delay was equal to 2 D/c using standard notation. A method was developed to use the FFT phase difference between the incident and scattered signals at the interface to determine the time-delay as a function of frequency, the backscattering coefficient M versus frequency, a particle size distribution, and an average value of the diameter. Experimental average diameter results are shown in the square brackets for nominal particle sizes: (1) 1588-μm acrylic spheres [1564 μm], (2) polystyrene spheres for diameters from 200 μm to 500 μm [260 μm-536 μm], (3) suspended slurry of 250-300 μm polystyrene spheres at 2.25 MHz [253 μm], (4) 794 μm [759 μm] and 1588-μm [1623 μm] Teflon spheres, (5) 1588-μm stainless steel spheres [1674 μm], and (6) suspended slurry of 250-300 μm polystyrene spheres [275 μm] at 3.5 MHz for seven volume fractions. Density and particle size measurements were obtained for the latter. For the density measurement, the FFT amplitude of the scattered signal was summed from 2 to 4 MHz for each slurry. A plot of the square root of the FFT-amplitude-sum versus the volume fraction yields a straight line, passing through the origin. A calibration of the experimental setup is obtained by fitting a straight line through the data with error bars. Thus, the volume fraction for a slurry of unknown concentration can be determined by measuring the FFT-amplitude-sum. The density

  12. Particle size and density of a slurry from ultrasonic backscattering measurements at a solid interface.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Margaret Stautberg

    2012-09-01

    The pivotal experiment was performed with a setup in which a plastic cylinder was mounted on the top of a horizontal Rexolite plate and a transducer mounted directly below the cylinder; a single layer of stationary 1588-μm acrylic spheres was placed in the cylinder filled with water. Two well-separated signals were received by the transducer operating in the pulse-echo mode: (1) a signal due to the reflection from water at the interface and (2) a time-delayed signal resulting from the backscattering from the spheres of diameter D. The important observation was that the time delay was equal to 2 D/c using standard notation. A method was developed to use the FFT phase difference between the incident and scattered signals at the interface to determine the time-delay as a function of frequency, the backscattering coefficient M versus frequency, a particle size distribution, and an average value of the diameter. Experimental average diameter results are shown in the square brackets for nominal particle sizes: (1) 1588-μm acrylic spheres [1564 μm], (2) polystyrene spheres for diameters from 200 μm to 500 μm [260 μm-536 μm], (3) suspended slurry of 250-300 μm polystyrene spheres at 2.25 MHz [253 μm], (4) 794 μm [759 μm] and 1588-μm [1623 μm] Teflon spheres, (5) 1588-μm stainless steel spheres [1674 μm], and (6) suspended slurry of 250-300 μm polystyrene spheres [275 μm] at 3.5 MHz for seven volume fractions. Density and particle size measurements were obtained for the latter. For the density measurement, the FFT amplitude of the scattered signal was summed from 2 to 4 MHz for each slurry. A plot of the square root of the FFT-amplitude-sum versus the volume fraction yields a straight line, passing through the origin. A calibration of the experimental setup is obtained by fitting a straight line through the data with error bars. Thus, the volume fraction for a slurry of unknown concentration can be determined by measuring the FFT-amplitude-sum. The density

  13. Ultrasonic treatment of aramid fiber surface and its effect on the interface of aramid/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, Y. D.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Jiang, Z. X.; Wu, L. N.

    2008-02-01

    Aramid fiber/epoxy composites have been treated by ultrasound during the winding process to enhance the adhesion. According to the ultrasonic treatment interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of composites has been greatly improved. Dynamic wetting method, XPS and AFM are used to examine the microscopic properties of resultant composites. The enhanced ILSS is attributed to the ultrasonic cavitation, which improves the wetting between aramid fibers and resins.

  14. Nanometer-Scale Manipulation and Ultrasonic Cutting Using an Atomic Force Microscope Controlled by a Haptic Device as a Human Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Futoshi; Ohara, Kouhei; Ishizu, Yuichi; Sasaki, Akira; Aoyama, Hisayuki; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2008-07-01

    We describe a nanometer-scale manipulation and cutting method using ultrasonic oscillation scratching. The system is based on a modified atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled with a haptic device as a human interface. By handling the haptic device, the operator can directly move the AFM probe to manipulate nanometer scale objects and cut a surface while feeling the reaction from the surface in his or her fingers. As for manipulation using the system, nanometer-scale spheres were controllably moved by feeling the sensation of the AFM probe touching the spheres. As for cutting performance, the samples were prepared on an AT-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) set on an AFM sample holder. The QCR oscillates at its resonance frequency (9 MHz) with an amplitude of a few nanometers. Thus it is possible to cut the sample surface smoothly by the interaction between the AFM probe and the oscillating surface, even when the samples are viscoelastics such as polymers and biological samples. The ultrasonic nano-manipulation and cutting system would be a very useful and effective tool in the fields of nanometer-scale engineering and biological sciences.

  15. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  16. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  17. Ultrasonic study of adhesive bond quality at a steel-to-rubber interface by using quadrature phase detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. C.; Yang, H.

    1989-01-01

    The quadrature phase detection technique was used to simultaneously monitor the phase and amplitude of a toneburst signal normally reflected from an adhesively bonded steel-to-rubber interface. The measured phase was found to show a positive shift for all bonded samples with respect to the disbonded state - the phase shift being larger for samples with weaker bonds, as manifested by smaller values of applied tensile loads at failure. A model calculation, which incorporates the concept of interfacial strength into the usual problem of wave propagation in multilayered media, was used to deduce a bond-quality parameter from an experimentally measured phase shift. This bond-quality parameter was found to be correlated with the tensile strength of the adhesive bonds at failure loads.

  18. Ultrasonic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    Ultrasonic has proven its merit as one of the most promising sensing methods for food quality evaluation due to its non-destructive, noninvasive, precise, rapid, and on-line potential. Ultrasonic is mechanical wave at frequencies above 20 kHz propagating by vibration of the particles in the medium and penetrating through optically opaque materials to provide internal or surface information of physical attributes, such as texture and structure. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing is a way of characterizing materials by transmitting ultrasonic waves into a material, and investigating the characteristics of the transmitted and/or reflected ultrasonic waves. For the purpose of quality measurement of materials, low-intensity ultrasonic with the power level of up to 1 W/cm2 has been used. The low-intensity ultrasonic doesn't cause physical or chemical changes in the properties of the specimen when it transmits through the material. However, high-intensity ultrasonic of the power range above 1 W/cm2 may produce physical/chemical disruption and alteration in the material through which the wave propagates. High-intensity ultrasonic is usually used in cleaning, promotion of chemical reactions, homogenization, etc

  19. Method for measuring liquid viscosity and ultrasonic viscometer

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Lawrence, William P.; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic viscometer and method for measuring fluid viscosity are provided. Ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are generated and coupled to the fluid. Reflections from the generated ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are detected. Phase velocity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic longitudinal waves reflections. Viscosity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic shear waves reflections. Unique features of the ultrasonic viscometer include the use of a two-interface fluid and air transducer wedge to measure relative signal change and to enable self calibration and the use of a ratio of reflection coefficients for two different frequencies to compensate for environmental changes, such as temperature.

  20. Ultrasonic Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Ultraprobe 2000, manufactured by UE Systems, Inc., Elmsford, NY, is a hand-held ultrasonic system that detects indications of bearing failure by analyzing changes in amplitude. It employs the technology of a prototype ultrasonic bearing-failure monitoring system developed by Mechanical Technology, Inc., Latham, New York and Marshall Space Flight Center (which was based on research into Skylab's gyroscope bearings). Bearings on the verge of failure send ultrasonic signals indicating their deterioration; the Ultraprobe changes these to audible signals. The operator hears the signals and gages their intensity with a meter in the unit.

  1. Ultrasonic Polishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic polishing process makes use of the high-frequency (ultrasonic) vibrations of an abradable tool which automatically conforms to the work piece and an abrasive slurry to finish surfaces and edges on complex, highly detailed, close tolerance cavities in materials from beryllium copper to carbide. Applications range from critical deburring of guidance system components to removing EDM recast layers from aircraft engine components to polishing molds for forming carbide cutting tool inserts or injection molding plastics. A variety of materials including tool steels, carbides, and even ceramics can be successfully processed. Since the abradable tool automatically conforms to the work piece geometry, the ultrasonic finishing method described offers a number of important benefits in finishing components with complex geometries.

  2. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  3. Ultrasonic neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field's foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions. PMID:27153566

  4. Ultrasonic angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Robert J.

    1990-08-01

    Over the past 3 years we have developed a percutaneous ultrasonic angioplasty device and recently applied it in human peripheral arteries. This paper describes some of the background preceding the development of intravascular ultrasound for arterial recanalization. The chronology of our development of ultrasonic angioplasty is discussed from in vitro studies on atherosclerotic plaque to in vivo studies in canine models with differing types of arterial occlusions (thrombotic fibrotic calcific-atherosclerotic) and to initial human application. SPIE Vol. 1321 Modern Technologies Applied to Medical Practice (1989) / 69

  5. Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Automation Industries Inc. has had more than $2 million in contracts to produce innovative equipment for the Apollo program. When Marshall Space Flight Center sought a fast nondestructive way to inspect butt welds in aluminum alloys for spacecraft, the company developed a reliable ultrasonic device using multiple transducers called "delta manipulators" which detect lack of weld penetration not readily seen in radiograph automation. Industry soon adapted the ultrasonic equipment to a unique rail inspection device that saves countless man hours. Device is contained in self propelled railroad cars produced and operated by the company to check old track welds for deterioration.

  6. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  7. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  8. Ultrasonic test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anthony; Goff, Dan; Kruchowy, Roman; Rhoads, Carl

    1994-08-01

    An ultrasonic system for determining the quality of concrete under water without inaccuracies caused by electromagnetic interference from the ultrasonic generator. An ultrasonic generator applies pulses to the concrete. An ultrasonic detector detects the ultrasonic pulses and produces corresponding signals that are indicative of ultrasonic pulses that have passed through the material. Signal processing circuitry processes the signals to determine the transit time of the ultrasonic pulses through the material. The signal processing circuitry is disabled for a predetermined time after application of each ultrasonic pulse to the material to prevent noise produced by the means for applying ultrasonic pulses to the material from entering the signal processing circuitry and causing spurious measurements.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation by acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonics is an ultrasonic technique that was originally devised to cope with the particular problems associated with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber/polymer composite structures. The fiber/polymer composites are more attenuating to ultrasound than any other material presently of interest. This limits the applicability of high-frequency ultrasonics. A common use of ultrasound is the imaging of flaws internal to a structure by scattering from the interface with the flaw. However, structural features of composites can scatter ultrasound internally, thus obscuring the flaws. A need relative to composites is to be able to nondestructively measure the strength of laminar boundaries in order to assess the integrity of a structure. Acousto-ultrasonics has exhibited the ability to use the internal scattering to provide information for determining the strength of laminar boundaries. Analysis of acousto-ultrasonic signals by the wave ray paths that compose it leads to waveform partitioning that enhances the sensitivity to mechanical strength parameters.

  10. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer for process control

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses at least one pair of transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within a material wedge. A temperature sensor is provided to monitor the temperature of the wedge material. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface and comparing a transducer voltage and wedge material temperature to a tabulation as a function of density.

  11. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  12. The co-design of interface sensing and tailoring of ultra-thin film with ultrasonic vibration-assisted AFM system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jialin; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Guangyong

    2016-06-10

    Ultra-thin films (e.g., graphene, MoS2, and black phosphorus) have shown amazing performance in a variety of applications. The tailoring or machining of these ultra-thin films is often the preliminary step to manufacturing them into functional devices. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a flexible, high-efficiency and low-cost tailoring or machining tool with the advantages of high resolution and precision. However, the current AFM-based tailoring methods are often set up as an open loop regarding the machined depth and state. Thus, because of a lack of real-time feedback, an inappropriate applied force leads to over-cutting or under-cutting, which limits the performance of the manufactured devices. In this study, we propose a real-time tailoring and sensing method based on an ultrasonic vibration-assisted (USV-assisted) AFM system to solve the above problems. With the proposed method, the machined depth and state can be sensed in real time by detecting the phase value of the vibrating cantilever. To characterize and gain insight into the phase responses of the cantilever to the machined depth and sample material, a theoretical dynamic model of a cantilever-film vibrating system is introduced to model the machining process, and a sensing theory of machined depth and state is developed based on a USV-assisted AFM system. The experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, which in turn lay the foundation for a closed-loop tailoring control strategy for ultra-thin films. PMID:27146083

  13. The co-design of interface sensing and tailoring of ultra-thin film with ultrasonic vibration-assisted AFM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jialin; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Guangyong

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-thin films (e.g., graphene, MoS2, and black phosphorus) have shown amazing performance in a variety of applications. The tailoring or machining of these ultra-thin films is often the preliminary step to manufacturing them into functional devices. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a flexible, high-efficiency and low-cost tailoring or machining tool with the advantages of high resolution and precision. However, the current AFM-based tailoring methods are often set up as an open loop regarding the machined depth and state. Thus, because of a lack of real-time feedback, an inappropriate applied force leads to over-cutting or under-cutting, which limits the performance of the manufactured devices. In this study, we propose a real-time tailoring and sensing method based on an ultrasonic vibration-assisted (USV-assisted) AFM system to solve the above problems. With the proposed method, the machined depth and state can be sensed in real time by detecting the phase value of the vibrating cantilever. To characterize and gain insight into the phase responses of the cantilever to the machined depth and sample material, a theoretical dynamic model of a cantilever-film vibrating system is introduced to model the machining process, and a sensing theory of machined depth and state is developed based on a USV-assisted AFM system. The experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, which in turn lay the foundation for a closed-loop tailoring control strategy for ultra-thin films.

  14. Ultrasonic inspection apparatus and method using a focused wave device

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, John H.; Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phillip D.

    2001-01-01

    An ultrasonic pulse echo inspection apparatus and method for detecting structural failures. A focus lens is coupled to the transducer to focus the ultrasonic signal on an area to be inspected and a stop is placed in the focus lens to block selected ultrasonic waves. Other waves are not blocked and are transmitted through the structure to arrive at interfaces therein concurrently to produce an echo response with significantly less distortion.

  15. Ultrasonic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    MicroUltrasonics PLR-1000 is a refined microprocessor-controlled version (usable on bolts, plates, liquids and gases) of the P2L2 developed by Langley Research Center. New technique is for nondestructive measurement of residual stress in various types of structures, for example, nuclear pressure vessels, pipes in nuclear reactors, offshore platforms, bridges, railroad tracks and wheels, aircraft wings, and engines. The instrument produces sound tone pulses that travel through a test specimen. PLR-1000 precisely measures speeds as stress increases speed of sound, tone changes, making precise measurements possible.

  16. Ultrasonic transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.; Kraft, Nancy C.

    2007-03-13

    An ultrasonic transducer having an effective center frequency of about 42 MHz; a bandwidth of greater than 85% at 6 dB; a spherical focus of at least 0.5 inches in water; an F4 lens; a resolution sufficient to be able to detect and separate a 0.005 inch flat-bottomed hole at 0.005 inches below surface; and a beam size of approximately 0.006–0.008 inches measured off a 11/2 mm ball in water at the transducer's focal point.

  17. Ultrasonic Interferometers Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    I have been tinkering with ultrasonic transducers once more. In earlier notes I reported on optics-like experiments performed with ultrasonics, described a number of ultrasonic interferometers, and showed how ultrasonic transducers can be used for Fourier analysis. This time I became interested in trying the technique of using two detectors in…

  18. Ultrasonic Interferometers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2007-03-01

    I have been tinkering with ultrasonic transducers once more. In earlier notes I reported on optics-like experiments performed with ultrasonics, described a number of ultrasonic interferometers,2 and showed how ultrasonic transducers can be used for Fourier analysis.3 This time I became interested in trying the technique of using two detectors in acoustic interferometers instead of the usual one.

  19. Ultrasonic pipe assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Graham H.; Morrow, Valerie L.; Levie, Harold; Kane, Ronald J.; Brown, Albert E.

    2003-12-23

    An ultrasonic pipe or other structure assessment system includes an ultrasonic transducer positioned proximate the pipe or other structure. A fluid connection between the ultrasonic transducer and the pipe or other structure is produced. The ultrasonic transducer is moved relative to the pipe or other structure.

  20. Modern ultrasonic flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, V. M.; Truman, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of ultrasonic flowmeters were reviewed on the basis of materials published in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. The following advantages of ultrasonic flowmeters over earlier instruments are cited. A comparative analysis is made of the design methods employed in ultrasonic flowmeters. The evolution of ultrasonic flowmetering is traced from the first generation and trends in their development are analyzed.

  1. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1984-04-17

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time ''t'' between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance ''d'' between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time ''t'', the sonic velocity ''V'' is calculated with the equation ''V=2d/t''. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/ C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  2. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    DOEpatents

    Swoboda, Carl A.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  3. Ultrasonics and space instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design topic selected was an outgrowth of the experimental design work done in the Fluid Behavior in Space experiment, which relies on the measurement of minute changes of the pressure and temperature to obtain reasonably accurate volume determinations. An alternative method of volume determination is the use of ultrasonic imaging. An ultrasonic wave system is generated by wall mounted transducer arrays. The interior liquid configuration causes reflection and refraction of the pattern so that analysis of the received wave system provides a description of the configuration and hence volume. Both continuous and chirp probe beams were used in a laboratory experiment simulating a surface wetting propellant. The hardware included a simulated tank with gaseous voids, transmitting and receiving transducers, transmitters, receivers, computer interface, and computer. Analysis software was developed for image generation and interpretation of results. Space instrumentation was pursued in support of a number of experiments under development for GAS flights. The program included thirty undergraduate students pursuing major qualifying project work under the guidance of eight faculty supported by a teaching assistant. Both mechanical and electrical engineering students designed and built several microprocessor systems to measure parameters such as temperature, acceleration, pressure, velocity, and circulation in order to determine combustion products, vortex formation, gas entrainment, EMR emissions from thunderstorms, and milli-g-accelerations due to crew motions.

  4. A Coupled Thermal-Mechanical Analysis of Ultrasonic Bonding Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunbo (Sam); Li, Leijun

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model has been developed to simulate the coupled thermal-mechanical fields in ultrasonic welding of aluminum foils. Transient distributions and evolution of the in-process variables, including normal stress, shear stress, slide distance, heat generation, temperature, and plastic deformation on the contact interface, and their interactions have been studied in detail. The von Mises plastic strain from the simulation has been correlated with the measured bonded area of ultrasonic joints. A possible mechanism for ultrasonic bond formation is proposed. The severe, localized, plastic deformation at the bond region is believed to be the major phenomenon causing bond formation in ultrasonic welding.

  5. Ultrasonic NDE of Multilayered Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Quarry, M J; Fisher, K A; Lehman, S K

    2005-02-14

    This project developed ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques based on guided and bulk waves in multilayered structures using arrays. First, a guided wave technique was developed by preferentially exciting dominant modes with energy in the layer of interest via an ultrasonic array. Second, a bulk wave technique uses Fermat's principle of least time as well as wave-based properties to reconstruct array data and image the multilayered structure. The guided wave technique enables the inspection of inaccessible areas of a multilayered structure without disassembling it. Guided waves propagate using the multilayer as a waveguide into the inaccessible areas from an accessible position. Inspecting multi-layered structures with a guided wave relies on exciting modes with sufficient energy in the layer of interest. Multilayered structures are modeled to determine the possible modes and their distribution of energy across the thickness. Suitable modes were determined and excited by designing arrays with the proper element spacing and frequency. Bulk wave imaging algorithms were developed to overcome the difficulties of multiple reflections and refractions at interfaces. Reconstruction algorithms were developed to detect and localize flaws. A bent-ray algorithm incorporates Fermat's principle to correct time delays in the ultrasonic data that result from the difference in wave speeds in each layer and refractions at the interfaces. A planar wave-based algorithm was developed using the Green function for the multilayer structure to enhance focusing on reception for improved imaging.

  6. Ultrasonic Inspection Of The LTAB Floor

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G

    2001-07-31

    The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) floor is damaged by transporter operations. Two basic operations, rotating the wheels in place and traversing the floor numerous times can cause failure in the grout layer. The floor is composed of top wear surface (Stonhard) and an osmotic grout layer on top of concrete, Fig. 1. An ultrasonic technique was implemented to assess the condition of the floor as part of a study to determine the damage mechanisms. The study considered damage scenarios and ways to avoid the damage. A possible solution is to install thin steel plates where the transporter traverses on the floor. These tests were conducted with a fully loaded transporter that applies up to 1300 psi loads to the floor. A contact ultrasonic technique evaluated the condition of the grout layer in NIF's floor. Figure 1 displays the configuration of the ultrasonic transducer on the floor. We inspected the floor after wheel rotation damage and after wheel traversal damage. Figure 2a and 2b are photographs of the portable ultrasonic system and data acquisition. We acquired ultrasonic signals in a known pristine area and a damaged area to calibrate the inspection. Figure 3 is a plot of the typical ultrasonic response from an undamaged area (black) overlapped with a signal (red) from a damaged area. The damage area data was acquired at a location next to a hole in the floor that was caused by the transporter. Five megahertz pulses are propagated from the transducer and through a Plexiglas buffer rod into the floor. The ultrasonic pulse reflects from each discontinuity in the floor. The ultrasonic signal reflects from the top surface, the Stonhard-to-grout interface, and the grout to concrete interface. We expect to see reflections from each of these interfaces in an undamaged floor. If the grout layer pulverizes then the high frequency signal cannot traverse the layer and the grout to concrete interface signal will decrease or vanish. The more damage to the grout the more the

  7. Ultrasonic ranging for the oculometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic tracking techniques are investigated for an oculometer. Two methods are reported in detail. The first is based on measurements of time from the start of a transmit burst to a received echo. Knowing the sound velocity, distance can be calculated. In the second method, a continuous signal is transmitted. Target movement causes phase shifting of the echo. By accumulating these phase shifts, tracking from a set point can be achieved. Both systems have problems with contoured targets, but work well on flat plates and the back of a human head. Also briefly reported is an evaluation of an ultrasonic ranging system. Interface circuits make this system compatible with the echo time design. While the system is consistently accurate, it has a beam too narrow for oculometer use. Finally, comments are provided on a tracking system using the Doppler frequency shift to give range data.

  8. ULTRASONIC NEUTRON DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Truell, R.; de Klerk, J.; Levy, P.W.

    1960-02-23

    A neutron dosimeter is described which utilizes ultrasonic waves in the megacycle region for determination of the extent of neutron damage in a borosilicate glass through ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation measurements before and after damage.

  9. Spark ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Nondestructive testing by spark transducer induces ultrasonic pulses in materials without physical contact. High power pulse generator connected to step up transformer produces sparking between two tungsten rods and ultrasonic energy pulses in test samples placed between rods.

  10. Ultrasonic pulser-receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.

    2006-09-12

    Ultrasonic pulser-receiver circuitry, for use with an ultrasonic transducer, the circuitry comprising a circuit board; ultrasonic pulser circuitry supported by the circuit board and configured to be coupled to an ultrasonic transducer and to cause the ultrasonic transducer to emit an ultrasonic output pulse; receiver circuitry supported by the circuit board, coupled to the pulser circuitry, including protection circuitry configured to protect against the ultrasonic pulse and including amplifier circuitry configured to amplify an echo, received back by the transducer, of the output pulse; and a connector configured to couple the ultrasonic transducer directly to the circuit board, to the pulser circuitry and receiver circuitry, wherein impedance mismatches that would result if the transducer was coupled to the circuit board via a cable can be avoided.

  11. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  12. Design of embedded endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Zhou, Hao; Wen, Shijie; Chen, Xiodong; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-12-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system is an important component in the endoscopic ultrasonography system (EUS). Through the ultrasonic probe, the characteristics of the fault histology features of digestive organs is detected by EUS, and then received by the reception circuit which making up of amplifying, gain compensation, filtering and A/D converter circuit, in the form of ultrasonic echo. Endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system is the back-end processing system of the EUS, with the function of receiving digital ultrasonic echo modulated by the digestive tract wall from the reception circuit, acquiring and showing the fault histology features in the form of image and characteristic data after digital signal processing, such as demodulation, etc. Traditional endoscopic ultrasonic imaging systems are mainly based on image acquisition and processing chips, which connecting to personal computer with USB2.0 circuit, with the faults of expensive, complicated structure, poor portability, and difficult to popularize. To against the shortcomings above, this paper presents the methods of digital signal acquisition and processing specially based on embedded technology with the core hardware structure of ARM and FPGA for substituting the traditional design with USB2.0 and personal computer. With built-in FIFO and dual-buffer, FPGA implement the ping-pong operation of data storage, simultaneously transferring the image data into ARM through the EBI bus by DMA function, which is controlled by ARM to carry out the purpose of high-speed transmission. The ARM system is being chosen to implement the responsibility of image display every time DMA transmission over and actualizing system control with the drivers and applications running on the embedded operating system Windows CE, which could provide a stable, safe and reliable running platform for the embedded device software. Profiting from the excellent graphical user interface (GUI) and good performance of Windows CE, we can not

  13. Computerized certification of digital ultrasonic instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, M. W.

    1987-09-01

    A computerized inspection system is being set up at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to enable certification of the Krautkramer Branson ultrasonic instrumentation used extensively in Y-12 production operations. The system takes the data required to certify the linearity and frequency response of the receiver and to certify the correct operation of the pulsers, gates, and computer interface. A subset of the program will be able to verify correct instrumentation in the field by using the actual computer and instrumentation being used for production ultrasonic weld inspections. The system can reduce the certification time from approximately one week to less than an hour.

  14. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  15. Ultrasonic Microtransport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Richard Morgan, III

    We have observed numerous kinetic effects using ultrasonic flexural plate waves (FPWs) in 4mu -thick composite plates of low-stress silicon nitride, piezoelectric zinc oxide and aluminum. The wavelength is typically 100 mum, and the area 3 x 8 mm^2. A successful new surface micromachining fabrication process is presented here for the first time. FPWs have been used to move liquids and gasses with motion typically indicated by polysilicon blocks in air and polystyrene spheres in water; the velocity in air is 4.5 mm/s (with a zero-to-peak input of 3 V), and in water it is 100 mum/s (with an input of 7.8 V). Other observations include pumping of a liquid dye, and mixing near the FPW surface. All quantitative observations demonstrate that the kinetic effects of FPWs are proportional to the square of the wave amplitude. The amplitude for a typical device is 250 A at 9 V input; the power in a typical FPW is about 2 mW. The amplitude can be accurately measured using a laser diffraction technique. Experimental error is about +/-10%, and many of the results agree well with a simple theory to predict the FPW amplitude; extensions of the theory model the fluid loading of FPW devices, but experiment and theory disagree by about 15%. Pumping by flexural plate waves is an example of the phenomenon known as acoustic streaming. A common solution approach is the method of successive approximations, where the nonlinear equations are first linearized and solved. This "first-order" solution is then used to determine the inhomogeneous source terms in the linearized, "second -order" equations of motion. Theoretical predictions of streaming theory are in excellent agreement with experiment in the case where the FPW device contacts a half-space of fluid; predictions for flow in small channels encourage the development of integrated micropumps. Applications for microflow include thermal redistribution in integrated circuits and liquid movement in analytical instruments--particularly where

  16. Laser-Ultrasonic Inspection of MG/AL Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Alain; Levesque, Daniel; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre; Baril, Eric; Fischersworring-Bunk, Andreas

    2005-04-09

    Laser-ultrasonics is used to assess the metallurgical bond between Mg/Al materials in die-cast Magnesium/Aluminum composite. The acoustic impedances of Mg, Al and air are such that the amplitude of ultrasonic echoes reflected back from a void is many times larger than the amplitude of those reflected back from a well-bonded interface. In addition, the polarity of echoes from a void is inverted compared to that from a well-bonded interface. Laser-ultrasonic F-SAFT is also used for imaging tilted Mg/Al interfaces. Experimental setup, signal processing and results for detecting voids in the Mg/Al interface of cast parts are presented.

  17. Stress evolution during ultrasonic Al ribbon bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masaya; Takashima, Kazumasa; Maeda, Masakatsu; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    The present study reveals the stress distribution in the substrate during ultrasonic bonding. The deformations of the Si substrate, Al ribbon, and Al pad were numerically analyzed using a finite element method. Experimental observation of the interface using a highspeed video camera was also conducted to determine the actual interfacial slip amplitude. This amplitude becomes smaller than that of tool-tip with bonding time. It was suggested from the numerical simulations that frictional adhesion enhanced the friction force, resulting in an increase in the equivalent stress in the ribbon and pad. As a result, very large stresses occur in the substrate during ultrasonic bonding. These stresses evolve with the progress of ultrasonic bonding, i.e., frictional adhesion.

  18. Setting Time Measurement Using Ultrasonic Wave Reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Suraneni, Prannoy; Popovics, John S.; Struble, Leslie J.

    2012-01-09

    Ultrasonic shear wave reflection was used to investigate setting times of cement pastes by measuring the reflection coefficient at the interface between hydrating cement pastes of varying water-to-cement ratio and an ultrasonic buffer material. Several different buffer materials were employed, and the choice of buffer was seen to strongly affect measurement sensitivity; high impact polystyrene showed the highest sensitivity to setting processes because it had the lowest acoustic impedance value. The results show that ultrasonic shear-wave reflection can be used successfully to monitor early setting processes of cement paste with good sensitivity when such a very low impedance buffer is employed. Criteria are proposed to define set times, and the resulting initial and final set times agreed broadly with those determined using the standard penetration resistance test.

  19. Microstructure of Aluminum/Glass Joint Bonded by Ultrasonic Wire Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Chihiro

    2013-11-01

    An Al/glass joint created by using ultrasonic welding was analyzed by means of multiscale observation techniques. A cross-sectional analysis of the microstructure revealed that a directly joined interface without reaction phases formed at the periphery of a round joined region. The size of Al grains markedly decreased after ultrasonic welding and some subgrains were observed along the interface. The finer Al grains observed around the periphery of the joined interface showed active plastic flow that promoted welding.

  20. Signal analysis approach to ultrasonic evaluation of diffusion bond quality

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Thomas, G

    1999-06-08

    Solid state bonds like the diffusion bond are attractive techniques for joining dissimilar materials since they are not prone to the defects that occur with fusion welding. Ultrasonic methods can detect the presence of totally unbonded regions but have difficulty sensing poor bonded areas where the substrates are in intimate contact. Standard ultrasonic imaging is based on amplitude changes in the signal reflected from the bond interface. Unfortunately amplitude alone is not sensitive to bond quality. We demonstrated that there is additional information in the ultrasonic signal that correlates with bond quality. In our approach we interrogated a set of dissimilar diffusion bonded samples with broad band ultrasonic signals. The signals were digitally processed and the characteristics of the signals that corresponded to bond quality were determined. These characteristics or features were processed with pattern recognition algorithms to produce predictions of bond quality. The predicted bond quality was then compared with the destructive measurement to assess the classification capability of the ultrasonic technique

  1. Signal analysis approach to ultrasonic evaluation of diffusion bond quality

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Graham; Chinn, Diane

    1999-12-02

    Solid state bonds like the diffusion bond are attractive techniques for joining dissimilar materials since they are not prone to the defects that occur with fusion welding. Ultrasonic methods can detect the presence of totally unbonded regions but have difficulty sensing poor bonded areas where the substrates are in intimate contact. Standard ultrasonic imaging is based on amplitude changes in the signal reflected from the bond interface. Unfortunately, amplitude alone is not sensitive to bond quality. We demonstrated that there is additional information in the ultrasonic signal that correlates with bond quality. In our approach, we interrogated a set of dissimilar diffusion bonded samples with broad band ultrasonic signals. The signals were digitally processed and the characteristics of the signals that corresponded to bond quality were determined. These characteristics or features were processed with pattern recognition algorithms to produce predictions of bond quality. The predicted bond quality was then compared with the destructive measurement to assess the classification capability of the ultrasonic technique.

  2. MODEL PREDICTION RESULTS FOR 2008 ULTRASONIC BENCHMARK PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Song, Sung-Jin

    2009-03-03

    The World Federation of NDE Centers (WFNDEC) has addressed two types of problems for the 2008 ultrasonic benchmark problems: effects of surface curvatures on the ultrasonic responses of flat-bottomed holes, and prediction of side-drilled hole responses at various depths in a steel block. To solve this year ultrasonic benchmark problems, multi-Gaussian beam models was adopted for calculation of insonifying fields on the flat-bottomed holes and the side-drilled holes. And, the Kirchhoff approximation and the separation of variables method were applied for calculation of far-field scattering amplitudes of flat-bottomed holes and side-drilled holes, respectively. In this paper, we present comparison of the model predictions to the experiments for side-drilled holes and discuss the effect of interface curvatures on ultrasonic responses by comparison of the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the flat-bottomed hole responses with different interface curvatures.

  3. Arctic acoustics ultrasonic modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamuel, Jacques R.

    1990-03-01

    A unique collection of laboratory ultrasonic modeling results are presented revealing and characterizing hidden pulsed seismoacoustic wave phenomena from 3-D range dependent liquid/solid boundaries. The research succeeded in isolating and identifying low frequency (10 to 500 Hz) transmission loss mechanisms and provided physical insight into Arctic acoustic problems generally beyond the state-of-the-art of theoretical and numerical analysis. The ultrasonic modeling studies dealt with controversial issues and existing discrepancies on seismo-acoustic waves at water/ice interface, sea ice thickness determination, low frequency transmission loss, and bottom leaky Rayleigh waves. The areas investigated include leaky Rayleigh waves at water/ice interface, leaky flexural waves in floating ice plates, effects of dry/wet cracks in sea ice on plate waves and near grazing acoustic waves, edge waves in floating plates, low frequency backscatter from ice keel width resonances, conversion of underwater acoustic waves into plate waves by keels, nondispersive flexural wave along apex of small angle solid wedge, Scholte and leaky Rayleigh waves along apex of immersed 90 ice wedge, backscatter from trailing edge of floes, floating plate resonances associated with near-grazing underwater acoustic waves, acoustic coupling between adjacent floes, and multiple bottom leaky Rayleigh wave components in water layer over solid bottom.

  4. Wedges for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

  5. The power of ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Profit, Alan L; Martini, Luigi G

    2005-01-01

    This overview of ultrasonic technologies describes their effectiveness for a number of applications. Product examples illustrate use for welding, cutting and boring as well as atomising. PMID:16334603

  6. Ultrasonic Bolt Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleman, Stuart M. (Inventor); Rowe, Geoffrey K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An ultrasonic bolt gage is described which uses a crosscorrelation algorithm to determine a tension applied to a fastener, such as a bolt. The cross-correlation analysis is preferably performed using a processor operating on a series of captured ultrasonic echo waveforms. The ultrasonic bolt gage is further described as using the captured ultrasonic echo waveforms to perform additional modes of analysis, such as feature recognition. Multiple tension data outputs, therefore, can be obtained from a single data acquisition for increased measurement reliability. In addition, one embodiment of the gage has been described as multi-channel, having a multiplexer for performing a tension analysis on one of a plurality of bolts.

  7. Ultrasonic probe for inspecting double-wall tube

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Kenneth V.; Cunningham, Jr., Robert A.; Murrin, Horace T.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic probe for inspecting the interface between the walls of a double-wall tube comprises a cylindrical body member having two cavities axially spaced apart thereon. The probe is placed in the tube and ultrasonic energy is transmitted from a transducer in its body member to a reflector in one of its cavities and thence into the inner wall of the tube. A second transducer in the probe body member communicates with the second cavity through a collimation passage in the body member, and the amount of ultrasonic energy reflected from the interface between the walls of the tube to a second reflector through the collimation passage to the second transducer depends upon the characteristics of said interface.

  8. Ultrasonic probe for inspecting double-wall tube. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Murrin, H.T.

    1981-05-29

    An ultrasonic probe for inspecting the interface between the walls of a double-wall tube comprises a cylindrical body member having two cavities axially spaced apart thereon. The probe is placed in the tube and ultrasonic energy is transmitted from a transducer in its body member to a reflector in one of its cavities and thence into the inner wall of the tube. A second transducer in the probe body member communicates with the second cavity through a collimation passage in the body member, and the amount of ultrasonic energy reflected from the interface between the walls of the tube to a second reflector through the collimation passage to the second transducer depends upon the characteristics of said interface.

  9. Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Thomas K.; Telschow, Kenneth

    2011-01-25

    Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.

  10. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  11. Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

    1970-01-01

    Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.…

  12. Ultrasonic measurement apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, J.; Mayes, J.C.

    1992-07-14

    This patent describes borehole measurement apparatus. It comprises a tool adapted for connection in a drill string in the borehole through earth formations, first and second ultra-sonic transmitter means disposed diametrically opposed from each other in the cylindrical body, first and second ultra-sonic transducer means disposed in the cylindrical body, and logic means, processing means, and memory means.

  13. Ultrasonic techniques for imaging and measurements in molten aluminum.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuu; Moisan, Jean-François; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    2003-12-01

    In order to achieve net shape forming, processing of aluminum (Al) in the molten state is often necessary. However, few sensors and techniques have been reported in the literature due to difficulties associated with molten Al, such as high temperature, corrosiveness, and opaqueness. In this paper, development of ultrasonic techniques for imaging and measurements in molten Al using buffer rods operated at 10 MHz is presented. The probing end of the buffer rod, having a flat surface or an ultrasonic lens, was immersed into molten Al while the other end with an ultrasonic transducer was air-cooled to room temperature. An ultrasonic image of a character "N", engraved on a stainless steel plate immersed in molten Al, and its corrosion have been observed at 780 degrees C using the focused probe in ultrasonic pulse-echo mode. Because cleanliness of molten Al is crucial for part manufacturing and recycling in Al processing, inclusion detection experiments also were carried out using the nonfocused probe in pitch-catch and pulse-echo modes. Backscattered ultrasonic signals from manually added silicon carbide particles, with an average diameter of 50 microm, in molten Al have been successfully observed at 780 degrees C. For optimal image quality, the spatial resolution of the focused probe was crucial, and the high signal-to-noise ratio of the nonfocused probe was the prime factor responsible for the inclusion detection sensitivity using backscattered ultrasonic signals. In addition, it was found that ultrasound could provide an alternative method for evaluating the degree of wetting between a solid material and a molten metal. Our experimental results showed that there was no ultrasonic coupling at the interface between an alumina rod and molten Al up to 1000 degrees C; therefore, no wetting existed at this interface. Also because ultrasonic velocity in alumina is temperature dependent, this rod proved to be able to be used as an in-line temperature monitoring sensor under

  14. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1999-01-01

    interface binding force, a quantitative method was presented. Recently, a comparison between the experimental and simulated results based on a similar theoretical model was presented. A through-transmission setup for water immersion mode-converted shear waves was used to analyze the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of an adhesive bond. In addition, ultrasonic guided waves have been used to analyze adhesive or diffusion bonded joints. In this paper, the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is used to characterize the curing state of a polymer/aluminum adhesive joint. Ultrasonic through-transmission tests were conducted on samples cured under various conditions. The magnitude of the second order harmonic was measured and the corresponding ultrasonic nonlinear parameter was evaluated. A fairly good correlation between the curing condition and the nonlinear parameter is observed. The results show that the nonlinear parameter might be used as a good indicator of the cure state for adhesive joints.

  15. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  16. Ultrasonic Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, Steven (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging system is described which can be used to either passively search for sources of ultrasonics or as an active phase imaging system. which can image fires. gas leaks, or air temperature gradients. This system uses an array of ultrasonic receivers coupled to an ultrasound collector or lens to provide an electronic image of the ultrasound intensity in a selected angular region of space. A system is described which includes a video camera to provide a visual reference to a region being examined for ultrasonic signals.

  17. Ultrasonic determination of recrystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and colume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  18. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water. PMID:26215790

  19. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  20. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  1. Enhanced Ultrasonic Characterization of Assemblies,TLL{_}9

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Chinn, D.

    2000-02-22

    The solid state bonded joint between two components; called an autoclave bond, is critical to the performance of a weapon system. A nondestructive method to assess the integrity of these joints is needed to certify the weapon for extended life. This project is developing ultrasonic technologies for bond quality assessment. Existing ultrasonic technology easily maps totally unbonded areas in a bond line. As an example, Figure 1 is an ultrasonic image of the bondline in a tensile specimen that was taken from a surrogate autoclave bond. We enhanced this technology to quantify the mechanical properties of a bond. There are situations when a bond interface appears intact by existing inspection methods, but fails under minimal loading. We developed an ultrasonic technique to eliminate this problem and assess the durability of the bond. Our approach is based on advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques that extract information from the ultrasonic signal after it interacts with the bondline. We successfully demonstrated this technique on surrogate samples. We also designed and began assembly of an ultrasonic system to evaluate weapon components. Our next step is to acquire ultrasonic data on real parts and tailor the bond classification algorithm to detect and image defective bond regions.

  2. Ultrasonically assisted turning of aviation materials: simulations and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Babitsky, V I; Mitrofanov, A V; Silberschmidt, V V

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonically assisted turning of modern aviation materials is conducted with ultrasonic vibration (frequency f approximately 20 kHz, amplitude a approximately 15 microm) superimposed on the cutting tool movement. An autoresonant control system is used to maintain the stable nonlinear resonant mode of vibration throughout the cutting process. Experimental comparison of roughness and roundness for workpieces machined conventionally and with the superimposed ultrasonic vibration, results of high-speed filming of the turning process and nanoindentation analyses of the microstructure of the machined material are presented. The suggested finite-element model provides numerical comparison between conventional and ultrasonic turning of Inconel 718 in terms of stress/strain state, cutting forces and contact conditions at the workpiece/tool interface. PMID:15047265

  3. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  4. Ultrasonic bone densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers incude piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel and finger of the subject being tested. A pulse generator is coupled to one of the transducers and generates an electric pulse for causing the transducers to generate an ultrasonic sound wave which is directed through the bone structure to the other transducer. An electric circuit, including an amplifier and a bandpass filter couples the signals from the receiver transducer back to the pulse generator for retriggering the pulse generator at a frequency proportional to the duration that the ultrasonic wave takes to travel through the bone structure being examined.

  5. Laser ultrasonics: Current research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.W. . Center for Nondestructive Evaluation)

    1990-09-26

    Laser-ultrasonics refers to a range of technologies involving the use of laser electrooptical systems both to generate and to detect ultrasonic signals in and on materials and structures. Such systems have been developed to permit classical ultrasonic measurements for materials characterization and defect identification and measurement. From the point of view of one concerned with practical applications of ultrasonic inspection and measurement methods, laser-ultrasonic systems offer the flexibility which, in principle, should permit remote ultrasonic measurements to be performed on objects at elevated temperatures or in hostile environments. Laser-ultrasonic systems can be designed and constructed with extremely wide and flat detection bandwidth so that ultrasonic vibrational displacements can be recorded with high fidelity. In addition, there is no mechanical loading of the surface to damp, absorb, or otherwise distort the propagating acoustic energy. This feature has been used to great advantage in performing ultrasonic measurements in thin plates and films. In spite of the great advantages offered by laser-ultrasonics, there are severe limitations which restrict its application. In fact, based upon the performance of current state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic systems, it is almost always more advantageous to use conventional ultrasonic transduction methods, if possible for a given application, than it is to apply laser-ultrasonics. In short, the main reason leading to this conclusion is the poor system detection sensitivity of laser-ultrasonic systems compared with piezoelectric transducer systems. The ramifications of this limited sensitivity are many.

  6. Simulation of transducer-couplant effects on broadband ultrasonic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing use of broadband, pulse-echo ultrasonics in nondestructive evaluation of flaws and material properties has generated a need for improved understanding of the way signals are modified by coupled and bonded thin-layer interfaces associated with transducers. This understanding is most important when using frequency spectrum analyses for characterizing material properties. In this type of application, signals emanating from material specimens can be strongly influenced by couplant and bond-layers in the acoustic path. Computer synthesized waveforms were used to simulate a range of interface conditions encountered in ultrasonic transducer systems operating in the 20 to 80 MHz regime. The adverse effects of thin-layer multiple reflections associated with various acoustic impedance conditions are demonstrated. The information presented is relevant to ultrasonic transducer design, specimen preparation, and couplant selection.

  7. Interfacial deformation and friction heating in ultrasonic Al ribbon bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Maeda, Masakatsu; Ando, Masaya; Yamaguchi, Eito

    2014-08-01

    The interfacial deformation and friction behavior between an Al ribbon and an electric pad (or substrate) during ultrasonic bonding is analyzed, based on numerical simulation and experimental results. The friction heating is estimated by the friction slip work at the bonding interface between the ribbon and pad. The temperature rise of the bonding interface is calculated by the numerical simulation and compared with the experimental results. It is suggested that the electric pad reduces the temperature rise, as compared to the bonding process without a pad. The shear stress at the bonding interface increases as the bonding progresses. The frictional slip due to adhesion increases stress and heats the bond interface.

  8. Ultrasonication-dependent formation and degradation of α-synuclein amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hisashi; Mizuno, Aiko; So, Masatomo; Hirano, Miki; Adachi, Masayuki; Akazawa-Ogawa, Yoko; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Ikenoue, Tatsuya; Lee, Young-Ho; Kawata, Yasushi; Goto, Yuji

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonication can be used to break the supersaturation of α-synuclein, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, at pH7.4 above the critical concentration of fibrillation, thereby inducing the formation of amyloid fibrils. We speculated that ultrasonication could also be used to depolymerize preformed fibrils below the critical concentration. However, extensive ultrasonic irradiation transformed preformed fibrils into amorphous aggregates even above the critical concentration. Exposing preformed fibrils to the hydrophobic air-water interface of cavitation bubbles may have destabilized the fibrils and stabilized amorphous aggregates. Upon extensive ultrasonic irradiation, the accompanying decomposition of chemical structures was suggested when monitored by analytical ultracentrifugation. Amorphous aggregates produced by extensive ultrasonication showed higher cytotoxicity, suggesting that, although ultrasonication might be a useful approach for inactivating amyloid fibrils, potential cytotoxicity of amorphous aggregates should be considered. PMID:25528988

  9. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560 Section 892.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... pulsed sound beam into body tissue to determine the depth or location of the tissue interfaces and...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560 Section 892.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... pulsed sound beam into body tissue to determine the depth or location of the tissue interfaces and...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550 Section 892.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... determine stationary body tissue characteristics, such as depth or location of tissue interfaces or...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550 Section 892.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... determine stationary body tissue characteristics, such as depth or location of tissue interfaces or...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560 Section 892.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... pulsed sound beam into body tissue to determine the depth or location of the tissue interfaces and...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550 Section 892.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... determine stationary body tissue characteristics, such as depth or location of tissue interfaces or...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550 Section 892.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... determine stationary body tissue characteristics, such as depth or location of tissue interfaces or...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560 Section 892.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... pulsed sound beam into body tissue to determine the depth or location of the tissue interfaces and...

  17. Ultrasonic communication in frogs.

    PubMed

    Feng, Albert S; Narins, Peter M; Xu, Chun-He; Lin, Wen-Yu; Yu, Zu-Lin; Qiu, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-Min; Shen, Jun-Xian

    2006-03-16

    Among vertebrates, only microchiropteran bats, cetaceans and some rodents are known to produce and detect ultrasounds (frequencies greater than 20 kHz) for the purpose of communication and/or echolocation, suggesting that this capacity might be restricted to mammals. Amphibians, reptiles and most birds generally have limited hearing capacity, with the ability to detect and produce sounds below approximately 12 kHz. Here we report evidence of ultrasonic communication in an amphibian, the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus) from Huangshan Hot Springs, China. Males of A. tormotus produce diverse bird-like melodic calls with pronounced frequency modulations that often contain spectral energy in the ultrasonic range. To determine whether A. tormotus communicates using ultrasound to avoid masking by the wideband background noise of local fast-flowing streams, or whether the ultrasound is simply a by-product of the sound-production mechanism, we conducted acoustic playback experiments in the frogs' natural habitat. We found that the audible as well as the ultrasonic components of an A. tormotus call can evoke male vocal responses. Electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain confirmed the ultrasonic hearing capacity of these frogs and that of a sympatric species facing similar environmental constraints. This extraordinary upward extension into the ultrasonic range of both the harmonic content of the advertisement calls and the frog's hearing sensitivity is likely to have co-evolved in response to the intense, predominantly low-frequency ambient noise from local streams. Because amphibians are a distinct evolutionary lineage from microchiropterans and cetaceans (which have evolved ultrasonic hearing to minimize congestion in the frequency bands used for sound communication and to increase hunting efficacy in darkness), ultrasonic perception in these animals represents a new example of independent evolution. PMID:16541072

  18. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  19. Ultrasonic characterization of materials hardness

    PubMed

    Badidi Bouda A; Benchaala; Alem

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental technique has been developed to measure velocities and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through a steel with a variable hardness. A correlation between ultrasonic measurements and steel hardness was investigated. PMID:10829663

  20. Ultrasonics in Dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, A. D.

    Ultrasonic instruments have been used in dentistry since the 1950's. Initially they were used to cut teeth but very quickly they became established as an ultrasonic scaler which was used to remove deposits from the hard tissues of the tooth. This enabled the soft tissues around the tooth to return to health. The ultrasonic vibrations are generated in a thin metal probe and it is the working tip that is the active component of the instrument. Scanning laser vibrometry has shown that there is much variability in their movement which is related to the shape and cross sectional shape of the probe. The working instrument will also generate cavitation and microstreaming in the associated cooling water. This can be mapped out along the length of the instrument indicating which are the active areas. Ultrasonics has also found use for cleaning often inaccessible or different surfaces including root canal treatment and dental titanium implants. The use of ultrasonics to cut bone during different surgical techniques shows considerable promise. More research is indicated to determine how to maximize the efficiency of such instruments so that they are more clinically effective.

  1. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.; Ricks, Herbert E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and or wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities.

  2. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  3. Acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical development, methodology, and potential applications of acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive testing are set forth in an overview to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Stochastic wave propagation is utilized to isolate and describe defects in fiber-reinforced composites, particularly emphasizing the integrated effects of diffuse populations of subcritical flaws. The generation and nature of acousto-ultrasonic signals are described in detail, and stress-wave factor analysis of the signals is discussed. Applications of acousto-ultrasonics are listed including the prediction of failure sites, assessing fatique and impact damage, calculating ultimate tensile strength, and determining interlaminar bond strength. The method can identify subtle but important variations in fiber-reinforced composites, and development of the related instrumentation technology is emphasized.

  4. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Herz, Jack L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a novel jackhammer that utilizes ultrasonic and/or sonic vibrations as source of power. It is easy to operate and does not require extensive training, requiring substantially less physical capabilities from the user and thereby increasing the pool of potential operators. An important safety benefit is that it does not fracture resilient or compliant materials such as cable channels and conduits, tubing, plumbing, cabling and other embedded fixtures that may be encountered along the impact path. While the ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer of the invention is able to cut concrete and asphalt, it generates little back-propagated shocks or vibrations onto the mounting fixture, and can be operated from an automatic platform or robotic system. PNEUMATICS; ULTRASONICS; IMPACTORS; DRILLING; HAMMERS BRITTLE MATERIALS; DRILL BITS; PROTOTYPES; VIBRATION

  5. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  6. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  7. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  8. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  9. Elastic constants of Ultrasonic Additive Manufactured Al 3003-H18.

    PubMed

    Foster, D R; Dapino, M J; Babu, S S

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), also known as Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC), is a layered manufacturing process in which thin metal foils are ultrasonically bonded to a previously bonded foil substrate to create a net part. Optimization of process variables (amplitude, normal load and velocity) is done to minimize voids along the bonded interfaces. This work pertains to the evaluation of bonds in UAM builds through ultrasonic testing of a build's elastic constants. Results from ultrasonic testing on UAM parts indicate orthotropic material symmetry and a reduction of up to 48% in elastic constant values compared to a control sample. The reduction in elastic constant values is attributed to interfacial voids. In addition, the elastic constants in the plane of the Al foils have nearly the same value, while the constants normal to the foil direction have much different values. In contrast, measurements from builds made with Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (VHP UAM) show a drastic improvement in elastic properties, approaching values similar to that of bulk aluminum. PMID:22939821

  10. Cluster-enhanced sparse approximation of overlapping ultrasonic echoes.

    PubMed

    Mor, Etai; Aladjem, Mayer; Azoulay, Amnon

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic pulse-echo methods have been used extensively in non-destructive testing of layered structures. In acoustic measurements on thin layers, the resulting echoes from two successive interfaces overlap in time, making it difficult to assess the individual echo parameters. Over the last decade sparse approximation methods have been extensively used to address this issue. These methods employ a large dictionary of elementary functions (atoms) and attempt to select the smallest subset of atoms (sparsest approximation) that represent the ultrasonic signal accurately. In this paper we propose the cluster-enhanced sparse approximation (CESA) method for estimating overlapping ultrasonic echoes. CESA is specifically adapted to deal with a large number of signals acquired during an ultrasonic scan. It incorporates two principal algorithms. The first is a clustering algorithm, which divides a set of signals comprising an ultrasonic scan into groups of signals that can be approximated by the same set of atoms. The second is a two-stage iterative algorithm, which alternates between update of the atoms associated with each cluster, and re-clustering of the signals according to the updated atoms. Because CESA operates on clusters of signals, it achieves improved results in terms of approximation error and computation time compared with conventional sparse methods, which operate on each signal separately. The superior ability of CESA to approximate highly overlapping ultrasonic echoes is demonstrated through simulation and experiments on adhesively bonded structures. PMID:25643086

  11. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Herz, Jack

    2005-01-01

    An ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer (USJ) is the latest in a series of related devices. Each of these devices cuts into a brittle material by means of hammering and chiseling actions of a tool bit excited with a combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations. A small-scale prototype of the USJ has been demonstrated. A fully developed, full-scale version of the USJ would be used for cutting through concrete, rocks, hard asphalt, and other materials to which conventional pneumatic jackhammers are applied, but the USJ would offer several advantages over conventional pneumatic jackhammers.

  12. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  13. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Lanham, R.N.

    1984-04-11

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  14. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Lanham, Ronald N.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  15. Ultrasonic transducer with laminated coupling wedge

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.

    1976-08-03

    An ultrasonic transducer capable of use in a high-temperature environment incorporates a laminated metal coupling wedge including a reflecting edge shaped as a double sloping roof and a transducer crystal backed by a laminated metal sound absorber disposed so as to direct sound waves through the coupling wedge and into a work piece, reflections from the interface between the coupling wedge and the work piece passing to the reflecting edge. Preferably the angle of inclination of the two halves of the reflecting edge are different.

  16. Ultrasonic interferometry: study of particle sedimentation in liquid.

    PubMed

    Razavian, S M; Boynard, M; Guillet, R; Bertholom, P; Beuzard, Y

    1991-08-01

    An ultrasonic interferometry method was designed to study sedimentation of particles in liquid. The method, based on A mode echography, measures the amplitude of ultrasonic waves reflected (echo E1) by a fixed interface I1 called "solid plate-sediment" interface formed when particles are sedimenting on a solid plate. The amplitude of the echo depends both on mechanical properties of the three media (solid plate, sediment and suspension) on the thickness of the sediment and on the presence of a second mobile interface I2 called "sediment-suspension" interface. In the first phase of sedimentation when the second interface is very close to the first, two reflected waves interfere. Then, in the second phase of sedimentation when the sediment is thick enough, the amplitude of the echo E1 depends only on the sediment and solid plate properties. The first phase will give information on the sedimentation rate of particles (SR). We have compared SR of particles determined by this method with SR measured in a cylindrical tube of the same geometry as the ultrasonic measurement cell and with theoretical values of the sedimentation rate given by theoretical models. PMID:1937505

  17. Scanning ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Reimann, Karl J.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic testing device for rapid and complete examination of the test specimen, and is particularly well suited for evaluation of tubular test geometries. A variety of defect categories may be detected and analyzed at one time and their positions accurately located in a single pass down the test specimen.

  18. Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

  19. Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    New geometry spreads out resonance region of piezoelectric crystal. In new transducer, crystal surfaces made nonparallel. One surface planar; other, concave. Geometry designed to produce nearly uniform response over a predetermined band of frequencies and to attenuate strongly frequencies outside band. Greater bandwidth improves accuracy of sonar and ultrasonic imaging equipment.

  20. Scanning ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

    1980-12-09

    The invention is an ultrasonic testing device for rapid and complete examination of the test specimen, and is particularly well suited for evaluation of tubular test geometries. A variety of defect categories may be detected and anlayzed at one time and their positions accurately located in a single pass down the test specimen.

  1. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  2. Ultrasonic Transducer Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducer-beam-intensity distributions are determined by analyzing echoes from a spherical ball. Computers control equipment and process data. Important beam characteristics, such as location of best beam focus and beam diameter at focus, can be determined quickly from extensive set of plots generated by apparatus.

  3. Ultrasonically triggered drug delivery: breaking the barrier.

    PubMed

    Husseini, Ghaleb A; Pitt, William G; Martins, Ana M

    2014-11-01

    The adverse side-effects of chemotherapy can be minimized by delivering the therapeutics in time and space to only the desired target site. Ultrasound offers one fairly non-invasive method of accomplishing such precise delivery because its energy can disrupt nanosized containers that are designed to sequester the drug until the ultrasonic event. Such containers include micelles, liposomes and solid nanoparticles. Conventional micelles and liposomes are less acoustically sensitive to ultrasound because the strongest forces associated with ultrasound are generated by gas-liquid interfaces, which both of these conventional constructs lack. Acoustically activated carriers often incorporate a gas phase, either actively as preformed bubbles, or passively such as taking advantage of dissolved gasses that form bubbles upon insonation. Newer concepts include using liquids that form gas when insonated. This review focuses on the ultrasonically activated delivery of therapeutics from micelles, liposomes and solid particles. In vitro and in vivo results are summarized and discussed. Novel structural concepts from micelles and liposomes are presented. Mechanisms of ultrasonically activated release are discussed. The future of ultrasound in drug delivery is envisioned. PMID:25454759

  4. Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovtun, V.; Döring, J.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Yakymenko, Y.

    2007-09-01

    Dielectric and electromechanical properties of the cellular polypropylene ferroelectret films (EMFIT), combining strong piezoelectric response with a low density and softness, evidence their high potential for the air-coupled ultrasonic applications. The disadvantage of the low coupling factor is compensated by the extremely low acoustic impedance, which provides excellent matching to air and promises efficient sound transmission through the air transducer interface. The influence of the electrodes on the electromechanical properties was investigated. Electron beam evaporation technology was adapted to the EMFIT films, and films with both-sided Au and Al electrodes were prepared without reducing or suppressing of the electromechanical properties. Finally, prototype transducers based on the EMFIT films were developed. In spite of the simple construction and absence of matching layers, high sensitivity of the EMFIT transducers was proved in the air-coupled ultrasonic experiment. Amplitude and delay time scanned images of the polyethylene step wedge with holes, obtained in both pulse-echo and transmission modes, demonstrate that non-contact ultrasonic imaging and testing with EMFIT transducers is possible.

  5. A novel device for determining ultrasonic power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeqiri, B.; Shaw, A.; Gélat, P. N.; Bell, D.; Sutton, Y. C.

    2004-01-01

    A novel concept for an ultrasonic power meter is presented which utilises the pyro-electric effect of a thin membrane of the piezo-electric polymer, pvdf. One side of the membrane is in intimate contact with a polyurethane-based acoustical absorber. The attenuation coefficient of this material is very high, ensuring that the majority of the ultrasonic energy passing through the pvdf membrane is absorbed within a thin layer of the interface, resulting in a rapid increase in temperature. Through the pyro-electric effect, this temperature increase results in a voltage across the electrodes of the membrane. Under specific conditions, the generated voltage is proportional to the rate of temperature rise and, immediately after switch on of ultrasound, the rate of temperature rise is proportional to the delivered ultrasonic power. This paper describes details of the concept, and includes theoretical calculations of the expected behaviour. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated through careful studies of several low-megahertz NPL reference therapy-level transducers, covering an applied power range of 250 mW to 8 W. Results are encouraging, suggesting that this novel solid-state power meter concept holds considerable promise for a rapid, simple, relatively low cost, power measurement method, appropriate for use at the physiotherapist level.

  6. A power ultrasonic technology for deliquoring.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Juárez, J A; Elvira-Segura, L; Rodríguez-Corral, G

    2003-06-01

    Solid-liquid separation is a topic of permanent interest in many areas such as mineral recovery, food processing and sewage disposal. The adequate application of high-intensity ultrasonic fields may contribute to improve the efficiency of conventional deliquoring processes. Deliquoring refers to removal of liquid from a product without changing its phase. Different effects are involved in the application of high-intensity ultrasound for deliquoring, the most important of which are: the alternating acoustic stresses, the radiation pressure, the acoustic streaming, interface instabilities and cavitation. One of the main advantages of the ultrasonic energy in deliquoring processes is its ability to release the strongly bound moisture. This paper deals with the application of an ultrasonic procedure for deliquoring of slurries in which a high-intensity vibration, homogeneously distributed, is directly applied to the wet particulate material. The vibration travels through the solid-liquid medium and the rapid series of alternative compressions and rarefactions produce a kind of "sponge effect" which favours the migration of moisture through natural or acoustically created channels. The obtained results show that the new technique is very promising to assist filtration processes for solid-liquid separation of highly concentrated suspensions of fine particles. PMID:12782256

  7. Ultrasonic cleaning: Fundamental theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, F. John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation describes: the theory of ultrasonics, cavitation and implosion; the importance and application of ultrasonics in precision cleaning; explanations of ultrasonic cleaning equipment options and their application; process parameters for ultrasonic cleaning; and proper operation of ultrasonic cleaning equipment to achieve maximum results.

  8. Ultrasonic biomicroscopy in ophthalmology and eye banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenwasser, George O. D.

    1999-06-01

    Echography has become a valuable diagnostic tool in ophthalmology. Ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) in particular may be applied to the evaluation of small lesions of the anterior segment of the eye. Disease processes such as conjunctival and iris melanoma, other forms of neoplasia, intraocular cysts, narrow angle glaucoma, and intraocular foreign bodies can be diagnostically evaluated and followed longitudinally by UBM. Combining UBM with spectroscopy may become useful in determining cell type origins of a variety of tumors. Eye banking also has an increased need for UBM in corneal tissue banking. The recent development of the Laser In Situ Keratomileusis procedure has allowed corneal surgeries to create a partial thickness flap of tissue in the cornea, remove tissue from the base of the cornea with excimer laser ablation, and replace the hinged flap. This causes a substantial change in refractive error while thinning the cornea and leaving an interface within the corneal stroma. The ability to detect this type of surgery is essential in eye banking. Ultrasonic pachymetry to determine central thickness and biomicroscopy to detect the presence of an interface are essential in avoiding the use of these corneas for transplantation purposes. Determining the topography of the preserved corneas is another potential application for ultrasonography. Using this information to reduce optical aberration after transplant is crucial in improving visual performance post transplantation. A review of the anatomy of the eye, pathology of ocular diseases relevant to UBM, and principles of eye banking will be presented.

  9. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  10. Ultrasonic thermometer isolation standoffs

    DOEpatents

    Arave, Alvin E.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for minimizing sticking of the transmission line to the protective sheath and preventing noise echoes from interfering with signal echoes in an improved high temperature ultrasonic thermometer which includes an ultrasonic transmission line surrounded by a protective sheath. Small isolation standoffs are mounted on the transmission line to minimize points of contact between the transmission line and the protective sheath, the isolation standoffs serving as discontinuities mounted on the transmission line at locations where a signal echo is desired or where an echo can be tolerated. Consequently any noise echo generated by the sticking of the standoff to the protective sheath only adds to the amplitude of the echo generated at the standoff and does not interfere with the other signal echoes.

  11. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  12. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of chest injuries].

    PubMed

    Tsurupa, D I; Deriabin, A I

    1982-03-01

    Ultrasonic diagnostic examinations were used in 365 patients with closed injuries (150), wounds (181) and consequences of traumas (34). The ultrasonic method allows to rapidly and exactly determine the presence and limits of the exudate, blood, coagulated hemothorax, residual cavity, thickness of the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura, the state of the pulmonary tissue (inflammation, blood inhibition, atelectasis). The ultrasonic method is simple, harmless and applicable under conditions of any surgical hospital. PMID:7080405

  13. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  14. Optical fiber interferometer for the study of ultrasonic waves in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. O.; Zewekh, P. S.; Turner, T. M.; Wade, J. C.; Rogers, R. T.; Garg, A. O.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of acoustic emission detection in composites using embedded optical fibers as sensing elements was investigated. Optical fiber interferometry, fiber acoustic sensitivity, fiber interferometer calibration, and acoustic emission detection are reported. Adhesive bond layer dynamical properties using ultrasonic interface waves, the design and construction of an ultrasonic transducer with a two dimensional Gaussian pressure profile, and the development of an optical differential technique for the measurement of surface acoustic wave particle displacements and propagation direction are also examined.

  15. Miniature implantable ultrasonic echosonometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, G. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A miniature echosonometer adapted for implantation in the interior of an animal for imaging the internal structure of a organ, tissue or vessel is presented. The echosonometer includes a receiver/transmitter circuit which is coupled to an ultrasonic transducer. Power is coupled to the echosonometer by electromagnetic induction through the animal's skin. Imaging signals from the echosonometer are electromagnetically transmitted through the animal's skin to an external readout apparatus.

  16. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE?s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  17. Ultrasonic differential measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ultrasonic resonance testing of an object is shown and described. Acoustic vibrations are applied to an object at a plurality of frequencies. Measurements of the object's vibrational response are made simultaneously at different locations on said object. The input frequency is stepped by using small frequency changes over a predetermined range. There is a pause interval or ring delay which permits the object to reach a steady state resonance before a measurement is taken.

  18. Ultrasonic techniques for process monitoring and control.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H.-T.

    1999-03-24

    Ultrasonic techniques have been applied successfully to process monitoring and control for many industries, such as energy, medical, textile, oil, and material. It helps those industries in quality control, energy efficiency improving, waste reducing, and cost saving. This paper presents four ultrasonic systems, ultrasonic viscometer, on-loom, real-time ultrasonic imaging system, ultrasonic leak detection system, and ultrasonic solid concentration monitoring system, developed at Argonne National Laboratory in the past five years for various applications.

  19. Sharpening of ultrasonic scalers.

    PubMed

    Checchi, L; Pelliccioni, G A; D'Achille, C

    1991-08-01

    Instruments suitable for removing calculus, plaque and necrotic cementum, which hinder normal periodontal reattachment, are extremely important for successful therapy. The test was carried out in order to see if a standard scaler used for ultrasonic tartar removal maintains its physical features when sharpened. 6 scalers, compatible with piezo-electric generators, were tested and 2 diameters, A and B, weights and resonance frequencies were measured. Scalers no. 2, 3, 4, 5, were sharpened and was used as control. All measurements were taken again at the end of the test. Statistical analysis reveals significant variations, after sharpening, of A diameter (t = 4.14 greater than 3.55, p less than 0.01), B diameter (t = 5.34 greater than 3.355, p less than 0.01) and resonance frequency (t = 2.82 greater than 2.306, p less than 0.05); in contrast, there is no significant change of weights (t = 1.17 less than 2.306, p greater than 0.05). These results suggest that sharpening slightly modifies the physical features of ultrasonic tips, so that sharpening ultrasonic scalers, from a physical point of view, can be carried out, paying attention not to damage the water cooling system. PMID:1894743

  20. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  1. Ultrasonic Transducers for Fourier Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses the ultrasonic transducer for demonstrating the Fourier components of waveshapes such as the square and triangular waves produced by laboratory function generators. (JRH)

  2. Development of an Ultrasonic Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Takemura, Kenjiro; Maeno, Takashi

    In the present paper, a newly developed ultrasonic brake is proposed. The ultrasonic brake can solve problems of conventional passive elements, such as time delay, instability, and large size, by using unique characteristics of ultrasonic motor, as fast response, silent motion, and non-magnetic feature. It can also be designed to be smaller than conventional elements due to its simple structure. The brake locks or releases the rotor by use of ultrasonic levitation phenomenon. First, we have designed the structure of the ultrasonic brake using an equation of ultrasonic levitation phenomenon, results from structural analysis and finite element (FE) analysis of piezoelectric material of the vibrator. Then we have manufactured the ultrasonic brake and have conducted a driving experiment. Finally, we have demonstrated that the maximum levitation force is around 40 N and the friction torque of the ultrasonic brake is up to 0.38 Nm. Moreover, we have confirmed that both response time and torque/inertia ratio of the ultrasonic brake are much more superior to the conventional ones.

  3. A comparison of ultrasonically activated water stream and ultrasonic bath immersion cleaning of railhead leaf-film contaminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodes, L. R.; Harvey, T. J.; Symonds, N.; Leighton, T. G.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf-film adhered to the railway track is a major issue during the autumn/fall season, as leaves fall onto the track and are entrained into the wheel-rail interface. This results in the development of a smooth, black layer. Presently, pressure washers must be used to clean the residue to prevent loss of traction, which can cause crashes or delays by forcing a reduced speed. These pressure washers consume large amounts of water and energy. In this study, use of an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus equipped with a 100 W transducer is investigated, using a low volume of water in the order of 1 l min‑1. This was applied to leaf-film samples generated in the laboratory, whose surface properties and thickness were confirmed with optical and stylus profilometry methods. Cleaning achieved by an ultrasonically activated water stream was compared to (a) non-activated water and (b) an ultrasonic bath with comparable power consumption. Cleaning efficacy was found to be much greater than that afforded by the ultrasonic bath; a rate of 14.3 mm2 s‑1 compared to 0.37 mm2 s‑1, and the ultrasonic bath only cleaned off around 20% of the leaf-film coverage even after 3 min of exposure.

  4. Effects of ultrasonic agitation on adhesion strength of micro electroforming Ni layer on Cu substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong; Du, Liqun; Xu, Zheng; Shao, Ligeng

    2016-03-01

    Micro electroforming is an important technology, which is widely used for fabricating micro metal devices in MEMS. The micro metal devices have the problem of poor adhesion strength, which has dramatically influenced the dimensional accuracy of the devices and seriously limited the development of the micro electroforming technology. In order to improve the adhesion strength, ultrasonic agitation method is applied during the micro electroforming process in this paper. To explore the effect of the ultrasonic agitation, micro electroforming experiments were carried out under ultrasonic and ultrasonic-free conditions. The effects of the ultrasonic agitation on the micro electroforming process were investigated by polarization and alternating current (a.c.) impedance methods. The real surface area of the electroforming layer was measured by cyclic voltammetry method. The compressive stress and the crystallite size of the electroforming layer were measured by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The adhesion strength of the electroforming layer was measured by scratch test. The experimental results show that the imposition of the ultrasonic agitation decreases the polarization overpotential and increases the charge transfer process at the electrode-electrolyte interface during the electroforming process. The ultrasonic agitation increases the crystallite size and the real surface area, and reduces the compressive stress. Then the adhesion strength is improved about 47% by the ultrasonic agitation in average. In addition, mechanisms of the ultrasonic agitation improving the adhesion strength are originally explored in this paper. The mechanisms are that the ultrasonic agitation increases the crystallite size, which reduces the compressive stress. The lower the compressive stress is, the larger the adhesion strength is. Furthermore, the ultrasonic agitation increases the real surface area, enhances the mechanical interlocking strength and consequently increases the adhesion

  5. Center crack detection during continuous casting of aluminum by laser ultrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Hubert; Mitter, Thomas; Roither, Jürgen; Betz, Andreas; Bozorgi, Salar; Burgholzer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Crack detection during continuous direct chill casting of aluminum is a matter of economics. Determining cracks during production process saves money, energy and raw material. Of course, a non-destructive method is required for this evaluation. Because of temperature concerns conventional ultrasound is not applicable. One non-contact alternative is laser ultrasonics. In laser ultrasonics short laser pulses illuminate the sample. The electromagnetic energy gets absorbed at the surface of the sample and results in local heating followed by expansion. Thereby broadband ultrasonic waves are launched which propagate through the sample and get back reflected or scattered at interfaces (cracks, blowholes,…) like conventional ultrasonic waves. Therefore laser ultrasonics is an alternative thermal infrared technology. By using an interferometer also the detection of the ultrasonic waves at the sample surface is done in a remote manner. During preliminary examinations in the lab by scanning different aluminum studs it was able to distinguish between studs with and without cracks. The prediction of the dimension of the crack by evaluation of the damping of the broadband ultrasonic waves was possible. With simple image reconstruction methods one can localize the crack and give an estimation of its extent and even its shape. Subsequent first measurements using this laser ultrasonic setup during the continuous casting of aluminum were carried out and showed the proof of principle in an industrial environment with elevated temperatures, dust, cooling water and vibrations.

  6. Ultrasonic Bonding to Metalized Plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.; Cruzan, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    New technique makes it possible to bond wires ultrasonically to conductor patterns on such soft substrates as plain or ceramic-filled polytetrafluoroethylene. With ultrasonic bonding, unpackaged chips attached to soft circuit boards. Preferred because chips require substrate area and better matched electrically to circuit board at high frequencies.

  7. Acousto-ultrasonics - An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1989-01-01

    The application possibilities and limitations of acoustoultrasonics are reviewed. One of the most useful aspects of acousto-ultrasonics is its ability to assess degradation and damage states in composites. The sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic approach for detecting and measuring subtle but significant material property variations in composites has been demonstrated.

  8. Physical mechanism of ultrasonic machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A.; Grechishnikov, V.; Kozochkin, M.; Pivkin, P.; Petuhov, Y.; Romanov, V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the main aspects of ultrasonic machining of constructional materials are considered. Influence of coolant on surface parameters is studied. Results of experiments on ultrasonic lathe cutting with application of tangential vibrations and with use of coolant are considered.

  9. Ultrasonic cleaning: An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mason, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    The development of ultrasonic cleaning dates from the middle of the 20th century and has become a method of choice for a range of surface cleaning operations. The reasons why this has happened and the methods of assessing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning baths are reviewed. PMID:26054698

  10. Ultrasonic absortion in fatigued materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, S.; Arnold, W.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of fatigue damage, allowing an estimate of the residual life-time of components, could contribute to a safe and reliable operation of components and installations. Ultrasonic absorption, i.e. the internal friction, of a material increases with increasing fatigue or creep damage and there are many theories trying to explain the physics behind this phenomenon. Measurement of ultrasonic absorption directly on components could provide information on the degree of damage. A laser ultrasonic method, using laser-generated pulses and optical detection, was applied to study ultrasonic absorption in fatigue specimens of different metals. A characteristic behavior of the ultrasonic absorption coefficient with increasing levels of fatigue damage was found for the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Another aim of this study was to relate the absorption mechanisms to the behavior of ultrasonic absorption observed in metals with complex microstructure. To achieve this, different ultrasonic absorption mechanisms were analyzed with respect to experimental data. A thermoelastic effect related to the size and elasticity of the microstructure is discussed as the origin of the increased ultrasonic absorption.

  11. The effect of ultrasonic processing on solidification microstructure and heat transfer in stainless steel melt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Kang, Jinwu; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Jiyu; Huang, Tianyou

    2015-11-01

    The heat transfer in the ultrasonic processing of stainless steel melt is studied in this thesis. The temperature field is simulated when the metal melt is treated with and without ultrasound. In order to avoid the erosion of high temperature melt, ultrasound was introduced from the bottom of melt. It is found that the temperature of melt apparently increases when processed with ultrasound, and the greater the ultrasonic power is, the higher the melt temperature will be; ultrasonic processing can reduce the temperature gradient, leading to more uniform temperature distribution in the melt. The solidification speed is obviously brought down due to the introduction of ultrasound during solidification, with the increasing of ultrasonic power, the melt temperature rises and the solidification speed decreases; as without ultrasound, the interface of solid and mushy zone is arc-shaped, so is the interface of liquid and mushy zone, with ultrasound, the interface of solid and mushy zone is still arc-shaped, but the interface of liquid and mushy zone is almost flat. The simulation results of temperature field are verified in experiment, which also indicates that the dendrite growth direction is in accord with thermal flux direction. The effect of ultrasonic treatment, which improves with the increase of treating power, is in a limited area due to the attenuation of ultrasound. PMID:26186849

  12. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  13. Ultrasonic flow nozzle cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fridsma, D.E.; Silvestri, G.J. Jr.; Twerdochlib, M.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for a venturi flow measuring nozzle mounted in a pipe of a steam power plant and having an inlet, venturi throat, and an outlet, the pipe and nozzle having fluid flowing therethrough, the cleaning occurring while the fluid is flowing. It comprises first ultrasonic transducer means mounted to connect to the inside of the pipe, disposed adjacent the inlet of the venturi flow nozzle and the means being in direct contact with the fluid flowing through the pipe for transmitting ultrasonic waves directly into and thereby exciting the fluid flowing through the venturi flow nozzle; and control means coupled to the first ultrasonic transducer means for activating the first ultrasonic transducer means.

  14. Ultrasonic colour flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Wells, P N

    1994-12-01

    Real-time ultrasonic colour flow imaging, which was first demonstrated to be feasible only about a decade ago, has come into widespread clinical use. Ultrasound is scattered by ensembles of red blood cells. The ultrasonic frequency that gives the best signal-to-noise ratio for backscattering from blood depends on the required penetration. The frequency of ultrasound backscattered from flowing blood is shifted by the Doppler effect. The direction of flow can be determined by phase quadrature detection, and range selectivity can be provided by pulse-echo time-delay measurements. The Doppler frequency spectrum can be determined by Fourier analysis. Early two- and three-dimensional flow-imaging systems used slow manual scanning; velocity colour coding was introduced. Real-time colour flow imaging first became feasible when autocorrelation detection was used to extract the Doppler signal. Time-domain processing, which is a broad-band technique, was also soon shown to be practicable, for analysing both radio-frequency pulse-echo wavetrains and two-dimensional image speckle. Frequency- and time-domain processing both require effective cancellation of stationary echoes. The time-domain approach seems to have advantages in relation to both aliasing and the effects of attenuation in overlying tissues. Colour-coding schemes that can be interpreted without the need to refer to keys have been adopted, for both velocity and flow disturbance. Colour coding according to signal power has also been reintroduced. Three-dimensional display has been demonstrated. In interpreting colour flow images, it is important to understand the functions of critical system controls and the origins of artifacts. Various strategies can be adopted to increase the image frame rate. The problems of performance measurement and safety need to be kept under review. There are numerous opportunities for further development of ultrasonic colour flow imaging, including improvements in system design, methods of

  15. Ultrasonic aesthetic cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo; Casadei, Matteo; Sbuelz, Massimo; Della Pietra, Lorenzo; Politi, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    The management of frontal bone injury is an important issue, and inappropriate management of such injuries may give rise to serious complications. Piezosurgery is a technique used to perform safe and effective osteotomies using piezoelectric ultrasonic vibrations. This instrument allows a safe method for osteotomy of the cranial vault in close proximity to extremely injury-sensitive tissue such as the brain. After a wide review of the literature, the authors present this technical report, introduce the use of piezosurgery to perform a safe "slim-osteotomies" for treatment of posttraumatic frontal bone deformities, and suggest the use of this instrument for aesthetic recontouring of the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:24914759

  16. Ultrasonic linear measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Scot H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An ultrasonic linear measurement system uses the travel time of surface waves along the perimeter of a three-dimensional curvilinear body to determine the perimeter of the curvilinear body. The system can also be used piece-wise to measure distances along plane surfaces. The system can be used to measure perimeters where use of laser light, optical means or steel tape would be extremely difficult, time consuming or impossible. It can also be used to determine discontinuities in surfaces of known perimeter or dimension.

  17. Ultrasonic cleaner evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, T. J.

    1980-10-01

    A method to evaluate the capabilities of ultrasonic cleaners is described. This method utilizes a ceramic plate on which a metallized coating has been deposited. The plate is immersed in a beaker filled with DI water and a few drops of liquid detergent. The plate is then subjected to a two-minute cleaning cycle. Measurement of the amount of metallized coating that is removed is determined with an image enhancement system. Use of this test reveals several factors that influence cleaning capabilities. These include system frequency, use of a wetting agent in the bath, bath temperature, fixture materials and fixture mounting.

  18. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  19. Ultrasonic scanning of multilayer ceramic chip capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. N.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic scanning is compared to neutron radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Data show that SLAM and ultrasonic scanning evaluations are in good agreement. There is poor agreement between N-ray and both ultrasonic techniques because N-ray is insensitive to all but the grossest delaminations. Statistical analysis show a good correlation between ultrasonic scanning and destructive physical analysis.

  20. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Welds On Tube Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Arjun N.; Nummelin, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Scanning ultrasonic apparatus designed for use in nondestructive inspection of electron-beam welds between heat-exchanger tube and end fittings. Includes ultrasonic probe, scanning mechanism, ultrasonic-signal-generating and -processing circuits, and computers. Not necessary to immerse any part of apparatus or tube/fitting assembly in water during inspection. Output ultrasonic-test signals displayed on computer to reveal defects.

  1. Ultrasonic thermoacoustic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young S.; El-Gendy, H.; Symko, O. G.

    2005-09-01

    The development of a thermoacoustic cooler in the ultrasonic range is presented. This cooler was designed to operate at a drive frequency of 24 kHz using air as the working fluid; the resonator is 7.1 mm long and it contains a cotton wool stack with copper heat exchangers at each end. Since the ultrasonic driver is a key element in this device, a major effort was made to optimize its performance and coupling to the resonator. It is a resonant piezoelectric monomorph loaded with a metallic cone for impedance matching to the resonator. By its design it is capable of intense sound levels, of order 140 dB and higher. The attained cooling power scales with the sound power levels and a COP larger than one is achieved. Studies of heat losses consist of PIV imaging of acoustic streaming (such as Eckart) in this device and back heat flow along the stack. The developed device shows much promise for rapid cooling of small samples. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  2. Ultrasonic Drying Processing Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, V.; Bon, J.; Riera, E.; Pinto, A.

    The design of a high intensity ultrasonic chamber for drying process was investigated. The acoustic pressure distribution in the ultrasonic drying chamber was simulated solving linear elastic models with attenuation for the acoustic-structure interaction. Together with the government equations, the selection of appropriate boundary conditions, mesh refinement, and configuration parameters of the calculation methods, which is of great importance to simulate adequately the process, were considered. Numerical solution, applying the finite element method (FEM), of acoustic-structure interactions involves to couple structural and fluid elements (with different degrees of freedom), whose solution implies several problems of hardware requirements and software configuration, which were solved. To design the drying chamber, the influence of the directivity of the drying open camera and the staggered reflectors over the acoustic pressure distribution was analyzed. Furthermore, to optimize the influence of the acoustic energy on the drying process, the average value of the acoustic energy distribution in the drying chamber was studied. This would determine the adequate position of the food samples to be dried. For this purpose, the acoustic power absorbed by the samples will be analyzed in later studies.

  3. Ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Kevin R.; Malyarenko, Eugene V.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2002-12-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace structures using traditional methods is a complex, time-consuming process critical to maintaining mission readiness and flight safety. Limited access to corrosion-prone structure and the restricted applicability of available NDE techniques for the detection of hidden corrosion or other damage often compound the challenge. In this paper we discuss our recent work using ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography to address this pressing NDE technology need. Lamb waves are ultrasonic guided waves, which allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected for structural flaws such as disbonds, corrosion and delaminations. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, for example, the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes can be converted into a thickness map of the inspection region. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical waveguide physics. Our work focuses on tomographic reconstruction to produce quantitative maps that can be easily interpreted by technicians or fed directly into structural integrity and lifetime prediction codes. Laboratory measurements discussed here demonstrate that Lamb wave tomography using a square perimeter array of transducers with algebraic reconstruction tomography is appropriate for detecting flaws in aircraft materials. The speed and fidelity of the reconstruction algorithms as well as practical considerations for person-portable array-based systems are discussed in this paper.

  4. Ultrasonic mitigation investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, B.P.; Shepard, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    The suggestion was made that the introduction of ultrasound into Tank 101-SY might serve to release the hydrogen bubbles trapped in the slurry. This would cause a continuous release of bubbles and thereby prevent the turnover phenomenon. Two major considerations were (1) the method for delivering the energy into the slurry and (2) the effective volume of action. In this study, we attached the former by designing and testing a liquid-filled waveguide and radiator, and the latter by making ultrasonic property measurements on synthetic waste. Our conclusion is that ultrasonic mitigation may not be feasible, primarily because of the very high attenuation (1000 to 50000 dB/m) factor to 10 to 30 kHz. Such a high attenuation would restrict the action volume to such a low value as to make the method impractical. Further investigations are recommended to identify the cause of this effect and determine if this same effect will be seen in real 101-SY waste.

  5. Vibration in The Ultrasonic Machining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Zhigang; Zhong, Xinrong

    The rotary ultrasonic machining system is the vibration system, using the characteristics of the ultrasonic resonance. Based on the ultrasonic vibration model, the dynamic characteristics of the ultrasonic machining system are analyzed, and using the wave equations, the dynamic characteristics of the horn with the exponential transition are analyzed. Based on FEM, the dynamic characteristics of the horn with the exponential transition in the rotary ultrasonic machining system are analyzed.

  6. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2014-07-30

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  7. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  8. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  9. Experimental Study on the Effect of the Ultrasonic Wave on the Freezing of the Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozumi, Tsutomu; Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Matsui, Tatsuyuki

    In order to confirm the effect of ultrasonic wave on the freezing of supercooled water, various level of ultrasonic waves were applied to the supercooled water. The frequencies of the waves applied were 28kHz, 40kHz, 45kHz, 50kHz, and 1MHz. In order to clarify the mechanism of the effect of the ultrasonic wave, several factors were examined changing the experimental conditions and the results were compared each other; the factors were the existence of a free surface or oil -water interface, the volume of water, the purity of water and the existence of metal bar inserted. Each test section was cooled at a constant cooling rate and the ultrasonic waves were applied to each test section continuously, varying the frequency and the intensity. The experiments were carried out until the water in the test section solidified. The degree of supercooling at the freezing is determined by measuring the temperature just before a rapid increment of temperature due to freezing. It was found that the existence of a free surface and insertion of a metal bar with an addition to the ultrasonic wave have effects on the freezing of supercooled water. On the other hand, if oil-water interface or no metal bar insertion was selected as the experimental condition, there was no influence of the ultrasonic wave on the freezing of the supercooled water even the frequency and the intensity were varied.

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements were used to characterize density and microstructure in monolithic silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Research samples of these structural ceramics exhibited a wide range of density and microstructural variations. It was shown that bulk density variations correlate with and can be estimated by velocity measurements. Variations in microstructural features such as grain size or shape and pore morphology had a minor effect on velocity. However, these features had a pronounced effect on ultrasonic attenuation. The ultrasonic results are supplemented by low-energy radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy.

  11. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  12. Analytical ultrasonics for structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupperman, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The application of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to characterize the microstructure of structural materials is discussed. Velocity measurements in cast stainless steel are correlated with microstructural variations ranging from equiaxed (elastically isotropic) to columnar (elastically anisotropic) grain structure. The effect of the anisotropic grain structure on the deviation of ultrasonic waves in cast stainless steel is also reported. Field-implementable techniques for distinguishing equiaxed from columnar grain structures in cast strainless steel structural members are presented. The application of ultrasonic velocity measurements to characterize structural ceramics in the green state is also discussed.

  13. Deformed bubbles in inhomogeneous ultrasonic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Stéphane; Popinet, Stéphane

    1998-11-01

    We study numerically a bubble undergoing expansions and contractions under an ultrasonic acoustic field. The bubble deforms under the influence of intrinsic instabilities as well as inhomogeneities in the pressure field. Interface kinematics through connected marker chains, with cut-cell reconstructions are used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric geometry. A series of embedded grids is used to follow large expansions and contractions. Test cases involve a bubble oscillating at a variable distance from a solid wall as well as a levitating bubble subject to a net force (the Bjerknes force). The numerical scheme is able to follow relatively small bubbles down to 3 μm, in the sonoluminescence regime. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability predicted in that regime is reproduced. Larger, millimeter size bubbles may also be followed. In that case the numerical results show a typical jet formation analogous to the experimental observations of Lauterborn. Preliminary observations of jet velocities are made and compared to experiment.

  14. Computer automation of ultrasonic testing. [inspection of ultrasonic welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Kerlin, E. E.; Gardner, A. H.; Dunmyer, D.; Wells, T. G.; Robinson, A. R.; Kunselman, J. S.; Walker, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    Report describes a prototype computer-automated ultrasonic system developed for the inspection of weldments. This system can be operated in three modes: manual, automatic, and computer-controlled. In the computer-controlled mode, the system will automatically acquire, process, analyze, store, and display ultrasonic inspection data in real-time. Flaw size (in cross-section), location (depth), and type (porosity-like or crack-like) can be automatically discerned and displayed. The results and pertinent parameters are recorded.

  15. Design, development and evaluation of an automatic fruit-juice pasteurization system using microwave - ultrasonic waves.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Samani, Bahram; Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad Hadi; Minaei, Saeid; Zareifourosh, Hemad; Eshtiaghi, Mohammad Naghi; Rostami, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    Conventional pasteurization treatments often lead to substantial decrease in fruits juice quality. Due to these issues, the objective of this research was to compare the combined effect of a novel thermal (microwave) and non-thermal (ultrasonic) treatments with conventional thermal pasteurization on some qualitative characteristics of sour cherry juice (vitamins, phenolics, anthocyanins, etc.). For this purpose, an automatic control system comprising of ultrasonic generator, ultrasonic transducer, horn, pump, circulator, microwave oven, container, pipe interface, temperature sensor, float, data acquisition card, microwave power control circuit, and reactor was designed and developed. Moreover, in order to optimize the effect of ultrasonic waves on the existing micro-organisms in the sour cherry juice, some preliminary experiments were carried out to optimize the ultrasonic probe and reactor design. The results of evaluations showed that using the combined automatic system, the qualitative properties of sour cherry (vitamin C content 14 %, total phenolics content 1 %, total anthocyanins content 6 %) can be better maintained compared with the conventional thermal method. Based on the results obtained in this study, the following processing conditions: microwave power of 541.7 W, temperature of 41 °C, ultrasonic power of 799.57 W and ultrasonic exposure time of 6 min were recommended for optimum processing of sour cherry juice. PMID:26787934

  16. Comparison of ultrasonic distillation to sparging of liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Han Jung; Jung, Hye Yun; Calo, Joseph; Diebold, Gerald

    2011-04-01

    The application of intense ultrasound to a liquid-gas interface results in the formation of an ultrasonic fountain and generates both mist and vapor from the liquid. Here, the composition of the vapor and aerosol above an ultrasonic fountain is determined as a function of irradiation time and compared with the results of sparging for five different solutions. The experimental apparatus for determining the efficiency of separation consists of a glass vessel containing a piezoelectric transducer driven at either 1.65 or 2.40 MHz. Dry nitrogen is passed over the ultrasonic fountain to remove the vapor and aerosol. The compositions of the liquid solutions are recorded as a function of irradiation time using gas chromatography, refractive index measurement, nuclear magnetic resonance, or spectrophotometry. Data are presented for ethanol-water and ethyl acetate-ethanol solutions, cobalt chloride in water, colloidal silica, and colloidal gold. The experiments show that ultrasonic distillation produces separations that are somewhat less complete than what is obtained using sparging.

  17. Comparison of ultrasonic distillation to sparging of liquid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye Yun; Park, Han Jung; Calo, Joseph M; Diebold, Gerald J

    2010-12-15

    The application of intense ultrasound to a liquid-gas interface results in the formation of an ultrasonic fountain and generates both mist and vapor from the liquid. Here, the composition of the vapor and aerosol above an ultrasonic fountain is determined as a function of irradiation time and compared with the results of sparging for five different solutions. The experimental apparatus for determining the efficiency of separation consists of a glass vessel containing a piezoelectric transducer driven at either 1.65 or 2.40 MHz. Dry nitrogen is passed over the ultrasonic fountain to remove the vapor and aerosol. The composition of the liquid solutions are recorded as a function of irradiation time using gas chromatography, refractive index measurement, nuclear magnetic resonance, or spectrophotometry. Data are presented for ethanol-water and ethyl acetate-ethanol solutions, cobalt chloride in water, colloidal silica, and colloidal gold. The experiments show that ultrasonic distillation produces separations that are somewhat less complete than what is obtained using sparging. PMID:21073163

  18. Ultrasonic Membrane Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    A membrane is a sermipermeable material that permits the passage of some molecules while retaining others. Ultrasound can enhance membrane operation through the asymmetric collapse of cavitating bubbles and through the turbulence associated with acoustic streaming. The added turbulence can lead to a looser, more porous fouling cake layer and may agglomerate fine particles, reducing pore blockage and cake compaction.These effects are dependent upon the ultrasonic intensity, the operating pressure, crossflow velocity and solids concentration.Membrane cleaning can also be enhanced by the use of ultrasound, but this application may not be economic when used in isolation. One of the greatest challenges facing the technology is the generation of a uniform acoustic field across the entire membrane surface in a full-scale module.

  19. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Kenneth W.; Haas, Jr., William J.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1978-08-29

    An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

  20. Metrology for ultrasonic applications.

    PubMed

    Zeqiri, Bajram

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current metrological capability applied to the characterisation of the acoustic output of equipment used within medical ultrasonic applications. Key measurement devices, developed to underpin metrology in this area, are the radiation force balance, used to determine total output power, and the piezo-electric hydrophone, used to resolve the spatial and temporal distribution of acoustic pressure. The measurement infrastructure in place within the United Kingdom ensuring users are able to carry out traceable measurements of these quantities in a meaningful way, is described. This includes the relevant primary standards, the way international equivalence of national standards is demonstrated and the routes by which the standards are disseminated to the user community. Emerging measurement techniques that may in future lead to improved measurement capability, are also briefly discussed. PMID:17081597

  1. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  2. Ultrasonic monitoring of material processing using clad buffer rod sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Franca, Demartonne

    Ultrasonic sensors and techniques are developed for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion, cleanliness of molten metals and liquid flow speed at elevated temperature. Pulse-echo mode is used for the first two processes, while the through-transmission mode is applied in the third one. The ultrasonic probe consists of high performance clad buffer rods with different dimensions to thermally isolate the commercial ultrasonic transducer from materials at high temperature. The clad buffer rods are made of steel, polymer and ceramic. Steel clad buffer rods are introduced for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion processes. Owing to its superior performance in pulse-echo mode, for the first time such a probe is installed and performs ultrasonic monitoring in the die of a co-extrusion machine and in the barrel section of a twin-screw extruder. It can reveal a variety of information relevant to process parameters, such as polymer layer thickness, interface location and adhesion quality, stability, or polymer composition change. For the ultrasonic monitoring of polymer processes, probes with acoustic impedance that matches that of the processed polymer may offer certain advantages such as quantitative viscoelastic evaluation; thus high temperature polymer clad buffer rods, in particular PEEK, are developed. It is demonstrated that this new probe exhibits unique advantages for in-line monitoring of the cure of epoxies and polymer extrusion process. Long steel clad buffer rods with a spherical focus lens machined at the probing end are proposed for cleanliness evaluation of molten metals. The potential of this focusing probe is demonstrated by means of high-resolution imaging and particles detection in molten zinc at temperatures higher than 600°C, using a single probe operated at pulse-echo mode. A contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter employing steel clad buffer rods is devised to operate at high temperature. It is demonstrated that these rods guide ultrasonic signals

  3. Ultrasonic extensometer measures bolt preload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Extensometer using ultrasonic pulse reflections to measure elongations in tightened belts and studs is much more accurate than conventional torque wrenches in application of specified preload to bolts and other threaded fasteners.

  4. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  5. Ultrasonic Imaging Of Deep Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.; Heyser, Richard C.; Lecroissette, Dennis H.

    1990-01-01

    Swept-frequency sound replaces pulsed sound. Ultrasonic medical instrument produces images of peripheral and coronary arteries with resolutions higher and at depths greater than attainable by previous ultrasonic systems. Time-delay-spectrometry imager includes scanning, image-processing, and displaying equipment. It sweeps in frequency from 0 to 10 MHz in 20 ms, pauses for 5 ms, and repeats sweep. Intended for use in noninvasive detection and measurement of atherosclerotic lesions.

  6. The acousto-ultrasonic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1987-01-01

    The nature and underlying rationale of the acousto-ultrasonic approach is reviewed, needed advanced signal analysis and evaluation methods suggested, and application potentials discussed. Acousto-ultrasonics is an NDE technique combining aspects of acoustic emission methodology with ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. This approach uses analysis of simulated stress waves for detecting and mapping variations of mechanical properties. Unlike most NDE, acousto-ultrasonics is less concerned with flaw detection than with the assessment of the collective effects of various flaws and material anomalies. Acousto-ultrasonics has been applied chiefly to laminated and filament-wound fiber reinforced composites. It has been used to assess the significant strength and toughness reducing effects that can be wrought by combinations of essentially minor flaws and diffuse flaw populations. Acousto-ultrasonics assesses integrated defect states and the resultant variations in properties such as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and fracture resistance. Matrix cure state, porosity, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix bonding, and interlaminar bond quality are underlying factors.

  7. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  8. Ultrasonic monitoring of asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junqing; Yang, Fan; Wang, Rongguo

    2013-08-01

    Asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy laminates was manufactured for the purpose with repeat tensile test, which will be applied in composite pressure vessel. Ultrasonic C scan and A scan approach are used to evaluate the damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al (carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy) laminates. Nondestructive detection is carried out for the CFRP-Al laminates before and after tensile test. Comparison results and pulse echo analysis show that when subjected to repeat tensile test with 70% elastic limit strain load of the CFRP laminates, the interface debonding between CFRP and Al will not occur but the delamination within CFRP laminates becomes the main damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al laminates. This investigation indicated that combined ultrasonic C scan and A scan is available for damage evaluation of fibre metal laminates.

  9. Resonant ultrasonic wireless power transmission for bio-implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Q.; Youm, Woosub; Hwang, Gunn; Moon, Kee S.; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present the ultrasonic wireless power transmission system as part of a brain-machine interface (BMI) system in development to supply the required electric power. Making a small-size implantable BMI, it is essential to design a low power unit with a rechargeable battery. The ultrasonic power transmission system has two piezoelectric transducers, facing each other between skin tissues converting electrical energy to mechanical vibrational energy or vice versa. Ultrasound is free from the electromagnetic coupling effect and medical frequency band limitations which making it a promising candidate for implantable purposes. In this paper, we present the design of piezoelectric composite transducer, the rectifier circuit, and rechargeable battery that all packaged in biocompatible titanium can. An initial prototype device was built for demonstration purpose. The early experimental results demonstrate the prototype device can reach 50% of energy transmission efficiency in a water medium at 20mm distance and 18% in animal skin tissue at 18mm distance, respectively.

  10. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M. Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system (20) includes an ultrasonic transmitting device (100) and an ultrasonic receiving device (200). The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) accepts as input (115) an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device (200) converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output (250).

  11. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M.A.; Ayers, C.W.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-07-23

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output. 7 figs.

  12. Ultrasensitive ultrasonic transducer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.; Darling, T.; Migliori, A.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to continue development of the ultrasensitive ultrasonic transducers that won a 1994 R&D 100 Award. These transducers have a very smooth response across a broad frequency range and thus are extremely well- suited for resonant ultrasound spectroscopy as well as pulsed-echo and acoustic-emission applications. Current work on these transducers has indicated that bonding the piezoelectric and wear surface to a metal foil and attaching the foil to a body is less expensive and produces a transducer that is as good or better than commercially produced transducers. We have diffusion- bonded piezoelectric crystals and backings to stainless-steel-foil and wear surfaces. These are then attached onto stainless-steel tubes with electrical connectors to form the transducers. The transducers have been characterized using a reciprocity technique, electrical response, and optical interferometry. After characterization, the transducers have been compared to existing transducers by measuring and testing identical properties.

  13. Inexpensive Ultrasonic Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, John; Svitelskiy, Oleksiy; Suslov, Alexey

    2013-03-01

    Growing interest of small universities and colleges in research determines an increasing need in affordable laboratory equipment that would be capable of producing scientifically valuable experimental results. In this report we present the current status of our efforts to develop a simple and low-cost version of a classical experimental setup for ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements that would be easily reproducible in the electronics shop of any small educational institution. In particular, usage of a dual timer microchip LM556 allowed us to simplify the design of a probing pulse generator. Also, we propose that using modern broadband RF components in phase detection circuits will allow us to substitute the complicated and expensive superheterodyne design of receiver with the technique of direct transformation and analysis of the echo signal right at the probe frequency. Our analysis shows that these simplifications can be achieved without compromising for sensitivity of the experiment or precision of measurements. This work is supported by Research Council of Colgate University

  14. Ultrasonic Time Reversal Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Mathias; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tanter, Mickael

    2004-11-01

    For more than ten years, time reversal techniques have been developed in many different fields of applications including detection of defects in solids, underwater acoustics, room acoustics and also ultrasound medical imaging and therapy. The essential property that makes time reversed acoustics possible is that the underlying physical process of wave propagation would be unchanged if time were reversed. In a non dissipative medium, the equations governing the waves guarantee that for every burst of sound that diverges from a source there exists in theory a set of waves that would precisely retrace the path of the sound back to the source. If the source is pointlike, this allows focusing back on the source whatever the medium complexity. For this reason, time reversal represents a very powerful adaptive focusing technique for complex media. The generation of this reconverging wave can be achieved by using Time Reversal Mirrors (TRM). It is made of arrays of ultrasonic reversible piezoelectric transducers that can record the wavefield coming from the sources and send back its time-reversed version in the medium. It relies on the use of fully programmable multi-channel electronics. In this paper we present some applications of iterative time reversal mirrors to target detection in medical applications.

  15. Ultrasonic metal etching for metallographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Ultrasonic etching delineates microstructural features not discernible in specimens prepared for metallographic analysis by standard chemical etching procedures. Cavitation bubbles in ultrasonically excited water produce preferential damage /etching/ of metallurgical phases or grain boundaries, depending on hardness of metal specimens.

  16. [Ultrasonics in endodontics: mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Plaza, M C; Kessler Nieto, F; Orts Rodríguez, M T; Ruiz de Temiño Malo, P

    1989-01-01

    The present study, first of three dwelling with ultrasonics in endodontic therapy, is a review of the literature about mechanisms involved and appliance of some of the sonic and ultrasonic system. PMID:2700391

  17. Study of ultrasonic thermometry based on ultrasonic time-of-flight measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ruixi; Xiong, Qingyu; Wang, Lijie; Wang, Kai; Shen, Xuehua; Liang, Shan; Shi, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonic thermometry is a kind of acoustic pyrometry and it has been evolving as a new temperature measurement technology for various environment. However, the accurate measurement of the ultrasonic time-of-flight is the key for ultrasonic thermometry. In this paper, we study the ultrasonic thermometry technique based on ultrasonic time-of-flight measurement with a pair of ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving signal. The ultrasonic transducers are installed in a single path which ultrasonic travels. In order to validate the performance of ultrasonic thermometry, we make a contrast about the absolute error between the measured temperature value and the practical one. With and without heater source, the experimental results indicate ultrasonic thermometry has high precision of temperature measurement.

  18. High-Performance Acousto-Ultrasonic Scan System Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Kautz, Harold E.

    2003-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonic (AU) interrogation is a single-sided nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique employing separated sending and receiving transducers. It is used for assessing the microstructural condition and distributed damage state of the material between the transducers. AU is complementary to more traditional NDE methods, such as ultrasonic cscan, x-ray radiography, and thermographic inspection, which tend to be used primarily for discrete flaw detection. Throughout its history, AU has been used to inspect polymer matrix composites, metal matrix composites, ceramic matrix composites, and even monolithic metallic materials. The development of a high-performance automated AU scan system for characterizing within-sample microstructural and property homogeneity is currently in a prototype stage at NASA. This year, essential AU technology was reviewed. In addition, the basic hardware and software configuration for the scanner was developed, and preliminary results with the system were described. Mechanical and environmental loads applied to composite materials can cause distributed damage (as well as discrete defects) that plays a significant role in the degradation of physical properties. Such damage includes fiber/matrix debonding (interface failure), matrix microcracking, and fiber fracture and buckling. Investigations at the NASA Glenn Research Center have shown that traditional NDE scan inspection methods such as ultrasonic c-scan, x-ray imaging, and thermographic imaging tend to be more suited to discrete defect detection rather than the characterization of accumulated distributed microdamage in composites. Since AU is focused on assessing the distributed microdamage state of the material in between the sending and receiving transducers, it has proven to be quite suitable for assessing the relative composite material state. One major success story at Glenn with AU measurements has been the correlation between the ultrasonic decay rate obtained during AU

  19. High-Performance Acousto-Ultrasonic Scan System Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Kautz, Harold E.

    2003-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonic (AU) interrogation is a single-sided nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique employing separated sending and receiving transducers. It is used for assessing the microstructural condition and distributed damage state of the material between the transducers. AU is complementary to more traditional NDE methods, such as ultrasonic cscan, x-ray radiography, and thermographic inspection, which tend to be used primarily for discrete flaw detection. Throughout its history, AU has been used to inspect polymer matrix composites, metal matrix composites, ceramic matrix composites, and even monolithic metallic materials. The development of a high-performance automated AU scan system for characterizing within-sample microstructural and property homogeneity is currently in a prototype stage at NASA. This year, essential AU technology was reviewed. In addition, the basic hardware and software configuration for the scanner was developed, and preliminary results with the system were described. Mechanical and environmental loads applied to composite materials can cause distributed damage (as well as discrete defects) that plays a significant role in the degradation of physical properties. Such damage includes fiber/matrix debonding (interface failure), matrix microcracking, and fiber fracture and buckling. Investigations at the NASA Glenn Research Center have shown that traditional NDE scan inspection methods such as ultrasonic c-scan, x-ray imaging, and thermographic imaging tend to be more suited to discrete defect detection rather than the characterization of accumulated distributed micro-damage in composites. Since AU is focused on assessing the distributed micro-damage state of the material in between the sending and receiving transducers, it has proven to be quite suitable for assessing the relative composite material state. One major success story at Glenn with AU measurements has been the correlation between the ultrasonic decay rate obtained during AU

  20. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  1. High temperature pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Caines, M.J.

    1983-07-12

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  2. High temperature pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Caines, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  3. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  9. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  11. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  13. A New Approach for Quantitative Evaluation of Ultrasonic Wave Attenuation in Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Li, Ran; Xia, Hong

    2016-06-01

    When ultrasonic waves propagate in composite materials, the propagation behaviors result from the combination effects of various factors, such as material anisotropy and viscoelastic property, internal microstructure and defects, incident wave characteristics and interface condition between composite components. It is essential to make it clear how these factors affect the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation characteristics, and how they mutually interact on each other. In the present paper, based on a newly developed time-domain finite element analysis code, PZflex, a unique approach for clarifying the detailed influence mechanism of aforementioned factors is proposed, in which each attenuation component can be extracted from the overall attenuation and analyzed respectively. By taking into consideration the interrelation between each individual attenuation component, the variation behaviors of each component and internal dynamic stress distribution against material anisotropy and matrix viscosity are separately and quantitatively evaluated. From the detailed analysis results of each attenuation component, the energy dissipation at interface is a major component in ultrasonic wave attenuation characteristics, which can provide a maximum contribution rate of 68.2 % to the overall attenuation, and each attenuation component is closely related to the material anisotropy and viscoelasticity. The results clarify the correlation between ultrasonic wave propagation characteristics and material viscoelastic properties, which will be useful in the further development of ultrasonic technology in defect detection.

  14. Experimental study of interface properties between layer and substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Ray T.; Nagy, Peter B.; Adler, Laszlo

    A meshed intervening layer technique which makes it possible to study the interface properties between layer and substrate is presented. It is argued that the bonding condition of the interface can be monitored through the variation of the phase velocity of the modified Rayleigh mode. The experimental setup of the measurement of the reflection of ultrasonic waves from a layered substrate specimen is shown, and the frequency spectra from three typical bonding cases - perfectly bonded, partially bonded, and completely misbonded - are illustrated.

  15. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation

    SciTech Connect

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  16. Lamb Wave Helical Ultrasonic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, K. R.; Hinders, M. K.

    2004-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been used for a wide variety of ultrasonic inspection techniques. We describe here a new variation called helical ultrasound tomography (HUT). This new technique, among other things, has direct application to advanced pipe inspection. HUT uses guided ultrasonic waves along with an adaptation of the tomographic reconstruction algorithms developed by seismologists for what they call "cross borehole" tomography. In HUT, the Lamb-like guided waves travel in various helical crisscross paths between two parallel circumferential transducer arrays instead of the planar crisscross seismic paths between two boreholes. Although the measurement itself is fairly complicated, the output of the tomographic reconstruction is a readily interpretable map of a quantity of interest such as pipe wall thickness. We demonstrate the feasibility of the HUT technique via laboratory scans on steel pipe segments into which controlled thinnings have been introduced.

  17. Delaminations Investigated With Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.

    2003-01-01

    A previous study suggested that the ultrasonic spectroscopy technique identified possible disbonds or delaminations in polymer matrix composite (PMC) rings sectioned from flywheel rotors (ref. 1). These results went unsubstantiated by other nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. To explain the results, PMC rings were further investigated with ultrasonic spectroscopy (ref. 2). The ultrasonic spectroscopy system utilizes a continuous-swept sine waveform as the input. After the swept sine wave traverses the material, the captured waveform is subjected to two fast Fourier transforms. The second fast Fourier transform along with equalization of the frequency spectrum, allows for evaluation of the fundamental resonant frequency. The full-thickness resonance, the resonance corresponding to the location of the intentional disbond, and the frequency spectrum were examined in an effort to characterize the sensitivity of the NDE method to various delamination conditions.

  18. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  19. Ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Keisuke; Fujita, Chitoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1994-12-31

    During fuel transportation, contamination of the transfer cask can lead to radiation dosage. That is radioactive crud becomes detached from the fuel surface and is deposited inside the cask. To avoid this at the Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, crud was removed from fuel assemblies in advance of fuel transportation work. An ultrasonic cleaning process was adopted for this purpose; ultrasonic methods excel over other methods for this type of cleaning. Our process is also able to clean fuel assemblies without removing the channel box. Since this is the first time that the ultrasonic method was applied to fuel assemblies at the light water reactor in Japan on a large scale, the efficiency and the impact on plant instrumentation of the method were examined by performing preliminary test. Based on these tests, an optimum cleaning procedure was established.

  20. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  1. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  2. Application of laser ultrasonic method for on-line monitoring of friction stir spot welding process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua

    2015-09-01

    Application of a laser ultrasonic method is developed for on-line monitoring of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process. Based on the technology of FSSW, laser-generated ultrasonic waves in a good weld and nonweld area are simulated by a finite element method. The reflected and transmitted waves are analyzed to disclose the properties of the welded interface. The noncontact-laser ultrasonic-inspection system was established to verify the numerical results. The reflected waves in the good-weld and nonweld area can be distinguished by time-of-flight. The transmitted waves evidently attenuate in the nonweld area in contrast to signal amplitude in the good weld area because of interfacial impedance difference. Laser ultrasonic C-scan images can sufficiently evaluate the intrinsic character of the weld area in comparison with traditional water-immersion ultrasonic testing results. The research results confirm that laser ultrasonics would be an effective method to realize the characterization of FSSW defects. PMID:26368866

  3. Effect of ultrasonic capillary dynamics on the mechanics of thermosonic ball bonding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Shah, Aashish; Mayer, Michael; Zhou, Norman Y; Persic, John

    2010-01-01

    Microelectronic wire bonding is an essential step in today's microchip production. It is used to weld (bond) microwires to metallized pads of integrated circuits using ultrasound with hundreds of thousands of vibration cycles. Thermosonic ball bonding is the most popular variant of the wire bonding process and frequently investigated using finite element (FE) models that simplify the ultrasonic dynamics of the process with static or quasistatic boundary conditions. In this study, the ultrasonic dynamics of the bonding tool (capillary), made from Al(2)O(3), is included in a FE model. For more accuracy of the FE model, the main material parameters are measured. The density of the capillary was measured to be rho(cap) = 3552 +/- 100 kg/m(3). The elastic modulus of the capillary, E(cap) = 389 +/- 11 GPa, is found by comparing an auxiliary FE model of the free vibrating capillary with measured values. A capillary "nodding effect" is identified and found to be essential when describing the ultrasonic vibration shape. A main FE model builds on these results and adds bonded ball, pad, chip, and die attach components. There is excellent agreement between the main model and the ultrasonic force measured at the interface on a test chip with stress microsensors. Bonded ball and underpad stress results are reported. When adjusted to the same ultrasonic force, a simplified model without ultrasonic dynamics and with an infinitely stiff capillary tip is substantially off target by -40% for the maximum underpad stress. The compliance of the capillary causes a substantial inclination effect at the bonding interface between wire and pad. This oscillating inclination effect massively influences the stress fields under the pad and is studied in more detail. For more accurate results, it is therefore recommended to include ultrasonic dynamics of the bonding tool in mechanical FE models of wire bonding. PMID:20040450

  4. Rapid bonding enhancement by auxiliary ultrasonic actuation for the fabrication of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Tor, S. B.; Loh, N. H.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal compression bonding is a straightforward, inexpensive and widely used method for enclosing open microchannels in thermoplastic microfluidic devices. It is advantageous over adhesive, solvent and grafting bonding methods in retaining material homogeneity. However, the trade-off between high bond strength and low microchannel deformation is always a crucial consideration in thermal compression bonding. In this study, an effective method for improving bond strength while retaining the microchannel integrity with negligible distortion is proposed and analyzed. Longitudinal ultrasonic actuation was applied to the preheated cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) substrates to achieve accelerated and enhanced bonding with an ultrasonic welding system. Intimate contact between the bonding surfaces before the ultrasonic actuation was found to be an important prior condition. With improper contact, several bonding defects would occur, such as voids, localized spot melting and edge melting. Under auxiliary ultrasonic vibration, within 10 s, the bond strength developed at the bonding interface could be dramatically improved compared with those achieved without ultrasonic actuation. The enhanced bond strength obtained at a preheating temperature of 20 °C lower than its Tg could be comparable to the strength for pure thermal compression at 5 °C higher than its Tg. It is believed that the ultrasonic energy introduced could elevate the interfacial temperature and facilitate the interdiffusion of molecular chain segments at the interface, consequently resulting in rapidly enhanced bonding. Also, the microchannel distortion after ultrasonic actuation was found to be satisfactory—another important requirement. From dynamic mechanical analysis, the glass transition temperature of COC was found to increase with increasing frequency, and the temperature of the bulk polymer under ultrasonic actuation was still well under Tg; therefore the deformation is minor under ultrasonic

  5. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, Dale; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-09-17

    This is a new edition of a bestselling industry reference. Discusses the science, technology, and applications of low and high power ultrasonics, including industrial implementations and medical uses. Reviews the basic equations of acoustics, starting from basic wave equations and their applications. New material on property determination, inspection of metals (NDT) and non-metals, imaging, process monitoring and control. Expanded discussion of transducers, transducer wave-fields, scattering, attenuation and measurement systems and models. New material that discusses high power ultrasonics - in particular using mechanical effects and sonochemistry, including applications to nano-materials. Examines diagnosis, therapy, and surgery from a technology and medical physics perspective.

  6. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  7. Improved Portable Ultrasonic Leak Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Polk, Jimmy D.; Strobel, James P.; Luaces, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Improved portable ultrasonic leak detector features three interchangeable ultrasonic-transducer modules, each suited for operation in unique noncontact or contact mode. One module equipped with ultrasound-collecting horn for use in scanning to detect leaks from distance; horn provides directional sensitivity pattern with sensitivity multiplied by factor of about 6 in forward direction. Another module similar, does not include horn; this module used for scanning close to suspected leak, where proximity of leak more than offsets loss of sensitivity occasioned by lack of horn. Third module designed to be pressed against leaking vessel; includes rugged stainless-steel shell. Improved detectors perform significantly better, smaller, more rugged, and greater sensitivity.

  8. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1985-09-04

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  9. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1987-12-15

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder is disclosed. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws. 5 figs.

  10. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive transducers for guided ultrasonic waves in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropf, Matthew M.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2007-04-01

    The magnetostrictive effect is used to generate ultrasonic waves for a variety of health monitoring applications. Given the ductile nature of many ferromagnetic materials and the common geometrical configuration of magnetic inductance coils, magnetostrictive generation of ultrasound is especially suitable for long cylindrical waveguides such as thin wires. Furthermore, utilizing ultrasonic guided wave modes in such waveguides provides a robust tool for remote inspection of materials or environments over long distances. Through the use of different guided wave modes, structural health monitoring sensors could be tailored to suit individual applications. Guided wave modes offer a choice in displacement profile allowing sensors to be designed to be either sensitive or impervious to surface effects. The dispersivity of the guided wave velocity can also be optimized for applications involving time-of-flight measurements. Despite the advantages afforded by guided wave analysis, current magnetostrictive transducers, consisting of coil of wire and a bias magnet, can not perform at the frequencies necessary to excite higher order guided wave modes. In order to advance the capability of magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic guided waves in wires, the design parameters of inductance coils are examined. Using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, ultrasonic displacements are measured over a range of excitation frequencies for different coil configurations and parameters to determine the feasibility of developing a higher mode magnetostrictive transducer.

  11. Design, fabrication, and testing of an ultrasonic de-icing system for helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Jose Luis

    A low-power, non-thermal ultrasonic de-icing system is introduced as a possible substitute for current electro-thermal systems. The system generates delaminating ultrasonic transverse shear stresses at the interface of accreted ice. A PZT-4 disk driven at 28.5 KHz (radial resonance of the disk) instantaneously de-bonds 2 mm thick freezer ice layers. The ice layers are accreted to a 0.7 mm thick, 30.4 cm x 30.4 cm steel plate at an environment temperature of -20°C. A power input of 50 Watts is applied to the actuator (50 V, 19.6 KV/m), which translates to a de-icing power of 0.07 W/cm2. A finite element model of the actuator bonded to the isotropic plate is used to guide the design of the system, and predicts the transverse shear stresses at the ice interface. Wind tunnel icing tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system under impact icing conditions. Both glaze ice and rime ice were generated on steel and composite plates by changing the cloud conditions of the wind tunnel. Continuous ultrasonic vibration prevented impact ice formation around the actuator location at an input power not exceeding 0.18 W/cm 2 (1.2 W/in2). As ice thickness reached a critical thickness of approximately 1.2 mm, shedding occurred on those locations where ultrasonic transverse shear stresses exceeded the shear adhesion strength of the ice. Finite element transverse shear stress predictions correlate with observed experimental impact ice de-bonding behavior. To increase the traveling distance of propagating ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic shear horizontal wave modes are studied. Wave modes providing large modal interface transverse shear stress concentration coefficients (ISCC) between the host structure (0.7 mm thick steel plate) and accreted ice (2.5 mm thick ice layer) are identified and investigated for a potential increase in the wave propagation distance. Ultrasonic actuators able to trigger these optimum wave modes are designed and fabricated. Despite

  12. Ultrasonic evaluation of high voltage circuit boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Riley, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary observations indicate that an ultrasonic scanning technique may be useful as a quick, low cost, nondestructive method for judging the quality of circuit board materials for high voltage applications. Corona inception voltage tests were conducted on fiberglass-epoxy and fiberglass-polyimide high pressure laminates from 20 to 140 C. The same materials were scanned ultrasonically by utilizing the single transducer, through-transmission technique with reflector plate, and recording variations in ultrasonic energy transmitted through the board thickness. A direct relationship was observed between ultrasonic transmission level and corona inception voltage. The ultrasonic technique was subsequently used to aid selection of high quality circuit boards for the Communications Technology Satellite.

  13. Materials analysis by ultrasonics: Metals, ceramics, composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properties, and dynamic response.

  14. Analytical Ultrasonics in Materials Research and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properites, and dynamic response.

  15. Modeling of the Thermal Field in Dissimilar Alloy Ultrasonic Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Prangnell, P.; Robson, J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a finite element model for predicting the temperature field in high power ultrasonic welding aluminum AA6111 to two dissimilar alloys, magnesium AZ31, and low carbon steel DC04. Experimental thermocouple and other evidence are used to infer the magnitude and distribution of the heat input to the workpiece, as a function of time, for each of the material combinations welded. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Mg welds. The microstructural model successfully predicts the thickness of the intermetallic layer, but the sensitivity of the results to temperature is demonstrated.

  16. Hyperbolic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-28

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature. PMID:23030106

  17. Hyperbolic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature.

  18. (Investigations of ultrasonic wave interactions with grain boundaries and grain imperfections)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of our research is to obtain a better understanding of ultrasonic wave interaction with interfaces in polycrystalline materials. This report discusses two recently developed experimental techniques: scanning acoustic microscope and optical point sensors. As for general wave propagation problems in anisotropic media, four major topics are discussed in separate sections. First, single boundaries between large bicrystals are considered. The reflection and transmission coefficients of such interfaces are calculated for imperfect boundary conditions by using the finite interface stiffness approach. Ultrasonic transmission through multiple-grain structures are investigated by computer simulation based on the statistical evaluation of repeated acoustical wave interactions with individual grain boundaries. The number of grains interacting with the propagating acoustical wave is considered to be high enough to approximate the wave-material interaction as scattering on elastic inhomogeneities. The grain scattering induced attenuation of Rayleigh waves is investigated in polycrystalline materials. 41 refs., 43 figs.

  19. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  20. Improved ultrasonic biomedical measuring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Device for making measurements of organs in living specimens and recording movements of organs is described. System uses series of ultrasonic pulses beamed into body of animal and reflected echo pulses are picked up by transducers and recorded. Diagram of equipment required and method of application is included.

  1. Ultrasonic-impact grinder system

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, N.C.

    1982-09-30

    The disclosure relates to an ultrasonic impact grinding apparatus utilizing a counterweight to set an unloaded friction free condition. An added weight is used to optimize feed rate in accordance with the material to be cut, tool size and the like.

  2. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  3. Ultrasonic seam welding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Darner, G.S.

    1980-06-01

    Ultrasonic seam welding has been evaluated for making continuous seam welds on aluminum and copper-foil conductors. A seam welding system has been designed and fabricated, weldable material combinations have been identified, and the process parameters for welding materials applicable to flat cable production have been established.

  4. Ultrasonic approach for surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-03-01

    The review is about solid surface modifications by cavitation induced in strong ultrasonic fields. The topic is worth to be discussed in a special issue of surface cleaning by cavitation induced processes since it is important question if we always find surface cleaning when surface modifications occur, or vice versa. While these aspects are extremely interesting it is important for applications to follow possible pathways during ultrasonic treatment of the surface: (i) solely cleaning; (ii) cleaning with following surface nanostructuring; and (iii) topic of this particular review, surface modification with controllably changing its characteristics for advanced applications. It is important to know what can happen and which parameters should be taking into account in the case of surface modification when actually the aim is solely cleaning or aim is surface nanostructuring. Nanostructuring should be taking into account since is often accidentally applied in cleaning. Surface hydrophilicity, stability to Red/Ox reactions, adhesion of surface layers to substrate, stiffness and melting temperature are important to predict the ultrasonic influence on a surface and discussed from these points for various materials and intermetallics, silicon, hybrid materials. Important solid surface characteristics which determine resistivity and kinetics of surface response to ultrasonic treatment are discussed. It is also discussed treatment in different solvents and presents in solution of metal ions. PMID:26382299

  5. Federal technology alert: Ultrasonic humidifiers

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Humidifiers are used in buildings to maintain humidity levels to ensure quality and handling capabilities in manufacturing processes, to lower the transmission rate of disease-causing bacteria in hospitals, to reduce static electricity in manufacturing clean rooms and in computer rooms, and to provide higher levels of employee comfort in offices. Ultrasonic humidifiers generate a water mist without raising its temperature. An electronic oscillation is converted to a mechanical oscillation using a piezo disk immersed in a reservoir of mineral-free water. The mechanical oscillation is directed at the surface of the water, where at very high frequencies it creates a very fine mist of water droplets. This adiabatic process, which does not heat the supply water, reduces humidifier energy use by 90 to 93% compared with systems that do boil the water. Ultrasonic humidifiers have been demonstrated to be more efficient and to require less maintenance than competing humidifier technologies such as electrode canisters, quartz lamps, and indirect steam-to-steam. They do not require anticorrosive additives that affect the indoor air quality of buildings using direct steam humidifiers. There are two potential disadvantages of ultrasonic humidifiers. They must use mineral-free, deionized water or water treated with reverse osmosis. Treated water reduces maintenance costs because it eliminates calcium deposits, but increases other operating costs. Also, the cool mist from ultrasonic humidifiers absorbs energy from the supply air as it evaporates and provides a secondary cooling effect.

  6. Non-bonded ultrasonic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Eoff, J.M.

    1984-07-06

    A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

  7. Ultrasonic Calibration Wire Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-24

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annular array scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present example data sets, preliminary reconstructions, example metadata, and MATLAB codes to read the data.

  8. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  9. Mechanism and kinetics of parathion degradation under ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Juan-Juan; Gao, Nai-Yun; Li, Cong; Li, Lei; Xu, Bin

    2010-03-15

    The parathion degradation under ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous solution was investigated. The results indicate that at the conditions in question, degradation rate of parathion decreased with increasing initial concentration and decreasing power. The optimal frequency for parathion degradation was 600 kHz. The free radical reactions predominate in the sonochemical degradation of parathion and the reaction zones are predominately at the bubble interface and, to a much lesser extent, in bulk solution. The gas/liquid interfacial regions are the real effective reaction sites for sonochemical degradation of parathion. The reaction can be well described as a gas/liquid heterogeneous reaction which obeys a kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The main pathways of parathion degradation by ultrasonic irradiation were also proposed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic byproducts. It is indicated that the N(2) in air takes part in the parathion degradation through the formation of NO(2) under ultrasonic irradiation. Parathion is decomposed into paraoxon and 4-nitrophenol in the first step via two different pathways, respectively, which is in agreement with the theoretical molecular orbital (MO) calculations. PMID:19854573

  10. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10(-3) g/cm(3) (1%). PMID:26262619

  11. Estimation of Thermal Contact Resistance Using Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, P. Z.; Zhang, X.; Fujii, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of both the three-dimensional heat conduction and two-dimensional elastic wave propagation at the interface of contact solids have been carried out. Numerical results of heat conduction simulations show that both the true contact area and thermal contact conductance increase linearly with an increase in the contact pressure. Numerical results of the ultrasonic wave propagation show that the intensity of a transmitted wave is very weak but depends clearly on the contact pressure. On the other hand, the intensity of reflected wave amounts to more than 99% of the standard reflected wave that results from the case of one cylindrical specimen without contact. However, the intensity of the modified reflected wave defined by the difference between the reflected wave and standard reflected wave shows the same tendency as that of the transmitted wave. The intensities of both transmitted and modified reflected waves could be expressed by the same power function of the contact pressure. By comparing the results of heat conduction with those of ultrasonic propagation calculations, a power functional correlation between the thermal contact conductance and transmitted or modified reflected intensity has been obtained. Using this correlation, it will be possible to estimate the thermal contact conductance between two solids through measuring the intensity of either reflected or transmitted ultrasonic waves.

  12. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%). PMID:26262619

  13. Dental hard tissue characterization using laser-based ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, David W.; Massey, Ward L.

    2003-07-01

    Dental health care and research workers require a means of imaging the structures within teeth in vivo. One critical need is the detection of tooth decay in its early stages. If decay can be detected early enough, the process can be monitored and interventional procedures, such as fluoride washes and controlled diet, can be initiated to help re-mineralize the tooth. Currently employed x-ray imaging is limited in its ability to visualize interfaces and incapable of detecting decay at a stage early enough to avoid invasive cavity preparation followed by a restoration. To this end, non-destructive and non-contact in vitro measurements on extracted human molars using laser-based ultrasonics are presented. Broadband ultrasonic waves are excited in the extracted sections by using a pulsed carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser operating in a region of high optical absorption in the dental hard tissues. Optical interferometric detection of the ultrasonic wave surface displacements in accomplished with a path-stabilized Michelson-type interferometer. Results for bulk and surface in-vitro characterization of caries are presented on extracted molars with pre-existing caries.

  14. Ultrasonic emissions during ice nucleation and propagation in plant xylem.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Guillaume; Pramsohler, Manuel; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Saudreau, Marc; Améglio, Thierry; Neuner, Gilbert; Mayr, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic emission analysis enables nondestructive monitoring of damage in dehydrating or freezing plant xylem. We studied acoustic emissions (AE) in freezing stems during ice nucleation and propagation, by combining acoustic and infrared thermography techniques and controlling the ice nucleation point. Ultrasonic activity in freezing samples of Picea abies showed two distinct phases: the first on ice nucleation and propagation (up to 50 AE s(-1) ; reversely proportional to the distance to ice nucleation point), and the second (up to 2.5 AE s(-1) ) after dissipation of the exothermal heat. Identical patterns were observed in other conifer and angiosperm species. The complex AE patterns are explained by the low water potential of ice at the ice-liquid interface, which induced numerous and strong signals. Ice propagation velocities were estimated via AE (during the first phase) and infrared thermography. Acoustic activity ceased before the second phase probably because the exothermal heating and the volume expansion of ice caused decreasing tensions. Results indicate cavitation events at the ice front leading to AE. Ultrasonic emission analysis enabled new insights into the complex process of xylem freezing and might be used to monitor ice propagation in natura. PMID:25756189

  15. Ultrasonic assessment of interfacial oxidation damage in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. C.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach to characterizing oxidation damage in ceramic matrix composites using ultrasonic techniques is proposed. In this approach, the elastic constants of the composite are determined nondestructively by measuring the angular dependence of both longitudinal and transverse wave velocities. A micromechanical model for composites with anisotropic constituents is used to find the anisotropic properties of an effective fiber, which is a combination of the fiber and the interface. Interfacial properties are extracted from the properties of this effective fiber by analyzing the difference between effective and actual fiber properties. Unidirectional /0/28 SiC/Si3N4 composites with 30 percent fiber volume fraction and 30 percent matrix porosity are used. The samples are exposed in a flowing oxygen environment at elevated temperatures, up to 1400 C, for 100 hours and then measured by ultrasonic methods at room temperature. The Young's modulus in the fiber direction of the sample oxidized at 600 C decreased significantly but it was unchanged for samples oxidized at temperatures above 1200 C. The transverse moduli obtained from ultrasonic measurements decrease continuously up to 1200 C. The shear stiffnesses show behavior similar to the transverse moduli. The effective elastic moduli of the interfacial carbon coating are determined from the experimental data, and their change due to thermal oxidation is discussed.

  16. Ultrasonic/Sonic Impacting Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Stark, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic impacting penetrators (USIPs) are recent additions to the series of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corers (USDCs). A USIP enables a rod probe to penetrate packed soil or another substance of similar consistency, without need to apply a large axial force that could result in buckling of the probe or in damage to some buried objects. USIPs were conceived for use in probing and analyzing soil to depths of tens of centimeters in the vicinity of buried barrels containing toxic waste, without causing rupture of the barrels. USIPs could also be used for other purposes, including, for example, searching for pipes, barrels, or other hard objects buried in soil; and detecting land mines. USDCs and other apparatuses based on USDCs have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The ones reported previously were designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. As shown in the figure, a basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, a backing and a horn connected to the stack, a free mass (free in the sense that it can slide axially a short distance between the horn and the shoulder of tool bit), and a tool bit, i.e., probe for USIP. The piezoelectric stack is driven at the resonance frequency of the stack/horn/backing assembly to create ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. To prevent fracture during operation, the piezoelectric stack is held in compression by a bolt. The bouncing of the free mass between the horn and the tool bit at sonic frequencies generates hammering actions to the bit that are more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations in ordinary ultrasonic drills. The hammering actions

  17. Determination of Residual Stress in Composite Materials Using Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokhlin, S. I.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of high temperature composites can be significantly affected by the presence of residual stresses. These stresses arise during cooling processes from fabrication to room temperature due to mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between matrix and fiber materials. This effect is especially pronounced in metal matrix and intermetallic composites. It can lead to plastic deformations, matrix cracking and fiber/matrix interface debonding. In this work the feasibility of ultrasonic techniques for residual stress assessment in composites is addressed. A novel technique for absolute stress determination in orthotropic materials from angular dependencies of ultrasonic velocities is described. The technique is applicable for determination of both applied and residual stresses and does not require calibration measurements on a reference sample. The important advantage of this method is that stress is determined simultaneously with stress-dependent elastic constants and is thus decoupled from the material texture. It is demonstrated that when the principal plane stress directions coincide with acoustical axes, the angular velocity data in the plane perpendicular to the stress plane may be used to determine both stress components. When the stress is off the acoustical axes, the shear and the difference of the normal stress components may be determined from the angular dependence of group velocities in the plane of stresses. Synthetic sets of experimental data corresponding to materials with different anisotropy and stress levels are used to check the applicability of the technique. The method is also verified experimentally. A high precision ultrasonic wave transmission technique is developed to measure angular dependence of ultrasonic velocities. Examples of stress determination from experimental velocity data are given. A method is presented for determination of velocities of ultrasonic waves propagating through the composite material with residual

  18. Physical Principles Underlying Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, Earl Daniel

    The research described in this thesis is aimed toward extending the physics underlying the application of ultrasound to the investigation of materials. Some of the results presented deal with isotropic materials, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous. However, the primary focus is the physics of inhomogeneous, anisotropic materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastics. Fiber-reinforced plastics exhibit very favorable strength-to-weight ratios and can be fabricated to exhibit a wide range of structural properties. From a mechanical standpoint, two types of disadvantages of otherwise well -designed composite materials are fabrication defects (e.g., delamination, fiber-misalignment, and porosity) and wear damage (e.g., environmental degradation, fatigue stress, and impact damage). In this thesis, we describe the physics underlying the use of ultrasound as a tool for the detection and characterization of damage in composite materials. The thesis is composed of two inter-related portions. The first portion serves as an introduction to wave propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media. These chapters provide a basis of insight and intuition for the non-destructive evaluation experiments described in the second portion. The second portion deals with experimental application of ultrasonic techniques to several specific problems in nondestructive evaluation. The studies reported here examine parameters of ultrasonic propagation in materials with known flaws whose location and character have been verified by independent (non-ultrasonic) means. The ultrasonic parameters employed in these studies are backscatter, attenuation measured in transmission, and attenuation estimated from backscatter. Three chapters deal with the use of a backscatter -based technique known as polar backscatter. In this technique the effects of specular reflection from the water/sample interface in an immersion-type measurement are reduced by interrogating at nonperpendicular incidence. The anisotropic

  19. A Portable Ultrasonic Nondestructive Inspection System for Metal Matrix Composite Track Shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Bao; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Qian, Tao; Stevenson, Mark; Kwan, Chiman; Owens, Steven E.; Royer, Roger L.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Raju, Basavaraju B.

    2007-03-01

    Cast aluminum track shoes reinforced with metal matrix composite (MMC) inserts at heavy loading areas such as center splines and sprocket windows are light in weight, and can resist high temperature and wear. Various defects such as disbonds at the insert-substrate interface, cracks and porosity in the MMC layer, etc. can be introduced during the manufacturing process and/or in service. This paper presents a portable ultrasonic system to automatically inspect tank track shoes for disbond. Ultrasonic pulse/echo inspection has shown good reliability for disbond detection. A prototype sensor array fixture has been designed and fabricated to prove the feasibility. Good agreements between the sensor fixture results and ultrasonic C-scan images were obtained.

  20. A Portable Ultrasonic Nondestructive Inspection System for Metal Matrix Composite Track Shoes

    SciTech Connect

    Mi Bao; Zhao Xiaoliang; Qian Tao; Stevenson, Mark; Kwan, Chiman; Owens, Steven E.; Royer, Roger L. Jr.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Raju, Basavaraju B.

    2007-03-21

    Cast aluminum track shoes reinforced with metal matrix composite (MMC) inserts at heavy loading areas such as center splines and sprocket windows are light in weight, and can resist high temperature and wear. Various defects such as disbonds at the insert-substrate interface, cracks and porosity in the MMC layer, etc. can be introduced during the manufacturing process and/or in service. This paper presents a portable ultrasonic system to automatically inspect tank track shoes for disbond. Ultrasonic pulse/echo inspection has shown good reliability for disbond detection. A prototype sensor array fixture has been designed and fabricated to prove the feasibility. Good agreements between the sensor fixture results and ultrasonic C-scan images were obtained.

  1. Time Reversal Beam Focusing of Ultrasonic Array Transducer on a Defect in a Two Layer Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Lee, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chung-Hoon

    2010-02-01

    The ability of time reversal techniques to focus ultrasonic beams on the source location is important in many aspects of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the time reversal beam focusing of ultrasonic array sensors on a defect in layered media. Numerical modeling is performed using the commercially available software which employs a time domain finite difference method. Two different time reversal approaches are considered—the through transmission and the pulse-echo. Linear array sensors composed of N elements of line sources are used for signal reception/excitation, time reversal, and reemission in time reversal processes associated with the scattering source of a side-drilled hole located in the second layer of two layer structure. The simulation results demonstrate the time reversal focusing even with multiple reflections from the interface of layered structure. We examine the focusing resolution that is related to the propagation distance, the size of array sensor and the wavelength.

  2. Soft Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  3. Ultrasonic Studies of Composites Undergoing Thermal and Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Winfree, William P.; Johnston, Patrick H.

    1997-01-01

    New composite materials possess attractive properties for use in advanced aircraft. A necessary requirement for their introduction into aeronautic use is an accurate understanding of their long term aging processes so that proper design criteria can be established. In order to understand those properties, these composites must be exposed to thermal and load cycles that are characteristic of flight conditions. Additionally, airline companies will require nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be used in the field to assess the condition of these new materials as they age. As part of an effort to obtain the required information about new composites for aviation use, we are performing ultrasonic measurements both in the NDE laboratory and in the materials testing laboratory at NASA. The materials testing laboratory is equipped with environmental chambers mounted on load frames so that composite samples can be exposed to thermal and loading cycles representative of flight protocols. Applying both temperature and load simultaneously will help to highlight temperature and load interactions during the aging of these composite materials. This study reports on our initial ultrasonic attenuation results from thermoset and thermoplastic composite samples. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements have been used reliably to assess the effects of material degradation. For example, recently, researchers have shown that by using frequencies of ultrasound on the order of 24 MHz, they could obtain adequate contrast in the evaluation of thermal degradation in these composites. This paper will present data that shows results at a lower frequency range. In addition, we report results on the frequency dependence of attenuation as the slope of attenuation with respect to frequency, beta = delta alpha (f) / delta f. The slope of attenuation is an attractive parameter since it is quantitative, yet does not require interface corrections like conventional quantitative attenuation

  4. Ultrasonic propagation in inhomogeneous media: Toward quantitative ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trousil, Rebecca Leigh

    The goal of this dissertation is to explore the physics underpinning the use of quantitative acoustic measurements to extend the role of ultrasonic imaging. In the 30 year history of medical ultrasonic imaging, the diagnostic use of this modality has primarily relied upon morphology and motion to differentiate healthy from diseased tissue. Significant improvements in the bandwidth and dynamic range of clinical ultrasonic imaging systems in recent years offer the possibility of complementing existing qualitative information with truly quantitative information, derived from measurements of the acoustic properties of soft tissue. The phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and backscatter coefficient are three such acoustic properties that are often employed to characterize the state of soft tissues. One goal of this dissertation was to investigate the reliability of these measurements, based on systematic laboratory studies performed on well-characterized tissue-mimicking media. To this end, quantitative measurements of the frequency dependence of phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and backscatter coefficient were performed in tissue-mimicking phantoms as part of a national, multi-center study, sponsored by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Both the intra- and inter-laboratory variability associated with these measurements were addressed. In addition to assessing the reproducibility of quantitative estimates of these acoustic parameters, this dissertation introduces and experimentally validates a novel measurement technique, based on the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations, that improves the robustness of frequency domain phase velocity estimates in tissue-like media.

  5. Simultsonic: A Simulation Tool for Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Karthikeyan, Soumya; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2006-03-01

    A simulation program SIMULTSONIC is under development at CNDE to help determine and/or help optimize ultrasonic probe locations for inspection of complex components. SIMULTSONIC provides a ray-trace based assessment initially followed by a displacement or pressure field-based assessment for user-specified probe positions and user-selected component. Immersion and contact modes of inspection are available in SIMULTSONIC. The code written in Visual C++ operating in Microsoft Windows environment provides an interactive user interface. In this paper, the application of SIMULTSONIC to the inspection of very thin-walled pipes (with 450 um wall thickness) is described. Ray trace based assessment was done using SIMULTSONIC to determine the standoff distance and the angle of oblique incidence for an immersion mode focused transducer. A 3-cycle Hanning window pulse was chosen for simulations. Experiments were carried out to validate the simulations. The A-scans and the associated B-Scan images obtained through simulations show good correlation with experimental results, both with the arrival time of the signal as well as with the signal amplitudes. The scope of SIMULTSONIC to deal with parametrically represented surfaces will also be discussed.

  6. Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

    1999-02-16

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

  7. Unified Ultrasonic/Eddy-Current Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging station for detecting cracks and flaws in solid materials developed combining both ultrasonic C-scan and eddy-current imaging. Incorporation of both techniques into one system eliminates duplication of computers and of mechanical scanners; unifies acquisition, processing, and storage of data; reduces setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy-current scans; and increases efficiency of system. Same mechanical scanner used to maneuver either ultrasonic or eddy-current probe over specimen and acquire point-by-point data. For ultrasonic scanning, probe linked to ultrasonic pulser/receiver circuit card, while, for eddy-current imaging, probe linked to impedance-analyzer circuit card. Both ultrasonic and eddy-current imaging subsystems share same desktop-computer controller, containing dedicated plug-in circuit boards for each.

  8. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit. PMID:12403137

  9. Enhanced ultrasonic characterization of assemblies, TLL_19

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Thomas, G

    1998-09-01

    Bonded joints, such as the autoclave bond, are critical to the performance of weapon systems. A nondestructive method to assess the integrity of these bonds is needed to certify the weapon for extended life. This project is developing ultrasonic technologies for bond quality assessment. Existing ultrasonic technology easily maps totally unbonded areas in a bond line but does not measure the quality of the bond. We are extracting information from the ultrasonic signals to quantify the mechanical. properties and assess the durability of the bond. Our approach is based on advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques that process information from the ultrasonic signal after it interacts with the bondline. Computer algorithms recognize variations in bond quality from the acoustic signals. The ultrasonic signal processing and bond classification software will be installed on ultrasonic scanners at the appropriate sites.

  10. Enhanced ultrasonic characterization of assemblies, TLL 19

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Thomas, G.

    1998-09-01

    Bonded joints, such as the autoclave bond, are critical to the performance of weapon systems. A nondestructive method to assess the integrity of these bonds is needed to certify the weapon for extended life. This project is developing ultrasonic technologies for bond quality assessment. Existing ultrasonic technology easily maps totally unbonded areas in a bond line but does not measure the quality of the bond. We are extracting information from the ultrasonic signals to quantify the mechanical. properties and assess the durability of the bond. Our approach is based on advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques that process information from the ultrasonic signal after it interacts with the bondline. Computer algorithms recognize variations in bond quality from the acoustic signals. The ultrasonic signal processing and bond classification software will be installed on ultrasonic scanners at the appropriate sites.

  11. Characterization of Steel-Ta Dissimilar Metal Builds Made Using Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (VHP-UAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Norfolk, Mark; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing is a solid-state additive manufacturing technique that utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to bond metal tapes into near net-shaped components. The major advantage of this process is the ability to manufacture layered structures with dissimilar materials without any intermetallic formation. Majority of the published literature had focused only on the bond formation mechanism in Aluminum alloys. The current work pertains to explain the microstructure evolution during dissimilar joining of iron and tantalum using very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing and characterization of the interfaces using electron back-scattered diffraction and Nano-indentation measurement. The results showed extensive grain refinement at the bonded interfaces of these metals. This phenomenon was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization process driven by the high strain rate plastic deformation and associated adiabatic heating that is well below 50 pct of melting point of both iron and Ta.

  12. Simulation of transducer-couplant effects on broadband ultrasonic signals. [in nondestructive flaw evaluation and materials tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing use of broadband, pulse-echo ultrasonics in nondestructive evaluation of flaws and material properties has generated a need for improved understanding of the way signals are modified by coupled and bonded thin-layer interfaces associated with transducers. This understanding is most important when using frequency spectrum analyses for characterizing material properties. In this type of application, signals emanating from material specimens can be strongly influenced by couplant and bond-layers in the acoustic path. Computer synthesized waveforms were used to simulate a range of interface conditions encountered in ultrasonic transducer systems operating in the 20to 80-MHz regime. The adverse effects of thin-layer multiple reflections associated with various acoustic impedance conditions are demonstrated. The information presented is relevant to ultrasonic transducer design, specimen preparation, and couplant selection.

  13. Ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlik, E.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of this presentation is ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems. This paper describes two current programs underway at Savannah River Site which provide state-of-the-art ultrasonic inspections of weld heat-affected zones in the primary cooling loop of the Savannah River Site reactors. It also describes the automated remote inspection equipment being developed and employed; briefly describe the procedures being used; and give you a general idea of the future direction of two major programs: Moderator Piping Inspection Program and the Reactor Tank Wall Weld Inspection Program. The objective of these programs is to provide inspection techniques to more fully determine the condition of the reactor primary system and provide data for prediction of maintenance needs and remaining service life. Detection and sizing of intergranular stress corrosion cracking is the focus of these programs.

  14. Hydrazine degradation by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nakui, Hiroyuki; Okitsu, Kenji; Maeda, Yasuaki; Nishimura, Rokurou

    2007-07-31

    The influence of pH on the degradation of hydrazine with a concentration of 0.1mmol/L was investigated under the stirring (300rpm) and ultrasonic irradiation conditions (200kHz, 200W) in the pH range of 1-9. It was found that the hydrazine degradation depended greatly upon pH under the ultrasonic irradiation condition, while it did not take place over the whole pH range under the stirring condition. Although it has been known that OH radicals and hydrogen peroxide are sonochemically formed from water, it was considered that the OH radicals played an important role of the hydrazine degradation, but not hydrogen peroxide. The pH dependence of the hydrazine degradation was discussed in terms of the relationship between the chemical structure and the basic dissociation constants of hydrazine. PMID:17513042

  15. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  17. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  18. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  19. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  20. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOEpatents

    Annala, Wayne C.

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  1. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy. PMID:24210813

  2. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1996-06-25

    An ultrasonic cleaning method is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figs.

  3. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  4. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679

  5. Fundamentals of picosecond laser ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Osamu; Larciprete, Maria Cristina; Li Voti, Roberto; Wright, Oliver B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to picosecond laser ultrasonics, a means by which gigahertz-terahertz ultrasonic waves can be generated and detected by ultrashort light pulses. This method can be used to characterize materials with nanometer spatial resolution. With reference to key experiments, we first review the theoretical background for normal-incidence optical detection of longitudinal acoustic waves in opaque single-layer isotropic thin films. The theory is extended to handle isotropic multilayer samples, and is again compared to experiment. We then review applications to anisotropic samples, including oblique-incidence optical probing, and treat the generation and detection of shear waves. Solids including metals and semiconductors are mainly discussed, although liquids are briefly mentioned. PMID:24998119

  6. Ultrasonic Bonding of Solar-Cell Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasch, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rolling ultrasonic spot-bonding method successfully joins aluminum interconnect fingers to silicon solar cells with copper metalization. Technique combines best features of ultrasonic rotary seam welding and ultrasonic spot bonding: allows fast bond cycles and high indexing speeds without use of solder or flux. Achieves reliable bonds at production rates without damage to solar cells. Bonding system of interest for all solar-cell assemblies and other assemblies using flat leads (rather than round wires).

  7. The upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Joseph L.

    2011-04-01

    This paper will include discussions on fundamental principles and market forces associated with the upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves. A literature survey is also outlined covering some selected major developments this past decade. A few applications in pipe, rail, bonding and composites, imaging and tomography, ultrasonic vibration, de-icing, structural health monitoring, gas entrapment, and non-linear methods are treated to provide an idea of where we are heading with ultrasonic guided waves.

  8. Calorimetric measurement of energy of ultrasonic cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    The development of a calorimeter that measured the power within an ultrasonic cleaning tank is presented. The principle involved is explained. Several types of calorimeter that were tested are described. Measurement of the power in an ultrasonic cleaner permits: (1) comparing different ultrasonic cleaners; (2) monitoring the performance of a specific cleaner; (3) measuring the distribution of power in a cleaning tank, and (4) evaluating the effects of process variables on the power.

  9. Degassing of Aluminum Alloys Using Ultrasonic Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T. T.; Han, Q.; Xu, H.

    2006-06-01

    The research was intended to lead to a better fundamental understanding of the effect of ultrasonic energy on the degassing of liquid metals and to develop practical approaches for the ultrasonic degassing of alloys. The goals of the project described here were to evaluate core principles, establish a quantitative basis for the ultrasonic degassing of aluminum alloy melts, and demonstrate the application of ultrsaonic processing during ingot casting and foundry shape casting.

  10. Precision Ultrasonic Wave Measurements With Simple Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Steven E.; Palmer, C. Harvey

    2001-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a relatively simple, inexpensive laser interferometer system for accurate measurements of ultrasonic surface displacement waveforms in reasonably friendly environments. We show how analysis of a single waveform can provide both the calibration constant required for absolute measurements and an estimate of the uncertainty of these measurements. We demonstrate the performance of this interferometer by measuring ultrasonic waveforms generated by a novel conical-element ultrasonic transducer.

  11. Experiments on Ultrasonic Lubrication Using a Piezoelectrically-assisted Tribometer and Optical Profilometer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sheng; Dapino, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Friction and wear are detrimental to engineered systems. Ultrasonic lubrication is achieved when the interface between two sliding surfaces is vibrated at a frequency above the acoustic range (20 kHz). As a solid-state technology, ultrasonic lubrication can be used where conventional lubricants are unfeasible or undesirable. Further, ultrasonic lubrication allows for electrical modulation of the effective friction coefficient between two sliding surfaces. This property enables adaptive systems that modify their frictional state and associated dynamic response as the operating conditions change. Surface wear can also be reduced through ultrasonic lubrication. We developed a protocol to investigate the dependence of friction force reduction and wear reduction on the linear sliding velocity between ultrasonically lubricated surfaces. A pin-on-disc tribometer was built which differs from commercial units in that a piezoelectric stack is used to vibrate the pin at 22 kHz normal to the rotating disc surface. Friction and wear metrics including effective friction force, volume loss, and surface roughness are measured without and with ultrasonic vibrations at a constant pressure of 1 to 4 MPa and three different sliding velocities: 20.3, 40.6, and 87 mm/sec. An optical profilometer is utilized to characterize the wear surfaces. The effective friction force is reduced by 62% at 20.3 mm/sec. Consistently with existing theories for ultrasonic lubrication, the percent reduction in friction force diminishes with increasing speed, down to 29% friction force reduction at 87 mm/sec. Wear reduction remains essentially constant (49%) at the three speeds considered. PMID:26436691

  12. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  13. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.P.; Banchik, A.D.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    2005-04-09

    In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency.

  14. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  15. Ultrasonic destruction of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Brannen, G E; Bush, W H

    1984-02-01

    Kidney stones may be removed without using a surgical incision by a combination of techniques and skills recently developed in the fields of urology and radiology. Percutaneous access to the kidney is established under fluoroscopic control. A guide wire placed into the renal pelvis allows a nephroscope to be inserted and the collecting system visualized. A long hollow metal probe is advanced through the nephroscope and placed in contact with the stone. This probe conducts the ultrasonic energy. The stone absorbs the energy and breaks into fine granules, which are evacuated by suction.Twenty-three consecutively seen patients presenting with 27 upper urinary tract calculi for which removal was indicated underwent successful percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy. Fifteen stones were located in the renal pelvis, eight in a calix, three at the ureteropelvic junction and one in the upper ureter. One infected staghorn calculus was removed. Two complications resulted in extended hospital stays, but in no patients were surgical incisions required. Of the 23 patients, 9 had previously had a surgical lithotomy. The authors believe that most renal and upper ureteral calculi for which removal is indicated may be extracted percutaneously with the aid of the ultrasonic lithotriptor. The patients may expect a rapid convalescence with diminished pain. PMID:6730470

  16. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, K.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Bäker, M.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  17. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement

    DOEpatents

    Hall, M.S.; Brodeur, P.H.; Jackson, T.G.

    1998-07-14

    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated. 20 figs.

  18. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Maclin S.; Brodeur, Pierre H.; Jackson, Theodore G.

    1998-01-01

    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated.

  19. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2005-04-12

    A system for determining a property of a fluid based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum including a diffraction order equal to zero exhibits a peak whose location is used to determine speed of sound in the fluid. A separate measurement of the acoustic impedance is combined with the determined speed of sound to yield a measure of fluid density. A system for determining acoustic impedance includes an ultrasonic transducer on a first surface of a solid member, and an opposed second surface of the member is in contact with a fluid to be monitored. A longitudinal ultrasonic pulse is delivered through the solid member, and a multiplicity of pulse echoes caused by reflections of the ultrasonic pulse between the solid-fluid interface and the transducer-solid interface are detected. The decay rate of the detected echo amplitude as a function of echo number is used to determine acoustic impedance.

  20. Gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern identification by ultrasonic echoes reflected from the inner wall of a pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fachun; Zheng, Hongfeng; Yu, Hao; Sun, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    A novel ultrasonic pulse echo method is proposed for flow pattern identification in a horizontal pipe with gas-liquid two-phase flow. A trace of echoes reflected from the pipe’s internal wall rather than the gas-liquid interface is used for flow pattern identification. Experiments were conducted in a horizontal air-water two-phase flow loop. Two ultrasonic transducers with central frequency of 5 MHz were mounted at the top and bottom of the pipe respectively. The experimental results show that the ultrasonic reflection coefficient of the wall-gas interface is much larger than that of the wall-liquid interface due to the large difference in the acoustic impedance of gas and liquid. The stratified flow, annular flow and slug flow can be successfully recognized using the attenuation ratio of the echoes. Compared with the conventional ultrasonic echo measurement method, echoes reflected from the inner surface of a pipe wall are independent of gas-liquid interface fluctuation, sound speed, and gas and liquid superficial velocities, which makes the method presented a promising technique in field practice.

  1. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.O.; Hsu, D.K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses. 25 figures.

  2. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Donald O.; Hsu, David K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses.

  3. Ultrasonic inspection of a diffusion-bonded platelet rocket chamber liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Lansaw, John T.; Suits, Michael W.; Rose, Angela W.; Danek, Peg; Nelligan, Thomas J.; Mooney, Philip P.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic inspection technique, which applies pulse-echo technology for examining the rocket chamber's liner-to-jacket interface was developed, which makes it possible to characterize disbonded layers in intimate contact. The method was used to inspect a simulated flat-geometry rocket chamber liner structure with debonded liner layers and to validate the use of boron nitride powder as a flaw introduction technique.

  4. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  5. In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F.; Marchand, B.; Saillant, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

  6. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  7. Proceedings of the IEEE 1986 ultrasonics symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Avoy, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on ultrasonic testing. Topics considered at the conference included the use of multiprocessors, the laser generation of acoustic waves, ultrasonic techniques in oil well logging, digital systems, piezoelectric devices, computerized tomography, Doppler tomography, pulse shaping techniques, blood flow, surface acoustic wave attenuation, sputtering, and microstructure.

  8. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  9. Improved Ultrasonic Transducer For Measuring Cryogenic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis

    1991-01-01

    Improved ultrasonic transducer used to measure flow of cryogenic fluid. Includes wedge made nonintrusive by machining it out of bulk material of duct carrying fluid. Skewed surfaces of wedge suppress standing waves, thus reducing ringing and increasing signal-to-noise ratio. Increases accuracy of measurements of times of arrival of ultrasonic pulses, from which times flow inferred.

  10. Broadband, High-Temperature Ultrasonic Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, F. Raymond; Winfree, William P.; Barrows, Danny A.

    1995-01-01

    Materials chosen for endurance at high temperatures and acoustic coupling and damping. Acoustic transducer designed to exhibit broad frequency response and to survive temperatures close to melting points of brazing alloys. Attached directly and continuously to hot object monitored ultrasonically: for example, it can be attached to relatively cool spot on workpiece during brazing for taking ultrasonic quality-control measurements.

  11. Ultrasonic cold forming of aircraft sheet materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, J.; Krause, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic forming was investigated as a means for shaping aircraft sheet materials, including titanium 6Al-4V alloy, nickel, and stainless steel AM355-CRT, into a helicopter rotor blade nosecap contour. Equipment for static forming of small coupons consisted of a modified 4000 watt ultrasonic spot welder provided with specially designed punch and die sets. The titanium alloy was successfully formed to a 60 degree angle in one step with ultrasonics, but invariably cracked under static force alone. Nickel had a low enough yield strength that it could be successfully formed either with or without ultrasonics. Insufficient ultrasonic power was available to produce beneficial effect with the high-strength steel. From analogy with commercially used ultrasonic tube drawing, it was postulated that dynamic forming of long lengths of the nosecap geometry could be achieved with an ultrasonic system mounted on a draw bench. It was recommended that the ultrasonic technique be considered for forming other aircraft sheet geometries, particularly involving titanium alloy.

  12. A control system of mobile navigation robot for precise spraying based ultrasonic detecting and ARM embedded technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Yue, Xinpeng; Peng, Yankun

    2011-06-01

    This paper described a control system of mobile navigation robot for precision spraying in greenhouse environment, which were composed of main control module, motor driving module, ultrasonic detecting module and wirless remote control module. The hard circuits of control system were built. The main control module used ARM7TDMI-S-based LPC2210 micro-processing controller. The motor driving module consisted of voltage amplifier circuit based SN74LS245N and DM74LS244N chips, RC filter circuit, and HM-YZ-30 DC brush motor driver. The ultrasonic detecting module consisted of four standard ultrasonic ranging modules which were arranged on the four sides around the mobile navigation robot, and used GM8125 chip to expand serial communication interfaces. An obstacle-avoiding strategy and its algorithm were proposed and the control programs of mobile navigation robot were programmed. The mobile navigation robot for spraying can realize the actions such as starting and stopping, forward and backward moving, accelerate and decelerate motion, and right and left turn. Finally, the functional experiments of the mobile navigation robot were conducted in the laboratory environment. The results showed that the ultrasonic detecting distance of the robot was 50.5mm-1832.0mm and detecting blind zone was less than 50mm, the ultrasonic detecting angle of individual ultrasonic detecting module of robot was similar to U-shaped and its vaule was about 45.66°, and the moving path of navigation robot was approximately linear.

  13. Graphene electrostatic microphone and ultrasonic radio.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zheng, Jinglin; Onishi, Seita; Crommie, M F; Zettl, Alex K

    2015-07-21

    We present a graphene-based wideband microphone and a related ultrasonic radio that can be used for wireless communication. It is shown that graphene-based acoustic transmitters and receivers have a wide bandwidth, from the audible region (20∼20 kHz) to the ultrasonic region (20 kHz to at least 0.5 MHz). Using the graphene-based components, we demonstrate efficient high-fidelity information transmission using an ultrasonic band centered at 0.3 MHz. The graphene-based microphone is also shown to be capable of directly receiving ultrasound signals generated by bats in the field, and the ultrasonic radio, coupled to electromagnetic (EM) radio, is shown to function as a high-accuracy rangefinder. The ultrasonic radio could serve as a useful addition to wireless communication technology where the propagation of EM waves is difficult. PMID:26150483

  14. Ultrasonic stress wave characterization of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The work reported covers three simultaneous projects. The first project was concerned with: (1) establishing the sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic method for evaluating subtle forms of damage development in cyclically loaded composite materials, (2) establishing the ability of the acousto-ultrasonic method for detecting initial material imperfections that lead to localized damage growth and final specimen failure, and (3) characteristics of the NBS/Proctor sensor/receiver for acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of laminated composite materials. The second project was concerned with examining the nature of the wave propagation that occurs during acoustic-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates and demonstrating the role of Lamb or plate wave modes and their utilization for characterizing composite laminates. The third project was concerned with the replacement of contact-type receiving piezotransducers with noncontacting laser-optical sensors for acousto-ultrasonic signal acquisition.

  15. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  16. Graphene electrostatic microphone and ultrasonic radio

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Zheng, Jinglin; Onishi, Seita; Crommie, M. F.; Zettl, Alex K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a graphene-based wideband microphone and a related ultrasonic radio that can be used for wireless communication. It is shown that graphene-based acoustic transmitters and receivers have a wide bandwidth, from the audible region (20∼20 kHz) to the ultrasonic region (20 kHz to at least 0.5 MHz). Using the graphene-based components, we demonstrate efficient high-fidelity information transmission using an ultrasonic band centered at 0.3 MHz. The graphene-based microphone is also shown to be capable of directly receiving ultrasound signals generated by bats in the field, and the ultrasonic radio, coupled to electromagnetic (EM) radio, is shown to function as a high-accuracy rangefinder. The ultrasonic radio could serve as a useful addition to wireless communication technology where the propagation of EM waves is difficult. PMID:26150483

  17. Ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Brashear, Hugh R.; Blair, Michael S.; Phelps, James E.; Bauer, Martin L.; Nowlin, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system determines a surveyor's position and automatically links it with other simultaneously taken survey data. An ultrasonic and radio frequency (rf) transmitter are carried by the surveyor in a backpack. The surveyor's position is determined by calculations that use the measured transmission times of an airborne ultrasonic pulse transmitted from the backpack to two or more prepositioned ultrasonic transceivers. Once a second, rf communications are used both to synchronize the ultrasonic pulse transmission-time measurements and to transmit other simultaneously taken survey data. The rf communications are interpreted by a portable receiver and microcomputer which are brought to the property site. A video display attached to the computer provides real-time visual monitoring of the survey progress and site coverage.

  18. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    PubMed

    Murrant, Meghan N; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  19. Ultrasonic characterization of laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Telschow, K. L.

    When a pulsed laser beam strikes the surface of an absorbing material, ultrasonic waves are generated due to thermoelectric expansion and, at higher laser power densities, ablation of the material. These sound generation mechanisms have been the subject of numerous theoretical and experimental studies and are now fairly well understood. In particular, it has been established that at low power densities the thermoelastic mechanism is well described by a surface center of expansion. This mechanism produces a characteristic waveform whose amplitude is proportional to the energy absorbed from the laser pulse and also dependent on the thermal and elastic properties of the material. The ablation ultrasonic source can be described by a point normal force acting on the material surface. For laser power densities near the ablation onset, the time dependence of the source is that of the laser pulse. The resultant waveform recorded on epicenter (source and detector collinear) has a sharp peak determined by the momentum impulse delivered to the material by the ablation process. Particularly in the near ablation onset region, this ultrasonic displacement peak can be used to characterize the ablation process occurring at the material surface. The onset power density for ablation and subsequent ablation dependence on power density are material dependent and thought to be a function of the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the material. With this in mind, it is possible that these ablation signals could be used to characterize material microstructures, and perhaps material mechanical properties such as hardness, through microstructural changes of the material thermal parameters. This paper explores this question for samples of Type 304 stainless steel with microstructures controlled through work hardening and annealing.

  20. Vector Theory of Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, W. S.

    So far, works on ultrasonic diffraction imaging are based on scalar theory of sound wave. This is not correct as sound has vector nature. But when sound propagates in solids, its vector nature has to be considered as polarization occurs and transverse wave as well as longitudinal wave will appear. Vector theory is especially needed when the obstacle size is smaller than the wavelength. We use the Smythe-Kirchhoff approach for the vector theory of diffraction. We derive the image formation theory based on the vector diffraction theory. The effect of polarization on acoustical imaging is discussed.

  1. Passive wireless ultrasonic transducer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, C. H.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-02-01

    Inductive coupling and capacitive coupling both offer simple solutions to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such system in the context of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. Firstly, the physical principles and construction of an inductively coupled transducer system (ICTS) and a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) are introduced. Then the development of a transmission line model with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate for both systems is described. The models are validated experimentally. Several applications of CCTS are presented, such CCTS for the underwater and through-composite testing.

  2. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  3. Lase Ultrasonic Web Stiffness tester

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Patterson, Ph.D., IPST at Ga Tech

    2009-01-12

    The objective is to provide a sensor that uses non-contact, laser ultrasonics to measure the stiffness of paper during the manufacturing process. This will allow the manufacturer to adjust the production process in real time, increase filler content, modify fiber refining and as result produce a quality product using less energy. The sensor operates by moving back and forth across the paper web, at pre-selected locations firing a laser at the sheet, measuring the out-of-plane velocity of the sheet then using that measurement to calculate sheet stiffness.

  4. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  7. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  8. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  9. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  10. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  11. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative measurements of adhesion or binding forces can be accomplished, for example, by using the reflection coefficient of an ultrasound or by using thermal waves (Light and Kwun, 1989, Achenbach and Parikh, 1991, and Bostrom and wickham, 1991). However, a quantitative determination of binding forces is rather difficult. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasound passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such non-linearity can be effectively used to characterize the bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect (Adler and Nagy, 1991; Achenbach and Parikh, 1991; Parikh and Achenbach, 1992; and Hirose and Kitahara, 1992; Anastasi and Roberts, 1992). Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear interface binding force, a quantitative method was presented by Pangraz and Arnold (1994). Recently, Tang, Cheng and Achenbach (1997) made a comparison between the experimental and simulated results based on this theoretical model. A water immersion mode-converted shear wave through-transmission setup was used by Berndt and Green (1997) to analyze the nonlinear acoustic behavior of the adhesive bond. In this project, the nonlinear responses of an adhesive joint was investigated through transmission tests of ultrasonic wave and analyzed by the finite element simulations. The higher order harmonics were obtained in the tests. It is found that the amplitude of higher harmonics increases as the aging increases, especially the 3dorder harmonics. Results from the numerical simulation show that the material nonlinearity does indeed generate higher order harmonics. In particular, the elastic-perfect plastic behavior generates significant 3rd and 5th order harmonics.

  12. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  13. Split-mode ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskii, Igor; Cremaldi, Lucien

    2013-08-01

    A split-mode ultrasonic transducer is investigated in both theory and experiment. This transducer is a two-dimensional structure of periodically poled domains in a ferroelectric wafer with free surfaces. The acoustic vibrations are excited by a radio frequency electric current applied along the length of the wafer, which allows the basal-plane surfaces to be free of metal coatings and thus ready for further biomedical applications. A specific physical property of this transducer consists of the multiple acousto-electric resonances, which occur due to an acoustic mode split when the acoustic half-wavelength is equal to the domain length. Possible applications include ultrasonic generation and detection at the micro-scale, intravascular sonification and visualization, ultrasound therapy of localized small areas such as the eye, biomedical applications for cell cultures, and traditional nondestructive testing including bones and tissues. A potential use of a non-metallized wafer is a therapeutic application with double action that is both ultrasound itself and an electric field over the wafer. The experimental measurements and theoretical calculations are in good agreement. PMID:23927212

  14. Floating Ultrasonic Transducer Inspection System and Method for Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Johnston, Patrick H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for inspecting a structural sample using ultrasonic energy includes positioning an ultrasonic transducer adjacent to a surface of the sample, and then transmitting ultrasonic energy into the sample. Force pulses are applied to the transducer concurrently with transmission of the ultrasonic energy. A host machine processes ultrasonic return pulses from an ultrasonic pulser/receiver to quantify attenuation of the ultrasonic energy within the sample. The host machine detects a defect in the sample using the quantified level of attenuation. The method may include positioning a dry couplant between an ultrasonic transducer and the surface. A system includes an actuator, an ultrasonic transducer, a dry couplant between the transducer the sample, a scanning device that moves the actuator and transducer, and a measurement system having a pulsed actuator power supply, an ultrasonic pulser/receiver, and a host machine that executes the above method.

  15. Interfacing laboratory instruments to multiuser, virtual memory computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Stang, David B.; Roth, Don J.

    1989-01-01

    Incentives, problems and solutions associated with interfacing laboratory equipment with multiuser, virtual memory computers are presented. The major difficulty concerns how to utilize these computers effectively in a medium sized research group. This entails optimization of hardware interconnections and software to facilitate multiple instrument control, data acquisition and processing. The architecture of the system that was devised, and associated programming and subroutines are described. An example program involving computer controlled hardware for ultrasonic scan imaging is provided to illustrate the operational features.

  16. Interfacing laboratory instruments to multiuser, virtual memory computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.; Stang, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Incentives, problems and solutions associated with interfacing laboratory equipment with multiuser, virtual memory computers are presented. The major difficulty concerns how to utilize these computers effectively in a medium sized research group. This entails optimization of hardware interconnections and software to facilitate multiple instrument control, data acquisition and processing. The architecture of the system that was devised, and associated programming and subroutines are described. An example program involving computer controlled hardware for ultrasonic scan imaging is provided to illustrate the operational features.

  17. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  18. Ultrasonic atomization of liquids in drop-chain acoustic fountains

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Julianna C.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    When focused ultrasound waves of moderate intensity in liquid encounter an air interface, a chain of drops emerges from the liquid surface to form what is known as a drop-chain fountain. Atomization, or the emission of micro-droplets, occurs when the acoustic intensity exceeds a liquid-dependent threshold. While the cavitation-wave hypothesis, which states that atomization arises from a combination of capillary-wave instabilities and cavitation bubble oscillations, is currently the most accepted theory of atomization, more data on the roles of cavitation, capillary waves, and even heat deposition or boiling would be valuable. In this paper, we experimentally test whether bubbles are a significant mechanism of atomization in drop-chain fountains. High-speed photography was used to observe the formation and atomization of drop-chain fountains composed of water and other liquids. For a range of ultrasonic frequencies and liquid sound speeds, it was found that the drop diameters approximately equalled the ultrasonic wavelengths. When water was exchanged for other liquids, it was observed that the atomization threshold increased with shear viscosity. Upon heating water, it was found that the time to commence atomization decreased with increasing temperature. Finally, water was atomized in an overpressure chamber where it was found that atomization was significantly diminished when the static pressure was increased. These results indicate that bubbles, generated by either acoustic cavitation or boiling, contribute significantly to atomization in the drop-chain fountain. PMID:25977591

  19. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  20. Design of variable frequency endoscope ultrasonic digital imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya-nan; Bai, Bao-ping; Chen, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Qiang; Deng, Hao-ran; Wang, Yi; Yu, Dao-yin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presented a real-time endoscope ultrasonic digital imaging system, which was based on FPGA and applied for gastrointestinal examination. Four modules, scan-line data processing module, coordinate transformation and interpolation algorithm module, cache reading and writing control module and transmitting and receiving control module were included in this FPGA based system. Through adopting different frequency ultrasound probes in a single insertion of endoscope, the system showed a high speed data processing mechanism capable of achieving images with various display effects. A high-precision modified coordinate calibration CORDIC (HMCC-CORDIC) algorithm was employed to realize coordinate transformation and interpolation simultaneously, while the precision and reliability of the algorithm could be greatly improved through utilizing the pipeline structure based on temporal logic. Also, system real-time control by computer could be achieved through operating under the condition of USB2.0 interface. The corresponding experimental validations proved the feasibility and the correctness of the proper data processing mechanism, the HMCC-CORDIC algorithm and the USB real-time control. Finally, the specific experimental sample, a tissue mimicking phantom, was imaged in real-time (25 frames per second) by an endoscope ultrasonic imaging system with image size 1024×1024. The requirements for clinical examination could be well satisfied with the imaging parameters discussed above.

  1. Degradation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate in water by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Manousaki, Eleni; Psillakis, Elefteria; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2004-10-01

    The potential of using ultrasonic irradiation for the removal of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solutions has been investigated. Experiments were performed at initial concentrations of 15, 30 and 100 mgl(-1), ultrasonic frequencies of 20 and 80 kHz, applied power values of 45, 75 and 150 W and liquid bulk temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C. At the conditions in question, SDBS conversion was found to decrease with increasing temperature and initial solute concentration and decreasing power and frequency. Investigations using the radical scavengers 1-butanol and KBr revealed that SDBS degradation proceeds through radical reactions occurring predominately at the bubble-liquid interface and, to a lesser extent, in the liquid bulk. Addition of NaCl or H(2)O(2) had little or even an adverse effect on SDBS conversion. Conversely, addition of Fe(2+) either alone or in conjunction with H(2)O(2) (Fenton reagent) had a positive effect on degradation. Finally, shake flask tests with activated sludge were performed to assess the aerobic biodegradability before and after sonochemical treatment. At the conditions under consideration, the use of ultrasound enhanced the aerobic degradability of the substrate in question. PMID:15350427

  2. Dynamic Response of Model Lipid Membranes to Ultrasonic Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Martin Loynaz; Oralkan, Ömer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Maduke, Merritt C.

    2013-01-01

    Low-intensity ultrasound can modulate action potential firing in neurons in vitro and in vivo. It has been suggested that this effect is mediated by mechanical interactions of ultrasound with neural cell membranes. We investigated whether these proposed interactions could be reproduced for further study in a synthetic lipid bilayer system. We measured the response of protein-free model membranes to low-intensity ultrasound using electrophysiology and laser Doppler vibrometry. We find that ultrasonic radiation force causes oscillation and displacement of lipid membranes, resulting in small (<1%) changes in membrane area and capacitance. Under voltage-clamp, the changes in capacitance manifest as capacitive currents with an exponentially decaying sinusoidal time course. The membrane oscillation can be modeled as a fluid dynamic response to a step change in pressure caused by ultrasonic radiation force, which disrupts the balance of forces between bilayer tension and hydrostatic pressure. We also investigated the origin of the radiation force acting on the bilayer. Part of the radiation force results from the reflection of the ultrasound from the solution/air interface above the bilayer (an effect that is specific to our experimental configuration) but part appears to reflect a direct interaction of ultrasound with the bilayer, related to either acoustic streaming or scattering of sound by the bilayer. Based on these results, we conclude that synthetic lipid bilayers can be used to study the effects of ultrasound on cell membranes and membrane proteins. PMID:24194863

  3. Characteristics of ring type traveling wave ultrasonic motor in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianjun; Zhou, Ningning; Tian, Xiu; Jin, Long; Xu, Zhike

    2009-03-01

    The characteristics of ultrasonic motor strongly depend on the properties of stator/rotor contact interface which are affected by ambient environment. With the developed apparatus, load properties of two ring type traveling wave ultrasonic motors in atmosphere, low vacuum and high vacuum were studied, respectively. Wear of friction material, variations of vacuum degree and the temperature of motor during the experiment were also measured. The results show that load properties of motor A in vacuum were poorer than those in atmosphere, when load torque M(f) was less than 0.55 N m. Compared to motor A, load properties of motor B were affected a little by environmental pressure. Wear of friction material in vacuum was more severe than wear in atmosphere. The temperature of motor in vacuum rose more quickly than it in atmosphere and had not reached equilibrium in 2 h experiment. However, the temperature of motor in atmosphere had reached equilibrium in about forth minutes. Furthermore, outgas was also observed during experiment under vacuum conditions. PMID:19058827

  4. Ultrasonic studies of liquid/solid seimoacoustic wave phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamuel, Jacques R.

    1994-11-01

    New ultrasonic modeling findings are presented contributing to ten fundamental problems related to low-frequency seismoacoustic wave phenomena resulting from the interaction of underwater acoustic waves with heterogeneous elastic boundaries such as the ice cover and/or ocean bottom. The results are described in ten independent sections covering the following problems: (1) backscattering of Scholte waves and grazing underwater acoustic waves by a trench at a liquid/solid interface; (2) explanation for observed underwater acoustic backscatter from the Canada Basin near 73.2 deg N, 139 deg W where recent bathymetric charts do not reveal the existence of large bathymetric highs nearby; (3) effect of a thin low-velocity layer underneath a floating plate on flexural wave dispersion; (4) effect of viscous waves from suspended particles in a thin layer under sea ice on low-frequency underwater acoustic wave reflectivity; (5) comparison of experimental and theoretical results on the dispersion of antisymmetric edge waves along apex of truncated elastic wedge; (6) wave propagation along apex of free and immersed elastic wedge with range-dependent apex angle and cross section; (7) shear wave coupling to ice cores; (8) ultrasonic characterization of sea ice cores; (9) monostatic seismic profiling using scattering from 45 deg oblique cylindrical hole in ice plate using one compressional transducer; and (10) sea ice finger-rafting and ice thickness.

  5. Ultrasonic angle beam standard reflector. [ultrasonic nondestructive inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, R. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method that provides an impression profile in a reference standard material utilized in inspecting critically stressed components with pulsed ultrasound is described. A die stamp having an I letter is used to impress the surface of a reference material. The die stamp is placed against the surface and struck with an inertia imparting member to impress the I in the reference standard material. Upset may appear on the surface as a result of the impression and is removed to form a smooth surface. The stamping and upset removal is repeated until the entire surface area of a depth control platform on the die stamp uniformly contacts the material surface. The I impression profile in the reference standard material is utilized for reflecting pulsed ultrasonic beams for inspection purposes.

  6. Ultrasonic sensing of porous granular media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathi, Sanjai; Lu, Yichi; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of phenomena for sensing porosity and grain growth in powder metallurgical processes using ultrasonic techniques is demonstrated. Ultrasonic velocity is a strong function of pore concentration and provides a potential means for in situ measurement of this quantity. Ultrasonic attenuation, measured in the low megahertz range, depends on grain size and pore content. When velocity data and a scattering theory are used to account for the attenuation due to pores, attenuation data may be used to infer the grain size. Predictions of existing scattering theories are compared with experimental observations, and substantial disagreements are attributed to modeling inadequacies.

  7. Ultrasonic technology improves drill cuttings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Avern, N.; Copercini, A.

    1997-07-01

    Advancements are being made by employing ultrasonics for onsite cuttings size reduction for slurrification prior to disposal. The size reduction proficiency of this new ultrasonics slurrification system as a medium to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings presents operators with a system that can enhance existing disposal techniques. This article presents results from a recent field trial, where ultrasonic processors were used to Agip (UK) Limited to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings prior to disposal into the water column and natural dispersement.

  8. Ultrasonic flow imaging system: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1991-09-01

    This report examines the feasibility and potential problems in developing a real-time ultrasonic flow imaging instrument for on-line monitoring of mixed-phased flows such as coal slurries. State-of-the-art ultrasonic imaging techniques are assessed for this application. Reflection and diffraction tomographies are proposed for further development, including image-reconstruction algorithms and parallel processing systems. A conventional ultrasonic C-scan technique is used to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the particle motion in a solid/water flow. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Model-based optimization of ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Heikkola, Erkki; Laitinen, Mika

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation and automated optimization of Langevin-type ultrasonic transducers are investigated. These kind of transducers are standard components in various applications of high-power ultrasonics such as ultrasonic cleaning and chemical processing. Vibration of the transducer is simulated numerically by standard finite element method and the dimensions and shape parameters of a transducer are optimized with respect to different criteria. The novelty value of this work is the combination of the simulation model and the optimization problem by efficient automatic differentiation techniques. The capabilities of this approach are demonstrated with practical test cases in which various aspects of the operation of a transducer are improved. PMID:15474952

  10. Waveguide ultrasonic force microscopy at 60 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, K.; Kolosov, O. V.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Wright, O. B.

    2000-04-01

    We present measurements using ultrasonic force microscopy at ˜60 MHz, operating in a "waveguide" mode in which the cantilever base is vibrated and flexural ultrasonic vibrations are launched down the cantilever without exciting any particular cantilever resonance. The nonlinearity of the tip-sample force-distance curve allows the conversion of a modulated ultrasonic frequency into a low frequency vibration of the cantilever, detected in a conventional atomic force microscope. Images of Ge quantum dots on a Si substrate show contrast related to elasticity and adhesion differences, and this is interpreted with the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts model of the force-distance curve.

  11. Ultrasonic measurement of milk coagulation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, F.; Moudden, A.; Faiz, B.; Amghar, A.; Maze, G.; Montero de Espinosa, F.; Akhnak, M.

    2001-12-01

    Using a pulse reflection technique an ultrasonic system has been developed to monitor in situ the coagulation process of rennetted milk. The velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through coagulating milk were continuously monitored. The observed changes in ultrasonic velocity during coagulation were used to predict the coagulation time. The coagulation time is indicative of the transition from the enzymatic phase to the physicochemical phase. The determination of coagulation time has a decisive role in determining the qualities of the end product in cheesemaking.

  12. On-line ultrasonic gas entrainment monitor

    DOEpatents

    Day, Clifford K.; Pedersen, Herbert N.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus employing ultrasonic energy for detecting and measuring the quantity of gas bubbles present in liquids being transported through pipes. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned along the longitudinal axis of a fluid duct, oriented to transmit acoustic energy radially of the duct around the circumference of the enclosure walls. The back-reflected energy is received centrally of the duct and interpreted as a measure of gas entrainment. One specific embodiment employs a conical reflector to direct the transmitted acoustic energy radially of the duct and redirect the reflected energy back to the transducer for reception. A modified embodiment employs a cylindrical ultrasonic transducer for this purpose.

  13. Ultrasonic measurement of lubricant film thickness in sliding bearings with thin liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Tao; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Jia, Qian

    2015-02-01

    When conducting ultrasonic measurements of the lubricant film thickness in sliding bearings with thin liners, the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the bearing liner-lubricant film interface will superimpose on the pulse reflected from the bearing substrate-liner interface. The thickness information of the lubricant film is contained in the reflected pulse from the liner-lubricant film interface. In this case, the film thickness could not be obtained directly from the superimposed reflected signals. The thin liner indicates that the thickness of the bearing liner is less than half the ultrasonic pulse width. Based on the spectrum analysis method of superimposed signals, a new method is proposed to measure the lubricant film thickness in sliding bearings with thin liners. The frequency-domain amplitude ratio between the echo component containing thickness information and the steady echo component from the bearing substrate-liner interface is extracted from the superimposed signal. The reflection coefficient of the liner-lubricant film interface is obtained by this amplitude ratio to determine the film thickness. The lubricant films of different thicknesses in a thin-liner thrust pad were measured in a high-precision experimental apparatus. The measurement results were compared with the known film thickness set by the experimental apparatus. In the thinner film region, the measurement results agreed well with the set film thickness. In the thicker film region, the mean values of the multiple measurement results represented the film thickness. The experimental results show that the method can be used to measure the lubricant film thickness in sliding bearings with thin liners.

  14. Direct-soldering 6061 aluminum alloys with ultrasonic coating.

    PubMed

    Ding, Min; Zhang, Pei-lei; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Yao, Shun

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the authors applied furnace soldering with ultrasonic coating method to solder 6061 aluminum alloy and investigated the effects of both coating time and soldering temperature on its properties. The following results were obtained: firstly, the solder region mainly composed of four kinds of microstructure zones: rich Sn zone, rich-Pb zone, Sn-Pb eutectic phase and rich Al zone. Meanwhile, the microanalysis identified a continuous reaction product at the alumina-solder interface as a rich-Pb zone. Therefore, the joint strength changed with soldering time and soldering temperature. Secondly, the tensile data had significantly greater variability, with values ranging from 13.99MPa to 24.74MPa. The highest value was obtained for the samples coated with Sn-Pb-Zn alloy for 45s. Fractures occurred along the solder-alumina interface for the 6061 aluminum alloy with its surface including hybrid tough fracture of dimple and tear ridge. The interface could initially strip at the rich Bi zone with the effect of shear stress. PMID:19900830

  15. Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing using two ultrasonic transducers for improved ultrasonic axial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Xu, Xiao; Lai, Puxiang; Xu, Daxiong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Focusing light inside highly scattering media is a challenging task in biomedical optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy. A recent invention has overcome this challenge by time reversing ultrasonically encoded diffuse light to an ultrasound-modulated volume inside a turbid medium. In this technique, a photorefractive (PR) crystal or polymer can be used as the phase conjugate mirror for optical time reversal. Accordingly, a relatively long ultrasound burst, whose duration matches the PR response time of the PR material, is usually used to encode the diffuse light. This long burst results in poor focusing resolution along the acoustic axis. In this work, we propose to use two intersecting ultrasound beams, emitted from two ultrasonic transducers at different frequencies, to modulate the diffuse light at the beat frequency within the intersection volume. We show that the time reversal of the light encoded at the beat frequency can converge back to the intersection volume. Experimentally, an acoustic axial resolution of ∼1.1  mm was demonstrated inside turbid media, agreeing with theoretical estimation. PMID:24194060

  16. Model validation of untethered, ultrasonic neural dust motes for cortical recording.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongjin; Carmena, Jose M; Rabaey, Jan M; Maharbiz, Michel M; Alon, Elad

    2015-04-15

    A major hurdle in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) is the lack of an implantable neural interface system that remains viable for a substantial fraction of the user's lifetime. Recently, sub-mm implantable, wireless electromagnetic (EM) neural interfaces have been demonstrated in an effort to extend system longevity. However, EM systems do not scale down in size well due to the severe inefficiency of coupling radio-waves at those scales within tissue. This paper explores fundamental system design trade-offs as well as size, power, and bandwidth scaling limits of neural recording systems built from low-power electronics coupled with ultrasonic power delivery and backscatter communication. Such systems will require two fundamental technology innovations: (1) 10-100 μm scale, free-floating, independent sensor nodes, or neural dust, that detect and report local extracellular electrophysiological data via ultrasonic backscattering and (2) a sub-cranial ultrasonic interrogator that establishes power and communication links with the neural dust. We provide experimental verification that the predicted scaling effects follow theory; (127 μm)(3) neural dust motes immersed in water 3 cm from the interrogator couple with 0.002064% power transfer efficiency and 0.04246 ppm backscatter, resulting in a maximum received power of ∼0.5 μW with ∼1 nW of change in backscatter power with neural activity. The high efficiency of ultrasonic transmission can enable the scaling of the sensing nodes down to 10s of micrometer. We conclude with a brief discussion of the application of neural dust for both central and peripheral nervous system recordings, and perspectives on future research directions. PMID:25109901

  17. Mechanical characterization of temperature-sensitive objects using picosecond ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehoux, T.; Audoin, B.; Zouani, O.; Durrieu, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Biological objects are exquisitely sensitive to temperature variations and their mechanical characterization is often a challenge when using the picosecond ultrasonics technique. To reduce the laser-induced temperature rise, we place single biological cells on a thin metal transducer and we focus the laser beam that generates the acoustic waves at frequencies <= 150 GHz on the rear side of the transducer. The acoustic waves propagate through the transducer and are partially transmitted to the cell to create the so-called Brillouin oscillations. The frequency of these oscillations provides a direct measurement of the sound velocity. The simultaneous measurement of the acoustic reflection coefficient at the transducer/cell interface allows the determination of both the density and the compressibility of the cell.

  18. Design of matching layers for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Chunlong; Ma, Jianguo; Chiu, Chi Tat; Williams, Jay A.; Fong, Wayne; Chen, Zeyu; Zhu, BenPeng; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-09-01

    Matching the acoustic impedance of high-frequency (≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers to an aqueous loading medium remains a challenge for fabricating high-frequency transducers. The traditional matching layer design has been problematic to establish high matching performance given requirements on both specific acoustic impedance and precise thickness. Based on both mass-spring scheme and microwave matching network analysis, we interfaced metal-polymer layers for the matching effects. Both methods hold promises for guiding the metal-polymer matching layer design. A 100 MHz LiNbO3 transducer was fabricated to validate the performance of the both matching layer designs. In the pulse-echo experiment, the transducer echo amplitude increased by 84.4% and its -6dB bandwidth increased from 30.2% to 58.3% comparing to the non-matched condition, demonstrating that the matching layer design method is effective for developing high-frequency ultrasonic transducers.

  19. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  20. High performance ultrasonic field simulation on complex geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouh, H.; Rougeron, G.; Chatillon, S.; Iehl, J. C.; Farrugia, J. P.; Ostromoukhov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic field simulation is a key ingredient for the design of new testing methods as well as a crucial step for NDT inspection simulation. As presented in a previous paper [1], CEA-LIST has worked on the acceleration of these simulations focusing on simple geometries (planar interfaces, isotropic materials). In this context, significant accelerations were achieved on multicore processors and GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), bringing the execution time of realistic computations in the 0.1 s range. In this paper, we present recent works that aim at similar performances on a wider range of configurations. We adapted the physical model used by the CIVA platform to design and implement a new algorithm providing a fast ultrasonic field simulation that yields nearly interactive results for complex cases. The improvements over the CIVA pencil-tracing method include adaptive strategies for pencil subdivisions to achieve a good refinement of the sensor geometry while keeping a reasonable number of ray-tracing operations. Also, interpolation of the times of flight was used to avoid time consuming computations in the impulse response reconstruction stage. To achieve the best performance, our algorithm runs on multi-core superscalar CPUs and uses high performance specialized libraries such as Intel Embree for ray-tracing, Intel MKL for signal processing and Intel TBB for parallelization. We validated the simulation results by comparing them to the ones produced by CIVA on identical test configurations including mono-element and multiple-element transducers, homogeneous, meshed 3D CAD specimens, isotropic and anisotropic materials and wave paths that can involve several interactions with interfaces. We show performance results on complete simulations that achieve computation times in the 1s range.

  1. Ultrasonic Spot and Torsion Welding of Aluminum to Titanium Alloys: Process, Properties and Interfacial Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balle, Frank; Magin, Jens

    Hybrid lightweight structures shape the development of future vehicles in traffic engineering and the aerospace industry. For multi-material concepts made out of aluminum and titanium alloys, the ultrasonic welding technique is an alternative effective joining technology. The overlapped structures can be welded in the solid state, even without gas shielding. In this paper the conventional ultrasonic spot welding with longitudinal oscillation mode is compared to the recent ultrasonic torsion welding with a torsional mode at 20 kHz working frequency. For each technique the process parameters welding force, welding energy and oscillation amplitude were optimized for the hybrid joints using design of experiments. Relationships between the process parameters, mechanical properties and related welding zone should be understood. Central aspects of the research project are microscopic studies of the joining zone in cross section and extensive fracture surface analysis. Detailed electron microscopy and spectroscopy of the hybrid interface help to understand the interfacial formation during ultrasonic welding as well as to transfer the gained knowledge for further multi-metal joints.

  2. Ultrasonic inspection technique for composite doubler/aluminum skin bond integrity for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieske, John H.; Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phillip D.

    1998-03-01

    As part of the FAA's National Aging Aircraft Research Program to foster new technologies for civil aircraft maintenance and repair, use of bonded composite doublers on metal aircraft structures has been advanced. Research and validation of such doubler applications on U.S. certified commercial aircraft has begun. A specific composite application to assess the capabilities of composite doublers was chosen on a L-1011 aircraft for reinforcement of the corner of a cargo door frame where a boron-epoxy repair patch of up to 72 plies was installed. A primary inspection requirement for these doublers is the identification of disbonds between the composite laminate and the aluminum parent material. This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique using a modified immersion focus transducer where a robust signal amplitude signature of the composite/aluminum interface is obtained to characterize the condition of the bond. Example waveforms and C-scan images are shown to illustrate the ultrasonic response for various transducer configurations using a boron-epoxy/aluminum skin calibration test sample where disbonds and delaminations were built-in. The modified focus transducer is compatible with portable ultrasonic scanning systems that utilize the weeper or dripless bubbler technologies when an ultrasonic inspection of the boron-epoxy composite doublers installed on aircraft is implemented.

  3. Ultrasonic inspection technique for composite doubler/aluminum skin bond integrity for aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.; Roach, D.P.; Walkington, P.D.

    1998-02-01

    As part of the FAA`s National Aging Aircraft Research Program to foster new technologies for civil aircraft maintenance and repair, use of bonded composite doublers on metal aircraft structures has been advanced. Research and validation of such doubler applications on US certified commercial aircraft has begun. A specific composite application to assess the capabilities of composite doublers was chosen on a L-1011 aircraft for reinforcement of the comer of a cargo door frame where a boron-epoxy repair patch of up to 72 plies was installed. A primary inspection requirement for these doublers is the identification of disbonds between the composite laminate and the aluminum parent material. This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic pulse echo technique using a modified immersion focus transducer where a robust signal amplitude signature of the composite aluminum interface is obtained to characterize the condition of the bond. Example waveforms and C-scan images are shown to illustrate the ultrasonic response for various transducer configurations using a boron-epoxy aluminum skin calibration test sample where disbonds and delaminations were built-in. The modified focus transducer is compatible with portable ultrasonic scanning systems that utilize the weeper or dripless bubbler technologies when an ultrasonic inspection of the boron-epoxy composite doublers installed on aircraft is implemented.

  4. Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring of composite wing skin-to-spar bonded joints in aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Howard; Bartoli, Ivan; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2005-10-01

    The monitoring of adhesively bonded joints by ultrasonic guided waves is the general topic of this paper. Specifically, composite-to-composite joints representative of the wing skin-to-spar bonds of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are examined. This research is the first step towards the development of an on-board structural health monitoring system for UAV wings based on integrated ultrasonic sensors. The study investigates two different lay-ups for the wing skin and two different types of bond defects, namely poorly cured adhesive and disbonded interfaces. The assessment of bond state is based on monitoring the strength of transmission through the joints of selected guided modes. The wave propagation problem is studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method that accounts for viscoelastic damping, and experimentally by ultrasonic testing that uses small PZT disks preferably exciting and detecting the single-plate s0 mode. Both the models and the experiments confirm that the ultrasonic energy transmission through the joint is highly dependent on the bond conditions, with defected bonds resulting in increased transmission strength. Large sensitivity to the bond conditions is found at mode coupling points, as a result of the large interlayer energy transfer.

  5. Nanoscale Subsurface Imaging of Nanocomposites via Resonant Difference-Frequency Atomic Force Ultrasonic Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, Sean A.; Cantrell, John H.; Lillehei, Peter T.

    2007-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope methodology, called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), has been developed. The method employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope engages the sample top surface. The cantilever is driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave at the sample surface generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create amplitude and phase-generated images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features. RDF-AFUM phase images of LaRC-CP2 polyimide polymer containing embedded nanostructures are presented. A RDF-AFUM micrograph of a 12.7 micrometer thick film of LaRC-CP2 containing a monolayer of gold nanoparticles embedded 7 micrometers below the specimen surface reveals the occurrence of contiguous amorphous and crystalline phases within the bulk of the polymer and a preferential growth of the crystalline phase in the vicinity of the gold nanoparticles. A RDF-AFUM micrograph of LaRC-CP2 film containing randomly dispersed carbon nanotubes reveals the growth of an interphase region at certain nanotube-polymer interfaces.

  6. Modeling of ultrasound transmission through a solid-liquid interface comprising a network of gas pockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paumel, K.; Moysan, J.; Chatain, D.; Corneloup, G.; Baqué, F.

    2011-08-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of sodium-cooled fast reactor requires a good acoustic coupling between the transducer and the liquid sodium. Ultrasonic transmission through a solid surface in contact with liquid sodium can be complex due to the presence of microscopic gas pockets entrapped by the surface roughness. Experiments are run using substrates with controlled roughness consisting of a network of holes and a modeling approach is then developed. In this model, a gas pocket stiffness at a partially solid-liquid interface is defined. This stiffness is then used to calculate the transmission coefficient of ultrasound at the entire interface. The gas pocket stiffness has a static, as well as an inertial component, which depends on the ultrasonic frequency and the radiative mass.

  7. Modeling of ultrasound transmission through a solid-liquid interface comprising a network of gas pockets

    SciTech Connect

    Paumel, K.; Baque, F.; Moysan, J.; Corneloup, G.; Chatain, D.

    2011-08-15

    Ultrasonic inspection of sodium-cooled fast reactor requires a good acoustic coupling between the transducer and the liquid sodium. Ultrasonic transmission through a solid surface in contact with liquid sodium can be complex due to the presence of microscopic gas pockets entrapped by the surface roughness. Experiments are run using substrates with controlled roughness consisting of a network of holes and a modeling approach is then developed. In this model, a gas pocket stiffness at a partially solid-liquid interface is defined. This stiffness is then used to calculate the transmission coefficient of ultrasound at the entire interface. The gas pocket stiffness has a static, as well as an inertial component, which depends on the ultrasonic frequency and the radiative mass.

  8. Ultrasonic inspection and deployment apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Jennifer E.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Mech, Jr., Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic inspection apparatus for the inspection of metal structures, especially installed pipes. The apparatus combines a specimen inspection element, an acoustical velocity sensing element, and a surface profiling element, all in one scanning head. A scanning head bellows contains a volume of oil above the pipe surface, serving as acoustical couplant between the scanning head and the pipe. The scanning head is mounted on a scanning truck which is mobile around a circular track surrounding the pipe. The scanning truck has sufficient motors, gears, and position encoders to allow the scanning head six degrees of motion freedom. A computer system continually monitors acoustical velocity, and uses that parameter to process surface profiling and inspection data. The profiling data is used to automatically control scanning head position and alignment and to define a coordinate system used to identify and interpret inspection data. The apparatus is suitable for highly automated, remote application in hostile environments, particularly high temperature and radiation areas.

  9. Ultrasonic thermometry using pulse techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Carnevale, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse techniques have been developed which, when applied to inert gases, provide temperature measurements up to 8000 K. The response time can be less than 1 msec. This is a significant feature in studying shock-heated or combusting gases. Using a momentary contact coupling technique, temperature has been measured inside steel from 300 to 1500 K. Thin-wire sensors have been used above 2000 K in nuclear and industrial applications where conditions preclude the use of thermocouples, resistance devices, or optical pyrometers. At 2500 K, temperature sensitivity of 0.1% is obtained in Re wire sensors 5 cm long by timing five round trips with an electronic instrument that resolves the time interval between selected echoes to 0.1 microsec. Sensors have been operated at rotational speeds over 2000 rpm and in noisy environments. Temperature profiling of up to ten regions using only a single guided path or beam has also been accomplished.

  10. Ultrasonic sensing of powder densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yichi; Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Parthasarathi, Sanjai

    1992-01-01

    An independent scattering theory has been applied to the interpretation of ultrasonic velocity measurements made on porous metal samples produced either by a cold or a high-temperature compaction process. The results suggest that the pores in both processes are not spherical, an aspect ration of 1:3 fitting best with the data for low (less than 4 percent) pore volume fractions. For the hot compacted powders, the pores are smooth due to active diffusional processes during processing. For these types of voids, the results can be extended to a pore fraction of 10 percent, at which point voids form an interconnected network that violates the model assumptions. The cold pressed samples are not as well predicted by the theory because of poor particle bonding.

  11. Ultrasonic assessment of tooth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, David W.

    2002-06-01

    A means of assessing the internal structure of teeth based upon use of high frequency, highly localized ultrasound (acoustic waves) generated by a short laser pulse is discussed. Some key advantages of laser-generated ultrasound over more traditional contact transducer methods are that it is noncontact and nondestructive in nature and requires no special surface preparation. Optical interferometric detection of ultrasound provides a complementary nondestructive, noncontact technique with a very small detection footprint. This combination of techniques, termed laser-based ultrasonics, holds promise for future in-vivo diagnostics of tooth health. In this paper, initial results using laser-based ultrasound for assessment of dental structures are presented on an extracted human incisor. Results show the technique to be sensitive to the enamel/dentin, dentin/pulp, and dentin/cementum junctions as well as a region of dead tracts in the dentin.

  12. Ultrasonic flowmetering with reflected pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, D. C.; Glicksman, L. R.; Peterson, C. R.

    1984-09-01

    Consolidated Edison of New York City has expressed the need for a new gasmeter for accurately monitoring large diameter interdistrict gas transmission lines for loss due to theft or leakage. A research effort aimed at developing a new flowmeter for Con Edison is described. The new flowmeter uses ultrasonic flowmetering technology in a novel way to meet Con Edison's four major design specifications: the flowmeter should be accurate to 0.5 percent of totalized flow over one year, it should be much simpler to install than a conventional flowmeter, essentially meaning that excavation be limited to that necessary to expose the upper surface of a buried main; its installation must not require service shutdown; and, the flowmeter should not require zero-flow calibration once installed in the gas main.

  13. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  14. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahk, K. J.; Dhar, D. K.; Malago, M.; Saffari, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  15. Ultrasonics used to measure residual stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Ultrasonic method is used to measure residual stress in metal structures. By using this method, various forms of wave propagation in metals are possible, and more thorough analysis of complex geometric structures may be had.

  16. Ultrasonic propagation in gases at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, C.; Carnevale, E. H.; Lynworth, L. C.; Uva, S.

    1970-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse method /1 to 3 MHz/ measures both sound speed and absorption in monatomic and polyatomic gases in a temperature range of 300 to 20000 degrees K at atmospheric pressure. Helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are investigated.

  17. Ultrasonic ranking of toughness of tungsten carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation measurements to rank tungsten carbide alloys according to their fracture toughness was demonstrated. Six samples of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) were examined. These varied in cobalt content from approximately 2 to 16 weight percent. The toughness generally increased with increasing cobalt content. Toughness was first determined by the Palmqvist and short rod fracture toughness tests. Subsequently, ultrasonic attenuation measurements were correlated with both these mechanical test methods. It is shown that there is a strong increase in ultrasonic attenuation corresponding to increased toughness of the WC-Co alloys. A correlation between attenuation and toughness exists for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies. However, the best correlation for the WC-Co alloys occurs when the attenuation coefficient measured in the vicinity of 100 megahertz is compared with toughness as determined by the Palmqvist technique.

  18. Ultrasonically-assisted Thermal Stir Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A welding head assembly has a work piece disposed between its containment plates' opposing surfaces with the work piece being maintained in a plastic state thereof at least in a vicinity of the welding head assembly's stir rod as the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis. The welding head assembly and the work piece experience relative movement there between in a direction perpendicular to the rod's longitudinal axis as the work piece is subjected to a compressive force applied by the containment plates. A first source coupled to the first containment plate applies a first ultrasonic wave thereto such that the first ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement. A second source coupled to the second containment plate applies a second ultrasonic wave thereto such that the second ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.

  19. Tailoring ultrasonic beams with optoacoustic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Alex; Gspan, Stefan J.; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2003-06-01

    A combination of laser-induced ultrasound generation and ultrasonic holography for spatial control of the generated ultrasonic pulse is presented. Ultrasound is produced by absorption of laser pulses at an absorbing layer in a water tank via the optoacoustic effect. In order to produce a defined ultrasonic frequency in the MHz range, the laser pulses are harmonically time-modulated using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). Additionally, the laser intensity is spatially controlled. This is realized with a high resolution liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCD). A computer generated pattern is displayed at the LCD and projected by the expanded laser beam to an absorptive layer in the water tank. As a result, the emitted ultrasonic wave emerges in a predetermined way, which is an acoustical analogue to the effect of a "diffractive optical element" in laser optics. The flexible method of optical ultrasound generation and diffractive steering promises new applications in medical and technical ultrasound diagnostics.

  20. Continuous flow measurements using fixed ultrasonic meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Rick

    1993-01-01

    USGS has or soon will be installing four continuous flow-monitoring stations in the delta that will use ultrasonic velocity meters (DVM). Funding for the stations has been provided by USGS, DWR, USBR, and Contra Costa Water District.

  1. Ultrasonic temperature measurements with fiber optic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Jingcheng; Ma, Tong; Liu, Yuqian; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic temperature measurements have been developed and widely applied in non-contact temperature tests in many industries. However, using optical fibers to build ultrasound generators are novel. This paper reports this new fiber optic ultrasonic system based on the generator of gold nanoparticles/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. The optical acoustic system was designed to test the change of temperature on the aluminum plate and the temperature of the torch in the air. This paper explores the relationship between the ultrasonic transmission and the change of temperature. From the experimental results, the trend of ultrasonic speed was different in the aluminum plate and air with the change of temperature. Since the system can measure the average temperature of the transmission path, it will have significant influence on simulating the temperature distribution.

  2. New pressure cell for ultrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa, Michal; Huxley, Andrew; Kamenev, Konstantin

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic interferometry at high pressure remains a technical challenge as the small sample space requires the application of very high-frequency ultrasound. Here we present the design of a new cell developed specifically for ultrasonic measurements of single crystals at low temperatures (2K) and high pressures (5GPa). The design allows greater sample space (compared to a conventional diamond anvil cell) and simultaneous measurement of ultrasonic attenuation and velocities. Coupling the fine transducers to spherical sapphire anvils reduces background and enables different polarizations of the ultrasonic wave to be measured at the same pressure and temperature conditions. The results are used to deduce the elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of a crystal. The finite element analysis of the cell together with the pressure calibration curves and test data taken on UGe2 are presented.

  3. Semiconductor measurement technology: Microelectronic ultrasonic bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, G. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Information for making high quality ultrasonic wire bonds is presented as well as data to provide a basic understanding of the ultrasonic systems used. The work emphasizes problems and methods of solving them. The required measurement equipment is first introduced. This is followed by procedures and techniques used in setting up a bonding machine, and then various machine- or operator-induced reliability problems are discussed. The characterization of the ultrasonic system and its problems are followed by in-process bonding studies and work on the ultrasonic bonding (welding) mechanism. The report concludes with a discussion of various effects of bond geometry and wire metallurgical characteristics. Where appropriate, the latest, most accurate value of a particular measurement has been substituted for an earlier reported one.

  4. Ultrasonic intensification as a tool for enhanced microbial biofuel yields.

    PubMed

    Naveena, Balakrishnan; Armshaw, Patricia; Tony Pembroke, J

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonication has recently received attention as a novel bioprocessing tool for process intensification in many areas of downstream processing. Ultrasonic intensification (periodic ultrasonic treatment during the fermentation process) can result in a more effective homogenization of biomass and faster energy and mass transfer to biomass over short time periods which can result in enhanced microbial growth. Ultrasonic intensification can allow the rapid selective extraction of specific biomass components and can enhance product yields which can be of economic benefit. This review focuses on the role of ultrasonication in the extraction and yield enhancement of compounds from various microbial sources, specifically algal and cyanobacterial biomass with a focus on the production of biofuels. The operating principles associated with the process of ultrasonication and the influence of various operating conditions including ultrasonic frequency, power intensity, ultrasonic duration, reactor designs and kinetics applied for ultrasonic intensification are also described. PMID:26379772

  5. Thermography And Ultrasonics Find Flaws In Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Smith, Barry T.; Winfree, William P.

    1993-01-01

    Flaws first located in infrared imagery, then probed ultrasonically to reveal details. Thermographic and ultrasonic techniques, applied sequentially, constitute basis of developmental method of nondestructive inspection of structures made of lightweight composite materials like carbon-fiber/epoxy-matrix laminates. Method enables rapid detection and evaluation of damage and other flaws in composite structures. Does not require access to both sides of structure to be inspected.

  6. Method of ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Smith, John F.; Lee, Seung S.; Li, Yan

    1993-10-12

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improves reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet.

  7. Method of ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R.B.; Smith, J.F.; Lee, S.S.; Taejon Ch'ungmam; Yan Li.

    1993-10-12

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improves reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet. 9 figures.

  8. General relationships between ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, M.; Jaynes, E. T.; Miller, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    General relationships between the ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion are presented. The validity of these nonlocal relationships hinges only on the properties of causality and linearity, and does not depend upon details of the mechanism responsible for the attenuation and dispersion. Approximate, nearly local relationships are presented and are demonstrated to predict accurately the ultrasonic dispersion in solutions of hemoglobin from the results of attenuation measurements.

  9. Ultrasonic sensor and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    An ultrasonic sensor system and method of use for measuring transit time though a liquid sample, using one ultrasonic transducer coupled to a precision time interval counter. The timing circuit captures changes in transit time, representing small changes in the velocity of sound transmitted, over necessarily small time intervals (nanoseconds) and uses the transit time changes to identify the presence of non-conforming constituents in the sample.

  10. Ultrasonic Sensor and Method of use

    SciTech Connect

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1999-07-22

    An ultrasonic sensor system and method of use for measuring transit time through a liquid sample, comprising at least one ultrasonic transducer coupled to a precision time interval counter. The timing circuit captures changes in transit time, representing small changes in the velocity of sound transmitted, over necessarily small time intervals (nanoseconds) and uses the transit time changes to identify the presence of non-conforming constituents in the sample.

  11. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  12. Ultrasonic techniques for aircraft ice accretion measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Kirby, Mark S.; Lichtenfelts, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Results of tests to measure ice growth in natural (flight) and artificial (icing wind tunnel) icing conditions are presented. Ice thickness is measured using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. Two icing regimes, wet and dry ice growth, are identified and the unique ultrasonic signal characteristics associated with these different types of ice growth are described. Ultrasonic measurements of ice growth on cylinders and airfoils exposed to artificial and natural icing conditions are presented. An accuracy of plus or minus 0.5 mm is achieved for ice thickness measurement using the pulse-echo technique. The performance of two-probe type ice detectors is compared to the surface mounted ultrasonic system. The ultrasonically measured ice accretion rates and ice surface condition (wet or dry) are used to compare the heat transfer characteristics for flight and icing wind tunnel environments. In general the heat transfer coefficient is inferred to be higher in the wind tunnel environment, not likely due to higher freestream turbulence levels. Finally, preliminary results of tests to measure ice growth on airfoil using an array of ultrasonic transducers are described. Ice profiles obtained during flight in natural icing conditions are shown and compared with mechanical and stereo image measurements.

  13. Ultrasonic imaging techniques for breast cancer detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, N. R.; Marquez, J. D.; Prewett, E. M.; Claytor, T. N.; Nadler, B. R.; Huang, L.

    2006-01-01

    Improving the resolution and specificity of current ultrasonic imaging technology can enhance its relevance to detection of early-stage breast cancers. Ultrasonic evaluation of breast lesions is desirable because it is quick, inexpensive, and does not expose the patient to potentially harmful ionizing radiation. Improved image quality and resolution enables earlier detection and more accurate diagnoses of tumors, thus reducing the number of biopsies performed, increasing treatment options, and lowering mortality, morbidity, and remission percentages. In this work, a novel ultrasonic imaging reconstruction method that exploits straight-ray migration is described. This technique, commonly used in seismic imaging, accounts for scattering more accurately than standard ultrasonic approaches, thus providing superior image resolution. A breast phantom with various inclusions is imaged using a pulse-echo approach. The data are processed using the ultrasonic migration method and results are compared to standard linear ultrasound and to x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. For an ultrasonic frequency of 2.25 MHz, imaged inclusions and features of approximately 1mm are resolved, although better resolution is expected with minor modifications. Refinement of this application using other imaging techniques such as time-reversal mirrors (TRM), synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT), and factorization methods is also briefly discussed.

  14. A finite element model for ultrasonic cutting.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Margaret; MacBeath, Alan; McCulloch, Euan; Cardoni, Andrea

    2006-12-22

    Using a single-blade ultrasonic cutting device, a study of ultrasonic cutting of three very different materials is conducted using specimens of cheese, polyurethane foam and epoxy resin. Initial finite element models are created, based on the assumption that the ultrasonic blade causes a crack to propagate in a controlled mode 1 opening, and these are validated against experimental data from three point bend fracture tests and ultrasonic cutting experiments on the materials. Subsequently, the finite element model is developed to represent ultrasonic cutting of a multi-layered material. Materials are chosen whose properties allow a model to be developed that could represent a multi-layer food product or biological structure, to enable ultrasonic cutting systems to be designed for applications both in the field of food processing and surgical procedures. The model incorporates an estimation of the friction condition between the cutting blade and the material to be cut and allows adjustment of the frequency, cutting amplitude and cutting speed. PMID:16814351

  15. Absolute calibration technique for broadband ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Calibrating an ultrasonic transducer can be performed with a reduced number of calculations and testing. A wide-band pulser is connected to an ultrasonic transducer under test to generate ultrasonic waves in a liquid. A single frequency is transmitted to the electrostatic acoustic transducer (ESAT) and the voltage change produced is monitored. Then a broadband ultrasonic pulse is generated by the ultrasonic transducer and received by the ESAT. The output of the ESAT is amplified and input to a digitized oscilloscope for fast Fourier transform. The resulting plot is normalized with the monitored signal from the single frequency pulse. The plot is then corrected for characteristics of the membrane and diffraction effects. The transfer function of the final plot is determined. The transfer function gives the final sensitivity of the ultrasonic transducer as a function of frequency. The advantage of the system is the speed of calibrating the transducer by a reduced number of measurements and removal of the membrane and diffraction effects.

  16. Droplet formation and ejection from a micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator: Visualization and scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, J. M.; Varady, M. J.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2005-10-01

    Visualization and scaling of drop-on-demand and continuous-jet fluid atomization of water are presented to elucidate the fluid physics of the ejection process and characterize the modes of operation of a novel micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator. The device comprises a fluid reservoir that is formed between a bulk ceramic piezoelectric transducer and an array of liquid horn structures wet etched into (100) silicon. At resonance, the transducer generates a standing ultrasonic pressure wave within the cavity and the wave is focused at the tip of the nozzle by the horn structure. Device operation has been demonstrated by water droplet ejection from 5to10μm orifices at multiple resonant frequencies between 1 and 5MHz. The intimate interactions between focused ultrasonic pressure waves and capillary waves formed at the liquid-air interface located at the nozzle tip are found to govern the ejection dynamics, leading to different ejection modalities ranging from individual droplets to continuous jet. Specifically, we report the results of high-resolution stroboscopic optical imaging of the liquid-air interface evolution during acoustic pumping to elucidate the role of capillary waves in the droplet formation and ejection process. A basic understanding of the governing physics gained through careful visualization and scaling forms the basis for development of improved theoretical models for the droplet formation and ejection processes by accounting for key fluid mechanical features of the phenomena.

  17. An improved DPSM technique for modelling ultrasonic fields in cracked solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sourav; Kundu, Tribikram; Placko, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    In recent years Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) is being used for modelling various ultrasonic, electrostatic and electromagnetic field modelling problems. In conventional DPSM several point sources are placed near the transducer face, interface and anomaly boundaries. The ultrasonic or the electromagnetic field at any point is computed by superimposing the contributions of different layers of point sources strategically placed. The conventional DPSM modelling technique is modified in this paper so that the contributions of the point sources in the shadow region can be removed from the calculations. For this purpose the conventional point sources that radiate in all directions are replaced by Controlled Space Radiation (CSR) sources. CSR sources can take care of the shadow region problem to some extent. Complete removal of the shadow region problem can be achieved by introducing artificial interfaces. Numerically synthesized fields obtained by the conventional DPSM technique that does not give any special consideration to the point sources in the shadow region and the proposed modified technique that nullifies the contributions of the point sources in the shadow region are compared. One application of this research can be found in the improved modelling of the real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation experiments.

  18. Bond formation in ultrasonically welded aluminum sheet metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkosz, Daniel Edward

    Ultrasonic welding (USW), a solid state joining technology, has been used to bond aluminum alloys commonly used in the automotive industry. Bonding occurs due to USW's high frequency (˜20 kHz) in-plane vibration of sample interfaces while being held under moderate clamp pressure normal to the plane of vibration. Vibration and clamp pressure are transmitted into bond formation via contact with a weld-tip. To better understand how weld-tip geometry affected bond formation, experiments were conducted to quantify how tip geometry influenced plastic deformation characteristics between fully welded coupons of 0.9mm thick AA6111-T4 aluminum alloy. Weld-interface microstructure features were documented by optical microscopy and features quantified in a 19 point matrix. Correlation between microstructure features, such as rolling-wakes, and resulting weld bond strengths of more than 3.0kN is made. Weld zone microstructure features appear to result from deformation at and severe migration of the original weld interface during USW. To confirm this hypothesis, intrinsic and extrinsic markers were employed to monitor weld interface deformation characteristics. Various physical and analytical techniques were used in conjunction with these markers to show that joining of "like" and "dislike" aluminum samples is achieved through mechanical mixing of mating interfaces and not by elemental diffusion. It is also hypothesized that severe deformation of the original interface would result in areas of high residual strain within a formed weld zone. To investigate this and the influence that tip geometry may have on residual strain, fully welded samples were annealed at 500°C for a controlled period of time and recovery, recrystallization and grain growth characteristics were monitored. In all welds, initial recrystallization and grain growth occurred at the outer ends of weld zones and along weld interfaces where the most turbulent mixing and grain size reduction was observed

  19. Evaluation of Waveform Mapping as a Signal Processing Tool for Quantitative Ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Kishoni, Doron

    1993-01-01

    The mapping of one pulsed waveform into another, more desirable waveform by the application of a time-domain filter has been employed in a number of NDE situations. The primary goal of these applications has been to improve the range resolution of an ultrasonic signal for detection of echoes arising from particular interfaces masked by the response of the transducer. The work presented here addresses the use of this technique for resolution enhancement in imaging situations and in mapping signals from different transducers to a common target waveform, allowing maintenance of quantitative calibration of ultrasonic systems. We also describe the use of this technique in terms of the frequency analysis of the resulting waveforms.

  20. The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.

  1. The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.

  2. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of nodular cast iron with ferrite-pearlite microstructure.

    PubMed

    Mitelea, Ion; Bordeaşu, Ilare; Pelle, Marius; Crăciunescu, Corneliu

    2015-03-01

    The cavitation erosion of ductile cast iron with ferrite-pearlite microstructure was analyzed based on ultrasonic experiments performed according to ASTM G32-2010 and the resistance was compared to the C45 steel with similar hardness. The microstructural observation of the surface for different exposure times to the ultrasonic cavitation reveals the fact that the process initiates at the nodular graphite-ferrite interface and is controlled by micro-galvanic activities and mechanical factors. The cavitation erosion resistance was evaluated based on the evolution of the mean depth erosion and the mean depth erosion rate as a function of the cavitation time. The cavitation erosion rate of the cast iron is up to 1.32 times higher than the one of the C 45 steel with similar hardness. This is explained by the occurrence of stress concentrators due to the expulsion of the graphite from the metallic matrix. PMID:25465881

  3. A novel method for detecting second harmonic ultrasonic components generated from fastened bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Imano, Kazuhiko

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the use of ultrasonic second harmonic components in the quality control of bolt-fastened structures. An improved method for detecting the second harmonic components, from a bolt fastened with a nut, using the transmission method is constructed. A hexagon head iron bolt (12-mm diameter and 25-mm long) was used in the experiments. The bolt was fastened using a digital torque wrench. The second harmonic component increased by approximately 20 dB before and after the bolt was fastened. The sources of second harmonic components were contact acoustic nonlinearity in the screw thread interfaces of the bolt-nut and were the plastic deformation in the bolt with fastening bolt. This result was improved by approximately 10 dB compared with previous our method. Consequently, usefulness of the novel method for detecting second harmonic ultrasonic components generated from fastened bolt was confirmed.

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of thermally grown oxide in thermal barrier coating by reflection coefficient amplitude spectrum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Yang; Luo, Zhongbing; Lin, Li

    2014-04-01

    The thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth at the interface of ceramic coating/bond coating in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated by ultrasonic reflection coefficient amplitude spectrum (URCAS). A theoretical analysis was performed about the influence of acoustic impedance match relationship between the ceramic coating and its adjacent media on URCAS. The immersion ultrasonic narrow pulse echo method was carried out on the TBC specimen before and after oxidation under 1050°C×1h for 15cycles. The resonant peaks of URCAS obtained before and after oxidation showed that TGO which generated between the ceramic coating and bond coating due to the oxidation, changed the acoustic impedance match between the ceramic coating and its adjacent media. This method is able to nondestructively characterize the generation of TGO in TBCs, and is important to practical engineering application. PMID:24359869

  5. Ultrasonic isolation of buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is used routinely for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to above ground configurations due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this paper, the effect of pipe coatings on the guided wave attenuation is investigated with the aim of increasing test ranges for buried pipelines. The attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes is measured using a full-scale experimental apparatus in a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8 in. pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand. Tests are performed over a frequency range typically used in GWT of 10-35 kHz and compared with model predictions. It is shown that the application of a low impedance coating between the FBE layer and the sand effectively decouples the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. Ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe is demonstrated by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both the pipe and sand, and has the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is found to be substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dB m-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to measured attenuation of 1.7-4.7 dB m-1 in the buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry and incorporated into model predictions of guided wave propagation in buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the experimental measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges; such

  6. Media independent interface. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Media Independent Interface (MII) is specified, using current standards in the industry. The MII is described in hierarchical fashion. At the base are IEEE/International Standards Organization (ISO) documents (standards) which describe the functionality of the software modules or layers and their interconnection. These documents describe primitives which are to transcent the MII. The intent of the MII is to provide a universal interface to one or more Media Access Contols (MACs) for the Logical Link Controller and Station Manager. This interface includes both a standardized electrical and mechanical interface and a standardized functional specification which defines the services expected from the MAC.

  7. Influence of material structure on air-borne ultrasonic application in drying.

    PubMed

    Ozuna, César; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás; Riera, Enrique; Cárcel, Juan A; Garcia-Perez, Jose V

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to contribute to the understanding of how the properties of the material being dried affect air-borne ultrasonic application. To this end, the experimental drying kinetics (40°C and 1m/s) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and apple (Malus domestica var. Granny Smith) were carried out applying different ultrasonic powers (0, 6, 12, 19, 25 and 31 kW/m(3)). Furthermore, the power ultrasound-assisted drying kinetics of different fruits and vegetables (potato, eggplant, carrot, orange and lemon peel) already reported in previous studies were also analyzed. The structural, textural and acoustic properties of all these products were assessed, and the drying kinetics modeled by means of the diffusion theory. A significant linear correlation (r>0.95) was established between the identified effective diffusivity (DW) and the applied ultrasonic power for the different products. The slope of this relationship (SDUP) was used as an index of the effectiveness of the ultrasonic application; thus the higher the SDUP, the more effective the ultrasound application. SDUP was well correlated (r ⩾ 0.95) with the porosity and hardness. In addition, SDUP was largely affected by the acoustic impedance of the material being dried, showing a similar pattern with the impedance than the transmission coefficient of the acoustic energy on the interface. Thus, soft and open-porous product structures exhibited a better transmission of acoustic energy and were more prone to the mechanical effects of ultrasound. However, materials with a hard and closed-compact structure were less affected by acoustic energy due to the fact that the significant impedance differences between the product and the air cause high energy losses on the interface. PMID:24411471

  8. Advance in friction welding and ultrasonic welding of ceramics to metals

    SciTech Connect

    Greitmann, M.J.; Weib, R.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have joined four different ceramic materials (MgO-PSZ, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cylinders 10 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length) to the aluminum alloy Al-Si1MgMn by friction welding. Process parameters such as friction speed, axial force, burn-off and torque have been recorded continuously. For some specimens the authors recorded the temperature at the interface using thermocouples. The joints obtained were tested in tension. Fracture occurred either in the ceramic or at the interface. Heat conduction calculations to estimate the temperature distribution during welding have been conducted by the Finite Element Method (FEM), using experimental data for input. Afterwards, residual stresses introduced through thermal expansion mismatch and stresses introduced through a tensile test have been determined by FEM. Applying multiaxial Weibull statistics to the ceramic specimen, tensile strength for different geometries of the joint and different material combinations was estimated. Ultrasonic welded joints of MgO-PSZ and Steel X 4 CrNi 18-10 according to DIN EN (comparable to the US-steel AISI No. 304) could be realized using aluminum interlayers. In addition to a conventional ultrasonic welding equipment for metal welding a new molecular coldwelding technique (ultrasonic torsional welding system) was tested. In comparison to friction welding the ultrasonic welding technique results in limited deformation of the ceramic-metal joint parts and in a decreased welding time. Nevertheless a special solution must be found to the problem of tool wear and the vibration conditions.

  9. 241-AZ Farm Annulus Extent of Condition Baseline Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Engeman, Jason K.; Girardot, Crystal L.; Vazquez, Brandon J.

    2013-05-15

    This report provides the results of the comprehensive annulus visual inspection for tanks 241- AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 performed in fiscal year 2013. The inspection established a baseline covering about 95 percent of the annulus floor for comparison with future inspections. Any changes in the condition are also included in this document.

  10. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  11. Ultrasonic monitoring of pitting corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, A. J. C.; Cegla, F. B.; Bazaz, H.; Lozev, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to corrosive substances in high temperature environments can cause damage accumulation in structural steels, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The interaction mechanisms are complex and varied; however initial damage propagation often manifests itself in the form of localized areas of increased material loss. Recent development of an ultrasonic wall thickness monitoring sensor capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 500°C has allowed permanent monitoring within such hostile environments, providing information on how the shape of a pulse which has reflected from a corroding surface can change over time. Reconstructing localized corrosion depth and position may be possible by tracking such changes in reflected pulse shape, providing extra information on the state of the backwall and whether process conditions should be altered to increase plant life. This paper aims to experimentally investigate the effect certain localized features have on reflected pulse shape by `growing' artificial defects into the backwall while wall thickness is monitored using the sensor. The size and complexity of the three dimensional scattering problem lead to the development of a semi-analytical simulation based on the distributed point source method (DPSM) which is capable of simulating pulse reflection from complex surfaces measuring approximately 17×10λ Comparison to experimental results show that amplitude changes are predicted to within approximately 1dB and that pulse shape changes are accurately modelled. All experiments were carried out at room temperature, measurements at high temperature will be studied in the future.

  12. CW ultrasonic bolt tensioning monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A CW ultrasonic device is described for measuring frequency shifts of the peak of a mechanical resonance in a body. One application of the device is measuring the strain in a bolt, and other applications such as measuring the thickness of a body, measuring the depth of a flaw in a body, measuring the elongation of a body, and measuring changes in velocity of sound in a body. The body is connected, by means of a CW transducer, to electrical circuit means including a narrow band RF amplifier to form a closed loop feedback marginal oscillator that frequency locks the device to the peak of a mechanical resonance in the body. When the frequency of this peak changes, because of a physical change in the body, the frequency of the oscillator changes. The device includes an automatic frequency resonant peak tracker that produces a voltage that is related to a change in frequency of the oscillator. This voltage is applied to the RF amplifier to change the center of its frequency band to include the frequency of the peak and is a measure of the frequency shift.

  13. Micromachining using ultrasonic impact grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medis, Praveen S.; Thurman Henderson, H.

    2005-08-01

    Although largely unknown in the MEMS community, micromachining using ultrasonic impact grinding (UIG) is a fascinating yet easy fabrication scheme to achieve virtually any shape, such as a shallow or deep reservoir, a channel, a via, etc, in silicon, glass and other commonly used ceramic and semiconductor materials in the MEMS field. Because of the patterning and masking issues, etching even shallow channels or vias in a pre-processed silicon/glass/ceramic substrate is somewhat difficult, if not impossible. However, by using UIG one can achieve such structures, up to millimeters in depth in virtually no time. Furthermore, in silicon substrates, the orientation or any other physical dimension of the feature will no longer be constrained as in anisotropic etching by the crystallographic planes and directions; and in amorphous glass or ceramic substrates, features with vertical walls can be achieved, otherwise usually accomplished only by expensive laser ablation. Thus, the authors believe that this UIG process could open up many avenues to easily and quickly achieve the larger MEMS structures as well as packaging for both prototype and for production in silicon, glass and ceramic.

  14. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  15. Ultrasonics permits brazing complex stainless steel assembly without flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. H.

    1967-01-01

    Ultrasonic vibration of an assembly of stainless steel instrumentation tubes ensures brazing without flux. Vibration with an ultrasonic transducer permits the brazing material to flow down each tube in contact with a seal plug installed in a pressure vessel wall.

  16. Computer Simulation for Air-coupled Ultrasonic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamawaki, H.

    2014-06-01

    Air-coupled ultrasound is used as non-contact ultrasonic testing method. For wider application of air-coupled ultrasonic technique, it is required to know situation of ultrasonic propagation between air and solid. Transmittance of the ultrasonic waves from air to solids is extremely small with 10-5 however it was revealed that, by using computer simulation methods based on the two-stage elastic wave equation in which two independent variables of stress and particle velocity are used, visualization calculation of ultrasonic propagation between air and solid was possible. In this report, the calculation of air-coupled ultrasound using the new Improved-FDM for computer simulation of ultrasonic propagation in solids is shown. Waveforms obtained by 1-dimensional calculation are discussed for principle and performance of the calculation. Visualization of ultrasonic incidence to cylindrical steel pipe is demonstrated as an example to show availability for ultrasonic testing.

  17. Researches and applications of the ultrasonic emulsifications and dispersions.

    PubMed

    Quanlu, Li; Yinhong, Zhang; Jing, Wu

    2013-11-01

    This paper defines power ultrasonics and their two important directions: Ultrasonic emulsification and dispersion from a practical point of view, brief reports on recent research results are ultrasonic emulsification to be used for the preparation of composite electrorheological fluid, and ultrasonic dispersion to be used dispersion as a new type cold cloud catalytic agent metaldehyde [CH3CH]4-6 (this is used for artificial rain), etc., and produce good results or gain progress. Then, the principle and applications of power ultrasonics (including magnetostriction type ultrasonic transducer and piezoelectric type ultrasonic transducer) in the emulsification or dispersion, are pointed out. Also, ultrasonic extensive applications in chemistry, materials, and life sciences are briefly introduced. PMID:24180765

  18. Apparatus for the concurrent ultrasonic inspection of partially completed welds

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, John A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the concurrent nondestructive evaluation of partially completed welds is described and which is used in combination with an automated welder and which includes an ultrasonic signal generator mounted on the welder and which generates an ultrasonic signal which is directed toward one side of the partially completed welds; an ultrasonic signal receiver mounted on the automated welder for detecting ultrasonic signals which are transmitted by the ultrasonic signal generator and which are reflected or diffracted from one side of the partially completed weld or which passes through a given region of the partially completed weld; and an analysis assembly coupled with the ultrasonic signal receiver and which processes the ultrasonic signals received by the ultrasonic signal receiver to identify welding flaws in the partially completed weld.

  19. Soft tissue cutting with ultrasonic mechanical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Mark. P.; McGuinness, Garrett; Gavin, Graham P.

    2012-05-01

    The use of ultrasonic vibrations transmitted via small diameter wire waveguides represents a technology that has potential for minimally invasive procedures in surgery. This form of energy delivery results in distal tip mechanical vibrations with amplitudes of vibration of up to 50 μm and at frequencies between 20-50 kHz commonly reported. This energy can then be used by micro-cutting surgical tools and end effectors for a range of applications such as bone cutting, cement removal in joint revision surgery and soft tissue cutting. One particular application which has gained regulatory approval in recent years is in the area of cardiovascular surgery in the removal of calcified atherosclerotic plaques and chronic total occlusions. This paper builds on previous work that was focused on the ultrasonic perforation of soft vascular tissue using ultrasonically activated mechanical waveguides and the applied force required to initiate failure in soft tissue when compared with non-ultrasonic waveguides. An ultrasonic device and experimental rig was developed that can deliver ultrasonic vibrations to the distal tip of 1.0 mm diameter nickel-titanium waveguides. The operation of the ultrasonic device has been characterized at 22.5 kHz with achievable amplitudes of vibration in the range of 16 - 40μm. The experimental rig allows the ultrasonically activated waveguide to be advanced through a tissue sample over a range of feedrates and the waveguide-tissue interaction force can be measured during perforation into the tissue. Preliminary studies into the effects of feedrate on porcine aortic arterial tissue perforation forces are presented as part of this work. A range of amplitudes of vibration at the wire waveguide distal tip were examined. The resulting temperature increase when perforating artery wall when using the energized wire waveguides is also examined. Results show a clear multistage failure of the tissue. The first stage involves a rise in force up to some

  20. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ningli

    2011-12-01

    Wave propagation in porous media is studied in a wide range of technological applications. In the manufacturing industry, determining porosity of materials in the manufacturing process is required for strict quality control. In the oil industry, acoustic signals and seismic surveys are used broadly to determine the physical properties of the reservoir rock which is a porous media filled with oil or gas. In porous noise control materials, a precise prediction of sound absorption with frequency and evaluation of tortuosity are necessary. Ultrasonic nondestructive methods are a very important tool for characterization of porous materials. The dissertation deals with two types of porous media: materials with relatively low and closed porosity and materials with comparatively high and open porosity. Numerical modeling, Finite Element simulations and experimental characterization are all discussed in this dissertation. First, ultrasonic scattering is used to determine the porosity in porous media with closed pores. In order get a relationship between the porosity in porous materials and ultrasonic scattering independently and to increase the sensitivity to obtain scattering information, ultrasonic imaging methods are applied and acoustic waves are focused by an acoustic lens. To verify the technique, engineered porous acrylic plates with varying porosity are measured by ultrasonic scanning and ultrasonic array sensors. Secondly, a laser based ultrasonic technique is explored for predicting the mechanical integrity and durability of cementitious materials. The technique used involves the measurement of the phase velocity of fast and slow longitudinal waves in water saturated cement paste. The slow wave velocity is related to the specimen's tortuosity. The fast wave speed is dependent on the elastic properties of porous solid. Experimental results detailing the generation and detection of fast and slow wave waves in freshly prepared and aged water-saturated cement samples

  1. Noncontact Acousto-Ultrasonics for Material Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1998-01-01

    A NdYAG 1064 nm, laser pulse was employed to produce ultrasonic waves in specimens of SiC/SiC and SiC/Ti 6-4 composites which are high temperature materials of interest for aerospace applications. Air coupled transducers were used to detect and collect the signals used for acousto-ultrasonic analysis. Conditions for detecting ultrasonic decay signals were examined. The results were compared to those determined on the same specimens with contact coupling. Some non-contact measurements were made employing conventional air focused detectors. Others were performed with a more novel micromachined capacitance transducer. Concerns of the laser-in technology include potential destructiveness of the laser pulse. Repeated laser pulsing at the same location does lead to deterioration of the ultrasonic signal in some materials, but seems to recover with time. Also, unlike contact AU, the frequency regime employed is a function of laser-material interaction rather than the choice of transducers. Concerns of the air coupled-out technology include the effect of air attenuation. This imposes a practical upper limit to frequency of detection. In the case of the experimental specimens studied ultrasonic decay signals could be imaged satisfactorily.

  2. Ultrasonic energy welds copper to aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, G.

    1997-01-01

    Attempting to weld copper to aluminum by conventional means through the application of thermal energy to melt and fuse the two metals (fusion welding) can result in an unreliable weld. The oxide layer on aluminum is difficult to remove, the melt temperatures of the two metals are not close, the two metals exhibit high thermal conductivity and alloying of the two metals creates a brittle intermetallic that is mechanically and electrically unreliable. An alternative for design engineers is to weld copper to aluminum by applying ultrasonic energy, which joins the metals without melting. The ultrasonic process creates a high quality weld both mechanically and electrically without forming a brittle intermetallic and without intermediate steps. Ultrasonic welding of copper to aluminum has been shown to be efficient and effective as demonstrated by a number of practical production applications. The problems of tough oxides, high thermal conductivity, high electrical conductivity, intermetallics and brittle alloys are not significant with the ultrasonic welding process. And similarly, the problems associated with pre and postweld cleaning, fluxes, hot metal and high energy costs are eliminated. Modern ultrasonic welding equipment is capable of monitoring energy and controlling the critical welding process variables.

  3. Human Face Classification Using Ultrasonic Sonar Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Zhenwei; Ji, Wei; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jun

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, human face classification using ultrasonic sonar imaging is investigated. On the basis of Freedman's “image pulse” model, the scattering centers model is employed to simplify the complex geometry of the human face into a series of scattering centers. A chirp signal is utilized to detect the human face for its high range resolution and large signal-to-noise ratio. Ultrasonic sonar images, also named high-resolution range profiles, are obtained by demodulating the echoes with a reference chirp signal. Features directly related to the geometry of the human face are extracted from ultrasonic sonar images and verified in the experiments designed with different configurations of transmitter-receiver (TR) pairs. Experimental results indicate that the improved feature extraction method can achieve a high recognition rate of over 99% in the case of ultrasonic transmitters angled at 45° above and orthogonal to the face, and this method improves the performance of ultrasonic face recognition compared with our previous result.

  4. Impact-absorbing characteristics by applying ultrasonic vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Ueki, Eiichiro; Tsujino, Jiromaru

    2012-05-01

    An impact-absorbing device that facilitates the application of ultrasonic vibrations was devised. Vibration distributions, springback characteristics, and impact-absorption characteristics were measured. We confirm that the springback amount decreases and the impact is absorbed upon the application of ultrasonic vibrations. When an aluminum alloy plate is crumpled, the maximum output voltage of the attached shock sensor decreases to 65% upon the application of ultrasonic vibrations as compared to when the ultrasonic vibrations are not applied.

  5. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation, microstructure, and mechanical property interrelations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques for mechanical property characterizations are reviewed and conceptual models are advanced for explaining and interpreting the empirically based results. At present, the technology is generally empirically based and is emerging from the research laboratory. Advancement of the technology will require establishment of theoretical foundations for the experimentally observed interrelations among ultrasonic measurements, mechanical properties, and microstructure. Conceptual models are applied to ultrasonic assessment of fracture toughness to illustrate an approach for predicting correlations found among ultrasonic measurements, microstructure, and mechanical properties.

  6. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  7. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  8. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  9. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section 882.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test...

  10. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section 882.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test...

  11. 21 CFR 1050.10 - Ultrasonic therapy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic therapy products. 1050.10 Section 1050... § 1050.10 Ultrasonic therapy products. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable as specified herein to any ultrasonic therapy product for use in physical therapy manufactured on...

  12. High-temperature pressure-coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Caines, M.J.

    1981-02-11

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  13. Shear-Wave Ultrasonic Inspection With A Dry Couplant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willenberg, James D; Van Wyk, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    Automated ultrasonic inspection system includes dry couplant pad attached to ultrasonic transducer. Designed to be mounted on robot arm in automated manufacturing (robotic welding) work cell. Between, during, or after manufacturing operations, robot scans ultrasonic transducer along workpiece. Workpiece reworked in place, if necessary. In principle, computer program controlling inspection overlaid on program controlling welding operations.

  14. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1570 - Diagnostic ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic ultrasonic transducer. 892.1570 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1570 Diagnostic ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. A diagnostic ultrasonic transducer is a device made of a piezoelectric...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  17. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  18. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  19. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  20. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  1. Guided wave helical ultrasonic tomography of pipes.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Kevin R; Hinders, Mark K

    2003-08-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been used for a wide variety of ultrasonic inspection techniques. We describe here a new variation called helical ultrasound tomography (HUT) that uses guided ultrasonic waves along with tomographic reconstruction algorithms that have been developed by seismologists for what they call "cross borehole" tomography. In HUT, the Lamb-like guided waves travel the various helical criss-cross paths between two parallel circumferential transducer arrays instead of the planar criss-cross seismic paths between two boreholes. Although the measurement itself is fairly complicated, the output of the tomographic reconstruction is a readily interpretable map of a quantity of interest such as pipe wall thickness. In this paper we demonstrate HUT via laboratory scans on steel pipe segments into which controlled thinnings have been introduced. PMID:12942959

  2. Numerical calculations of ultrasonic fields. [STEALTH

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    A code for calculating ultrasonic fields has been developed by revisng the thermal-hydraulics code STEALTH. This code may be used in a wide variety of situations in which a detailed knowledge of a propagating wave field is required. Among the potential used are: interpretation of pulse-echo or pitch-catch ultrasonic signals in complicated geometries; ultrasonic transducer modeling and characterization; optimization and evaluation of transducer design; optimization and reliability of inspection procedures; investigation of the response of different types of reflectors; flaw modeling; and general theoretical acoustics. The code is described, and its limitations and potential are discussed. A discussion of the required input and of the general procedures for running the code is presented. Three sample problems illustrate the input and the use of the code.

  3. Novel Applications of Power Ultrasonic Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Ke-Ming

    Atomization is a process where a liquid is dispersed into droplets in a gas. Ultrasonic atomization was discovered in the 1920s (Loomis and Woods, 1927). Since then, atomization has seen diversified applications in devices such as drug nebulizers, room humidifiers, and air refreshers, as well as in industrial processes such as combustion, prilling, and web coating. In contrast to conventional liquid atomizers, ultrasound atomizers generally handle lower flow rates, and atomization of the liquid is achieved not by pressure, but by the vibration of ultrasonic waves (Morgan, 1993). This latter feature decouples the requirement of orifice geometry and pressure from the flow rate, allowing the flow to be controlled independently. Typically, ultrasonic atomizers excel in accurately processing low flow rates and slurry without clogging issues.

  4. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  5. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  6. Guided wave helical ultrasonic tomography of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Kevin R.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2003-08-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been used for a wide variety of ultrasonic inspection techniques. We describe here a new variation called helical ultrasound tomography (HUT) that uses guided ultrasonic waves along with tomographic reconstruction algorithms that have been developed by seismologists for what they call ``cross borehole'' tomography. In HUT, the Lamb-like guided waves travel the various helical criss-cross paths between two parallel circumferential transducer arrays instead of the planar criss-cross seismic paths between two boreholes. Although the measurement itself is fairly complicated, the output of the tomographic reconstruction is a readily interpretable map of a quantity of interest such as pipe wall thickness. In this paper we demonstrate HUT via laboratory scans on steel pipe segments into which controlled thinnings have been introduced.

  7. Signal processor for processing ultrasonic receiver signals

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1980-01-01

    A signal processor is provided which uses an analog integrating circuit in conjunction with a set of digital counters controlled by a precision clock for sampling timing to provide an improved presentation of an ultrasonic transmitter/receiver signal. The signal is sampled relative to the transmitter trigger signal timing at precise times, the selected number of samples are integrated and the integrated samples are transferred and held for recording on a strip chart recorder or converted to digital form for storage. By integrating multiple samples taken at precisely the same time with respect to the trigger for the ultrasonic transmitter, random noise, which is contained in the ultrasonic receiver signal, is reduced relative to the desired useful signal.

  8. Investigating of precision measurement on ultrasonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fangliang; Ji, Qizheng; Zhai, Dongwei; Dong, Yibo; Dong, Chun

    2015-02-01

    The flow rate is calculated via ultrasonic flow meter (UFM), which is through measuring the difference of time transmitting flow between flow direction and reverse direction. This paper describes the uncertainty analysis for the method of time difference which is commonly used in ultrasonic flow measurement, and the analysis of error source of uncertainty components as well as the general method of elimination. Based on the technique of pseudo random sequence, this paper presents a precise time difference method based on digital correlation technology, and its principle, realization way and uncertainty evaluation are introduced. On the DSP and FPGA system platform, an ultrasonic flow meter scheme based on the digital correlation technology is suggested.

  9. Flexible ultrasonic array sensors for health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Wu, K.-T.; Song, L.; Liu, Q.; Jen, C.-K.

    2007-04-01

    Flexible ultrasonic array transducers which can be attached to the desired structures or materials for nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring applications at room and elevated temperatures are developed. These flexible ultrasonic transducers (UTs) arrays consist of a thin polyimide membrane with a bottom electrode or stainless steel foil, a piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) composite film and top electrodes. The flexibility is realized owing to the porosity of piezoelectric film and the thinness of substrate and electrodes. Top and bottom electrode materials are silver paste, silver paint or electroless plated nickel alloys. The UT array is configured by the several top electrodes. The flexible UT has been successfully tested at 150°C and also immersed into water as immersion ultrasonic probe operated in the pulse-echo mode with good signal to noise ratio.

  10. Folded Resonant Horns for Power Ultrasonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Askins, Stephen; Gradziel, Michael; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Dolgin, Benjamin; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Peterson, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Folded horns have been conceived as alternatives to straight horns used as resonators and strain amplifiers in power ultrasonic systems. Such systems are used for cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling in a variety of industries. In addition, several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles have described instrumented drilling, coring, and burrowing machines that utilize combinations of sonic and ultrasonic vibrational actuation. The main advantage of a folded horn, relative to a straight horn of the same resonance frequency, is that the folded horn can be made shorter (that is, its greatest linear dimension measured from the outside can be made smaller). Alternatively, for a given length, the resonance frequency can be reduced. Hence, the folded-horn concept affords an additional degree of design freedom for reducing the length of an ultrasonic power system that includes a horn.

  11. Ultrasonic frequency selection for aqueous fine cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Joann F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate ultrasonic cleaning systems for precision cleaning effectiveness for oxygen service hardware. This evaluation was specific for Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell Aerospace alloys and machining soils. Machining lubricants and hydraulic fluid were applied as soils to standardized complex test specimens designed to simulate typical hardware. The study consisted of tests which included 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 65 kHz ultrasonic cleaning systems. Two size categories of cleaning systems were evaluated, 3- to 10-gal laboratory size tanks and 35- to 320-gal industrial size tanks. The system properties of cavitation, frequency vs. cleaning effectiveness, the two types of transducers, and the power level of the system vs. size of the cleaning tank were investigated. The data obtained from this study was used to select the ultrasonic tanks for the aqueous fine clean facility installed at Rocketdyne.

  12. Ultrasonic frequency selection for aqueous fine cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Joann F.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate ultrasonic cleaning systems for precision cleaning effectiveness for oxygen service hardware. This evaluation was specific for Rocketdyne Div. of Rockwell Aerospace alloys and machining soils. Machining lubricants and hydraulic fluid were applied as soils to standardized complex test specimens designed to simulate typical hardware. The study consisted of tests which included 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 65 kHz ultrasonic cleaning systems. Two size categories of cleaning systems were evaluated, 3- to 10-gal laboratory size tanks and 35- to 320-gal industrial size tanks. The system properties of cavitation; frequency vs. cleaning effectiveness; the two types of transducers; and the power level of the system vs. size of the cleaning tank were investigated. The data obtained from this study was used to select the ultrasonic tanks for the aqueous fine clean facility installed at Rocketdyne.

  13. Method of noncontacting ultrasonic process monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Gabriel V.; Walter, John B.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    A method of monitoring a material during processing comprising the steps of (a) shining a detection light on the surface of a material; (b) generating ultrasonic waves at the surface of the material to cause a change in frequency of the detection light; (c) detecting a change in the frequency of the detection light at the surface of the material; (d) detecting said ultrasonic waves at the surface point of detection of the material; (e) measuring a change in the time elapsed from generating the ultrasonic waves at the surface of the material and return to the surface point of detection of the material, to determine the transit time; and (f) comparing the transit time to predetermined values to determine properties such as, density and the elastic quality of the material.

  14. Ultrasonic actuators: Remote strain measurements, high strain horns and ultrasonic chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung Hoon

    In this thesis, optical diffraction strain measurement, silicon-based ultrasonic horn actuators for thin film testing, and mufluidic assay systems are presented. Optical ultrasonic strain measurement: Using optical diffraction gratings integrated on a PZT/silicon laminate actuator, the strain on the actuator was optically and remotely measured. The methodology, limitations, analytical and numerical (ANSYS) analysis are presented. This technology of diffraction grating for ultrasonic strain measurements could lead to an instrument useful for remote monitoring of strain on MEMS sensors. Design of high efficiency silicon-based ultrasonic horn, and their fabrication for thin film testing under cyclic load: A detailed ultrasonic horn design and its analysis are resented. For this application a Gaussian horn is utilized. Most ultrasonic horns have a single point maximum strain point along the horn resulting in strain gradient at all points. For the purpose of straining thin films it is desirable to have areas of spatially constant strain fields. Remarkably, the Gaussian horn has a constant strain area suitable for thin film testing. High strain values can lead to testing not only fatigue, but also fracture of thin films. We feel that the ability to generate constant ultrasonic strain areas on silicon is a technique suitable for industrial and academic material characterization. A portable high-intensity ultrasonic actuator for mufluidic separation (ultrasonic chromatography): Micro-particle manipulation in a liquid using ultrasonic fields in a micro-channel, principle of operation, and analysis are presented. Beads of different sizes could be separated within an optically viewable aperture (˜100 mum). It is found that the separation occurs due to ultrasonic radiation force and a new inertial force, acting on the beads. The key mechanism of focusing beads at the nodes of ultrasonic standing waves, and the origin of the inertial force for the separation are described. The

  15. Laboratory ultrasonic generator. [characteristics of ultrasonic sound generator for experimental and industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tudose, C.; Dobrescu, F.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of an ultrasonic generator with magnetostrictive amplifiers are described. The generator was designed to supply an output power of about 400 watts at a consumption of about 1 kilowatt. The generator produces sound waves in the frequency range of 18 to 30 KHz. The circuit design is described and examples of the construction are illustrated. The generator is used to study different industrial processes such as the effect of ultrasonic radiation of the emulsification of liquids, the dispersion of solids, and ultrasonic filtration.

  16. Ternary eutectic growth of Ag-Cu-Sb alloy within ultrasonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wei; Hong, Zhenyu; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The liquid to solid transformation of ternary Ag42.4Cu21.6Sb36 eutectic alloy was accomplished in an ultrasonic field with a frequency of 35 kHz, and the growth mechanism of this ternary eutectic was examined. Theoretical calculations predict that the sound intensity in the liquid phase at the solidification interface increases gradually as the interface moves up from the sample bottom to its top. The growth mode of ( ɛ + θ + Sb) ternary eutectic exhibits a transition of “divorced eutectic—mixture of anomalous and regular structures—regular eutectic” along the sample axis due to the inhomogeneity of sound field distribution. In the top zone with the highest sound intensity, the cavitation effect promotes the three eutectic phases to nucleate independently, while the acoustic streaming efficiently suppresses the coupled growth of eutectic phases. In the meantime, the ultrasonic field accelerates the solute transportation at the solid-liquid interface, which reduces the solute solubility of eutectic phases.

  17. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. PMID:23587728

  18. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  19. Droplets merging through wireless ultrasonic actuation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Praveen Priyaranjan; Kar, Durga Prasanna; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    A new technique of droplets merging through wireless ultrasonic actuation has been proposed and experimentally investigated in this work. The proposed method is based on the principle of resonant inductive coupling and piezoelectric resonance. When a mechanical vibration is excited in a piezoelectric plate, the ultrasonic vibration transmitted to the droplets placed on its surface and induces merging. It has been observed that the merging rate of water droplets depends on the operating frequency, mechanical vibration of piezoelectric plate, separation distance between the droplets, and volume of droplets. The investigated technique of droplets merging through piezoelectric actuation is quite useful for microfluidics, chemical and biomedical engineering applications. PMID:26299402

  20. High frequency ultrasonic mitigation of microbial corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahamedh, Hussain H.; Meegan, G. Douglas; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L.; Spear, John R.

    2012-05-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in oil industry facilities, and considerable effort has been spent to mitigate this costly issue. More environmentally benign methods are under consideration as alternatives to biocides, among which are ultrasonic techniques. In this study, a high frequency ultrasonic technique (HFUT) was used as a mitigation method for MIC. The killing percentages of the HFUT were higher than 99.8 percent and their corrosivity on steel was reduced by more than 50 percent. The practice and result will be discussed.