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Sample records for 241-sy modular exhauster

  1. 241-SY modular exhauster pad analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1994-11-16

    The purpose of this document is to show the analytical results which were reached in analyzing the new 241-SY modular exhauster concrete pad and retaining wall. The analysis covers wind loading (80 mph), an equivalent static load due to a seismic event, and from those two results, a determination of the pad thickness and the location and size of reinforcement bar was made. The analysis of the exhauster assembly and sampling cabinet evaluated overturning of the assemblies as a whole. An analysis was then performed for the bolting requirements for these two assemblies. The reason why this was broken up into components was to determine if the individual components could take the load exerted by the workset case loading condition, whether it be wind or seismic. The retaining wall that will be located near the new concrete pad was also analyzed. The retaining wall was evaluated to determine the area of reinforcement required, the location of reinforcement, as well as the mass and configuration of the wall to prevent overturning or sliding. The wall was considered Non-Safety Class 4. Additional piping was required to tie-in the new exhauster to the existing primary ventilation ductwork. The design for the tie-in includes two butterfly valves, a tee fitting, elbows, flanges, straight pipe sections, and two new pipe supports to accommodate the additional weight. The valves will enable the new and existing exhausters to be isolated independently. The ductwork, couplings, and supports were analyzed for structural adequacy given Safety Class 2 loads.

  2. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-04-05

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  3. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-02-12

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  4. Compressed air piping, 241-SY-101 hydraulic pump retrieval trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-12-12

    The following Design Analysis was prepared by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine pressure losses in the compressed air piping installed on the hydraulic trailer for the 241-SY-101 pump retrieval mission.

  5. Analysis of the 241SY101 pump removal trailer and the 241SY101 strongback

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the calculations contained in the attached appendix is to determine the vibrational stability of the following combination (The Combination); shipping container, strongback and trailer. The vibrational stability of The Combination will be determined with the shipping container and strongback in the upright position. If the natural frequency of The Combination coincides with the input frequency and no damping is present, resonance will occur. The result of this is that the natural frequency of the Combination must be calculated as well as the input frequency. The input frequency in this case is caused by wind. Due to their geometrical complexity the upper and lower hydraulic clevises were analyzed for structural adequacy by using finite-element analysis (FEA). The FEA software COSMOS/M version 1.70 was used to model the upper and lower hydraulic clevis. All designs are in accordance with Standard Architectural-Civil Design Criteria, Design Loads for Facilities (DOE-RL 1989) and are safety class 3. The design and fabrication of each component is in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, (AISC, 1989). The analyses contained in this document reflects the as-built condition of the 241SY101 hydraulic trailer.

  6. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  7. Operability test procedure [Tank] 241-SY-101 equipment removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, J.C.

    1994-12-08

    The 241-SY-101 equipment removal system (ERS) consists of components, equipment, instrumentation and procedures that will provide the means to disconnect, retrieve, contain, load and transport the Mitigation Pump Assembly (MPA) from waste Tank 241-SY-101 to the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The Operability Test Procedure (OTP) will test the interfaces between ERS components and will rehearse the procedure for MPA removal and transportation to the extent they can be mocked-up at the CTF (Cold Test Facility). At the conclusion of the OTP, the ERS components and equipment will be removed from the CTF, entered into the Component Based Recall System (CBRS), and stored until needed for actual MPA removal and transportation.

  8. Status of tank 241-SY-101 data analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    The Waste Tank Flammable Gas Stabilization Program was established in 1990 to provide for resolution of a major safety issue identified for 23 of the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The safety issue involves the production, accumulation, and periodic release from these tanks of flammable gases in concentrations exceeding the lower flammability limits. This document deals primarily with tank 241-SY-101 from the SY Tank Farm. The flammable gas condition has existed for this tank since the tank was first filled in the time period from 1977 to 1980. During a general review of waste tank chemical stability in 1988--1989, this situation was re-examined and, in March 1990, the condition was declared to be an unreviewed safety question. Tank 241-SY-101 was placed under special operating restrictions, and a program of investigation was begun to evaluate the condition and determine appropriate courses of action. This report summarizes the data that have become available on tank 241-SY-101 since it was declared as an unreviewed safety question and updates the information reported in an earlier document (WHC-EP-0517). The report provides a technical basis for use in the evaluation of safety risks of the tank and subsequent resolution of the unreviewed safety question.

  9. Ion exchange removal of cesium from simulated and actual supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carlson, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in conjunction with the Process Chemistry and Statistics Section of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted this study as part of the Supernatant Treatment Development Task for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Applied Engineering Project. The study assesses the performance of the CS-100 ion exchange material for removing cesium from simulated and actual alkaline supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103. The objective of these experiments is to compare the cesium ion exchange loading and elution profiles of actual and simulated wastes. Specific experimental objectives include (1) demonstration of decontamination factors (DF) for cesium removal, 92) verification of simulant performance, (3) investigation of waste/exchanger chemistry, and (4) determination of the radionuclide content of the regenerated CS-100 resin prior to disposal.

  10. Progress toward mitigation of flammable gas Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W.; Babad, H.; Hanson, C.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-01-01

    The mixing pump installed in Hanford Site tank 241-SY-101 has been shown to be effective in releasing flammable gases in a controlled manner. This controlled release of gas prevents the accumulation and episodic release above flammable limits. More work needs to be done to optimize the pumping operation, and to evaluate the long-term effects of mixing so as to assure that no undesirable changes have occurred to the waste. Other alternative mitigation concepts are still being evaluated as a backup to mixing.

  11. FY2003 Visual examination of In Tank and Tank annuli at 241-SY tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    AFTANAS, B.L.

    2003-07-08

    This report documents the completion of the FY 2003 in-tank and annulus video inspections for the 241-SY tank farms. Representative photos of observed anomalies, water-streaks, corrosion deposits, pitting, and in-tank strains on the 241-SY-101, 102 & 103

  12. The effect of dilution on the gas retention behavior of Tank 241-SY- 103 waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bredt, P.R.; Tingey, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five of the 177 underground waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site have been placed on the Flammable Gas watch list. These 25 tanks, containing high-level waste generated during plutonium and uranium processing, have been identified as potentially capable of accumulating flammable gases above the lower flammability limit (Babad et al. 1991). In the case of Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103, it has been proposed that diluting the tank waste may mitigate this hazard (Hudson et al. 1995; Stewart et al. 1994). The effect of dilution on the ability of waste from Tank 241-SY-103 to accumulate gas was studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A similar study has been completed for waste from Tank 241-SY-101 (Bredt et al. 1995). Because of the additional waste-storage volume available in Tank 241-SY-103 and because the waste is assumed to be similar to that currently in Tank 241-SY-101, Tank 241-SY-103 became the target for a demonstration of passive mitigation through in-tank dilution. In 1994, plans for the in-tank dilution demonstration were deferred pending a decision on whether to pursue dilution as a mitigation strategy. However, because Tank 241-SY-103 is an early retrieval target, determination of how waste properties vary with dilution will still be required.

  13. Structural analysis and evaluation of the 241SY101 tank annulus heat-up

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1994-10-19

    This document provides the structural analysis (static and thermal loads) of the 241SY101 tank to determine the maximum allowable temperature and rate of heating that could be applied to tank 241SY101 through annulus air heating without detrimental effects to the structural integrity of the concrete and steel liner of the tank.

  14. 241-SY-101 DACS High hydrogen abort limit reduction (SCR 473) acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-09-09

    The capability of the 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) computer system to provide proper control and monitoring of the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank hydrogen monitoring system utilizing the reduced hydrogen abort limit of 0.69% was systematically evaluated by the performance of ATP HNF-4927. This document reports the results of the ATP.

  15. Results of Waste Transfer and Back-Dilution in Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    LA Mahoney; ZI Antoniak; WB Barton; JM Conner; NW Kirch; CW Stewart; BE Wells

    2000-07-26

    This report chronicles the process of remediation of the flammable gas hazard in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) by waste transfer and back-dilution from December 18, 1999 through April 2, 2000. A brief history is given of the development of the flammable gas retention and release hazard in this tank, and the transfer and dilution systems are outlined. A detailed narrative of each of the three transfer and dilution campaigns is given to provide structure for the balance of the report. Details of the behavior of specific data are then described, including the effect of transfer and dilution on the waste levels in Tanks SY-101 and SY-102, data from strain gauges on equipment suspended from the tank dome, changes in waste configuration as inferred from neutron and gamma logs, headspace gas concentrations, waste temperatures, and the mixerpump operating performance. Operating data and performance of the transfer pump in SY-101 are also discussed.

  16. Closed out Tank 241-SY-101 DACS system change request {number_sign}1--100

    SciTech Connect

    Gauck, G.J.

    1995-03-07

    This report is a compilation of system change requests processed during the development of the Data Acquisition and Control System for the Tank 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation project. Tank 241-SY-101 is on the Hydrogen Watch List. The disposition of the request, date the change was installed, date verified, and whether an Acceptance Test Procedure was required and completed are described for each request change.

  17. Miscellaneous component design for Tank 241SY101 pump removal

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.

    1995-03-02

    A mixer pump has been used to mitigate the hydrogen build-up in tank 241SY101 (SY101), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. New equipment is being prepared for the removal, transport, storage, and disposal of the test pump. The disposal equipment for the test pump now in tank SY101 includes a shipping container, a strong back, a lifting beam, a test weight, container support stands, a modified mock-up pump, a flexible receiver blast shield, a lifting yoke, and a yoke brace. The structural evaluations of container and strong back are detailed in another supporting document (WHC 1994a), the engineering analyses of flexible receiver blast shield/lifting yoke and yoke brace are given in other supporting documents (WHC 1994b, WHC 1994c), respectively. Engineering tasks that were contracted to Advanced Engineering Consultants (AEC) include the design and analysis of the following. Two spreader-beam lifting devices. a Container test weight. Container support saddles. Mock-up pump modification. This report documents the work description, design basis, assumptions, and design calculations provided by AEC for the above components. All AEC documents appear in Appendix A. Additional work conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) on the modified container test weight, modification to the mock-up pump, the removable support for the transport assembly, and saddle modification for air pallets also are included in this document.

  18. 241-SY-101 mixer pump lifetime expectancy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, C.P.

    1995-12-08

    The purpose of WHC-SD-WM-TI-726, Rev. 0 241-SY-101 Mixer Pump Lifetime Expectancy is to determine a best estimate of the mean lifetime of non-repairable (located in the waste) essential features of the hydrogen mitigation mixer pump presently installed in 101-SY. The estimated mean lifetime is 9.1 years. This report does not demonstrate operation of the entire pump assembly within the Tank Farm ``safety envelope``. It was recognized by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) this test pump was not specifically designed for long term service in tank 101-SY. In June 95 the DNFSB visited Hanford and ask the question, ``how long will this test pump last and how will the essential features fail?`` During the 2 day meeting with the DNFSB it was discussed and defined within the meeting just exactly what essential features of the pump must operate. These essential features would allow the pump to operate for the purpose of extending the window for replacement. Operating with only essential features would definitely be outside the operating safety envelope and would require a waiver. There are three essential features: 1. The pump itself (i.e. the impeller and motor) must operate 2. Nozzles and discharges leg must remain unplugged 3. The pump can be re-aimed, new waste targeted, even if manually.

  19. Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, R.T.; Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m{sup 3}/day (147 ft{sup 3}/day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ``burps,`` that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m{sup 3} (21,400 to 36,700 ft{sup 3}); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m{sup 3} (6,800 to 11,600 ft{sup 3}). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m{sup 3} (14,600 to 25,100 ft{sup 3}).

  20. Process Control Plan for Tank 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-09-28

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within the last year or so, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior (Rassat et al. 1999) in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. This growth has been brought about by a rapidly increasing rate of gas entrapment within the crust. It has been conceived that the lack of crust agitation beginning upon the advent of mixer pump operations may have set-up a more consolidated, gas impermeable barrier when compared to a crust regularly broken up by the prior buoyant displacement events within the tank. As a result, a series of level-growth remediation activities have been developed for tank 241-SY-101. The initial activities are also known as near-term crust mitigation. The first activity of near-term mitigation is to perform the small transfer of convective waste from tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. A 100 kgal transfer represents about a 10% volume reduction allowing a 10% water in-tank dilution. Current thinking holds that this should be enough to dissolve nitrite solids in the crust and perhaps largely eliminate gas retention problem in the crust (Raymond 1999).

  1. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-SY-102 grab samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-08-14

    Three grab samples (2SY-96-1, 2SY-96-2, and 2SY-96-3) were taken from Riser 1A of Tank 241-SY 102 on January 14, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on January 14, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farm Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Acetone analysis was not performed in accordance with Cancellation of Acetone Analysis for Tank 241-SY-102 Grab Samples.

  2. A discussion of certain safety issues associated with the Tank 241-SY-101 mitigation mixing test

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This paper addresses certain safety issues associated with the Hanford Tank 241-SY 101 hydrogen mitigation mixing test. Specifically, the study, is concerned with the effect of pump shearing, jet mixing, and piling-up on the following areas: Gas generation; gas retention; gas release (immediate); gas release (long-term); and saltcake. The findings for each issue area of concern are addressed.

  3. Engineering work plan and design basis for 241-SY ventilation improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-05-19

    There are three tanks in the 241-SY tank farm. Tank 241-SY101 and 241-SY-103 are flammable gas watch list tanks. Tank 241-SY-102 is included in the ventilation improvement process in an effort to further control air flow in the tank farm. This tank farm has only one outlet ventilation port for all three tanks. Flammable gas is released (may be steady and/or periodic) from the waste in the primary tank vapor space. The gas is removed from the tank by an active ventilation system. However, maintaining consistent measurable flow through the tank can be problematic due to the poor control capabilities of existing equipment. Low flow through the tank could allow flammable gas to build up in the tank and possibly exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL), prevent the most rapid removal of flammable gas from the tank after a sudden gas release, and/or cause high vacuum alarms to sound. Using the inlet and outlet down stream butterfly valves performs the current method of controlling flow in tank farm 241-SY. A filter station is installed on the inlet of each tank, but controlling air flow with its 12 inch butterfly valve is difficult. There is also in-leakage through pump and valve pits. Butterfly valves on the downstream side of each tank could also be used to control air flow. However, their large size and the relatively low air velocity make this control method also ineffective. The proposed method of optimizing tank air flow and pressure control capability is to install an air flow controller on the inlet of each existing filter station in SY farm, and seal as best as practical all other air leakage paths. Such air flow controllers have been installed on 241-AN and 241-AW tanks (see drawing H-2-85647).

  4. 6430.1A Compliance Matrix for 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    ERHART, M.F.

    1999-08-18

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) has recently exhibited a steady waste surface level growth. A path forward to mitigate the SY-101 surface level growth issue has been developed. The project has been directed to install the necessary equipment to transfer 380-570m{sup 3} (100,000-150,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to SY-102 before the waste elevation reached the region of the tank where the transition from a double to a single shell tank occurs. The purpose of this document is to record the design attributes of the RAPID mitigation system which fulfill the requirements specified in DOE order 6430.1A as it relates to the 241-SY-101 RAPID Mitigation System.

  5. Acceptance test procedure, 241-SY-101/241-C-106 shot loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, M.J.

    1994-11-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure is for the 241-SY-101/241-C-106 Shot Loading System. The procedure will test the components of the Shot Loading System and its capability of adequately loading shot into the annular space of the Container. The loaded shot will provide shielding as required for transporting and storage of a contaminated pump after removal from the tank. This test serves as verification that the SLS is acceptable for use in the pump removal operations for Tanks 241-SY-101, 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The pump removal operation for these three tanks will be performed by two different organizations with different equipment, but the Shot Loading System will be compatible between the two operations.

  6. Safety equipment list for the 241-SY-101 RAPID mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, K.L.

    1999-06-29

    This document provides the safety classification for the safety (safety class and safety RAPID Mitigation Project. This document is being issued as the project SEL until the supporting authorization basis documentation, this document will be superseded by the TWRS SEL (LMHC 1999), documentation istlralized. Upon implementation of the authorization basis significant) structures, systems, and components (SSCS) associated with the 241-SY-1O1 which will be updated to include the information contained herein.

  7. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.

    1998-07-31

    The best-basis inventory provides waste inventory estimates that serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. To establish a best-basis inventory for double-shell tank 241-SY-103, an evaluation of available information was performed. This work follows the methodology established in Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes, HNF-SO-WM-TI-740, Rev.OA. This tank has been listed on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  8. Engineer/constructor description of work for Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system, project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides a description of work for the design and construction of a waste retrieval system for Tank 241-SY-102. The description of work includes a working estimate and schedule, as well as a narrative description and sketches of the waste retrieval system. The working estimate and schedule are within the established baselines for the Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system. The technical baseline is provided in Functional Design Criteria, WHC-SD-W211-FDC-001, Revision 2.

  9. Process control plan for tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation

    SciTech Connect

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-06-29

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within the past year or so, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. The Process Control Plan (PCP), HNF-4264, was written to translate high-level guidance and regulatory criteria and express it in terms of operating instructions for the waste transfer system. These controls include: (1) Tank Farm Operations Administrative Controls developed in response to DOE-ORP direction reg,arding supplemental controls placed upon tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation activities specifically involving waste transfer activities. (2) Authorization Basis controls (Basis for Interim Operation (BIO)/Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs)) and supplemental DOE direction. (3) Environmental, Industrial Hygiene and Safety controls. (4) Operating Specification Document (OSD) controls. (5) Good operating practices. Included in the document are descriptions of tank conditions, waste conditions, major equipment, and a high-level overview of the system and the line-ups in which it operates. Primarily, the PCP addresses how the waste transfer will be managed, defining the monitoring and control methods including material balances to determine the progress and to define completion criteria for the transfer. The actual plant modifications and waste transfer will be authorized and controlled by plant procedures.

  10. Tank characterization report for Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C.; Winters, W.I.

    1995-06-09

    This tank characterization report presents an overview of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102 (hereafter, Tank 241-SY-102) and its waste contents. It provides estimated concentrations and inventories for the waste components based on the latest sampling and analysis activities and background tank information. This report describes the results of three sampling events. The first core sample was taken in October 1988. The tank supernate and sludge were next core sampled in February and March of 1990 (Tingey and Sasaki 1995). A grab sample of the supernate was taken in March of 1994. Tank 241-SY-102 is in active service and can be expected to have additional transfers to and from the tank that will alter the composition of the waste. The concentration and inventory estimates reported in this document no longer reflect the exact composition of the waste but represent the best estimates based on the most recent and available data. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-44-08 (Ecology, EPA, DOE 1994).

  11. Assessment of the potential for ammonium nitrate formation and reaction in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    Two principal scenarios by which ammonium nitrate may be formed were considered: (a) precipitation of ammonium nitrate in the waste, and (b) ammonium nitrate formation via the gas phase reaction of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The first of these can be dismissed because ammonium ions, which are necessary for ammonium nitrate precipitation, can exist only in negligibly small concentrations in strongly alkaline solutions. Gas phase reactions between ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase represent the most likely means by which ammonium nitrate aerosols could be formed in Tank 241-SY-101. Predicted ammonium nitrate formation rates are largely controlled by the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. This gas has not been detected among those gases vented from the wastes using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) or mass spectrometry. While detection limits for nitrogen dioxide have not been established experimentally, the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the gas phase in Tank 241-SY-101 was estimated at 0.1 ppm based on calculations using the HITRAN data base and on FTIR spectra of gases vented from the wastes. At 50 C and with 100 ppm ammonia also present, less than one gram of ammonium nitrate per year is estimated to be formed in the tank. To date, ammonium nitrate has not been detected on HEPA filters in the ventilation system, so any quantity that has been formed in the tank must be quite small, in good agreement with rate calculations. The potential for runaway exothermic reactions involving ammonium nitrate in Tank 241-SY-101 is minimal. Dilution by non-reacting waste components, particularly water, would prevent hazardous exothermic reactions from occurring within the waste slurry, even if ammonium nitrate were present. 41 refs.

  12. Composition, preparation, and gas generation results from simulated wastes of Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-08-01

    This document reviews the preparation and composition of simulants that have been developed to mimic the wastes temporarily stored in Tank 241-SY-101 at Hanford. The kinetics and stoichiometry of gases that are generated using these simulants are also compared, considering the roles of hydroxide, chloride, and transition metal ions; the identities of organic constituents; and the effects of dilution, radiation, and temperature. Work described in this report was conducted for the Flammable Gas Safety Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, (a) whose purpose is to develop information that is necessary to mitigate potential safety hazards associated with waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The goal of this research and of related efforts at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is to determine the thermal and thermal/radiolytic mechanisms by which flammable and other gases are produced in Hanford wastes, emphasizing those stored in Tank 241-SY-101. A variety of Tank 241-SY-101 simulants have been developed to date. The use of simulants in laboratory testing activities provides a number of advantages, including elimination of radiological risks to researchers, lower costs associated with experimentation, and the ability to systematically alter simulant compositions to study the chemical mechanisms of reactions responsible for gas generation. The earliest simulants contained the principal inorganic components of the actual waste and generally a single complexant such as N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) or ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA). Both homogeneous and heterogeneous compositional forms were developed. Aggressive core sampling and analysis activities conducted during Windows C and E provided information that was used to design new simulants that more accurately reflected major and minor inorganic components.

  13. The behavior, quantity, and location of undissolved gas in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.E.; Gallagher, N.B.; Hudson, J.D.; Stewart, C.W.

    1995-10-01

    Mitigation of episodic flammable gas releases from Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101 was accomplished in July 1993 with the installation of a mixer pump that prevents gas retention. But is has not been possible until recently to measure the effects of mixing on the waste or how much gas remains and where it is located. Direct measurements of the void fraction and rheology of the mixed waste by the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer along with previous data provide estimates of the location, quantity, and behavior of undissolved gas in the tank. This report documents the compilation and integration of the information that enables this understanding.

  14. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-103. Examination completed February 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-02-20

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-103. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-103 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  15. Quarterly review of 241-SY-101 mixer pump data: October - December, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    CONNER, J.M.

    1999-05-11

    This report presents data obtained on 241-SY-101 pump performance. The period covered is October 1 through December 31, 1998. During the quarter: (1) There was an indication of a 7.0-inch increase in the waste level at riser lA, and an average growth rate of 0.076 inches per day. (2) There was an indication of a 2.3-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1C. This riser was flushed with water several times, which would lower the level of the crust at this location. (3) Gases continued to be released at less than the pre-pump installation baseline rate, indicating a decrease in the gas generation rate, or an increase in gas retention, or both. The release rate was about 60 percent of the rate in the previous few quarters, and only 44 percent of the pre-pump release rate. (4) There was no change in the parameters that monitor pump performance. Key controls exist for waste temperature, gas concentration, pump parameters, and long-term waste behavior associated with the safe operation of the mixer pump that mitigates the buoyant displacement gas release event behavior of 241-SY-101. Table 1-1 compares the key controls and the current state of the waste as of December 31, 1998.

  16. Tank 241-SY-102 January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-05-11

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results.

  17. A discussion of certain safety issues associated with the Tank 241-SY-101 mitigation mixing test. Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This paper addresses certain safety issues associated with the Hanford Tank 241-SY 101 hydrogen mitigation mixing test. Specifically, the study, is concerned with the effect of pump shearing, jet mixing, and piling-up on the following areas: Gas generation; gas retention; gas release (immediate); gas release (long-term); and saltcake. The findings for each issue area of concern are addressed.

  18. Transport of Tank 241-SY-101 Waste Slurry: Effects of Dilution and Temperature on Critical Pipeline Velocity

    SciTech Connect

    KP Recknagle; Y Onishi

    1999-06-15

    This report presents the methods and results of calculations performed to predict the critical velocity and pressure drop required for the two-inch pipeline transfer of solid/liquid waste slurry from underground waste storage Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY- 102 at the Hanford Site. The effects of temperature and dilution on the critical velocity were included in the analysis. These analyses show that Tank 241-SY-101 slurry should be diluted with water prior to delivery to Tank 241-SY-102. A dilution ratio of 1:1 is desirable and would allow the waste to be delivered at a critical velocity of 1.5 ft/sec. The system will be operated at a flow velocity of 6 ft/sec or greater therefore, this velocity will be sufficient to maintain a stable slurry delivery through the pipeline. The effect of temperature on the critical velocity is not a limiting factor when the slurry is diluted 1:1 with water. Pressure drop at the critical velocity would be approximately two feet for a 125-ft pipeline (or 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline). At 6 ft/sec, the pressure drop would be 20 feet over a 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline.

  19. Level sensor replacement/sampling of Tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management and storage of waste accumulated from the processing of defense reactor irradiated fuels for plutonium recovery at the Hanford Site. DOE is proposing to remove three level detectors from Tank 241-SY-101 and analyze the waste that is presently encrusted on the detectors. The proposed sampling is less intrusive than core sampling and will provide data regarding characterization of the crust to support future core sampling. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide information about the proposed action such that a decision can be made on whether a Finding of No Significant Impact should be issued or an environmental impact statement should be prepared. Therefore, this EA evaluates the proposed action and the no action alternative, in keeping with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, parts 1500--1508. 6 refs.

  20. Tank 241-SY-101 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    CONNER, J.M.

    1998-10-09

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). It is written in accordance with Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue (Bauer 1998), Low Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (Wiemers and Miller 1997 and DOE 1998), Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Certa 1998), and the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues apply to tank SY-101 for this sampling event. Brown et al. also identifies high-level waste, regulatory, pretreatment and disposal issues as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event.

  1. Type B Investigation Report for 241-SY-101 Pump Start and 241-C-106 Pit Cleanout

    SciTech Connect

    Ewalt, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    In accordance with the direction of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manager, Richland Operations Office, a Type ``B`` investigation in accordance with the DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements, has been conducted. The scope of the investigation included two events: The ``Inadvertent Mixer Pump Operation at 241-SY-101`` (RL-WHC-TANK FARM-1993-069); ``Inadequate Work Control Results in Personnel Skin Contamination at 241-C-106, Pit B`` (RL-WHC-TANK FARM-1993-071) events. Additionally, at the request of the President of the WHC, a broader investigation into Waste Tank Farm ``safety practices`` and ``Conduct of Operations`` was also conducted. The review was focused on (1) WHC organizations performing operations, maintenance, and radiological safety tasks; and (2) KEH organizations performing major maintenance tasks.

  2. Process Control Plan for Tank 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-11-01

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within approximately the last year, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior (Rassat et al. 1999) in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. This growth has been brought about by a rapidly increasing rate of gas entrapment within the crust. It has been conceived that the lack of crust agitation beginning upon the advent of mixer pump operations may have set-up a more consolidated, gas impermeable barrier when compared to a crust regularly broken up by the prior buoyant displacement events within the tank. The interim goals of the project are to: (1) protect the mixer pump operability (2) begin releasing gas from the crust, and (3) begin dissolving the crust and solids in the slurry layer. The final goals of the project (Final State) are to solve both the level growth and BD-GRE safety issues in this tank by achieving a condition of the waste such that no active measures are required to safely store the waste, i.e., crust and non convective layer are mostly dissolved, and therefore the mixer pump will no longer be needed to prevent BD-GREs in excess of 100% LFL. Transfers (which are designed to create space in the tank) and dilution (which will dissolve the solids) will accomplish this. Dissolution of solids will result in a release of gas retained by those solids and remove that volume of solids as a future retention site.

  3. Structural analysis of multiport riser 5A installation on tank 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, J.P.

    1994-09-16

    The Tank 101-SY multiport riser assembly in the 241-SY-101 waste tank will replace the existing 42 inch riser with four smaller ports. Each smaller port can be used independently to access the tank interior with equipment and instruments needed to mitigate the concentration of hydrogen in the tank. This document provides a design report on the structural evaluation of the multiport riser assembly as well as its anchorage. The multiport riser assembly is a steel structure installed directly above the 42-inch riser and sealed at the existing riser flange. The assembly is structurally supported by the concrete pad placed around the 42 inch riser. The multiport riser assembly will provide two 8-inch penetrations, one 12-inch penetration and one 24-inch penetration. Each penetration will have a shielding plate. These penetrations will be used to insert equipment such as a sonic probe into the tank. In addition to normal loads, non-reactor Safety Class 1 structures, systems and components are to withstand the effects of extreme environmental loads including Design Basis Earthquake (DBE), Design Basis Wind (DBW), Design Basis Flood, Volcanic Eruptions and other abnormal loads considered on a case by case basis. Non-reactor Safety Class 2, 3 and 4 structures, systems and components are those that are not Safety Class 1 and are respectively specified as onsite safety related, occupational safety related and non-safety related items. The 241-SY-101 tank is considered as a non-reactor Safety Class 1 structure. The multiport riser assembly is considered as a non-reactor Safety Class 2 structure since it serves to contain the radioactive and toxic materials under normal operating conditions. However, the pressure relief doors provided on the assembly are considered as Safety Class 1 structures.

  4. 241-SY-101 strain concentration factor development via nonlinear analysis. Volume 1 of 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The 241-SY-101 waste storage tank at the Hanford-Site has been known to accumulate and release significant quantities of hydrogen gas. An analysis was performed to assess the tank`s structural integrity when subjected to postulated hydrogen deflagration loads. The analysis addressed many nonlinearities and appealed to a strain-based failure criteria. The model used to predict the global response of the tank was not refined enough to confidently predict local peak strains. Strain concentration factors were applied at structural discontinuities that were based on steel-lined reinforced-concrete containment studies. The discontinuities included large penetrations, small penetrations, springline geometries, stud/liner connections, and the {1/2} inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness transition. The only tank specific strain concentration factor applied in the evaluation was for the {1/2} inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness change in the dome. Review of the tank drawings reveals the possibility that a 4 inches Sch. 40 pipe penetrates the dome thickness transition region. It is not obvious how to combine the strain concentration factors for a small penetration with that of a thickness transition to arrive at a composite strain concentration factor. It is the goal of this effort to make an approximate determination of the relative significance of the 4 inch penetration and the {1/2} inch to 3/8 inch thickness transition in the 241-SY-101 dome geometry. This is accomplished by performing a parametric study with three general finite-element models. The first represents the thickness transition only, the second represents a 4 inch penetration only, and the third combines the thickness transition with a penetration model.

  5. Quarterly review of 241-SY-101 mixer pump data: January - March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    CONNER, J.M.

    1999-07-22

    This report presents data obtained on 241-SY-101 pump performance. The period covered is January 1 through March 31, 1999. During the quarter: There were changes in pumping parameters. Both the pump volute pressure and amperage decreased during the quarter. It is not clear whether this was due to changes in waste properties (due to less solids or more entrained gas) or due to degradation of the pump. There was an indication of a 7.5-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1 A, and an average growth rate of 0.082 inches per day. There was an indication of a 5.7-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1C. This riser was flushed with water several times, which would lower the level of the crust at this location. Gases continued to be released at less than the pre-pump installation baseline rate, indicating a decrease in the gas generation rate, or an increase in gas retention, or both. The release rate was about 78 percent of the rate in the previous few quarters, and only 34 percent of the generation rate calculated prior to mixer pump installation in 1993. Key controls exist for waste temperature, gas concentration, pump parameters, and long-term waste behavior associated with the safe operation of the mixer pump that mitigates the buoyant displacement gas release event behavior of 241-SY-101. Table 1-1 compares the key controls and the current state of the waste as of March 3 1. 1999. The pump was run 28 times between January 1 and March 31, 1999. All of the pump runs were intended to be normal 25-minute, 1000-rpm excavation runs performed to mix the waste and release gas. Because of the pump oil often reached the high temperature alarm setpoint of 190 F, many of the runs were shortened (by as many as 8 minutes). This phenomenon was identified in November 1998, but got progressively worse over the quarter. The pump schedule was nominally three runs per week. However, core sampling activities interrupted the usual pump schedule several times during the quarter

  6. Evaluation of the generation and release of flammable gases in tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Johnson, G.D.; Lechelt, J.A.; Reynolds, D.A. ); Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M. ); Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. ); Ashby, E.C. )

    1991-11-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 is a double shell, high-level waste tank located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank contains about 1 million gallons of waste that was concentrated at the 242-S Evaporator. Shortly after the waste was put in the tank, the waste began to expand because the generation of gases. In 1990 this tank was declared to have an unreviewed safety question because of the periodic release of hydrogen and nitrous oxide. A safety program was established to conduct a characterization of the waste and vented gases and to determine an effective means to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases in the tank dome space and ventilation system. Results of the expanded characterization conducted in fiscal year 1991 are presented. The use of gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, and hydrogen-specific monitors provided a greater understanding of the vented gases. Additional instrumentation placed in the tank also helped to provide more detailed information on tank temperatures, gas pressure, and gas flow rates. An extensive laboratory study involving the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Georgia Institute of Technology was initiated for the purpose of determining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of various gases. These studies evaluate both radiolytic and thermochemical processes. Results of the first series of experiments are described.

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  8. Acceptance test report for tank bottom thermocouples on Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Zuehlke, A.C.

    1994-12-01

    This test report documents testing performed per WHC-SD-WM-ATP-069, Rev. 2. The proper monitoring of the 241-SY-101 Tank Bottom and Side Thermocouples (TBSTC) by the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) will be tested to establish continued operability of the system. During this test, an end-to-end verification of all of the sensor circuits associated with the TBSTCs, which provide signals both to the DACS computer system and an installed temporary Data Logger, shall be performed by injecting a signal at the appropriate field terminal and verifying the circuit completely through the system to the computer in the DACS trailer and the computer monitor used to display the output of the Data Logger. Each injected signal will be adjusted for appropriate `near zero`, `mid range` and `near full scale` values for the sensor being tested. The TBSTC screen, which provides for operator interface with the TBSTCs, will be utilized to monitor testing at the DACS computers. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted after the installation of the temporary Data Logger for the TBSTCs is complete. The temporary Data Logger will be installed to monitor the temperature readings of 13 of the 26 Tank Bottom Thermocouples in support of SY-101 excavation testing.

  9. Dynamics of Crust Dissolution and Gas Release in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, Scot D.; Stewart, Charles W.; Wells, Beric E.; Kuhn, William L.; Antoniak, Zenen I.; Cuta, Judith M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Terrones, Guillermo; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Sukamto, Johanes H.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.

    2000-01-24

    Due primarily to an increase in floating crust thickness, the waste level in Tank 241-SY-101 has grown appreciably and the flammable gas volume stored in the crust has become a potential hazard. To remediate gas retention in the crust and the potential for buoyant displacement gas releases from the nonconvective layer at the bottom of the tank, SY-101 will be diluted to dissolve a large fraction of the solids that allow the waste to retain gas. The plan is to transfer some waste out and back-dilute with water in several steps. In this work, mechanisms and rates of waste solids dissolution and gas releases are evaluated theoretically and experimentally. Particular emphasis is given to crust dissolution processes and associated gas releases, although dissolution and gas release from the mixed-slurry and nonconvective layers are also considered. The release of hydrogen gas to the tank domespace is modeled for a number of scenarios. Under the tank conditions expected at the time of back-dilution, no plausible continuous or sudden gas release scenarios resulting in flammable hydrogen concentrations were identified.

  10. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  11. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the {open_quote}normal{close_quote} configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge.

  12. In situ determination of rheological properties and void fraction: Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Terrones, G.; Chen, G.; Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the results of the operation of the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-103. The two instruments were deployed through risers 17C and 22A in July and August 1995 to gather data on the gas content and rheology of the waste. The results indicate that the nonconvective sludge layer contains up to 12% void and an apparent viscosity of 104 to 105 cP with a yield strength less than 210 Pa. The convective layer measured zero void and had no measurable yield strength. Its average viscosity was about 45 cP, and the density was less than 1.5 g/cc. The average void fraction was 0.047 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 17C and 0.091 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 22A. The stored gas volume based on these void fraction measurements is 213 {plus_minus} 42 M{sup 3} at 1 atmosphere.

  13. Thermal reactivity of mixtures of VDDT lubricant and simulated Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Panisko, F.E.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    To predict whether the Polywater G lubricant residue remaining in the velocity, density, and temperature tree (VDTT) and the waste in Tank 241-SY-101 (101SY) will be chemically compatible with wastes in 101SY when two VDTTs are removed from 101SY, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory measured the thermal reaction sensitivity of the lubricant residue. This residue is a simulated 101SY waste containing the organic surrogate trisodium hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate (Na{sub 3}HEDTA) and two simulated potential waste and lubricant residue mixtures containing 10 and 90 percent lubricant residue. These studies using accelerating rate calorimetry found that the residue did not react at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g mixture up to 190 degrees C with simulated 101SY waste containing Na{sub 3}HEDTA as the organic surrogate. Also, the dried lubricant residue did not decompose exothermically at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g. Using guidelines used by the chemical industry, these results indicate that the lubricant residue should not react as a significant rate with the waste in 101SY when added to the waste at 60 degrees C or when the mixture cools to the waste`s temperature of 48 degrees C.

  14. Laboratory testing of ozone oxidation of Hanford Site waste from Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Stubbs, A.M.; Bolling, S.D.

    1993-12-14

    Ozone was investigated as a reagent to oxidize and destroy organic species present in simulated and genuine waste from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY). Two high-shear mixing apparatus were tested to perform the gas-to-solution mass transfer necessary to achieve efficient use of the ozone reagent. Oxidations of nitrite (to form nitrate) and organic species were observed. The organics oxidized to form carbonate and oxalate as well as nitrate and nitrogen gas from nitrogen associated with the organic. oxidations of metal species also were observed directly or inferred by solubilities. The chemical reaction stoichiometries were consistent with reduction of one oxygen atom per ozone molecule. Acetate, oxalate, and formate were found to comprise about 40% of the genuine waste`s total organic carbon (TOC) concentration. Ozonation was found to be chemically feasible for destroying organic species (except oxalate) present in the wastes in Tank 101-SY. The simulated waste formulation used in these studies credibly modelled the ozonation behavior of the genuine waste.

  15. Quarterly Review of 241SY101 Mixer Pump Data 10/1998 Thru 12/1998

    SciTech Connect

    CONNER, J.M.

    1999-05-11

    This report presents data obtained on 241-SY-101 pump performance. The period covered is October 1 through December 31, 1998. During the quarter: (1) There was an indication of a 7.0-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1A, and an average growth rate of 0.076 inches per day; (2) There was an indication of a 2.3-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1C; (3) This riser was flushed with water several times, which would lower the level of the crust at this location; (4) Gases continued to be released at less than the pre-pump installation baseline rate, indicating a decrease in the gas generation rate, or an increase in gas retention, or both. The release rate was about 60 percent of the rate in the previous few quarters, and only 44 percent of the pre-pump release rate; and (5) There was no change in the parameters that monitor pump performance.

  16. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report.

  17. Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Technical basis for installation of the double shell tank exhaust flow monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, W.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-11

    This document presents the technical bases for installation of flow meters on the ventilation exhaust ducts of the flammable gas watch list double shell tanks (241-AN-103, 241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AN-107, 241-AW-101 and 241-SY-103), the saltwell receiver tanks (241-AN-101 and 241-SY-102) and the cross-site receiver tank (241-AP-104).

  19. Double shell tank primary ventilation exhaust flow monitor system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, W.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-11

    This document describes the flow monitoring systems that will be installed on the ventilation exhaust ducts of the flammable gas watch list double shell tanks (241-AN-103, 241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AN-107, 241-AW-101 and 241-SY-103), the saltwell receiver tanks (241-AN-101 and 241-SY-102) and the cross-site receiver tank (241-AP-104).

  20. Dynamics of Crust Dissolution and Gas Release in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    SD Rassat; CW Stewart; BE Wells; WL Kuhn; ZI Antoniak; JM Cuta; KP Recknagle; G Terrones; VV Viswanathan; JH Sukamto; DP Mendoza

    2000-01-26

    Due primarily to an increase in floating crust layer thickness, the waste level in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) has grown appreciably, and the flammable gas volume stored in the crust has become a potential hazard. To remediate gas retention in the crust and the potential for buoyant displacement gas releases from the nonconnective layer at the bottom of the tank, SY-101 will be diluted to dissolve a large fraction of the solids that allow the waste to retain gas. In this work we develop understanding of the state of the tank waste and some of its physical properties, investigate how added water will be distributed in the tank and affect the waste, and use the information to evaluate mechanisms and rates of waste solids dissolution and gas release. This work was completed to address these questions and in support of planning and development of controls for the SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation Project. Particular emphasis is given to dissolution of and gas release from the crust, although the effects of back-dilution on all waste layers are addressed. The magnitude and rates of plausible gas release scenarios are investigated, and it is demonstrated that none of the identified mechanisms of continuous (dissolution-driven) or sudden gas release, even with conservative assumptions, lead to domespace hydrogen concentrations exceeding the lower flammability limit. This report documents the results of studies performed in 1999 to address the issues of the dynamics, of crust dissolution and gas release in SY-101. It contains a brief introduction to the issues at hand; a summary of our knowledge of the SY-101 crust and other waste properties, including gas fractions, strength and volubility; a description of the buoyancy and dissolution models that are applied to predict the crust response to waste transfers and back dilution; and a discussion of the effectiveness of mixing for water added below the crust and the limited potential for significant stratification

  1. Potential for Waste Stratification from Back-Dilution in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Meyer, P.A.

    1999-10-20

    Since late 1997, the floating crust layer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) has grown about two meters by gas accumulation. To reverse crust growth and reduce its retained gas volume, the waste in SY-101 will be diluted by transferring at least 300,000 gal of waste out of the tank and replacing it with water. In the fall of 1999, approximately 100,000 gal of this waste will be transferred into Tank SY-102; within a few days of that initial transfer, approximately 100,000 gal of water will be added to SY-101. This initial back-dilution is being planned to ensure that the base of the floating crust layer will be lifted away from the mixer pump inlet with minimal effect on the crust itself. The concern is that the added water will pool under the crust, so the resulting fluid mixture will be too light to lift the crust away from the mixer pump and dissolution at the crust base could cause unwanted gas release. To ensure sufficient mixing to prevent such stratification, water will be added near the tank bottom either through an existing sparge ring on the base of the mixer pump or through the dilution line at the inlet of the transfer pump. A number of simulations using the TEMPEST code showed that the mixing of the water and waste by this method is rapid, and the water does not pool under the crust. Although a density gradient is present, its magnitude is small compared with the difference between the slurry and water density. The result is essentially the same whether water is introduced at the base of the mixer pump or at the transfer pump. There is little effect of water flowrate up to the 500 gpm studied. In all cases, the minimum density remained above that required to float the crust and well above the density of saturated liquid. This indicates that the base of the crust will rise during back-dilution and there will be little or no dissolution of the crust base because the water will be close to saturation from the dissolution of solids in the mixed slurry.

  2. Effects of Crust Ingestion on Mixer Pump Performance in Tank 241-SY-101: Workshop Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brennen, C.E.; Stewart, C.W.; Meyer, P.A.

    1999-10-20

    In August 1999, a workshop was held at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to discuss the effects of crust ingestion on mixer pump performance in Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The main purpose of the workshop was to evaluate the potential for crust ingestion to degrade mixing and/or damage the mixer pump. The need for a previously determined 12-inch separation between the top of the mixer pump inlet and the crust base was evaluated. Participants included a representative from the pump manufacturer, an internationally known expert in centrifugal pump theory, Hanford scientists and engineers, and operational specialists representing relevant fields of expertise. The workshop focused on developing an understanding of the pump design, addressing the physics of entrainment of solids and gases into the pump, and assessing the effects of solids and gases on pump performance. The major conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Entrainment of a moderate amount of solids or gas from the crust should not damage the pump or reduce its lifetime, though mixing effectiveness will be somewhat reduced. (2) Air binding should not damage the pump. Vibrations due to ingestion of gas, solids, and objects potentially could cause radial loads that might reduce the lifetime of bearings and seals. However, significant damage would require extreme conditions not associated with the small bubbles, fine solids, and chunks of relatively weak material typical of the crust. (3) The inlet duct extension opening, 235 inches from the tank bottom, should be considered the pump inlet, not the small gap at 262 inches. (4) A suction vortex exists at the inlet of all pumps. The characteristics of the inlet suction vortex in the mixer pump are very hard to predict, but its effects likely extend upward several feet. Because of this, the current 12-inch limit should be replaced with criteria based on actual monitored pump performance. The most obvious criterion (in addition to current operational

  3. A safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Site,Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101,which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington.The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  4. Modular Exhaust Design and Manufacturing Techniques for Low Cost Mid Volume Rapid Buidl to Order Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-06

    technical data package will contain the following pieces of information: • Manufacturing Drawings • Code for running CNC machinery • Documentation...MODULAR EXHAUST DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES FOR LOW COST MID VOLUME RAPID BUILD TO ORDER SYSTEMS Kevin Nelson Project Engineer...customizable mufflers, as well as modular manufacturing techniques targeted at mid volume manufacturing quantities. A successful solution would reduce

  5. Waste tank 241-SY-101 dome airspace and ventilation system response to a flammable gas plume burn

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1995-11-01

    A series of flammable gas plume burn and transient pressure analyses have been completed for a nuclear waste tank (241-SY-101) and associated tank farm ventilation system at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford facility. The subject analyses were performed to address issues concerning the effects of transient pressures resulting from igniting a small volume of concentrated flammable gas just released from the surface of the waste as a plume and before the flammable gas concentration could be reduced by mixing with the dome airspace by local convection and turbulent diffusion. Such a condition may exist as part of an in progress episode gas release (EGR) or gas plume event. The analysis goal was to determine the volume of flammable gas that if burned within the dome airspace would result in a differential pressure, after propagating through the ventilation system, greater than the current High Efficiency Particulate Filter (HEPA) limit of 2.49 KPa (10 inches of water or 0. 36 psi). Such a pressure wave could rupture the tank ventilation system inlet and outlet HEPA filters leading to a potential release of contaminants to the environment

  6. Buoyancy and Dissolution of the Floating Crust Layer in Tank 241-SY-101 During Transfer and Back-Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    CW Stewart; JH Sukamto; JM Cuta; SD Rassat

    1999-11-22

    To remediate gas retention in the floating crust layer and the potential for buoyant displacement gas releases from below the crust, waste will be transferred out of Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) in the fall of 1999 and back-diluted with water in several steps of about 100,000 gallons each. To evaluate the effects of back-dilution on the crust a static buoyancy model is derived that predicts crust and liquid surface elevations as a function of mixing efficiency and volume of water added during transfer and back-dilution. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the basic physics involved and verify the operation of the models. A dissolution model is also developed to evaluate the effects of dissolution of solids on crust flotation. The model includes dissolution of solids suspended in the slurry as well as in the crust layers. The inventory and location of insoluble solids after dissolution of the soluble fraction are also tracked. The buoyancy model is applied to predict the crust behavior for the first back-dilution step in SY-101. Specific concerns addressed include conditions that could cause the crust to sink and back-dilution requirements that keep the base of the crust well above the mixer pump inlet.

  7. In Situ Void Fraction and Gas Volume in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 as Measured with the Void Fraction Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    CW Stewart; G Chen; JM Alzheimer; PA Meyer

    1998-11-10

    The void fraction instrument (WI) was deployed in Tank 241-SY-101 three times in 1998 to confm and locate the retained gas (void) postulated to be causing the accelerating waste level rise observed since 1995. The design, operation, and data reduction model of the WI are described along with validation testing and potential sources of uncertainty. The test plans, field observations and void measurements are described in detail, including the total gas volume calculations and the gas volume model. Based on 1998 data, the void fraction averaged 0.013 i 0.001 in the mixed slurry and 0.30 ~ 0.04 in the crust. This gives gas volumes (at standard pressure and temperature) of 87 t 9 scm in the slurry and 138 ~ 22 scm in the crust for a total retained gas volume of221 *25 scm. This represents an increase of about 74 scm in the crust and a decrease of about 34 scm in the slurry from 1994/95 results. The overall conclusion is that the gas retention is occurring mainly in the crust layer and there is very little gas in the mixed slurry and loosely settled layers below. New insights on crust behavior are also revealed.

  8. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  9. Similarity analysis applied to the design of scaled tests of hydraulic mitigation methods for Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Liljegren, L.M.

    1993-02-01

    The episodic gas releases from Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) pose a potential safety hazard. It is thought that gas releases occur because gases are generated and trapped in layers of settled solids located at the bottom of the tank. This document focuses on issues associated with testing of hydraulic mitigation technologies proposed for SY-101. The basic assumption underlying the concept of hydraulic mitigation is that mobilization or maintained suspension of the solids settled in the bottom of the tank wig prevent gas accumulation. Engineering of hydraulic technologies will require testing to determine the operating parameters required to mobilize the solids and to maintain these solids in suspension. Because full scale testing is extremely expensive (even when possible), scaled tests are needed to assess the merit of the proposed technologies and to provide data for numerical or analytical modeling. This research is conducted to support testing and evaluation of proposed hydraulic mitigation concepts only. The work here is oriented towards determining the jet velocities, nozzle sizes, and other operating parameters required to mobilize the settled solids in SY- 101 and maintain them in suspension.

  10. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition [and control] system (DACS) upgrade study

    SciTech Connect

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-10-22

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system.

  11. Final Report For The Erosion And Corrosion Analysis Of Waste Transfer Primary Pipeline Sections From 241-SY Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Page, J. S.; Wyrwas, R. B.; Cooke, G. A.

    2012-10-04

    Three sections of primary transfer pipeline removed from the 241-SY Tank Farm in Hanford's 200 West area, labeled as SN-285, SN-286, and SN-278, were analyzed for the presence and amount of corrosion and erosion on the inside surface of the transfer pipe. All three sections of pipe, ranging in length between 6 and 8 in., were received at the 222-S Laboratory still in the pipe-in-pipe assembly. The annular spaces were filled with urethane foam injected into the pipes for as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) purposes. The 3-in. primary transfer pipes were first separated from the outer encasement, 6-in. pipes. The pipes were cut into small sections, or coupons, based upon the results of a non-destructive pipe wall thickness measurement which used an ultrasonic transducer. Following removal of the foam, the coupons were subjected to a series of analytical methods utilizing both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to obtain erosion and corrosion information. The ultrasonic transducer analysis of the SN-285 primary pipe did not show any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for the 3-in. schedule 40 pipe of 216 mils. A coupon was cut from the thinnest area on the pipe, and analysis of the inside surface, which was in contact with the tank waste, revealed a continuous layer of corrosion ~ 100 11m (4 mils) thick under a semi-continuous layer of tank waste residue ~ 20 11m (1 mil) thick. This residue layer was composed of an amorphous phase rich in chromium, magnesium, calcium, and chlorine. Small pits were detected throughout the inside pipe surface with depths up to ~ 50 11m (2 mils). Similarly, the SN-286 primary pipe did not show, by the ultrasonic transducer measurements, any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for this pipe. Analysis of the coupon cut from the pipe section showed the presence of a tank waste layer containing sodium aluminate and phases rich in iron, calcium

  12. Modular Analysis of Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an automobile exhaust thermoelectric power generation system is packaged into a model with its own operating principles. The inputs are the engine speed and power, and the output is the power generated by the system. The model is divided into two submodels. One is the inlet temperature submodel, and the other is the power generation submodel. An experimental data modeling method is adopted to construct the inlet temperature submodel, and a theoretical modeling method is adopted to construct the power generation submodel. After modeling, simulation is conducted under various engine operating conditions to determine the variation of the power generated by the system. Finally, the model is embedded into a Honda Insight vehicle model to explore the energy-saving effect of the system on the vehicle under Economic Commission for Europe and cyc-constant_60 driving cycles.

  13. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia in contact with tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1996-02-01

    Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. Described in this report are the results of tests to evaluate the rates of thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving flammable gases in the presence of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste. Flammable gases generated by the radiolysis of water and by the thermal and radiolytic decomposition of organic waste constituents may themselves participate in further reactions. Examples include the decomposition of nitrous oxide to yield nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction of nitrous oxide and hydrogen to produce nitrogen and water, and the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. The composition of the gases trapped in bubbles in the wastes might therefore change continuously as a function of the time that the gas bubbles are retained.

  14. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  15. Waste behavior during horizontal extrusion: Effect of waste strength for bentonite and kaolin/ludox simulants and strength estimates for wastes from Hanford waste tanks 241-SY-103, AW-101, AN-103, and S-102

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Aikin, J.T.

    1997-10-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs and six of the DSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns. Understanding the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of these gases will help to resolve the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The strength of the waste plays a central role in the mechanisms of both bubble retention and bubble release. While recent in-situ measurements from the ball rheometer have provided results for five of the DSTs, waste strength measurements are typically not available for any of the SSTs or for the DSTs that have not been characterized with the ball rheometer. The overall purpose of this study is to develop a method to obtain strength estimates for actual wastes from observations of the wastes` behavior during extrusion from core samplers. The first objective of the study was to quantify waste behavior during horizontal extrusion by documenting the extrusion behavior of simulants with known strengths; the second was to estimate the strength of actual waste based on these simulant standards. Results showed a reproducible extrusion behavior for bentonite clay and kaolin/Ludox{reg_sign} simulants over strengths ranging from 30 to 6,500 Pa. The extrusion behavior was documented with both video recordings and still images. Based on these visual standards, strength estimates were made for wastes from DSTs 241-SY-103, 241-AW-101, and 241-AN-103 and SST 241-S-102.

  16. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    SciTech Connect

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  17. Maximum First Transfer and Dilution Volumes for 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-10-28

    This report discusses the solution to the following problem: what is the maximum waste transfer and dilution quantities and locations which can be allowed in the first transfer of waste from SY-101 given the following constraints? (1) The crust must float on the submerged waste (waste becomes less dense when diluted, eventually allowing crust to sink); (2) No credit is taken for the top dilution; (3) Addition of water to the bulk slurry through the transfer pump must be able to refloat the crust base to above 295 inches; (4) The margin between refloating to 295 inches and crust sinking must be at least 10,000 gallons; (5) The crust can't be thinned to less than 60 inches thick.

  18. 241-SY-101 mulitport riser acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, R.E.

    1995-10-02

    This document formally demonstrates that the Acceptance for Beneficial USE (ABU) process for the SY tank farm Multiport Riser assembly has been properly completed in accordance with the ABU checklist. For each item required on the ABU checklist, a bibliography of the documentation prepared and released to satisfy the requirement is provided

  19. Modular entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  20. Modular shield

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Keith W.

    2002-01-01

    A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.

  1. Modular Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

  2. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  3. Pipeline Cross-Site Transfer Assessment for Tank 241-SY-101 Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2002-02-20

    This study evaluated the feasibility of transferring waste now stored in Tank SY-101 in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site to a storage tank in 200 East Area through a 6.2-mile-long, 3-inch-diameter stainless steel pipeline. Using the Wasp slurry transport model, the critical velocity and expected pressure drop were calculated to determine 1) whether current SY-101 waste can be transferred through the existing cross-site transfer pipeline without additional dilution and, if it is not possible, how much dilution is needed.

  4. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 241-SY-101 crust growth near term mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-04-12

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health, Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of the information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-110), lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 mrem/year total effective dose equivalent to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual, and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided at a later date.

  5. Structural analysis of the equipment removal system for tank 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, T.C.

    1995-03-02

    The calculations documented in this report show that the ERS major components are structurally qualified to complete the objective, i.e., to install the removed equipment into a shipping container and transport and store the container at the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The analysis for the structural members of the ERS components considers live load with an impact factor of 125 % added to dead load. An allowable stress of one-third yield is used for all structural components carrying the load based on DOE-RL-92-36. Adherence to DOE-RL-92-36 is not a code requirement. However, the loads considered make this factor of safety appropriate. The calculations meet the strength requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (ASIC 1989) for all non-critical structural elements.

  6. Tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation test and evaluation plan for transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    BAUER, R.E.

    1999-07-14

    The purpose of this testing and evaluation plan (TEP) is to provide the high level guidance on testing requirements for ensuring that the equipment and systems to be implemented for remediation of the SY-101 waste level rise USQ are effective.

  7. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  8. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  9. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  10. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  11. Modular Buildings Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that child care program directors who are expanding their programs or opening new child care centers investigate the possibility of renting, leasing, or purchasing a modular building. Discusses the advantages of modular buildings over conventional building construction or rented space in an occupied building. Provides information about…

  12. Modular tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is concerned with the modular tokamak configuration, and presents information on the following topics: modularity; external vacuum boundary; vertical maintenance; combined reactor building/biological shield with totally remote maintenance; independent TF coils; minimum TF coil bore; saddle PF coils; and heat transport system in bore.

  13. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  14. Successful modular cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.

    2003-07-01

    We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.

  15. Modular tokamak magnetic system

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Tien-Fang

    1988-01-01

    A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

  16. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  17. Modularity and mental architecture.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Debates about the modularity of cognitive architecture have been ongoing for at least the past three decades, since the publication of Fodor's landmark book The Modularity of Mind. According to Fodor, modularity is essentially tied to informational encapsulation, and as such is only found in the relatively low-level cognitive systems responsible for perception and language. According to Fodor's critics in the evolutionary psychology camp, modularity simply reflects the fine-grained functional specialization dictated by natural selection, and it characterizes virtually all aspects of cognitive architecture, including high-level systems for judgment, decision making, and reasoning. Though both of these perspectives on modularity have garnered support, the current state of evidence and argument suggests that a broader skepticism about modularity may be warranted. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:641-649. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1255 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  19. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  20. Self Evolving Modular Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Nobuyuki; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    We propose a novel modular network called the Self-Evolving Modular Network (SEEM). The SEEM has a modular network architecture with a graph structure and these following advantages: (1) new modules are added incrementally to allow the network to adapt in a self-organizing manner, and (2) graph's paths are formed based on the relationships between the models represented by modules. The SEEM is expected to be applicable to evolving functions of an autonomous robot in a self-organizing manner through interaction with the robot's environment and categorizing large-scale information. This paper presents the architecture and an algorithm for the SEEM. Moreover, performance characteristic and effectiveness of the network are shown by simulations using cubic functions and a set of 3D-objects.

  1. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  2. Modular Optofluidic Systems (MOPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Tobias N.; Dietvorst, Jiri; Sanchis, Ana; Salvador, Juan P.; Munoz-Berbel, Xavier; Alvarez-Conde, Erica; Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans; Marco, M.-Pilar; Llobera, Andreu

    2016-12-01

    Elementary PDMS-based building blocks of fluidic, optical and optofluidic components for Lab on a chip (LOC) platforms has here been developed. All individual modules are compatible and can be anchored and released with the help of puzzle-type connectors This approach is a powerful toolbox to create modular optofluidic systems (MOPS), which can be modified/upgraded to user needs and in-situ reconfigurable. In addition, the PDMS can locally be functionalized, defining a modular biosensor. Measurements in absorbance and fluorescence have been pursued as demonstrator.

  3. Modular biowaste monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the Modular Biowaste Monitoring System Program was to generate and evaluate hardware for supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs. An initial conceptual design effort established requirements and defined an overall modular system for the collection, measurement, sampling and storage of urine and feces biowastes. This conceptual design effort was followed by the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a flight prototype model urine collection, volume measurement and sampling capability. No operational or performance deficiencies were uncovered as a result of the performance evaluation tests.

  4. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  5. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2) = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy

  6. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  7. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  8. Modular core holder

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.; Cole, C.W.; Hamid, S.; Lucas, J.K.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a modular core holder. It comprises: a sleeve, forming an internal cavity for receiving a core. The sleeve including segments; support means, overlying the sleeve, for supporting the sleeve; and access means, positioned between at least two of the segments of the sleeve, for allowing measurement of conditions within the internal cavity.

  9. Modular Perspectives on Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    This research review traces the current discussion on models of bilingualism to the contributions of Vygotsky and Luria. Proposes that a modular approach to studying the different aspects of bilingual development promises to chart a course toward finding a broader common ground around research findings and interpretations that appear to be…

  10. Modular invariant inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-08

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential V{sub ht}, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from V{sub ht}. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  11. A Modular CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Mast, Charles

    The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

  12. Modular invariant inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential Vht, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from Vht. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  13. Modular, Multilayer Perceptron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

    1991-01-01

    Combination of proposed modular, multilayer perceptron and algorithm for its operation recognizes new objects after relatively brief retraining sessions. (Perceptron is multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network fully connected and trained via back-propagation learning algorithm.) Knowledge pertaining to each object to be recognized resides in subnetwork of full network, therefore not necessary to retrain full network to recognize each new object.

  14. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  15. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  16. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  17. ATIS - A modular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirson, Allan

    The author describes a modular approach to the design of an in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system that supports a phased implementation of the technology, and anticipates expected differences in implementation in different parts of the world and for different makes and models of vehicle. A series of sensors in the vehicle are used to determine the vehicle's position by dead reckoning and map-matching. The system then calculates the best route to the selected destination, taking into account the real-time traffic information received from a traffic management center, and presents route guidance instructions to the user as the route is traversed. Attention is given to modularity considerations, vehicle positioning, driver support, vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, and the role of standards.

  18. Quantum spaces are modular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  19. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  20. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  1. Modular analysis of biological networks.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of complex biological networks has traditionally relied on decomposition into smaller, semi-autonomous units such as individual signaling pathways. With the increased scope of systems biology (models), rational approaches to modularization have become an important topic. With increasing acceptance of de facto modularity in biology, widely different definitions of what constitutes a module have sparked controversies. Here, we therefore review prominent classes of modular approaches based on formal network representations. Despite some promising research directions, several important theoretical challenges remain open on the way to formal, function-centered modular decompositions for dynamic biological networks.

  2. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  3. Modular biometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  4. Modular gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  5. Modularity of music processing.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Coltheart, Max

    2003-07-01

    The music faculty is not a monolithic entity that a person either has or does not. Rather, it comprises a set of neurally isolable processing components, each having the potential to be specialized for music. Here we propose a functional architecture for music processing that captures the typical properties of modular organization. The model rests essentially on the analysis of music-related deficits in neurologically impaired individuals, but provides useful guidelines for exploring the music faculty in normal people, using methods such as neuroimaging.

  6. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  7. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  8. Modular and Hierarchically Modular Organization of Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, David; Lambiotte, Renaud; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain networks are increasingly understood as one of a large class of information processing systems that share important organizational principles in common, including the property of a modular community structure. A module is topologically defined as a subset of highly inter-connected nodes which are relatively sparsely connected to nodes in other modules. In brain networks, topological modules are often made up of anatomically neighboring and/or functionally related cortical regions, and inter-modular connections tend to be relatively long distance. Moreover, brain networks and many other complex systems demonstrate the property of hierarchical modularity, or modularity on several topological scales: within each module there will be a set of sub-modules, and within each sub-module a set of sub-sub-modules, etc. There are several general advantages to modular and hierarchically modular network organization, including greater robustness, adaptivity, and evolvability of network function. In this context, we review some of the mathematical concepts available for quantitative analysis of (hierarchical) modularity in brain networks and we summarize some of the recent work investigating modularity of structural and functional brain networks derived from analysis of human neuroimaging data. PMID:21151783

  9. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-12-15

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  10. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, Michael R.; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2016-11-01

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  11. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  12. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark A; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-02-10

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  13. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  14. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  15. Exhaust gas ignition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a system developed for rapid light-off of underbody catalysts that has shown potential to meet Euro Stage III emissions targets and to be more cost-effective than some alternatives. Future emissions legislation will require SI engine aftertreatment systems to approach full operating efficiency within the first few seconds after starting to reduce the high total-emissions fraction currently contributed by the cold phase of driving. A reduction of cold-start emissions during Phase 1 (Euro) or Bag 1 (FTP), which in many cases can be as much as 80% of the total for the cycle, has been achieved by electrical heating of the catalytic converter. But electrically heated catalyst (EHC) systems require high currents (100--200 A) to heat the metallic substrate to light-off temperatures over the first 15--20 seconds. Other viable approaches to reducing cold-start emissions include use of a fuel-powered burner upstream of the catalyst. However, as with EHC, the complexity of parts and the introduction of raw fuel into the exhaust system make this device unsatisfactory. Still another approach, an exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, was first demonstrated in 1991. The operation of a system developed by engineers at Ford Motor Co., Ltd., Cambustion Ltd., and Tickford Ltd. is described here.

  16. Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimport, Susanna

    Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions

  17. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Ritter, Bob; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-­-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-­- orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce lifecycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  18. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  19. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  20. Exhaust gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, J.; Miree, T.J.

    1997-02-09

    The automotive industry needed a fast, reliable, under-the-hood method of determining nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust. Several technologies were pursued concurrently. These sensing technologies were based on light absorption, electrochemical methods, and surface mass loading. The Y-12 plant was selected to study the methods based on light absorption. The first phase was defining the detailed technical objectives of the sensors--this was the role of the automobile companies. The second phase was to develop prototype sensors in the laboratories--the national laboratories. The final phase was testing of the prototype sensors by the automobile industries. This program was canceled a few months into what was to be a three-year effort.

  1. Modular arctic structures system

    SciTech Connect

    Reusswig, G. H.

    1984-12-04

    A modular and floatable offshore exploration and production platform system for use in shallow arctic waters is disclosed. A concrete base member is floated to the exploration or production site, and ballated into a predredged cavity. The cavity and base are sized to provide a stable horizontal base 30 feet below the mean water/ice plane. An exploration or production platform having a massive steel base is floated to the site and ballasted into position on the base. Together, the platform, base and ballast provide a massive gravity structure that is capable of resisting large ice and wave forces that impinge on the structure. The steel platform has a sloping hourglass profile to deflect horizontal ice loads vertically, and convert the horizontal load to a vertical tensile stress, which assists in breaking the ice as it advances toward the structure.

  2. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  3. Modular Optical PDV System

    SciTech Connect

    Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

    2008-12-11

    A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

  4. Modular error embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Ettinger, J. Mark

    1999-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

  5. Modular weapon control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  6. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  7. Turbocharged engine with exhaust purifier

    SciTech Connect

    Tadokoro, T.; Matsuda, I.; Okimoto, H.

    1986-09-23

    The patent described a control system for an automobile engine having intake and exhaust systems for respectively conducting intake gases to and exhaust gases from the engine, which comprises, in combination: a turbocharger including a turbine disposed in the exhaust system and adapted to be driven by the flow of the exhaust gases therethrough and a blower disposed in the intake system and drivingly connected with the turbine for supercharging the intake gases; and exhaust purifying device disposed in the exhaust system downstream of the turbine with respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust gases; a regulating means for varying the effective cross-section of a portion of the exhaust system leading to the turbine; a control means for controlling the regulating means in dependence on an operating condition of the engine, the control means causing the regulating means to decrease the effective cross-section during a low speed operating condition, but to increase the effective cross-section during a high speed operating condition of the engine.

  8. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  13. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite servicing has been a proven capability of NASA since the first servicing missions in the 1980s with astronauts on the space shuttle. This capability enabled the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and saved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mission following the discovery of the flawed primary mirror. The effectiveness and scope of servicing opportunities, especially using robotic servicers, is a function of how cooperative a spacecraft is. In this paper, modularity will be presented as a critical design aspect for a spacecraft that is cooperative from a servicing perspective. Different features of modularity are discussed using examples from HST and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) program from the 1980s and 1990s. The benefits of modularity will be presented including those directly related to servicing and those outside of servicing including reduced costs and increased flexibility. The new Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) concept is introduced as an affordable implementation of modularity that provides cost savings and flexibility. Key aspects of the ROSE architecture are discussed such as the module design and the distributed avionics architecture. The ROSE concept builds on the experience from MMS and due to its modularity, would be highly suitable as a future client for on-orbit servicing.

  14. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-03

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

  15. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-06-11

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics.

  16. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5’UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments. PMID:27812193

  17. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  18. Modular Approach to Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  19. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  20. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  1. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  2. Eigenvalue Spectra of Modular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2013-08-01

    A large variety of dynamical processes that take place on networks can be expressed in terms of the spectral properties of some linear operator which reflects how the dynamical rules depend on the network topology. Often, such spectral features are theoretically obtained by considering only local node properties, such as degree distributions. Many networks, however, possess large-scale modular structures that can drastically influence their spectral characteristics and which are neglected in such simplified descriptions. Here, we obtain in a unified fashion the spectrum of a large family of operators, including the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian matrices, for networks with generic modular structure, in the limit of large degrees. We focus on the conditions necessary for the merging of the isolated eigenvalues with the continuous band of the spectrum, after which the planted modular structure can no longer be easily detected by spectral methods. This is a crucial transition point which determines when a modular structure is strong enough to affect a given dynamical process. We show that this transition happens in general at different points for the different matrices, and hence the detectability threshold can vary significantly, depending on the operator chosen. Equivalently, the sensitivity to the modular structure of the different dynamical processes associated with each matrix will be different, given the same large-scale structure present in the network. Furthermore, we show that, with the exception of the Laplacian matrix, the different transitions coalesce into the same point for the special case where the modules are homogeneous but separate otherwise.

  3. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  4. Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Modular multivariable control improves hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, T.L.; Lefkowitz, I.; Tamas, P.D.

    1996-10-01

    Modular multivariable control (MMC), a system of interconnected, single process variable controllers, can be a user-friendly, reliable and cost-effective alternative to centralized, large-scale multivariable control packages. MMC properties and features derive directly from the properties of the coordinated controller which, in turn, is based on internal model control technology. MMC was applied to a hydrocracking unit involving two process variables and three controller outputs. The paper describes modular multivariable control, MMC properties, tuning considerations, application at the DCS level, constraints handling, and process application and results.

  6. Modular multichannel surface plasmon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuert, G.; Kufer, S.; Benoit, M.; Gaub, H. E.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a modular multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer on the basis of a commercially available hybrid sensor chip. Due to its modularity this inexpensive and easy to use setup can readily be adapted to different experimental environments. High temperature stability is achieved through efficient thermal coupling of individual SPR units. With standard systems the performance of the multichannel instrument was evaluated. The absorption kinetics of a cysteamine monolayer, as well as the concentration dependence of the specific receptor-ligand interaction between biotin and streptavidin was measured.

  7. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  8. Ventilation Exhaust Power Recovery Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandell, Jeremy

    2012-11-01

    Due to the expense of designing ductwork and exhaust fans to meet the exact desired flow rate for building exhaust, there is wasted energy that is unrecovered when exhausted to the atmosphere. By designing a small diameter wind turbine the kinetic energy in the exhaust stream can be recovered and power provided back into the building. Unlike large scale commercial wind turbines that must be designed to provide power from a large range of wind speeds and directions, this smaller scale turbine can be optimized for a single constant wind speed with no variation in direction. The critical component is to prevent backpressure feeding through the system and increasing the load on the exhaust fan. This design project began with the theoretical airfoil and blade design, followed by modeling the system in fluid dynamics software, a full CAD design was created and modified for the selected manufacturing process, prototype creation and testing will be completed both in a wind tunnel and in a real environment, and the completed data will be compared with theoretical and computational results. Note: There is a patent pending for this design and concept.

  9. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  10. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  11. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  12. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  13. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  14. 48 CFR 3417.70 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Modular contracting. 3417... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Modular Contracting 3417.70 Modular contracting. (a) FSA—May incrementally conduct successive procurements of modules of...

  15. Modular Instruction Under Restricted Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utomo, Tjipto; Ruijter, Kees

    1984-01-01

    Describes the evaluation and reconstruction of a transport phenomena course given at the Bandung Institute of Technology which had a 70 percent failure rate. Discusses the teacher-paced modular instruction technique designed to replace the original course material and its results in terms of student performance over a three-year period. (JM)

  16. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  17. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  18. Quasispecies Theory for Evolution of Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent. PMID:25679649

  19. Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.

  20. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  1. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  2. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  3. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  4. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant... corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant... corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant... corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant... corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant... corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating...

  10. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  11. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sound reduction, such as exhaust gas leaks or alteration or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections shall not constitute a violation of this subpart);...

  12. Relaxation labeling using modular operators

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.

  13. Modular hydrodam: concept definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential for developing economical new ultra low-head (6 to 10 ft) sites using an innovative concept known as the Modular Hydrodam (MH). This concept combines the benefits of shop fabrication, installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, and prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. The size and weight of the power module permits it to be fully assembled and checked out in the manufacturer's shop. The module can then be broken down into four pieces and shipped by truck to the site. Once in place, concrete ballast will be added, as necessary, to prevent flotation. The following aspects were investigated: tubular and cross flow turbines; modularized components; the use of a cable support system for horizontal stability of the dam and powerhouse; and construction in the wet as well as in the dry.

  14. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR.

  15. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2013-02-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks.

  16. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks

  17. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  18. Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics

    DOEpatents

    Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2013-08-27

    A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a prototyping platform and modular microfluidic components capable of rapid and convenient assembly, alteration and disassembly of numerous candidate separation systems. Partial or total computer control of the separation system is possible. Single or multiple alternative processing trains can be tested, optimized and/or run in parallel. Examples related to the separation and analysis of human bodily fluids are given.

  19. Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2013-01-02

    INL developed a bench–scale, modular hybrid plasma system for gas-phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was optimized for WO{sub 3} nanoparticle production and scale-model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development, many modifications were made to the system to resolve technical issues that surfaced and also to improve performance. All project tasks were completed except two optimization subtasks. Researchers were unable to complete these two subtasks, a four-hour and an eight-hour continuous powder production run at 1 lb/hr powder-feeding rate, due to major technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run was attempted twice, and on both occasions, the run was terminated prematurely. The termination was due to (1) heavy material condensation on the modular electrodes, which led to system operational instability, and (2) pressure buildup in the reactor due to powder clogging of the exhaust gas and product transfer line. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the material condensation problem on the electrodes. However, the cause for product powder clogging of the exhaust gas and product transfer line led to a pressure build up in the reactor that was undetected. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components was completed near the end of the project life. However, insufficient resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable {delta}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from pure {alpha}-phase large Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The formation of {delta} -Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973–1073 K, and {delta} -Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is very difficult to synthesize as a single

  20. Estimation of inter-modular connectivity from the local field potentials in a hierarchical modular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xue-Mei; Kim, Won Sup; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung Kee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method of estimating inter-modular connectivity in a hierarchical modular network. The method is based on an analysis of inverse phase synchronization applied to the local field potentials on a hierarchical modular network of phase oscillators. For a strong-coupling strength, the inverse phase synchronization index of the local field potentials for two modules depends linearly on the corresponding inter-modular connectivity defined as the number of links connecting the modules. The method might enable us to estimate the inter-modular connectivity in various complex systems from the inverse phase synchronization index of the mesoscopic modular activities.

  1. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  2. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  3. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize..., intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f)...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  5. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  6. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  7. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  8. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  9. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  10. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  11. A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

    2014-01-01

    A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

  12. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  13. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  14. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Benz, Jacob; Tolk, Keith; Weber, Tom

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  15. Modular microrobot for swimming in heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, U. Kei; Meshkati, Meshkati; Fu, Henry; Kim, Minjun; Drexel University Team; University of Nevada, Reno Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the difficulties in navigating in vivo is to overcome many types of environments. This includes blood vessels of different diameters, fluids with different mechanical properties, and physical barriers. Inspired by conventional modular robotics, we demonstrate modular microrobotics using magnetic particles as the modular units to change size and shape through docking and undocking. Much like the vast variety of microorganisms navigating many different bio-environments, modular microswimmers have the ability to dynamically adapt different environments by reconfiguring the swimmers' physical characteristics. We model the docking as magnetic assembly and undocking mechanisms as deformation by hydrodynamic forces. We characterize the swimming capability of the modular microswimmer with different size and shapes. Finally, we demonstrate modular microrobotics by assembling a three-bead microswimmer into a nine-bead microswimmer, and then disassemble it into several independently swimming microswimmers..

  16. Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

  17. 1/12-Scale mixing interface visualization and buoyant particle release tests in support of Tank 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Eschbach, E.J.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In support of tank waste safety programs, visualization tests were performed in the 1/12-scale tank facility, using a low-viscosity simulant. The primary objective of the tests was to obtain video records of the transient jet-sludge interaction. The intent is that these videos will provide useful qualitative data for comparison with model predictions. Two tests were initially planned: mixing interface visualization (MIV) and buoyant particle release (BPR). Completion of the buoyant particle release test was set aside in order to complete additional MIV tests. Rheological measurements were made on simulant samples before testing, and the simulant was found to exhibit thixotropic behavior. Shear vane measurements were also made on an in-situ analog of the 1/12-scale tank simulant. Simulant shear strength has been observed to be time dependent. The primary objective of obtaining video records of jet-sludge interaction was satisfied, and the records yielded jet location information which may be of use in completing model comparisons. The modeling effort is not part of this task, but this report also discusses test specific instrumentation, visualization techniques, and shear vane instrumentation which would enable improved characterization of jet-sludge interaction and simulant characteristics.

  18. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention and release: results for Hanford Waste Tanks 241-S-102 and 241-SY-103 and single-shell tank simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Konynenbelt, J.H.; Tingey, S.M.; Mendoza, D.P.

    1996-09-01

    Research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has probed the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of flammable gases from radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford. This study was conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. The wastes contained in the tanks are mixes of radioactive and chemical products, and some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns.

  19. Exhaustive analysis of the modular structure of the spliceosomal assembly network: a Petri net approach.

    PubMed

    Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Schuster, Stefan; Koch, Ina

    2010-01-01

    Spliceosomes are macro-complexes involving hundreds of proteins with many functional interactions. Spliceosome assembly belongs to the key processes that enable splicing of mRNA and modulate alternative splicing. A detailed list of factors involved in spliceosomal reactions has been assorted over the past decade, but, their functional interplay is often unknown and most of the present biological models cover only parts of the complete assembly process. It is a challenging task to build a computational model that integrates dispersed knowledge and combines a multitude of reaction schemes proposed earlier.Because for most reactions involved in spliceosome assembly kinetic parameters are not available, we propose a discrete modeling using Petri nets, through which we are enabled to get insights into the system's behavior via computation of structural and dynamic properties. In this paper, we compile and examine reactions from experimental reports that contribute to a functional spliceosome. All these reactions form a network, which describes the inventory and conditions necessary to perform the splicing process. The analysis is mainly based on system invariants. Transition invariants (T-invariants) can be interpreted as signaling routes through the network. Due to the huge number of T-invariants that arise with increasing network size and complexity, maximal common transition sets (MCTS) and T-clusters were used for further analysis. Additionally, we introduce a false color map representation, which allows a quick survey of network modules and the visual detection of single reactions or reaction sequences, which participate in more than one signaling route. We designed a structured model of spliceosome assembly, which combines the demands on a platform that i) can display involved factors and concurrent processes, ii) offers the possibility to run computational methods for knowledge extraction, and iii) is successively extendable as new insights into spliceosome function are reported by experimental reports. The network consists of 161 transitions (reactions) and 140 places (reactants). All reactions are part of at least one of the 71 T-invariants. These T-invariants define pathways, which are in good agreement with the current knowledge and known hypotheses on reaction sequences during spliceosome assembly, hence contributing to a functional spliceosome. We demonstrate that present knowledge, in particular of the initial part of the assembly process, describes parallelism and interaction of signaling routes, which indicate functional redundancy and reflect the dependency of spliceosome assembly initiation on different cellular conditions. The complexity of the network is further increased by two switches, which introduce alternative routes during A-complex formation in early spliceosome assembly and upon transition from the B-complex to the C-complex. By compiling known reactions into a complete network, the combinatorial nature of invariant computation leads to pathways that have previously not been described as connected routes, although their constituents were known. T-clusters divide the network into modules, which we interpret as building blocks in spliceosome maturation. We conclude that Petri net representations of large biological networks and system invariants, are well-suited as a means for validating the integration of experimental knowledge into a consistent model. Based on this network model, the design of further experiments is facilitated.

  20. Exhaustive analysis of the modular structure of the spliceosomal assembly network: a petri net approach.

    PubMed

    Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Schuster, Stefan; Koch, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Spliceosomes are macro-complexes involving hundreds of proteins with many functional interactions. Spliceosome assembly belongs to the key processes that enable splicing of mRNA and modulate alternative splicing. A detailed list of factors involved in spliceosomal reactions has been assorted over the past decade, but, their functional interplay is often unknown and most of the present biological models cover only parts of the complete assembly process. It is a challenging task to build a computational model that integrates dispersed knowledge and combines a multitude of reaction schemes proposed earlier. Because for most reactions involved in spliceosome assembly kinetic parameters are not available, we propose a discrete modeling using Petri nets, through which we are enabled to get insights into the system's behavior via computation of structural and dynamic properties. In this paper, we compile and examine reactions from experimental reports that contribute to a functional spliceosome. All these reactions form a network, which describes the inventory and conditions necessary to perform the splicing process. The analysis is mainly based on system invariants. Transition invariants (T-invariants) can be interpreted as signaling routes through the network. Due to the huge number of T-invariants that arise with increasing network size and complexity, maximal common transition sets (MCTS) and T-clusters were used for further analysis. Additionally, we introduce a false color map representation, which allows a quick survey of network modules and the visual detection of single reactions or reaction sequences, which participate in more than one signaling route. We designed a structured model of spliceosome assembly, which combines the demands on a platform that i) can display involved factors and concurrent processes, ii) offers the possibility to run computational methods for knowledge extraction, and iii) is successively extendable as new insights into spliceosome function are reported by experimental reports. The network consists of 161 transitions (reactions) and 140 places (reactants). All reactions are part of at least one of the 71 T-invariants. These T-invariants define pathways, which are in good agreement with the current knowledge and known hypotheses on reaction sequences during spliceosome assembly, hence contributing to a functional spliceosome. We demonstrate that present knowledge, in particular of the initial part of the assembly process, describes parallelism and interaction of signaling routes, which indicate functional redundancy and reflect the dependency of spliceosome assembly initiation on different cellular conditions. The complexity of the network is further increased by two switches, which introduce alternative routes during A-complex formation in early spliceosome assembly and upon transition from the B-complex to the C-complex. By compiling known reactions into a complete network, the combinatorial nature of invariant computation leads to pathways that have previously not been described as connected routes, although their constituents were known. T-clusters divide the network into modules, which we interpret as building blocks in spliceosome maturation. We conclude that Petri net representations of large biological networks and system invariants, are well-suited as a means for validating the integration of experimental knowledge into a consistent model. Based on this network model, the design of further experiments is facilitated.

  1. Cascading dynamics in modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galstyan, Aram; Cohen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we study a simple cascading process in a structured heterogeneous population, namely, a network composed of two loosely coupled communities. We demonstrate that under certain conditions the cascading dynamics in such a network has a two-tiered structure that characterizes activity spreading at different rates in the communities. We study the dynamics of the model using both simulations and an analytical approach based on annealed approximation and obtain good agreement between the two. Our results suggest that network modularity might have implications in various applications, such as epidemiology and viral marketing.

  2. Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

    1992-07-01

    A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

  3. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  4. Modular passive solar heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.D.

    1985-03-19

    A modular passive solar energy storage system comprises a plurality of heat tubes which are arranged to form a flat plate solar collector and are releasably connected to a water reservoir by, and are part of, double-walled heat exchangers which penetrate to the water reservoir and enhance the heat transfer characteristics between the collector and the reservoir. The flat plate collector-heat exchanger disassembly, the collector housing, and the reservoir are integrated into a relatively light weight, unitary structural system in which the reservoir is a primary structural element. In addition to light weight, the system features high efficiency and ease of assembly and maintenance.

  5. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  6. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  7. Compact stellarators with modular coils.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, P R

    2000-07-18

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan.

  8. Compact stellarators with modular coils

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  9. Learning modular policies for robotics

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

  10. A modular BLSS simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    A bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on Earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processors or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing the examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

  11. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  12. The Iterative Structure Analysis of Montgomery Modular Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinbo, Wang

    2007-09-01

    Montgomery modular multiplication (MMM) plays a crucial role in the implementation of modular exponentiations of public-key cryptography. In this paper, we discuss the iterative structure and extend the iterative bound condition of MMM. It can be applied to complicated modular exponentiations. Based on the iterative condition of MMM, we can directly use non-modular additions, subtractions and even simple multiplications instead of the modular forms, which make modular exponentiation operation very efficient but more importantly iterative applicability of MMM.

  13. Modular Construction: The Wave of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Chuck

    1989-01-01

    Modular construction of school buildings offers speed of construction, with 100 percent contractor responsibility for the completed structures. Under negotiated terms, modular projects can be purchased outright or through long-term leasing arrangements that provide ownership at the end of the lease period. (MLF)

  14. Modular Buildings Are Here To Stay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Steven; Roman, Michael I.; Tiernan, Maury; Savage, Chuck; Airikka, Robert; Brosius, Jerry L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents several examples of modular building construction being used be school districts to support their need for more space, building flexibility, and enhancement of the learning environment. Comparisons with traditionally built school facilities are offered as are answers to commonly held myths concerning modular construction. (GR)

  15. Detectability thresholds of general modular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the detectability thresholds of various modular structures in the stochastic block model. Our analysis reveals how the detectability threshold is related to the details of the modular pattern, including the hierarchy of the clusters. We show that certain planted structures are impossible to infer regardless of their fuzziness.

  16. The Modular Clock Algorithm for Blind Rendezvous

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 vi Page...50 Random Strategy vs. Modular Clock Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Modified Modular Clock Algorithm...Spectrum has become such a precious commodity that the auction of five blocks of 700 MHz spectrum raised $20 billion dollars from big market players

  17. Modular Building Institute 2000 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. The articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Elementary K-8 Modular Courtyard"; (2) "School District #33, Chilliwack, BC"; (3) "New Elementary School for Briarwood, NY"; (4) "Addition to Queens Intermediate…

  18. A Modular Laser Graphics Projection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswanger, Craig D.

    1984-05-01

    WED Enterprises has designed and built a modular projection system for the presentation of animated laser shows. This system was designed specifically for use in Disney theme shows. Its modular design allows it to be adapted to many show situations with simple hardware and software adjustments. The primary goals were superior animation, long life, low maintenance and stand alone operation.

  19. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular contracting. 39.103 Section 39.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... extent practicable, use modular contracting to acquire major systems (see 2.101) of...

  20. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular contracting. 39.103 Section 39.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... extent practicable, use modular contracting to acquire major systems (see 2.101) of...

  1. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  2. Modularity maximization using completely positive programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.

    2017-04-01

    Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.

  3. Finding network communities using modularity density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Federico; del Genio, Charo I.

    2016-12-01

    Many real-world complex networks exhibit a community structure, in which the modules correspond to actual functional units. Identifying these communities is a key challenge for scientists. A common approach is to search for the network partition that maximizes a quality function. Here, we present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed function, namely modularity density. We show that it does not incur in the drawbacks suffered by traditional modularity, and that it can identify networks without ground-truth community structure, deriving its analytical dependence on link density in generic random graphs. In addition, we show that modularity density allows an easy comparison between networks of different sizes, and we also present some limitations that methods based on modularity density may suffer from. Finally, we introduce an efficient, quadratic community detection algorithm based on modularity density maximization, validating its accuracy against theoretical predictions and on a set of benchmark networks.

  4. The emergence of modularity in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-06-01

    In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks.

  5. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  6. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  7. BESST: A Miniature, Modular Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert; Good, William; Baldwin-Stevens, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A new radiometer assembly has been developed that incorporates modular design principles in order to provide flexibility and versatility. The assembly, shown in Figure 1, is made up of six modules plus a central cubical frame. A small thermal imaging detector is used to determine the temperature of remote objects. To improve the accuracy of the temperature reading, frequent calibration is required. The detector must view known temperature targets before viewing the remote object. Calibration is achieved by using a motorized fold mirror to select the desired scene the detector views. The motor steps the fold mirror through several positions, which allows the detector to view the calibration targets or the remote object. The details, features, and benefits of the radiometer are described in this paper.

  8. A bioinspired modular aquatic robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Pollard, Beau

    2016-11-01

    Several bio inspired swimming robots exist which seek to emulate the morphology of fish and the flapping motion of the tail and fins or other appendages and body of aquatic creatures. The locomotion of such robots and the aquatic animals that they seek to emulate is determined to a large degree by the changes in the shape of the body, which produce periodic changes in the momentum of the body and the creation and interaction of the vorticity field in the fluid with the body. We demonstrate an underactuated robot which swims due to the periodic changes in the angular momentum of the robot effected by the motion of an internal rotor. The robot is modular, unactuated tail like segments can be easily added to the robot. These segments modulate the interaction of the body with the fluid to produce a variety of passive shape changes that can allow the robot to swim in different modes.

  9. Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

  10. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  11. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  12. Rational design of efficient modular cells.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Cong T; Liu, Yan; Conner, David J

    2015-11-01

    The modular cell design principle is formulated to devise modular (chassis) cells. These cells can be assembled with exchangeable production modules in a plug-and-play fashion to build microbial cell factories for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of novel molecules, requiring minimal iterative strain optimization steps. A modular cell is designed to be auxotrophic, containing core metabolic pathways that are necessary but insufficient to support cell growth and maintenance. To be functional, it must tightly couple with an exchangeable production module containing auxiliary metabolic pathways that not only complement cell growth but also enhance production of targeted molecules. We developed a MODCELL (modular cell) framework based on metabolic pathway analysis to implement the modular cell design principle. MODCELL identifies genetic modifications and requirements to construct modular cell candidates and their associated exchangeable production modules. By defining the degree of similarity and coupling metrics, MODCELL can evaluate which exchangeable production module(s) can be tightly coupled with a modular cell candidate. We first demonstrated how MODCELL works in a step-by-step manner for example metabolic networks, and then applied it to design modular Escherichia coli cells for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of five alcohols (ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol) and five butyrate esters (ethyl butyrate, propyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, butyl butyrate and isobutyl butyrate) from pentose sugars (arabinose and xylose) and hexose sugars (glucose, mannose, and galactose) under anaerobic conditions. We identified three modular cells, MODCELL1, MODCELL2 and MODCELL3, that can couple well with Group 1 of modules (ethanol, isobutanol, butanol, ethyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, butyl butyrate), Group 2 (isopropanol, isopropyl butyrate), and Group 3 (propanol, isopropanol), respectively. We validated the design of MODCELL1 for anaerobic

  13. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  14. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  15. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  16. Correlates of Work Exhaustion for Medical Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory

    2003-01-01

    Medical technologists (n=196) were followed over 4 years. Higher levels of work exhaustion were related to perceived work interference with family, task load, and lower organizational support. Distributive justice partly mediated the effects of work interference and support on exhaustion. Distributive justice mediated the impact of procedural…

  17. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-like to the causal completion of the region.

  18. Generalized epidemic process on modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-05-01

    Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

  19. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be `passive control laws`, i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust.

  20. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1976-01-01

    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.

  1. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  2. Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

  3. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  4. Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

  5. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  6. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  7. Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks Anthony Cowley, Hwa-Chow Hsu, Camillo J. Taylor GRASP Laboratory University of...network, distributed computing , software design 1. INTRODUCTION As efforts to field sensor networks, or teams of mobile robots, become more...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  8. Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.

  9. Adaptive Coupled Oscillators for Modular Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartono, Pitoyo; Nakane, Aito

    In this research we physically built several robotics modules that are able to self-discover a connection topology which allows them to generate a coordinated behavior as an integrated modular robot. We consider that this self-configurability of hardware module can potentially simplify the costly designing process of complicated robots and at the same time improve the resiliency of modular robots in the face of internal and external changes.

  10. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

  11. Managing in an age of modularity.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C Y; Clark, K B

    1997-01-01

    Modularity is a familiar principle in the computer industry. Different companies can independently design and produce components, suck as disk drives or operating software, and those modules will fit together into a complex and smoothly functioning product because the module makers obey a given set of design rules. Modularity in manufacturing is already common in many companies. But now a number of them are beginning to extend the approach into the design of their products and services. Modularity in design should tremendously boost the rate of innovation in many industries as it did in the computer industry. As businesses as diverse as auto manufacturing and financial services move toward modular designs, the authors say, competitive dynamics will change enormously. No longer will assemblers control the final product: suppliers of key modules will gain leverage and even take on responsibility for design rules. Companies will compete either by specifying the dominant design rules (as Microsoft does) or by producing excellent modules (as disk drive maker Quantum does). Leaders in a modular industry will control less, so they will have to watch the competitive environment closely for opportunities to link up with other module makers. They will also need to know more: engineering details that seemed trivial at the corporate level may now play a large part in strategic decisions. Leaders will also become knowledge managers internally because they will need to coordinate the efforts of development groups in order to keep them focused on the modular strategies the company is pursuing.

  12. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagliesi, M. G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-05-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5 μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  13. Modular Wideband Active Vibration Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David R.; Zewari, Wahid; Lee, Kenneth Y.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of space experiments with previous missions shows a common theme. Some of the recent experiments are based on the scientific fundamentals of instruments of prior years. However, the main distinguishing characteristic is the embodiment of advances in engineering and manufacturing in order to extract clearer and sharper images and extend the limits of measurement. One area of importance to future missions is providing vibration free observation platforms at acceptable costs. It has been shown by researchers that vibration problems cannot be eliminated by passive isolation techniques alone. Therefore, various organizations have conducted research in the area of combining active and passive vibration control techniques. The essence of this paper is to present progress in what is believed to be a new concept in this arena. It is based on the notion that if one active element in a vibration transmission path can provide a reasonable vibration attenuation, two active elements in series may provide more control options and better results. The paper presents the functions of a modular split shaft linear actuator developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and University of Massachusetts Lowell. It discusses some of the control possibilities facilitated by the device. Some preliminary findings and problems are also discussed.

  14. Modular verification of concurrent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.E.K.

    1986-01-01

    During the last ten years, a number of authors have proposed verification techniques that allow one to prove properties of individual processes by using global assumptions about the behavior of the remaining processes in the distributed program. As a result, one must justify these global assumptions before drawing any conclusions regarding the correctness of the entire program. This justification is often the most difficult part of the proof and presents a serious obstacle to hierarchical program development. This thesis develops a new approach to the verification of concurrent systems. The approach is modular and supports compositional development of programs since the proofs of each individual process of a program are completely isolated from all others. The generality of this approach is illustrated by applying it to a representative set of contemporary concurrent programming languages, namely: CSP, ADA, Distributed Processes, and a shared variable language. In addition, it is also shown how the approach may be used to deal with a number of other constructs that have been proposed for inclusion in concurrent languages: FORK and JOIN primitives, nested monitor calls, path expressions, atomic transactions, and asynchronous message passing. These results allow argument that the approach is universal and can be used to design proof systems for any concurrent language.

  15. Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

    2013-03-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

  16. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  17. Fitness, environmental changes and the growth of modularity- a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestemski, Liang; Park, Jeong-Man; Deem, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Although the modularity of a biological system is demonstrated and recognized, the evolution of the modularity is not well understood. We here present a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity. Complemented with numerical models, this analytical theory shows the calculation of the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment, the relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity, as well as a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state.

  18. Taxation of exhaustible resources. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.; Heal, G.; Stiglitz, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of taxation on the intertemporal allocation of an exhaustible resource. A general framework within which a large variety of taxes can be analyzed is developed and then applied to a number of specific taxes. It is shown that there exists a pattern of taxation which can generate essentially any desired pattern of resource usage. Many tax policies, however, have effects markedly different both from the effects that these policies would have in the case of produced commodities and from those which they are designed (or widely thought) to have. For instance, if extraction costs are zero, a depletion allowance at a constant rate (widely thought to encourage the extraction of resources) has absolutely no effect; its gradual removal (usually thought to be preferable to a sudden removal) leads to faster rates of depletion (and lower prices) now, but higher prices in the future; which its sudden and unanticipated removal has absolutely no distortionary effect on the pattern of extraction. More generally, it is shown that the effects of tax structure on the patterns of extraction are critically dependent on expectations concerning future taxation. The changes in tax structure that have occurred in the past fifty years are of the kind that, if they were anticipated, (or if similar further changes are expected to occur in the future) lead to excessively fast exploitation of natural resources. However, if it is believed that current tax policies (including rates) will persist indefinitely, the current tax structure would lead to excessive conservationism. Thus, whether in fact current tax policies have lead to excessive conservationism is a moot question.

  19. Robustness and modular design of the Drosophila segment polarity network

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenzhe; Lai, Luhua; Ouyang, Qi; Tang, Chao

    2006-01-01

    Biomolecular networks have to perform their functions robustly. A robust function may have preferences in the topological structures of the underlying network. We carried out an exhaustive computational analysis on network topologies in relation to a patterning function in Drosophila embryogenesis. We found that whereas the vast majority of topologies can either not perform the required function or only do so very fragilely, a small fraction of topologies emerges as particularly robust for the function. The topology adopted by Drosophila, that of the segment polarity network, is a top ranking one among all topologies with no direct autoregulation. Furthermore, we found that all robust topologies are modular—each being a combination of three kinds of modules. These modules can be traced back to three subfunctions of the patterning function, and their combinations provide a combinatorial variability for the robust topologies. Our results suggest that the requirement of functional robustness drastically reduces the choices of viable topology to a limited set of modular combinations among which nature optimizes its choice under evolutionary and other biological constraints. PMID:17170765

  20. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks

  1. Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

  2. Exhaustible Resource Depletion: A Modified Graphical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisato, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Presents a graphical analysis of the exhaustible resource depletion problem. Applies Hotelling's "r percent rule" as a new approach that operates in an "N"-period context. Includes two figures illustrating the approach. (CFR)

  3. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk, Carl T

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  4. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  5. Diesel Exhaust in New England | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Pollution from diesel engines is a widespread problem across New England and it significantly contributes to air pollution, especially in urban areas. Diesel exhaust is made up of small particles, known as fine particulate matter.

  6. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-12-15

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

  7. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot

  8. Robust modular product family design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lan; Allada, Venkat

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust product family? An example of a simplified vacuum product family is used to illustrate our methodology. In the example, customer requirements are selected as signal factors; future changes of customer requirements are selected as noise factors; an index called quality characteristic (QC) is set to evaluate the product vacuum family; and the module instance matrix (M) is selected as control factor. Initially a relation between the objective function (QC) and the control factor (M) is established, and then the feasible M space is systemically explored using a simplex method to determine the optimum M and the corresponding QC values. Next, various noise levels at different time points are introduced into the system. For each noise level, the optimal values of M and QC are computed and plotted on a QC-chart. The tunable time period of the control factor (the module matrix, M) is computed using the QC-chart. The tunable time period represents the maximum time for which a given control factor can be used to satisfy current and future customer needs. Finally, a robustness index is used to break up the tunable time period into suitable time periods that designers should consider while designing product families.

  9. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  10. Local modularity for community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ju; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Ke; Li, Jian-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Liu, Cui-Cui; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-01

    Community detection is a topic of interest in the study of complex networks such as the protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks. In recent years, various methods were proposed to detect community structures of the networks. Here, a kind of local modularity with tunable parameter is derived from the Newman-Girvan modularity by a special self-loop strategy that depends on the community division of the networks. By the self-loop strategy, one can easily control the definition of modularity, and the resulting modularity can be optimized by using the existing modularity optimization algorithms. The local modularity is used as the target function for community detection, and a self-consistent method is proposed for the optimization of the local modularity. We analyze the behaviors of the local modularity and show the validity of the local modularity in detecting community structures on various networks.

  11. The evolution of automobile exhaust emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C.

    1993-12-31

    Automobile catalytic converters have progressed from oxidation-only systems in the mid 1970`s to the current three-way catalytic converters which control emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide to very low levels. New exhaust emission regulations adopted Federally and in California which come into effect during the 1990`s once again demand new emission control system technology. A new generation of catalytic converter systems coupled with attention to fuel composition characterizes this third phase of exhaust emission control.

  12. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  13. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    SciTech Connect

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  14. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases; (2) There must be means...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases; (2) There must be means...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases; (2) There must be means...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases; (2) There must be means...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases; (2) There must be means...

  19. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 119.425 Section 119.425 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible...

  20. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 119.425 Section 119.425 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible...

  1. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the exhaust pipe. (3) The part of the exhaust system between the point of cooling water injection and..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if... deepest load waterline; (iii) They are so arranged as to prevent entry of cold water from rough...

  2. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the exhaust pipe. (3) The part of the exhaust system between the point of cooling water injection and..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if... deepest load waterline; (iii) They are so arranged as to prevent entry of cold water from rough...

  3. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the exhaust pipe. (3) The part of the exhaust system between the point of cooling water injection and..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if... deepest load waterline; (iii) They are so arranged as to prevent entry of cold water from rough...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have...

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  11. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  12. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  13. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1,...

  14. 40 CFR 600.112-78 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.112-78 Exhaust sample analysis. The exhaust... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis....

  15. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The exhaust... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis....

  16. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel

  17. A modular PMAD system for small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Unit (SCBU). The SCBU uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBU topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBU technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBU makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  18. A Modular PMAD System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Regulator (SCBR). The SCBR uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBR topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBR technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBR makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  19. An Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoofs, T.; Santos, S.; Tatibana, C.; Anjos, J.; Rufino, J.; Windsor, J.

    2009-05-01

    The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-Space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to develop, test and analyse on-board applications without having access to the final IMA target platform for all engineers. Target platforms are usually extremely expensive considering hardware and software prices as well as training costs. This paper describes the architecture of an Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment (IMADE) based on the Linux Operating System and the ARINC 653 simulator for Modular On-Board Applications that was developed by Skysoft Portugal, S.A. In cooperation with ESA, 2007-2008.

  20. Design and Operation of an Optically-Accessible Modular Reactor for Diagnostics of Thermal Thin Film Deposition Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kimes, W. A.; Sperling, B. A.; Maslars, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The design and operation of a simple, optically-accessible modular reactor for probing thermal thin film deposition processes, such as atomic layer deposition processes (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is described. This reactor has a nominal footprint of 225 cm2 and a mass of approximately 6.6 kg, making it small enough to conveniently function as a modular component of an optical train. The design is simple, making fabrication straightforward and relatively inexpensive. Reactor operation is characterized using two infrared absorption measurements to determine exhaust times for tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium and water, proto-typical ALD precursors, in a pressure and flow regime commonly used for ALD. PMID:26958438

  1. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements

    PubMed Central

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed. PMID:28010165

  2. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements.

    PubMed

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-03-04

    Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed.

  3. [Modular tumor prostheses of the humerus].

    PubMed

    Funovics, P T; Dominkus, M

    2010-10-01

    The humerus is a common location of musculoskeletal tumors. Modular prostheses of the humerus, besides APC and biological reconstructions, allow restoration of resulting bone defects. The functional outcome is determined by the extent of bone and soft tissue loss. Anatomical shoulder prostheses have a limited abductor function, while shoulder function could be improved by an inverse prosthetic design and implants for ligament repair. Elbow prostheses provide satisfactory function. Our own results in 101 patients showed a 23% revision rate. The median overall survival was 171 months with an overall 5-year survival of 53%. With respect to good oncological outcomes modular reconstruction of the humerus is a feasible treatment option for cancer patients.

  4. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.

  5. Dynamics of overlapping structures in modular networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, J A; Leyva, I; Li, D; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2010-07-01

    Modularity is a fundamental feature of real networks, being intimately bounded to their functionality, i.e., to their capability of performing parallel tasks in a coordinated way. Although the modular structure of real graphs has been intensively studied, very little is known on the interactions between functional modules of a graph. Here, we present a general method based on synchronization of networking oscillators, that is able to detect overlapping structures in multimodular environments. We furthermore report the full analytical and theoretical description on the relationship between the overlapping dynamics and the underlying network topology. The method is illustrated by means of a series of applications.

  6. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  7. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2010-10-12

    A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

  8. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  9. Effect of exhaustive exercise on myocardial performance

    SciTech Connect

    Grimditch, G.K.; Barnard, R.J.; Duncan, H.W.

    1981-11-01

    Possible changes in cardiac functional capacity in the intact heart following prolonged exhaustive exercise are investigated. Cardiac output, coronary blood flow, aortic blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development and maximum rate of left ventricular pressure relaxation were measured in eight chronically instrumented adult mongrel dogs run at a constant work load to exhaustion signalled by the animals' refusal or inability to continue. All cardiovascular parameters, with the exception of stroke volume, are found to increase significantly during the transition from rest to steady-state exercise at about 75% of maximum heart rate. In the transition from steady state to exhaustion, only the maximum rates of left ventricular pressure development and relaxation are observed to increase significantly, while all other values exhibited no significant change. Similarly, no significant changes are observed in measurements of maximum cardiac parameters before and after exhaustion. Results indicate that cardiac function and hemodynamic parameters are not depressed at exhaustion in dogs despite observed ultrastructural changes.

  10. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  11. Effects of jet exhaust gas properties on exhaust simulation and afterbody drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1975-01-01

    The effect of varying the jet exhaust's ratio of specific heats, gas constant, and temperature on airplane afterbody drag was investigated. Jet exhaust simulation parameters were evaluated also. Subsonic and transonic tests were made using a single nacelle model with afterbodies having boattail angles of 10 deg and 20 deg. Besides air, three other jet exhaust gases were investigated. The ratios of specific heats, gas constants, and total temperatures of the four exhaust gases ranged from 1.40 to 1.26, 287 to 376 J/kg-K, and 300 to 1013 K, respectively. For steep boattail angles, and transonic speeds and typical turbojet pressure ratios, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a dry turbojet exhaust can result in an overprediction of afterbody drag as high as 17 percent of the dry turbojet value.

  12. Modular Apparatus and Method for Attaching Multiple Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for attaching sensors and electronics is disclosed. The modular apparatus includes a square recess including a plurality of cavities and a reference cavity such that a pressure sensor can be connected to the modular apparatus. The modular apparatus also includes at least one voltage input hole and at least one voltage output hole operably connected to each of the plurality of cavities such that voltage can be applied to the pressure sensor and received from the pressure sensor.

  13. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  14. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  15. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  16. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  17. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  18. On Classification of Modular Categories by Rank: Table A.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Ng, Siu-Hung; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-04-10

    The feasibility of a classification-by-rank program for modular categories follows from the Rank-Finiteness Theorem. We develop arithmetic, representation theoretic and algebraic methods for classifying modular categories by rank. As an application, we determine all possible fusion rules for all rank=5 modular categories and describe the corresponding monoidal equivalence classes.

  19. Monitoring Engine Vibrations And Spectrum Of Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Carol L.; Randall, Michael R.; Reinert, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time computation of intensities of peaks in visible-light emission spectrum of exhaust combined with real-time spectrum analysis of vibrations into developmental monitoring technique providing up-to-the-second information on conditions of critical bearings in engine. Conceived to monitor conditions of bearings in turbopump suppling oxygen to Space Shuttle main engine, based on observations that both vibrations in bearings and intensities of visible light emitted at specific wavelengths by exhaust plume of engine indicate wear and incipient failure of bearings. Applicable to monitoring "health" of other machinery via spectra of vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from exhausts. Concept related to one described in "Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage", (MFS-29734).

  20. Numerical Analysis of Rocket Exhaust Cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Supersonic jet exhaust impinging onto a flat surface is a fundamental flow encountered in space or with a missile launch vehicle system. The flow is important because it can endanger launch operations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a landing rocket s exhaust on soils. From numerical simulations and analysis, we developed characteristic expressions and curves, which we can use, along with rocket nozzle performance, to predict cratering effects during a soft-soil landing. We conducted a series of multiphase flow simulations with two phases: exhaust gas and sand particles. The main objective of the simulation was to obtain the numerical results as close to the experimental results as possible. After several simulating test runs, the results showed that packing limit and the angle of internal friction are the two critical and dominant factors in the simulations.

  1. Acid droplet generation in SRM exhaust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingle, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    A free energy analysis is applied to the co-condensation/evaporation of H2O and HCl vapors on wettable particles in open air in order to model droplet nucleation in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust clouds. Formulations are defined for the free energy change, the drop radius, the saturation ratio, the total number of molecules, and the mean molecular radius in solution, as well as the molecular volume and the concentration range. The free energy release in the phase transition for the AL2O3 nuclei in the SRM exhaust is examined as a function of the HCl molefraction and nucleating particle radius, based on Titan III launch exhaust cloud conditions 90 sec after ignition. The most efficient droplet growth is determined to occur at an HCl molefraction of 0.082 and a particle radius of 0.0000013 cm, i.e. a molality of 5.355.

  2. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2002-01-01

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  3. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2003-04-22

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  4. Simulation of a hydrocarbon fueled scramjet exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leng, J.

    1982-01-01

    Exhaust nozzle flow fields for a fully integrated, hydrocarbon burning scramjet were calculated for flight conditions of M (undisturbed free stream) = 4 at 6.1 km altitude and M (undisturbed free stream) = 6 at 30.5 km altitude. Equilibrium flow, frozen flow, and finite rate chemistry effects are considered. All flow fields were calculated by method of characteristics. Finite rate chemistry results were evaluated by a one dimensional code (Bittker) using streamtube area distributions extracted from the equilibrium flow field, and compared to very slow artificial rate cases for the same streamtube area distribution. Several candidate substitute gas mixtures, designed to simulate the gas dynamics of the real engine exhaust flow, were examined. Two mixtures are found to give excellent simulations of the specified exhaust flow fields when evaluated by the same method of characteristics computer code.

  5. Generation and characterization of radiolabeled diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, J S; Sun, J D; Lopez, J A; Wolf, I; Wolff, R K; McClellan, R O

    1984-07-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks associated with increased use of diesel engines, information is needed on the biological fate of inhaled diesel exhaust components. Appropriately radiolabeled exhaust produced by burning radiolabeled fuel could be used to gain this information. The purpose of this study was to characterize different radiolabeled diesel exhausts with respect to their potential use in studies of the biological fate of exhaust carbon particles and particle-associated organic compounds (particle extracts). A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to burn diesel fuel containing trace amounts of 14C-labeled hexadecane, dotriacontane, benzene, phenanthrene or benzo(a)pyrene. Greater than 98% of the 14C in all additives was converted to volatile materials upon combustion. The remainder was distributed in varying amounts between the carbon particles and particle extracts. Aromatic additives labeled carbon particles more efficiently than aliphatic additives. Column chromatography of the particle extracts showed that, in most cases, the majority of the radioactivity eluted in fractions identical to the specific fuel additive employed, suggesting that a large amount of the particle-associated organic compounds consisted of uncombusted fuel constituents. Applying an electrical load to the engine-electrical generator increased carbon particle radioactivity, but had variable effects on the amount of radioactivity in the particle extracts. 67Ga-tetramethylheptanedione was also studied as a fuel additive to label carbon particles. 67Ga was incorporated into the exhaust particles and lung deposition of particles in rats was found to be approximately 10%. However, the 67Ga-radiolabel was found to separate from the particles in vivo, making it an unsuitable radiolabel for studying the long-term lung retention of diesel exhaust carbonaceous particles.

  6. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals.

  7. The Modular Market. Studies in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodossin, Ernest

    Origins of modular courses and the module in British postcompulsory education are considered, along with characteristics of modules, credit transfer, five case studies, and marketing in further and higher education. A module is a measured part (or course) of an extended learning experience that leads to specified qualifications. A designated…

  8. A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Una Società Galileo Avionica A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via...ES) METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via Mario Stoppani 21 34077 Ronchi dei Legionari (GO) ITALY 8. PERFORMING

  9. Modular Building Institute 2002 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Re-Educating Schools" (Chuck Savage); (2) "Tax-Exempt Financing for Public Schools" (John Kennedy); (3) "Help Us Rebuild America" (Michael Roman); (4) "Case…

  10. What Symbionts Teach us about Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Porcar, Manuel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of Synthetic Biology (SB) is to apply engineering principles to biotechnology in order to make life easier to engineer. These engineering principles include modularity: decoupling of complex systems into smaller, orthogonal sub-systems that can be used in a range of different applications. The successful use of modules in engineering is expected to be reproduced in synthetic biological systems. But the difficulties experienced up to date with SB approaches question the short-term feasibility of designing life. Considering the “engineerable” nature of life, here we discuss the existence of modularity in natural living systems, particularly in symbiotic interactions, and compare the behavior of such systems, with those of engineered modules. We conclude that not only is modularity present but it is also common among living structures, and that symbioses are a new example of module-like sub-systems having high similarity with modularly designed ones. However, we also detect and stress fundamental differences between man-made and biological modules. Both similarities and differences should be taken into account in order to adapt SB design to biological laws. PMID:25023877

  11. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.103 Modular contracting. (a) This section implements Section 5202, Incremental Acquisition of Information Technology, of the Clinger-Cohen... technology. Consistent with the agency's information technology architecture, agencies should, to the...

  12. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  13. Written Reformulation in a Modular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flottum, Kjersti

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between form and use of the reformulation sequence signalled by "c'est-a-dire" in written French and describes this sequence's various functions. The article attempts to show how a modular approach consisting of structural, semantic, pragmatic, and textual components contributes to a new and accurate description of…

  14. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A design tradeoff study is reported for a modular spaceborne computer system that is responsive to many mission types and phases. The computer uses redundancy to maximize reliability, and multiprocessing to maximize processing capacity. Fault detection and recovery features provide optimal reliability.

  15. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  16. Modular Building Institute 1999 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Many articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Hightstown High School"; (2) "St. Pius X Parish, Vancouver BC"; (3) "Forrest Street Elementary School"; (4) "Kingman Academy of Learning"; (5) "Women Christian…

  17. Modular Systems Theory and Design Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-07

    interdisciplinary dlesign. Hlowever, many sub- systems and some simple large scale systems like heat exchangers 111 can be ultimately modular when...we are given tl~e independent variable X which gi- ves the potints it time or space or thto nutmber In it sequence of obser- 1 vations, etc.; anti, If

  18. A Modular Curriculum in Information Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, J. A.

    Prepared under a contract between UNESCO and IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations), this modular curriculum is intended as a resource from which curricula can be constructed by individual departments of information studies to meet local needs and circumstances. Following an introductory discussion and explanation of the…

  19. Modular Building Institute 2001 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "An Architect's Perspective: Convincing a Skeptic" (Robert M. Iamello); (2) "66 Portables for San Mateo High" (Steven Williams); (3) "Case Study: Charter Schools"…

  20. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

    1999-09-27

    This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2.

  1. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  2. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  3. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A Central Control Element (CCE) module which controls the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular System (ARMS) and allows both redundant processing and multi-computing in the same computer with real time mode switching, is discussed. The same hardware is used for either reliability enhancement, speed enhancement, or for a combination of both.

  4. Process for desulfurizing an exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinoda, N.; Okino, S.; Oshima, M.; Shigeta, S.; Tatani, A.; Ukawa, N.

    1983-12-13

    A process is disclosed for desulfurizing an exhaust gas which comprises desulfurizing an exhaust gas containing SO/sub 2/ by bringing it into contact with a slurry containing calcium compounds and aluminum compounds, characterized in that the concentration of the dissolved aluminum ion in said slurry is detected and a manganese compound is supplied into said slurry in such a manner that the ratio of the concentration of manganese (including both solid and liquid) to said concentration of the dissolved aluminum ion may be maintained in a molar ratio of less than 1 in said slurry.

  5. Status of German European exhaust emission legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Seiffert, U.

    1985-01-01

    Recent legislative initiatives in West Germany and other European countries are leading to more stringent automobile exhaust emission standards. A review of the emission inventory on a global and West German basis and other factors, such as acid rain and forest damage, indicate that the contribution of automobile exhaust to the emission problem may be less than the European public assumes. As an interim step while new standards are being considered, the West German government is promoting the purchase of low-pollution vehicles through a vehicle tax reduction program.

  6. Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

  7. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall have a system to direct the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be located where its location... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of...

  8. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  9. Microphysical properties of the Shuttle exhaust cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the STS has been developed based on data from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Aircraft observations were performed during the STS-3 launch with a NOAA WP-3D Orion hurricane research aircraft which contained instrumentation for cloud condensation nucleus and ice nucleus counting, Aitken particle counting, and pH determination. Ground observations were conducted at 50 different sites, as well as in the direct exhaust from the solid rocket booster flame trench at all three launches. The data is analyzed in order to determine any possible adverse impacts of the exhaust products on human health and/or the environment. Analyses of the exhaust cloud measurements indicate that in the case of the ground cloud where plenty of large water drops are present and considerable scavenging and fallout of aerosol takes place, possible adverse impacts of the remaining aerosols (CCN and IN) on natural precipitation processes which may occur in the launch area hours after the launch are remote. However, it is determined that under certain atmospheric conditions there could be short term adverse effects on visibility.

  10. Silver doped catalysts for treatment of exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Park, Paul Worn; Hester, Virgil Raymond; Ragle, Christie Susan; Boyer, Carrie L.

    2009-06-02

    A method of making an exhaust treatment element includes washcoating a substrate with a slurry that includes a catalyst support material. At least some of the catalyst support material from the slurry may be transferred to the substrate, and silver metal (Ag) is dispersed within the catalyst support material.

  11. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  12. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  13. Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

    2009-05-30

    Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration.

  14. Diesel exhaust, diesel fumes, and laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Muscat, J E; Wynder, E L

    1995-03-01

    A hospital-based, case-control study of 235 male patients with laryngeal cancer and 205 male control patients was conducted to determine the effects of exposure to diesel engine exhaust and diesel fumes and the risk of laryngeal cancer. All patients were interviewed directly in the hospital with a standardized questionnaire that gathered information on smoking habits, alcohol consumption, employment history, and occupational exposures. Occupations that involve substantial exposure to diesel engine exhaust include mainly truck drivers, as well as mine workers, firefighters, and railroad workers. The odds ratio for laryngeal cancer associated with these occupations was 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 1.8). The odds ratio for self-reported exposure to diesel exhaust was 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 4.1). An elevated risk was found for self-reported exposure to diesel fumes (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 22.6). No association was observed between jobs that entail exposure to diesel fumes, such as automobile mechanics, and the risk of laryngeal cancer. These results show that diesel engine exhaust is unrelated to laryngeal cancer risk. The different findings for self-reported diesel fumes and occupations that involve exposure to diesel fumes could reflect a recall bias.

  15. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John

    2002-01-01

    For the most part, Goddard solar arrays have been custom designs that are unique to each mission. The solar panel design has been frozen prior to issuing an RFP for their procurement. There has typically been 6-9 months between RFP release and contract award, followed by an additional 24 months for performance of the contract. For Small Explorer (SMEX) missions, with three years between mission definition and launch, this has been a significant problem. The SMEX solar panels have been sufficiently small that the contract performance period has been reduced to 12-15 months. The bulk of this time is used up in the final design definition and fabrication of flight solar cell assemblies. Even so, it has been virtually impossible to have the spacecraft design at a level of maturity sufficient to freeze the solar panel geometry and release the RFP in time to avoid schedule problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. With that in mind, the SMEX-Lite project team developed a modular architecture for the assembly of solar arrays to greatly reduce the cost and schedule associated with the development of a mission- specific solar array. In the modular architecture, solar cells are fabricated onto small substrate panels. This modular panel (approximately 8.5" x 17" in this case) becomes the building block for constructing solar arrays for multiple missions with varying power requirements and geometrical arrangements. The mechanical framework that holds these modules together as a solar array is the only mission-unique design, changing in size and shape as required for each mission. There are several advantages to this approach. First, the typical solar array development cycle requires a mission unique design, procurement, and qualification including a custom qualification panel. With the modular architecture, a single qualification of the SMEX-Lite modules and the associated mechanical framework in a typical configuration provided a qualification by

  16. On the classification of weakly integral modular categories

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Galindo, César; Ng, Siu-Hung; Plavnik, Julia Y.; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we classify all modular categories of dimension 4m, where m is an odd square-free integer, and all rank 6 and rank 7 weakly integral modular categories. This completes the classification of weakly integral modular categories through rank 7. In particular, our results imply that all integral modular categories of rank at most 7 are pointed (that is, every simple object has dimension 1). All the non-integral (but weakly integral) modular categories of ranks 6 and 7 have dimension 4m, with m an odd square free integer, so their classification is an application of our main result. The classification of rank 7 integral modular categories is facilitated by an analysis of the two group actions on modular categories: the Galois group of the field generated by the entries of the S-matrix and the group of invertible isomorphism classes of objects. We derive some valuable arithmetic consequences from these actions.

  17. Implicit Contractive Mappings in Modular Metric and Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, N.; Salimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized α-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:25003157

  18. Diesel injector additives for a clean exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Herbstman, S.; Virk, K.S.

    1988-08-01

    Increased public awareness of clean air is causing closer examination of potential health problems associated with diesel exhaust particulates. Recently, the EPA published standards mandating a sixfold reduction in diesel exhaust particulates for heavy duty engines from 0.60 gm/bhp-hr in 1988-1990 to 0.10 gm/bhp-hr in 1994. NOx exhaust concentrations were also reduced. For some time now, we have been interested in ways to reduce black smoke from diesel engines since it is one of the prime contributors to exhaust particulates. One of its causes is dirty or clogged fuel injectors due to deposit buildup. During operation with dirty injectors, the spray pattern of fuel into the combustion chamber is distorted, usually resulting in a fuel-rich environment. Incomplete burning of the rich fuel mixture results in an excess of carbonaceous material which is discharged in the exhaust as black smoke. We are engaged in evaluating additives with detergency and antioxidant properties to reduce deposit buildup in the injectors. Long chain alkylamines, and other types of surfactant molecules have been reported as active in preventing deposit buildup. However, little practical information was available concerning structure-activity relationships for use in developing a commercially acceptable additive package. We decided to investigate additives which are active either as gasoline carburetor detergents or as lubricant dispersants; both categories appear to have the necessary surfactant behavior and oil solubility to satisfy our needs for a diesel injector keep clean agent. Our approach to the problem was to develop an additive package for future use in Texaco fuels to reduce black smoke.

  19. Robust and fault tolerant control of modular and reconfigurable robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, Sajan

    Modular and reconfigurable robot has been one of the main areas of robotics research in recent years due to its wide range of applications, especially in aerospace sector. Dynamic control of manipulators can be performed using joint torque sensing with little information of the link dynamics. From the modular robot perspective, this advantage offered by the torque sensor can be taken to enhance the modularity of the control system. Known modular robots though boast novel and diverse mechanical design on joint modules in one way or another, they still require the whole robot dynamic model for motion control, and modularity offered in the mechanical side does not offer any advantage in the control design. In this work, a modular distributed control technique is formulated for modular and reconfigurable robots that can instantly adapt to robot reconfigurations. Under this control methodology, a modular and reconfigurable robot is stabilized joint by joint, and modules can be added or removed without the need of re-tuning the controller. Model uncertainties associated with load and links are compensated by the use of joint torque sensors. Other model uncertainties at each joint module are compensated by a decomposition based robust controller for each module. The proposed distributed control technique offers a 'modular' approach, featuring a unique joint-by-joint control synthesis of the joint modules. Fault tolerance and fault detection are formulated as a decentralized control problem for modular and reconfigurable robots in this thesis work. The modularity of the system is exploited to derive a strategy dependent only on a single joint module, while eliminating the need for the motion states of other joint modules. While the traditional fault tolerant and detection schemes are suitable for robots with the whole dynamic model, this proposed technique is ideal for modular and reconfigurable robots because of its modular nature. The proposed methods have been

  20. Tumorigenesis of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and related emission extracts on SENCAR mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nesnow, S; Triplett, L L; Slaga, T J

    1980-01-01

    The tumorigenicity of diesel exhaust particulate emissions was examined using a sensitive mouse skin tumorigenesis model (SENCAR). The tumorigenic potency of particulate emissions from diesel, gasoline, and related emission sources was compared.

  1. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous...

  2. A modular approach to adaptive structures.

    PubMed

    Pagitz, Markus; Pagitz, Manuel; Hühne, Christian

    2014-10-07

    A remarkable property of nastic, shape changing plants is their complete fusion between actuators and structure. This is achieved by combining a large number of cells whose geometry, internal pressures and material properties are optimized for a given set of target shapes and stiffness requirements. An advantage of such a fusion is that cell walls are prestressed by cell pressures which increases, decreases the overall structural stiffness, weight. Inspired by the nastic movement of plants, Pagitz et al (2012 Bioinspir. Biomim. 7) published a novel concept for pressure actuated cellular structures. This article extends previous work by introducing a modular approach to adaptive structures. An algorithm that breaks down any continuous target shapes into a small number of standardized modules is presented. Furthermore it is shown how cytoskeletons within each cell enhance the properties of adaptive modules. An adaptive passenger seat and an aircrafts leading, trailing edge is used to demonstrate the potential of a modular approach.

  3. The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Gooseff, M.; McGlynn, B.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.

    2009-04-01

    In-class hydrology education is typically strongly biased towards the instructor's background and overcoming this limitation is overly burdensome within the time-constraints of the academic life. This is particularly true for academics in tenure-track positions when most of the material development has to occur. To overcome this issue, we are in the process of establishing the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). Our overall objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and a modular core curriculum based on modern pedagogical standards. The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty in educating hydrologists that can solve today's and tomorrow's interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced.

  4. Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, C.; Wagener, T.; Gooseff, M.; McGlynn, B.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Sharma, P.; Zuppe, S.; Pfeiffer, C.

    2008-12-01

    In-class hydrology education is typically strongly biased towards the instructor's background and overcoming this limitation is burdensome within the time-constraints academia. This problem is particularly true for academics in tenure-track positions when most of the material development must occur. To overcome this challenge and advance a broader perspective of hydrology education, we are in the process of establishing the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to, developed, and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and a modular core curriculum based on modern pedagogical standards. The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty in educating hydrologists that can solve today's and tomorrow's interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced.

  5. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; Rudd, D.; Manzotti, A.; Dodelson, S.; Bridle, S.; Sehrish, S.; Kowalkowski, J.

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmic shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis

  6. Versatile microrobotics using simple modular subunits

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, U Kei; Meshkati, Farshad; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Fu, Henry Chien; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-01-01

    The realization of reconfigurable modular microrobots could aid drug delivery and microsurgery by allowing a single system to navigate diverse environments and perform multiple tasks. So far, microrobotic systems are limited by insufficient versatility; for instance, helical shapes commonly used for magnetic swimmers cannot effectively assemble and disassemble into different size and shapes. Here by using microswimmers with simple geometries constructed of spherical particles, we show how magnetohydrodynamics can be used to assemble and disassemble modular microrobots with different physical characteristics. We develop a mechanistic physical model that we use to improve assembly strategies. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically changing the physical properties of microswimmers through assembly and disassembly in a controlled fluidic environment. Finally, we show that different configurations have different swimming properties by examining swimming speed dependence on configuration size. PMID:27464852

  7. Modular organization of axial microcircuits in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bagnall, Martha W.; McLean, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion requires precise control of spinal networks. In tetrapods and bipeds, dynamic regulation of locomotion is simplified by the modular organization of spinal limb circuits, but it is not known whether their predecessors, fish axial circuits, are similarly organized. Here, we demonstrate that the larval zebrafish spinal cord contains distinct, parallel microcircuits for independent control of dorsal and ventral musculature on each side of the body. During normal swimming, dorsal and ventral microcircuits are equally active; but during postural correction, fish differentially engage these microcircuits to generate torque for self-righting. These findings reveal greater complexity in the axial spinal networks responsible for swimming than previously recognized and suggest an early template of modular organization for more complex locomotor circuits in later vertebrates. PMID:24408436

  8. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  9. Modularity and community structure in networks

    PubMed Central

    Newman, M. E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Many networks of interest in the sciences, including social networks, computer networks, and metabolic and regulatory networks, are found to divide naturally into communities or modules. The problem of detecting and characterizing this community structure is one of the outstanding issues in the study of networked systems. One highly effective approach is the optimization of the quality function known as “modularity” over the possible divisions of a network. Here I show that the modularity can be expressed in terms of the eigenvectors of a characteristic matrix for the network, which I call the modularity matrix, and that this expression leads to a spectral algorithm for community detection that returns results of demonstrably higher quality than competing methods in shorter running times. I illustrate the method with applications to several published network data sets. PMID:16723398

  10. Implementing a modular system of computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1983-07-01

    A modular computation system has been developed for nuclear reactor core analysis. The codes can be applied repeatedly in blocks without extensive user input data, as needed for reactor history calculations. The primary control options over the calculational paths and task assignments within the codes are blocked separately from other instructions, admitting ready access by user input instruction or directions from automated procedures and promoting flexible and diverse applications at minimum application cost. Data interfacing is done under formal specifications with data files manipulated by an informed manager. This report emphasizes the system aspects and the development of useful capability, hopefully informative and useful to anyone developing a modular code system of much sophistication. Overall, this report in a general way summarizes the many factors and difficulties that are faced in making reactor core calculations, based on the experience of the authors. It provides the background on which work on HTGR reactor physics is being carried out.

  11. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  12. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  13. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    DOE PAGES

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; ...

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmicmore » shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis« less

  14. Stress promotes maleness in hermaphroditic modular animals

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R. N.; Manríquez, P. H.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Burrows, M. T.

    2003-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory developed for hermaphroditic plants predicts that impaired phenotype or reduced parental survivorship caused by environmental stress should induce relatively greater allocation to the male function. We provide experimental evidence of stress-induced maleness, already well documented in flowering plants, in a modular animal. By using cloned copies of replicate genotypes, we show that the marine bryozoan Celleporella hyalina increases the ratio of male to female modules in response to diverse environmental stressors. Mating trials confirmed that paternity is determined by fair-raffle sperm competition, which should obviate local mate competition at characteristic population density and promote the advantage of increased male allocation. The demonstrated similarity to plants transcends specific physiological pathways and suggests that stress-induced bias toward male function is a general response of hermaphroditic modular organisms to impaired prospects for parental productivity or survival. PMID:12930903

  15. Siberian company starts up modular refinery

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    Uraineftegas, a subsidiary of Russian oil giant Lukoil, has started up Siberia`s first modular crude distillation unit. The 2,000 b/d refinery was designed and manufactured by Ventech Engineers Inc., Pasadena, Tex. Uraineftegas is based in Urai, Siberia. Located in the Tyumen region on the Konda river, the remote town is accessible only by air and water. Most of Urai`s crude production--about 50,000 b/d, according to Ventech president Bill Stanley--is shipped by pipeline to the refining centers at Ufa and Omsk. Because there are no products pipelines in which to ship fuels back to Urai, the town needed a small refinery in order to produce its own fuels. This report briefly describes the design ad operation of these modular units. It describes construction techniques and temperature control equipment used to maintain an operational environment under severe winter weather.

  16. Modular, bluetooth enabled, wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) platform.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Joseph A; Witt, Tyler S; Beyette, Fred R

    2013-01-01

    A design for a modular, compact, and accurate wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) system is proposed. EEG is the only non-invasive measure for neuronal function of the brain. Using a number of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques, this neuronal function can be acquired and processed into meaningful representations of brain activity. The system described here utilizes Bluetooth to wirelessly transmit the digitized brain signal for an end application use. In this way, the system is portable, and modular in terms of the device to which it can interface. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has become a popular extension of EEG systems in modern research. This design serves as a platform for applications using BCI capability.

  17. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John W.; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) missions have typically had three years between mission definition and launch. This short schedule has posed significant challenges with respect to solar array design and procurement. Typically, the solar panel geometry is frozen prior to going out with a procurement. However, with the SMEX schedule, it has been virtually impossible to freeze the geometry in time to avoid scheduling problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. A modular solar array architecture was developed to alleviate this problem. This approach involves procuring sufficient modules for multiple missions and assembling the modules onto a solar array framework that is unique to each mission. The modular approach removes the solar array from the critical path of the SMEX integration and testing schedule. It also reduces the cost per unit area of the solar arrays and facilitates the inclusion of experiments involving new solar cell or panel technologies in the SMEX missions.

  18. Modular quantum-information processing by dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Dissipation can be used as a resource to control and simulate quantum systems. We discuss a modular model based on fast dissipation capable of performing universal quantum computation, and simulating arbitrary Lindbladian dynamics. The model consists of a network of elementary dissipation-generated modules and it is in principle scalable. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to dissipatively prepare all single-qubit gates, and the controlled-not gate; prerequisites for universal quantum computing. We also show a way to implement a type of quantum memory in a dissipative environment, whereby we can arbitrarily control the loss in both coherence, and concurrence, over the evolution. Moreover, our dissipation-assisted modular construction exhibits a degree of inbuilt robustness to Hamiltonian and, indeed, Lindbladian errors, and as such is of potential practical relevance.

  19. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  20. Integrated modular propulsion for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, William; Crawford, Roger; Litchford, Ron

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a modular approach to rocket propulsion which offers a versatile method for realizing the goals of low cost, safety, reliability, and ease of operation. It is shown that, using practical modules made up of only 4-6 individual elements, it is possible to achieve thrust levels of 2-3 mln lbf and more, using turbomachinery, thrust chambers, lines, and valves about the size of SSME hardware. The approach is illustrated by a LOX/LH2 configuration.

  1. Modular Habitats Comprising Rigid and Inflatable Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2010-01-01

    Modular, lightweight, fully equipped buildings comprising hybrids of rigid and inflatable structures can be assembled on Earth and then transported to and deployed on the Moon for use as habitats. Modified versions of these buildings could also prove useful on Earth as shelters that can be rapidly and easily erected in emergency situations and/or extreme environments: examples include shelters for hurricane relief and for Antarctic exploration.

  2. Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert J.

    1996-12-03

    Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

  3. Bifurcated, modular syntheses of chiral annulet triazacyclononanes.

    PubMed

    Argouarch, Gilles; Stones, Graham; Gibson, Colin L; Kennedy, Alan R; Sherrington, David C

    2003-12-21

    Three chiral 2,6-disubstituted tri-N-methyl azamacrocycles have been prepared by modular methods. These macrocycles were accessed from three chiral 1,4,7-triazaheptanes intermediates that were prepared by two independent routes. The first of these routes involved the benzylamine opening of chiral tosyl aziridines followed by debenzylation but was problematic on solubility grounds. A second, more effective, route was developed which avoided debenzylation by using ammonia in the nucleophilic opening of chiral tosyl aziridines.

  4. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Butterfield, Karla

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  5. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  6. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Ault, Earl R.; Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  7. Asynchronous networks: modularization of dynamics theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Christian; Field, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Building on the first part of this paper, we develop the theory of functional asynchronous networks. We show that a large class of functional asynchronous networks can be (uniquely) represented as feedforward networks connecting events or dynamical modules. For these networks we can give a complete description of the network function in terms of the function of the events comprising the network: the modularization of dynamics theorem. We give examples to illustrate the main results.

  8. Modular control system for optogenetic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowiński, Mikołaj; Kulik, Paweł; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Mankiewicz, Lech; Krawczyk, Rafał D.; Jarosiński, Jakub; Czajkowski, Rafał; Knapska, Ewelina; Puścian, Alicja; Kowalski, Jakub; Rusakov, Konstantin; Przywózki, Tomasz; Rasiński, Paweł; Juszczyk, Bartłomiej

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a modular control system used in Eco-HAB experimentation system. Features specific to the solution are covered. Control system is described in details. The architecture is outlined in the context of requirements to be met. Modes of utilization of implantable device, time synchronization, localization service and antenna driving oscillation fine-tuning as well as preliminary experiments in preparation are described.

  9. lazar: a modular predictive toxicology framework

    PubMed Central

    Maunz, Andreas; Gütlein, Martin; Rautenberg, Micha; Vorgrimmler, David; Gebele, Denis; Helma, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    lazar (lazy structure–activity relationships) is a modular framework for predictive toxicology. Similar to the read across procedure in toxicological risk assessment, lazar creates local QSAR (quantitative structure–activity relationship) models for each compound to be predicted. Model developers can choose between a large variety of algorithms for descriptor calculation and selection, chemical similarity indices, and model building. This paper presents a high level description of the lazar framework and discusses the performance of example classification and regression models. PMID:23761761

  10. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  11. Exhaust apparatus for a v-type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Y.; Deguchi, R.; Matsuoka, H.; Hanafusa, T.

    1988-03-22

    An exhaust apparatus adapted for connection to a V-type internal combustion engine in an automobile having a first cylinder bank away from the passenger compartment of the automobile and a second cylinder bank proximate the passenger compartment of the automobile, is described comprising: a first exhaust manifold connected to the first cylinder bank; a second exhaust manifold connected to the second cylinder bank; a catalytic converter; and means for connecting the first and second exhaust manifolds to the catalytic convertor.

  12. Evolution of a modular software network

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Bonachela, Juan A.; Levin, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    “Evolution behaves like a tinkerer” (François Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a singular opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a unique way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in incompatibilities between software packages within modules. This negative effect is far from being a failure of design. A random process of package installation shows that the higher the modularity, the larger the fraction of packages working properly in a local computer. The decrease in the relative number of conflicts between packages from different modules avoids a failure in the functionality of one package spreading throughout the entire system. Some potential analogies with the evolutionary and ecological processes determining the structure of ecological networks of interacting species are discussed. PMID:22106260

  13. Understanding Modularity in Molecular Networks Requires Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Roger P.; Kim, Philip M.; Emonet, Thierry; Gerstein, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    The era of genome sequencing has produced long lists of the molecular parts from which cellular machines are constructed. A fundamental goal in systems biology is to understand how cellular behavior emerges from the interaction in time and space of genetically encoded molecular parts, as well as non-genetically encoded small molecules. Networks provide a natural framework for the organization and quantitative representation of all the available data about molecular interactions. The structural and dynamic properties of molecular networks have been the subject of intense research. Despite major advances, bridging network structure to dynamics – and therefore to behavior – remains challenging. A key concept of modern engineering that recurs in the functional analysis of biological networks is modularity. Most approaches to molecular network analysis rely to some extent on the assumption that molecular networks are modular – that is, they are separable and can be studied to some degree in isolation. We describe recent advances in the analysis of modularity in biological networks, focusing on the increasing realization that a dynamic perspective is essential to grouping molecules into modules and determining their collective function. PMID:19638611

  14. Modular injection systems for miniature engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Mike

    1992-07-01

    Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve sized for 100lbf thrust was designed and is being tested to show lower costs, fewer moving parts and a reduction in weight and size. Results show that this valve meets objectives of one-half weight, one-half cost and one-fifth the envelopment of current production valves. Studies indicate that a cruciform configuration of four nominal 100lbf thrust engines can be controlled by four modular injection valve systems in a single housing of less than 1.0 m3. Following further development and correlation of results this concept may be scaled to control four higher thrust engines.

  15. MACOP modular architecture with control primitives

    PubMed Central

    Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

  16. Small Modular Reactors (468th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert

    2011-04-20

    With good reason, much more media attention has focused on nuclear power plants than solar farms, wind farms, or hydroelectric plants during the past month and a half. But as nations around the world demand more energy to power everything from cell phone batteries to drinking water pumps to foundries, nuclear plants are the only non-greenhouse-gas producing option that can be built to operate almost anywhere, and can continue to generate power during droughts, after the sun sets, and when winds die down. To supply this demand for power, designers around the world are competing to develop more affordable nuclear reactors of the future: small modular reactors. Brookhaven Lab is working with DOE to ensure that these reactors are designed to be safe for workers, members of surrounding communities, and the environment and to ensure that the radioactive materials and technology will only be used for peaceful purposes, not weapons. In his talk, Bari will discuss the advantages and challenges of small modular reactors and what drives both international and domestic interest in them. He will also explain how Brookhaven Lab and DOE are working to address the challenges and provide a framework for small modular reactors to be commercialized.

  17. Evolution of a modular software network.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Miguel A; Bonachela, Juan A; Levin, Simon A

    2011-12-13

    "Evolution behaves like a tinkerer" (François Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a singular opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a unique way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in incompatibilities between software packages within modules. This negative effect is far from being a failure of design. A random process of package installation shows that the higher the modularity, the larger the fraction of packages working properly in a local computer. The decrease in the relative number of conflicts between packages from different modules avoids a failure in the functionality of one package spreading throughout the entire system. Some potential analogies with the evolutionary and ecological processes determining the structure of ecological networks of interacting species are discussed.

  18. RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

  19. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Butterfield, Karla

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Collie, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  2. 40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty-cycle exhaust testing. 1037.510... Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is required, such as... type of vehicle and for each duty cycle as described in the following table: Table 1 to §...

  3. 40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty-cycle exhaust testing. 1037.510... Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is required, such as... type of vehicle and for each duty cycle as described in the following table: Table 1 to §...

  4. 40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty-cycle exhaust testing. 1037.510... Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is required, such as... type of vehicle and for each duty cycle as described in the following table: Table 1 to §...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a... suitable for continued operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases;...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a... suitable for continued operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases;...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a... suitable for continued operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases;...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a... suitable for continued operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases;...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a... suitable for continued operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases;...

  10. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.511... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.511-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure F90-3 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  11. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.511... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.511-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure F90-3 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  12. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  13. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  14. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  15. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  16. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  17. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  18. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  19. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... prevent backflow of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under normal conditions. (d) Pipes used...

  20. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 182.425 Section 182.425 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical...

  1. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe... must be so arranged as to prevent backflow of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under...

  2. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 182.425 Section 182.425 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical...

  3. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... prevent backflow of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under normal conditions. (d) Pipes used...

  4. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine exhaust system. 36.25 Section 36.25... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.25 Engine exhaust system. (a) Construction. The exhaust system of the engine shall be designed to withstand an internal pressure equal to 4 times the...

  5. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must be so arranged as to prevent backflow of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under normal... adapted to resist the action of oil, acid, and heat, has a wall thickness sufficient to prevent collapsing... stresses resulting from the expansion of the exhaust piping. (g) A dry exhaust pipe must: (1) If it...

  6. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prevent backflow of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under normal conditions. (d) Pipes used for... resist the action of oil, acid, and heat, and has a wall thickness sufficient to prevent collapsing or... stresses resulting from the expansion of the exhaust piping. (g) A dry exhaust pipe must: (1) If it...

  7. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prevent backflow of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under normal conditions. (d) Pipes used for... resist the action of oil, acid, and heat, and has a wall thickness sufficient to prevent collapsing or... stresses resulting from the expansion of the exhaust piping. (g) A dry exhaust pipe must: (1) If it...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under section 7430(a) unless the court determines that the prevailing party has exhausted the... circumstances in which such administrative remedies shall be deemed to have been exhausted. (b) Requirements—(1) In general. A party has not exhausted the administrative remedies available within the...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under section 7430(a) unless the court determines that the prevailing party has exhausted the... circumstances in which such administrative remedies shall be deemed to have been exhausted. (b) Requirements—(1) In general. A party has not exhausted the administrative remedies available within the...

  10. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.112-08... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis....

  11. 40 CFR 600.112-78 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.112-78... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis....

  12. 26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under section 7430(a) unless the court determines that the prevailing party has exhausted the... circumstances in which such administrative remedies shall be deemed to have been exhausted. (b) Requirements—(1) In general. A party has not exhausted the administrative remedies available within the...

  13. Particle exhaust of helium plasmas with actively cooled outboard pump limiter on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, T.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Loarer, T.; Chatelier, M.; Guilhem, D.; Lutz, T.; Nygren, R.E.; Mahdavi, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The superconducting tokamak Tore Supra was designed for long-pulse (30-s) high input power operation. Here observations on the particle-handling characteristics of the actively cooled modular outboard pump limiter (OPL) are presented for helium discharges. The important experimental result was that a modest pumping speed (1 m{sup 3}/s) of the OPL turbomolecular pump (TMP) provided background helium exhaust. This result came about due to a well-conditioned vessel wall with helium discharges that caused no wall outgasing. The particle accountability in these helium discharges was excellent, and the well-conditioned wall did not play a significant role in the particle balance. The helium density control, 25% density drop with OPL exhaust efficiency of {approximately}1%, was possible with TMP although this may not be the case with reactive gases such as deuterium. The observed quadratic increase of the OPL neutral pressure with helium density was consistent with an improvement of the particle control with increasing plasma density.

  14. The Emergence of Modularity in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks. There once were two watchmakers, named Hora and Tempus, who manufactured very fine watches. Both of them were highly regarded, and the phones in their workshops rang frequently — new customers were constantly calling them. However, Hora prospered, while Tempus became poorer and poorer and finally lost his shop. What was the reason? The watches the men made consisted of about 1,000 parts each. Tempus had so constructed his that if he had one partly assembled and had to put it down — to answer the phone say— it immediately fell to pieces and had to be reassembled from the elements. The better the customers liked his watches, the more they phoned him, the more difficult it became for him to find enough uninterrupted time to finish a watch. The watches that Hora made were no less complex than those of Tempus. But he had designed them so that he could put together subassemblies of about ten elements each. Ten of these subassemblies, again, could be put together into a larger subassembly; and a system of ten of the latter sub

  15. Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

  16. Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

  17. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  18. Exhaustion, a guide to transportation emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This publication contains a series of fact sheets on the environmental impact of the automobile, addressing the issues of vehicle exhaust and its impact, alternative and cleaner fuels, and alternative forms of transportation. The sheets are intended to serve as background information and reference material. Specific topics of the sheets include: Components of car exhaust and other automobile-related emissions; air quality in Canada; smog; climate change and the greenhouse effect; acid rain; stratospheric ozone depletion; hazardous air pollutants and the automobile; health impacts; modifications and improvements to diesel fuels; reformulated gasoline; alternative fuels such as propane, ethanol, natural gas, hydrogen, and methanol; emissions standards and controls; inspection and maintenance programs; transportation demand management; driving behavior and the environment; and indirect costs of the automobile.

  19. Modularization and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Modularization Task Team

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the results of the work performed by the Technology Transfer Task Team on Modularization. This work was performed as part of the Technology Transfer work being performed under Department of Energy Contract 54-7WM-335406, between December, 1984 and February, 1985. The purpose of this task team effort was to briefly survey the current use of modularization in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries and to assess and evaluate the techniques available for potential application to nuclear power. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that there was a need for a study to establish guidelines for the future development of Light Water Reactor, High Temperature Gas Reactor and Liquid Metal Reactor plants. The guidelines should identify how modularization can improve construction, maintenance, life extension and decommissioning.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Kitchen Exhaust Draft Hoods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    1-ACI827 JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORP DENVER CO RESEARCH AND DEV-ETC F/e 13/1 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF KITCHEN EXHAUST DRAFT HOOOS. (U) MAR 80 P 8...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT. TASK AREA a WOPK UNIT NUMOERS Johns - Manville Sales Corper a, t Research & Development Center /0004...P. B. SHEPHERD, R. H. NEISEL JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORPORATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER KEN-CARYL RANCH, DENVER, COLORADO 80217 MARCH 1980 FINAL

  1. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  2. Pulse Detonation Physiochemical and Exhaust Relaxation Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    knowledge of detonation initiation, propagation, and blow-down needed to develop a pulse detonation engine ( PDE ) that will function on hydrocarbon fuels...phenomena required to operate a PDE . Detonation tube exhaust blow-down conditions, which are predicted to have a significant impact upon performance...to establish the scientific knowledge of detonation initiation, propagation, and blow-down needed to develop a pulse detonation engine ( PDE ) that will

  3. Jet Engine Exhaust Analysis by Subtractive Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    and J. J. Brooks. Development of a portable miniature collection system for the exposure as- sessment within the microenvironment for carcinogens ...65 A-2. Recovery of acrylonitrile from standard sample generation system ...... ............. 66 B-I. Jet engine exhaust sampling and analysis...7 n-Butane 0.16 2.6 minutes 8 Propylene oxide 3.14 52 minutes 9 Acrylonitrile 9.35 2.6 hours 10 Phenanthrene 1.9 x 106 61 years 11 4-Bromodiphenyl

  4. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  5. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silcox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  6. Hydrocarbon Constituents of T-56 Combustor Exhaust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    May 1973 to determine feasibility of exhaust cryotrapping and to establish analytical methodology for identifying individual hydrocarbon compounds (3...midtemperature setting was at about 166°C, and 33 psig, corresponding to the conditions of many moderate-pressure ratio engines (1). Finally the high -temperature...condition of 2040C and 50 psig simulates many newer high -pressure-ratio engines, like the F-101 and F-100. Table 2 lists typical military engines and

  7. Methemoglobinemia induced by automobile exhaust fumes.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Hidemichi; Morikawa, Shingo; Noma-Tanaka, Shoko; Adachi, Hiroshi; Kawano, Yasunobu; Kaneko, Kotaro; Ishihara, Shin

    2005-01-01

    Although methemoglobinemia is an uncommon disorder, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cyanosis. Major causes of acquired methemoglobinemia are nitrates, aniline, and analgesics, though rare cases have been reported to have been caused by automobile exhaust fumes. A 24-year-old man had inhaled a large amount of automobile exhaust fumes, intending to commit suicide. He had become unconscious, with dilated pupils and symptoms of cyanosis. Arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Sp(O2)) was 86%, with a methemoglobin level of 44.3% and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 0%, while electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, creatine, and glucose measurement results were normal. He was treated with methylene blue 250 mg (approximately 4 mg/kg) through a nasogastric tube. Four hours after the treatment, because the methemoglobin level was slightly above normal (2.2%), we added 180 mg of methylene blue. The results of final arterial blood gas analysis were a methemoglobin level of 0.4% and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 0.8%. He recovered uneventfully and returned home by himself the next day. To summarize, we successfully treated, with methylene blue given through a nasogastric tube, a young man who had developed severe methemoglobinemia from inhaling automobile exhaust fumes.

  8. Technological change, economic growth, and exhaustible resources

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic optimization models are developed to address two topics: (1) financing of large-scale technological change when credit is constrained; (2) adoption of discrete conservationist production technologies in response to the depletion of an exhaustible input. The self-financing of large-scale projects may be expected to entail cutbacks in consumption; a model that depicts this situation is presented. Sensitivity analysis is performed and various extensions are considered. The response of individual producers to increasing resource scarcity is modeled keeping in view two important examples from agriculture. First, ground water used for irrigation in a region operated by heterogeneous farms is considered an exhaustible resource. As the water stock gets depleted, pumping costs rise and more farmers switch from traditional furrow irrigation to less wasteful irrigation technologies, such as drips or sprinklers. An optimal subsidy for adopters of the efficient technology can be a viable second-best policy instrument. As a second example, the environment's ability to absorb polluting irrigation drainwater is modeled as a common-property exhaustible resource. Furrow irrigation generates more drainage than sprinkler or drip irrigation. The common property problem causes competitive farmers to use sub-optimal irrigation practices.

  9. Testing Installed Propulsion for Shielded Exhaust Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Podboy, Gary G.; Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    Jet-surface interaction (JSI) can be a significant factor in the exhaust noise of installed propulsion systems. Tests to further the understanding and prediction of the acoustic impacts of JSI have been described. While there were many objectives for the test, the overall objective was to prepare for a future test validating the design of a low-noise, lowboom supersonic commercial airliner. In this paper we explore design requirements for a partial aircraft model to be used in subscale acoustic testing, especially focusing on the amount of aircraft body that must be included to produce the acoustic environment between propulsion exhaust system and observer. We document the dual-stream jets, both nozzle and flow conditions, which were tested to extend JSI acoustic modeling from simple singlestream jets to realistic dual-stream exhaust nozzles. Sample observations are provided of changes to far-field sound as surface geometry and flow conditions were varied. Initial measurements are presented for integrating the propulsion on the airframe for a supersonic airliner with simulated airframe geometries and nozzles. Acoustic impacts of installation were modest, resulting in variations of less than 3 EPNdB in most configurations.

  10. Testing Installed Propulsion For Shielded Exhaust Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Podboy, Gary G.; Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    Jet-surface interaction (JSI) can be a significant factor in the exhaust noise of installed propulsion. Tests to further understanding and prediction of the acoustic impacts of JSI have been described. While there were many objectives for the NASA JSI1044 test, the overall objective was to prepare for a 2016 test validating the design of a low-noise, low-boom supersonic commercial airliner. In this paper we explore design requirements for a partial aircraft model to be used in subscale acoustic testing, especially focusing on the amount of shielding surface that must be provided to simulate the acoustic environment between propulsion exhaust system and observer. We document the dual-stream jets, both nozzle and flow conditions, which were tested to extend JSI acoustic modeling from simple single-stream jets to realistic dual-stream exhaust nozzles. Examples of observations found as surface geometry and flow conditions were varied were provided. And we have presented initial measurements of the installation impacts of integrating the propulsion on the airframe for a supersonic airliner with realistic airframe geometries and nozzles.

  11. Immune exhaustion during chronic infections in cattle

    PubMed Central

    KONNAI, Satoru; MURATA, Shiro; OHASHI, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Recently, dysfunction of antigen-specific T cells is well documented as T-cell exhaustion and has been defined by the loss of effector functions during chronic infections and cancer in human. The exhausted T cells are characterized phenotypically by the surface expression of immunoinhibitory receptors, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). However, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the immunoinhibitory receptors in the fields of veterinary medicine. In particular, very little is known about mechanism of T cell dysfunction in chronic infection in cattle. Recent our studies have revealed that immunoinhibitory molecules including PD-1/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) play critical roles in immune exhaustion and disease progression in case of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, Johne’s disease and bovine anaplasmosis. This review includes some recent data from us. PMID:27725355

  12. Towards a Formal Basis for Modular Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Safety assurance using argument-based safety cases is an accepted best-practice in many safety-critical sectors. Goal Structuring Notation (GSN), which is widely used for presenting safety arguments graphically, provides a notion of modular arguments to support the goal of incremental certification. Despite the efforts at standardization, GSN remains an informal notation whereas the GSN standard contains appreciable ambiguity especially concerning modular extensions. This, in turn, presents challenges when developing tools and methods to intelligently manipulate modular GSN arguments. This paper develops the elements of a theory of modular safety cases, leveraging our previous work on formalizing GSN arguments. Using example argument structures we highlight some ambiguities arising through the existing guidance, present the intuition underlying the theory, clarify syntax, and address modular arguments, contracts, well-formedness and well-scopedness of modules. Based on this theory, we have a preliminary implementation of modular arguments in our toolset, AdvoCATE.

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  14. Calculation and modular properties of multiloop superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, G. S.

    2013-06-15

    Multiloop superstring amplitudes are calculated within an extensively used gauge where the two-dimensional gravitino field carries Grassmann moduli. In general, the amplitudes possess, instead of modular symmetry, symmetry with respect to modular transformation supplemented with appropriate transformations of two-dimensional local supersymmetry. If the number of loops is larger than three, the integrationmeasures are notmodular forms, while the expression for the amplitude contains integrals along the boundary of the fundamental region of the modular group.

  15. Solid propellant exhausted aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride - Environmental considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Winstead, E. L.; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and particulate aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were made during penetrations of five Space Shuttle exhaust clouds and one static ground test firing of a shuttle booster. Instrumented aircraft were used to penetrate exhaust clouds and to measure and/or collect samples of exhaust for subsequent analyses. The focus was on the primary solid rocket motor exhaust products, HCl and Al2O3, from the Space Shuttle's solid boosters. Time-dependent behavior of HCl was determined for the exhaust clouds. Composition, morphology, surface chemistry, and particle size distributions were determined for the exhausted Al2O3. Results determined for the exhaust cloud from the static test firing were complicated by having large amounts of entrained alkaline ground debris (soil) in the lofted cloud. The entrained debris may have contributed to neutralization of in-cloud HCl.

  16. Effluent sampling of Scout D and Delta launch vehicle exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulten, W. C.; Storey, R. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Woods, D. C.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Characterization of engine-exhaust effluents (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) has been attempted by conducting field experiments monitoring the exhaust cloud from a Scout-Algol III vehicle launch and a Delta-Thor vehicle launch. The exhaust cloud particulate size number distribution (total number of particles as a function of particle diameter), mass loading, morphology, and elemental composition have been determined within limitations. The gaseous species in the exhaust cloud have been identified. In addition to the ground-based measurements, instrumented aircraft flights through the low-altitude, stabilized-exhaust cloud provided measurements which identified CO and HCI gases and Al2O3 particles. Measurements of the initial exhaust cloud during formation and downwind at several distances have established sampling techniques which will be used for experimental verification of model predictions of effluent dispersion and fallout from exhaust clouds.

  17. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  18. Metabolic network modularity in archaea depends on growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Borjigin, Suritalatu

    2011-01-01

    Network modularity is an important structural feature in metabolic networks. A previous study suggested that the variability in natural habitat promotes metabolic network modularity in bacteria. However, since many factors influence the structure of the metabolic network, this phenomenon might be limited and there may be other explanations for the change in metabolic network modularity. Therefore, we focus on archaea because they belong to another domain of prokaryotes and show variability in growth conditions (e.g., trophic requirement and optimal growth temperature), but not in habitats because of their specialized growth conditions (e.g., high growth temperature). The relationship between biological features and metabolic network modularity is examined in detail. We first show the absence of a relationship between network modularity and habitat variability in archaea, as archaeal habitats are more limited than bacterial habitats. Although this finding implies the need for further studies regarding the differences in network modularity, it does not contradict previous work. Further investigations reveal alternative explanations. Specifically, growth conditions, trophic requirement, and optimal growth temperature, in particular, affect metabolic network modularity. We have discussed the mechanisms for the growth condition-dependant changes in network modularity. Our findings suggest different explanations for the changes in network modularity and provide new insights into adaptation and evolution in metabolic networks, despite several limitations of data analysis.

  19. Cascading failures of interdependent modular small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guowei; Wang, Xianpei; Tian, Meng; Dai, Dangdang; Long, Jiachuan; Zhang, Qilin

    2016-07-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that many real-world networks fall into the broad class of small-world networks and have a modular structure. The modularity has been revealed to have an important effect on cascading failure in isolated networks. However, the corresponding results for interdependent modular small-world networks remain missing. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cascading failures and the intra-modular rewiring probabilities and inter-modular connections under different coupling preferences, i.e. random coupling with modules (RCWM), assortative coupling in modules (ACIM) and assortative coupling with modules (ACWM). The size of the largest connected component is used to evaluate the robustness from global and local perspectives. Numerical results indicate that increasing intra-modular rewiring probabilities and inter-modular connections can improve the robustness of interdependent modular small-world networks under intra-attacks and inter-attacks. Meanwhile, experiments on three coupling strategies demonstrate that ACIM has a better effect on preventing the cascading failures compared with RCWM and ACWM. These results can be helpful to allocate and optimize the topological structure of interdependent modular small-world networks to improve the robustness of such networks.

  20. Unimodal sequences and quantum and mock modular forms

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Jennifer; Ono, Ken; Pitman, Sarah; Rhoades, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that the rank generating function U(t; q) for strongly unimodal sequences lies at the interface of quantum modular forms and mock modular forms. We use U(-1; q) to obtain a quantum modular form which is “dual” to the quantum form Zagier constructed from Kontsevich’s “strange” function F(q). As a result, we obtain a new representation for a certain generating function for L-values. The series U(i; q) = U(-i; q) is a mock modular form, and we use this fact to obtain new congruences for certain enumerative functions.

  1. Corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks compared to titanium modular necks in a simulator test.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Ulrich; Neumann, Daniel; Frank, Mario

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks with that of titanium alloy modular necks at their junction to titanium-alloy femoral stem. Tests were performed in a dry assembly and two wet assemblies, one contaminated with calf serum and the other contaminated with calf serum and bone particles. Whereas the titanium modular neck tested in the dry assembly showed no signs of corrosion, the titanium modular necks tested in both wet assemblies showed marked depositions and corrosive attacks. By contrast, the tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks showed no traces of corrosion or chemical attack in any of the three assemblies. This study confirms the protective effect of tantalum coating the taper region of cobalt-chromium modular neck components, suggesting that the use of tantalum may reduce the risk of implant failure due to corrosion.

  2. Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Amol S.

    Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction

  3. Imaging Total Stations - Modular and Integrated Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauth, Stefan; Schlüter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: 3D-Metrology, Engineering Geodesy, Digital Image Processing Initialized in 2009, the Institute for Spatial Information and Surveying Technology i3mainz, Mainz University of Applied Sciences, forces research towards modular concepts for imaging total stations. On the one hand, this research is driven by the successful setup of high precision imaging motor theodolites in the near past, on the other hand it is pushed by the actual introduction of integrated imaging total stations to the positioning market by the manufacturers Topcon and Trimble. Modular concepts for imaging total stations are manufacturer independent to a large extent and consist of a particular combination of accessory hardware, software and algorithmic procedures. The hardware part consists mainly of an interchangeable eyepiece adapter offering opportunities for digital imaging and motorized focus control. An easy assembly and disassembly in the field is possible allowing the user to switch between the classical and the imaging use of a robotic total station. The software part primarily has to ensure hardware control, but several level of algorithmic support might be added and have to be distinguished. Algorithmic procedures allow to reach several levels of calibration concerning the geometry of the external digital camera and the total station. We deliver insight in our recent developments and quality characteristics. Both the modular and the integrated approach seem to have its individual strengths and weaknesses. Therefore we expect that both approaches might point at different target applications. Our aim is a better understanding of appropriate applications for robotic imaging total stations. First results are presented. Stefan Hauth, Martin Schlüter i3mainz - Institut für Raumbezogene Informations- und Messtechnik FH Mainz University of Applied Sciences Lucy-Hillebrand-Straße 2, 55128 Mainz, Germany

  4. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  5. Contextualizing emotional exhaustion and positive emotional display: the signaling effects of supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates' emotional exhaustion was more negatively related to their positive emotional display when supervisors' emotional exhaustion was higher rather than lower; this interaction effect of subordinates' and supervisors' emotional exhaustion was not significant in a more positive service climate. These results suggest that service climate and supervisors' emotional exhaustion provide emotionally exhausted employees with important information cues about the possible availability of compensatory resources they need to uphold their efforts to display service-focused emotions.

  6. Intelligent subsystem interface for modular hardware system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krening, Douglas N. (Inventor); Lannan, Gregory B. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Robert A. (Inventor); Caffrey, Robert T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A single chip application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which provides a flexible, modular interface between a subsystem and a standard system bus. The ASIC includes a microcontroller/microprocessor, a serial interface for connection to the bus, and a variety of communications interface devices available for coupling to the subsystem. A three-bus architecture, utilizing arbitration, provides connectivity within the ASIC and between the ASIC and the subsystem. The communication interface devices include UART (serial), parallel, analog, and external device interface utilizing bus connections paired with device select signals. A low power (sleep) mode is provided as is a processor disable option.

  7. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-12-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  8. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-09-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  9. Development of modular cable mesh deployable antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Akira; Mitsugi, Jin; Andou, Kazuhide

    1993-03-01

    This report describes a concept and key technologies for the modular mesh deployable antenna. The antenna reflector composed of independently manufactured and tested modules is presented. Each module consists of a mesh surface, a cable network, and a deployable truss structure. The cable network comprises three kinds of cables, surface, tie, and back cables. Adjustment of tie cable lengths improves the surface accuracy. Synchronous deployment truss structures are considered as a supporting structure. Their design method, BBM's (Bread Board Model) and deployment analysis are also explained.

  10. New Modular Camera No Ordinary Joe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Although dubbed 'Little Joe' for its small-format characteristics, a new wavefront sensor camera has proved that it is far from coming up short when paired with high-speed, low-noise applications. SciMeasure Analytical Systems, Inc., a provider of cameras and imaging accessories for use in biomedical research and industrial inspection and quality control, is the eye behind Little Joe's shutter, manufacturing and selling the modular, multi-purpose camera worldwide to advance fields such as astronomy, neurobiology, and cardiology.

  11. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    STUBBS, A.M.

    2000-12-04

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This CSWD describes hardware and PFP developed software for control of stabilization furnaces. The Honeywell software can generate configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System.

  12. Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

  13. Modular, Parallel Pulse-Shaping Filter Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    Novel architectures based on parallel subconvolution frequency-domain filtering methods have been developed for modular processing rate reduction of discrete-time pulse-shaping filters. Such pulse-shaping is desirable and often necessary to obtain bandwidth efficiency in very-high-rate wireless communications systems. In principle, this processing could be implemented in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Whereas other approaches to digital pulse-shaping are based primarily on time-domain processing concepts, the theory and design rules of the architectures presented here are founded on frequency-domain processing that has advantages in certain systems.

  14. Language constructs for modular parallel programs

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1996-03-01

    We describe programming language constructs that facilitate the application of modular design techniques in parallel programming. These constructs allow us to isolate resource management and processor scheduling decisions from the specification of individual modules, which can themselves encapsulate design decisions concerned with concurrence, communication, process mapping, and data distribution. This approach permits development of libraries of reusable parallel program components and the reuse of these components in different contexts. In particular, alternative mapping strategies can be explored without modifying other aspects of program logic. We describe how these constructs are incorporated in two practical parallel programming languages, PCN and Fortran M. Compilers have been developed for both languages, allowing experimentation in substantial applications.

  15. Modular Strategies for PET Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging. PMID:19880343

  16. Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers

    DOEpatents

    Ulanovsky, Levy; Raja, Mugasimangalam C.

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

  17. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  18. Shape optimization of the modular press body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabiszczak, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    A paper contains an optimization algorithm of cross-sectional dimensions of a modular press body for the minimum mass criterion. Parameters of the wall thickness and the angle of their inclination relative to the base of section are assumed as the decision variables. The overall dimensions are treated as a constant. The optimal values of parameters were calculated using numerical method of the tool Solver in the program Microsoft Excel. The results of the optimization procedure helped reduce body weight by 27% while maintaining the required rigidity of the body.

  19. Final Report 2175 Modular Radar Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-30

    AFC Amplifier AGC Module L.V. LC FUter SYS Power Converter (DC) SYS Power Converter (AC) AUX Power Supply (DC) AUX Power Supply (AC) +5VRec/Fil...Pos. Series Reg. 4* 4 2 1C - $200 ND „ HV Rectifier/ FUter I* 1 1 IB - $150 ND LV Rectifier/ FUter 3* 3 2 1C - $175 ND _ Comparator 1* 1 1 1A - $100...Status F1LXFMR/XIST0RS & Line Rect/ FUter (Special for each magnetron) 1* — — 2G 20X10-6 $350 ND Modular Isolation LC Filter(Special for each

  20. Modular platform for low-light microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin; Tuerkcan, Silvan; Ceballos, Andrew; Pratx, Guillem

    2015-01-01

    Cell imaging using low-light techniques such as bioluminescence, radioluminescence, and low-excitation fluorescence has received increased attention, particularly due to broad commercialization of highly sensitive detectors. However, the dim signals are still regarded as difficult to image using conventional microscopes, where the only low-light microscope in the market is primarily optimized for bioluminescence imaging. Here, we developed a novel modular microscope that is cost-effective and suitable for imaging different low-light luminescence modes. Results show that this microscope system features excellent aberration correction capabilities and enhanced image resolution, where bioluminescence, radioluminescence and epifluorescence images were captured and compared with the commercial bioluminescence microscope. PMID:26601020