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Sample records for 241-sy-102 supernate grab

  1. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-SY-102 grab samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-08-14

    Three grab samples (2SY-96-1, 2SY-96-2, and 2SY-96-3) were taken from Riser 1A of Tank 241-SY 102 on January 14, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on January 14, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farm Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Acetone analysis was not performed in accordance with Cancellation of Acetone Analysis for Tank 241-SY-102 Grab Samples.

  2. Tank 241-SY-102 January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-05-11

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results.

  3. Report on Electrochemcial Corrosion Testing of 241-SY-102 Grab Samples from the 2012 Grab Sampling Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrwas, Richard B.; Lamothe, Margaret E.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the results of the electrochemical testing performed on tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples that were collected in support of corrosion mitigation. The objective of the work presented here was to determine corrosion resistance of tank SY-102 to the grab samples collected using electrochemical methods up to 50°C as well as to satisfy data quality objectives. Grab samples were collected at multiple elevations from Riser 003. The electrochemical corrosion testing was planned to consist of linear polarization resistance testing (LPR) and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) testing at 50°C. The temperature would be lowered to 40 °C and the test repeated if the CPP curve indicated pitting corrosion at 50°C. Ifno pitting was indicated by the CPP curve, then a duplicate scan would be repeated at 50°C to confirm the first result. The testing would be complete if the duplicate CPP scan was consistent with the first. This report contains the CPP results of the testing of grab sample 2SY-12-03 and 2SY-12-03DUP composite sample tested under these conditions. There was no indication of pitting at 50°C, and the duplicate scan was in agreement with the first scan. Since no further testing was required, a third scan with a shorter rest time was performed and is present in this report.

  4. Tank characterization report for Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C.; Winters, W.I.

    1995-06-09

    This tank characterization report presents an overview of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102 (hereafter, Tank 241-SY-102) and its waste contents. It provides estimated concentrations and inventories for the waste components based on the latest sampling and analysis activities and background tank information. This report describes the results of three sampling events. The first core sample was taken in October 1988. The tank supernate and sludge were next core sampled in February and March of 1990 (Tingey and Sasaki 1995). A grab sample of the supernate was taken in March of 1994. Tank 241-SY-102 is in active service and can be expected to have additional transfers to and from the tank that will alter the composition of the waste. The concentration and inventory estimates reported in this document no longer reflect the exact composition of the waste but represent the best estimates based on the most recent and available data. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-44-08 (Ecology, EPA, DOE 1994).

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TEST RESULTS FOR TANK 241-SY-102 SUPERNATE GRAB SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-04-09

    This report describes the electrochemical corrosion scans and conditions for testing of SY-102 supernatant samples taken December 2004. The testing was performed because the tank was under a Justification for Continued Operation allowing the supernatant composition to be outside the chemistry limits of Administrative Control 5.16, 'Corrosion Mitigation program'. A new electrochemical working electrode of A516 Grade 60 carbon steel was used for each scan; all scans were measured against a saturated calomel electrode, with carbon counter electrodes, and all scans were carried out at 50 C. The samples were scanned twice, once as received and once sparged with argon to deoxygenate the sample. For those scans conducted after argon purging, the corrosion rates ranged from 0.012 to 0.019 mpy. A test for stress corrosion cracking was carried out on one sample (2SY-04-07) with negative results.

  6. Engineer/constructor description of work for Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system, project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides a description of work for the design and construction of a waste retrieval system for Tank 241-SY-102. The description of work includes a working estimate and schedule, as well as a narrative description and sketches of the waste retrieval system. The working estimate and schedule are within the established baselines for the Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system. The technical baseline is provided in Functional Design Criteria, WHC-SD-W211-FDC-001, Revision 2.

  7. Waste mixing and diluent selection for the planned retrieval of Hanford Tank 241-SY-102: A preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Hudson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This preliminary assessment documents a set of analyses that were performed to determine the potential for Hanford waste Tank 241-SY-102 waste properties to be adversely affected by mixing the current tank contents or by injecting additional diluent into the tank during sludge mobilization. As a part of this effort, the effects of waste heating that will occur as a result of mixer pump operations are also examined. Finally, the predicted transport behavior of the resulting slurries is compared with the waste acceptance criteria for the Cross-Site Transfer System (CSTS). This work is being performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s W-211 Retrieval Project. We applied the equilibrium chemical code, GMIN, to predict potential chemical reactions. We examined the potential effects of mixing the current tank contents (sludge and supernatant liquid) at a range of temperatures and, separately, of adding pure water at a volume ratio of 1:2:2 (sludge:supernatant liquid:water) as an example of further diluting the current tank contents. The main conclusion of the chemical modeling is that mixing the sludge and the supernate (with or without additional water) in Tank 241-SY-102 dissolves all sodium-containing solids (i.e., NaNO{sub 3}(s), thenardite, NaF(s), and halite), but does not significantly affect the amorphous Cr(OH){sub 3} and calcite phase distribution. A very small amount of gibbsite [Al(OH){sub 3}(s)] might precipitate at 25{degrees}C, but a somewhat larger amount of gibbsite is predicted to dissolve at the higher temperatures. In concurrence with the reported tank data, the model affirmed that the interstitial solution within the sludge is saturated with respect to many of the solids species in the sludge, but that the supernatant liquid is not in saturation with many of major solids species in sludge. This indicates that a further evaluation of the sludge mixing could prove beneficial.

  8. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102. Examination Completed June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-07-20

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-102 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA

  9. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-04-05

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  10. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-02-12

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  11. Oxidative-Alkaline Leaching of Washed 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101 Tank Sludges and Its Impact on Immobilized High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Geeting, John G.H.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Vienna, John D.

    2007-02-15

    This report describes work designed to evaluate the effectiveness of alkaline permanganate contacts at selectively removing chromium from the Hanford tank sludges 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101. The key variables examined in this study, as compared to contact with the standard conditions of stoichiometric permanganate in 3 M hydroxide at elevated temperature, were: a) excess permanganate and hydroxide at elevated temperature, b) the separation of an elevated temperature 3 M hydroxide leach with either a room temperature permanganate contact or an elevated temperature permanganate contact at 0.25 M hydroxide. It was determined that sequential permanganate and caustic leaching can provide as effective removal of Cr as the combined high hydroxide permanganate contact at elevated temperature while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution.

  12. DWPF DECON FRIT SUPERNATE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Crawford, C.

    2010-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. This report contains the results of the supernate analyses, while the solids (sump and slurry) results will be reported in a supplemental report. The analytical data from the decon frit supernate indicate that all of the radionuclide, organic, and inorganic concentrations met the limits in Revision 4 of the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) with the exception of boron. The ETP WAC limit for boron is 15.0 mg/L while the average measured concentration (based on quadruplicate analysis) was 15.5 mg/L. The measured concentrations of Li, Na, and Si were also relatively high in the supernate analysis. These results are consistent with the relatively high measured value of B given the compositional make-up of Frit 418. Given these results, it was speculated that either (a) Frit 418 was dissolving into the supernate or aqueous fraction and/or (b) fine frit particulates were carried forward to the analytical instrument based on the sampling procedure used (i.e., the supernate samples were not filtered - only settled with the liquid fraction being transferred with a pipette). To address this issue, a filtered supernate sample (using a 0.45 um filter) was prepared and submitted for analysis. The results of the filtered sample were consistent with 'unfiltered or settled' sample - relatively high values of B, Li, Na, and Si were found. This suggests that Frit 418 is dissolving in the liquid phase which could be enhanced by the high surface area of the frit fines or particulates in suspension. Based on the results

  13. Results of Waste Transfer and Back-Dilution in Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    LA Mahoney; ZI Antoniak; WB Barton; JM Conner; NW Kirch; CW Stewart; BE Wells

    2000-07-26

    This report chronicles the process of remediation of the flammable gas hazard in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) by waste transfer and back-dilution from December 18, 1999 through April 2, 2000. A brief history is given of the development of the flammable gas retention and release hazard in this tank, and the transfer and dilution systems are outlined. A detailed narrative of each of the three transfer and dilution campaigns is given to provide structure for the balance of the report. Details of the behavior of specific data are then described, including the effect of transfer and dilution on the waste levels in Tanks SY-101 and SY-102, data from strain gauges on equipment suspended from the tank dome, changes in waste configuration as inferred from neutron and gamma logs, headspace gas concentrations, waste temperatures, and the mixerpump operating performance. Operating data and performance of the transfer pump in SY-101 are also discussed.

  14. Revised final report for tank 241-AN-101, grab samples 1AN-95-1 through 1AN-95-7. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-01-17

    Six supernate grab samples and one field blank were taken from tank 241-AN-101. This report documents analyses performed in support of the Safety Screening program: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), density by specific gravity (Sp.G.), and total alpha activity (AT).

  15. Global land and water grabbing

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

  16. The Flash Grab Effect

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Patrick; Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    When an object moves back and forth, its trajectory appears significantly shorter than it actually is. The object appears to stop and reverse well before its actual reversal point, as if there is some averaging of location within a window of about 100 ms (Sinico et al, 2009). Surprisingly, if a bar is flashed at the physical end point of the trajectory, right on top of the object, just as it reverses direction, the flash is also shifted – grabbed by the object – and is seen at the perceived endpoint of the trajectory rather than the physical endpoint. This can shift the perceived location of the flash by as much as 2 or 3 times its physical size and by up to several degrees of visual angle. We first show that the position shift of the flash is generated by the trajectory shortening, as the same shift is seen with or without the flash. The flash itself is only grabbed if it is presented within a small spatiotemporal attraction zone around the physical end point of the trajectory. Any flash falling in that zone is pulled toward the perceived endpoint. The effect scales linearly with speed, up to a maximum, and is independent of the contrast of the moving stimulus once it is above 5%. Finally, we demonstrate that this position shift requires attention. These results reveal a new “flash grab” effect in the family of motion-induced position shifts. Although it most resembles the flash drag effect, it differs from this in the following ways: 1) it has a different temporal profile, 2) it requires attention, 3) it is about 10 times larger. PMID:23872166

  17. 60-day waste compatibility safety issue and final results for 244-TX DCRT, grab samples TX-95-1, TX-95-2, and TX-95-3

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Three grab samples (TX-95-1, TX-95-2, and TX-95-3) were taken from tank 241- TX-244 riser 8 on November 7, 1995 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on that same day. Samples TX-95-1 and TX-95-2 were designated as supernate liquids, and sample TX-95-3 was designated as a supernate/sludge. These samples were analyzed to support the waste compatibility safety program. Accuracy and precision criteria were met for all analyses. No notifications were required based on sample results. This document provides the analysis to support the waste compatibility safety program.

  18. Final report for tank 241-AP-101, grab samples 1AP-95-1, 1AP-95-2, 1AP-95-3, 1AP-95-4, 1AP-95-5, and 1AP-95-6

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-03-04

    Six supernate grab samples (1AP-95-1 through 6) and one field blank (1AP-95-7) were taken from tank 241-AP-101, on Nov. 10 and 13, 1995. Analyses were performed in support of the Safety Screening and the Waste Compatibility Safety programs. All analytical results were within the action limits stated in the TSAP.

  19. Tank 214-AW-105, grab samples, analytical results for the finalreport

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-02-20

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AW-105 grab samples. Twenty grabs samples were collected from risers 10A and 15A on August 20 and 21, 1996, of which eight were designated for the K Basin sludge compatibility and mixing studies. This document presents the analytical results for the remaining twelve samples. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DO). The results for the previous sampling of this tank were reported in WHC-SD-WM-DP-149, Rev. 0, 60-Day Waste Compatibility Safety Issue and Final Results for Tank 241-A W-105, Grab Samples 5A W-95-1, 5A W-95-2 and 5A W-95-3. Three supernate samples exceeded the TOC notification limit (30,000 microg C/g dry weight). Appropriate notifications were made. No immediate notifications were required for any other analyte. The TSAP requested analyses for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) for all liquids and centrifuged solid subsamples. The PCB analysis of the liquid samples has been delayed and will be presented in a revision to this document.

  20. Treatability studies for decontamination of Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; Fowler, V.L.; Perona, J.J.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1992-08-01

    Liquid low-level waste, primarily nitric acid contaminated with radionuclides and minor concentrations of organics and heavy metals, is neutralized with sodium hydroxide, concentrated by evaporation, and stored for processing and disposal. The evaporator concentrate separates into sludge and supernate phases upon cooling. The supernate is 4 to 5 mol/L sodium nitrate contaminated with soluble radionuclides, principally {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 14}C, while the sludge consists of precipitated carbonates and hydroxides of metals and transuranic elements. Methods for treatment and disposal of this waste are being developed. In studies to determine the feasibility of removing {sup 137}Cs from the supernates before solidification campaigns, batch sorption measurements were made from four simulated supernate solutions with four different samples of potassium hexacyanocobalt ferrate (KCCF). Cesium decontamination factors of 1 to 8 were obtained with different KCCF batches from a highly-salted supernate at pH 13. Decontamination factors as high as 50 were measured from supernates with lower salt content and pH, in fact, the pH had a greater effect than the solution composition on the decontamination factors. The decontamination factors were highest after 1 to 2 d of mixing and decreased with longer mixing times due to decomposition of the KCCF in the alkaline solution. The decontamination factors decreased with settling time and were lower for the same total contact time (mixing + settling) for the longer mixing times, indicating more rapid KCCF decomposition during mixing than during settling. There was no stratification of cesium in the tubes as the KCCF decomposed.

  1. Water Grabbing analysis at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M.; Saviori, A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2012-12-01

    "Land grabbing" is the acquisition of agricultural land by foreign governments and corporations, a phenomenon that has greatly intensified over the last few years as a result of the increase in food prices and biofuel demand. Land grabbing is inherently associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been investigated before. Here we provide a global assessment of the total grabbed land and water resources. Using process-based agro-hydrological models we estimate the rates of freshwater grabbing worldwide. We find that this phenomenon is occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. High rates of water grabbing are often associated with deforestation and the increase in water withdrawals for irrigation.

  2. Bacterial detachment from salivary conditioning films by dentifrice supernates.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, Henny C; White, Donald J; Cox, Ed R; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I; Busscher, Henk J

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the detachment by supernates of nine different dentifrices of four oral bacterial strains adhering to a salivary pellicle in a parallel plate flow chamber. Ultra-thin bovine enamel slabs were coated for 1.5 h with human whole saliva. Following buffer rinsing, a bacterial suspension of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans or Actinomyces naeslundii was perfused through the flow chamber at a shear rate of 30 s-1 for four hours, and the number of adhering bacteria n4h was enumerated by image analysis after buffer rinsing at the same shear rate. Then, a 25 wt%-dentifrice/water supernate was perfused through the flow chamber for four minutes, followed by eight minutes of buffer rinsing and another enumeration of the number of bacteria that had remained adhering nad. Finally, an air-bubble was passed through the flow chamber to mimic the occasionally high detachment forces occurring in the oral cavity, and the adhering bacteria nab were counted again. On average, S. sanguis was the easiest to detach (73% averaged over all dentifrice supernates), while A. naeslundii was the most difficult (22% on average). The combined detachment of bacteria by dentifrice supernates and air-bubble ranged from a low of 16% to a high of 80%. Dentifrices containing pyrophosphate and polymeric polyphosphate (hexametaphosphate) surface active ingredients appeared to produce the most consistent and strongest desorption effects on plaque bacteria. Factors apparently important to bacterial detachment from pellicle-covered tooth surfaces by dentifrice formulations include the nature of adhesion of bacterial strains and chemical composition of the dentifrice formulations, including pH, surfactant system and the effect of added ingredients (dispersants, metal ions, peroxides, baking soda). PMID:11507932

  3. Bacterial detachment from salivary conditioning films by dentifrice supernates.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, Henny C; White, Donald J; Cox, Ed R; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I; Busscher, Henk J

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the detachment by supernates of nine different dentifrices of four oral bacterial strains adhering to a salivary pellicle in a parallel plate flow chamber. Ultra-thin bovine enamel slabs were coated for 1.5 h with human whole saliva. Following buffer rinsing, a bacterial suspension of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans or Actinomyces naeslundii was perfused through the flow chamber at a shear rate of 30 s-1 for four hours, and the number of adhering bacteria n4h was enumerated by image analysis after buffer rinsing at the same shear rate. Then, a 25 wt%-dentifrice/water supernate was perfused through the flow chamber for four minutes, followed by eight minutes of buffer rinsing and another enumeration of the number of bacteria that had remained adhering nad. Finally, an air-bubble was passed through the flow chamber to mimic the occasionally high detachment forces occurring in the oral cavity, and the adhering bacteria nab were counted again. On average, S. sanguis was the easiest to detach (73% averaged over all dentifrice supernates), while A. naeslundii was the most difficult (22% on average). The combined detachment of bacteria by dentifrice supernates and air-bubble ranged from a low of 16% to a high of 80%. Dentifrices containing pyrophosphate and polymeric polyphosphate (hexametaphosphate) surface active ingredients appeared to produce the most consistent and strongest desorption effects on plaque bacteria. Factors apparently important to bacterial detachment from pellicle-covered tooth surfaces by dentifrice formulations include the nature of adhesion of bacterial strains and chemical composition of the dentifrice formulations, including pH, surfactant system and the effect of added ingredients (dispersants, metal ions, peroxides, baking soda).

  4. Tank 38H Saltcake Core and Supernate Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-07-07

    This report provides details of the characterization of Tank 38H saltcake and supernate samples pulled in September 2003. The core sample HTF-E-03-114 contained approximately 4 inches of saltcake, which was soupy and brown with white chunks, and contained less than 15 mL of cloudy free liquid. The undrained bulk saltcake had a water content of 16.8 percentage weight and a bulk density that was approximately 1.94 g/cm3 at full saturation. The 137Cs activity of the bulk saltcake in sample HTF-E-03-114 was 3.72E+7 pCi/g, which corresponds to 0.3 Ci per gallon of saltcake. The 238Pu activity of the bulk saltcake was 3.62E+6 pCi/g. The filtered free liquid in sample HTF-E-03-114 had a density of 1.430 g/cm3, a 137Cs activity of 0.73 Ci/gal., and a 238Pu activity of 5.78E+3 pCi/mL. The solids filtered from the HTF-E-03-114 free liquid were primarily composed of salts (sodium nitrate and sodium carbonate monohydrate) and sodium aluminosilicates. The Tank 38H supernate samples (HTF-E-03-122 and 123) had a density of 1.45 g/cm3, a 137Cs activity of 0.65 Ci/gal, a 238Pu activity of 2.2E4 pCi/mL, and contained no visible insoluble solids. The viscosity of supernate samples HTF-E-03-122 and 123 was determined at 25 degrees Celsius, 35 degrees Celsius, and 50 degrees Celsius to be 12.1 cP, 8.1 cP, and 5.1 cP, respectively. An exponential correlation for the Tank 38H supernate viscosity was formulated for use over this temperature range. In the undrained saltcake sample, several components, including cesium, nitrite, hydroxide, phosphate, formate, and potassium, were partitioned predominantly into the interstitial liquid. Although the plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium activities in the Tank 38H saltcake core sample are high compared with recent Tank 41H samples, they are low compared with previous saltcake samples from Tank 38H collected in July 2000 and July 2001. The 137Cs of the Tank 38H saltcake sample is comparable with the previous Tank 38H saltcake samples.

  5. Precipitation-adsorption process for the decontamination of nuclear waste supernates

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Lien-Mow; Kilpatrick, Lester L.

    1984-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste supernate is decontaminated of cesium by precipitation of the cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenyl boron. Simultaneously, strontium-90 is removed from the waste supernate sorption of insoluble sodium titanate. The waste solution is then filtered to separate the solution decontaminated of cesium and strontium.

  6. Precipitation-adsorption process for the decontamination of nuclear waste supernates

    DOEpatents

    Lee, L.M.; Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1982-05-19

    High-level nuclear waste supernate is decontaminated of cesium by precipitation of the cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenyl boron. Simultaneously, strontium-90 is removed from the waste supernate sorption of insoluble sodium titanate. The waste solution is then filtered to separate the solution decontaminated of cesium and strontium.

  7. Characterization of hazardous constituents in HLW supernate and implications for solid LLW generation

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.

    1994-06-22

    High Level Waste supernates are hazardous due to the presence of small quantities of mercury, chromium, lead, silver and barium. The fate of these components based on process knowledge was evaluated. The supernates were grouped into Traditional (normal storage and evaporation), Dilute (stored in Type IV tanks), and Sludge Processing categories, and a review of the limited quantity of available sample data for each type of supernate was performed. The maximum concentration of each hazardous constituent was determined. The most restrictive hazardous constituent in Traditional and Sludge Processing supernates was determined to be mercury, and the most restrictive component in Dilute supernate was chromium. Containers of solid waste contaminated with these supernates must be manifested as nonhazardous before disposal as Low Level Waste in the engineered vaults in the EAV. A method was developed to screen waste containers in order to identify those containers that are nonhazardous. A criterion for {sup 137}Cs content was arbitrarily set to 0.1 Ci, and the volume of supernate required to deposit 0.1 Ci was calculated. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of {sup 137}Cs and over 85 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from normal storage and evaporation operations are nonhazardous. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of {sup 137}Cs and over 170 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from sludge processing operations are nonhazardous. All containers of waste contaminated with supernate from Type IV tanks were evaluated as being nonhazardous. The screening method is readily applicable in the field - if the {sup 137}Cs content of a container is below 0.1 Ci and the weight of the waste is greater than 85 or 170 lb (depending on waste type), the waste container is nonhazardous. Containers not satisfying both criteria will be segregated for additional evaluation.

  8. Access to Bathtub Grab Bars: Evidence of a Policy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, Nicholas; Nair, Rama; Murphy, Maureen; Roberge, Ginette; Lockett, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines access to bathtub grab bars in privately and publicly owned apartment buildings and explores the profile of seniors who have access to bathtub grab bars. Results indicate that bathtub grab bars were significantly more prevalent in apartments that were publicly owned (91.3%) as compared to privately owned (37.8%) (p lesser than…

  9. Characterization of hazardous constituents in HLW supernate and implications for solid LLW generation

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.

    1994-10-10

    High Level Waste (HLW) generated during Separations processing in the F- and H-Canyons is transferred to the Tank Farms for stage in 51 underground, million gallon storage tanks. The waste is an aqueous solution containing dissolved sodium salts and insoluble metal oxides/hydroxides. The waste solution is evaporated to reduce the volume, and the resulting saltcake and residual supernate are stored. Over the 40 year history of the Tank Farm, routine supernate sampling has been conducted in support of the primary goal of safe storage of HLW. As a result of routine and non-routine activities that are part of managing these highly radioactive wastes, secondary solid waste is generated. Radioactive contamination of over 90% of the solid waste generated is due to contact with BLW supernate or saltcake. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for of solid waste in the E-Area Vaults (EAV), the quantity of certain radioisotopes must be manifested for each waste container and a declaration made of whether or not the waste is hazardous. However, solid waste is not amenable to routine analysis, this forces a reliance on analytical data from supernate samples to characterize the contamination. To provide the manifest information, process knowledge in combination with the limited amount of analytical data will be used. This report documents the characterization of hazardous components in the HLW supernate associated with the waste storage, evaporation and sludge processing facilities. The hazardous constituents of HLW are identified and the fate of the constituents is tracked based on knowledge of each phase of the process. The limited amount of sample data that includes analyses for hazardous species is then used to establish average and maximum characterization values. Finally, a screening based on an average supernate is compared to the criteria for the individual streams to evaluate the amount of conservatism introduced for the individual streams.

  10. Solubilities of significant compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions - FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-09-30

    The solubilities of two sodium salts of organic acids that are thought to exist in high-level waste at the Hanford Site were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY1996 This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degrees}C, 30 {degrees}C, 40 {degrees}C, and 50 {degrees}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. Two types of tank supernate simulants were used - a 4.O M sodium nitrate - 0.97 M sodium nitrite solution with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from O.00003 M to 2.O M and a 2.O M sodium nitrite solution saturated with crystalline sodium nitrate with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.1 M to 2. 0 M. The solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene- diaminetriacetate in both types of HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. The solubilities of these compounds are similar (in terms of total organic carbon) to sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, dibutylphosphate, citrate, formate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and nitrilotriacetate which were measured previously. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (TOC) of actual tank supernates are generaly much lower than the TOC ranges for the simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is true even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble

  11. Grab a Byte. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Vila M.; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the "Grab a Byte" program developed by tne National Dairy Council. (The program--not included in this document--is divided into three sections: Grab-a-Grape uses a quiz-show format to examine students' knowledge of food groups; Nutrition Sleuth reinforces students' nutrient knowledge; and Have-a-Byte analyzes meals…

  12. High level waste characterization in support of low level waste certification. I. HLW supernate radionuclide characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, M.E.; d`Entremont, P.D.; Clemmons, J.S.; Bess, C.E.; Brown, D.F.

    1994-07-08

    High Level Waste Programs has radioactive waste storage, treatment and processing facilities that are located in the F and H Areas at the Savannah River Site. These facilities include the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), F and H Area Tank Farms, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP), and In-Tank Precipitation (ITP). Job wastes are generated from operation, maintenance, and construction activities inside radiological areas. These items may have been contaminated with radioactive supernate, salt, and sludge material. Most of these wastes will be disposed of in the E-area Vaults. Therefore, an isotopic and hazardous characterization must be performed. The characterization of HLW supernate radionuclides is discussed in Chapter I. The characterization for salt and sludge phases, which can also contaminate LLW, will be included in other Chapters.

  13. Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Determining Uranium and Plutonium Solubility in Actual Tank Waste Supernates

    SciTech Connect

    King, William D.

    2005-06-28

    Savannah River Site tank waste supernates contain small quantities of dissolved uranium and plutonium. Due to the large volume of supernates, significant quantities of dissolved uranium and plutonium are managed as part of waste transfers, evaporation and pretreatment at the Savannah River Site in tank farm operations, the Actinide Removal Project (ARP), and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Previous SRNL studies have investigated the effect of temperature and major supernate components on the solubility of uranium and plutonium. Based on these studies, equations were developed for the prediction of U and Pu solubility in tank waste supernates. The majority of the previous tests were conducted with simulated waste solutions. The current testing is intended to determine solubility in actual tank waste samples (as-received, diluted, and combinations of tank samples) as a function of composition and temperature. Results will be used to validate and build on the existing solubility equations.

  14. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND NITRATE SALT SUPERNATE

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael02 Smith, M

    2007-03-30

    About two decades ago a process was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove Cs137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates so the supernates could be land disposed as low activity waste (LAW). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was used to precipitate Cs{sup 137} as CsTPB. The flowsheet called for destruction of the organic TPB by acid hydrolysis so that the Cs{sup 137} enriched residue could be mixed with other HLW sludge, vitrified, and disposed of in a federal geologic repository. The precipitation process was demonstrated full scale with actual HLW waste and a 2.5 wt% Cs137 rich precipitate containing organic TPB was produced admixed with 240,000 gallons of salt supernate. Organic destruction by acid hydrolysis proved to be problematic and other disposal technologies were investigated. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR), which destroys organics by pyrolysis, is the current baseline technology for destroying the TPB and the waste nitrates prior to vitrification. Bench scale tests were designed and conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to reproduce the pyrolysis reactions. The formation of alkali carbonate phases that are compatible with DWPF waste pre-processing and vitrification were demonstrated in the bench scale tests. Test parameters were optimized for a pilot scale FBSR demonstration that was performed at the SAIC Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003. An engineering scale demonstration was completed by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRNL in 2006 at the Hazen Research, Inc. test facility in Golden, CO. The same mineral carbonate phases, the same organic destruction (>99.99%) and the same nitrate/nitrite destruction (>99.99%) were produced at the bench scale, pilot scale, and engineering scale although different sources of carbon were used during testing.

  15. Recent results on the solubility of uranium and plutonium in Savannah River Site waste supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1994-03-01

    High-level waste (HLW) is stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in a highly alkaline condition to prevent corrosion of the carbon steel storage tanks. Major components in the liquid phase include nitrate, hydroxide, nitrite, aluminate, carbonate and sulfate. Minor components include chloride, fluoride, oxalate and phosphate. The low solubility of uranium and plutonium in the HLW becomes significant to nuclear safety analyses when the supernate is evaporated to solids to conserve waste storage space and then redissolved to process for permanent disposal. The study of uranium and plutonium solubility in synthetic waste tank solutions was initiated to define actinide behavior during waste removal operations.

  16. Tank 41H Post-Dissolution Saltcake Core and Supernate SampleAnalysis

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-07-07

    This report provides analyses of the samples from Tank 41H. The characterization also includes supernate samples pulled from the surface (347 inch) and 250 inch levels of the salt supernate. The three saltcake samples (HTF-E-03-145, 146, and 147) were filled to nearly their capacity with saltcake and free liquid, with an average saltcake bulk density of 2.06 g/cm3. The undrained saltcake from the bottom of the middle sample (HTF-E-03-146) had a water content of 4.1 percentage weight, a 137Cs activity of 0.14 Ci per gallon of saltcake, and an alpha content of 1.4E+4 pCi/g. The undrained saltcake from the bottom of the bottom sample (HTF-E-03-147) had a water content of 8.5 percentage weight, a 137Cs activity of 0.17 Ci per gallon of saltcake, and an alpha content of 3.0E+4 pCi/g. Interstitial liquid drained from the middle sample (HTF-E-03-146) had a density of 1.43 g/cm3, a soluble solids content of 45.4 percentage weight, a 137Cs activity of 0.78 Ci per gallon of interstitial liquid, a nd an alpha content of 1.1E+4 pCi/mL. An analysis of material from the top of the top sample (HTF-E-03-145) is provided in support of Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluations. The as-received saltcake and the residual insoluble solids had a uranium-235 enrichment of approximately 12.2 per cent. Characterization focused on providing information on fissile radionuclides, potential neutron poisons, and other potential diluents. Supernate samples pulled from the surface and from the 250 in. levels of the C1 and C3 risers yielded information on the vertical and lateral tank supernate homogeneity. The 137Cs content of these Tank 41H samples averaged 0.56 Ci/gal for the C3 riser and 0.65 Ci/gal for the C1 riser. The 238Pu content of the four unfiltered samples ranged from 1.41E+4 pCi/mL to 2.21E+4 pCi/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of saltcake from sample HTF-E-03-146 revealed several features consistent with mineral dissolution: sub-rounded appearance of grains, lack of coatings by

  17. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Technetium from Savannah River Site Tank 44 F Supernate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2000-08-23

    As part of the Hanford River Protection Project waste Treatment facility design contracted to BNFL, Inc., a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 4 F waste solution was treated for the removal of technetium (as pertechnetate ion). Interest in treating the SRS sample for Tc removal resulted from the similarity between the Tank 44 F supernate composition and Hanford Envelope A supernate solutions. The Tank 44 F sample was available as a by-product of tests already conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as part of the Alternative Salt Disposition Program for treatment of SRS wastes. Testing of the SRS sample resulted in considerable cost-savings since it was not necessary to ship a sample of Hanford supernate to SRS.

  18. 33. REPAIRMEN ARE AT WORK ON THE HULETT'S GRAB BUCKET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. REPAIRMEN ARE AT WORK ON THE HULETT'S GRAB BUCKET. BUCKET IS SEEN HERE IN ITS FULL OPEN POSITION. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. Evaluation of selected ion exchangers for the removal of cesium from MVST W-25 supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.; Mrochek, J.E.; Bell, J.T.; Jernigan, G.E.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this batch-test equilibration study was to evaluate the effectiveness of certain ion exchangers for removing cesium from supernate taken from tank W-25 of the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These exchangers were selective for removing cesium from alkaline supernatant solutions with high salt concentrations. Since the supernates of evaporator concentrates stored in tanks at the MVST facility have compositions similar to some of those stored in tanks at Hanford, the data generated in this study should prove useful in the overall evaluation of the ion exchangers for applications to Hanford and other US Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. A goal of the waste processing effort at Hanford is to remove enough cesium to ensure that the resulting LLW will meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 10 CFR 61 class A limit for {sup 137}Cs (1 Ci/m{sup 3} or 1 {mu}Ci/mL). The separated cesium may be concentrated and vitrified for disposal in the high-level waste repository. The decontaminated effluent would be solidified for near-surface disposal.

  20. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  1. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand grab must...

  2. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand grab must...

  3. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand grab must...

  4. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand grab must...

  5. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand grab must...

  6. Tank 241-AX-101 grab samples 1AX-97-1 through 1AX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-11-13

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AX-101 grab samples. Four grab samples were collected from riser 5B on July 29, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 1AX-97-1, 1AX-97-2 and 1AX-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. All four samples contained settled solids that appeared to be large salt crystals that precipitated upon cooling to ambient temperature. Less than 25 % settled solids were present in the first three samples, therefore only the supernate was sampled and analyzed. Sample 1AX-97-4 contained approximately 25.3 % settled solids. Compatibility analyses were not performed on this sample. Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information. All four samples contained settled solids that appeared to be large salt crystal that precipitated upon cooling to ambient temperature. The settled solids in samples 1AX-97-1, 1AX-97-2 and 1AX-97-3 were less than 25% by volume. Therefore, for these three samples, two 15-mL subsamples were pipetted to the surface of the liquid and submitted to the laboratory for analysis. In addition, a portion of the liquid was taken from each of the these three samples to perform an acidified ammonia analysis. No analysis was performed on the settled solid portion of the samples. Sample 1AX-97-4 was reserved for the Process Chemistry group to perform boil down and dissolution testing in accordance with Letter of Instruction for Non-Routine Analysis of Single-Shell Tank 241-AX-101 Grab Samples (Field, 1997) (Correspondence 1). However, prior to the analysis, the sample was inadvertently

  7. Final report for tank 241-AN-102, grab samples 2AN-95-1 through 2AN-95-6 and 102-AN-1 through 102-AN-4

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-03-21

    Ten grab samples (2AN-95-1, 2, 3, 4A, 5A; 102-AN-1, 2, 3(A), 3(B), and 4) and one field blank (2AN-95-6) were taken from tank 241-AN-102. In support of the safety screening program, total organic carbon and cyanide were performed as secondary analyses because the differential scanning calorimetry results exceeded the notification limit. These were compared to safety screening limits at a confidence level of 95%. Waste compatibility analyses were performed on the 3 supernate samples and the field blank from the latest sampling event. Results presented in the 45 day and in this report show that the waste in Tank 241-AN-1D2 has energetics greater than 480 J/g (dry) and total organic carbon > 3 wt%; however, with a moisture content > 17 wt%, the tank may be considered ``conditionally`` safe in accordance with the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue.

  8. Supplemental Report: Technetium-99 On-Line Monitoring by Beta Counting for Hanford Supernate Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.A.

    2000-08-23

    SRTC is investigating approaches for near-real-time monitoring of 99Tc at selected points in the proposed pretreatment process for Hanford supernate waste solutions. The desired monitoring points include both the feed to and decontaminated product from a technetium-removal column. A Cs-removal column precedes technetium decontamination in the proposed process. Our earlier report (Ref. 1) showed that a simple flow-through beta counting system can easily meet 99Tc detection limit goals for solutions that do not contain interfering radionuclides; however, concentrations of residual interferences were too high in process solutions at the desired monitoring points. That is, technetium can not be measured without additional purification. In this supplement, ADS evaluated ion exchange cartridges to remove radionuclides that interfere with 99Tc beta measurements. Tests on radioactive standard solutions and on Hanford Envelope B (AZ-102) pretreated process solutions show that 99Tc passes through the cation removal cartridge to an on-line beta counter, and that interfering radionuclides were nearly totally removed. Envelope B solutions included both the process's Cs-removed feed to the Tc-removal column and product from the column. Analyses of these solutions before and after the cation exchange cartridge show that the concentration of the primary interference, 137Cs, was reduced to about 1/250th of the feed concentration.

  9. Grabbed Early by Vocabulary: Nation's Ongoing Contributions to Vocabulary and Reading in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxhead, Averil

    2010-01-01

    "I was grabbed early [by vocabulary] and never let go. That's why it's difficult to explain why I enjoy working in this area. I just love doing it," said Paul Nation (in Coxhead, 2005, p. 46). How many people get grabbed by an area of research, teaching, and learning that continues to engage interest and cause excitement after 30 years? In this…

  10. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... with a bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand...

  11. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... with a bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand...

  12. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... with a bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand...

  13. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... with a bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand...

  14. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... with a bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent. (f) A suitable storm rail or hand...

  15. Experimental Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of SRS Waste Tank Supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.; Reboul, S.

    2015-06-01

    SRS High Level Waste Tank Farm personnel rely on conductivity probes for detection of incipient overflow conditions in waste tanks. Minimal information is available concerning the sensitivity that must be achieved such that that liquid detection is assured. Overly sensitive electronics results in numerous nuisance alarms for these safety-related instruments. In order to determine the minimum sensitivity required of the probe, Tank Farm Engineering personnel need adequate conductivity data to improve the existing designs. Little or no measurements of liquid waste conductivity exist; however, the liquid phase of the waste consists of inorganic electrolytes for which the conductivity may be calculated. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Tank Farm Facility Engineering requested SRNL to determine the conductivity of the supernate resident in SRS waste Tank 40 experimentally as well as computationally. In addition, SRNL was requested to develop a correlation, if possible, that would be generally applicable to liquid waste resident in SRS waste tanks. A waste sample from Tank 40 was analyzed for composition and electrical conductivity as shown in Table 4-6, Table 4-7, and Table 4-9. The conductivity for undiluted Tank 40 sample was 0.087 S/cm. The accuracy of OLI Analyzer™ was determined using available literature data. Overall, 95% of computed estimates of electrical conductivity are within ±15% of literature values for component concentrations from 0 to 15 M and temperatures from 0 to 125 °C. Though the computational results are generally in good agreement with the measured data, a small portion of literature data deviates as much as ±76%. A simplified model was created that can be used readily to estimate electrical conductivity of waste solution in computer spreadsheets. The variability of this simplified approach deviates up to 140% from measured values. Generally, this model can be applied to estimate the conductivity within a factor of two. The comparison of the

  16. Effective Swimmer’s Action during the Grab Start Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Luis; de Jesus, Karla; Roesler, Hélio; Machado, Leandro J.; Fernandes, Ricardo J.; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Vaz, Mário A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The external forces applied in swimming starts have been often studied, but using direct analysis and simple interpretation data processes. This study aimed to develop a tool for vertical and horizontal force assessment based on the swimmers’ propulsive and structural forces (passive forces due to dead weight) applied during the block phase. Four methodological pathways were followed: the experimented fall of a rigid body, the swimmers’ inertia effect, the development of a mathematical model to describe the outcome of the rigid body fall and its generalization to include the effects of the inertia, and the experimental swimmers’ starting protocol analysed with the inclusion of the developed mathematical tool. The first three methodological steps resulted in the description and computation of the passive force components. At the fourth step, six well-trained swimmers performed three 15 m maximal grab start trials and three-dimensional (3D) kinetic data were obtained using a six degrees of freedom force plate. The passive force contribution to the start performance obtained from the model was subtracted from the experimental force due to the swimmers resulting in the swimmers’ active forces. As expected, the swimmers’ vertical and horizontal active forces accounted for the maximum variability contribution of the experimental forces. It was found that the active force profile for the vertical and horizontal components resembled one another. These findings should be considered in clarifying the active swimmers’ force variability and the respective geometrical profile as indicators to redefine steering strategies. PMID:25978370

  17. Comparison of grab start between elite and trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Vantorre, J; Seifert, L; Fernandes, R J; Boas, J P Vilas; Chollet, D

    2010-12-01

    This study analysed motor control during front crawl swimming starts by elite and trained swimmers, based on comparisons of: 1) kinematic and kinetic parameters of the start and 2) variability of these parameters across 3 trials per swimmer. Given that the start time to the 15-m mark is greatly influenced by the swimming phase, the study also compared the stroking and coordinative parameters from water entry to 25-m in the 2 skill groups. The swimmers performed 3 x 25-m at the 50-m race-pace and used their preferential start technique (grab start). The elite swimmers showed better start organization as reflected by higher impulse values in the direction of intended displacement despite similar block phase durations. They then spent more time in the water entry, gliding and leg kicking phases, with shorter swimming phase duration and 15-m start time than the trained swimmers (p<0.05). The trained swimmers showed significantly lower values for stroke length and velocity (p<0.05) during the swimming phase. Analysis revealed low intra-subject variability (across the 3 trials) but high inter-subject variability, indicating that both elite and trained swimmers had mastered distinct, though different, motor patterns.

  18. Color Image Segmentation Based on Different Color Space Models Using Automatic GrabCut

    PubMed Central

    Ebied, Hala Mousher; Hussein, Ashraf Saad; Tolba, Mohamed Fahmy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study using different color spaces to evaluate the performance of color image segmentation using the automatic GrabCut technique. GrabCut is considered as one of the semiautomatic image segmentation techniques, since it requires user interaction for the initialization of the segmentation process. The automation of the GrabCut technique is proposed as a modification of the original semiautomatic one in order to eliminate the user interaction. The automatic GrabCut utilizes the unsupervised Orchard and Bouman clustering technique for the initialization phase. Comparisons with the original GrabCut show the efficiency of the proposed automatic technique in terms of segmentation, quality, and accuracy. As no explicit color space is recommended for every segmentation problem, automatic GrabCut is applied with RGB, HSV, CMY, XYZ, and YUV color spaces. The comparative study and experimental results using different color images show that RGB color space is the best color space representation for the set of the images used. PMID:25254226

  19. Ion exchange removal of cesium from simulated and actual supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carlson, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in conjunction with the Process Chemistry and Statistics Section of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted this study as part of the Supernatant Treatment Development Task for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Applied Engineering Project. The study assesses the performance of the CS-100 ion exchange material for removing cesium from simulated and actual alkaline supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103. The objective of these experiments is to compare the cesium ion exchange loading and elution profiles of actual and simulated wastes. Specific experimental objectives include (1) demonstration of decontamination factors (DF) for cesium removal, 92) verification of simulant performance, (3) investigation of waste/exchanger chemistry, and (4) determination of the radionuclide content of the regenerated CS-100 resin prior to disposal.

  20. Development of a new Global RAdiation Belt model: GRAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard-Piet, Angelica; Lazaro, Didier; Maget, Vincent; Rolland, Guy; Ecoffet, Robert; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Boscher, Daniel; Standarovski, Denis

    2016-07-01

    The well known AP8 and AE8 NASA models are commonly used in the industry to specify the radiation belt environment. Unfortunately, there are some limitations in the use of these models, first due to the covered energy range, but also because in some regions of space, there are discrepancies between the predicted average values and the measurements. Therefore, our aim is to develop a radiation belt model, covering a large region of space and energy, from LEO altitudes to GEO and above, and from plasma to relativistic particles. The aim for the first version is to correct the AP8 and AE8 models where they are deficient or not defined. At geostationary, we developed ten years ago for electrons the IGE-2006 model which was proven to be more accurate than AE8, and used commonly in the industry, covering a broad energy range, from 1keV to 5MeV. From then, a proton model for geostationary orbit was also developed for material applications, followed by the OZONE model covering a narrower energy range but the whole outer electron belt, a SLOT model to asses average electron values for 2GRAB model, as Global Radiation Belt model. We will present first beta version during this conference.

  1. Mass load estimation errors utilizing grab sampling strategies in a karst watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogle, A.W.; Taraba, J.L.; Dinger, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Developing a mass load estimation method appropriate for a given stream and constituent is difficult due to inconsistencies in hydrologic and constituent characteristics. The difficulty may be increased in flashy flow conditions such as karst. Many projects undertaken are constrained by budget and manpower and do not have the luxury of sophisticated sampling strategies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine two grab sampling strategies with varying sampling intervals and determine the error in mass load estimates, and (2) determine the error that can be expected when a grab sample is collected at a time of day when the diurnal variation is most divergent from the daily mean. Results show grab sampling with continuous flow to be a viable data collection method for estimating mass load in the study watershed. Comparing weekly, biweekly, and monthly grab sampling, monthly sampling produces the best results with this method. However, the time of day the sample is collected is important. Failure to account for diurnal variability when collecting a grab sample may produce unacceptable error in mass load estimates. The best time to collect a sample is when the diurnal cycle is nearest the daily mean.

  2. 60-day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for TX-244 grab samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-05

    Three grab samples (244-TX-96-1, 244-TX-96-2, and 244-TX-96-3) were taken from Riser 8 of Tank 241-TX-244 on October 18, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 18, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support ofthe Waste Compatibility Program. Notifications were made in accordance with TSAP for pH and OH- analyses. Upon further review, the pH notification was deemed unnecessary, as the notification limit did not apply to this tank.

  3. 60-Day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for AY-102 grab samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-31

    Four grab samples (2AY-96-15, 2AY-96-16, 2AY-96-17, and 2AY-96-18) were taken from Riser 15D of Tank 241-AY-102 on October 8, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 8, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results.

  4. SRS Tank 38H and 43H Supernate Foaming Studies and Tank 38H Reel Tape Solids Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. D.; Restivo, M. L.; Martino, C. J.

    2014-12-04

    Radioactive waste samples retrieved from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tanks 38H and 43H (concentrate receipt and feed tanks, respectively, for the 2H Evaporator system) were evaluated with regard to their tendency to form foams during air sparging. This work was conducted due to recent processing issues and outages in the evaporator that were believed to have resulted from sample foaming. The samples evaluated for foam formation included supernate collected in April of 2014 (near the time of the evaporator outage) as well as historical samples available within the SRNL shielded cells facility. The April samples included one Tank 43H surface sample (HTF-43-14-42), one Tank 43H sub-surface sample (HTF-43-14-43), and one Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-41) surface sample. In addition, two Tank 43H samples (HTF-43-14-8 and HTF-43-14-9) and one Tank 38H sample (HTF-38-14-6) were also evaluated along with a blended sample of various historical Tank 38H and 43H samples. Characterization results for the April samples are also provided. The composition of the samples was similar to historical evaporator system samples received at SRNL.

  5. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Analysis systems meeting the specifications and requirements of this subpart for dilute sampling may be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4...

  6. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Analysis systems meeting the specifications and requirements of this subpart for dilute sampling may be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample....

  7. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David A.; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeablemembrane devices (SPMDs) formonitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water.We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2–3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r2 = 0.7451 for PCBs 28 + 52 + 153, r2 = 0.9987 for PBDEs 28 + 47 + 99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  8. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water. We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2-3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r(2)=0.7451 for PCBs 28+52+153, r(2)=0.9987 for PBDEs 28+47+99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  9. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for Tank 241-AP-103 grab samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-10-02

    Three grab samples (3AP-97-2, 3AP-97-3, and 3AP-97-4) were taken from Riser 1 of Tank 241-AP-103 on August 21, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on August 22, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1997 (TSAP) (Field, 1997) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste and Compatibility Program (Mulkey et. al., 1995) (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Appearance and Sample Breakdown Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analyses and identifies their sources. Furthermore, this reference relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory Information Management System sample numbers. Table 1 summarizes appearance information and over-the-top (OTR) dose readings performed on each sample. For each sample, two 20 ml subsamples were created for inorganic and radiochemical analyses.

  10. COMPARISON OF FOUR ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES AND THE PONAR GRAB FOR BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE COLLECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, Keith V.; Ferreira, Rodger F.; Averett, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Four different bottom-placed artificial substrates were compared with the Ponar grab for collecting benthic invertebrates. Artificial substrate samples of organisms were larger and more diverse than those of the grab. Barbeque Basket samplers caught the most taxa and individuals and Beak Trays caught the least. Chironomids and crustaceans were dominant in artificial substrate samples. Exposure habitat (left or right bank) determined taxa availability, whereas sampler design determined suitability for colonization by the taxa. Diversity for Beak Tray samples was lower than that for other artificial substrates but higher than for Ponar samples. The Barbeque Basket, Bull Basket, and Multiple Plate samples were taxonomically similar. Ponar samples were different, and Beak Trays were of intermediate similarity. Additional study results are discussed.

  11. Capillarity driven contact line motion in cyclic bridge-drop grab-release events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lengerich, Henrik; Steen, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Motivated by a reversible adhesion device which uses capillary forces to adhere to a substrate, we study the mechanical work done in a grab-release cycle. That is, the volume of a drop is increased until it grabs the substrate and forms a bridge and then shrunk until it goes unstable and releases from the substrate and forms a drop again. In the instant that a drop becomes a bridge (or vice versa) no work is done on the system, however, energy is dissipated due to the decrease in interfacial energy. This dissipation can be compared with the mechanical dissipation based on the fluid flow. For viscous fluids, a wedge model shows that most of the dissipation occurs in the vicinity of the contact line. The thermodynamic dissipation is compared with that expected in the fluid without the need of static contact angle or slip length.

  12. A comparison of surface-grab and cross sectionally integrated stream-water-quality sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, G.R.; Smoot, J.L.; White, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Stream sampling for water quality data has commonly employed simple surface-grab procedures as opposed to more involved, cross sectionally integrated techniques. Paired samples for analysis of selected constituents were collected over various flow conditions at four sites to evaluate differences between the two sampling methods. Concentrations of dissolved constituents were not consistently different. However, concentrations of suspended sediment and the total forms of some sediment-associated constituents, such as phosphorus, iron, and manganese, were significantly lower in the surface-grab samples than in the cross sectionally integrated samples. The largest median percent difference in concentration for a site was 60% (total recoverable manganese). Median percent differences in concentration for sediment-associated constituents considering all sites grouped were in the range of 20-25%. The surface-grab samples underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment and some sediment-associated constituents, thus limiting the applicability of such data for certain purposes. An association was also demonstrated between site streamflow characteristics and the observed differences.

  13. GRAbB: Selective Assembly of Genomic Regions, a New Niche for Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Brankovics, Balázs; Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne D; van der Lee, Theo A J; Waalwijk, Cees; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-06-01

    GRAbB (Genomic Region Assembly by Baiting) is a new program that is dedicated to assemble specific genomic regions from NGS data. This approach is especially useful when dealing with multi copy regions, such as mitochondrial genome and the rDNA repeat region, parts of the genome that are often neglected or poorly assembled, although they contain interesting information from phylogenetic or epidemiologic perspectives, but also single copy regions can be assembled. The program is capable of targeting multiple regions within a single run. Furthermore, GRAbB can be used to extract specific loci from NGS data, based on homology, like sequences that are used for barcoding. To make the assembly specific, a known part of the region, such as the sequence of a PCR amplicon or a homologous sequence from a related species must be specified. By assembling only the region of interest, the assembly process is computationally much less demanding and may lead to assemblies of better quality. In this study the different applications and functionalities of the program are demonstrated such as: exhaustive assembly (rDNA region and mitochondrial genome), extracting homologous regions or genes (IGS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1a), as well as extracting multiple regions within a single run. The program is also compared with MITObim, which is meant for the exhaustive assembly of a single target based on a similar query sequence. GRAbB is shown to be more efficient than MITObim in terms of speed, memory and disk usage. The other functionalities (handling multiple targets simultaneously and extracting homologous regions) of the new program are not matched by other programs. The program is available with explanatory documentation at https://github.com/b-brankovics/grabb. GRAbB has been tested on Ubuntu (12.04 and 14.04), Fedora (23), CentOS (7.1.1503) and Mac OS X (10.7). Furthermore, GRAbB is available as a docker repository: brankovics/grabb (https://hub.docker.com/r/brankovics/grabb/).

  14. GRAbB: Selective Assembly of Genomic Regions, a New Niche for Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Brankovics, Balázs; Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne D; van der Lee, Theo A J; Waalwijk, Cees; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-06-01

    GRAbB (Genomic Region Assembly by Baiting) is a new program that is dedicated to assemble specific genomic regions from NGS data. This approach is especially useful when dealing with multi copy regions, such as mitochondrial genome and the rDNA repeat region, parts of the genome that are often neglected or poorly assembled, although they contain interesting information from phylogenetic or epidemiologic perspectives, but also single copy regions can be assembled. The program is capable of targeting multiple regions within a single run. Furthermore, GRAbB can be used to extract specific loci from NGS data, based on homology, like sequences that are used for barcoding. To make the assembly specific, a known part of the region, such as the sequence of a PCR amplicon or a homologous sequence from a related species must be specified. By assembling only the region of interest, the assembly process is computationally much less demanding and may lead to assemblies of better quality. In this study the different applications and functionalities of the program are demonstrated such as: exhaustive assembly (rDNA region and mitochondrial genome), extracting homologous regions or genes (IGS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1a), as well as extracting multiple regions within a single run. The program is also compared with MITObim, which is meant for the exhaustive assembly of a single target based on a similar query sequence. GRAbB is shown to be more efficient than MITObim in terms of speed, memory and disk usage. The other functionalities (handling multiple targets simultaneously and extracting homologous regions) of the new program are not matched by other programs. The program is available with explanatory documentation at https://github.com/b-brankovics/grabb. GRAbB has been tested on Ubuntu (12.04 and 14.04), Fedora (23), CentOS (7.1.1503) and Mac OS X (10.7). Furthermore, GRAbB is available as a docker repository: brankovics/grabb (https://hub.docker.com/r/brankovics/grabb/). PMID

  15. GRAbB: Selective Assembly of Genomic Regions, a New Niche for Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne D.; van der Lee, Theo A. J.; Waalwijk, Cees; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2016-01-01

    GRAbB (Genomic Region Assembly by Baiting) is a new program that is dedicated to assemble specific genomic regions from NGS data. This approach is especially useful when dealing with multi copy regions, such as mitochondrial genome and the rDNA repeat region, parts of the genome that are often neglected or poorly assembled, although they contain interesting information from phylogenetic or epidemiologic perspectives, but also single copy regions can be assembled. The program is capable of targeting multiple regions within a single run. Furthermore, GRAbB can be used to extract specific loci from NGS data, based on homology, like sequences that are used for barcoding. To make the assembly specific, a known part of the region, such as the sequence of a PCR amplicon or a homologous sequence from a related species must be specified. By assembling only the region of interest, the assembly process is computationally much less demanding and may lead to assemblies of better quality. In this study the different applications and functionalities of the program are demonstrated such as: exhaustive assembly (rDNA region and mitochondrial genome), extracting homologous regions or genes (IGS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1a), as well as extracting multiple regions within a single run. The program is also compared with MITObim, which is meant for the exhaustive assembly of a single target based on a similar query sequence. GRAbB is shown to be more efficient than MITObim in terms of speed, memory and disk usage. The other functionalities (handling multiple targets simultaneously and extracting homologous regions) of the new program are not matched by other programs. The program is available with explanatory documentation at https://github.com/b-brankovics/grabb. GRAbB has been tested on Ubuntu (12.04 and 14.04), Fedora (23), CentOS (7.1.1503) and Mac OS X (10.7). Furthermore, GRAbB is available as a docker repository: brankovics/grabb (https://hub.docker.com/r/brankovics/grabb/). PMID

  16. Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Peter Pistorino says there is a name for the way he thinks a school district should launch an energy conservation initiative: an "envelope" approach. The term refers to looking at the outside package of a structure to check for inefficiencies: Examine the observable, external sources of energy loss such as the doors, windows, insulation, and…

  17. Grab Bag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents brief items of interest to counselors and students. It presents a preview of internships and how to build careers for veterans. It also features the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program which helps an individual to repay federal student loans with public service. Lastly, it presents data from the most recent survey for the…

  18. Grab Bag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents brief items of interest to counselors and students. It introduces the National Student Exchange program that enables students in nearly 200 participating schools to attend classes on another campus in the United States for a semester or a year. It also describes the launching of social network jobs partnership by the U.S.…

  19. Body Composition and Kinematic Analysis of the Grab Start in Youth Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Alptekin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the kinematic variables in youth swimmers during the grab start between sexes and to investigate the relationship between body composition and kinematic variables of the participants. Six female (Mage = 13.71 ± 0.49 yrs) and seven male (Mage = 14.00 ± 1.07 yrs) swimmers participated in this study. All participants were required to perform grab start tests in random order (three trials by each participant), while the best attempt was analyzed. Nineteen kinematic parameters consisting of block time, flight time, flight distance, total time, total distance, horizontal and vertical displacement of the center of mass (CM) at take-off, horizontal and vertical displacement of the CM at entry, height of take-off and entry, relative height of take-off, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM at take-off, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM at entry, angle of take-off, angle of entry and angle of knee at block were analyzed. Out of the 19 evaluated kinematic parameters, a statistical difference between the female and male group was found only in the total distance. Therefore, both female and male groups are considered as only one group and merged after analyzing the results. Statistical analysis showed positive and negative correlations between horizontal / vertical velocity of CM at take-off and several kinematic variables (e.g. angle of entry (rhorizontal = −.868, p=.000 / rvertical = .591, p=.02), total distance (rhorizontal = .594, p=.02 / rvertical = .54, p=.04), and height of take-off (rvertical = .888, p=.000), respectively). On the other hand, positive and negative correlations were found between somatotype components and several kinematic variables (e.g. horizontal displacement of CM at entry (rendomorphy = −.626, p=.013), angle of entry (rmesomorphy = −.686, p=.005 / rectomorphy = .52, p=.047), total distance (rendomorphy = −.626, p=.012), and height of take-off (rendomorphy = −.633, p=.011

  20. REPORT ON ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING FOR TANK 241-AN-106 USING 2009 SAMPLING CAMPAIGN GRAB SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB

    2010-05-11

    Based on an ENRAF waste surface measurement taken February 1, 2009, double-shell tank (DST) 24l-AN-l06 (AN-106) contained approximately 278.98 inches (793 kgal) of waste. A zip cord measurement from the tank on February 1, 2009, indicated a settled solids layer of 9l.7 inches in height (280 kgal). The supernatant layer in February 2009, by difference, was approximately 187 inches deep (514 kgal). Laboratory results from AN-l06 February 1, 2009 (see Table 2) grab samples indicated the supernatant was below the chemistry limit that applied at the time as identified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, 'Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements', Administrative Control (AC) 5.16, 'Corrosion Mitigation Controls.' The limits have since been removed from the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) and are captured in OSD-T-15l-00007, 'Operating Specifications for the Double-Shell Storage Tanks.' Problem evaluation request WRPS-PER-2009-0218 was submitted February 9,2009, to document the finding that the supernatant chemistry for grab samples taken from the middle and upper regions of the supernatant was noncompliant with the chemistry control limits. The lab results for the samples taken from the bottom region of the supernatant met AC 5.16 limits.

  1. The effects of unilateral grab rail assistance on the sit-to-stand performance of older aged adults.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Damien M; Smith, Richard M

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of unilateral grab rail assistance during the sit-to-stand transfer to develop an understanding of lower limb joint mechanics and whole body movement patterns. External reaction forces at the grab rail and floor interfaces were also investigated to understand the nature of the assistance provided by the introduction of unilateral upper body assistance. While 12 older aged adults performed the sit-to-stand, three-dimensional body segment kinematics were recorded to determine lower body joint motion and whole body centre of mass motion. Grab rail reaction forces and bilateral ground reaction forces were recorded to determine external reaction forces and lower body joint kinetics. Grab rail assisted conditions were compared with unassisted transfers. During grab rail assistance, a systematic asymmetry was introduced to lower limb joint kinetics, without noticeable alterations to peak lower body joint motion and whole body movement patterns. Ipsilateral net joint moments and powers decreased in the ankle and hip and increased in the knee, while the contralateral net joint moments and powers increased in the hip and decreased in the knee. Joint kinetic and kinematic responses suggest a motor control strategy that maintains symmetric sit-to-stand movement patterns by adjusting bilateral muscle control when a unilateral external reaction force is provided. Understanding the mechanical assistance that is generated during the sit-to-stand will facilitate optimal design of grab rails for older aged adults and may contribute to design for specific pathologies. Such design implementation will influence the ability of older aged adults to remain independent in the community.

  2. Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated.

  3. Uncertainty in predictions of seabed sediment classes based on grab samples and acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, Murray; Dove, Dayton; Green, Sophie; Stewart, Heather; Marchant, Ben; Diesing, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Mapping seabed habitats is an essential prerequisite to policy and management decisions. The texture of the seabed sediments, defined with respect to the proportions of gravel, sand and mud size fractions, is a basic property that distinguishes sedimentary seabed habitats under the EUNIS habitat classification scheme. EUNIS sediment habitats are defined on this 2-D texture triangle. The composition of the seabed sediments at an unsampled site can be predicted by additive log-ratio cokriging from grab samples, and it is possible to include acoustic backscatter and bathymetry data to improve the precision of these predictions. In this presentation we shall show how this is achieved. The prediction distribution on the texture triangle can be summarized to express the uncertainty of these kriging predictions. Probabilities can be computed for each EUNIS texture class, and the uncertainty expressed with respect either to the probability of the most probable class, or the information content of the set of class probabilities summarized by their entropy.

  4. "Grab" and good science: writing up the results of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gilgun, Jane F

    2005-02-01

    Qualitative researchers have an array of choices in how to write up their research. Yet many write in distanced, third-person voices and give short shrift to the voices of informants, as if neither they nor their informants were part of the research. In doing so, they might believe that their writing style is scientific. Unfortunately, such styles of writing not only silence their informants and themselves, but many times they also contradict the philosophies of science on which many forms of qualitative research are based. If our philosophies of science are science, then how we write up our research, when it is consistent with our science, must logically be scientific. "Grab," or writing that is both interesting and memorable, goes hand in hand with good science.

  5. RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 56: COLLECTION OF GASEOUS GRAB SAMPLES FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES FOR NITROUS OXIDE MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a recommended operating procedure, prepare or use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). The procedure applies to the collection of gaseous grab samples from fossil fuel combustion sources for subsequent a...

  6. Comparison of Grab, Air, and Surface Results for Radiation Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassford, Eric Keith

    2011-12-01

    The use of proper sampling methods and sample types for evaluating sites believed to be contaminated with radioactive materials is necessary to avoid misrepresenting conditions at the site. This study was designed to investigate if the site characterization, based upon uranium contamination measured in different types of samples, is dependent upon the mass of the sample collected. A bulk sample of potentially contaminated interior dirt was collected from an abandoned metal processing mill that rolled uranium between 1948 and 1956. The original mill dates from 1910 and has a dirt floor. The bulk sample was a mixture of dirt, black and yellow particles of metal dust, and small fragments of natural debris. Small mass (approximately 0.75 grams (g)) and large mass (approximately 70g) grab samples were prepared from the bulk sample material to simulate collection of a "grab" type sample. Air sampling was performed by re-suspending a portion of the bulk sample material using a vibration table to simulate airborne contamination that might be present during site remediation. Additionally, samples of removable contaminated surface dust were collected on 47 mm diameter filter paper by wiping the surfaces of the exposure chamber used to resuspend the bulk material. Certified reference materials, one containing a precisely known quantity of U 3O8 and one containing a known quantity of natural uranium, were utilized to calibrate the gamma spectrometry measurement system. Non-destructive gamma spectrometry measurements were used to determine the content of uranium-235 (235U) at 185 keV and 143 keV, thorium-234 (234Th) at 63 keV, and protactinium-234m (234mPa) at 1001 keV in each sample. Measurement of natural uranium in small, 1 g samples is usually accomplished by radiochemical analysis in order to measure alpha particles emitted by 238U, 235U, and 234U. However, uranium in larger bulk samples can also be measured non-destructively using gamma spectrometry to detect the low

  7. Tank 241-S-304, Grab samples, 304S-98-1, 304S-98-2 and 304S-98-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-S-304 grab samples. Four grab samples were collected from riser 4 on July 30, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP (Saaaki, 1998).

  8. Tank 241-U-103, grab samples 3U-99-1, 3u-99-2 and 3U-99-3

    SciTech Connect

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-08-25

    This document is the final report for tank 241-U-103 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on March 12, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on March 15, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999 (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP.

  9. Tank 241-AN-101, grab samples, 1AN-98-1, 1AN-98-2 and 1AN-98-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-24

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AN-101 grab samples. Three grab samples 1AN-98-1, 1AN-98-2 and 1AN-98-3 were taken from riser 16 of tank 241-AN-101 on April 8, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on April 9, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program'' (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded.

  10. Tank 241-ER-311, grab samples, ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2, ER311-98-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-24

    This document is the final report for catch tank 241-ER-311 grab samples. Three grab samples ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2 and ER311-98-3 were taken from East riser of tank 241-ER-311 on August 4, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on August 4, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998)and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). No notification limits were exceeded.

  11. Column Performance Testing of Superlig 639 Resin with Simulated Hanford Waste Supernates: Identification of the Primary Sorbing Species and Detailed Characterization of their Desorption Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    King, WD

    2003-11-10

    Several bench-scale column tests (resin bed volume less than or equal to 75 mL) have been conducted with SuperLig 639 resin and simulated Hanford waste supernates. Rhenium (surrogate for technetium in actual waste samples) breakthrough profiles were determined for three simulant compositions which are representative of the basic waste categories requiring treatment in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant. Considerable loading performance variability was observed between the three waste types, although the resin is effective at rhenium removal from each solution. Careful and frequent analysis during elution studies conducted at the conclusion of the column loading tests confirmed that sodium nitrate and sodium perrhenate ion pairs are primary sorbing species on SuperLig 639 resin. Furthermore, it was discovered that potassium nitrate and potassium perrhenate salts are significant competitors for sorption sites on the resin. Successive desorption profiles were identified for all four salt species during elution tests. Integration of the desorption profiles revealed that the resin is selective for removal of the potassium salts over the sodium salts.

  12. Evidence of bovine immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) protease activity in partially purified culture supernate of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the bovine respiratory tract, IgG1 is a major secretory immunoglobulin (Ig), and both IgG1 and IgG2 are believed to be important in defense against pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever) in calves. Here we provide evidence for hydrolysis of IgG1 in the presence of partially purified culture supernate (ppCS) from the respiratory pathogen Pasteurella haemolytica A1. Bovine IgG1 was hydrolysed sequentially into three distinct bands (approximately 39, 12, and 7 kDa respectively). Furthermore, partial hydrolysis of bovine IgG2 was observed, but neither bovine IgA nor IgM were affected by incubation with ppCS. These findings suggest that the production of an IgG1-specific protease by P. haemolytica A1 may be a virulence mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8785718

  13. Visualisation of fingermarks and grab impressions on dark fabrics using silver vacuum metal deposition.

    PubMed

    Knighting, Susan; Fraser, Joanna; Sturrock, Keith; Deacon, Paul; Bleay, Stephen; Bremner, David H

    2013-09-01

    Vacuum metal deposition (VMD) involves the thermal evaporation of metal (silver) in a vacuum, resulting in a uniform layer being deposited on the specimen being treated. This paper examines the use of silver on dark fabrics, thus offering a simpler operation and more obvious colouration to that of the traditional use of gold and zinc metals which must be evaporated separately. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fabric type, donor, mark age and method of fingermark deposition on the quality of marks visualised using silver VMD. This was achieved by collecting fingermark deposits from fifteen donors, of both sexes and various ages, by a grab or a press method. Four different fabrics: satin, polyester, polycotton and cotton were studied over a 10day timeline of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21 and 28+ days. It was found that satin and polyester gave the most positive results, with polyester often producing excellent ridge detail. Cotton and polycotton were less successful with no ridge detail being observed. The donors also had an observable effect on the results obtained probably due to variations in secretions produced or pressures applied during specimen collection. The age of the mark or the method of mark deposition had little influence on the results obtained. Silver VMD is a viable process for visualising marks on certain dark fabrics and has the advantage over gold/zinc VMD in that the marks visualised are light in colour which contrasts well against the dark background.

  14. Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with C-Type Lectin Dendritic Cell-Specific ICAM Grabbing Nonintegrin

    PubMed Central

    Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina; Moran, Anthony P.; Fol, Marek; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Druszczyńska, Magdalena; Matusiak, Agnieszka; Walencka, Maria; Rudnicka, Wiesława; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In this study we asked whether Helicobacter pylori whole cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) utilize sugar moieties of Lewis (Le) antigenic determinants to interact with DC-SIGN (dendritic cell specific ICAM grabbing nonintegrin) receptor on dendritic cells (DCs). For this purpose the soluble DC-SIGN/Fc adhesion assay and the THP-1 leukemia cells with induced expression of DC-SIGN were used. We showed that the binding specificity of DC-SIGN with H. pylori LeX/Y positive whole cells and H. pylori LPS of LeX/Y type was fucose dependent, whereas in LeXY negative H. pylori strains and LPS preparations without Lewis determinants, this binding was galactose dependent. The binding of soluble synthetic LeX and LeY to the DC-SIGN-like receptor on THP-1 cells was also observed. In conclusion, the LeXY dependent as well as independent binding of H. pylori whole cells and H. pylori LPS to DC-SIGN was described. Moreover, we demonstrated that THP-1 cells may serve as an in vitro model for the assessment of H. pylori-DC-SIGN interactions mediated by LeX and LeY determinants. PMID:22550396

  15. Land grabbing: a preliminary quantification of economic impacts on rural livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Global demands on agricultural land are increasing due to population growth, dietary changes and the use of biofuels. Their effect on food security is to reduce humans' ability to cope with the uncertainties of global climate change. In light of the 2008 food crisis, to secure reliable future access to sufficient agricultural land, many nations and corporations have begun purchasing large tracts of land in the global South, a phenomenon deemed "land grabbing" by popular media. Because land investors frequently export crops without providing adequate employment, this represents an effective income loss for local communities. We study 28 countries targeted by large-scale land acquisitions [comprising 87 % of reported cases and 27 million hectares (ha)] and estimate the effects of such investments on local communities' incomes. We find that this phenomenon can potentially affect the incomes of ~12 million people globally with implications for food security, poverty levels and urbanization. While it is important to note that our study incorporates a number of assumptions and limitations, it provides a much needed initial quantification of the economic impacts of large-scale land acquisitions on rural livelihoods. PMID:25400309

  16. Land grabbing: a preliminary quantification of economic impacts on rural livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Global demands on agricultural land are increasing due to population growth, dietary changes and the use of biofuels. Their effect on food security is to reduce humans' ability to cope with the uncertainties of global climate change. In light of the 2008 food crisis, to secure reliable future access to sufficient agricultural land, many nations and corporations have begun purchasing large tracts of land in the global South, a phenomenon deemed "land grabbing" by popular media. Because land investors frequently export crops without providing adequate employment, this represents an effective income loss for local communities. We study 28 countries targeted by large-scale land acquisitions [comprising 87 % of reported cases and 27 million hectares (ha)] and estimate the effects of such investments on local communities' incomes. We find that this phenomenon can potentially affect the incomes of ~12 million people globally with implications for food security, poverty levels and urbanization. While it is important to note that our study incorporates a number of assumptions and limitations, it provides a much needed initial quantification of the economic impacts of large-scale land acquisitions on rural livelihoods.

  17. Seasonal and Temporal Variation in Release of Antibiotics in Hospital Wastewater: Estimation Using Continuous and Grab Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Diwan, Vishal; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on resistance development has raised concerns globally. Hospitals are a major source of antibiotics released into the environment. To reduce these residues, research to improve knowledge of the dynamics of antibiotic release from hospitals is essential. Therefore, we undertook a study to estimate seasonal and temporal variation in antibiotic release from two hospitals in India over a period of two years. For this, 6 sampling sessions of 24 hours each were conducted in the three prominent seasons of India, at all wastewater outlets of the two hospitals, using continuous and grab sampling methods. An in-house wastewater sampler was designed for continuous sampling. Eight antibiotics from four major antibiotic groups were selected for the study. To understand the temporal pattern of antibiotic release, each of the 24-hour sessions were divided in three sub-sampling sessions of 8 hours each. Solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the antibiotic residues. Six of the eight antibiotics studied were detected in the wastewater samples. Both continuous and grab sampling methods indicated that the highest quantities of fluoroquinolones were released in winter followed by the rainy season and the summer. No temporal pattern in antibiotic release was detected. In general, in a common timeframe, continuous sampling showed less concentration of antibiotics in wastewater as compared to grab sampling. It is suggested that continuous sampling should be the method of choice as grab sampling gives erroneous results, it being indicative of the quantities of antibiotics present in wastewater only at the time of sampling. Based on our studies, calculations indicate that from hospitals in India, an estimated 89, 1 and 25 ng/L/day of fluroquinolones, metronidazole and sulfamethoxazole respectively, might be getting released into the

  18. Tank 241-AP-103 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples and Analytical Results for the Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-12-09

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-103 (AP-103) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-103 samples were performed as directed in ''Compatibility Grub Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999'' (Sasaki 1999a). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. No notification limits were exceeded.

  19. Waste compatibility and final report for Tank 241-A-101, Grab Samples 1A-96-1, 1A-96-2, and 1A-96-3

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-25

    This document is the final report deliverable for tank 241-A- 101 grab samples. Three grab samples (IA-96-1, IA-96-2 and IA-96-3) were taken from riser 4 of tank 241-A-101. Samples were collected on April 3, 1996 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on April 4, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Two of the three grab samples contained a significant amount of solids and special analyses were requested. None of the samples exceeded notification limits. No similarities in sample appearance were noted; this could be an explanation for the varying analytical results. Quality control issues are discussed in each analytical subheading. The raw data for all analyses are included in this report.

  20. Differences in the Efficiency Between the Grab and Track Starts for Both Genders in Greek Young Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Thanopoulos, Vassilios; Rozi, Georgia; Okičić, Tomislav; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Jorgić, Bojan; Madić, Dejan; Veličković, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; Spanou, Fani; Batis, Emilios

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the kinematic parameters between the grab and track starts and the differences in these two starts between genders. A total of 27 swimmers at the competitive level participated in the study, 13 boys (mean ± SD: age 15.8 ± 0.8 years, body mass 67.7 ± 7.7 kg and body height 178.6 ± 5.7 cm) and 14 girls (mean ± SD: age 16 ± 0.8 years, body mass 59.2 ± 6.6 kg and body height 166.2 ± 6.7 cm). Each swimmer performed three attempts for both start techniques. The best attempt of the grab start and the track start was taken for further analysis. The following kinematic parameters were analysed: flight distance, flight time, flight velocity, entry angle and reaction time. The males had greater numeric values for the results in all kinematic parameters for the grab start compared with the track start, except for flight velocity and entry angle (flight time 0.42 vs. 0.41 s, flight distance 3.21 vs. 3.14 m, flight velocity 7.76 vs. 7.83 m/s, entry angle 44.22 vs. 43.85 degrees and reaction time 0.86 vs. 0.81 s). The females also had greater numeric values for the results in all kinematic parameters for the grab start compared with the track start, except for flight time (flight time 0.38 vs. 0.38 s, flight distance 2.82 vs. 2.73 m, flight velocity 7.47 vs. 7.31 m/s, entry angle 45.18 vs. 44.79 degrees and reaction time 0.88 vs. 0.82 s). These results indicate that the males had significantly better results for flight time and flight distance compared with the females for the grab start (flight time 0.42 vs. 0.38 s, flight distance 3.21 vs. 2.82 m). In the case of the track start, the males had significantly better results for flight distance (3.14 vs. 2.73 m). Exploring the characteristics of the two starts did not lead to any significant kinematic differences. Therefore, a conclusion that demonstrates the superiority of one of the techniques cannot be reached. The coach, together with each swimmer individually

  1. Controls on Bacterial Concentrations in Sediment Grab Samples from the Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, J.; Mailloux, B. J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.; Ferguson, A. S.; Cheung, J.; Layton, A.

    2010-12-01

    High levels of fecal bacteria resulting from sewage-related pollution are often present in the Hudson River Estuary. Die-off of the fecal bacteria in surface waters is relatively rapid but the fecal bacteria can also attach to particles and settle. It is known that fecal bacteria are present in the shallow sediments but controls on their distribution have not been closely examined. The goal of this work is to examine the relationship between the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria and sediment properties including estimates of sediment age. Forty sediment surface grabs were obtained from the Hudson River Estuary. Twenty samples were collected from near the George Washington Bridge (GWB) and twenty samples from a 15 mile transect near Hudson New York. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were determined by the cultured based Enterolert and Colilert tests (Idexx Laboratories) and molecular based techniques for E. coli and Bacteroides. Sediments were analyzed for total metals, total organic carbon, grain size, and gamma emitting radionuclides including Beryllium-7, Lead-210, and Cesium-137. Enterococcus was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 88 cells/g and a range of 4 to 817 cells /g. Culturable E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 168 cells /g and a range of 5 to 2247 cells /g. Enterococcus concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the northern transect. Molecular based concentrations were determined for the GWB samples and were significantly higher than culture based concentrations. Bacteroides was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 1.1x106 copies/g and a range of 3.9x104 to 4.7x106 copies /g. Molecular E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 3.0x106 copies/g and a range of 8.7x104 to 8.9x107 copies /g. The results clearly show that a significant amount of fecal bacteria are present in the sediments. Simple linear correlations between bacterial concentrations and sediment

  2. Characterization of Supernate Samples from HLW Tanks 13H, 30H, 37H, 39H, 45F, 46F, and 49H

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-02

    This document presents work conducted in support of technical needs expressed, in part, by the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Contractor for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyze and characterize supernate waste from seven selected High Level Waste (HLW) tanks to allow classification of feed to be sent to the SWPF, verification that SWPF processes will be able to meet Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), and updating of the Waste Characterization System (WCS) database. This document provides characterization data of samples obtained from Tanks 13H, 30H, 37H, 39H, 45F, 46F, and 49H and discusses results.Characterization of the waste tank samples involved several treatments and analysis at various stages of sample processing. These analytical stages included as-received liquid, post-dilution to 6.44 M sodium (target), post-acid digestion, post-filtration (at 3 filtration pore sizes), and after cesium removal using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP). Results and observations obtained from testing include the following. All tanks will require cesium removal as well as treatment with Monosodium Titanate (MST) for 90Sr (Strontium) decontamination. A small filtration effect for 90Sr was observed for five of the seven tank wastes. No filtration effects were observed for Pu (Plutonium), Np (Neptunium), U (Uranium), or Tc (Technetium). 137Cs (Cesium) concentration is approximately E+09 pCi/mL for all the tank wastes. Tank 37H is significantly higher in 90Sr than the other six tanks. 237Np in the F-Area tanks(45F and 46F) are at least 1 order of magnitude less than the H-Area tank wastes. The data indicate a constant ratio of 99Tc to Cs in the seven tank wastes. This indicates the Tc remains largely soluble in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste and partition similarly with Cs. 241Am (Americium) concentration was low in the seven tank wastes. The majority of data

  3. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  4. Tank 241-S-111 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples and Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and SEC 2

    SciTech Connect

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-12-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-S-111 (S-111) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank S-111 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (Sasaki 1999a,b). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. The notification limit for {sup 137}Cs was exceeded on two samples. Results are discussed in Section 5.3.2. No other notification limits were exceeded.

  5. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-08-12

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

  6. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  7. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Relative percent differences between methods were greater than 10 percent for most analyzed trace elements. Barium, cobalt, manganese, and boron had concentrations that were significantly different between sampling methods. Barium, molybdenum, boron, and uranium method concentrations indicate a close association between pump and grab samples based on bivariate plots and simple linear regressions. Grab sample concentrations were generally larger than pump concentrations for these elements and may be because of using a larger pore sized filter for grab samples. Analysis of zinc blank samples suggests zinc contamination in filtered grab samples. Variations of analyzed trace elements between pump and grab samples could reduce the ability to monitor temporal changes and potential groundwater contamination threats. The degree of precision necessary for monitoring potential groundwater threats and application objectives need to be considered when determining acceptable variation amounts.

  8. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    Relative percent differences between methods were greater than 10 percent for most analyzed trace elements. Barium, cobalt, manganese, and boron had concentrations that were significantly different between sampling methods. Barium, molybdenum, boron, and uranium method concentrations indicate a close association between pump and grab samples based on bivariate plots and simple linear regressions. Grab sample concentrations were generally larger than pump concentrations for these elements and may be because of using a larger pore sized filter for grab samples. Analysis of zinc blank samples suggests zinc contamination in filtered grab samples. Variations of analyzed trace elements between pump and grab samples could reduce the ability to monitor temporal changes and potential groundwater contamination threats. The degree of precision necessary for monitoring potential groundwater threats and application objectives need to be considered when determining acceptable variation amounts.

  9. Results of a detailed infill lake-sediment survey in the Snow Lake area: Evaluation and comparison of grab sample and short core data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friske, P.W.B.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Science and Technology Initiative (EXTECH) program a detailed infill lake-sediment and water survey was undertaken in the Snow Lake area during the fall of 1991. This involved the collection of 346 lake sediment grab samples and concomitant waters. In 1993, additional work was undertaken involving the collection of 23 short cores from selected grab sample sites. The primary objectives of the infill survey and short core work were to: 1) evaluate the effectiveness of lake sediment geochemistry in detecting known mineralization in the Snow Lake area; 2) evaluate and develop new approaches in the use of lake sediment geochemistry; and, 3) define, if possible, new exploration targets. At most sites, data from the cores verify the original grab sample results. However, at a few sites the original anomalous grab sample results are interpreted as being related to contamination as opposed to naturally elevated levels. An unusually thick sequence of contaminated surface sediments with extremely high concentrations of trace metals is a likely contributing factor, a condition which is restricted to lakes in the immediate vicinity of local anthropogenic activity. Collection of lake cores provides a useful new approach to the follow-up of grab sample data and to the application of lake sediment geochemistry, particularly in areas with significant local contamination. Much of the known mineralization in the area is clearly reflected by the lake sediment data. Character of the anomalies mirror the composition of the nearby mineralization. The lake sediment data also identify a number of areas that warrant further investigation, several of which are discussed.

  10. A Framework for Applying Point Clouds Grabbed by Multi-Beam LIDAR in Perceiving the Driving Environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Liang, Huawei; Wang, Zhiling; Chen, Xiangcheng

    2015-08-31

    The quick and accurate understanding of the ambient environment, which is composed of road curbs, vehicles, pedestrians, etc., is critical for developing intelligent vehicles. The road elements included in this work are road curbs and dynamic road obstacles that directly affect the drivable area. A framework for the online modeling of the driving environment using a multi-beam LIDAR, i.e., a Velodyne HDL-64E LIDAR, which describes the 3D environment in the form of a point cloud, is reported in this article. First, ground segmentation is performed via multi-feature extraction of the raw data grabbed by the Velodyne LIDAR to satisfy the requirement of online environment modeling. Curbs and dynamic road obstacles are detected and tracked in different manners. Curves are fitted for curb points, and points are clustered into bundles whose form and kinematics parameters are calculated. The Kalman filter is used to track dynamic obstacles, whereas the snake model is employed for curbs. Results indicate that the proposed framework is robust under various environments and satisfies the requirements for online processing.

  11. A Framework for Applying Point Clouds Grabbed by Multi-Beam LIDAR in Perceiving the Driving Environment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Liang, Huawei; Wang, Zhiling; Chen, Xiangcheng

    2015-01-01

    The quick and accurate understanding of the ambient environment, which is composed of road curbs, vehicles, pedestrians, etc., is critical for developing intelligent vehicles. The road elements included in this work are road curbs and dynamic road obstacles that directly affect the drivable area. A framework for the online modeling of the driving environment using a multi-beam LIDAR, i.e., a Velodyne HDL-64E LIDAR, which describes the 3D environment in the form of a point cloud, is reported in this article. First, ground segmentation is performed via multi-feature extraction of the raw data grabbed by the Velodyne LIDAR to satisfy the requirement of online environment modeling. Curbs and dynamic road obstacles are detected and tracked in different manners. Curves are fitted for curb points, and points are clustered into bundles whose form and kinematics parameters are calculated. The Kalman filter is used to track dynamic obstacles, whereas the snake model is employed for curbs. Results indicate that the proposed framework is robust under various environments and satisfies the requirements for online processing. PMID:26404290

  12. Influence of angles of attack, frequency and kick amplitude on swimmer's horizontal velocity during underwater phase of a grab start.

    PubMed

    Houel, Nicolas; Elipot, Marc; André, Frédéric; Hellard, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The underwater phase of starts represents an important part of the performance in sprint swimming's events. Kinematics variables that swimmers have to take into account to improve their underwater phase of starts are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the kinematics variables that improve performance during the underwater phase of grab starts. A three-dimensional analysis of the underwater phase of ten swimmers of national level was conducted. Stepwise multiple linear regressions identified the main kinematics variables that influence the horizontal velocity of the swimmer each 0.5 m in the range of 5 to 7.5 m. The results show that the kinematics parameters change during the range of 5 to 7.5 m of the underwater phase of the starts. For this population of swimmers, the results enable proposals of four principles to improve the underwater phase: i) to be streamlined at the beginning of the underwater gliding phase, ii) to start the dolphin kicking after 6 m, iii) to generate propulsive forces using only feet and legs during underwater undulatory swimming, iv) to improve the frequency of underwater undulatory swimming.

  13. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of Au and other trace elements in an estuary using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique and grab sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew R.; Salmon, S. Ursula; Rate, Andrew W.; Larsen, Sarah; Kilminster, Kieryn

    2015-12-01

    This study reports the first surface water evaluation of the temporal and spatial variability of Au in an estuary, using recently developed modifications to the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and grab sampling techniques. At the two study sites in the Swan River estuary that were more marine in character, the DGT-measured concentrations of Au (26.3 and 31.3 ng/L) were within the range of total concentrations measured on individual days (13.2-30.6 ng/L and 11.2-37.2 ng/L, respectively). In contrast, at an upstream site, Au concentrations measured by DGT were significantly lower than totals (3.9 ng/L for DGT, compared with 13.2-28.8 ng/L for grab sampling), likely due to either size exclusion of colloids (>70 nm) by DGT or formation of a dissolved, non-DGT-labile Au species (<0.45 μm). DGT-measured concentrations of other metals (Cu, Co, Cr, U, V, Mo and As) were also lower than total concentrations, although in contrast to DGT-measured Au, this phenomenon occurred at all sites. Furthermore, daily grab samples for Au, taken over the 10-day deployment (which included a rain event), showed that Au concentrations could spike substantially (from 15.1 ng/L to 37.2 ng/L) over intervals as short as one day. The combination of simultaneous deployment of different DGT devices and grab sampling represents a new development in efforts to understand the transport and fate of Au together with other elements in dynamic environments such as estuaries.

  15. Use of continuous and grab sample data for calculating total maximum daily load (TMDL) in agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Shelly; Stubblefield, Ashley A; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Spier, Chelsea L; Stringfellow, William T

    2014-03-01

    Measuring the discharge of diffuse pollution from agricultural watersheds presents unique challenges. Flows in agricultural watersheds, particularly in Mediterranean climates, can be predominately irrigation runoff and exhibit large diurnal fluctuation in both volume and concentration. Flow and pollutant concentrations in these smaller watersheds dominated by human activity do not conform to a normal distribution and it is not clear if parametric methods are appropriate or accurate for load calculations. The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of five load estimation methods to calculate pollutant loads from agricultural watersheds. Calculation of loads using results from discrete (grab) samples was compared with the true-load computed using in situ continuous monitoring measurements. A new method is introduced that uses a non-parametric measure of central tendency (the median) to calculate loads (median-load). The median-load method was compared to more commonly used parametric estimation methods which rely on using the mean as a measure of central tendency (mean-load and daily-load), a method that utilizes the total flow volume (volume-load), and a method that uses measure of flow at the time of sampling (instantaneous-load). Using measurements from ten watersheds in the San Joaquin Valley of California, the average percent error compared to the true-load for total dissolved solids (TDS) was 7.3% for the median-load, 6.9% for the mean-load, 6.9% for the volume-load, 16.9% for the instantaneous-load, and 18.7% for the daily-load methods of calculation. The results of this study show that parametric methods are surprisingly accurate, even for data that have starkly non-normal distributions and are highly skewed.

  16. FINAL REPORT FOR THE INITIAL SOLID PHASE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 2011 GRAB SAMPLES AND COMPOSITE FOR THE C-109 HARD HEEL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PAGE JS; COOKE G; PESTOVICH JA

    2011-12-01

    On May 3, 2011, solid phase characterization subsamples were taken from six of the eight grab samples that had been collected from tank 241-C-109 in April, 2011 and delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. These subsamples were characterized in order to guide the creation of the composite for the C-109 hard heel study. Visual observation showed that there was a large variability in the physical characteristics of the eight individual grab samples. Several of the grab samples consisted of 'stone-like' cobbles (several > 25 mm in diameter) while the other grab samples were of a finer granular composition referred to as 'bulk material'. Half of the six subsamples taken for this initial SPC were of crushed cobbles and half were of the bulk material. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on all six subsamples, and X-ray diffraction was performed on all three of the 'bulk material' samples and one of the crushed cobble samples. The crushed cobbles were found to be composed primarily of gibbsite (Al[OHh]{sub 3}). Analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated gibbsite to be the only crystalline phase detected, and scanning electron microscopy showed the crushed cobbles to consist primarily of aggregates of euhedral to subhedral gibbsite crystals that were 20 to 100 {mu}m in size. The aggregates, having a moderate amount of pore space, were cemented primarily by recrystallized gibbsite making them resistant to crushing. The bulk material consisted of coarse to fine-grained pebble-sized (2 to 20 mm) particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed them to be a mixture of natrophosphate (Na{sub 7}[PO{sub 4}]{sub 2}F{center_dot}19[H{sub 2}O]) and gibbsite crystals in varying amounts in each of the three subsamples (i.e., some grab samples were primarily natrophosphate while others were mixed with gibbsite). The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the bulk material showed the crystals to be euhedral to anhedral (rounded) in shape. Trace phases, too minor to be detected by XRD

  17. Antarctica: up for grabs

    SciTech Connect

    Shapley, D.

    1982-11-01

    Antarctica is viewed as a special area, requiring meticulous diplomacy to develop international agreements for exploiting its resources. Little exploration has been accomplished, but oil, gas, and marine krill resources are protected by a 14-nation treaty dating from 1961. The treaty fixed national claims on specific territories and launched scientific activities that reflect national interests. Studies of meteorology, climatology, oceanography, upper-atmospheric physics, and territorial biology have revealed Antarctica's resource potential for krill, minerals, and even ice. 4 figures. (DCK)

  18. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CARBON STEEL CORROSION IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, J.B.; WINDISCH, C.F.

    2006-10-13

    This paper reports on the electrochemical scans for the supernatant of Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-SY-102 and the electrochemical scans for the bottom saltcake layer for Hanford DST 241-AZ-102. It further reports on the development of electrochemical test cells adapted to both sample volume and hot cell constraints.

  20. Set point calculations for RAPID project

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-10-18

    The Respond and Pump in Days (RAPID) project was initiated to pump part of the contents of tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. This document establishes the basis for all set points and ranges used in the RAPID project.

  1. Set Point Calculations for RAPID Project [Removal of Hold for HNF-5087 and HNF-5088 and HNF-5089

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-09-02

    The Respond and Pump in Days (RAPID) project was initiated to pump part of the contents of tank 241-SY-101 into tanks 241-SY-102. This document establishes the basis for all set points and ranges used in the RAPID project.

  2. Intermediates in the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Reaction of Rab8 Protein Catalyzed by Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Rabin8 and GRAB*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhong; Hou, Xiaomin; Goody, Roger S.; Itzen, Aymelt

    2013-01-01

    Small G-proteins of the Ras superfamily control the temporal and spatial coordination of intracellular signaling networks by acting as molecular on/off switches. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) regulate the activation of these G-proteins through catalytic replacement of GDP by GTP. During nucleotide exchange, three distinct substrate·enzyme complexes occur: a ternary complex with GDP at the start of the reaction (G-protein·GEF·GDP), an intermediary nucleotide-free binary complex (G-protein·GEF), and a ternary GTP complex after productive G-protein activation (G-protein·GEF·GTP). Here, we show structural snapshots of the full nucleotide exchange reaction sequence together with the G-protein substrates and products using Rabin8/GRAB (GEF) and Rab8 (G-protein) as a model system. Together with a thorough enzymatic characterization, our data provide a detailed view into the mechanism of Rabin8/GRAB-mediated nucleotide exchange. PMID:24072714

  3. Tank 241U102 Grab Samples 2U-99-1 and 2U-99-2 and 2U-99-3 Analytical Results for the Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-08-03

    This document is the final report for tank 241-U-102 grab samples. Five grab samples were collected from riser 13 on May 26, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on May 26 and May 27, 1999. Samples 2U-99-3 and 2U-99-4 were submitted to the Process Chemistry Laboratory for special studies. Samples 2U-99-1, 2U-99-2 and 2U-99-5 were submitted to the laboratory for analyses. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler 1995, Mulkey and Miller 1998). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP.

  4. Tank 241S109 Grab Samples 9S-99-1 and 9S-99-2 and 9S-99-3 Analytical Results for the Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-11-23

    This document is the final report for tank 2414-109 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on July 28, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on July 28, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler 1995, Mulkey and Miller 1998). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP (Sasaki, 1999).

  5. Upregulation of capsule enables Streptococcus pyogenes to evade immune recognition by antigen-specific antibodies directed to the G-related alpha2-macroglobulin-binding protein GRAB located on the bacterial surface.

    PubMed

    Dinkla, Katrin; Sastalla, Inka; Godehardt, Antonia W; Janze, Nina; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Rohde, Manfred; Medina, Eva

    2007-07-01

    One of the major problems associated with the development of a vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes is the ability of this pathogen to escape recognition by antibodies directed against conserved surface-associated determinants and to establish infection in the setting of an acquired immune response. Identification of the mechanism(s) used by S. pyogenes to avoid recognition by antigen-specific antibodies and escape killing in blood was the focus of this study. We showed here that S. pyogenes was capable of surviving in human blood containing high levels of antibodies directed against the G-related alpha2-macroglobulin-binding protein GRAB, a highly conserved bacterial surface protein. S. pyogenes upregulated the hyaluronic acid capsule production during incubation with human blood, suggesting that the capsule may structurally minimize antibody access to protein GRAB. This hypothesis was confirmed by the ability of anti-GRAB antibodies to promote opsonophagocytosis of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. pyogenes but not of the encapsulated wild-type strain. Capsule upregulation and protection of S. pyogenes from opsonophagocytosis in the presence of anti-GRAB antibodies was also observed in a murine model of streptococcal infection. Thus, masking of surface immunogenic determinants by the hyaluronic acid capsule may constitute a novel mechanism of S. pyogenes for evasion of antigen-specific antibodies.

  6. 222-S Analytical services final results for Tank 241-U-101, grab samples 1U-96-1 through 1U-96-4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-23

    This document is the final, format IV, laboratory report for characterization of tank 241-U-101 (U-101) grab samples from risers 1 and 7. It transmits additional analytical data for specific gravity (Sp.G.), and all raw analytical data which were not provided in the 45-day report. The 45-day report is attached to this final report as Part II. Secondary analyses were not performed on any of the U-101 samples. This is because none of the primary analyte limits, which trigger the performance of secondary analyses, were exceeded. Grab samples were taken on May 29, 1996 and May 30, 1996 from risers 1 and 7, respectively, and were received at the 222-S Laboratory on the same days that they were collected. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Tank Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) for this tank and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). The samples were analyzed for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), total alpha activity (AT), visual appearance, bulk density, and specific gravity. A sample data summary table, includes sample analytical data accompanied by quality control data (for example, duplicate, spike, blank and standard results and detection limits and counting efforts). The table includes data for DSC, TGA, AT, bulk density, volume percent solids and Sp.G. analyses. Data regarding the visual appearance of samples, volume percent solids and density of the solids are provided in tabular form of the 45-day report (attached as Part II). The table of the 45-day report also associates the original customer sample number with corresponding laboratory sample numbers. The TSAP specified notification limits for only DSC and total alpha. Notification limits were not exceeded for DSC or total alpha analyses for any of the samples, consequently immediate notifications were not necessary and were not made.

  7. Blood glutamate grabbing does not reduce the hematoma in an intracerebral hemorrhage model but it is a safe excitotoxic treatment modality.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Candal, Andrés; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Rey, Ramón I; Argibay, Bárbara; Mirelman, David; Sobrino, Tomás; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that blood glutamate grabbing is an effective strategy to reduce the excitotoxic effect of extracellular glutamate released during ischemic brain injury. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of two of the most efficient blood glutamate grabbers (oxaloacetate and recombinant glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1: rGOT1) in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Intracerebral hemorrhage was produced by injecting collagenase into the basal ganglia. Three treatment groups were developed: a control group treated with saline, a group treated with oxaloacetate, and a final group treated with human rGOT1. Treatments were given 1 hour after hemorrhage. Hematoma volume (analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), neurologic deficit, and blood glutamate and GOT levels were quantified over a period of 14 days after surgery. The results observed showed that the treatments used induced a significant reduction of blood glutamate levels; however, they did not reduce the hematoma, nor did they improve the neurologic deficit. In the present experimental study, we have shown that this novel therapeutic strategy is not effective in case of ICH pathology. More importantly, these findings suggest that blood glutamate grabbers are a safe treatment modality that can be given in cases of suspected ischemic stroke without previous neuroimaging.

  8. Tank 241-TX-302C grab samples 302C-TX-97-1A through 302C-TX-97-3B analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-03-12

    This document is the final report for tank 241-TX-302C grab samples. Six grabs samples (302C-TX-97-1A, 302C-TX-97-1B, 302C-TX-97-2A, 302C-TX-97-2B, 302C-TX-97-3A, and 302C-TX-97-3B) were collected from the catch tank level gauge riser on December 19, 1997. The ``A`` and ``B`` portions from each sample location were composited and analyses were performed on the composites in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information.

  9. Vitamin C Attenuates Hemorrhagic Shock-induced Dendritic Cell-specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 3-grabbing Nonintegrin Expression in Tubular Epithelial Cells and Renal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Fei, Jian; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Bing; Yang, Zhi-Tao; Wang, Lu; Sheng, Hui-Qiu; Chen, Er-Zhen; Mao, En-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The expression of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) in renal tubular epithelial cells has been thought to be highly correlated with the occurrence of several kidney diseases, but whether it takes place in renal tissues during hemorrhagic shock (HS) is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate this phenomenon and the inhibitory effect of Vitamin C (VitC). Methods: A Sprague–Dawley rat HS model was established in vivo in this study. The expression level and location of DC-SIGN were observed in kidneys. Also, the degree of histological damage, the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the renal tissues, and the serum concentration of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine at different times (2–24 h) after HS (six rats in each group), with or without VitC treatment before resuscitation, were evaluated. Results: HS induced DC-SIGN expression in rat tubular epithelial cells. The proinflammatory cytokine concentration, histological damage scores, and functional injury of kidneys had increased. All these phenomena induced by HS were relieved when the rats were treated with VitC before resuscitation. Conclusions: The results of the present study illustrated that HS could induce tubular epithelial cells expressing DC-SIGN, and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the kidney tissues improved correspondingly. The results also indicated that VitC could suppress the DC-SIGN expression in the tubular epithelial cells induced by HS and alleviate the inflammation and functional injury in the kidney. PMID:27411463

  10. GeoMapApp Learning Activities: Grab-and-go inquiry-based geoscience activities that bring cutting-edge technology to the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Kluge, S.

    2011-12-01

    NSF-funded GeoMapApp Learning Activities (http://serc.carleton.edu/geomapapp) provide self-contained learning opportunities that are centred around the principles of guided inquiry. The activities allow students to interact with and analyse research-quality geoscience data to explore and enhance student understanding of underlying geoscience content and concepts. Each activity offers ready-to-use step-by-step student instructions and answer sheets that can be downloaded from the web page. Also provided are annotated teacher versions of the worksheets that include teaching tips, additional content and suggestions for further work. Downloadable pre- and post- quizzes tied to each activity help educators gauge the learning progression of their students. Short multimedia tutorials and details on content alignment with state and national teaching standards round out the package of material that comprises each "grab-and-go" activity. GeoMapApp Learning Activities expose students to content and concepts typically found at the community college, high school and introductory undergraduate levels. The activities are based upon GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, easy-to-use map-based data exploration and visualisation tool that allows students to access a wide range of geoscience data sets in a virtual lab-like environment. Activities that have so far been created under this project include student exploration of seafloor spreading rates, a study of mass wasting as revealed through geomorphological evidence, and an analysis of plate motion and hotspot traces. The step-by-step instructions and guided inquiry approach lead students through each activity, thus reducing the need for teacher intervention whilst also boosting the time that students can spend on productive exploration and learning. The activities can be used, for example, in a classroom lab with the educator present and as self-paced assignments in an out-of-class setting. GeoMapApp Learning Activities

  11. Black Hole Grabs Starry Snack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end.

    The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light.

    The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.

  12. NTIS: Up for Grabs Again?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a move by the Office of Management and Budget to move the 43-year-old National Technical Information Service (NTIS) out of the government. Describes some of the pros and cons of such a change. (TW)

  13. Pretreatment/Radionuclide Separations of Cs/Tc from Supernates

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.C.

    1998-09-01

    Significant improvements have been made in ion exchange and solvent extraction materials and processes available for separation of the radionuclides cesium and technetium from both acid and alkaline waste solutions. New ion exchange materials and solvent extraction reagents are more selective for Cs over sodium and potassium than previous materials. The higher selectivity gives higher Cs capacity and improved separation processes. Technetium removal has been improved by new ion exchange resins, which have either improved capacity or easier elution. Several different crown ethers have been shown to extract pertechnetate ion selectively over other anions. Organic complexants in some waste solutions reduce pertechnetate ion and stabilize the reduced species. Selective oxidation allows conversion to pertechnetate without oxidation of the organic complexants.

  14. Distribution of dendritic cells expressing dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209): Morphological analysis using a novel Photoshop-aided multiple immunohistochemistry technique.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akihiro; Nishikawa, Toshio

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of dendritic cells (DCs) expressing DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209) and the morphological interaction of DC-SIGN⁺ DCs with other cells, especially B cells, in tonsillar and other lymphoid tissues were investigated by multiple immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the graphics editing program Photoshop, which enabled staining with 4 or more antibodies in formalin-fixed paraffin sections. Images obtained by repetition of conventional IHC using diaminobenzidine color development in a tissue section were processed on Photoshop for multiple staining. DC-SIGN⁺ DCs were present in the area around the lymphoid follicles and formed a DC-SIGN⁺ DC-rich area, and these cells contacted not only T cells, fascin⁺ DCs, and blood vessels but also several subsets of B cells simultaneously, including naïve and memory B cells. DC-SIGN⁺ DCs may play an important role in the regulation of the immune response mediated by not only T cells but also B cells. The multiple IHC method introduced in the present study is a simple and useful method for analyzing details of complex structures. Because this method can be applied to routinely processed paraffin sections with conventional IHC with diaminobenzidine, it can be applied to a wide variety of archival specimens.

  15. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) recognizes a novel ligand, Mac-2-binding protein, characteristically expressed on human colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Motohiro; Ma, Bruce Yong; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Kawabe, Keiko; Kawasaki, Nobuko; Hodohara, Keiko; Kawasaki, Nana; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Kawasaki, Toshisuke

    2011-06-24

    Dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a type II transmembrane C-type lectin expressed on DCs such as myeloid DCs and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). Recently, we have reported that DC-SIGN interacts with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expressed on colorectal carcinoma cells. CEA is one of the most widely used tumor markers for gastrointestinal cancers such as colorectal cancer. On the other hand, other groups have reported that the level of Mac-2-binding protein (Mac-2BP) increases in patients with pancreatic, breast, and lung cancers, virus infections such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus, and autoimmune diseases. Here, we first identified Mac-2BP expressed on several colorectal carcinoma cell lines as a novel DC-SIGN ligand through affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Interestingly, we found that DC-SIGN selectively recognizes Mac-2BP derived from some colorectal carcinomas but not from the other ones. Furthermore, we found that the α1-3,4-fucose moieties of Le glycans expressed on DC-SIGN-binding Mac-2BP were important for recognition. DC-SIGN-dependent cellular interactions between immature MoDCs and colorectal carcinoma cells significantly inhibited MoDC functional maturation, suggesting that Mac-2BP may provide a tolerogenic microenvironment for colorectal carcinoma cells through DC-SIGN-dependent recognition. Importantly, Mac-2BP was detected as a predominant DC-SIGN ligand expressed on some primary colorectal cancer tissues from certain parts of patients in comparison with CEA from other parts, suggesting that DC-SIGN-binding Mac-2BP bearing tumor-associated Le glycans may become a novel potential colorectal cancer biomarker for some patients instead of CEA.

  16. Low expression of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin-related protein in lung cancer and significant correlations with brain metastasis and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hua; Su, Lijie; Yang, Peng; Xin, Zhiqiang; Zou, Junwei; Ren, Shuangyi; Zuo, Yunfei

    2015-09-01

    Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin-related protein (DC-SIGNR) is a type II transmembrane protein which has been reported to bind a variety of pathogens as well as participate in immunoregulation. But the association between the level of DC-SIGNR and lung cancer is unknown. To investigate the clinical diagnostic significance of DC-SIGNR in lung cancer, we investigated serum DC-SIGNR levels in 173 lung cancer patients and 134 healthy individuals using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that serum DC-SIGNR levels in lung cancer patients were lower than that in healthy controls (P = 0.0003). A cut-off value of 3.8998 ng/L for DC-SIGNR predicted the presence of lung cancer with 78.03% sensitivity and 49.25% specificity (area under the curve = 0.6212, P = 0.0003). Strikingly, serum DC-SIGNR levels were significantly higher in lung cancer patients with brain metastasis compared to those without metastasis (P = 0.0283). Moreover, the serum concentrations of DC-SIGNR in lung cancer patients also correlated significantly with serum natural killer cells percentage (P = 0.0017). In addition, immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated that the expression of DC-SIGNR in lung tissues of 31 lung cancer patients and 13 tuberculosis patients was significantly lower than that in 18 normal lung tissues (P = 0.0418, 0.0289), and there is no significant difference between tuberculosis tissues and lung cancer tissues (P = 0.2696). These results suggest that DC-SIGNR maybe a promising biological molecule that has the potential for clinical research of lung cancer, whereas its underlying roles are needed to be investigated in further studies.

  17. A Grab Bag of Nature Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lenore

    1993-01-01

    Suggested nature activities include (1) sensory experiences to distinguish all characteristics of various objects; (2) adopt-a-tree activities where children learn about "their own" tree; (3) finding evidence of animals in nature; (4) nature questions of the week with prizes for correct answers; and (5) activities related to the pregnancies of 20…

  18. Grab a MOOC by the Horns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokey-Vega, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have been barreling through the field of higher education since the first MOOC was launched in 2008. These free courses were initially believed to be a way to provide a high-caliber education to anyone with Internet access and a will to learn. Although research so far has shown that MOOCs aren't living up…

  19. Isotope makers grab hold of the rock

    SciTech Connect

    Clery, D.

    1993-12-03

    This article describes theoretical and experimental efforts to create stable heavy isotopes beyond element 109. Experimental results have been directed to creating neutron-rich isotopes of such elements as 108 and 106, which have deformed shells that lend stability to the atom. Experimentalists so far have created [sup 266]106, which had a half-life close to that predicted by theory. They will soon try to create [sup 268]108, which, if successful, will lead to efforts to try to create element 110.

  20. DNA origami: Nanorobots grab cellular control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, Johann; Willner, Itamar

    2012-04-01

    Self-assembled barrel-like DNA nanostructures carrying active payloads and pre-programmed with logic operations to reconfigure in response to cell-surface cues can trigger a variety of intracellular functions.

  1. Authority Grab Eroding Stature of State Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the eroding power of state school boards in the U.S. as lawmakers and governors are seeking to expand their authority over K-12 education and, in some cases, reverse education policy set in motion by elected or appointed panels. This year alone, state boards in Florida, Ohio, and Vermont are targets of legislation that…

  2. The water footprint of land grabbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    increasing global demand for food, fibers, and biofuels has made investments in agriculture a priority for some governments and corporations eager to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. Here we calculate the water appropriation associated with land deals at different negotiation and implementation stages. Using estimates of actual and potential evapotranspiration for the crops planted in the acquired land, we calculate the green and blue water appropriated by land investors under a variety of irrigation scenarios. We also determine the grey water footprint as the amount of water required to dilute to allowable standards the pollution resulting from fertilizer applications. We found that about 380 × 109 m3 yr-1 of rainwater is appropriated with the 43 million ha of reported contract area acquired by agri-investors (>240 × 109 m3 yr-1 in the 29 million ha of foreign acquisitions only). This water would be sufficient to feed ≈ 300-390 million people.

  3. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  4. Transport of Tank 241-SY-101 Waste Slurry: Effects of Dilution and Temperature on Critical Pipeline Velocity

    SciTech Connect

    KP Recknagle; Y Onishi

    1999-06-15

    This report presents the methods and results of calculations performed to predict the critical velocity and pressure drop required for the two-inch pipeline transfer of solid/liquid waste slurry from underground waste storage Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY- 102 at the Hanford Site. The effects of temperature and dilution on the critical velocity were included in the analysis. These analyses show that Tank 241-SY-101 slurry should be diluted with water prior to delivery to Tank 241-SY-102. A dilution ratio of 1:1 is desirable and would allow the waste to be delivered at a critical velocity of 1.5 ft/sec. The system will be operated at a flow velocity of 6 ft/sec or greater therefore, this velocity will be sufficient to maintain a stable slurry delivery through the pipeline. The effect of temperature on the critical velocity is not a limiting factor when the slurry is diluted 1:1 with water. Pressure drop at the critical velocity would be approximately two feet for a 125-ft pipeline (or 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline). At 6 ft/sec, the pressure drop would be 20 feet over a 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline.

  5. Characterization of Tank 23H Supernate Per Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria Analysis Requirements -2005

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L

    2005-05-05

    Variable depth Tank 23H samples (22-inch sample [HTF-014] and 185-inch sample [HTF-013]) were pulled from Tank 23H in February, 2005 for characterization. The characterization of the Tank 23H low activity waste is part of the overall liquid waste processing activities. This characterization examined the species identified in the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the transfer of waste into the Salt-Feed Tank (SFT). The samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and analyzed. Apart from radium-226 with an average measured detection limit of < 2.64E+03 pCi/mL, which is about the same order of magnitude as the WAC limit (< 8.73E+03 pCi/mL), none of the species analyzed was found to approach the limits provided in the Saltstone WAC. The concentration of most of the species analyzed for the Tank 23H samples were 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the WAC limits. The achievable detection limits for a number of the analytes were several orders of magnitude lower than the WAC limits, but one or two orders of magnitude higher than the requested detection limits. Analytes which fell into this category included plutonium-241, europium-154/155, antimony-125, tin-126, ruthenium/rhodium-106, selenium-79, nickel-59/63, ammonium ion, copper, total nickel, manganese and total organic carbon.

  6. Characterization of Tank 23H Supernate Per Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria Analysis Requirements-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L

    2005-06-01

    Variable depth Tank 23H samples (22-inch sample [HTF-014] and 185-inch sample [HTF-013]) were pulled from Tank 23H in February, 2005 for characterization. The characterization of the Tank 23H low activity waste is part of the overall liquid waste processing activities. This characterization examined the species identified in the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the transfer of waste into the Salt-Feed Tank (SFT). The samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and analyzed. Apart from radium-226 with an average measured detection limit of < 2.64E+03 pCi/mL, which is about the same order of magnitude as the WAC limit (< 8.73E+03 pCi/mL), none of the species analyzed was found to approach the limits provided in the Saltstone WAC. The concentration of most of the species analyzed for the Tank 23H samples were 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the WAC limits. The achievable detection limits for a number of the analytes were several orders of magnitude lower than the WAC limits, but one or two orders of magnitude higher than the requested detection limits. Analytes which fell into this category included plutonium-241, europium-154/155, antimony-125, tin-126, ruthenium/rhodium-106, selenium-79, nickel-59/63, ammonium ion, copper, total nickel, manganese and total organic carbon.

  7. Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste

    SciTech Connect

    James Harvey; Michael Gula

    1998-12-07

    Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

  8. Grab a Great Resource: Using Educational Resources in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb.

    A guide to teaching resources in three northern Illinois counties was created by 28 teachers in a graduate course entitled "Integrating Community Resources into Curriculum and Instruction." The first part of the guide provides contact information and a brief description for approximately 100 people, places, and things that could be resources to…

  9. Grabbing the Brass Ring: Who Shapes Teacher Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.; Esch, Camille

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the shift in the locus of decision-making authority across more than 25 years of policy efforts to improve teaching effectiveness. Previously the province of local government, states assumed the lion's share of authority for teaching policy during the 1980s and 1990s. As states and the federal government rose to education…

  10. GRAB for Time: A Time Management Skills Board Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James; Patterson, Aimee; Woody, Connie; Lewis, Kathy; Cook, Marian; Duckett, Steve

    In addition to a brief introduction to time management, this document contains a training manual for teaching time management skills to workers at all levels in an organization. The training is offered in the form of a board game that takes approximately 1-1/2 to 2 hours to play. Among the time management principles learned in the game are…

  11. Accounting for "land-grabbing" from a biocapacity viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Coscieme, Luca; Pulselli, Federico M; Niccolucci, Valentina; Patrizi, Nicoletta; Sutton, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of the Ecological Footprint and its counterpart (i.e. biocapacity) allow for a classification of the world's countries as ecological creditors (Ecological Footprint lower than biocapacity) or debtors (Ecological Footprint higher than biocapacity). This classification is a national scale assessment on an annual time scale that provides a view of the ecological assets appropriated by the local population versus the natural ecological endowment of a country. We show that GDP per capita over a certain threshold is related with the worsening of the footprint balance in countries classified as ecological debtors. On the other hand, this correlation is lost when ecological creditor nations are considered. There is evidence that governments and investors from high GDP countries are playing a crucial role in impacting the environment at the global scale which is significantly affecting the geography of sustainability and preventing equal opportunities for development. In particular, international market dynamics and the concentration of economic power facilitate the transfer of biocapacity related to “land grabbing”, i.e. large scale acquisition of agricultural land. This transfer mainly occurs from low to high GDP countries, regardless of the actual need of foreign biocapacity, as expressed by the national footprint balance. A first estimation of the amount of biocapacity involved in this phenomenon is provided in this paper in order to better understand its implications on global sustainability and national and international land use policy.

  12. Global land and water grabbing for food and bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing demand for food, fibers and biofuels, the consequently escalating prices of agricultural products, and the uncertainty of international food markets have recently drawn the attention of governments and corporations toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in developing countries. Since 2000 more than 37 million hectares of arable land have been purchased or leased by foreign investors worldwide. The targeted regions are typically located in areas where crop yields are relatively low because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale investments in agriculture and the consequent development of commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crop yield gaps. Recently, a number of studies and reports have documented the process of foreign land acquisition, while the associated appropriation of land based resources (e.g., water and crops) has remained poorly investigated. The amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still needs to be quantified. It is also unclear to what extent the acquired land will be used to for biofuel production and the role played by U.S. and E.U. bioenergy policies as drivers of the ongoing land rush. The environmental impacts of these investments in agriculture require adequate investigation. Here we provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of water and crop appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We evaluate the associated impacts on the food and energy security of both target and investors' countries, and highlight the societal and environmental implications of the land rush phenomenon.

  13. Grab a coffee: your aerial images are already analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Rademacher, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    For over 2 decades the AIMTM platform has been utilized in mask shops as the standard for actinic review of photomask sites in order to perform defect disposition and repair review. Throughout this time the measurement throughput of the systems has been improved in order to keep pace with the requirements demanded by a manufacturing environment, however the analysis of the sites captured has seen little improvement and remained a manual process. This manual analysis of aerial images is time consuming, subject to error and unreliability and contributes to holding up turn-around time (TAT) and slowing process flow in a manufacturing environment. AutoAnalysis, the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, offers a solution to these problems by providing fully automated data transfer and analysis of AIMTM aerial images. The data is automatically output in a customizable format that can be tailored to your internal needs and the requests of your customers. Savings in terms of operator time arise from the automated analysis which no longer needs to be performed. Reliability is improved as human error is eliminated making sure the most defective region is always and consistently captured. Finally the TAT is shortened and process flow for the back end of the line improved as the analysis is fast and runs in parallel to the measurements. In this paper the concept and approach of AutoAnalysis will be presented as well as an update to the status of the project. A look at the benefits arising from the automation and the customizable approach of the solution will be shown.

  14. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an informed decision and the land was paid at market value.

  15. Game, Water, and People Up for Grabs: A Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Robert H.

    1979-01-01

    This article asserts if Americans continue to pump, mine and extract natural resources they will inevitably confront the harsh but intractable facts of nature, and that a salvageable future must be one of limits, of new social controls and of recovering an old ethic which honors foresight, forebearance and sharing. (Author/RTS)

  16. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  17. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-29

    This characterization report summarizes the available information on the historical uses, current status, and sampling and analysis results of waste stored in double-shell underground storage tank 241- AN-102. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-09 (Ecology et al. 1996). Tank 241-AN-102 is one of seven double-shell tanks located in the AN Tank Farm in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The tank was hydrotested in 1981, and when the water was removed, a 6-inch heel was left. Tank 241-AN-102 began receiving waste from tank 241-SY-102 beginning in 1982. The tank was nearly emptied in the third quarter of 1983, leaving only 125 kL (33 kgal) of waste. Between the fourth quarter of 1983 and the first quarter of 1984, tank 241-AN-102 received waste from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-SY-102, 241-AW-105, and 241- AN-101. The tank was nearly emptied in the second quarter of 1984, leaving a heel of 129 kL (34 kgal). During the second and third quarters of 1984, the tank was filled with concentrated complexant waste from tank 241-AW-101. Since that time, only minor amounts of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant miscellaneous waste and water have been received; there have been no waste transfer to or from the tank since 1992. Therefore, the waste currently in the tank is considered to be concentrated complexant waste. Tank 241-AN-102 is sound and is not included on any of the Watch Lists.

  18. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.

    1995-04-28

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events.

  19. Vitrification of M-Area Mixed (Hazardous and Radioactive) F006 Wastes: I. Sludge and Supernate Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2001-10-05

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert low-level and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes to a solid stabilized waste form for permanent disposal. One of the alternative technologies is vitrification into a borosilicate glass waste form. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared vitrification the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for high-level radioactive mixed waste and produced a Handbook of Vitrification Technologies for Treatment of Hazardous and Radioactive Waste. The DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible to ensure that the resulting waste forms will meet both current and future regulatory specifications. Stabilization of low level and hazardous wastes in glass are in accord with the 1988 Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), then the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Professional Planning Committee (PPC) recommendation that high nitrate containing (low-level) wastes be incorporated into a low temperature glass (via a sol-gel technology). The investigation into this new technology was considered timely because of the potential for large waste volume reduction compared to solidification into cement.

  20. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL WITH MATRIX SIMULANTS AND SUPERNATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2012-05-07

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current DWPF flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the CPC since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  1. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2012-08-28

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  2. Crabs grab strongly depending on mechanical advantages of pinching and disarticulation of chela.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi; Kawai, Hiroki

    2016-10-01

    A small morphological variation of an organ may cause a major change of its function in animal evolution. The function of decapod chela varies considerably among taxa, between sex, and even within an individual, but also retains a simple mechanism of motion. Therefore, the decapod chela is a suitable structure to study the evolutionary process of functional diversifications, although the relationship of form and function is inadequately understood, yet. We estimated the mechanical advantages of pinching and passive disarticulation resistance, and chela size relative to the carapace in 317 chelae of 168 decapod specimens, and compared these indices with the functions of each chela. Our study revealed that mechanical advantages of pinching efficiency and passive disarticulation resistance were greatest in shell-crushing chelae, followed by gripping and pinching chelae, whereas the chela size relative to the carapace was not related to differences among these functions. We also found that the chelae are designed to retain the ratio between depth and width of the proximal dactylus. In the evolutionary process of decapods, the diversifications of chela functions were accompanied by the diversifications of the mechanical advantages, and played an essential role in their ecological diversification. J. Morphol. 277:1259-1272, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27400407

  3. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be used if shown to yield equivalent...)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must conform to...

  4. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and...

  5. Teaching Outside the Box: How to Grab Your Students By Their Brains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LouAnne

    2005-01-01

    This book offers strategies to help both new teachers and seasoned veterans create dynamic classroom environments where students enjoy learning and teachers enjoy teaching. In addition to no-nonsense advice, checklists, and handouts, the book includes: (1) A step-by-step plan to make the first week of school a success; (2) Approaches for creating…

  6. Teaching Outside the Box: How to Grab Your Students by Their Brains, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LouAnne

    2011-01-01

    This second edition of the bestselling book includes practical suggestions for arranging your classroom, talking to students, avoiding the misbehavior cycle, and making your school a place where students learn and teachers teach. The book also contains enlivening Q&A from teachers, letters from students, and tips for grading. This new edition has…

  7. Stimulus Patching Budgets: Local Officials Crying Foul as Governors Grab for Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNell, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Desperate for cash to fill growing budget deficits, state governments are starting to tangle with federal and local officials over a $39.8 billion pot of economic-stimulus money that was designed to prop up the budgets of local school districts, but is increasingly being eyed as a patch for states' own financial woes. Vague language and loopholes…

  8. Power Grab: How the National Education Association Is Betraying Our Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moo, G. Gregory

    Public education stands as a monolith in a world alive with fruitful change. Across the 50 states, the changes that parents and taxpayers want in public education are being misdirected and blocked by a powerful and self-serving union that has been taking control of public education since 1857. Evidence is presented in this book that the National…

  9. Taking an Attention-Grabbing "Headlines First!" Approach to Engage Students in a Lecture Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, G. Keith; Stevenson, Clint; Joyner, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it. Traditional lectures do not consistently capture our students' attention, especially when they are PowerPoint-driven and lack student/instructor interaction. Most of us have had the unfortunate feeling that our students were not fully engaged in our lectures, despite hours of preparation on our part. This sense of "wasted"…

  10. Automatic vigilance: the attention-grabbing power of negative social information.

    PubMed

    Pratto, F; John, O P

    1991-09-01

    One of the functions of automatic stimulus evaluation is to direct attention toward events that may have undesirable consequences for the perceiver's well-being. To test whether attentional resources are automatically directed away from an attended task to undesirable stimuli, Ss named the colors in which desirable and undesirable traits (e.g., honest, sadistic) appeared. Across 3 experiments, color-naming latencies were consistently longer for undesirable traits but did not differ within the desirable and undesirable categories. In Experiment 2, Ss also showed more incidental learning for undesirable traits, as predicted by the automatic vigilance (but not a perceptual defense) hypothesis. In Experiment 3, a diagnosticity (or base-rate) explanation of the vigilance effect was ruled out. The implications for deliberate processing in person perception and stereotyping are discussed. PMID:1941510

  11. Automatic vigilance: the attention-grabbing power of approach- and avoidance-related social information.

    PubMed

    Wentura, D; Rothermund, K; Bak, P

    2000-06-01

    The automatic processing of information was investigated, varying valence (positive vs. negative) and relevance (other-relevant traits [ORT] vs. possessor-relevant traits [PRT]; G. Peeters, 1983) of stimuli. ORTs denote unconditionally positive or negative consequences for persons in the social environment of the holder of the trait (e.g., honest, brutal) whereas PRTs denote unconditionally positive or negative consequences for the trait holder (e.g., happy, depressive). In 2 experiments using the Stroop paradigm, larger interference effects were found for ORTs than PRTs. This is due to the behavior-relatedness of ORTs. In a go/no-go lexical decision task (Experiment 3), participants either had to withdraw their finger from a pressed key (i.e., "avoid") or had to press a key (i.e., "approach") if a word was presented. Responses to negative ORTs were relatively faster in the withdraw condition, whereas positive ORTs were relatively faster in the press condition. PMID:10870906

  12. Land grab. More investors offer hospitals cash for their real estate as providers hunt for capital.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2011-03-01

    More real estate investors are offering hospitals cash for real estate as providers tap into their assets for capital. But if REITs are banking on providers cashing in their real estate chips, that's not happening yet, says Mike O'Keefe, left, of Navigant Consulting. The capital flooding into healthcare real estate has met with a limited supply of sellers. "That's what's driving some of this consolidation," O'Keefe said. PMID:21452424

  13. Navigating the Current Job Market—Grab Hold of Your Future Now!12

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Holiday A.; McDermott, Ann Y.

    2013-01-01

    Although the U.S. federal government, the National Science Foundation, and other influential groups have called for American universities to educate and train more scientists, a recent article in the Washington Post and broadcasting on National Public Radio affirmed a harsh reality: there are too few jobs for today’s young scientists. Essentially, landing a job in science doesn’t just happen, you must prepare! The intent of this education track session, targeted to students, postdoctorates, junior faculty, and other early- to midcareer professionals was to provide insights on trends in the current job market and offer strategies and resources to be competitive. The session featured speakers representing different work environments, such as academia, industry, health care institutions, public relations, and entrepreneurial positions. PMID:24228196

  14. Visual Attention to Antismoking PSAs: Smoking Cues versus Other Attention-Grabbing Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N.; Cappella, Joseph N.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; O'Keeffe, Moira; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how addicted smokers attend visually to smoking-related public service announcements (PSAs) in adults smokers. Smokers' onscreen visual fixation is an indicator of cognitive resources allocated to visual attention. Characteristic of individuals with addictive tendencies, smokers are expected to be appetitively activated by…

  15. "And Then a Huge, Huge Giant Grabbed Me!" Aggression in Children's Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacigalupa, Chiara; Wright, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Children's stories, like children's play, often contain aggressive elements. This research study identified the themes and ideas that children between the ages of 2 and 6 years old included in 290 dictated stories with aggressive elements. Among the stories that contained aggressive elements, 42% were dictated by girls, and 57% were dictated by…

  16. Hazardous Asteroids: Cloaking STEM Skills Training within an Attention-Grabbing Science/Math Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.

    2015-11-01

    A graduate-level course was designed and taught during the summer months from 2009 - 2015 in order to contribute to the training and professional development of K-12 teachers residing in the Southwest. The teachers were seeking Master’s degrees via the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology’s (NMT’s) Masters of Science Teaching (MST) program, and the course satisfied a science or math requirement. The MST program provides opportunities for in-service teachers to enhance their content backgrounds in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET). The ultimate goal is to assist teachers in gaining knowledge that has direct application in the classroom.The engaging topic area of near-Earth object (NEO) characterization studies was used to create a fun and exciting framework for mastering basic skills and concepts in physics and astronomy. The objective was to offer a class that had the appropriate science rigor (with an emphasis on mathematics) within a non-threatening format. The course, entitled “Hazardous Asteroids”, incorporates a basic planetary physics curriculum, with challenging laboratories that include a heavy emphasis on math and technology. Since the authors run a NASA-funded NEO research and follow-up program, also folded into the course is the use of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory’s 2.4-meter telescope so participants can take and reduce their own data on a near-Earth asteroid.In exit assessments, the participants have given the course excellent ratings for design and implementation, and the overall degree of satisfaction was high. This validates that a well-constructed (and rigorous) course can be effective in receptively reaching teachers in need of basic skills refreshment. Many of the teachers taking the course were employed in school districts serving at-risk or under-prepared students, and the course helped provide them with the confidence vital to developing new strategies for successful teaching.

  17. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be... essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted....

  18. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be... essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted....

  19. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric... and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See §§ 91.317 and...

  20. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric... and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See §§ 91.317 and...

  1. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric... and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See §§ 91.317 and...

  2. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be... essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted....

  3. Navigating the current job market--grab hold of your future now!

    PubMed

    Durham, Holiday A; McDermott, Ann Y

    2013-11-01

    Although the U.S. federal government, the National Science Foundation, and other influential groups have called for American universities to educate and train more scientists, a recent article in the Washington Post and broadcasting on National Public Radio affirmed a harsh reality: there are too few jobs for today's young scientists. Essentially, landing a job in science doesn't just happen, you must prepare! The intent of this education track session, targeted to students, postdoctorates, junior faculty, and other early- to midcareer professionals was to provide insights on trends in the current job market and offer strategies and resources to be competitive. The session featured speakers representing different work environments, such as academia, industry, health care institutions, public relations, and entrepreneurial positions.

  4. Standard-B auto grab sampler hydrogen monitoring system, Acceptance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, D.T.

    1995-05-18

    Project W-369, Watch List Tank Hydrogen Monitors, installed a Standard-C Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) on the Flammable gas waste tank AN-104. General Support Projects (8K510) was support by Test Engineering (7CH30) in the performance of the Acceptance Test Procedures (ATP) to qualify the SHMS cabinets on the waste tank. The ATP`s performance was controlled by Tank Farm work package. This completed ATP is transmitted by EDT-601748 as an Acceptance Test Report (ATR) in accordance with WHC-6-1, EP 4.2 and EP 1.12.

  5. Grab 'em while They're Young: (Before They become Disillusioned and Cynical)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Sally

    2010-01-01

    In the pre-Internet world of 1992, a new organization called Project Vote Smart used the highest technology available--a toll-free Voter's Research Hotline--to help voters get the facts about candidates and elected officials. Designed to give voters the tools they needed to "Vote Smart," the Hotline connected voters with questions to 50 student…

  6. Up for Grabs: The Gains and Prospects of First- and Second-Generation Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batalova, Jeanne; Fix, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Youth and young adults from immigrant families today represent one in four people in the United States between the ages of 16 and 26--up from one in five just 15 years ago. This population will assume a greater role as the US workforce ages, and how it fares in the classroom and in the workplace is of signal importance not just for these…

  7. Children's Performance on the "Give X" Task: A Microgenetic Analysis of "Counting" and "Grabbing" Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetland, Elizabeth; Fluck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Children's understanding of the cardinal significance of counting is often assessed by the "give x" task, in which they are categorized as "counters" or "grabbers". Previous research indicates a sudden stage-like shift, implying insight into a principle. Employing a microgenetic approach, the present study was designed to explore whether this…

  8. Hanford Double-Shell Tank Extent-of-Condition Construction Review

    SciTech Connect

    Venetz, Theodore J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Gunter, Jason R.; Barnes, Travis J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2013-11-14

    During routine visual inspections of Hanford double-shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102), anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. Following a formal leak assessment in October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. The formal leak assessment, documented in RPP-ASMT-53793,Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Report, identified first-of-a-kind construction difficulties and trial-and-error repairs as major contributing factors to tank failure. To determine if improvements in double-shell tank (DST) construction occurred after construction of tank AY-102, a detailed review and evaluation of historical construction records were performed for the first three DST tank farms constructed, which included tanks 241-AY-101, 241-AZ-101, 241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The review for these six tanks involved research and review of dozens of boxes of historical project documentation. These reviews form a basis to better understand the current condition of the three oldest Hanford DST farms. They provide a basis for changes to the current tank inspection program and also provide valuable insight into future tank use decisions. If new tanks are constructed in the future, these reviews provide valuable "lessons-learned" information about expected difficulties as well as construction practices and techniques that are likely to be successful.

  9. Process Control Plan for Tank 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-09-28

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within the last year or so, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior (Rassat et al. 1999) in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. This growth has been brought about by a rapidly increasing rate of gas entrapment within the crust. It has been conceived that the lack of crust agitation beginning upon the advent of mixer pump operations may have set-up a more consolidated, gas impermeable barrier when compared to a crust regularly broken up by the prior buoyant displacement events within the tank. As a result, a series of level-growth remediation activities have been developed for tank 241-SY-101. The initial activities are also known as near-term crust mitigation. The first activity of near-term mitigation is to perform the small transfer of convective waste from tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. A 100 kgal transfer represents about a 10% volume reduction allowing a 10% water in-tank dilution. Current thinking holds that this should be enough to dissolve nitrite solids in the crust and perhaps largely eliminate gas retention problem in the crust (Raymond 1999).

  10. Evaluation and comparison of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, resorcinol-formaldehyde and CS-100 ion exchange materials for the removal of cesium from simulated alkaline supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Eloviche, R.J.; Bruening, R.L.; Decker, R.M.; Kafka, T.M.; White, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    PNL evaluated three polymeric materials for Cs removal efficiency from a simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) supernatant liquid using 200 mL ion exchange columns. Cs loadings (mmole Cs/g resin) were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.039 for Super Lig 644, R-F, and CS-100 (0.045, 0.070, 0.011 mmole Cs/mL resin). Elution of each resin material with 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} required 3.5, 7.0, and 3.2 cv to reach 0.1 C/C{sub 0} for the respective materials, resulting in volume compressions of 27, 20, and 6.9. Peak Cs concentrations during elution was 185, 38.5, and 27.8 C/C{sub 0}. SuperLig 644 had the highest Cs loading per gram in NCAW and the greatest volume compression on aci elution. Because of high density and poor elution, R-F had the highest Cs loading per unit volume and lower volume compression. CS-100, the baseline material for Cs removal at Hanford, was inferior to both SuperLig 644 and R-F in terms of Cs loading and selectivity over sodium.

  11. Seafloor video footage and still-frame grabs from U.S. Geological Survey cruises in Hawaiian nearshore waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Tierney, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Underwater video footage was collected in nearshore waters (<60-meter depth) off the Hawaiian Islands from 2002 to 2011 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Pacific Coral Reef Project, to improve seafloor characterization and for the development and ground-truthing of benthic-habitat maps. This report includes nearly 53 hours of digital underwater video footage collected during four USGS cruises and more than 10,200 still images extracted from the videos, including still frames from every 10 seconds along transect lines, and still frames showing both an overview and a near-bottom view from fixed stations. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) shapefiles of individual video and still-image locations, and Google Earth kml files with explanatory text and links to the video and still images, are included. This report documents the various camera systems and methods used to collect the videos, and the techniques and software used to convert the analog video tapes into digital data in order to process the images for optimum viewing and to extract the still images, along with a brief summary of each survey cruise.

  12. A Massive Power Grab from Local Communities: The Real Significance of the 2010 White Paper and the 2011 Education Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the Coalition Government's recent White Paper and Education Bill whose chief effect will be to further destabilise the schools system in the United Kingdom. The new Bill stipulates that if a new school is needed in an area, proposals for an Academy or a Free School must be prioritised before any other bid can be considered.…

  13. Grab vs. composite sampling of particulate materials with significant spatial heterogeneity--a simulation study of "correct sampling errors".

    PubMed

    Minkkinen, Pentti O; Esbensen, Kim H

    2009-10-19

    Sampling errors can be divided into two classes, incorrect sampling and correct sampling errors. Incorrect sampling errors arise from incorrectly designed sampling equipment or procedures. Correct sampling errors are due to the heterogeneity of the material in sampling targets. Excluding the incorrect sampling errors, which can all be eliminated in practice although informed and diligent work is often needed, five factors dominate sampling variance: two factors related to material heterogeneity (analyte concentration; distributional heterogeneity) and three factors related to the sampling process itself (sample type, sample size, sampling modus). Due to highly significant interactions, a comprehensive appreciation of their combined effects is far from trivial and has in fact never been illustrated in detail. Heterogeneous materials can be well characterized by the two first factors, while all essential sampling process characteristics can be summarized by combinations of the latter three. We here present simulations based on an experimental design that varies all five factors. Within the framework of the Theory of Sampling, the empirical Total Sampling Error is a function of the fundamental sampling error and the grouping and segregation error interacting with a specific sampling process. We here illustrate absolute and relative sampling variance levels resulting from a wide array of simulated repeated samplings and express the effects by pertinent lot mean estimates and associated Root Mean Squared Errors/sampling variances, covering specific combinations of materials' heterogeneity and typical sampling procedures as used in current science, technology and industry. Factors, levels and interactions are varied within limits selected to match realistic materials and sampling situations that mimic, e.g., sampling for genetically modified organisms; sampling of geological drill cores; sampling during off-loading 3-dimensional lots (shiploads, railroad cars, truckloads etc.) and scenarios representing a range of industrial manufacturing and production processes. A new simulation facility "SIMSAMP" is presented with selected results designed to show also the wider applicability potential. This contribution furthers a general exposé of all essential effects in the regimen covered by "correct sampling errors", valid for all types of materials in which non-bias sampling can be achieved.

  14. Engineering work plan and design basis for 241-SY ventilation improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-05-19

    There are three tanks in the 241-SY tank farm. Tank 241-SY101 and 241-SY-103 are flammable gas watch list tanks. Tank 241-SY-102 is included in the ventilation improvement process in an effort to further control air flow in the tank farm. This tank farm has only one outlet ventilation port for all three tanks. Flammable gas is released (may be steady and/or periodic) from the waste in the primary tank vapor space. The gas is removed from the tank by an active ventilation system. However, maintaining consistent measurable flow through the tank can be problematic due to the poor control capabilities of existing equipment. Low flow through the tank could allow flammable gas to build up in the tank and possibly exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL), prevent the most rapid removal of flammable gas from the tank after a sudden gas release, and/or cause high vacuum alarms to sound. Using the inlet and outlet down stream butterfly valves performs the current method of controlling flow in tank farm 241-SY. A filter station is installed on the inlet of each tank, but controlling air flow with its 12 inch butterfly valve is difficult. There is also in-leakage through pump and valve pits. Butterfly valves on the downstream side of each tank could also be used to control air flow. However, their large size and the relatively low air velocity make this control method also ineffective. The proposed method of optimizing tank air flow and pressure control capability is to install an air flow controller on the inlet of each existing filter station in SY farm, and seal as best as practical all other air leakage paths. Such air flow controllers have been installed on 241-AN and 241-AW tanks (see drawing H-2-85647).

  15. Double-Shell Tank Visual Inspection Changes Resulting from the Tank 241-AY-102 Primary Tank Leak

    SciTech Connect

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Engeman, Jason K.

    2013-11-14

    As part of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Program, remote visual inspections are utilized to perform qualitative in-service inspections of the DSTs in order to provide a general overview of the condition of the tanks. During routine visual inspections of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) in August 2012, anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. Following identification of the tank AY-102 probable leak cause, evaluations considered the adequacy of the existing annulus inspection frequency with respect to the circumstances of the tank AY-102 1eak and the advancing age of the DST structures. The evaluations concluded that the interval between annulus inspections should be shortened for all DSTs, and each annulus inspection should cover > 95 percent of annulus floor area, and the portion of the primary tank (i.e., dome, sidewall, lower knuckle, and insulating refractory) that is visible from the annulus inspection risers. In March 2013, enhanced visual inspections were performed for the six oldest tanks: 241-AY-101, 241-AZ-101,241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103, and no evidence of leakage from the primary tank were observed. Prior to October 2012, the approach for conducting visual examinations of DSTs was to perform a video examination of each tank's interior and annulus regions approximately every five years (not to exceed seven years between inspections). Also, the annulus inspection only covered about 42 percent of the annulus floor.

  16. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen in the gas phase; comparison of gas generation rates in supernate and solid fractions of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes progress made in evaluating me by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using simulated waste mixtures. Work described in this report. was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), under subcontract to PNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at VMC using actual wastes.

  17. Some insights into analytical bias involved in the application of grab sampling for volatile organic compounds: a case study against used Tedlar bags.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches.

  18. Biological Physics Prize talk: Grabbing the Cat by the Tail: Studies of DNA Packaging by Single φ 29 Bacteriophage Particles Using Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Carlos

    2002-03-01

    I will present our recent results on the packaging of DNA by the connector motor at the base of the head of bacteriophage φ 29. As part of their infection cycle, many viruses must package their newly replicated genomes inside a protein capsid to insure its proper transport and delivery to other host cells. Bacteriophage φ 29 packages its 6.6 mm long double-stranded DNA into a 42 nm dia. x 54 nm high capsid via a portal complex that hydrolyses ATP. This process is remarkable because entropic, electrostatic, and bending energies of the DNA must be overcome to package the DNA to near-crystalline density. We have used optical tweezers to pull on single DNA molecules as they are packaged, thus demonstrating that the portal complex is a force generating motor. We find that this motor can work against loads of up to ~57 picoNewtons on average, making it one of the strongest molecular motors ever reported. Movements of over 5 mm are observed, indicating high processivity. Pauses and slips also occur, particularly at higher forces. We establish the force-velocity relationship of the motor and find that the rate-limiting step of the motor's cycle is force dependent even at low loads. Interestingly, the packaging rate decreases as the prohead is filled, indicating that an internal pressure builds up due to DNA compression. We estimate that at the end of the packaging the capsid pressure is ~15 MegaPascals, corresponding to an internal force of ~50 pN acting on the motor. The biological implications of this internal pressure and the mechano-chemical efficiency of the engine are discussed.

  19. Some Insights into Analytical Bias Involved in the Application of Grab Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds: A Case Study against Used Tedlar Bags

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches. PMID:22235175

  20. See it, grab it, or STOP! Relationships between trait impulsivity, attentional bias for pictorial food cues and associated response inhibition following in-vivo food cue exposure.

    PubMed

    Lattimore, Paul; Mead, Bethan R

    2015-07-01

    Impulsivity is associated with appetitive behaviour such as heightened sensitivity to cues of reward. Impulsivity may thus confer a vulnerability to weight gain by virtue of over-responsiveness to rewarding appetitive cues. This vulnerability should be detectable as heightened cognitive and behavioural responsiveness to food cues, namely, an attentional bias to food-stimuli, subjective wanting, and loss of inhibitory control. We examined this proposition by measuring reactions to acute, in-vivo, food-cue exposure in low-impulsive and high-impulsive individuals. We expected that high-impulsive individuals would: (1) show a greater attentional bias towards pictorial food cues presented after in-vivo food cue exposure; (2) show a greater appetitive reaction to high-calorie snack foods; and (3) show poorer inhibitory control after in vivo exposure compared to control. Fifty female participants (25 yr ± 1.1; 24 kg/m2 ± 0.6) randomly allocated to either a high-calorie food-cue exposure or food-neutral control condition subsequently completed a food-cue visual probe reaction time task, subjective ratings of appetitive state and the Stop-Signal task. A significant Group-by-Duration interaction indicated that high-impulsives show slowed disengagement (longer RTs for 2000 ms duration) of pictorial food stimuli compared to their low-impulsive counterparts. Conversely, the low impulsive group show greater attentional bias than the high impulsive group (faster RTs) at the 500 ms duration, indicating speeded detection of pictorial food cues. High-impulsives showed poorer response inhibition compared to low-impulsives following in-vivo food-cue exposure. Impulsivity did not significantly moderate the effect of in-vivo cue-exposure on desire-to-eat ratings. The evidence we obtained regarding inhibitory control following in vivo food cue exposure suggests that high-impulsive individuals may be prone to overeat when their reward systems are activated, a hypothesis that requires further confirmation. PMID:25817482

  1. Conversion of a Continuous Flow Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer to Measure 13C in CO2 Using Static Analyses of Small Volume Grab Samples (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, T.; Jordanova, K.; Berryman, E.; van Pelt, A. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Laser-based analyses of concentration and isotopic content allow unprecedented temporal resolution for a number of important atmospheric constituents. Perhaps overlooked is the potential for these tools to also provide analyses in a more traditional "mass spectrometric" mode that is readily deployable in a field setting. Certain sampling regimes (e.g. soil profiles) are not appropriate for continuous sampling due to their slow change and disturbance of gradients caused by frequent/continuous sampling. We have modified the inlet and plumbing system of a commercial continuous flow cavity ring-down spectrometer in a manner that allows for 13C analyses of CO2 from syringe samples at volumes as small as 25 ml of air with ambient concentrations of CO2. The method employs an external high vacuum pump and a series of programmable micro-valves that allow for evacuation of the long-pass ring-down cell followed by controlled filling, via syringe, of the cavity to optimal sampling pressure and subsequent static analysis of CO2 concentration and 13C /13C ratios. The set-up is field deployable with modest power requirements and allows for near real time analysis in a variety of sampling environments and on-the-fly determination of sampling protocol. In its current configuration, the system provides precision of 1% for CO2 concentration and 0.3 permil for δ13C in replicate analyses of reference air. We have deployed the system to a field laboratory in central New Mexico near a controlled tree mortality research site where post-mortality ecosystem CO2 evolution is being studied. Results from the first field season will be presented and discussed.

  2. See it, grab it, or STOP! Relationships between trait impulsivity, attentional bias for pictorial food cues and associated response inhibition following in-vivo food cue exposure.

    PubMed

    Lattimore, Paul; Mead, Bethan R

    2015-07-01

    Impulsivity is associated with appetitive behaviour such as heightened sensitivity to cues of reward. Impulsivity may thus confer a vulnerability to weight gain by virtue of over-responsiveness to rewarding appetitive cues. This vulnerability should be detectable as heightened cognitive and behavioural responsiveness to food cues, namely, an attentional bias to food-stimuli, subjective wanting, and loss of inhibitory control. We examined this proposition by measuring reactions to acute, in-vivo, food-cue exposure in low-impulsive and high-impulsive individuals. We expected that high-impulsive individuals would: (1) show a greater attentional bias towards pictorial food cues presented after in-vivo food cue exposure; (2) show a greater appetitive reaction to high-calorie snack foods; and (3) show poorer inhibitory control after in vivo exposure compared to control. Fifty female participants (25 yr ± 1.1; 24 kg/m2 ± 0.6) randomly allocated to either a high-calorie food-cue exposure or food-neutral control condition subsequently completed a food-cue visual probe reaction time task, subjective ratings of appetitive state and the Stop-Signal task. A significant Group-by-Duration interaction indicated that high-impulsives show slowed disengagement (longer RTs for 2000 ms duration) of pictorial food stimuli compared to their low-impulsive counterparts. Conversely, the low impulsive group show greater attentional bias than the high impulsive group (faster RTs) at the 500 ms duration, indicating speeded detection of pictorial food cues. High-impulsives showed poorer response inhibition compared to low-impulsives following in-vivo food-cue exposure. Impulsivity did not significantly moderate the effect of in-vivo cue-exposure on desire-to-eat ratings. The evidence we obtained regarding inhibitory control following in vivo food cue exposure suggests that high-impulsive individuals may be prone to overeat when their reward systems are activated, a hypothesis that requires further confirmation.

  3. Determination of Temperature Limits for Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.

    1999-08-31

    This document provides a systematic approach for determining the temperature limits for a tank given that the supernate concentration is known, or for ''dry'' tanks, given that the supernate concentration from the last sample of free supernate that was collected is known. A decision tree was developed to provide the logic for the temperature limit determination.

  4. Zero tolerance. With health IT money up for grabs, many EHR vendors are offering financing deals to attract business. But, just like shopping for a car, experts warn about reading the fine print before buying.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Gregg; Carlson, Joe

    2010-03-01

    The government, by way of federal stimulus incentives, wants to boost the use of electronic health records. However, physician practices must be careful about low or no-interest offers when buying an EHR system, experts say. "The ultimate power a buyer has--I use the analogy of buying a car--is the ability to say 'no thanks' and walk out of the showroom", says Steven Fox, left, a partner at Post & Schell.

  5. Zero tolerance. With health IT money up for grabs, many EHR vendors are offering financing deals to attract business. But, just like shopping for a car, experts warn about reading the fine print before buying.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Gregg; Carlson, Joe

    2010-03-01

    The government, by way of federal stimulus incentives, wants to boost the use of electronic health records. However, physician practices must be careful about low or no-interest offers when buying an EHR system, experts say. "The ultimate power a buyer has--I use the analogy of buying a car--is the ability to say 'no thanks' and walk out of the showroom", says Steven Fox, left, a partner at Post & Schell. PMID:20336867

  6. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Procedures for Conducting Sampling of Stripped Resin and Process Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... more frequent during a 24 hour period. b. Batch 1 grab sample for each batch produced during a 24 hour period 1 grab sample for each batch produced during a 24 hour period. 2. Continuous compliance a... more frequent during a 24 hour period. b. Batch On a daily basis, 1 grab sample for each batch...

  7. 40 CFR 98.263 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Equation Z-1a (metric tons). ICn,i = Inorganic carbon content of a grab sample batch of phosphate rock by... of different types of phosphate rock in month, by origin. If the grab sample is a composite sample of...). CO2n,i = Carbon dioxide content of a grab sample batch of phosphate rock by origin i obtained...

  8. 40 CFR 98.263 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Equation Z-1a (metric tons). ICn,i = Inorganic carbon content of a grab sample batch of phosphate rock by... of different types of phosphate rock in month, by origin. If the grab sample is a composite sample of...). CO2n,i = Carbon dioxide emissions of a grab sample batch of phosphate rock by origin i obtained...

  9. 40 CFR 98.263 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Equation Z-1a (metric tons). ICn,i = Inorganic carbon content of a grab sample batch of phosphate rock by... of different types of phosphate rock in month, by origin. If the grab sample is a composite sample of...). CO2n,i = Carbon dioxide emissions of a grab sample batch of phosphate rock by origin i obtained...

  10. Phase I and II Results from Sr and TRU Precipitation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.

    2000-07-27

    The BNFL removal processes for strontium and transuranic components from the AN-102 and AN-107 supernate originally proposed are co-precipitation methods. In initial testing, the precipitates formed during the strontium and ferric nitrate additions were not filterable.

  11. Analysis of Tank 43H Samples at the Conclusion of Uranyl Carbonate Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    2002-10-15

    Tank 43H serves as the feed Tank to the 2H evaporator. In the months of July and August 2001, about 21,000 gallons of a depleted uranyl carbonate solution were added to Tank 43H and agitated with two Flygt mixers. The depleted uranium addition served to decrease the U-235 enrichment in the Tank 43H supernate so that the supernate could be evaporated with no risk of accumulating enriched uranium.

  12. Permeation of Tank C-103 sludge simulant by organic solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.

    1995-03-01

    The plan for stabilizing underground storage tanks (USTs) calls for draining the supernate from the tanks; however, there is concern that draining the supernate from Tank C-103 will degrade safety in the tank. The sludge in Tank C-103 contains ranges in depth from 1 to 1.5 m and is covered by both an aqueous phase and a separate organic layer. The main concern is that draining the supernate will cause the solvent to permeate the sludge solids and provide a source of fuel for a fire on the surface of the drained sludge. The question of whether the solvent will permeate sludge that is 1 to 1.5 m deep after the tank is dewatered is the purpose of the tests conducted and described in this report. Evaluation of the solvent permeation mechanism required the preparation of solvent, supernate, and sludge simulants based on the known chemistry of Tank C-103. Solvent and aqueous phase supernate simulants are based on the results of fiscal year 1994 sampling of the tank solvent and supernate. Sludge simulant is based on the chemical analyses of tank sludge samples retrieved in 1986. Experiments were conducted with each simulant to evaluate solvent permeation under matric potentials ranging from 0.8 m to 1.8 m of supernate. The amount of solvent recovered for each experiment was recorded as well as the maximum amount of solvent that could be din the sludge based on solvent recovered from resuspended sludge and solvent not recovered. The wt% of water remaining in the sludge was also recorded for each experiment, which was determined by measuring the weight of the sludge after drying it. One observation noted from the test results is that the finer sludge material tended to have a greater amount of solvent loss compared to the coarser sludge material at comparable levels of vacuum. At this time, there is no explanation.

  13. Evaluation of Hanford high level waste vitrification chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- FY 1994: Potential exothermic reactions in the presence of formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    A potential for an uncontrollable exothermic reaction between nitrate and organic salts during preparation of a high level waste melter feed has been identified. In order to examine this potential more closely, the thermal behavior of simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) treated with various organic reductants was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were collected on simulated waste samples and their supernates treated with organics. Organic reductants used were formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. For comparison, samples of untreated simulant and untreated simulant with added noble metals were tested. When heated, untreated simulant samples both with and without noble metals showed no exothermic behavior. All of the treated waste simulant samples showed exothermic behavior. Onset temperatures of exothermic reactions were 120 C to 210 C. Many onset temperatures, particularly those for formic acid treated samples, are well below 181 C, the estimated maximum steam coil temperature (considered to be a worst case maximum temperature for chemical process tank contents). The enthalpies of the reactions were {minus}180 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}181 J/g) for the oxalic acid treated simulant supernate to {minus}1,150 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}1,153 J/g) for the formic acid treated simulant supernate.

  14. 40 CFR Table 18 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limit a. Select sampling site Method 1 or 1A (40 CFR part 60, appendix A). No traverse site selection... an integrated sample or four grab samples during each run. If you use a grab sampling technique, take...: Vent to a flare a. Conduct visible emission observations Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A)...

  15. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  16. 46 CFR 160.076-25 - Approval testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements of §§ 160.076-21 and 160.076-23 and UL 1180 and 1191. (2) Inflation chamber properties. The... Characteristics Tests required by UL 1180 section 6. (i) Grab breaking strength. The grab breaking strength of chamber materials must be determined in accordance with Method No. 5100 of Federal Test Method...

  17. 46 CFR 160.076-25 - Approval testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Characteristics Tests required by UL 1180 section 6. (i) Grab breaking strength. The grab breaking strength of chamber materials must be determined in accordance with Method No. 5100 of Federal Test Method...

  18. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fabrics shall comply with the requirements of Federal Specification CCC-C-426 for Type I, Class 3 material... Specification CCC-A-700. (e) Pad covering. The covering for the buoyant pad inserts shall be flexible vinyl film... Type I or II, Class 1, film. (f) Grab straps. The grab straps shall be of materials permitted for...

  19. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fabrics shall comply with the requirements of Federal Specification CCC-C-426 for Type I, Class 3 material... Specification CCC-A-700. (e) Pad covering. The covering for the buoyant pad inserts shall be flexible vinyl film... Type I or II, Class 1, film. (f) Grab straps. The grab straps shall be of materials permitted for...

  20. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fabrics shall comply with the requirements of Federal Specification CCC-C-426 for Type I, Class 3 material... Specification CCC-A-700. (e) Pad covering. The covering for the buoyant pad inserts shall be flexible vinyl film... Type I or II, Class 1, film. (f) Grab straps. The grab straps shall be of materials permitted for...

  1. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fabrics shall comply with the requirements of Federal Specification CCC-C-426 for Type I, Class 3 material... Specification CCC-A-700. (e) Pad covering. The covering for the buoyant pad inserts shall be flexible vinyl film... Type I or II, Class 1, film. (f) Grab straps. The grab straps shall be of materials permitted for...

  2. Analysis of tank 23H samples in support of salt batch planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; Coleman, C. J.; Diprete, D. P.

    2015-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation obtained three samples from different heights within Tank 23H. The samples were analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory to support salt batch planning. The results from the analysis indicate the top two samples from the tank appear similar in composition. The lowest sample from the tank contained significantly more solids and a more concentrated salt solution. The filtered supernate from the bottom sample showed ~60% lower Sr-90 and Pu-238 concentrations than the decanted (unfiltered) supernate results which may indicate the presence of some small amount of entrained solid particles in the decanted sample. The mercury concentrations measured in the filtered supernate were fairly low for all three samples ranging from 11.2 to 42.3 mg/L.

  3. Permeation of Tank C-103 sludge simulant by organic solvent. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The plan for stabilizing underground storage tanks calls for draining the supernate from the tanks; however, there is concern that draining the supernate from Tank C-103 will degrade safety in the tank. The sludge in Tank C-103 contains ranges in depth from 1 to 1.5 m and is covered by both an aqueous phase and a separate organic layer. The main concern is that draining the supernate will cause the solvent to permeate the sludge solids and provide a source of fuel for a fire on the surface of the drained sludge. The question of whether the solvent will permeate sludge that is 1 to 1.5 m deep after the tank is dewatered is the purpose of the tests conducted and described in this report.

  4. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    DOEpatents

    Kester, D.K.

    1995-01-03

    A method is presented of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. After the sample is reduced, dissociated, and carried on a first precipitate of actinides, the first precipitate is removed to leave a supernate. Next, oxalic acid is added to the supernate to cause a second precipitate of strontium and calcium. Then, after separating the second precipitate, nitric acid is added to the second precipitate to cause a third precipitate of strontium. The calcium remains in solution and is discarded to leave essentially the precipitate of strontium.

  5. Primary monolayer culture of adult mouse hepatocytes -- a model for the study of hepatotropic viruses.

    PubMed

    Arnheiter, H

    1980-01-01

    Primary monolayer cultures of adult mouse hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion of the liver in situ were exposed to 2 hepatotropic viruses, an avian influenza A virus adapted to grow in mouse liver in vivo and a herpes simplex type I virus. Influenza virus infection led to lysis ofindividual hepatocytes and total monolayer destruction within 18 to 120 hours after infection according to the virus dose used. Virus replication was evidenced by assaying hepatocyte supernates for hemagglutinin and infectivity, by immunofluorescent staining and by electron microscopy. Herpes virus infection resulted in polykaryocyte formation followed by nuclear pycnosis and cell lysis. Virus replication was assayed by titration of supernate infectivity.

  6. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    DOEpatents

    Kester, Dianne K.

    1995-01-01

    A method of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. After the sample is reduced, dissociated, and carried on a first precipitate of actinides, the first precipitate is removed to leave a supernate. Next, oxalic acid is added to the supernate to cause a second precipitate of strontium and calcium. Then, after separating the second precipitate, nitric acid is added to the second precipitate to cause a third precipitate of strontium. The calcium remains in solution and is discarded to leave essentially the precipitate of strontium.

  7. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  8. Short communication: Improved method for centrifugal recovery of bacteria from raw milk applied to sensitive real-time quantitative PCR detection of Salmonella spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Centrifugation of milk is widely used as a separation/concentration step in assays for pathogenic microorganisms. Separation of the cream and liquid supernate from the pellet containing sedimented solids, somatic cells and microorganisms eliminates many interfering substances, and resuspension of th...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix 5 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by Gas Chromatography...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alternative test procedures under 40 CFR 136.4 and 136.5. 1.4The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry portions... supernate, spiking it with internal standard, and analyzing it using GC/MS techniques. The components are... the electron impact ionization mode (Hewlett Packard 5970MS or comparable). 6.3.3GC/MS...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix 5 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by Gas Chromatography...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alternative test procedures under 40 CFR 136.4 and 136.5. 1.4The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry portions... supernate, spiking it with internal standard, and analyzing it using GC/MS techniques. The components are... the electron impact ionization mode (Hewlett Packard 5970MS or comparable). 6.3.3GC/MS...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix 5 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by Gas Chromatography...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alternative test procedures under 40 CFR 136.4 and 136.5. 1.4The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry portions... supernate, spiking it with internal standard, and analyzing it using GC/MS techniques. The components are... the electron impact ionization mode (Hewlett Packard 5970MS or comparable). 6.3.3GC/MS...

  12. Cultured human monocytes synthesize and secrete alpha2-macroglobulin

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin levels in the supernates of cultures of different subpopulations of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes were assayed by a radioimmunoassay. Unfractionated mononuclear leukocytes produced greater amounts of the macroglobulin (4.0 vs. 0.8 ng/10(6) cells) than did subpopulations enriched in T or B+T lymphocytes, by passage through nylon wool or cotton wool columns, respectively. Still higher concentrations of alpha2-macroglobulin (40 ng/10(6) cells) were measured in the supernates of glass-adherent mononuclear leukocyte cultures. These results suggest that cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage are mainly, if not exclusively, responsible for the appearance of alpha2- macroglobulin in the supernate of human peripheral blood leukocyte cultures. The de novo synthesis and release of alpha2- macroglobulin by cultured monocytes was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of radioactivity from supernates of 32S-methionine- labeled glass-adherent cells. Antiserum against purified alpha2- macroglobulin was used in both Ouchterlony double diffusion and double antibody precipitation tests. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immunoprecipitates showed that most of the radioactivity comigrated with authentic alpha2-macroglobulin subunit at about 160,000 daltons. PMID:68095

  13. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  14. Actin filament barbed-end capping activity in neutrophil lysates: the role of capping protein-beta 2.

    PubMed

    DiNubile, M J; Cassimeris, L; Joyce, M; Zigmond, S H

    1995-12-01

    A barbed-end capping activity was found in high speed supernates of neutrophils lysed in submicromolar calcium. In dilute supernate (> or = 100-fold dilution of cytoplasm), this activity accounted for most of the inhibition of barbed-end elongation of pyrenyl-G-actin from spectrin-F-actin seeds. Pointed-end elongation from gelsolin-capped F-actin seeds was not inhibited at comparable concentrations of supernate, thus excluding actin monomer sequestration as a cause of the observed inhibition. Most of the capping activity was due to capping protein-beta 2 (a homologue of cap Z). Thus, while immunoadsorption of > or = 95% of the gelsolin in the supernate did not decrease capping activity, immunoadsorption of capping protein-beta 2 reduced capping activity proportionally to the amount of capping protein-beta 2 adsorbed. Depletion of > 90% of capping protein-beta 2 from the supernate removed 90% of its capping activity. The functional properties of the capping activity were defined. The dissociation constant for binding to barbed ends (determined by steady state and kinetic analyses) was approximately 1-2 nM; the on-rate of capping was between 7 x 10(5) and 5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1; and the off-rate was approximately 2 x 10(-3) s-1. The concentration of capper free in the intact cell (determined by adsorption of supernate with spectrin-actin seeds) was estimated to be approximately 1-2 microM. Thus, there appeared to be enough high affinity capper to cap all the barbed ends in vivo. Nevertheless, immediately after lysis with detergent, neutrophils contained sites that nucleate barbed-end elongation of pyrenyl-G-actin. These barbed ends subsequently become capped with a time course and concentration dependence similar to that of spectrin-F-actin seeds in high speed supernates. These observations suggest that, despite the excess of high affinity capper, some ends either are not capped in vivo or are transiently uncapped upon lysis and dilution. PMID:8590796

  15. Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-12-19

    Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

  16. Home Improvements Prevent Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues For an enhanced version of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls ... rugs. In Bathrooms and Powder Rooms Mount grab bars near toilets and on both the inside and ...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4850 - What operating limits and requirements must I meet and by when?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... moisture content of the sewage sludge fed to the sewage sludge incinerator, as specified in paragraphs (f... sludge fed to the sewage sludge incinerator. If you take more than one grab sample in a day,...

  18. 40 CFR 60.5170 - What operating limits and requirements must I meet and by when?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... content of the sewage sludge fed to the sewage sludge incinerator, as specified in paragraphs (f)(1) and... sludge fed to the sewage sludge incinerator. If you take more than one grab sample in a day,...

  19. Soyuz 27 Return Samples: Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station: Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of 6 GSCs from the ISS is shown. The average recoveries of the 3 surrogate standards from the grab sample containers were as follows: C-13-acetone, 115%; fluorobenzene, 108%; and chlorobenzene, 93%.

  20. Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... more grabbing a burger and fries at a fast food joint for lunch, starting now. My wife Monica ... got to figure out some good options besides fast food.” Quotable quote: “You’re looking at a guy ...

  1. Occurrence of pesticides and contaminants of emerging concern in surface waters: Influence of surrounding land use and evaluation of sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biologically active compounds originating from agricultural, residential, and industrial sources have been detected in surface waters, which have invoked concern of their potential ecological and human health effects. Automated and grab surface water samples, passive water samples - Polar Organic Co...

  2. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  3. 33 CFR 148.405 - What are the procedures for notifying the Commandant (CG-5) of proposed site evaluation and pre...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Sediment sampling of a limited nature using either core or grab samplers, and the specified diameter and...) Hydrographic and oceanographic measurements, including the setting of instruments; and (7) Small diameter...

  4. The Amphipoda of Sea City, Kuwait.-The Senticaudata (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan A; Nithyanandan, Manickam

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen species of Amphipoda Senticaudata were collected in Sea City, Kuwait using a Van Veen grab and an Ocklemann sledge. Of these seven species were new to science and are described and figured in this contribution. PMID:27395936

  5. 36 CFR 1192.107 - Restrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the toilet seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position. (3) A grab bar at least.... The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 lbf (22.2 N). Controls for...

  6. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... Relocation Advisory Board (GRAB) concerning calculation of reimbursements for taxes on relocation expenses. In addition, this proposed rule alters the process for calculating reimbursements for taxes...

  7. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  8. Astronaut Michael Foale on RMS arm during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut C. Michael Foale (red stripe), mission specialist, on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm prepares to grab SPARTAN 204 as astronaut Bernard A. Harris Jr., payload commander, looks on during the STS-63 extravehicular activity (EVA).

  9. STS 125 Samples: the Hubble Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported in a table. Based on the end-of-mission sample, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  10. Soyuz 24 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz. This is the first time all samples were acquired with the mini-grab samplers. The toxicological assessment of 15 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C(13)-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 75, 97 and 79%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned on Soyuz 24

  11. Measurements of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane grab samples were obtained simultaneously with ozone, aerosol, nitric oxide and DACOM CO measurements. Eighty grab samples were collected at various altitudes up to 19,000 ft. along a north-south flight path from Wallops Flight Center, VA to 11 N. CO and CH were analyzed by flame ionization gas chromatography with cryogenic preconcentration. The relationship between CO and O3 concentrated is examined. A comparative analysis between trends in aerosol and CO concentration is performed.

  12. Characterization of Core Samples from a Hardened Crust Layer in Tank 4F

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. L.

    2005-09-28

    Waste removal operations in Tank 4F are scheduled to begin in late 2005 to provide material for Sludge Batch 5. Mining/probing operations to support installation of submersible mixer pumps encountered a hard layer of material at {approx}45'' to 50'' from the bottom of the tank. Attempts at penetrating the hard layer using a manual mining tool in several different risers were not successful. A core-sampling tool was used to obtain samples of the hard crust layer in Tank 4F for characterization. Three 12'' core samples and a dip sample of the supernate near the surface of the hard layer were sent to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results for the crystalline solids from both sample FTF-434 and FTF-435 identifies the major component of both samples as Burkeite (Na{sub 6}(CO{sub 3})(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}). All of the other data collected on the crystalline solids from the Tank 4F core samples support this conclusion. The conditions in Tank 4F for the last twenty years have been ideal for Burkeite formation. The tank has been largely undisturbed with a tank temperature consistently above 30 C, a carbonate to sulfate molar ratio in the supernate conducive to Burkeite formation, and slow evaporation of the supernate phase. Thermodynamic modeling and the results of a Burkeite solubility test confirm that a ratio of 1:1:12 for the volumes of Burkeite solids, supernate, and inhibited water will dissolve all of the Burkeite. These ratios could be used to remove the 6'' layer of Burkeite from Tank 4F with no mixing. However, the thermodynamic modeling and the solubility test neglect the sludge layer beneath the Burkeite crust in Tank 4F. Settled sludge in Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste tanks usually contains greater than 75% interstitial supernate by volume. If the supernate in the sludge layer should mix into the solution used to dissolve the Burkeite, significantly more inhibited water would be needed to

  13. Improved estimation of cholesteryl ester transfer/exchange activity in serum or plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Groener, J.E.; Pelton, R.W.; Kostner, G.M.

    1986-02-01

    This simple, routine assay for measuring cholesteryl ester transfer/exchange activity in human plasma is based on the removal of interfering lipoproteins--very-low-density (VLDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL)--by precipitation with polyethylene glycol. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) in the samples do not affect the results. The supernate after precipitation is mixed with (/sup 14/C)cholesteryl ester-labeled LDL as donor and with HDL as the acceptor for the cholesteryl ester. After incubation for 16 h at 37 degrees C, LDL is separated from HDL by precipitation with dextran sulfate and the radioactivity measured in the supernate, which contains the HDL. The assay is applicable to samples containing as much as 10 mmol of triglycerides per liter. The within-assay CV was 2.7%, the day-to-day CV 6.8%. Results compared well with those by conventional procedures.

  14. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-05-22

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction, scrub, and strip DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. The results indicate no significant problems processing dissolved salt cake compared to supernate. During the course of testing, researchers observed sorption of cesium on glass sample vials containing strip solutions. The problem was detected in the material balance calculated for each organic/aqueous contact. Methods and recommendations for avoiding this problem are discussed.

  15. Chemical derivatization to enhance chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop modified resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin with enhanced chemical/oxidative stability in conditions typically encountered in the remediation of radioactive waste tanks. R-F resin is a regenerable organic ion-exchanger developed at Savannah River Technology Center that is being considered for use in the selective removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline waste tank supernates at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites.

  16. Decanting of Neutralized H-Canyon Unirradiated Nuclear Material High Activity Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    BRONIKOWSKI, MICHAELG.

    2004-08-05

    An option to dispose of the High Activity Waste (HAW) stream from the processing of unirradiated materials directly to Saltstone is being evaluated to conserve High Level Waste (HLW) tank farm space and to reduce the future production of HLW glass logs. To meet the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), decanting the supernate from precipitated solids was proposed to reduce mercury and radionuclide levels in the waste. Only the caustic supernate will then be sent to Saltstone. Verification that the Saltstone WAC will be met has involved a series of laboratory studies using surrogate and actual HAW solutions from H-Canyon. The initial experiment involved addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to a surrogate HAW test solution and subsequent decanting of the supernate away from the precipitated solids. The chemical composition of the surrogate solution was based on a composition defined from analyses of actual HAW solutions generated during dissolution of unirradiated nuclear materials in H-Canyon [1]. Results from testing the surrogate HAW solution were reported in Reference [2]. Information obtained from the surrogate test solution study was used to define additional experiments on actual HAW solutions obtained from H-Canyon. These experiments were conducted with samples from three different batches of HAW solutions. The first and third HAW samples (HAW No.1 and HAW No.3 solutions) contained the centrifuge filter cake material from a gelatin strike that is periodically added to the waste stream. The second HAW sample (HAW No.2 solution) did not contain filter cake material. Monosodium titanate (MST) was added to the HAW No.2 and HAW No.3 solutions after addition of NaOH was complete and before the settling step. The addition of MST was to improve the decontamination of alpha and beta emitters (primarily plutonium and strontium) from the supernate. The addition of excess NaOH and the addition of MST were expected to result in sufficient alpha and beta

  17. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project organic concentration mechanisms task. FY 1994 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Waste Tank Organic Safety Project is conducting research to support Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) Waste Tank Safety Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Tank Farm Project Office. The goal of PNL`s program is to provide a scientific basis for analyzing organics in Hanford`s underground storage tanks (USTs) and for determining whether they are at concentrations that pose a potentially unsafe condition. Part of this research is directed toward determining what organic concentrations are safe by conducting research on organic aging mechanisms and waste energetics to assess the conditions necessary to produce an uncontrolled energy release in tanks due to reactions between the organics and the nitrate and nitrate salts in the tank wastes. The objective of the Organic Concentration Mechanisms Task is to assess the degree of localized enrichment of organics to be expected in the USTs due to concentration mechanisms. This report describes the progress of research conducted in FY 1994 on two concentration mechanisms of interest to the tank safety project: (1) permeation of a separate organic liquid phase into the interstitial spaces of the tank solids during the draining of free liquid from the tanks; and (2) concentration of organics on the surfaces of the solids due to adsorption. Three experiments were conducted to investigate permeation of air and solvent into a sludge simulant that is representative of single-shell tank sludge. The permeation behavior of air and solvent into the sludge simulant can be explained by the properties of the fluid pairs (air/supernate and solvent supernate) and the sludge. One important fluid property is the interfacial tension between the supernate and either the solvent or air. In general, the greater the interfacial tension between two fluids, the more difficult it will be for the air or solvent to displace the supernate during dewatering of the sludge.

  18. Preliminary technical data summary No. 3 for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, L.F.

    1980-05-01

    This document presents an update on the best information presently available for the purpose of establishing the basis for the design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility. Objective of this project is to provide a facility to fix the radionuclides present in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste in a high-integrity form (glass). Flowsheets and material balances reflect the alternate CAB case including the incorporation of low-level supernate in concrete. (DLC)

  19. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Optimized Solvent in the 2-cm Centrifugal Contactor Apparatus Using Dissolved Salt Cake from Tank 37H

    SciTech Connect

    Norato, M.A.

    2003-01-06

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flow sheet with optimized solvent. This represents the third such process demonstration using actual Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW). The present test differed from previous studies in the use of radioactive waste derived from Tank 37H dissolved salt cake, as opposed to supernate solutions used in previous demonstrations.

  20. Generation and detection of metal ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the pretreatment processes for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    The recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries brings benefits to both economic and environmental terms, but it can also lead to contaminants in a workshop environment. This study focused on metals, non-metals and volatile organic compounds generated by the discharging and dismantling pretreatment processes which are prerequisite for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries. After discharging in NaCl solution, metal contents in supernate and concentrated liquor were detected. Among results of condition #2, #3, #4 and #5, supernate and concentrated liquor contain high levels of Na, Al, Fe; middle levels of Co, Li, Cu, Ca, Zn; and low levels of Mn, Sn, Cr, Zn, Ba, K, Mg, V. The Hg, Ag, Cr and V are not detected in any of the analyzed supernate. 10wt% NaCl solution was a better discharging condition for high discharge efficiency, less possible harm to environment. To collect the gas released from dismantled LIB belts, a set of gas collecting system devices was designed independently. Two predominant organic vapour compounds were dimethyl carbonate (4.298mgh(-1)) and tert-amylbenzene (0.749mgh(-1)) from one dismantled battery cell. To make sure the concentrations of dimethyl carbonate under recommended industrial exposure limit (REL) of 100mgL(-1), for a workshop on dismantling capacity of 1000kg spent LIBs, the minimum flow rate of ventilating pump should be 235.16m(3)h(-1).

  1. Generation and detection of metal ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the pretreatment processes for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    The recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries brings benefits to both economic and environmental terms, but it can also lead to contaminants in a workshop environment. This study focused on metals, non-metals and volatile organic compounds generated by the discharging and dismantling pretreatment processes which are prerequisite for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries. After discharging in NaCl solution, metal contents in supernate and concentrated liquor were detected. Among results of condition #2, #3, #4 and #5, supernate and concentrated liquor contain high levels of Na, Al, Fe; middle levels of Co, Li, Cu, Ca, Zn; and low levels of Mn, Sn, Cr, Zn, Ba, K, Mg, V. The Hg, Ag, Cr and V are not detected in any of the analyzed supernate. 10wt% NaCl solution was a better discharging condition for high discharge efficiency, less possible harm to environment. To collect the gas released from dismantled LIB belts, a set of gas collecting system devices was designed independently. Two predominant organic vapour compounds were dimethyl carbonate (4.298mgh(-1)) and tert-amylbenzene (0.749mgh(-1)) from one dismantled battery cell. To make sure the concentrations of dimethyl carbonate under recommended industrial exposure limit (REL) of 100mgL(-1), for a workshop on dismantling capacity of 1000kg spent LIBs, the minimum flow rate of ventilating pump should be 235.16m(3)h(-1). PMID:27021697

  2. [Using Excess Activated Sludge Treated 4-Chlorophenol Contained Waste Water to Cultivate Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiu-rong; Yan, Long; He, Yi-xuan; Shi, Zhen-dong

    2015-04-01

    Using different rations of sludge extracts and supernate from 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) simulated wastewater's excess sludge after centrifugation to cultivate the Chlorella vulgaris to achieve the goal of excess sludge utilization together with chlorella cultivating. The experiments were performed in 500 mL flasks with different rations of sludge extracts & BG-11 and supernate & BG-11 in a light growth chamber respectively. Number of algal cells, Chlorophyll, enzyme activity, oil and water total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity index were investigated. Result showed that the nutrition supplies and toxicity in the excess sludge were removed efficiently via Chlorella vulgaris, the removal rates of TN and TP were at least 40% and 90% respectively; After 10 days cultivation, the density growth of 50% sludge extracts was 20 times higher of the beginning while its chlorophyll content was lower than that of the blank group. Sludge extracts could promote the proliferation of algae, but were not conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll. The quantity of SOD in per cell showed Chlorella vulgaris gave a positive response via stimulation from toxicant in sludge extracts and supernate. The best time for collecting chlorella vulgaris was the fifth day of cultivation, taking neutral oil accumulation as the evaluating indicator for its utilization combined with the removal of supplies and toxicity.

  3. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  4. Combined film and softcopy photo-interpretation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leberl, Franz W.; Kienegger, Erwin

    1989-06-01

    The requirements, design features, and performance of a system for the on-line digitization of film and the interactive analysis of digitized pixel arrays are discussed. The digitization method, which can be characterized as 'mensuration frame-grabbing', will maintain an extremely high level of accuracy among pixels that have been 'grabbed' in individual windows. A number of automation tasks supporting the extraction of linear features and areas from aerial photography have been implemented. The true advantages of the approach become evident when data previously collected needs to be revised at a later time.

  5. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AW-106 in December 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Jason S.

    2013-06-04

    This document reports the results of a boildown study using a composite created from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AW-106 in December of 2012. The composite was made using predetermined volumes of the grab samples which accounted for layering of the supernatant liquid in the tank. The finished composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (24 - 27 °C). The density of the test composite was measured in the hot cell immediately before the boildown study and was 1.266 g/mL at 27.1 °C.

  6. Polychaeta of the Kara and Pechora seas: Data of the 2012 trawl survey.

    PubMed

    Frolova, E A; Syomin, V L

    2016-07-01

    The species composition of the polychaetes derived from ichthyological and Sigsbee trawls in the Pechora and Kara seas in 2012 was studied and compared with the grab survey data of 1993-1995. The distribution of the large sabellidae, nektobenthic, and bathypelagic species that are poorly caught by a grab has been determined for the first time. Changes that were observed in the biogeographical polychaete structure in the Kara Sea (a higher proportion of the boreal species and a lower proportion of the Arctic species) may reflect a response of zoobenthos to the Arctic warming in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. PMID:27595826

  7. Split Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an art project designed for middle- and high-school students to (1) understand the meaning of the terms composite and photomontage, and be able to use them correctly; (2) select and evaluate a range of subject matter; (3) combine three different photographs to create an attention-grabbing, entertaining work; and (4) mount…

  8. Report on sampling and analysis of ambient air at the central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    Over 160 ambient indoor air samples were collected from warehouses at the Central Waste Complex used for the storage of low- level radioactive and mixed wastes. These grab (SUMMA) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data from this survey suggest that several buildings had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 403 - Sampling Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... composite sampling is not an appropriate technique, grab samples should be taken to obtain influent and... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling Procedures E Appendix E to... Appendix E to Part 403—Sampling Procedures I. Composite Method A. It is recommended that influent...

  10. 40 CFR 403.7 - Removal credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sampling is not an appropriate sampling technique, a grab sample(s) shall be taken to obtain influent and... prescribed in 40 CFR part 136 and amendments thereto. Where 40 CFR part 136 does not contain sampling or... sampling and analytical techniques are inappropriate for the pollutant in question, sampling and...

  11. Low-Carbon Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hignite, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Green information technology (IT) is grabbing more mainstream headlines--and for good reason. Computing, data processing, and electronic file storage collectively account for a significant and growing share of energy consumption in the business world and on higher education campuses. With greater scrutiny of all activities that contribute to an…

  12. 46 CFR 160.076-31 - Production tests and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements in § 160.076-21 (b) and (c) for permeability, grab strength, and tear strength. Lots not meeting... retested. (2) Seam strength. The seams in each inflation chamber of each sample must be tested in... loss and the same percentage sensitivity and accuracy as the standard allowable loss measured with...

  13. Teaching a Child with Autism and Severe Language Delays to Reject: Direct and Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christian A.; Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Brucker, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    We used functional communication training to teach Bob, a 10-year-old student with autism and severe language delays, to reject items by touching an icon. Our initial assessment revealed that Bob's behaviours serving a rejecting function consisted of pushing away, yelling, bear hugging-grabbing, and leaving. We used prompting, differential…

  14. Teaching the Great War through Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortell, Catherine K.; Paddock, Troy R. E.

    2011-01-01

    With all of the time constraints and institutional pressures that teachers face, it may seem odd to suggest using an anomalous event such as the Christmas Truce to study the first World War. However, the uniqueness of this event helps grab the attention of students and, as the authors demonstrate, can be used both to illustrate the common…

  15. Surging Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruda, Tammie L.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge gift helps fundraisers reach goals by stimulating multiple aspects of a fundraising program. First, the message of a challenge grabs the attention of prospects and generally generates excitement beyond the case for support. It also commands the attention of the prospect managers in an organization, particularly when the challenge…

  16. STS 119 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-119) and International Space Station (15A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the 2 GSCs averaged 106, 106, and 101 %,respectively. Based on the end-of-mission sample, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  17. STS 120 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the Shuttle (STS-120) and International Space Station (10A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. Formaldehyde badges were not used. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the 2 GSCs averaged 111, 82, and 78%, respectively. The Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  18. STS 117 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-117) and International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2007-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) and one pair of formaldehyde badges from the Shuttle are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the 2 GSCs averaged 109, 95, and 97%, respectively. Three formaldehyde controls averaged 93% recovery. The Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  19. Soyuz 25 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 25. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 76, 108 and 88%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned aboard Soyuz 25.

  20. 26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  2. Viewing Volcanoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighting, Mervyn J.

    2005-01-01

    When Mount St. Helens threatened to erupt again in 2004, it grabbed headlines and captured the imagination of the country. Science classrooms nationwide used the event as an opportunity to make real-world connections to Earth science concepts introduced in the classroom. Thanks to modern technology, teachers no longer have to wait for the next…

  3. Simple Ways to Make Real Capacitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Rhett

    2014-01-01

    Many of us have grabbed two pieces of aluminum foil and a paper towel, quickly sandwiched them together, and exclaimed in lecture, "Look! It's easy to make a capacitor!" Then we move on from there, calculating things such as capacitances with various dielectrics or plate sizes, the capacitance of capacitor networks, RC circuits,…

  4. Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Helms, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Reading in science class does not have to be boring, but it is no secret to students or teachers that textbooks are not much fun to read. It is always a challenge for teachers to find reading materials that would grab the interests of their students. In this article, the author relates how she used Biodiversity, a nonfiction book by Dorothy…

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. The two methods developed have...

  6. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone are needed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietar...

  7. NASA targets asteroid mission as a step towards Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-05-01

    NASA is planning an ambitious mission to a near-Earth asteroid that will involve a robotic craft grabbing a large boulder from the body and moving it into a stable orbit around the Moon, where it will then be studied in detail by astronauts.

  8. Prejudice, Pride, and Sectarian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    In an era when the gods of diversity are supreme--enforcing an arbitrary sensitivity on campus and tossing all other moral propositions up for grabs--here and there the Protestant principles that shaped American still assert their institutional role "in loco parentis." Benjamin McArthur recognizes that loyalty to scripture seems anathema to…

  9. 40 CFR 98.264 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used to measure total mass flow of phosphorous-bearing feed under 40 CFR part 60 or part 63. ... requirements. (a) You must obtain a monthly grab sample of phosphate rock directly from the rock being fed to..., Bartow, Florida 33831, (863) 534-9755, http://afpc.net, paul.mcafee@mosaicco.com). If phosphate rock...

  10. Effectiveness of Breakfast in the Classroom in Five Exemplary Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainville, Alice Jo; King, Amber D.; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: A national trend to improve school breakfast participation is the integration of breakfast within the school day. Breakfast in the classroom programs increase student access to school breakfast. Service models include "grab and go," distribution of breakfasts to each classroom, and mobile breakfast carts in hallways.…

  11. Collection and measurement of atmospheric contaminants during Skylab AM/MDA unmanned altitude chamber test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The analytical data obtained from both cryogenic and grab sampling of the atmosphere of the Skylab AM/MDA during an 84 hour unmanned chamber run are reported. The level of contaminants found at different points of the test chamber are tabulated. The results indicate that there was no clear trend of increasing or decreasing contaminant levels during the test run.

  12. 474 Science Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Moira D.

    This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…

  13. NAEP and Policy: Chasing the Tail of the Assessment Tiger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diket, Read M.; Brewer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper grabs hold of the "assessment tiger" by considering the history of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) "Arts Report Cards" for the visual arts, which were constructed and have been administered four times within thirty-five years. Two purposes of the NAEP have persisted since its founding: (1) measuring learning and…

  14. How to Serve Content to PDA Users on-the-Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Fans of mobile devices are everywhere, and they are using their PDAs, smart phones, and mobile phones to access Web-based content. Chances are that they are trying to access your library's Web site or find library-based content for their devices. In this article, the author presents some tips on how to serve those who wants to grab some fast info…

  15. 40 CFR 122.21 - Application for a permit (applicable to State programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pollutant under 40 CFR subchapters N or O. When no analytical method is approved under Part 136 or required..., must be used unless specified otherwise at 40 CFR Part 136. However, a minimum of one grab sample may... II at 40 CFR 136.3 (e)) may be composited in the laboratory, provided that container,...

  16. Capacity for DNA-barcode based taxonomy in support of Great Lakes biological monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enumerating organisms collected via nets and sediment grabs is a mainstay of aquatic ecology. Since morphological taxonomy can require considerable resources and expertise, DNA barcode-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers a valuable tool in support of biological...

  17. Electrostatics experiments with sharp metal points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we examine the phenomena that arise around an electrically charged sharp metal spike and present numerous experiments that can be used in the teaching of electrostatics. The experiments are quite spectacular and attention-grabbing while being relatively simple and easy to perform in any decently supplied physics education laboratory that is equipped with an electrostatic machine (like a Wimshurst machine).

  18. Thirty Frames per Second

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing real motion with frame-by-frame precision can be conducted using modestly priced digital-video camcorders. Although well below the 1,000 frames-per-second threshold of high-speed cameras, commercially available camcorders grab 30 frames per second. A replay dissected at this lower frequency is fun to watch, challenges students'…

  19. Investing in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Investing in Innovation" provides a snapshot of trends in the states and identifies a wide range of strategies now employed. California's big investments, such as $3 billion for stem cell research, have already grabbed national headlines. But states like Arizona, Indiana and North Dakota, which haven't historically been big research and…

  20. 40 CFR 122.21 - Application for a permit (applicable to State programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pollutant under 40 CFR subchapters N or O. When no analytical method is approved under Part 136 or required..., must be used unless specified otherwise at 40 CFR Part 136. However, a minimum of one grab sample may... II at 40 CFR 136.3 (e)) may be composited in the laboratory, provided that container,...

  1. Reading, Writing and Radicalism: Right-Wing Women and Education in the Post-War Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benowitz, June Melby

    2009-01-01

    The headlines "Who's Trying to Ruin Our Schools?" and "Danger's Ahead in the Public Schools" grabbed the attention of the American public during the early 1950s as mainstream publications reacted to efforts by right-wing organizations to influence the curricula of America's elementary and secondary schools. "A bewildering disease that threatens to…

  2. Engage and Excite Students with Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petsche, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Using educational games to learn or reinforce lessons engages students and turns a potentially boring subject into something exciting and desirable to know! Games offer teachers and parents a new way to grab students' attention so that they will retain information. Games have become a teaching tool, an invaluable resource for reaching students in…

  3. Teaching Bayesian Statistics to Undergraduate Students through Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sepideh; Stewart, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a lecturer's approach to teaching Bayesian statistics to students who were only exposed to the classical paradigm. The study shows how the lecturer extended himself by making use of ventriloquist dolls to grab hold of students' attention and embed important ideas in revealing the differences between the Bayesian and…

  4. They Dig It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    The first few years of the author's career, she struggled to find a science experience that would grab her sixth-grade students from the start--something that would let them know that coming to class would be worth their time and that they would be learning in an exciting environment. She finally found it: The perfect project idea bubbled up as…

  5. Let's Play Supermarket "Evidential" Sweep: Developing Students' Awareness of the Need to Select Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Rachel; Gadd, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Despite having built a sustained focus on historical thinking into their planning for progression across Years 7 to 13, Rachel Foster and Sarah Gadd remained frustrated with stubborn weaknesses in the evidential thinking of students in examination classes. Students slipped too easily into grabbing any fact or source extract as evidence, and failed…

  6. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  7. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  8. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  9. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  10. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  11. Practitioner Review: Beyond Shaken Baby Syndrome--What Influences the Outcomes for Infants following Traumatic Brain Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infancy is relatively common, and is likely to lead to poorer outcomes than injuries sustained later in childhood. While the headlines have been grabbed by infant TBI caused by abuse, often known as shaken baby syndrome, the evidence base for how to support children following TBI in infancy is thin.…

  12. A Year in Review 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Summers To Step Down, Ending Tumult at Harvard" kicked off in 2006 as one of the most talked about news stories in higher education. Only a few months later, an event involving another elite institution would grab even more headlines, and with more serious ramifications. Three Duke University men's lacrosse players were indicted on rape charges.…

  13. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: SpaceX-2 First Ingress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (M-GSC) was collected by crew members onboard ISS during first ingress into SpaceX-2 on March 3, 2013, three days after late cargo loading and a pre-launch clean air purge. Recoveries of the three surrogate standards from the m-GSC were: 13C-acetone, 97%; fluorobenzene, 95%; and chlorobenzene, 68%.

  14. Is Managing by Wandering around Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Terrie M.

    2008-01-01

    Administrators sometimes let themselves get locked into the "front end" of their buildings. There are phone calls to take, emails to answer, payments to post, and events to plan. It's easy to find the day coming to a close and they haven't even taken time to grab lunch or venture beyond the lobby of the building. In this article, the author…

  15. Lake Michigan: Nearshore variability and a nearshore-offshore distinction in water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Michigan nearshore using towed electronic instrumentation and fixed station sampling (1049 km at the approximate 20-m depth contour and grab samples at 15 sites). The principal variability in the alongshore reach was generally re...

  16. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  17. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices such as those that incorporate lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments shall meet the... fraction thereof, except that, where no cage, well, or ladder safety device is provided, landing platforms... rails. Grab-bar diameters shall be the equivalent of the round-rung diameters. (5) Ladder safety...

  18. 40 CFR 419.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... organic carbon (TOC) based upon an analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If contaminated..., adequate correlation data are not available, the effluent limitations for TOC shall be established at...

  19. 40 CFR 419.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... (TOC) based upon an analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If contaminated runoff is... refinery which correlates TOC to BOD5. If in the judgment of the permitting authority, adequate...

  20. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with... correlates TOC to BOD5. If in the judgment of the permitting authority, adequate correlation data are...

  1. 40 CFR 419.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... mg/l total organic carbon (TOC) based upon an analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If..., adequate correlation data are not available, the effluent limitations for TOC shall be established at...

  2. Embedded Advertising on Television: Classic Legal Environment and Business Law Content "Brought to You by ..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Rita Marie

    2010-01-01

    Students are familiar with some or all depictions of branded products in popular television shows. But they probably have no idea the number of legal and public policy issues these product appearances are generating. This article explains how embedded advertising in television shows can be the attention-grabbing vehicle for teaching numerous…

  3. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASUREMENTS IN NEW YORK CITY IN RESPONSE TO THE EVENTS OF 9/11

    EPA Science Inventory

    From September 22, 2001 through February 2002, ambient air was sampled in lower Manhattan, New York at three sites within a block of ground zero and at a fourth site 500-m northwest of the World Trade Center. Over 190 grab samples were collected in evacuated, electro-polished s...

  4. VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR NEAR WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning on September 22, 2001 and continuing through February 2002, ambient air samples were collected at three sites within a block of ground zero and at a fourth site on the 16th floor of a building at 290 Broadway. Grab samples were collected in evacuated, electro-polished...

  5. Best of 2009 Sci-Tech Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Science often reflects society's concerns, and a number of the top books of 2009 address two of the biggest headline-grabbing topics--climate change and health-care reform. This article presents a list of 35 titles that address climate change and health-care reform. Some titles cover the entirety of the global-warming threat (James Lovelock's "The…

  6. 40 CFR 61.107 - Emission determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be made. For relatively constant flow rates only periodic measurements are necessary. (2... operation. Periodic sampling (grab samples) may be used only with EPA's prior approval. Such approval may be... potential to release radionuclides into the air, periodic confirmatory measurements should be made to...

  7. 40 CFR 61.93 - Emission monitoring and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or frequent flow rate measurements shall be made. For relatively constant flow rates only periodic... applicable to batch processes when the unit is in operation. Periodic sampling (grab samples) may be used... have a potential to release radionuclides into the air, periodic confirmatory measurements shall...

  8. 40 CFR 61.107 - Emission determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be made. For relatively constant flow rates only periodic measurements are necessary. (2... operation. Periodic sampling (grab samples) may be used only with EPA's prior approval. Such approval may be... potential to release radionuclides into the air, periodic confirmatory measurements should be made to...

  9. 40 CFR 61.93 - Emission monitoring and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or frequent flow rate measurements shall be made. For relatively constant flow rates only periodic... applicable to batch processes when the unit is in operation. Periodic sampling (grab samples) may be used... have a potential to release radionuclides into the air, periodic confirmatory measurements shall...

  10. Systematic paleontology of Quaternary ostracode assemblages from the Gulf of Alaska; Part 3, Family Cytheruridae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brouwers, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-six species of podocopid ostracodes, most belonging to the Family Cytheruridae, are reported from Quaternary continental-shelf sediments of the Gulf of Alaska. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for 27 new species, 11 previously described species, and 8 species retained in open nomenclature. This report is based on 198 bottom grab samples collected during 1975, 1979, and 1980.

  11. In vivo and in vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days at multiple locations upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge into the Maumee River (USA, OH). Grab water samples collected at the same location were extracted using several different ...

  12. Environmental Stewardship through Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2011-01-01

    New school buildings often grab headlines that highlight their green features and LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification, yet nearly 90% of schools in the United States were built before 1985, with the largest portion built from 1950-69 to accommodate the baby boom generation (National Clearinghouse for Educational…

  13. 40 CFR 122.21 - Application for a permit (applicable to State programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... best reflect the principal products or services provided by the facility. (4) The operator's name... pollutant under 40 CFR subchapters N or O. When no analytical method is approved under Part 136 or required..., must be used unless specified otherwise at 40 CFR Part 136. However, a minimum of one grab sample...

  14. 40 CFR 122.21 - Application for a permit (applicable to State programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is submitted. (3) Up to four SIC codes which best reflect the principal products or services provided... use of another method is required for the pollutant under 40 CFR subchapters N or O. When no... minimum of four (4) grab samples, must be used unless specified otherwise at 40 CFR Part 136. However,...

  15. Control & competition square off for primacy in the uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Who dominates? Who competes? How level is the playing field? And how free is the free market? Of more than academic interest, these questions are being thrashed out by a bevy of market participants. But resolution is no dainty game of croquet; it looks more like a rugby scrum. So grab your binoculars and let the games begin.

  16. Benefits of a Game-Based Review Module in Chemistry Courses for Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Thomas W.; Kramer, Eugene F.

    2014-01-01

    Review sessions provide an opportunity for students to reflect on the material they have learned. Game shows can grab the students' interest and make them invested in the outcomes of their learning. A module developed around game show review was studied in chemistry courses for nonmajors to determine whether benefits could be found in…

  17. You Do Not Find Your Own Face Faster; You Just Look at It Longer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devue, Christel; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Bredart, Serge; Theeuwes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the ability of high priority stimuli to grab attention reached contradictory outcomes. The present study used eye tracking to examine the effect of the presence of the self-face among other faces in a visual search task in which the face identity was task-irrelevant. We assessed whether the self-face (1) received…

  18. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These six issues of the periodical offer teachers and tutors practical ideas for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to adults. The publications include such teaching activities as multilevel crossword puzzles, multilevel dictation, a grammar grab-bag, role play games, an ESL board game, and a newspaper search activity. They also offer…

  19. Assessing potential effects of highway runoff on receiving-water quality at selected sites in Oregon with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    6. An analysis of the use of grab sampling and nonstochastic upstream modeling methods was done to evaluate the potential effects on modeling outcomes. Additional analyses using surrogate water-quality datasets for the upstream basin and highway catchment were provided for six Oregon study sites t

  20. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  1. What's the Next Step?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenchak, John; Lynch, Mary Jean

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed a demonstration with two similar setups that provide students with both the prior experience to form an expectation and the discrepancy to grab their attention. They follow the demonstration with a structured exploration format that gives students a method for experimenting to find the one built-in difference (i.e., the…

  2. A Look Ahead: Supreme Court Likely to Have a Blockbuster Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    It is not often that Supreme Court watchers agree; however, right now, it seems that most agree on one thing: the Supreme Court term that started in October 2013 is going to be a blockbuster. The docket over the last couple of years has had more than its fair share of headline-grabbing cases, from gay marriage to Obamacare to the Voting Rights…

  3. Aggressive Behavior in the Pre-Verbal Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Georgia

    Directors, teachers, parents, and mental health professionals in child care centers were interviewed about aggressive behavior of preverbal children to determine the caregivers' level of understanding about children's emotional development. The definition of aggressive behavior included hitting, biting, pushing, scratching, pinching, grabbing,…

  4. A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE EMAP-ESTUARIES BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL SAMPLING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard benthic macrofaunal sampling protocol in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Pacific Coast Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is to collect a minimum of 30 random benthic samples per reporting unit (e.g., estuary) using a 0.1 m2 grab and to...

  5. A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE EMAP-W BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL SAMPLE UNIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard EPA West Coast Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-W) benthic macrofaunal sampling protocol is to collect 30-50 random benthic samples per reporting unit (e.g., estuary, region) using a 0.1 m2 grab and to sort out macrofauna using a 1.0 mm mesh scre...

  6. Online Learning 2.0: Strategies for a Mature Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Sean; LaBrie, John

    2012-01-01

    It is an exciting time for online education. Lately, there has been breathless talk of a "revolution" and massive "disruption," largely based on Massively Open Online Course (MOOC) models pioneered by universities such as MIT and Stanford, and headline-grabbing start-up companies such as Udacity and Coursera. Meanwhile, university professional and…

  7. Universities Have a Key Role in Global Access to Medicines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjabi, Rajesh; Rajkumar, Rahul; Kim, Jim Yong

    2008-01-01

    Around the world, the fight for affordable medical treatment is intensifying. Headline-grabbing battles are being waged in India, where the Chennai High Court recently decided a major constitutional case over access to lifesaving cancer medication. In Thailand, Abbott Laboratories, a multinational pharmaceutical giant, has withdrawn registration…

  8. General Christopher C. Andrews: Leading the Minnesota Forestry Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Anna M.

    2002-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, America's burgeoning population certainly did grab all the timber it could. Vast pine forests stretched from Maine to Dakota, and the lumber industry voraciously consumed them from east to west. In 1800, the Minnesota territory was sparsely sprinkled with fur traders and American Indians. By 1850, its bounteous forests…

  9. Increasing Appropriate Social Interactions of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Social Stories[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattone, Dorothy; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    To date there are more than one dozen studies that validate the use of Social Stories[TM] as an effective behavioral intervention. Many of these studies focused on decreasing inappropriate behaviors (e.g., aggression, screaming, and grabbing toys), and most combined Social Stories with another intervention. The present study used a multiple…

  10. Sampler bias -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-03-07

    This documents Phase 1 determinations on sampler induced bias for four sampler types used in tank characterization. Each sampler, grab sampler or bottle-on-a-string, auger sampler, sludge sampler and universal sampler, is briefly discussed and their physical limits noted. Phase 2 of this document will define additional testing and analysis to further define Sampler Bias.

  11. 46 CFR 160.005-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS...), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-3 Materials. All components used in the construction of a life preserver must... the filling, and shall have a breaking strength (grab method) of not less than 105 pounds in the...

  12. 46 CFR 160.005-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS...), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-3 Materials. All components used in the construction of a life preserver must... the filling, and shall have a breaking strength (grab method) of not less than 105 pounds in the...

  13. 7 CFR 28.956 - Prescribed fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cotton fabric. Reporting the average warp and filling strength by the grab method as based on 5 breaks for both warp and filling of fabric furnished by the applicant, per sample 20.00 29.1Cotton fabric analysis. Reporting data on the number of warp and filling threads per inch and weight per yard of...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.116 - Use of gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... handled on and off hulls by means of shackles whenever possible. Clips or pads of ample size shall be... possible to make holes in or to weld pads to the plate, alligator tongs, grab clamps or screw clamps may be... of idle legs of slings in use shall be hung on the hook. (i) Employees shall not be permitted to...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.116 - Use of gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... handled on and off hulls by means of shackles whenever possible. Clips or pads of ample size shall be... possible to make holes in or to weld pads to the plate, alligator tongs, grab clamps or screw clamps may be... of idle legs of slings in use shall be hung on the hook. (i) Employees shall not be permitted to...

  16. A Probe Intermix Procedure for Fading Response Prompts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Felix F.

    1987-01-01

    A prompt fading method was employed to teach an eight-year-old student with severe behavior disorders the self-paced use of a functional behavior (requesting rather than grabbing food items). Initial pairing of prompts and natural cues was followed by a mix of prompted and probe (unprompted) trials. (Author/JW)

  17. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  18. Drum Circles and the National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The beauty of hand drums is that a child of nearly any age can grab one and get a sound. So how can classroom teachers incorporate this enjoyable activity into something that's actually educational? For young students especially, a drum circle can be liberating. Children can be given various responsibilities--as participants, circle organizers,…

  19. Secrets in Full View: Sexual Harassment in Our K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan

    Sexual harassment can range from touching, tickling, pinching, patting, or grabbing; to comments about one's body; to sexual remarks, innuendoes, and jokes that cause discomfort; to obscene gestures, staring, or leering; to assault and rape. This paper addresses student testimonies of harassment, provides a profile of harassment behaviors, and…

  20. A ``Limited First Sample'' Approach to Mars Sample Return — Lessons from the Apollo Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.; Draper, D.; Gruener, J.

    2012-06-01

    Complex, multi-opportunity Mars sample return approaches have failed to be selected as a new start twice since 1985. We advocate adopting a simpler strategy of "grab-and-go" for the initial sample return, similar to the approach taken on Apollo 11.

  1. 40 CFR 60.153 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... access to the sludge charged so that a well-mixed representative grab sample of the sludge can be... through the combined system shall be continuously monitored. The device used to monitor scrubber pressure... according to method(s) prescribed by the manufacturer at least once each 24-hour operating period....

  2. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional plating methods were used to quantify heterotrophic bacteria from a drinking water distribution system. Three media, plate count agar (PCA), R2A agar and sheep blood agar (TSA-SB) were used to determine heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels. Grab samples were collec...

  3. Giving Teens a Chance: Karl Kendall--Phoenix Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Karl Kendall knows that while comic books, computers, and daily movies will grab teens' interest, what they long for most is respect. As head of Teen Central, a 4,000 square foot space on the fourth floor of Phoenix's Burton Barr Central Library, Kendall provides teens with a place where their ideas and opinions are listened to, their talents…

  4. Fab Web Sites on the 2008 Presidential Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhorst, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Teachers live for the "teachable moments"--those opportunities to connect their subject content to events taking place beyond the classroom. They can occur spontaneously, lucky occasions to bring the curriculum to life grabbed on the fly. In other instances, a teachable moment looms large. In hundreds of thousands of classrooms nationwide,…

  5. Myth of the "Last-In" Superstar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Gary M.; Hartman, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    In the new political landscape, lawmakers in state after state are anxiously sponsoring legislation eliminating "last-in, first-out" policies. News reports would have people believe every untenured teacher, with just a few months of experience, is a "Teacher of the Year" candidate, while every tenured professional is a money-grabbing, lazy and…

  6. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  7. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  8. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  9. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  10. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  11. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  12. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  13. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  14. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  15. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  16. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  17. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  18. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  19. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  20. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  1. Using Multimedia for Admission Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudema, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Multimedia can grab the attention of prospective students in an engaging, appealing way, while giving admission officers the opportunity to deliver information about every facet of campus life. Describes multimedia, its potential, and the production process as well as five current distribution methods. Discusses appropriateness of multimedia for…

  2. 36 CFR 1192.107 - Restrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., provided such fixtures do not interfere with access to the water closet. Fold-down or retractable seats or... out of the way. (2) The height of the water closet shall be 17 inches to 19 inches measured to the top of the toilet seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position. (3) A grab bar at...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.107 - Restrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., provided such fixtures do not interfere with access to the water closet. Fold-down or retractable seats or... out of the way. (2) The height of the water closet shall be 17 inches to 19 inches measured to the top of the toilet seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position. (3) A grab bar at...

  4. The World at Your Fingerprints!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohni, Hebatallah

    2011-01-01

    The author was teaching Arabic and Translation to 16-year-old students in a French-Egyptian school in Cairo, Egypt during a full academic year. It was the first time that the school had offered this compulsory course. There were quite some challenges: first the students were teenagers so grabbing their attention for a language class was not the…

  5. Integrating the Curriculum: Faux Fall Repousse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    When introducing a new unit, art teachers know that sometimes a little "bling" can really grab students' attention. The author received "ooohs" and "aaahs" from her fourth-graders when they learned they would be creating "Faux Fall Repousse." The dazzling shine of the aluminum foil and the beautiful array of autumnal colors were impossible for…

  6. Praying Mantis Bending Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lindermann, Randel A.

    2011-01-01

    Sampling cores requires the controlled breakoff of the core at a known location with respect to the drill end. An additional problem is designing a mechanism that can be implemented at a small scale, yet is robust and versatile enough to be used for a variety of core samples. The new design consists of a set of tubes (a drill tube, an outer tube, and an inner tube) and means of sliding the inner and outer tubes axially relative to each other. Additionally, a sample tube can be housed inside the inner tube for storing the sample. The inner tube fits inside the outer tube, which fits inside the drill tube. The inner and outer tubes can move axially relative to each other. The inner tube presents two lamellae with two opposing grabbing teeth and one pushing tooth. The pushing tooth is offset axially from the grabbing teeth. The teeth can move radially and their motion is controlled by the outer tube. The outer tube presents two lamellae with radial extrusions to control the inner tube lamellae motion. In breaking the core, the mechanism creates two support points (the grabbing teeth and the bit tip) and one push point. The core is broken in bending. The grabbing teeth can also act as a core retention mechanism. The praying mantis that is disclosed herein is an active core breaking/retention mechanism that requires only one additional actuator other than the drilling actuator. It can break cores that are attached to the borehole bottom as

  7. Evaluating Retirement Income Security for Illinois Public School Teachers. Public Pension Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard W.; Southgate, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    The financial problems afflicting the Illinois teacher pension plan have grabbed headlines. An equally important problem, though underappreciated, is that relatively few teachers benefit much from the plan. This report evaluates the pension benefits provided to Illinois public school teachers. The researchers project annual and lifetime pension…

  8. Creating a Culture of Language Awareness in Content-Based Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Kristen; Watkins, Naomi M.

    2015-01-01

    A "toolkit" approach to professional development is frequently used to assist teachers of English language learners (ELLs), wherein teachers are provided a grab bag of activities and strategies to implement in their classrooms. However, today's heightened language demands call for teachers to develop teacher language awareness (TLA), a…

  9. How to Select Children's Shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... shoe be shaped like the child's foot. Your child can go barefoot in a protected environment such as indoors. Toddler Shoes Shoes for toddlers, ... t grab the floor, which could cause your child to fall. Choose a light-weight shoe, since children use a ... School-Age Children's Shoes Style ...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.251 - Rigging equipment for material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... work area so as not to present a hazard to employees. (4) Special custom design grabs, hooks, clamps...) The following limitations shall apply to the use of wire rope: (i) An eye splice made in any wire rope... otherwise prohibited. (ii) Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings,...

  11. 40 CFR 98.264 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.264 Monitoring and QA/QC... content of each monthly grab sample of phosphate rock (consumed in the production of phosphoric acid). You... wet-process phosphoric acid process line. You can use existing plant procedures that are used...

  12. STEM Education: A Deficit Framework for the Twenty First Century? A Sociocultural Socioscientific Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidler, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous of STEM education initiatives in recent years has created a bandwagon that has moved at nearly light speed. The impulse of the science education community and policy-makers is to grab hold for dear life or be marginalized from subsequent discussions about the necessity and consequences of using STEM initiatives to prepare and inform…

  13. With "Restorative Justice," Colleges Strive to Educate Student Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Student-conduct administrators around the country are hailing restorative justice as the next big thing. A blend of mediation and restitution, it seeks to resolve a conflict by identifying the harms caused and devising, with suggestions from both victims and offenders, an agreement to repair them. That approach to discipline grabs campus officials…

  14. NATIONAL SCREENING SURVEY OF EDCS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002 and 2003 the USEPA's Office of Research and Development asked Regional EPA inspectors, state EPA inspectors and municipal plant operators to collect four gallons effluent, either as a grab or composite sample, from up to 50 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), and ship the...

  15. STS 127 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-127) and International Space Station (2J/A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. The toxicological assessment of 9 GSCs and 6 pairs of formaldehyde badges from the ISS is also reported. Other than a problem with traces of acrolein in the samples, the air quality was acceptable for respiration.

  16. From Barney to Super Nintendo: What to Do When Your Child Wants It All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Ellen

    1994-01-01

    Parents must help their children distinguish between wants and needs and put them in a balanced perspective. Children need to learn to respect differences in people rather than base their judgments on socioeconomic status. The article suggests ways parents can grab teachable moments to reinforce their values and decisions. (SM)

  17. Ferrocyanide safety project ferrocyanide aging studies FY 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Alderson, E.V.; Hallen, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1995 on Task 3 of the Ferrocyanide Safety Project, Ferrocyanide Aging Studies. Aging refers to the dissolution and hydrolysis of simulated Hanford ferrocyanide waste in alkaline aqueous solutions by radiolytic and chemical means. The ferrocyanide simulant primarily used in these studies was dried In-Farm-1B, Rev. 7, prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company to simulate the waste generated when the In-Farm flowsheet was used to remove radiocesium from waste supernates in single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. In the In-Farm flowsheet, nickel ion and ferrocyanide anion were added to waste supernates to precipitate sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and co-precipitate radiocesium. Once the radiocesium was removed, supernates were pumped from the tanks, and new wastes from cladding removal processes or from evaporators were added. These new wastes were typically highly caustic, having hydroxide ion concentrations of over 1 M and as high as 4 M. The Aging Studies task is investigating reactions this caustic waste may have had with the precipitated ferrocyanide waste in a radiation field. In previous Aging Studies research, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in simulants was shown to dissolve in basic solutions, forming insoluble Ni(OH){sub 2} and soluble Na{sub 4}Fe(CN){sub 6}. The influence on solubility of base strength, sodium ion concentration, anions, and temperature was previously investigated. The results may indicate that even ferrocyanide sludge that did not come into direct contact with highly basic wastes may also have aged significantly.

  18. Wastewater Triad Project: Solid-Liquid Separator FY 2000 Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F.

    2001-01-11

    The Wastewater Triad Project (WTP) consists of three operational units: the cesium removal (CsR) system, the out-of-tank evaporator (OTE) system, and the solid/liquid separation (SLS) system. These systems were designed to reduce the volume and radioactivity of low-level liquid waste (LLLW) stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and are operated independently or in series in order to accomplish the treatment goals. Each is a modular, skid-mounted system that is self-contained, individually shielded, and designed to be decontaminated and removed once the project has been completed. The CsR and OTE systems are installed inside Building 7877; the SLS system is installed adjacent to the east side of the MVST 7830 vault cover. The CsR, which consists of ion-exchange equipment for removing {sup 137}Cs from LLLW, was demonstrated in 1997. During the Cesium Removal Demonstration, 30,853 gal of radioactive supernate was processed and 1142 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was removed from the supernate and loaded onto 70 gal of a crystalline silicotitanate sorbent manufactured by UOP, Inc. The OTE system is a subatmospheric single-stage evaporator system designed to concentrate LLLW to smaller volumes. It was previously demonstrated in 1996 and was operated in 1998 to process about 80,000 gal of LLLW. The SLS system was designed to filter and remove suspended solids from LLLW in order to minimize further accumulation of sludge in new storage tanks or to prevent fouling of CsR and OTE systems. The SLS was installed and demonstrated in 1999; {approximately}45,000 gal of radioactive supernate was processed during the demonstration.

  19. Thermal and Chemical Stability of Crystalline Silicotitanate Sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    2000-10-04

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating technologies for removing radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) from the supernate solutions stored in the high-level waste tanks at the site. Crystalline silicotitanate sorbent (IONSIV IE-911,{reg_sign} UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL), which is very effective at removing cesium from high-salt solution, is one of three technologies currently being tested. Because of the extremely high inventory of {sup 137}Cs expected for the large columns of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) that would be used for treating the SRS supernate, any loss of flow or cooling to the columns could result in high temperatures from radiolytic heating. Also, even for normal operation, the CST would be exposed to the supernates for up to a year before being removed. Small-scale tests using simulant solutions were used to determine the long-term stability of the CST to the solutions at various temperatures. In the tests performed in this study, the cesium capacity of the CST decreased significantly (76%) as the temperature of the simulant and CST during loading was increased from 23 to 80 C. CST exposed to recirculating SRS average simulant solution at room temperature in a column test showed a slow decrease in cesium loading capacity (measured at 23 C), with a drop of 30% for CST from the top of the bed and 13% for CST from the bottom of the bed after a 12-month period of exposure. A similar column test using a high-pH salt solution did not show any change in the cesium capacity of the CST. An increase was noted in pressure drop through the column using average simulant, but no change was observed for the column using high-pH salt solution.

  20. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with {approximately} 1,142 Ci of {sup 137}Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO{sub 3} and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent.

  1. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets.

  2. Analysis Of Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-6, 7) And Tank 43H (HTF-43-14-8, 9) Samples For Support Of The Enrichment Control And Corrosion Control Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C. J.

    2014-02-27

    SRNL performed analysis on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernate samples to support ECP and CCP. The U-235 mass divided by the total U mass ranged from 0.0059 to 0.0060. Uranium concentration ranged from 53.1 mg/L in the Tank 43H surface sample to the 85.1 mg/L in the Tank 38H subsurface sample. The U-235/U and uranium concentration are in line with the prior 2H-Evaporator System ECP samples.

  3. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Shaw, W.J.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.; Franz, J.A.; Hart, T.R.; Hogan, M.O.

    1996-09-01

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of {sup 137}Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed.

  4. Mixing Envelope D Sludge with LAW Intermediate Products with and without Glass Formers

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.K.

    2001-09-21

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection is in the process of designing a waste treatment system to process the Hanford Reservation High Level Waste (HLW). Envelope D sludge slurries will be blended with the concentrated Cs/Ts eluates, and the Sr/TRU intermediates separated from Envelope A, B, and C feeds. This study produced two washed simulated sludges (representing tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 sludge), a Sr/TRU washed precipitate produced from tank 241-AN-107 simulant, and a concentrated blended eluate simulant based upon eluates from processing 241-AZ-102 supernate.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  6. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  7. MEASUREMENT OF ENTRAINED ORGANIC DROPLET SIZES AND TOTAL CONCENTRATION FOR AQUEOUS STREAMS FROM THE CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C; Samuel Fink, S; Michael Restivo, M; Dan Burns, D; Wallace Smith, W; S Crump, S; Zane Nelson, Z; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Michael Norato, M

    2007-02-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility will remove radioactive cesium from Savannah River Site supernate wastes using an organic solvent system. Both designs include decanters and coalescers to reduce carryover of organic solvent droplets. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel conducted experimental demonstrations using a series of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors. They also examined organic carryover during operation of a CINC (Costner Industries Nevada Corporation) V-5 contactor under prototypical conditions covering the range of expected MCU operation. This report details the findings from those studies and the implications on design for the MCU.

  8. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected

  9. AEA Fluidic Pulse Jet Mixer. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    AEA's Fluidic Pulse Jet Mixer was developed to mix and maintain the suspension of solids and to blend process liquids. The mixer can be used to combine a tank's available supernate with the sludge into a slurry that is suitable for pumping. The system uses jet nozzles in the tank coupled to a charge vessel. Then, a jet pump creates a partial vacuum in the charge vessel allowing it to be filled with waste. Next, air pressure is applied to the charge vessel, forcing sludge back into the tank and mixing it with the liquid waste. When the liquid waste contains 10% solids, a batch is pumped out of the tank.

  10. Investigations in Ceramicrete Stabilization of Hanford Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A. S.; Antink, A.; Maloney, M. D.; Thomson, G. H.

    2003-02-26

    This paper provides a summary of investigations done on feasibility of using Ceramicrete technology to stabilize high level salt waste streams typical of Hanford and other sites. We used two non-radioactive simulants that covered the range of properties from low activity to high level liquids and sludges. One represented tank supernate, containing Cr, Pb, and Ag as the major hazardous metals, and Cs as the fission products; the other, a waste sludge, contained Cd, Cr, Ag, Ni, and Ba as the major hazardous contaminants, and Cs, and Tc as the fission products.

  11. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars.

  12. Analyses of surface and variable depth samples from Tanks 30H and 32H

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2000-07-19

    The authors characterized surface and variable depth samples from the feed (Tank 32H) and drop (Tank 30H) tanks for the new Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator (3H) prior to startup. The results indicate very low silicon concentrations (less than 30 mg/L). Modeling of the aluminosilicate formation suggested little solid formation for the planned operation of the 3H Evaporator (approximately 1 g/L of supernate processed). The amount of solids predicted to form in the 3H Evaporator agreed with prediction for the operation of the 2H prior to the introduction of DWPF recycle waters.

  13. Recovery of transplutonium elements from nuclear reactor waste

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, David O.; Buxton, Samuel R.

    1977-05-24

    A method of separating actinide values from nitric acid waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels comprises oxalate precipitation of the major portion of actinide and lanthanide values to provide a trivalent fraction suitable for subsequent actinide/lanthanide partition, exchange of actinide and lanthanide values in the supernate onto a suitable cation exchange resin to provide an intermediate-lived raffinate waste stream substantially free of actinides, and elution of the actinide values from the exchange resin. The eluate is then used to dissolve the trivalent oxalate fraction prior to actinide/lanthanide partition or may be combined with the reprocessing waste stream and recycled.

  14. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE STRONIUM AND TRANSURANIC SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    SMALLEY CS

    2011-04-25

    In order to meet contract requirements on the concentrations of strontium-90 and transuranic isotopes in the immobilized low-activity waste, strontium-90 and transuranics must be removed from the supernate of tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The process currently proposed for this application is an in-tank precipitation process using strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate. Development work on the process has not proceeded since 2005. The purpose of the evaluation is to identify whether any promising alternative processes have been developed since this issue was last examined, evaluate the alternatives and the baseline process, and recommend which process should be carried forward.

  15. Decontamination of Dissolved Salt Solution from Tank 19F Using Duolite CS-100 and Amberlite IRC-718 Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.M.

    2001-10-17

    In this study actual Savannah River Plant liquid supernate solutions were processed to refine and verify these synthetic solution studies. The main objectives were: (1) confirm high decontamination factors (DFs) for cesium-137 and strontium-90 using Duolite CS-100 and Amberlite IRC-718 ion exchange resins, (2) obtain DFs for other minor radioactive isotopes such as plutonium, technetium and ruthenium, (3) provide ion exchange elutriant containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and other radioactive isotopes for ''hot'' melter studies, (4) determine the quality of the decontaminated salt solution, and (5) provide actual decontaminated salt solution for saltcrete development programs.

  16. High-level waste tank modifications, installation of mobilization equipment/check out

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffhauer, M.A.; Thompson, S.C.

    1992-08-31

    PUREX high-level waste (HLW) is contained at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) in an underground carbon-steel storage tank. The HLW consists of a precipitated sludge and an alkaline supernate. This report describes the system that the WVDP has developed and implemented to resuspend and wash the HLW sludge from the tank. The report discusses Sludge Mobilization and Wash System (SMWS) equipment design, installation, and testing. The storage tank required modifications to accommodate the SMWS. These modifications are discussed as well.

  17. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Piping calculations. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-25

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The objectives of this calculation are (1) To perform static and Safety Class 2 dynamic stress analysis of the Slurry and Supernate Process (inner) piping connecting Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 in order to be in compliance with the Code requirements; (2) To assure the thermal expansion of the process pipe not be strained by the outer encasement pipe; and (3) To furnish process pipe support to the Civil Engineering group.

  18. A Needed Paradigm Change for Environmental Soil Sampling at Urban Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, J. L.; Bednar, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of solid contaminant residues in surface soils creates an unique challenge for collecting soil samples yielding representative and reproducible results. Research over the past decade involving energetic and metallic residues indicates conventional grab sampling yields unreproducible, biased, results with poor precision non-representative of site conditions. Spatially, grab sampling yields information only about the point sampled. However, risk assessment and remedial decisions are based on contaminant distribution over an area. Multiple grab samples are collected for spatial coverage with the number often based on "expert opinion". Recent research suggests new field sampling and laboratory processing procedures encompassed in the Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) and incorporated into United States Environmental Protection (USEPA) Method 8330B for energetics and the update to Method 3050B for metals are necessary to overcome heterogeneity issues. The ISM approach is different from conventional grab sampling due to the focus on a spatially averaged result over a decision unit (DU) obtained by the collection of many increments using a systematic random sampling approach to form a single sample. Total precision error using ISM is typically <30%, whereas relative errors > 100% are observed between field splits and laboratory replicates with conventional grab sampling. Field splitting often employed prior to laboratory sample processing resulted in poor precision and is not recommended. Milling or grinding of soil samples is necessary to reduce the total error of the sample and to obtain acceptable precision, especially in situations where the mean contaminant concentration is expected to be near the action level or other regulatory value.

  19. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2004-11-02

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  20. Methods of vitrifying waste with low melting high lithia glass compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  1. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-10-07

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  2. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  3. Immunochemical identification of the major cell surface agglutinogen of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-92.

    PubMed

    Bayer, E A; Skutelsky, E; Goldman, S; Rosenberg, E; Gutnick, D L

    1983-04-01

    The immunochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics of three Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG strains were compared in order to clarify the relationship between antibody-induced agglutination and the production of polyanionic extracellular emulsifier (termed emulsan). In addition to the parent, RAG-92, two mutant strains were examined: (1) a non-agglutinating emulsan-producer (AB15), and (2) an agglutinating mutant (16TLU) defective in the production of emulsan. A combined genetic-immunochemical approach was employed. This included the comparison of crossed immunoelectrophoresis patterns of parent and mutant supernates and the effect of absorption of anti-whole cell antiserum with mutant cells. In addition, agglutinability and competition studies were performed as well as electron microscopic cytochemistry. The results demonstrated that three major antigenic components were associated with the cell surface and the supernate. Mutant cells were altered both in their cell surface properties and in their extracellular products. One antigenic component, termed component C3, was the major cell surface agglutinogen; this component was absent in non-agglutinating mutants. Component C3 may be identical with or attached to the 300 nm projections on the parent cell surface, but it is not directly related to the presence of emulsan. It appears that emulsan plays little or no role in the phenomenon of antibody-induced agglutination of this organism. PMID:6688443

  4. In situ Removal of Actinides and Strontium from High Level Waste Tanks, Tea Bag versus Adsorption Column

    SciTech Connect

    MARK, CROWDER

    2004-11-17

    Initiatives are underway at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to accelerate the disposition of the supernate and salt portions of the waste in the SRS High Level Waste (HLW) tank farm system. Significant savings in processing time and overall cost could be achieved by in situ treatment of waste supernate or dissolved salt inside a tank farm waste tank. For treatment of actinides and strontium in waste, the baseline method is sorption onto monosodium titanate (MST), an engineered powder with mean particle size of approximately 10 microns. In a separate study at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), engineered forms of MST were developed and compared on a small (250-mL) scale in batch tests. In the current study, a promising form of engineered MST was tested under two conditions: a traditional ion exchange (or adsorption) column and a porous, flow through device called a tea bag, immersed in solution. Both tests used the same amount of engineered MST to treat 10 L of simulated waste solution containing plutonium and strontium.

  5. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  6. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, John B.; Martin, Hollis L.; Langton, Christine A.; Harley, Willie W.

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply.

  7. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Langton, C.A.; Harley, W.W.

    1993-12-28

    A method is presented for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply. 4 figures.

  8. Demonstration of fluidic pulse jet mixing for a horizontal waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.; Stellern, J.L.; Billingsley, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    A fluidic pulse jet mixing system, designed and fabricated by AEA Technology of the United Kingdom, was successfully demonstrated for mobilization and retrieval of remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) sludge from a 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The pulse jet system, consisting of seven modular equipment skids, was installed and commissioned in about 7 weeks and operated remotely for 52 days to remove about 88% of the sludge in the tank. The system used specially designed fluidic jet pumps and pulse vessels, along with existing submerged nozzles for mixing the settled sludges with existing supernate in the tank. The operation also used existing piping and progressive cavity pumps for retrieval and transfer of the mixture. A total of 64,000 gal of liquid was required to transfer 6300 gal of sludge to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) designated for consolidation of all ORNL RH-TRU sludges. Of the liquid used for the retrieval, 88% was existing or recycled tank supernate and only 7770 gal of additional process water was added to the system. Minimizing the addition of process water is extremely important at ORNL, where tank system storage capacity is limited. A simple manual sluicer was used periodically to wash down and aid the removal of localized sludge heels.

  9. Dose potential of sludge contaminated and/or TRU contaminated waste in B-25s for tornado and straight wind events

    SciTech Connect

    Aponte, C.I.

    2000-02-17

    F and H Tank Farms generate supernate and sludge contaminated Low-Level Waste. The waste is collected, characterized, and packaged for disposal. Before the waste can be disposed of, however, it must be properly characterized. Since the radionuclide distribution in typical supernate is well known, its characterization is relatively straight forward and requires minimal effort. Non-routine waste, including potentially sludge contaminated, requires much more effort to effectively characterize. The radionuclide distribution must be determined. In some cases the waste can be contaminated by various sludge transfers with unique radionuclide distributions. In these cases, the characterization can require an extensive effort. Even after an extensive characterization effort, the container must still be prepared for shipping. Therefore a significant amount of time may elapse from the time the waste is generated until the time of disposal. During the time it is possible for a tornado or high wind scenario to occur. The purpose of this report is to determine the effect of a tornado on potential sludge contaminated waste, or Transuranic (TRU) waste in B-25s [large storage containers], to evaluate the potential impact on F and H Tank Farms, and to help establish a B-25 control program for tornado events.

  10. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Langton, C.A.; Harley, W.W.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a method for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply.

  11. Determination of uranium distribution in the evaporation of simulated Savannah River Site waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Chandler, G.T.

    1995-01-01

    The results of an experimental program addressing the distribution of uranium in saltcake and supernate for two Savannah River Site waste compositions are presented. Successive batch evaporations were performed on simulated H-Area Modified Purex low-heat and post-aluminum dissolution wastes spiked with depleted uranium. Waste compositions and physical data were obtained for supernate and saltcake samples. For the H-Area Modified Purex low-heat waste, the product saltcake contained 42% of the total uranium from the original evaporator feed solution. However, precipitated solids only accounted for 10% of the original uranium mass; the interstitial liquid within the saltcake matrix contained the remainder of the uranium. In the case of the simulated post-aluminum dissolution waste; the product saltcake contained 68% of the total uranium from the original evaporator feed solution. Precipitated solids accounted for 52% of the original uranium mass; again, the interstitial liquid within the saltcake matrix contained the remainder of the uranium. An understanding of the distribution of uranium between supernatant liquid, saltcake, and sludge is required to develop a material balance for waste processing operations. This information is necessary to address nuclear criticality safety concerns.

  12. Sialoglycoprotease of Pasteurella haemolytica A1: detection of antisialoglycoprotease antibodies in sera of calves.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E; Cladman, W M; Conlon, J A; Mellors, A; Lo, R Y

    1994-01-01

    Log phase culture supernate from Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 1 contains a proteolytic enzyme specific for O-sialoglycoproteins. Using two methods, Western immunoblotting and enzyme neutralization assay, it was demonstrated that certain bovine sera from two previous P. haemolytica A1 vaccination and challenge trials contained antibodies (Ab) (isotypes IgG1 and IgG2 on Western immunoblot) to the sialoglycoprotease (Gcp). In these trials, selected calves were vaccinated twice with either the commercial culture supernate vaccine Presponse or given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). One trial was conducted during spring, P. haem XIX, and the other during the winter, P. haem XXI. Although there was no clear evidence for induction of anti-Gcp in response to vaccination, several calves seroconverted following intrapulmonary challenge with live P. haemolytica A1. This is the first report of anti-Gcp Ab in bovine sera. The results indicated that the Gcp is immunogenic and that the bacterium produces the enzyme in vivo. Further, animals with an anti-Gcp response had less pneumonia at necropsy, suggesting the Gcp may induce protective immunity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:8004547

  13. Study on the Effect of Mutated Bacillus Megaterium in Two-Stage Fermentation of Vitamin C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Shujuan; Wang, Jun; Yao, Jianming; Yu, Zengliang

    2003-10-01

    Bacillus megaterium as a companion strain in two-stage fermentation of vitamin C could secrete some active substances to spur growth of Gluconobacter oxydans to produce 2-KLG. In the fermenting system where Gluconobacter oxydans was combined with GB82-a mutated strain of B. megaterium by ion implantation, the amount of 2-KLG harvested was larger than that produced by the original B. megaterium BP52 [1] being substituted for GB82. In this paper, we studied the effect of the active substances secreted by GB82 to enhance the capability of Gluconobacter oxydans to produce 2-KLG. The supernate of GB82 sampled at different cultivation times all had much more activity to spur Gluconobacter oxydans to yield 2-KLG than that of the original B. megaterium, which might be due to the genetic changes in the active components caused by ion implantation. Furthermore, the active substances of GB82's supernate would lose a part of its activity in extreme environments, which is typical of some proteins.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Pesticide Exposure Downstream of a Heavily Irrigated Cropping Area: Application of Different Monitoring Techniques.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Dominique; Lewis, Stephen; Davis, Aaron; Gallen, Christie; Smith, Rachael; Turner, Ryan; Warne, Michael; Turner, Scott; Caswell, Stewart; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon

    2016-05-25

    Pesticide exposure threatens many freshwater and estuarine ecosystems around the world. This study examined the temporal and spatial trends of pesticide concentrations in a waterway within an agriculturally developed dry-tropics catchment using a combination of grab and passive sampling methods over a continuous two-year monitoring program. A total of 43 pesticide residues were detected with 7 pesticides exceeding ecologically relevant water quality guidelines/trigger values during the study period and 4 (ametryn, atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor) of these exceeding guidelines for several months. The presence and concentration of the pesticides in the stream coincided with seasonal variability in rainfall, harvest timing/cropping cycle, and management changes. The sampling approach used demonstrates that the application of these complementary sampling techniques (both grab and passive sampling methods) was effective in establishing pesticide usage patterns in upstream locations where application data are unavailable.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Pesticide Exposure Downstream of a Heavily Irrigated Cropping Area: Application of Different Monitoring Techniques.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Dominique; Lewis, Stephen; Davis, Aaron; Gallen, Christie; Smith, Rachael; Turner, Ryan; Warne, Michael; Turner, Scott; Caswell, Stewart; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon

    2016-05-25

    Pesticide exposure threatens many freshwater and estuarine ecosystems around the world. This study examined the temporal and spatial trends of pesticide concentrations in a waterway within an agriculturally developed dry-tropics catchment using a combination of grab and passive sampling methods over a continuous two-year monitoring program. A total of 43 pesticide residues were detected with 7 pesticides exceeding ecologically relevant water quality guidelines/trigger values during the study period and 4 (ametryn, atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor) of these exceeding guidelines for several months. The presence and concentration of the pesticides in the stream coincided with seasonal variability in rainfall, harvest timing/cropping cycle, and management changes. The sampling approach used demonstrates that the application of these complementary sampling techniques (both grab and passive sampling methods) was effective in establishing pesticide usage patterns in upstream locations where application data are unavailable. PMID:26755130

  16. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  17. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lau, Louis K.; Alper, Naum I.

    1994-01-01

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.

  18. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  19. Novel approaches in radon and thoron dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressyanov, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Dimitrova, I.; Georgiev, S.; Mitev, K.

    2014-07-01

    This report presents some novel approaches for radon/radon progeny and thoron measurements that can help to resolve some long-lasting problems in dosimetry, but which are not yet part of the common practice. The focus is in two directions: The use of CDs/DVDs as radon and thoron detectors and the employment of grab-sampling and/or integrated radon progeny measurements for diagnostic of the air conditions related to mitigation and indoor ventilation. The potential of these approaches is illustrated by several successful applications: (1) Study of the 222Rn distribution in large buildings and identification of places with radon problem; (2) Radon and thoron monitoring in underground mines; (3) Radon measurements in natural waters, including directly in the water source; (4) Grab sampling 222Rn progeny measurements for the purposes of pre- and post-mitigation diagnostic; (5) Integrated measurements of individual 222Rn short-lived decay products for diagnostic of indoor ventilation conditions.

  20. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Nero, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1/sup -1/ h/sup -1/. Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon.

  1. EMAP/NS and T pilot studies in the Carolinian Province: Indicator testing and evaluation in the southeastern estuaries. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Ringwood, A.H.; Holland, A.F.; Kneib, R.T.; Ross, P.E.

    1996-06-01

    Indicator development studies were conducted during a pilot year program designed to evaluate existing EMAP indicators as well as to identify and develop new indicators of environmental quality for southeastern Atlantic estuaries. EMAP sampling activities were conducted at 24 stations throughout the Carolinian Province. Hydrolab Datasonde 3s were deployed in situ for >= 23 hr for water quality data (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and depth). Sediment grabs were collected for infaunal community analyses. The top 2 cm of sediments from multiple grabs were composited and used for a variety of analyses (sediment contaminants, toxicity, sediment characterization). A limited suite of metals and PAHs were determined from sediment samples. Trawls were conducted for fish and shellfish community analyses.

  2. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD). PMID:9246868

  3. Day and night profiles of tropospheric nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Connors, Vickie S.; Levine, Joel S.; Edahl, Robert A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Daytime and nighttime vertical profiles of the tropospheric trace gas N2O were determined from grab sample collections off the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida. The grab samples were collected during the week of October 7-13, 1984, from a Lear jet during descent spirals over an altitude range of 12.5-0.3 km in approximately 1.2-km intervals. During this period there were two distinct airflow regimes sampled: (1) the surface boundary layer (less than 2 km), in which the wind direction was typically easterly; and (2) the regime above the boundary layer, which was predominantly characterized by westerly flow. N2O mixing ratios, normalized to dry air, were determined from 148 daytime and nighttime samplings. N2O was found to be uniformly mixed at all altitudes at 301.9 + or - 2.4 parts per billion by volume.

  4. Drawing a Regression Line between Spaghetti & Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Edwards, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    "I liked to grab things on the graphics and see it first hand, see what we were doing on the problem. It makes more sense." These words were from a student who completed a series of lessons on lines of best fit. She made this comment after comparing a hands-on approach using a strand of spaghetti with a high-tech approach using a calculator. To…

  5. Passage: From One Place to the next

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, the author describes how he came to realize, as his older friends head out for their first year of college, that they have a great air of adventure about them because they have laid down the old and are stretching out to grab on to the new. His older friends are stepping out and he is stepping into his new shoes, as a senior in high…

  6. 16. THREEQUARTER VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF A HULETT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THREE-QUARTER VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF A HULETT ORE UNLOADER AS IT DESCENDS INTO THE HOLD. THE WALKING BEAM AND ITS GRAB BUCKET ARE OPERATED BY MEANS OF ROPES WOUND ON DRUMS, WHICH IN TURN ARE GEARED TO ELECTRIC MOTORS. ROUND TRIP FROM BOAT TO HOPPER CAN BE MADE IN 50 SECONDS. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Optical manipulation of lipid and polymer nanotubes with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Joseph E.; Kishore, Rani; Pfefferkorn, Candace; Wells, Jeffrey; Helmerson, Kristian; Howell, Peter; Vreeland, Wyatt; Forry, Samuel; Locascio, Laurie; Reyes-Hernandez, Darwin; Gaitan, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Using optical tweezers and microfluidics, we stretch either the lipid or polymer membranes of liposomes or polymersomes, respectively, into long nanotubes. The membranes can be grabbed directly with the optical tweezers to produce sub-micron diameter tubes that are several hundred microns in length. We can stretch tubes up to a centimeter in length, limited only by the travel of our microscope stage. We also demonstrate the cross linking of a pulled polymer nanotube.

  8. Gold anomalies and magnetometer profile data, Ester Dome area, Fairbanks district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, D.L.; Forbes, Robert B.; Hawkins, D.B.

    1969-01-01

    Gold analysis of grab and auger samples of bedrock taken along the new Ester Dome Road reveals that this road cuts several mineralized zones characterized by anomalous concentrations of gold. The results of a magnetometer traverse along this road indicate that the negative magnetic anomalies along the traverse may be correlative with the gold anomalies. The presence of previously unreported gold anomalies indicates that additional prospecting may be warranted.

  9. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: September 2012 - October 2012 with Formaldehyde Supplement from May-October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    A summary of the analytical results from 6 grab sample containers (GSCs) and 12 pairs of formaldehyde badges collected on ISS and returned aboard 29S or 31 S is shown in an accompanying table. The average recoveries of the 3 surrogate standards from the GSCs were as follows: C-l3-acetone, 128%; fluorobenzene, 114%; and chlorobenzene, 78%. Recoveries of two lab-control formaldehyde badges averaged 95%.

  10. C-104 Solid Phase Characterization of Sample 4C-13-1 From Tank 241-C-104 Closure Sampling Event

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Gary A.; Pestovich, John A.

    2013-06-12

    One solid grab sample from closure sampling in Riser 7 of tank 214-C-I04 (C-I04) was examined to determine the solid phases that were present. The sample was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The purpose of this analysis was to see if the presence of hydrated phases could provide a possible explanation for the high moisture content obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  11. Results of gas monitoring of double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-01-19

    Tanks 103-SY; 101-AW; 103-, 104-, and 105-AN are on the Flammable Gas Watch List. Recently, standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) cabinets have been installed in the vent header of each of these tanks. Grab samples have been taken once per week, and a gas chromatograph was installed on tank 104-AN as a field test. The data that have been collected since gas monitoring began on these tanks are summarized in this document.

  12. Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Chris; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Helm, Paul; Kleywegt, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.

  13. 30. HULETT NO. 2 IN MOTION; OPERATOR HAS JUST DUMPED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. HULETT NO. 2 IN MOTION; OPERATOR HAS JUST DUMPED A GRAB BUCKET OF ORE INTO THE RECEIVING HOPPER AND IS READY TO RETURN FOR ANOTHER LOAD. A ROUND TRIP FROM THE BOAT TO THE HOPPER AND BACK CAN BE MADE IN 50 SECONDS. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Building a 19th Century climate chronology for the Karoo: 1840-1870

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupini, Athanasia

    2016-04-01

    The need to increase knowledge of global climate change has led to a drive to create long term climatic data sets for countries and smaller regions. With these data sets it is possible to identify patterns in past recent climate and use these to model future climate. The science of historical climatology allows this without having to rely on instrumental data, which may not be available or reliable. Documentary sources usually provide exact dates in which climatic events occur, which can then be utilized to compare to climatic events in neighbouring regions. This study provides the first reconstruction and extended chronology for climate and precipitation for the Albany region in the Eastern Karoo, for 1840-1870, using historical documentary sources. Methodologies were adopted from similar investigations, where any references to the climate were extracted, digitized and categorized according to an index for both rainfall and temperature (Grab and Nash 2010; Nash and Grab, 2010). The data was categorized into an October to September year due to the study site receiving year long rainfall, and final indexes were created for the warm and dry seasons. Droughts that were recorded in this investigation occurred during 1848-1849, 1861-1862, 1862-1863. Floods were identified in 1847-1848, and in 1867-1868. The study site was found to experience significantly drier than wet periods, and the damage described in the accounts from drought was far more severe than that described during periods of flooding. The findings of this study were also compared to several similar studies conducted in neighbouring regions, and a general consistency was found (Grab and Nash 2010; Nash and Grab, 2010; Nash and Endfield, 2002; Vogel, 1989). Further work examining the socio-economic impacts, patterns of locust visitations and comparing modern day to past recent rainfall is also identified.

  15. Space X1 First Entry Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (m-GSC) was returned aboard Space X1 because of the importance of quickly knowing first-entry conditions in this new commercial module. This sample was analyzed alongside samples of the portable clean room (PCR) used in the Space X complex at KSC. The recoveries of C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 130, 129, and 132 %, respectively.

  16. Mannosyl Glycodendritic Structure Inhibits DC-SIGN-Mediated Ebola Virus Infection in cis and in trans

    PubMed Central

    Lasala, Fátima; Arce, Eva; Otero, Joaquín R.; Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    We have designed a glycodendritic structure, BH30sucMan, that blocks the interaction between dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope. BH30sucMan inhibits DC-SIGN-mediated EBOV infection at nanomolar concentrations. BH30sucMan may counteract important steps of the infective process of EBOV and, potentially, of microorganisms shown to exploit DC-SIGN for cell entry and infection. PMID:14638512

  17. Evaluating airborne radionuclide concentrations in the tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1993-05-06

    The objective of this study is to determine, through the collection of grab sampling data, that an in-depth resuspension study should or should not be performed. Currently there is not enough data available to determine if a potential health hazard exists due to resuspended contamination in the tank farms. A detailed resuspension study is currently not justified, because the limited quantity of air sample data collected does not indicate the existence of a potential health hazard.

  18. Planes, trains, and other interruptions: such is life!

    PubMed

    Richards, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Nurse leaders can spend a significant part of their careers traveling. Self-care and personal mindfulness need not suffer when we are away from home and our normal routine. Personal health plans can be adapted in practical ways to travel with you. So pack your bags with whatever feeds your self-nurturing needs, grab some kale chips and comfortable shoes, and let's get going! PMID:25137814

  19. Navigating the Race to the Top Traffic Jam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early last week the U.S. Department of Education announced an unexpected 16 finalists for the first round of Race to the Top (RTT) funding--a veritable traffic jam in the Race to the Top. The finalists have requested a total of $6.5 billion in funds, but only $4.3 billion is up for grabs, and that needs to be spread over two rounds of competition.…

  20. Where Is the Center of Mass of Florida?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    An attention-grabbing center-of-mass demonstration uses the map of a state mounted on a sheet of heavy cardboard and cut out along the boundaries. The two-dimensional object is hung from a hole punched into a city near the edge, and a string with a pendulum bob attached to it passes through the center of mass. The process is repeated with a…

  1. STS 131 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the Shuttle (STS-131) and International Space Station (19A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 1 grab sample canister (GSC) from the Shuttle are reported in Table 1. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the Shuttle GSC were 100%, 93%, and 101%, respectively. Based on the historical experience using end-of-mission samples, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  2. STS 130 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the Shuttle (STS-130) and International Space Station (20A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 3 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported in Table 1. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The recoveries of the 3 surrogates ( 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the 3 Shuttle GSCs averaged 96, 90, and 85 %, respectively. Based on the end-of-mission sample, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  3. Photonics industry in China: from current status and trends to the importance of innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chongcheng

    2011-12-01

    Current status and trends in various sectors of photonics industry in Mainland China are reviewed, which includes optical fiber communication, optical preform, fiber and cable, photonic devices and chips, LED illumination and display, and photovoltaics. Then, from the challenges and risks they are facing, critical importance of innovation is discussed. In the evolving Innovation Economy, the core competence of a company, an industry or a country is its innovation power and the capability to grab (and manage) talented people.

  4. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  5. Impact of approach used to determine removal levels of drugs of abuse during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodayan, Angela; Majewsky, Marius; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-07-15

    In this study the levels of 19 drugs of abuse were estimated throughout a wastewater treatment plant using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), 24h composite samples and grab samples. Overall removal efficiencies and removals in between each treatment unit were calculated using load data for each sampling technique as well as removals that take into account the hydraulic residence time distribution of the treatment plant (time-shifted mass balancing approach). Amphetamine-type stimulants, cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine and opioid levels determined with 24h composite samples were generally comparable to those obtained with POCIS and grab samples. Negative mass balances resulting from the estimation of overall removal efficiencies by POCIS, day-to-day mass balancing of 24h composite and grab sample data did not occur when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) distributions of the plant were taken into account for calculation. Among the compounds investigated, cocaine exhibited the highest overall removal (90%) while codeine had the lowest with 13%, respectively. Sampling between the treatment units revealed that highest removal occurs during biological treatment as compared to primary or secondary clarification. Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), fentanyl, dihydrocodeine and heroin were not detected in wastewater at any of the sampling locations at the treatment plant regardless of the sampling technique. The study demonstrates the benefits of applying the time-shifted mass balancing approach to the calculation of removals of drugs of abuse during wastewater treatment.

  6. Toxicity of urban highway runoff in Shanghai to Zebrafish (Danio rerio ) embryos and luminous bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis.Q67).

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingling; Jiang, Yue; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Haiping

    2014-02-01

    Pollution from urban highway runoff has been identified as one of the major causes of the deterioration of receiving water quality. The purpose of this study is to assess the toxicity of urban storm water samples in Shanghai using the zebrafish (Danio rerio ) embryo test and the bacterial luminescence (Vibrio qinghaiensis ) assay. The toxicity of highway runoff from seventeen storm events was investigated in both grab and composite samples. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to the runoff samples and development parameters including lethality, spontaneous movements in 20 s, heart beat rate, hatching rate, and abnormality of zebrafish embryos were observed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure. Inhibition rates of luminescence intensity were also recorded. The results showed that in the zebrafish embryo toxicity tests, both grab and composite samples increased the lethality, reduced the percentage with spontaneous movements and heart beats, inhibited the hatching of embryos, and induced morphological abnormalities. In the Vibrio qinghaiensis toxicity test, all the grab samples inhibited the luminescence, while some of the composite samples promoted it, which indicated that different types of toxicants might have been affecting the species. The multivariate statistics analysis indicated that heavy metal (zinc, manganese, and copper) and PAHs might mainly contribute to the toxicity of runoff samples.

  7. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  8. Occurrence of herbicides and pharmaceutical and personal care products in surface water and groundwater around Liberty Bay, Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Reinhard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pose a risk to water quality and the health of ecosystems. This study was designed to determine if a coastal community lacking point sources, such as waste water treatment plant effluent, could release PPCPs, herbicides, and plasticizers at detectable levels to their surface water and groundwater. Research was conducted in Liberty Bay, an embayment within Puget Sound, where 70% of the population (∼10,000) uses septic systems. Sampling included collection of groundwater and surface water with grab samples and the use of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). We analyzed for a broad spectrum of 25 commonly used compounds, including PPCPs, herbicides, and a flame retardant. Twelve contaminants were detected at least once; only N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, caffeine, and mecoprop, a herbicide not attributed to septic systems, were detected in more than one grab sample. The use of POCIS was essential because contaminants were present at very low levels (nanograms), which is common for PPCPs in general, but particularly so in such a small community. The use of POCIS allowed the detection of five compounds that were not present in grab samples. Data suggest that the community is contaminating local water with PPCPs; this effect is likely to increase as the population and product usage increase. The results presented here are a first step toward assessing the transport of herbicides and PPCPs into this coastal system.

  9. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two sites, continuous streamflow data at three sites, and water-quality data at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2003 and June 30, 2004. A total of 30 samples was collected over four storms during July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004. In general, an attempt was made to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted time-composite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. However, all four storms were partially sampled because either not all stations were sampled or only grab samples were collected. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc). Grab samples were additionally analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples, collected during storms and during routine maintenance, were also collected to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  10. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  11. Impact of approach used to determine removal levels of drugs of abuse during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodayan, Angela; Majewsky, Marius; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-07-15

    In this study the levels of 19 drugs of abuse were estimated throughout a wastewater treatment plant using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), 24h composite samples and grab samples. Overall removal efficiencies and removals in between each treatment unit were calculated using load data for each sampling technique as well as removals that take into account the hydraulic residence time distribution of the treatment plant (time-shifted mass balancing approach). Amphetamine-type stimulants, cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine and opioid levels determined with 24h composite samples were generally comparable to those obtained with POCIS and grab samples. Negative mass balances resulting from the estimation of overall removal efficiencies by POCIS, day-to-day mass balancing of 24h composite and grab sample data did not occur when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) distributions of the plant were taken into account for calculation. Among the compounds investigated, cocaine exhibited the highest overall removal (90%) while codeine had the lowest with 13%, respectively. Sampling between the treatment units revealed that highest removal occurs during biological treatment as compared to primary or secondary clarification. Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), fentanyl, dihydrocodeine and heroin were not detected in wastewater at any of the sampling locations at the treatment plant regardless of the sampling technique. The study demonstrates the benefits of applying the time-shifted mass balancing approach to the calculation of removals of drugs of abuse during wastewater treatment. PMID:24726517

  12. Evolution of High Trophic Diversity Based on Limited Functional Disparity in the Feeding Apparatus of Marine Angelfishes (f. Pomacanthidae)

    PubMed Central

    Konow, Nicolai; Bellwood, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biting to obtain food items attached to the substratum is an ecologically widespread and important mode of feeding among aquatic vertebrates, which rarely has been studied. We did the first evolutionary analyses of morphology and motion kinematics of the feeding apparatus in Indo-Pacific members of an iconic family of biters, the marine angelfishes (f. Pomacanthidae). We found clear interspecific differences in gut morphology that clearly reflected a wide range of trophic niches. In contrast, feeding apparatus morphology appeared to be conserved. A few unusual structural innovations enabled angelfishes to protrude their jaws, close them in the protruded state, and tear food items from the substratum at a high velocity. Only one clade, the speciose pygmy angelfishes, showed functional departure from the generalized and clade-defining grab-and-tearing feeding pattern. By comparing the feeding kinematics of angelfishes with wrasses and parrotfishes (f. Labridae) we showed that grab-and-tearing is based on low kinematics disparity. Regardless of its restricted disparity, the grab-and-tearing feeding apparatus has enabled angelfishes to negotiate ecological thresholds: Given their widely different body sizes, angelfishes can access many structurally complex benthic surfaces that other biters likely are unable to exploit. From these surfaces, angelfishes can dislodge sturdy food items from their tough attachments. Angelfishes thus provide an intriguing example of a successful group that appears to have evolved considerable trophic diversity based on an unusual yet conserved feeding apparatus configuration that is characterized by limited functional disparity. PMID:21909414

  13. Estimates of pesticide concentrations and fluxes in two rivers of an extensive French multi-agricultural watershed: application of the passive sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Poulier, Gaëlle; Lissalde, Sophie; Charriau, Adeline; Buzier, Rémy; Cleries, Karine; Delmas, François; Mazzella, Nicolas; Guibaud, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the passive sampling strategy was evaluated for its ability to improve water quality monitoring in terms of concentrations and frequencies of quantification of pesticides, with a focus on flux calculation. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were successively exposed and renewed at three sampling sites of an extensive French multi-agricultural watershed from January to September 2012. Grab water samples were recovered every 14 days during the same period and an automated sampler collected composite water samples from April to July 2012. Thirty-nine compounds (pesticides and metabolites) were analysed. DEA, diuron and atrazine (banned in France for many years) likely arrived via groundwater whereas dimethanamid, imidacloprid and acetochlor (all still in use) were probably transported via leaching. The comparison of the three sampling strategies showed that the POCIS offers lower detection limits, resulting in the quantification of trace levels of compounds (acetochlor, diuron and desethylatrazine (DEA)) that could not be measured in grab and composite water samples. As a consequence, the frequencies of occurrence were dramatically enhanced with the POCIS compared to spot sample data. Moreover, the integration of flood events led to a better temporal representation of the fluxes when calculated with the POCIS compared to the bimonthly grab sampling strategy. We conclude that the POCIS could be an advantageous alternative to spot sampling, offering better performance in terms of quantification limits and more representative data.

  14. Study of temporal variation of radon concentrations in public drinking water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    York, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for radon-222 in public drinking water supplies of 300 pCi/L. Proposed monitoring requirements include collecting quarterly grab samples for the first year, then annual samples for the remainder of the compliance cycle provided first year quarterly samples average below the MCL. The focus of this research was to study the temporal variation of groundwater radon concentrations to investigate how reliably one can predict an annual average radon concentration based on the results of grab samples. Using a {open_quotes}slow-flow{close_quotes} collection method and liquid scintillation analysis, biweekly water samples were taken from ten public water supply wells in North Carolina (6 month - 11 month sampling periods). Based on study results, temporal variations exist in groundwater radon concentrations. Statistical analysis performed on the data indicates that grab samples taken from each of the ten wells during the study period would exhibit groundwater radon concentrations within 30% of their average radon concentration.

  15. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data was collected at two sites, continuous streamflow data at three sites, and water-quality data at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003. A total of 28 samples were collected over five storms during July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003. For two of the five storms, five grab samples and three flow-weighted timecomposite samples were collected. Grab samples were collected nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted timecomposite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. The other three storms were partially sampled, where only flow-weighted time-composite samples were collected and/or not all stations were sampled. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc). Grab samples were additionally analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/qualitycontrol samples, collected during storms and during routine maintenance, were also collected to verify analytical procedures and insure proper cleaning of equipment.

  16. Reducing the Detection Limit for Tetraphenylborate in Tank 50H Waste

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, THOMASL.

    2004-07-14

    SRTC personnel are developing a technique that can determine the concentration of tetraphenylborate (TPB) at 300 grams in 100,000 gallons of salt solution (0.8 mg/L) in the presence of0.378 Ci/gal of Cs-137. The current High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method of analysis can determine the TPB concentration at 5 mg/L and higher. The limit of quantitation was lowered by modification of the sample preparation steps. The HPLC sample preparation method currently used requires neutralization of the tank waste sample followed by extraction with acetonitrile. This method dilutes the tank waste sample 6.5 to 1 increasing the limit of quantitation. The method described in this report concentrates the sample two-fold lowering the limit of quantitation from 5 mg/L to 0.25mg/L. Researchers used solvent extraction of undiluted tank waste to isolate, and concentrate (two-fold) samples of tank supernate and Plant Inhibited Water (PIW) that simulated tank supernate at the cesium level of approximately 0.3 Ci/gal. The 137Cs content in the tank supernate measured 0.65 Ci/gal prior to a two-fold dilution with PIW. The concentration of the TPB was determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase HPLC column using methanol, acetonitrile, and buffered water as the mobile phase. Important Findings: The 0.8 mg/L quantitation limit was met in the presence of radioactive cesium. A 93 per cent reduction in activity in the acetonitrile layer was achieved. A five-mL acetonitrile aliquot from the extraction of a tank waste sample containing 0.378 Ci/gal of Cs-137 could be handled in a radiological hood and comply with the less than 5 mR/hr hood limit. This method is applicable to tank waste solutions of high ionic strength (greater than 2.0 M Na). The ionic strength of tank waste solutions of low ionic strength will need to be adjusted by the addition of NaOH or 5.6 M average salt solution to facilitate the formation of two layers (organic and aqueous). Increasing the ionic strength of tank

  17. Plasminogen activator activity in cultures from human tissues. An immunological and histochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Bernik, Maria B.; Kwaan, Hau C.

    1969-01-01

    Human tissues and cells from pre- and postnatal life were cultivated and studied for plasminogen activator activity. Cultures were obtained from kidney, renal blood vessels, ureter, bladder, lung, and heart. Local activator activity of cells was demonstrated by histochemical techniques. Activator released by cells into the supernatant culture media was assayed by fibrin plate techniques and was investigated for immunological identity using specific antisera to an activator of human origin, urokinase (UK). Plasminogen activator was produced in primary cultures where cells retain specific functions and generally reflect the enzyme pattern of the tissues of origin. Cells from fetal and adult sources were found to yield activator antigenically identical to UK, as well as activator activity which differed from that of UK in immunoassays and which may represent tissue type activator. Such activity was released after injury or death of cells while UK was produced in cultures containing live, metabolizing cells. Primary cultures of kidney confirmed that this organ is a rich source of UK and demonstrated, in addition, that UK is produced from the early stages of gestation and in increasing amounts thereafter. However, primary cultures also demonstrated that the ability to produce UK is not limited to the kidney but is a function of cells which are distributed widely in body tissues. Thus, activator antigenically identical to UK accumulated progressively after many refeedings in culture supernates of fetal lung and ureter, as well as in supernates of renal blood vessels of adults. These findings indicate continuous formation of UK by the cultured cells and, furthermore, provide evidence of UK production in blood vessels. In cultures from other tissues, particularly those from fetal heart and adult lung and bladder, investigation of activator was hindered by inhibitory activity which accumulated in the supernates. Such activity was derived from cells in culture and was

  18. THERMAL ANALYSIS FOR IN-TANK ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Frank02 Smith, F

    2009-01-05

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is stored in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. A small column ion-exchange (SCIX) process is being designed to treat dissolved saltcake waste before feeding it to the saltstone facility to be made into grout. The waste is caustic with high concentrations of various sodium salts and lower concentrations of radionuclides. Two cation exchange media being considered are a granular form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and a spherical form of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. CST is an inorganic material highly selective for cesium that is not elutable. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is absorbed into ion exchange media (either CST or RF) which is packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. If engineering designs cannot handle this thermal load, hot spots may develop locally which could degrade the performance of the ion-exchange media. Performance degradation with regard to cesium removal has been observed between 50 and 80 C for CST [1] and at 65 C for RF resin [2]. In addition, the waste supernate solution will boil around 130 C. If the columns boiled dry, the sorbent material could plug the column and lead to replacement of the entire column module. Alternatively, for organic resins such as RF there is risk of fire at elevated temperatures. The objective of the work is to compute temperature distributions across CST- and RF-packed columns immersed in waste supernate under accident scenarios involving loss of salt solution flow through the beds and, in some cases, loss of coolant system flow. For some cases, temperature distributions are determined as a function of time after the initiation of a given accident scenario and in other cases only the final steady-state temperature distributions are calculated. In general, calculations are conducted to ensure conservative and

  19. A comparison of river water quality sampling methodologies under highly variable load conditions.

    PubMed

    Facchi, A; Gandolfi, C; Whelan, M J

    2007-01-01

    When river water quality fluctuates over relatively short periods of time with respect to the sampling frequency, the collection of grab samples may be inappropriate for characterising average water quality. This paper presents the results of a water quality monitoring study carried out on a stretch of the river Lambro (northern Italy) dominated by a periodically overloaded sewage treatment works (STW) located near its upstream end. Water quality was strongly influenced by a pronounced diurnal cycle in pollutant loads caused by the regular emission of untreated waste water during periods of high domestic flow (daytime). Two different sampling techniques were employed: grab sampling and 24-h composite sampling using automatic samplers. Samples were collected at the plant overflow and at several sites along the river and analysed for two common ingredients of household detergents, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) and boron (B) and for routine water quality variables. The results obtained show that: (1) The diurnal variability of point-source-derived chemical concentrations in the river downstream of the undersized STW increased with increasing removal efficiency in sewage treatment. (2) The shape of the diurnal concentration signal remained relatively intact for a considerable distance downstream of the STW for several water quality variables, suggesting that hydrodynamic dispersion plays a relatively minor role in controlling concentration patterns in this river. (3) In-stream degradation of LAS was consistent with first order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.05-0.06 h(-1). (4) Grab sampling is a relatively inefficient methodology for capturing mean concentrations for rivers subjected to highly variable loads, especially when it is restricted to office hours. The inefficiency of grab sampling is more marked for substances (e.g. LAS) which are effectively removed during sewage treatment than for substances which are not. (5) For LAS, diurnal variability in the

  20. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  1. SOLUBILITY OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN ALKALINE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.; Hobbs, D.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, T.

    2010-03-10

    Five actual Savannah River Site tank waste samples and three chemically-modified samples were tested to determine solubility limits for uranium and plutonium over a one year time period. Observed final uranium concentrations ranged from 7 mg U/L to 4.5 g U/L. Final plutonium concentrations ranged from 4 {micro}g Pu/L to 12 mg Pu/L. Actinide carbonate complexation is believed to result in the dramatic solubility increases observed for one sample over long time periods. Clarkeite, NaUO{sub 2}(O)OH {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, was found to be the dominant uranium solid phase in equilibrium with the waste supernate in most cases.

  2. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  3. Structure-function investigations of modified phenol-formaldehyde and resorcinol-formaldehyde ion-exchange resins that are selective for cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Hallen, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (R-F) resin is a candidate regenerable ion-exchange material for removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline waste tank supernates at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites. The chemical stability of the R-F resin is a primary issue under the typical process conditions encountered for cesium removal, especially during the acid elution step. Part of our examination into this issue has been directed toward preparation of resins that contain fluorine to examine the effect on chemical stability of resorcinol and phenol based resins and to explore the effect of structural modification of the polymer on its cesium selectivity. Polymer modifiers included 2-, 3-, and 4-fluorophenol as well as 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-difluorophenol. The resins were characterized using spectroscopic techniques (IR, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR) and by determination of cesium-specific distribution coefficients (K{sub d}`s).

  4. Chemical derivatization of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde resin leading to enhanced chemical/oxidative stability of the resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (R-F) resin is a candidate regenerable ion-exchange resin for removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline waste tank supernates at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Our previous investigations into the structure/function relationships of R-F resin have shown that the R-F resin undergoes facile oxidation to produce, para-bisquinones, with loss of ion-exchange sites, hence lowered performance of the resin for cesium ion-exchange. Our studies have also shown that Phenol-Formaldehyde (P-F) resin has a substantially lower capacity compared to R-F resin, based on predicted values, because over half the ion-exchange sites of the P-F resin undergo etherification during the standard synthetic procedures used for preparation of these resins. In this report, we present our studies into rational synthetic solutions to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of R-F resin.

  5. Polymer modification of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Yang, J.J.; Shreeve, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (R-F) resin is a candidate regenerable ion-exchange resin for removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline waste tank supernates at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Previous investigations into the structure/function relationships of R-F resin have shown that the R-F resin undergoes facile oxidation to produce para-quinones, with loss of ion-exchange sites, hence lowered performance of the resin for cesium ion-exchange. In this report, we give the results of our studies into polymer resins prepared using 4-methylresorcinol and 4-fluororesorcinol. The reaction of 4-methylresorcinol with formaldehyde formed oligomeric structures, while a mixture of 4-fluororesorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde produced a non-soluble resin in aqueous/alkaline conditions. The 4-fluororesorcinol resin underwent significant nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine substituent to give oxidized resins with lower ion-exchange performance.

  6. Analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms for oxfendazole: I. Reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination of oxfendazole in swine premix.

    PubMed

    Fleitman, J; Neu, D; Visor, G

    1986-01-01

    A reverse phase liquid chromatographic (LC) procedure is described for quantitating oxfendazole (2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-5-phenylsulfinylbenzimidazole] in swine premix. Sample preparation consists of extracting oxfendazole with an acetone-methanol mixture. An aliquot of the extract is then centrifuged to separate undissolved premix excipients. Internal standard is added to the supernate and the sample is further diluted with water-acetonitrile-phosphoric acid (80 + 20 + 1). Oxfendazole is quantitatively determined using a Partisil-5-ODS-3 column with acetonitrile-0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) as the mobile phase. The method is stability specific and yields a mean recovery of 101.1 +/- 0.4% for the 1.35% premix formulation. The dependence of chromatographic performance characteristics on mobile phase organic content, pH, and buffer concentration is also reported.

  7. EVALUATION OF AP-FARM SIMULANT COMPOSITION FOR ROTARY MICROFILTER TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ

    2011-09-19

    This document identifies the feed composition of a Hanford AP tank farm simulant for rotary microfiltration testing. The composition is based on an Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model run in combination with Tank Waste Information Network (TWINS) data and mineralogical studies of actual waste solids. The feed simulant is intended to be used in test runs at SRNL. The simulant will be prepared in two parts: (1) A supernate, composed of water-soluble salts and (2) The undissolved (actually, undissolvable) solids. Test slurries with distinct solids concentrations (e.g., 0.5, 5 and 10 wt%) are then prepared as needed. The base for the composition of supernate and solids is the modeled feed sequence for a deployment scenario of the Supplemental Pretreatment units within AP-farm. These units comprise a filtration part, the RMF, and a Cesium-removal part, a Small Column Ion Exchange. The primary use of this simulant is for filtration testing - however, in case that it is also used for ion-exchange tests, the amount of Cs-137 that would need to be added is available in Table 1 and Attachment 3. A modified model run (MMR-049) of the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) system plan 6 case 3 was performed to identify the feed sequence. Case 3 assumed supplemental treatment besides the low activity waste (LAW) melter with supplemental pretreatment supporting the pretreatment facility. The MMR did not cap the duration of supplemental pretreatment to 15 months, but rather used it throughout the entire treatment mission as an add-on option to the pretreatment facility at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tank 241-AP-105 (AP-105) was chosen as the feed tank to the filtration unit. Other parameters included a fixed minimum of 0.5 wt% solids in the feed and a maximum Na-concentration of 5M in the supernate. The solids rejection from the filtration unit was set to 99.99% and the maximum allowed amount of solids within tank AP-105 was set

  8. Sensitivity of Carrot Cell Cultures and RNA Polymerase II to Amatoxins 1

    PubMed Central

    Little, Michael C.; Preston, James F.

    1985-01-01

    Protoplast and cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. were evaluated for their sensitivity toward the three amatoxin derivatives, α-amanitin, 6′-deoxy-α-amanitin, and 6′-O-methyl-α-amanitin using inhibition of DNA synthesis to measure cell viability. Protoplasts appeared approximately 10-fold more refractory than suspension cells and α-amanitin was much less effective than the other two amatoxins, even though Ki values for isolated RNA polymerase II were similar (4-5 nanomolar). Additional studies evaluating the recoveries of all three amatoxins from cell suspension supernates indicate one basis for these differences to be the selective degradation of α-amanitin. A mechanism involving the activation of the hydroxyindole moiety of the α-amanitin is thus invoked to explain these differences and we postulate the involvement of plant oxidases in this role. PMID:16664072

  9. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    SciTech Connect

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-04-02

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station.

  10. Growth profiles of recent canine distemper isolates on Vero cells expressing canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM).

    PubMed

    Lan, N T; Yamaguchi, R; Uchida, K; Sugano, S; Tateyama, S

    2005-07-01

    Fresh samples of lymph node, lung and cerebrum taken post mortem from dogs no. 1, 2 and 3 yielded canine distemper virus (CDV) strains 007 Lm, 009 L and 011 C, respectively. These were titrated on Vero cells stably expressing canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; Vero-DST cells). Growth curves of the three strains were produced by titration of the released virus and cell-associated virus at various timepoints. All three isolates, especially 007 Lm, grew well on Vero-DST cells. The titres of cell-associated virus of two strains (009 L and 011 C) were clearly lower than those of virus released into the culture supernate. The results indicate that Vero-DST cells are not only useful for primary isolation but also efficient for titrating virus from fresh tissues and for the study of growth profiles of recent CDV isolates.

  11. Analysis of Induced Gas Released During Retrieval of Hanford Double-Shell Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E. ); Cuta, Judith M. ); Hartley, Stacey A. ); Mahoney, Lenna A. ); Meyer, Perry A. ); Stewart, Charles W. )

    2002-03-20

    Radioactive waste is scheduled to be retrieved from Hanford double-shell tanks AN-103, AN-104, AN-105 and AW-101 to the vitrification plant beginning about 2009. Retrieval may involve decanting the supernatant liquid and/or mixing the waste with jet pumps. In these four tanks, which contain relatively large volumes of retained gas, both of these operations are expected to induce buoyant displacement gas releases that can potentially raise the tank headspace hydrogen concentration to very near the lower flammability limit. This report describes the theory and detailed physical models for both the supernate decant and jet mixing processes and presents the results from applying the models to these operations in the four tanks. The technical bases for input parameter distributions are elucidated.

  12. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-04-25

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H.

  13. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-03-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment.

  14. Protein and glycoprotein electrophoretic patterns of enriched fractions of primary and secondary granules from guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The postnuclear supernatant fraction of sucrose homogenates of guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was subjected to differential centrifugation to obtain a total particulate fraction, a particle-free supernatant fraction, highly enriched fractions of primary and secondary granules, and a membrane-rich fraction. The various fractions were solubilized in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and analyzed for protein and glycoproteincomponents by SDS -polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The major glycoprotein components of the postnuclear supernatant fraction were found mainly associated with the enriched fraction of secondary granules and, to a lesser extent, with the membrane-rich fraction. No major glycoprotein components were visible in the polypeptide electrophoretic patterns of the primary granule fraction or of the particle-free supernate. Attempts at separation of guinea pig granules by zonal sucrose density gradient centrifugation were only partially successful. Data supporting a species difference in this regard between rabbit and guinea pig PMNL granules are presented. PMID:166079

  15. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-15-119, 127) Surface, Subsurface and Tank 43H (HTF-43-15-116, 117 and 118) Surface, Feed Pump Suction and Jet Suction Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment, Corrosion Control and Salt Batch Planning Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.

    2015-12-17

    Compositional feed limits have been established to ensure that a nuclear criticality event for the 2H and 3H Evaporators is not possible. The Enrichment Control Program (ECP) requires feed sampling to determine the equivalent enriched uranium content prior to transfer of waste other than recycle transfers (requires sampling to determine the equivalent enriched uranium at two locations in Tanks 38H and 43H every 26 weeks) The Corrosion Control Program (CCP) establishes concentration and temperature limits for key constituents and periodic sampling and analysis to confirm that waste supernate is within these limits. This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the ECP, the CCP, and the Salt Batch 10 Planning Program.

  16. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2010-11-01

    immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed (a primary heat transfer mechanism), inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The calculation results showed that for a wet CST column with active cooling through one central and four outer tubes and 35 C ambient external air, the peak temperature for the fully-loaded column is about 63 C under the loss of fluid flow accident, which is well below the supernate boiling point. The peak temperature for the naturally-cooled (no active, engineered cooling) wet column is 156 C under fully-loaded conditions, exceeding the 130 C boiling point. Under these conditions, supernate boiling would maintain the column temperature near 130 C until all supernate was vaporized. Without active engineered cooling and assuming a dry column suspended in unventilated air at 35 C, the fully-loaded column is expected to rise to a maximum of about 258 C due to the combined loss-of coolant and column drainage accidents. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. Results for the in-tank modeling calculations clearly indicate that when realistic heat transfer boundary conditions are imposed on the bottom surface of the tank wall, as much as 450 gallons of ground CST (a volume equivalent to two ion exchange processing cycles) in an ideal hemispherical shape (the most conservative geometry) can be placed in the tank without exceeding the 100 C wall temperature limit. Furthermore, in the case of an evenly-distributed flat layer, the tank wall reaches the temperature limit after the ground CST material reaches a height of approximately 8 inches.

  17. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Piping calculations. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The objective of this calculation is to perform the structural analysis of the Pipe Supports designed for Slurry and Supernate transfer pipe lines in order to meet the requirements of applicable ASME codes. The pipe support design loads are obtained from the piping stress calculations W320-27-I-4 and W320-27-I-5. These loads are the total summation of the gravity, pressure, thermal and seismic loads. Since standard typical designs are used for each type of pipe support such as Y-Stop, Guide and Anchors, each type of support is evaluated for the maximum loads to which this type of supports are subjected. These loads are obtained from the AutoPipe analysis and used to check the structural adequacy of these supports.

  18. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  19. Engineering evaluation of neutralization and precipitation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1998-08-25

    Engineering evaluations have been performed to determine likely unit operations and methods required to support the removal, storage, treatment and disposal of solids/sludges present in the K Basins at the Hanford Site. This evaluation was initiated to select a neutralization process for dissolver product solution resulting from nitric acid treatment of about 50 m{sup 3} of Hanford Site K Basins sludge. Neutralization is required to meet Tank Waste Remediation Waste System acceptance criteria for storage of the waste in the double shell tanks after neutralization, the supernate and precipitate will be transferred to the high level waste storage tanks in 200E Area. Non transuranic (TRU) solids residue will be transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This report presents an overview of neutralization and precipitation methods previously used and tested. This report also recommends a neutralization process to be used as part of the K Basins Sludge Treatment Project and identifies additional operations requiring further evaluation.

  20. F-AREA PUMP TANK 1 MIXING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2008-11-05

    The F-area pump tanks are used to transfer supernate, sludge, and other materials. In any transfer, the solution must stay well mixed without allowing particulate matter to settle out of the liquid and, thus, accumulate in the bottom of the pump tank. Recently, the pulse jet mixing in F-area Pump Tank 1 (FPT1) has been decommissioned. An analysis of the liquid transfer through FPT1 has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to assess whether or not the velocities throughout the tank will remain high enough to keep all particulate suspended using only transfer and recirculation pumps. The following paragraph is an abbreviated synopsis of the transfer procedure for FPT1 [1, 2]. Prior to a transfer, FPT1 begins to be filled with inhibited water through the inlet transfer line (TI). When the tank liquid level reaches 52.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the recirculation pump (RI and RO) is activated. At a tank liquid level of 72.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the outlet transfer line (TO) is activated to reduce the liquid level in FPT1 and transfer inhibited water to H-area Pump Tank 7 (HPT7). The liquid level is reduced down to 39.5 inches, with an allowable range from 37.5 to 41.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. HPT7 goes through a similar procedure as FPT1 until both have tank liquid levels of approximately 39.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. The transfer of inhibited water continues until a steady-state has been reached in both pump tanks. At this point, the supernate/sludge transfer begins with a minimum flow rate of 70 gpm and an average flow rate of 150 gpm. After the transfer is complete, the pump tanks (both FPT1 and HPT7) are pumped down to between 20.5 and 22.5 inches (above absolute bottom) and then flushed with 25,000 gallons of inhibited water to remove any possible sludge heal. After the flushing, the pump tanks are emptied. Note that the tank liquid level is measured using diptubes. Figure 2