Science.gov

Sample records for 241-z-361 vapor sampling

  1. Tank 241-Z-361 vapor sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    Tank 241-Z-361 is identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement), Appendix C, (Ecology et al. 1994) as a unit to be remediated under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). As such, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will serve as the lead regulatory agency for remediation of this tank under the CERCLA process. At the time this unit was identified as a CERCLA site under the Tri-Party Agreement, it was placed within the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. In 1997, The Tri-parties redefined 200 Area Operable Units into waste groupings (Waste Site Grouping for 200 Areas Soils Investigations [DOE-RL 1992 and 1997]). A waste group contains waste sites that share similarities in geological conditions, function, and types of waste received. Tank 241-Z-361 is identified within the CERCLA Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group (DOE-RL 1992). The Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group has been prioritized for remediation beginning in the year 2004. Results of Tank 216-Z-361 sampling and analysis described in this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and in the SAP for sludge sampling (to be developed) will determine whether expedited response actions are required before 2004 because of the hazards associated with tank contents. Should data conclude that remediation of this tank should occur earlier than is planned for the other sites in the waste group, it is likely that removal alternatives will be analyzed in a separate Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). Removal actions would proceed after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signs an Action Memorandum describing the selected removal alternative for Tank 216-Z-361. If the data conclude that there is no immediate threat to human health and the environment from this tank, remedial actions for the tank will be defined in a

  2. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/271999 During Sludge Core Removal

    SciTech Connect

    VISWANATH, R.S.

    1999-12-29

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371, Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA{trademark} canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2.

  3. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  4. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  5. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-08-06

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  6. Engineering study of the criticality issues associated with Hanford tank 241-Z-361

    SciTech Connect

    Lipke, E.J.

    1997-12-22

    Tank 241-Z-361 is associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Uncertainty about the contents of the tank have led to the declaration of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and the preparation of a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) to address flammable gas and other authorization basis issued. A Criticality Safety Team was assembled to review old data, determine its validity, and reevaluate the tank. It was concluded that the tank has a sufficient margin of safety to allow opening, sampling, and other characterizing activities. The team concluded that a criticality in Tank 241-Z-361 was extremely unlikely.

  7. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1997-12-23

    This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of 20 plus years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation will be used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents.

  8. Tank 241-Z-361 Sludge Retrieval and Treatment Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    HAMPTON, B.K.

    2000-05-24

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Tank 241-Z-361 (Z-361) contains legacy sludge resulting from waste discharges from past missions at PFP. A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 1. In this view various risers and penetrations are shown along with the sludge level depicted by the horizontal line halfway up the tank, and the ground level depicted by the horizontal line above the tank. The HEPA filter installed for breathing is also shown on one of the risers.

  9. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    SciTech Connect

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  10. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  11. Vapor pressure osmometry: minimum sample microvolumes.

    PubMed

    Pensyl, C D; Benjamin, W J

    1999-02-01

    Vapor pressure osmometers are currently designed to handle sample volumes as small as 2.0 microliters (microl) but smaller sample volumes are desirable in tear fluid studies. We determined the minimum sample size required for adequate validity and repeatability of osmolality measurements. A standard saline solution (290 mmol/kg) was sampled by a variable, calibrated pipette. Forty samples were processed with a Wescor 5520 vapor pressure osmometer at each of the following volumes: 2.0, 1.6, 1.2, 1.0, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 microl. Prior to each test series, the instrument was calibrated with the identical volume of 290 mmol/kg saline. Relevant descriptive statistics were computed and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the resulting data. The mean osmolalities of the eight 40-sample groups ranged from 288.42 to 290.68 mmol/kg and were not significantly different from 290 mmol/ kg or each other (p>0.05). The standard deviations were inversely correlated with the sample volumes, gradually increased to approximately 1% as sample volume was reduced to 0.8 microl, then more rapidly increased as the sample volume was lowered still further. Sample microvolumes as small as 0.8 microl can be collected for accurate and repeatable results with the Wescor 5520 vapor pressure osmometer when a standard deviation of approximately 1% is acceptable. Microvolumes from 0.7 to 0.5 microl may also be used if the expanded spread of data can be offset by multiple repeated readings. Using a 2.0 microl sample volume, the ultimate accuracy and repeatability of the Wescor vapor pressure osmometer was +/-2% at 290 mmol/kg: 99%, of all readings (+/-3 standard deviations) should fall within +/-6 mmol/kg of the true value.

  12. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  13. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  14. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  15. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-C-201 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-201. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 19, 1996 sampling of SST 241-C-201. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  16. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BX-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-BX-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the August 1, 1996 sampling of SST 241-BX-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  17. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-B-202 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Caprio, G.S.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-B-202. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 18, 1996 sampling of SST 241-B-202. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  18. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which`supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  19. Data Report for Catch Tank Vapor Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-09-28

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is responsible for developing and maintaining the authorization basis for River Protection Project (RPP) facilities and operations. This responsibility includes closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) for waste tank ancillary equipment such as catch tanks, double-contained receiver tanks, 244-AR and 244-CR vaults, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators, and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks. To support closure of the Flammable Gas USQ for catch tanks, an analysis of the flammable gas hazard was performed. This document provides a summary of flammable gas data obtained from RPP active catch tanks in FY 2000. Flammable gas level measurements for each catch tank (other than 241-AX-152) are discussed on a tank-by-tank basis in Section 3.0. Conclusions based on the data are provided in Section 4.0. This section also includes recommendations that would be useful when conducting vapor sampling for other miscellaneous tanks (e.g., inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks).

  20. Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-22

    This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

  1. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-102 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-102. This document presents sampling data resulting from the February 11, 1997 sampling of SST 241-S-102. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory which supplied and analyzed the sample media. This is the last in a series of temporal sapling events on SST 241-S-102. The strategy of temporal sampling is to measure the compositional changes of the waste tank headspace as related to seasonal effects and gradual changes of waste chemistry.

  2. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BX-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-BX-104. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the August 22, 1996 sampling of SST 241-BX-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media. This is the first in a series of temporal sampling events on SST 241-BX-104. The strategy of temporal sampling is to measure the compositional changes of the waste tank headspace as related to seasonal effects and gradual changes of waste chemistry.

  3. Mercury Source Zone Identification using Soil Vapor Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David B; Miller, Carrie L; Lester, Brian P; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Southworth, George R; Bogle, Mary Anna; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Development and demonstration of reliable measurement techniqes that can detect and help quantify the nature and extent of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the subsurface are needed to reduce certainties in the decision making process and increase the effectiveness of remedial actions. We conducted field tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC) in Oak Ridge, TN, to determine if sampling and analysis of Hg(0) vapors in the shallow subsurface (<0.3 m depth) can be used to as an indicator of the location and extent of Hg(0) releases in the subsurface. We constructed a rigid PVC pushprobe assembly, which was driven into the ground. Soil gas samples were collected through a sealed inner tube of the assembly and analyzed immediately in the field with a Lumex and/or Jerome Hg(0) analyzer. Time-series sampling showed that Hg vapor concentrations were fairly stable over time suggesting that the vapor phase Hg(0) was not being depleted and that sampling results were not dependent on the soil gas purge volume. Hg(0) vapor data collected at over 200 pushprobe locations at 3 different release sites correlated well to areas of known Hg(0) contamination. Vertical profiling of Hg(0) vapor concentrations conducted at 2 locations provided information on the vertical distribution of Hg(0) contamination in the subsurface. We concluded from our studies that soil gas sampling and analysis can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively at a large scale to help identify areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  4. Operability test report for the in SITU vapor sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This report documents the successful completion of testing for the In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system. The report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-196, Rev OA), data sheets, exception resolutions, and a test report summary. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, `Engineering Practice Guidelines,` Appendix L, `Operability Test Procedures and Reports.`

  5. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  6. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  7. Direct sampling of inorganic vapors released during biomass combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.

    1995-03-01

    Alkali metal vapors released during biomass combustion cause significant problems in power generating facilities that convert biomass to electricity. Gas phase transport of alkali vapors increases the potential for fouling and slagging heat transfer surfaces in boilers and will cause accelerated erosion and corrosion of turbine blades in future direct biomass-fired facilities. Biomass power is an attractive renewable energy resource; however, alkali deposits that form on surfaces in power generating facilities reduce the efficiency of electricity production. As a result, there is a need to develop methods or define combustion conditions for reducing the transport of alkali metal containing vapors during biomass combustion. One solution to fouling and slagging problems is to develop methods of hot gas cleanup that reduce the amount of alkali vapor to acceptable levels. This requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of alkali metal release during biomass combustion and identification of these alkali metal vapors, how these vapors lead to fouling and slagging, and how they may be sequestered. The authors approach is to sample directly the hot gases liberated from the combustion of small biomass samples in a variable temperature quartz tube reactor employing a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system to monitor the combustion event. The authors have successfully used this experimental technique to identify alkali metal containing species released during the combustion of selected biomass feedstocks at four different conditions: 1100{degrees}C in He/O{sub 2}(20%), 800{degrees}C in He/O{sub 2}(20%), 1100{degrees}C in He/O{sub 2}(5%), and 1100{degrees}C in He/O{sub 2}(10%)/Steam(20%). These conditions were chosen to study the effect of temperature, oxygen concentration, and excess steam on alkali metal release and speciation.

  8. Water-vapor detection using asynchronous THz sampling.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Rudd, J V; Zimdars, David A; Warmuth, Matthew; Gord, James R

    2006-03-01

    The use of a fiber-coupled terahertz (THz) transmitter/receiver pair for spectroscopic detection of water vapor is investigated. Transmission signals of an alumina cylinder demonstrate that the measurement approach can be applied in a windowless ceramic combustor. First, a conventional commercial transmitter/receiver pair is used to make measurements for frequencies to 1.25 THz. Water-vapor absorption is clearly evident within the alumina transparency window and is readily modeled using existing databases. A variety of data-acquisition schemes is possible using THz instrumentation. To assess signal-collection techniques, a prototype THz transmitter/receiver pair is then used with the asynchronous optical-sampling (ASOPS) technique to obtain asynchronous THz-sampling signals to 1 THz without the need for an optomechanical delay line. Two mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers operating at slightly different repetition rates are used for pumping the transmitter and receiver independently to permit a complete time-domain THz signal to be recorded. The resulting repetitive phase walkout is demonstrated by collecting power spectra of room air that exhibit water-vapor absorption.

  9. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  10. GUIDELINES FOR INSTALLATION AND SAMPLING OF SUB-SLAB VAPOR PROBES TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for sub-slab sampling using dedicated vapor probes. Use of dedicated vapor probes allows for multiple sample events before and after corrective action and for vacuum testing to enhance the design and monitoring of a corrective m...

  11. GUIDELINES FOR INSTALLATION AND SAMPLING OF SUB-SLAB VAPOR PROBES TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for sub-slab sampling using dedicated vapor probes. Use of dedicated vapor probes allows for multiple sample events before and after corrective action and for vacuum testing to enhance the design and monitoring of a corrective m...

  12. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-27

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  13. Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  14. Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  15. Tank 241-U-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  16. Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  17. Tank 241-T-107 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  18. Tank 241-SX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  19. Tank 241-SX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  20. Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  1. Tank 241-U-203 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  2. Tank 241-U-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  3. Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  4. Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-28

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  5. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  6. Tank 241-U-204 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  7. Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-27

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  8. Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  9. Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-25

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  10. Tank 241-AX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  11. Tank 241-C-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  12. Determination of mercury in fish samples by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Ming-Jyh; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Li, Yi-Ching

    1997-06-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of mercury in several fish samples. The effects of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals are reported. Palladium was used as modifier to delay the vaporization of mercury in this study. As the vaporization behavior of mercury in fish slurry and aqueous solution is quite different, the standard addition method was used for the determination of mercury in reference materials. The detection limit of mercury estimated from the standard addition curve was in the range 0.002-0.004 μg g -1 for different samples. This method has been applied to the determination of mercury in dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1 and DORM-2) and dogfish liver reference material (DOLT-1). Accuracy was better than 4% and precision was better than 7% with the USS-ETV-ICP-MS method.

  13. Referred Air Method 25E: Determination of a Vapor Phase Organic Concentration in Waste Samples

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This method is applicable for determining the vapor pressure of waste. The headspace vapor of the sample is analyzed for carbon content by a headspace analyzer, which uses a flame ionization detector (FID).

  14. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  15. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  16. Tank 241-C-111 headspace gas and vapor sample results - August 1993 samples

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-11-14

    Tank 241-C-111 is on the ferrocyanide Watch List. Gas and vapor samples were collected to assure safe conditions before planned intrusive work was performed. Sample analyses showed that hydrogen is about ten times higher in the tank headspace than in ambient air. Nitrous oxide is about sixty times higher than ambient levels. The hydrogen cyanide concentration was below 0.04 ppbv, and the average NO{sub x} concentration was 8.6 ppmv.

  17. SAMPLING-BASED APPROACH TO INVESTIGATING VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion is defined as the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into occupied buildings from contaminated soil or ground water. EPA recently developed guidance to facilitate assessment of vapor intrusion at sites regulated by RCRA and CERCLA. The EPA guidance e...

  18. SAMPLING-BASED APPROACH TO INVESTIGATING VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion is defined as the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into occupied buildings from contaminated soil or ground water. EPA recently developed guidance to facilitate assessment of vapor intrusion at sites regulated by RCRA and CERCLA. The EPA guidance e...

  19. Tank 241ER311 Interconnected Piping and Equipment Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-11-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained from piping, equipment, or facilities connected to tank 241-ER-311. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the effects of the argon purge gas added to tank 241-ER-311. Vapor samples will be taken in the encasement of transfer lines, at the ER-151 diversion box, and, as necessary, any other locations connected to tank 241-ER-311. Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. Vapor samples will be taken and shipped to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for analysis. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the requirements for vapor measurements performed in the field.

  20. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

  1. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  2. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass ...prescription bottles , and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author)

  3. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  5. Tank 241-U-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-U-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  7. Investigation of organic vapor losses to condensed water vapor in Tedlar bags used for exhaled-breath sampling.

    PubMed

    Groves, W A; Zellers, E T

    1996-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential loss of organic vapors to condensed water in bags used for breath sampling. "Wet" test atmospheres were prepared by transferring nitrogen into 1-L Tedlar bags and spiking with water and each of several organic solvents (methanol, acetone, 2-butanone,m-xylene, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, and perchloroethylene) to yield atmospheres representative of a 500-mL breath sample collected at 37 degrees C and cooled to 25 degrees C. Vapor concentrations were compared with those in bags prepared without water. Differences between mean concentrations in wet and dry bags were significant only for methanol, which yielded a mean wet-bag concentration approximately 10% lower than for dry bags. In a second series of experiments the same initial concentration of solvent vapor was generated in 1 dry bag and 5 bags containing 1 to 20 times the amount of water expected to condense in a 500-mL breath sample. Significant differences between wet and dry bag concentrations were seen for methanol, acetone, and 2-butanone; however, the quantity of water required to produce this difference in the acetone and 2-butanone bags exceeded three times that expected to condense in a breath sample. Results were in good agreement with predictions based on Henry's law. In both experiments permeation of water vapor out of the bags led to a decrease in the quantity of condensed water, thereby reducing the extent of organic vapor partitioning. These results indicate that solvent vapor loss to condensed water is not likely to be significant under typical conditions.

  8. Post-Decontamination Vapor Sampling and Analytical Test Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-12

    or their simulants, nontraditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and toxic industrial materials (TIMs). A vapor collection...agent; CWA; simulants; nontraditional agent; NTA; toxic industrial chemical; TIC; toxic industrial material; TIM; coupon; contamination...decontamination process. Chemical contaminants can include chemical warfare agents (CWAs) or their simulants, nontraditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial

  9. Quantitative passive soil vapor sampling for VOCs--part 3: field experiments.

    PubMed

    McAlary, Todd; Groenevelt, Hester; Nicholson, Paul; Seethapathy, Suresh; Sacco, Paolo; Crump, Derrick; Tuday, Michael; Hayes, Heidi; Schumacher, Brian; Johnson, Paul; Górecki, Tadeusz; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly associated with contaminated land and may pose a risk to human health via subsurface vapor intrusion to indoor air. Soil vapor sampling is commonly used to assess the nature and extent of VOC contamination, but can be complicated because of the wide range of geologic material permeability and moisture content conditions that might be encountered, the wide variety of available sampling and analysis methods, and several potential causes of bias and variability, including leaks of atmospheric air, adsorption-desorption interactions, inconsistent sampling protocols and varying levels of experience among sampling personnel. Passive sampling onto adsorbent materials has been available as an alternative to conventional whole-gas sample collection for decades, but relationships between the mass sorbed with time and the soil vapor concentration have not been quantitatively established and the relative merits of various commercially available passive samplers for soil vapor concentration measurement is unknown. This paper presents the results of field experiments using several different passive samplers under a wide range of conditions. The results show that properly designed and deployed quantitative passive soil vapor samplers can be used to measure soil vapor concentrations with accuracy and precision comparable to conventional active soil vapor sampling (relative concentrations within a factor of 2 and RSD comparable to active sampling) where the uptake rate is low enough to minimize starvation and the exposure duration is not excessive for weakly retained compounds.

  10. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  11. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-108: Results from samples collected on December 6, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-108 (Tank S-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5086. Samples were collected by WHC on December 6, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  12. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5044. Samples were collected by WHC on July 11, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  13. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-103: Results from samples collected on November 9, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-103 (Tank A-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5073. Samples were collected by WHC on November 9, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  14. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  15. Headspace vapor charterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-110: Results from samples collected on December 5, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-110 (Tank S-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5085. Samples were collected by WHC on December 5, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  16. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  17. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5069. Samples were collected by WHC on October 12, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  18. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  19. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  20. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BX-107: Results from samples collected on November 17, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-107 (Tank BX-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5080. Samples were collected by WHC on November 17, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  1. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-102: Results from samples collected on November 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-102 (Tank BY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5081. Samples were collected by YMC on November 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  3. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  4. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  5. Tank 241-BY-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  6. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  7. Tank 241-BY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  8. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  9. Tank 241-BY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-05

    Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-103 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  10. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  11. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  12. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  13. Tank 241-S-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-S-102 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution. {close_quotes}

  14. Tank 241-U-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  15. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  16. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in ``Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues`` (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-BY-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with ``Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994).

  17. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-05

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues{close_quotes}. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution{close_quotes}.

  18. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-05

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994).

  19. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  20. Techniques for avoiding discrimination errors in the dynamic sampling of condensable vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    In the mass spectrometric sampling of dynamic systems, measurements of the relative concentrations of condensable and noncondensable vapors can be significantly distorted if some subtle, but important, instrumental factors are overlooked. Even with in situ measurements, the condensables are readily lost to the container walls, and the noncondensables can persist within the vacuum chamber and yield a disproportionately high output signal. Where single pulses of vapor are sampled this source of error is avoided by gating either the mass spectrometer ""on'' or the data acquisition instrumentation ""on'' only during the very brief time-window when the initial vapor cloud emanating directly from the vapor source passes through the ionizer. Instrumentation for these techniques is detailed and its effectiveness is demonstrated by comparing gated and nongated spectra obtained from the pulsed-laser vaporization of several materials.

  1. Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in May 1994 and November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  2. Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994 and October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  3. Tank 241-TY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994 and April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  4. Tank 241-C-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1994 and August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  5. Tank 241-TY-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994 and April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  6. Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in July 1993 and August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  7. Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994 and December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-27

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  8. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quote}, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

  9. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

  10. Effect of air pressure differential on vapor flow through sample building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Laboratory scale experiments were performed on two small sample composite walls of typical building construction to determine the approximate opposing air pressure difference required to stop or significantly reduce the transmission of water vapor due to a water vapor pressure difference. The experiments used wall section samples between two controlled atmosphere chambers. One chamber was held at a temperature and humidity condition approximating that of a typical summer day, while the other chamber was controlled at a condition typical of indoor conditioned space. Vapor transmission data through the wall samples were obtained over a range of vapor pressure differentials and opposing air pressure differentials. The results show that increasing opposing air pressure differences decrease water vapor transmission, as expected, and relatively small opposing air pressure differentials are required for wall materials of small vapor permeability and large air permeability. The opposing air pressure that stopped or significantly reduced the flow of water vapor through the wall sample was determined experimentally and also compared to air pressures as predicted by an analytical model.

  11. Tank 241-TY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  12. Tank 241-C-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-102. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  13. Tank 241-C-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  14. Tank 241-BY-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BY-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to the tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  15. Tank 241-C-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  16. Tank 241-TY-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-101. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  17. Tank 241-TY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  18. Tank 241-C-109 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-109. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  19. Tank 241-B-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-B-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  20. Tank 241-T-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-T-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  1. Tank 241-BX-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BX-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  2. Tank 241-SX-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-SX-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  3. Tank 241-C-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-111. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  4. Tank 241-C-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-105. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  5. Tank 241-C-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  6. Tank 241-C-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank C-101 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks of fugitive emissions to tank farm workers. Gas and vapor samples from the Tank C-101 headspace were collected on July 7, 1994 using the in situ sampling (ISS) method, and again on September 1, 1994 using the more robust vapor sampling system (VSS). Gas and vapor concentrations in Tank C-101 are influenced by its connections to other tanks and its ventilation pathways. At issue is whether the organic vapors in Tank C-101 are from the waste in that tank, or from Tanks C-102 or C-103. Tank C-103 is on the Organic Watch List; the other two are not. Air from the Tank C-101 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9-m long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 8, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 34.0 C, and all heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 39 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks provided by the laboratories.

  7. Sampling Impacts on the NVAP-M Global Water Vapor Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Forsythe, J. M.; Cronk, H. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a fundamental ingredient both for regulating climate as a greenhouse gas and as a necessary precursor for high impact weather events such as heavy precipitation. Water vapor concentration varies geographically because of its close linkage with surface temperature and as a component of synoptic and mesoscale weather systems. Satellite observations provide the only means to quantify the global occurrence and variability of water vapor. In common with other long-term climate data records such as clouds and precipitation, intercalibrating and blending diverse measurements of water vapor to create a consistent record through time is a challenge. The NASA Making Earth Science Data Records for Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program supported the development of the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP-M) dataset. The dataset was released to the science community in 2013 via the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The dataset is a global (land and ocean) water vapor dataset created by merging multiple satellite infrared and microwave sources of atmospheric water vapor along with surface data to form global gridded fields of total and layered precipitable water vapor. NVAP-M spans 22 years (1988-2009) of data. The challenges in creating this multisensor, multidecadal satellite-driven climate data record are illustrative of challenges for all satellite climate data records. While advances in sensor intercalibration and retrieval algorithms have improved the quality of the global water vapor climate data record, uncertainties arise due to sampling biases of the input sensors. These biases are particularly evident on a regional scale, in cloudy regions or over desert surfaces. The changing mixture of sensors with varying sensitivity to clear/cloudy, land/ocean and even day/night conditions can lead to different results on trends and variability of water vapor. We explore this variability via the NVAP-M data set. Connections and collaborations

  8. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  9. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  10. Tank vapor characterization project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 04/04/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  11. Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  12. EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

  13. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  14. VAPOR PRESSURE ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM SAMPLES.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhne, W.

    2012-12-03

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The magnitude of the vapor pressure isotope effect is characterized as functions of the amount of water distilled from the sample aliquot and the heat settings for the distillation process. The tritium concentration in the distillate is higher than the tritium concentration in the sample early in the distillation process, it then sharply decreases due to the vapor pressure isotope effect and becomes lower than the tritium concentration in the sample, until the high tritium concentration retained in the boiling flask is evaporated at the end of the process. At that time, the tritium concentration in the distillate again overestimates the sample tritium concentration. The vapor pressure isotope effect is more pronounced the slower the evaporation and distillation process is conducted; a lower heat setting during the evaporation of the sample results in a larger bias in the tritium measurement. The experimental setup used and the fact that the current study allowed for an investigation of the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process distinguish it from and extend previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.034 {+-} 0.033, 1.052 {+-} 0.025, and 1.066 {+-} 0.037, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples, this implies that

  15. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G [Augusta, GA; Peterson, Kurt D [Aiken, SC; Riha, Brian D [Augusta, GA

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  16. Chemical transformations during ambient air sampling for organic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Pellizzari, E.D.; Drost, K.J.

    1984-09-01

    Potential chemical transformations of olefins in the presence of ozone and high levels (ppm) of halogens (Cl/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/) were demonstrated when sampling ambient air with a sorbent cartridge. The use of stryene-d/sub 8/ and cyclohexene-d/sub 10/ spiked sampling devices and capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis allowed the detection and identification of several deuteriated oxidation and halogenated products. Dimethylamine-d/sub 6/ was converted in trace quantities (5-10 mg) to dimethylnitrosamine-d/sub 6/ when sampling was conducted in the presence of NO/sub x/. Oxidation reactions were prevented when filters (2.5 cm) employed for removing particulates were impregnated with 5-10 mg of sodium thiosulfate and placed in front of the sorbent cartridge. Halogenation reactions were also consideraly reduced.

  17. Double Shell Tank (DST) Ventilation System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2000-06-08

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the primary ventilation systems of the AN, AP, AW, and AY/AZ tank farms. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Vapor samples will be obtained from tank farm ventilation systems, downstream from the tanks and upstream of any filtration. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA{trademark} canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples.

  18. Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1999-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, therefore

  19. Quantitative passive soil vapor sampling for VOCs--part 1: theory.

    PubMed

    McAlary, Todd; Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre; Groenevelt, Hester; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2014-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds are the primary chemicals of concern at many contaminated sites and soil vapor sampling and analysis is a valuable tool for assessing the nature and extent of contamination. Soil gas samples are typically collected by applying vacuum to a probe in order to collect a whole-gas sample, or by drawing gas through a tube filled with an adsorbent (active sampling). There are challenges associated with flow and vacuum levels in low permeability materials, and leak prevention and detection during active sample collection can be cumbersome. Passive sampling has been available as an alternative to conventional gas sample collection for decades, but quantitative relationships between the mass of chemicals sorbed, the soil vapor concentrations, and the sampling time have not been established. This paper presents transient and steady-state mathematical models of radial vapor diffusion to a drilled hole and considerations for passive sampler sensitivity and practical sampling durations. The results indicate that uptake rates in the range of 0.1 to 1 mL min(-1) will minimize the starvation effect for most soil moisture conditions and provide adequate sensitivity for human health risk assessment with a practical sampling duration. This new knowledge provides a basis for improved passive soil vapour sampler design.

  20. Headspace vapor characterization at Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-102: Results from samples collected on November 10, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-102 (Tank A-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (a) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5074. Samples were collected by WHC on November 10, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  1. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  2. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  3. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    SciTech Connect

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  4. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-108 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-108 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on october 27, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 25.7 C. Air from the Tank BY-108 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9 m-long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 1, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The 40 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks that accompanied the samples.

  5. Tank 241-BY-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank BY-110 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-110 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-110 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on November 11, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 27 C. Air from the Tank BY-110 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9 m-long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 12B, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The 40 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks that accompanied the samples.

  6. Here is a way to establish a standard sampling system for water-vapor content of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, R.N.

    1981-11-02

    With the need to adjust calorific-value gas measurements for as-delivered water-vapor content comes the equally important requirement of validating the calibration of the instruments used to determine water-vapor content. The proposed method for fabricating and establishing a water-vapor-content standard sample is very basic, relying on the understanding that the molar fraction of water vapor present in a gas is fixed as long as the temperature and pressure of the gas remains unchanged. Sample calculations illustrate the application of this method in conjunction with a natural gas water-content graph.

  7. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-106 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on July 8, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 27 C. Air from the Tank BY-106 headspace was withdrawn via a heated sampling probe mounted in riser 10B, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 65 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 46 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 10 trip blanks provided by the laboratories.

  8. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-105 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-105 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on July 7, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 26 C. Air from the Tank BY-105 headspace was withdrawn via a heated sampling probe mounted in riser 10A, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 65 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 46 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 10 trip blanks provided by the laboratories.

  9. Tank 241-C-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank C-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank C-112 is a single-shell tank which received first-cycle decontamination waste from B Plant and was later used as a settling tank. Samples were collected from Tank C-112 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on August 11, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 28 C. Air from the Tank C-112 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9 m-long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 4, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 39 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks provided by the laboratories.

  10. Determination of cadmium in water samples by fast pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingya; Fang, Jinliang; Duan, Xuchuan

    2016-08-01

    A pyrolysis-vapor generation procedure to determine cadmium by atomic fluorescence spectrometry has been established. Under fast pyrolysis, cadmium ion can be reduced to volatile cadmium species by sodium formate. The presence of thiourea enhanced the efficiency of cadmium vapor generation and eliminated the interference of copper. The possible mechanism of vapor generation of cadmium was discussed. The optimization of the parameters for pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation, including pyrolysis temperature, amount of sodium formate, concentration of hydrochloric acid, and carrier argon flow rate were carried out. Under the optimized conditions, the absolute and concentration detection limits were 0.38 ng and 2.2 ng ml- 1, respectively, assuming that 0.17 ml of sample was injected. The generation efficiency of was 28-37%. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amounts of cadmium in two certified reference materials of Environmental Water (GSB07-1185-2000 and GSBZ 50009-88). The results were in good agreement with the certified reference values.

  11. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-101: Results from samples collected on 06/06/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-101. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed.

  12. Displacement of polar by non-polar organic vapors in sampling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goller, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    It was necessary to determine employee exposure to a mixture of polar and non-polar organic vapors. The collection of samples was done so that the selective adsorption of each compound on charcoal could be studied. Four charcoal sections in series were used and analyzed separately. The results revealed displacement of polar by non-polar compounds and selective adsorption among the polar compounds.

  13. Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-31

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications.

  14. Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-03-06

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications.

  15. Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-04-10

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications.

  16. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

  17. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-203, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-203 (Tank U-203) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

  18. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-109: Results from samples collected on 06/04/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-109 (Tank S-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  19. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BX-105: Results from samples collected on 04/24/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-BX-105 (Tank BX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  20. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-S-107: Results from samples collected on 06/18/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-107 (Tank S-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National. Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  1. Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-102: Results from samples collected on June 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-AX-102 (Tank AX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 22, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Julya, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analyses plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.310% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.784% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  3. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S.; Edwards, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-103 (Tank BX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-103 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.385% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.633% if the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  4. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. Edwards, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-111 (Tank BX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Ammonia was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-111 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.042 of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.157% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  5. Tank 241-C-107 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 3.233% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.342% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  6. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Julya, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-106 (Tank BX-106) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan. Ammonia was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-106 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.031% of it lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.143% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  7. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BX-104 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on June 10, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.270% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.675% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  8. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 17, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.825% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.935% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  9. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-104 second temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 12, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.248% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.645% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  10. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.410% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  11. Tank 241-BY-108 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on November 14, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected nonradioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.390% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.830% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  12. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 5, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.405% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.519% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  13. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-S-102 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analysis of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.948% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.659% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Tables S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  14. Tank 241-BX-104 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on April 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroshkov, A.V.; Hayes, J.C.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-04 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.208% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.536% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  15. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BY-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-101 (Tank BY-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOCs) were the principal flammable constituent of the Tank By-101 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.136% of the LFL. Averaged measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  16. Tank 241-BY-108 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on January 30, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from tile headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-108 (Tank BY - 108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.888% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.979% of tile LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  17. Tank 241-BX-104 third temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 6, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.178 % of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.458% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  18. Tank 241-S-102 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 11, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroshkov, A.V.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents tile results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurlsys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by tile Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based oil measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above tile immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.150% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.624% of the LFL, Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of tile analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  19. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. Edwards, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-102 (Tank BX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and and analysis plan. Ammonia and TNMOCs were the principal flammable constituents of the Tank BX-102 headspace, each determined to be present at approximately 0.002% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.107% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  20. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BY-108 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.463% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.940% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  1. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-108: Results from samples collected through the vapor sampling system on 8/5/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Sharma, A.K.; McVeety, B.D.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-108 (referred to as Tank C-108). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Two organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The five organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1. The five analytes account for approximately 85% of the total organic components in Tank C-108.

  2. A new automated system for the rapid analysis of atmospheric water vapor samples for stable isotope composition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, M.; Sharp, Z.; Gutzler, D.

    2004-12-01

    An automated technique for measuring the isotopic composition (δ D) of atmospheric water vapor is being developed at the University of New Mexico. Air is sampled using 12 mL glass vials with screw-on caps. Our analytical system flushes the sample vial with He, isolates the water vapor in a cold trap, and then reduces the water with carbon at 1300° C to form H2 and CO. Isotopic ratios are then measured in continuous flow using a Finnigan Delta plus XL mass spectrometer. With Albuquerque-area air, sample size is approximately 100 nanomoles of H2O. Our system is robotic and interfaces with a commercially available autosampler. This enables us to analyze ~100 air samples per day with little supervision. Standards are prepared by sampling water vapor in equilibrium with waters of known isotopic composition within a glovebox. The advantage of such a system is that it will allow us to analyze atmospheric water vapor at temporal and spatial resolutions not practical with more time-consuming traditional techniques. Sample vials are compact, inexpensive, and easy to use, enabling air samples to be acquired with little effort. One potential application for this technique includes problems requiring high temporal resolution (and a high number of samples) such as diurnal cycles of evapotranspiration. Other applications include studies of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of δ D in water vapor to assess water vapor transport pathways.

  3. Tank 241-BY-105 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in May 1994 and July 1994. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  4. Direct determination of bromine in plastics by electrothermal vaporization/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten boat furnace vaporizer and an exchangeable sample cuvette system.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasuaki; Komori, Hiromi; Kataoka, Hiroko; Tsukahara, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Terufumi

    2010-05-15

    A tungsten boat furnace vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (TBF/ICP-MS) method has been applied to the direct determination of bromine in plastic samples. In the pretreatment, the plastic sample is spread over a small sample cuvette made of tungsten by treating it with a strongly basic organic solution, e.g., octanol or diisobutyl ketone in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The cuvette is placed on a tungsten boat furnace, with which the electrothermal vaporizer is equipped. At the vaporization step, a widely spread thin layer of the sample facilitates its efficient evaporation and introduction into an ICP mass spectrometer. The most remarkable feature is that all the bromine species in plastic samples are decomposed to form a thermally stable inorganic salt during the pretreatment procedure. Therefore, the bromine content in plastic samples can be measured by a calibration curve method constructed with an aqueous standard solution of potassium bromate(V). The detection limit (3sigma) was estimated to be 0.77 pg of bromine, which corresponds to a concentration of 0.31 ng g(-1) of bromine in plastic samples when a sample amount taken of 2.5 mg is studied. The relative standard deviation was calculated to be 2.2%. Analytical results of some plastic samples, which contained both inorganic bromide salts and also organic bromine species, are given. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. March 2017 Grenada Manufacturing, LLC Data Validation Reports and Analytical Laboratory Reports for the Main Plant Building Vapor Intrusion Sampling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data Validation Reports and Full Analytical Lab Reports for Indoor Air, Ambient Air and Sub-slab samples taken during the facility vapor intrusion investigation in March 2017 at the Grenada Manufacturing plant

  6. Quantitative Passive Diffusive Sampling for Assessing Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-28

    4/11/2012 1 Quantitative Passive Diffusive Sampling for Assessing Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Todd McAlary and Hester Groenevelt, Geosyntec... Intrusion to Indoor Air 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...10-6 risk (ppb) Vapour pressure (atm) Water solubility (g/l) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 110 400 0.16 1.33 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

  7. Data Quality Issues Associated with the Presence of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Tank Vapor Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, John C.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-13

    Characterization data for the gases and vapors in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank headspaces are compiled and available via the TWINS interface (TWINS 2006). A recent re-examination of selected data from TWINS has shown a number of anomalies with respect to compounds that are (1) not expected to be present in the tank based on operational knowledge and (2) not found consistently in the same tank by alternative analysis methods or repeat sampling. Numerous results for two chemicals in particular, cis- and trans-1,2-dichloropropane, are determined here to be suspect based on evidence that they were laboratory contaminants.

  8. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-U-112: Results from samples collected on 7/09/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-112 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company.

  9. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionizataion and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for explosives vapor detection

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Glish, G.L.; Grant, B.C.; Chambers, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and identification of trace vapors of hidden high explosives is an excellent example of a targeted analysis problem. It is desirable to push to ever lower levels the quantity or concentration of explosives material that provides an analytical signal, while at the same time discriminating against all other uninteresting material. The detection system must therefore combine high sensitivity with high specificity. This report describes the philosophy behind the use of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, which is a sensitive, rugged, and convenient means for forming anions from explosives molecules, with tandem mass spectrometry, which provides unparalleled specificity in the identification of explosives-related ions. Forms of tandem mass spectrometry are compared and contrasted to provide a summary of the characteristics to be expected from an explosives detector employing mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The instrument developed for the FAA, an atmospheric sampling glow discharge/triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, is described in detail with particular emphasis on the ion source/spectrometer interface and on the capabilities of the spectrometer. Performance characteristics of the system are also described as they pertain to explosives of interest including a description of an automated procedure for the detection and identification of specific explosives. A comparison of various tandem mass spectrometers mated with atmospheric sampling glow discharge is then described and preliminary studies with a vapor preconcentration system provided by the FAA will be described.

  10. Tank 241-C-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank C-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Results presented here represent the best available data on the headspace constituents of Tank C-111. Almost all of the data in this report was obtained from samples collected on September 13, 1994.Data from 2 other sets of samples, collected on August 10, 1993 and June 20, 1994, are in generally good agreement with the more recent data. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 27 C. Air from the Tank C-111 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9 m-long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 6, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 39 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks provided by the laboratories. Tank C-111 is a single shell tank which received first-cycle decontamination waste from B Plant and was later used as a settling tank.

  11. Determination of selenium in biological samples by slurry sampling-electrothermal vaporization-in situ fusion-isotope dilution-microwave-induced nitrogen plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Takafumi; Nishide, Akifumi; Okutsu, Kentaro; Minami, Hirotsugu; Zhang, Qiangbin; Inoue, Sadanobu; Atsuya, Ikuo

    2005-03-01

    Determination of selenium in certified reference biological materials by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization (ETV)-isotope dilution (ID)-microwave-induced nitrogen plasma mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) was performed. Several parameters such as the heating conditions were studied in order to obtain optimal conditions. A special heating stage called the in situ fusion stage was applied just before the pyrolysis stage in the electrothermal vaporization process in order to fuse the biological sample and to achieve selenium isotope-equilibration between selenium in the sample and the 78Se spike solution. The slurry sample containing an appropriate amount of biological sample, 78Se spike solution, and sodium hydroxide as an alkaline flux was injected into the electrothermal vaporization unit. The slurry sample was in situ fused, pyrolyzed, and then vaporized. The ion counts at m/ z=78 and 80, the spike and reference isotopes, respectively, could be measured accurately without interference caused by argon since nitrogen plasma was used. The analytical utility of the proposed slurry sampling-electrothermal vaporization-in situ fusion-microwave-induced nitrogen plasma mass spectrometry was evaluated by determining the selenium concentration in certified reference biological materials, and the analytical results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. The limit of detection for selenium was 90 ng g -1. The relative standard deviation of the determination of selenium was 8-15% with a high sample throughput (less than 30 min per sample including a slurry preparation.)

  12. Multielement analysis of polyethylene using solid sampling electrothermal vaporization ICP mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Vanhaecke; Resano; Verstraete; Moens; Dams

    2000-09-15

    Next to laser ablation (LA) also electrothermal vaporization (ETV) from a graphite furnace as a means of sample introduction opens possibilities for direct analysis of solid samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). In this paper, it is demonstrated that solid sampling ETV-ICPMS is very well suited for the determination of metal traces in polyethylene. A limited multielement capability is often cited as an important drawback of ETV-ICPMS. However, by studying the effect of monitoring an increasing number of mass-to-charge ratios on the signal profile (integrated signal intensity and repeatability) of selected analyte elements, the multielement capability of (solid sampling) ETV-ICPMS was systematically evaluated, and the results obtained suggest that, with a quadrupole-based ICPMS instrument, at least 11 elements can be determined "simultaneously" (from the same vaporization step), in essence without compromising the sensitivity or the precision of the results obtained. In this work, the "simultaneous" determination of Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Ti in a polyethylene candidate reference material has been accomplished, despite the large variation in analyte concentration (from 5 ng/g for Mn to 500 microg/g for Ti) and in furnace behavior (volatility) they exhibit. To avoid premature losses of Cd during thermal pretreatment of the samples, Pd was used as a chemical modifier. Two different calibration methods--external calibration using an aqueous standard solution and single standard addition--were studied and the results obtained were compared with those obtained using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and/or with the corresponding (candidate) certified values (if available). Single standard addition was shown to be preferable (average deviation between ICPMS result and reference value < 3%), although--except for Ba--acceptable results could also be obtained with external calibration.

  13. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank SX-101: Results from samples collected on 07/21/95

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    Results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. They include air concentrations of inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples. The vapor concentrations are based either on whole-volume samples or on sorbent traps exposed to sample flow. No immediate notifications were needed because analytical results indicated no specific analytes exceeded notification levels. Summary of results: NH3, 3.8 ppmv; NO2, 0.10 ppmv; NO, 0.13 ppm; H2O, 11.8 mg/L; CO2, 338 ppmv; CO, <25 ppmv; CH4, <25 ppmv; H2, <25 ppmv; N20, <25 ppmv; hydrocarbons, 0.98 mg/m{sup 3}; methanol, 0.060 ppmv; acetone, 0.033 ppmv; trichlorofluoromethane, 0.023 ppmv; and acetone, 0.034 ppmv.

  14. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on October 16, 1996. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-103 (Tank B-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 2 and Riser 7) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL.

  15. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  16. Improved preparation of small biological samples for mercury analysis using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Adair, B M; Cobb, G P

    1999-05-01

    Concentrations of mercury in biological samples collected for environmental studies are often less than 0.1 microgram/g. Low mercury concentrations and small organ sizes in many wildlife species (approximately 0.1 g) increase the difficulty of mercury determination at environmentally relevant concentrations. We have developed a digestion technique to extract mercury from small (0.1 g), biological samples at these relevant concentrations. Mean recoveries (+/- standard error) from validation trials of mercury fortified tissue samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy for analysis ranged from 102 +/- 4.3% (2.5 micrograms/L, n = 15) to 108 +/- 1.4% (25 micrograms/L, n = 15). Recoveries of inorganic mercury were 99 +/- 5 (n = 19) for quality assurance samples analyzed during environmental evaluations conducted during a 24 month period. This technique can be used to determine total mercury concentrations of 60 ng Hg/g sample. Samples can be analyzed in standard laboratories in a short time, at minimal cost. The technique is versatile and can be used to determine mercury concentrations in several different matrices, limiting the time and expense of method development and validation.

  17. EFFECTS OF THE VARIATION OF SELECT SAMPLING PARAMETERS ON SOIL VAPOR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently soil vapor surveys are commonly used as a screening technique to delineate subsurface volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminant plumes and to provide information for vapor intrusion and contaminated site evaluations. To improve our understanding of the fate and transp...

  18. EFFECTS OF THE VARIATION OF SELECT SAMPLING PARAMETERS ON SOIL VAPOR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently soil vapor surveys are commonly used as a screening technique to delineate subsurface volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminant plumes and to provide information for vapor intrusion and contaminated site evaluations. To improve our understanding of the fate and transp...

  19. Effects of cesium ions and cesium vapor on selected ATS-F samples. [thermal control coating degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, R. F.; Beynon, J. C.; Hall, D. F.; Luedke, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal control coating samples were subjected to cesium ion beam and vapor exposures. Degradation of solar absorptance and infrared emittance were measured. Solar cells and samples selected from surfaces on the ATS-F spacecraft likely to experience ion or vapor impingement were bombarded by 10-volt cesium ions. Other samples were subjected to high levels of cesium vapor. Aluminum and white paint were backsputtered by 550-volt cesium ions onto selected samples. For direct bombardment, the threshold for ion-induced property changes was above five-thousand trillion ions/sq cm. With material sputtered from a 450-sq cm target onto samples 36 cm distant, the threshold for noticeable effects was above 5 times 10 to the 17-th power ions/sq cm.

  20. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  1. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-B-105: Results from samples collected on 07/30/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-105 (Tank B-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-204: Results from samples collected on 07/02/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-204 (Tank C-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  3. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-TY-102: Results from samples collected on 04/12/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-TY-102 (Tank TY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to`characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes, and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  4. High-Temperature Oxygen Isotope Exchange Between Meteorite Sample and Water Vapor: Preliminary Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Hewins, R. H.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1993-07-01

    Chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites show slope-1 mixing lines on the oxygen three-isotope diagram, suggestive of a gas-melt exchange process during chondrule formation. In order to test this conjecture and to extend our existing knowledge of chondrule thermal history and the kinetics of reaction of interstellar dust with solar nebula gas, an experiment involving high- temperature oxygen isotope exchange between a 16O-rich sample (meteorite) and water vapor (terrestrial) has been designed. The experiment was conducted with a DELTECH vertical tube furnace with ceramic parts shielded with metal foil. The starting meteorite powder (one of two C3 carbonaceous chondrites--bulk Allende and Ornans) was pressed into a pellet and suspended at the hot spot inside the furnace. The furnace gas was a mixture of H2O vapor and H2 (1 atm total pressure, fO2 = IW-0.5) [1]. The preliminary experiments were performed at 1400 degrees C for durations from 5 minutes to 36 hours, and were terminated by quenching the samples into liquid nitrogen. The meteorite charges and the water samples collected were later analyzed for their oxygen isotope compositions. The experimental results (Fig.1) show that the exchange process has greatly modified delta-18O and delta-17O for both meteorites, which move towards the projected equilibrium point as the heating time increases. For Allende samples, the exchange proceeds quickly in the first 5 minutes, which accounts for most of the isotope exchange (~84% of total change in delta-18O(sub)A-W, and ~57% of total change in delta-17O). Then the exchange is dramatically slowed down, and takes at least 12 hours to finally reach equilibrium with the ambient water vapor. The approach to equilibrium is not a straight line on the three-isotope graph, possibly due to the presence of residual 16O-rich solids in the molten sample. A similar exchange profile is observed for Ornans samples. However, it takes longer for the Ornans sample to reach

  5. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-U-108: Results from samples collected on 8/29/95

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsten, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-108 (Tank U-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in the report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC.

  6. Solid sampling electrothermal vaporization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, L.; Verrept, P.; Boonen, S.; Vanhaecke, F.; Dams, R.

    1995-06-01

    Solid sampling using electrothermal vaporization is an attractive sample introduction method for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For AAS, the method is well established. The techniques needed to apply SS-ETV in ICP-based methods are described, with the emphasis on the coupling of different types of ETV-devices to the inductively coupled plasma torch and on the requirements for the spectrometer and the data acquisition and handling system. Though standardization is not straightforward, it is shown that standard addition and external calibration with solid standards yield accurate results. The latter is demonstrated by the analysis of standard reference materials. Figures of merit for SS-ETV-ICP-AES and SS-ETV-ICP-MS are presented. The literature concerning ICP-AES and ICP-MS (methods and applications) is briefly reviewed and new results of SS-ETV-ICP-MS analysis of SRMs are presented.

  7. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-202: Results from samples collected on 06/25/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-202 (Tank C-202) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  8. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-201: Results from samples collected on 06/19/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-201 (Tank C-201) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary, of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  9. Electrothermal Vaporization Sample Introduction for Spaceflight Water Quality Monitoring via Gas Chromatography-Differential Mobility Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wallace, William T; Gazda, Daniel B; Limero, Thomas F; Minton, John M; Macatangay, Ariel V; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernández, Facundo M

    2015-06-16

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension in mission duration up to one year, an enhanced, real-time method for environmental monitoring is necessary. The station air is currently monitored for trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (GC-DMS) via the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), while water is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. As mission scenarios extend beyond low Earth orbit, a convergence in analytical instrumentation to analyze both air and water samples is highly desirable. Since the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for air samples and many of the targets in air are also common to water, this platform is a logical starting point for developing a multimatrix monitor. Here, we report on the interfacing of an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) sample introduction unit with a ground-based AQM for monitoring target analytes in water. The results show that each of the compounds tested from water have similar GC-DMS parameters as the compounds tested in air. Moreover, the ETV enabled AQM detection of dimethlsilanediol (DMSD), a compound whose analysis had proven challenging using other sample introduction methods. Analysis of authentic ISS water samples using the ETV-AQM showed that DMSD could be successfully quantified, while the concentrations obtained for the other compounds also agreed well with laboratory results.

  10. Assessment of homogeneity and minimum sample mass for cadmium analysis in powdered certified reference materials and real rice samples by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuefei; Liu, Jixin; Huang, Yatao; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lihua; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Jian; Qian, Yongzhong; Wang, Min

    2013-01-30

    To optimize analytical quality controls of solid sampling electrothermal vaporization atomic fluorescence spectrometry (SS-ETV-AFS), the homogeneity (H(E)) of rice samples and their minimum sample mass (M) for cadmium analysis were evaluated using three certified reference materials (CRMs) and real rice samples. The effects of different grinding degrees (particle sizes <0.85, <0.25, <0.15, and >1 mm) on H(E) and M of real rice samples were also investigated. The calculated M values of three CRMs by the Pauwels equation were 2.19, 19.76, and 3.79 mg. The well-ground real rice samples (particle size <0.25 mm) demonstrated good homogeneity, and the M values were 3.48-4.27 mg. On the basis of these results, the Cd concentrations measured by the proposed method were compared with the results by microwave digestion graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a 0.5 g sample mass. There was no significant difference between these two methods, which meant that SS-ETV-AFS could be used to accurately detect Cd in rice with several milligrams of samples instead of the certified value (200 mg) or the recommended mass (200-500 mg) of the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

  11. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-U-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on December 6, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-112 (Tank U-112) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constitutents. Two risers (Riser 3 and Riser 6) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan.

  12. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-TY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on November 22, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TY-103 (Tank TY-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 8 and Riser 18) were sampled at three different elevations (Top, Middle, and Bottom) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. No analytes were determined to be above immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP).

  13. Tank 241-U-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 16, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.; Mitroshkov, A.V.; Edwards, J.A.; Julya, J.L.; Thornton, B.M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-104 (Tank U-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan. None of the flammable constituents were present at concentrations above the analytical instrument detection limits. Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.108% of the lower flammability limit. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in a table. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  14. Chemical vapor generation for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy: vaporization of antimony(III) with bromide.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Molinero, A; Mendoza, O; Callizo, A; Chamorro, P; Castillo, J R

    2002-10-01

    A new method for antimony determination in soils is proposed. It is based on the chemical vapor generation of Sb(III) with bromide, after a reaction in sulfuric acid media and transport of the gaseous phase into an inductively coupled plasma for atomic emission spectrometry. The experimental variables influencing the method were delimited by experimental design and the most important were finally optimized by the modified Simplex method. In optimized conditions the method involves the reaction of 579 microl concentrated sulfuric acid with 120 microl 5% w/v KBr and 250 microl antimony solution. Measurement of antimony emission intensity at 217.581 nm provides a method with an absolute detection limit of 3.5 ng and a precision (RSD) of 5.8% for the injection of five replicates of 175 ng Sb(III) (250 microl of 0.7 microg ml(-1) solution). The interference of common anions and cations on the antimony signal was evaluated. A 21% Sb(III) volatilization efficiency was calculated from the mean of six experiments at optimum conditions. The accuracy of the methodology was checked by the analysis of one standard reference soil after acid decomposition heating in a microwave oven.

  15. Sample transport efficiency with electrothermal vaporization and electrostatic deposition technique in multielement solid sample analysis of plant and cereal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Jens; Buchkamp, Thomas; Hermann, Gerd; Lasnitschka, Georg

    2000-05-01

    A graphite furnace of the boat-in-tube type as electrothermal vaporizer (ETV) and an electrostatic precipitator were used for determining analyte transport efficiencies and dependencies on plant and cereal matrices, and on carrier elements. All analytical measurements were carried out with coherent forward scattering (CFS) using simultaneous multielement determinations. Transport efficiencies of up to 19% for Cu, 21% for Fe and Mn, and 36% for Pb from the ETV boat to the L'vov platform were obtained for the standard reference materials BCR CRM 281 rye grass, BCR CRM 189 wholemeal flour and NIST SRM 1567 wheat flour and multielement standard solutions containing approximately the same element ratios as certified for the solid samples. The analytical accuracy of the procedure including the ETV process and the electrostatic deposition was tested with Cu, Fe and Pb in BCR CRM 281, Cu, Fe and Mn in BCR CRM 189, and Fe and Mn in NIST SRM 1567 by weighing the solid sample onto the ETV-boat and calibrating against multielement standard solutions dosed into the ETV-boat as well. The analyte addition technique was tested with Cu, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour. The deviations of the results were below 10% and the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) values were typically 3-10%. The influence of added potassium and palladium nitrates as physical carriers on the transport efficiencies of Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn standard solutions was investigated with simultaneous multielement determination. Using K and Pd as carriers increased transport efficiencies by factors up to 1.74 in comparison to measurements without an added carrier.

  16. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, Andrew P.; Zeiri, Offer M.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2017-02-01

    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION USING INDOOR AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a method for evaluating vapor intrusion using indoor and sub-slab air measurement and at the same time directly assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion in 15 homes and one business near the former R...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION USING INDOOR AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a method for evaluating vapor intrusion using indoor and sub-slab air measurement and at the same time directly assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion in 15 homes and one business near the former R...

  19. Quantitative passive soil vapor sampling for VOCs--Part 4: Flow-through cell.

    PubMed

    McAlary, Todd; Groenevelt, Hester; Seethapathy, Suresh; Sacco, Paolo; Crump, Derrick; Tuday, Michael; Schumacher, Brian; Hayes, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Parker, Louise; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a controlled experiment comparing several quantitative passive samplers for monitoring concentrations of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in soil gas using a flow-through cell. This application is simpler than conventional active sampling using adsorptive tubes because the flow rate does not need to be precisely measured and controlled, which is advantageous because the permeability of subsurface materials affects the flow rate and the permeability of geologic materials is highly variable. Using passive samplers in a flow-through cell, the flow rate may not need to be known exactly, as long as it is sufficient to purge the cell in a reasonable time and minimize any negative bias attributable to the starvation effect. An experiment was performed in a 500 mL flow-through cell using a two-factor, one-half fraction fractional factorial test design with flow rates of 80, 670 and 930 mL min(-1) and sample durations of 10, 15 and 20 minutes for each of five different passive samplers (passive Automatic Thermal Desorption Tube, Radiello®, SKC Ultra, Waterloo Membrane Sampler™ and 3M™ OVM 3500). A Summa canister was collected coincident with each passive sampler and analyzed by EPA Method TO-15 to provide a baseline for comparison of the passive sampler concentrations. The passive sampler concentrations were within a factor of 2 of the Summa canister concentrations in 32 of 35 cases. Passive samples collected at the low flow rate and short duration showed low concentrations, which is likely attributable to insufficient purging of the cell after sampler placement.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION IN HOMES NEAR THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE USING BASEMENT AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of an investigation conducted to assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion at 15 homes and one commercial building near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut. Methods were developed to sample sub-slab ...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION IN HOMES NEAR THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE USING BASEMENT AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of an investigation conducted to assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion at 15 homes and one commercial building near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut. Methods were developed to sample sub-slab ...

  2. Performance tests of three types of air-sampling bags on organic solvent vapor retention.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yoshinari; Kanemaru, Ai; Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Takuya; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Performance of two new air sampling bags [the transparent bag (TP bag) and the semi-transparent bag (ST bag)] was examined as possible surrogates for the traditional PVF bag (the Ref bag). Solvent vapor mixture of butyl acetate, chloroform, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene at administrative control levels were introduced to each bag (n=5 for each of the three types), and the decay in the concentrations (by%) was followed by use of a gas auto-sampler - FID-GC system. A trend of time-dependent decay was noted for all types including the Ref bag. When the performance was compared, the TP bag was equal to or even better than the Ref bag. In contrast, the performance of the ST bag was comparable to that of the other two types of bags with regard to toluene and chloroform when the storage time was short, but poorer than others for the other three solvents throughout the test period. The TP bag may be a bag of choice when the storage time is extended (e.g., up to 48 h) although this bag is physically less robust and requires careful handling. The ST bag may be used when analysis will be completed within 24 h.

  3. Determination of trace elements in medicinal activated charcoal using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with low vaporization temperature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in medicinal activated charcoal by ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) was described. EDTA was used as the modifier to enhance the volatility of elements studied. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were studied. A relatively low vaporization temperature of 1000°C was used, which separated the analyte from the major matrix components that improved ion signals. The method has been applied to determine Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in an NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash reference material and three brands of medicinal activated charcoal capsules using isotope dilution and standard addition calibration methods. The concentrations that are in ng g(-1) levels were in good agreement between different calibration methods. The precision between sample replicates was better than 7% with USS-ETV-ICP-MS technique. The method detection limit estimated from standard addition curves was 0.4, 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.04 and 0.9 ng g(-1) for Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb, respectively, in original medicinal activated charcoal.

  4. Estimating sampling biases and measurement uncertainties of AIRS/AMSU-A temperature and water vapor observations using MERRA reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-03-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be ± 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and > 30% dry over midlatitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  5. Estimating Sampling Biases and Measurement Uncertainties of AIRS-AMSU-A Temperature and Water Vapor Observations Using MERRA Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be +/- 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and greater than 30% dry over mid-latitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  6. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-106: Results from samples collected on 06/13/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-106 (Tank S-106) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  7. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-B-107: Results from samples collected on 7/23/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-107 (Tank B-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwestern National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  8. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E.

    2013-03-01

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.

  9. Explosive detection using high-volume vapor sampling and analysis by trained canines and ultra-trace detection equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Mark; Sikes, John; Prather, Mark

    2004-09-01

    The dog's nose is an effective, highly-mobile sampling system, while the canine olfactory organs are an extremely sensitive detector. Having been trained to detect a wide variety of substances with exceptional results, canines are widely regarded as the 'gold standard' in chemical vapor detection. Historically, attempts to mimic the ability of dogs to detect vapors of explosives using electronic 'dogs noses' has proven difficult. However, recent advances in technology have resulted in development of detection (i.e., sampling and sensor) systems with performance that is rapidly approaching that of trained canines. The Nomadics Fido was the first sensor to demonstrate under field conditions the detection of landmines with performance approaching that of canines. More recently, comparative testing of Fido against canines has revealed that electronic vapor detection, when coupled with effective sampling methods, can produce results comparable to that of highly-trained canines. The results of these comparative tests will be presented, as will recent test results in which explosives hidden in cargo were detected using Fido with a high-volume sampling technique. Finally, the use of canines along with electronic sensors will be discussed as a means of improving the performance and expanding the capabilities of both methods.

  10. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-U-109: Results from samples collected on 8/10/95

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-109 (Tank U-109) At the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. This tank is on the Hydrogen Waste List. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases and total non-methane hydrocarbons is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples is also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

  11. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E

    2013-03-14

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.

  12. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-BX-110: Results from samples collected on 04/30/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-BX-110 (Tank BX-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  13. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V{sub b}) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel`s color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber.

  14. Tank 241-AZ-101 and Tank 241-AZ-102 Airlift Circulator Operation Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-12-07

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs) and during the initial operation (''bump'') of the tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pumps. The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-142-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No. 2E98-082 and No. 2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). In addition the last two vapor samples will be collected from the headspace of tank 241-AZ-101 during the operation of the mixer pumps. Each mixer pump will be operated for approximately 5 minutes. Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval

  15. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-B-202: Results from samples collected on 7/18/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-202 (Tank B-202) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  16. Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive-Adsorptive Sampling Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ER-200830) Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using...Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive-Adsorptive Sampling Techniques W912HQ-08-C...volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at sites with potential human health risks. These risks were attributable to subsurface vapor intrusion to indoor air by

  17. Tank 241-C-103 vapor and gas sampling Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.; Rudolph, T.P.; Hewitt, E.R.; Mahulum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.; Anderson, C.M.

    1994-02-28

    Two problems are addressed in this report: Potential flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol in tank 241-C-103 (hereafter identified as C-103) and potential worker health and safety hazards associated with the toxicity of constituents in C-103. Previous work indicated the potential presence of a fog in the tank, and the fuel content of the tank gases, vapors, and aerosol may be too high to permit work in the tank. Ten reports of adverse health effects associated with vapor exposures near C-103 or in C-Farm have been made by workers. Reported symptoms include headaches, burning sensations in nose and throat, nausea, and impaired pulmonary function. Data are needed to identify and quantify constituents of the C-103 headspace to address potential vapor toxicity. When the compounds of toxicological interest in the tank headspace are identified, industry hygienists can assess ``worst-case`` worker exposure levels and focus their industrial hygiene monitoring strategy on these target compounds. Final recommendations on the required level of personal protective equipment will be based on the worker breathing zone levels of these chemicals.

  18. Tank 241-AZ-101 and tank 241-AZ-102, airlift circulator operation vapor sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-06-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs). The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-AZ-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No.2E98-082 and No.2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds.

  19. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-106: Results from samples collected through the vapor sampling system on July 8, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-106. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  20. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Storey, Andrew P; Zeiri, Offer M; Ray, Steven J; Hieftje, Gary M

    2017-02-01

    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. Apparatus and method for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    DOEpatents

    Felix, Larry Gordon; Farthing, William Earl; Irvin, James Hodges; Snyder, Todd Robert

    2010-05-11

    A dilution apparatus for diluting a gas sample. The apparatus includes a sample gas conduit having a sample gas inlet end and a diluted sample gas outlet end, and a sample gas flow restricting orifice disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end connected with the sample gas conduit and providing fluid communication between the exterior and the interior of the sample gas conduit. A diluted sample gas conduit is provided within the sample gas conduit having a mixing end with a mixing space inlet opening disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end, thereby forming an annular space between the sample gas conduit and the diluted sample gas conduit. The mixing end of the diluted sample gas conduit is disposed at a distance from the sample gas flow restricting orifice. A dilution gas source connected with the sample gas inlet end of the sample gas conduit is provided for introducing a dilution gas into the annular space, and a filter is provided for filtering the sample gas. The apparatus is particularly suited for diluting heated sample gases containing one or more condensable components.

  2. Potential of Solid Sampling Electrothermal Vaporization for solving spectral interference in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Wibetoe, Grethe

    2009-05-01

    Spectral interference is one of the main causes of erroneous results in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). This paper describes some cases of spectral interferences with conventional nebulization ICP-OES and the potential of solving them utilizing electrothermal vaporization for volatility-based separation. The cases studied were, the well-known spectral overlap between the As and Cd lines at 228.8 nm that are only 10 pm apart, and the interference of Fe on the main emission lines of As, Cd and Pb. The spectral interferences were studied by monitoring the typical signals of solutions that contain the analytes and the potential interferent, by studying the spectra and calculating Background Equivalent Concentration (BEC)-values. A three step temperature program was developed to be used for direct analysis of solid soil samples by Electrothermal Vaporization (ETV)-ICP-OES: step 1 (760 °C, 40 s), step 2 (1620 °C, 20 s) and a cleaning step (2250 °C, 10 s) where Cd vaporizes in step 1, As, Pb and part of Fe in step 2 and the major part of Fe in the cleaning step. Because As and Cd were time-separated using this program, their prominent lines at 228.8 nm, could be used for determination of each element by ETV-ICP-OES, in spite of the serious wavelength overlap. Selective vaporization was also shown to reduce or eliminate the Fe background emission on As, Cd and Pb lines. To confirm the applicability of the method, a solid soil certified reference materials was analyzed directly without any sample treatment. Good or reasonable accuracy was obtained for the three elements.

  3. Vapor Space Characterization of Waste Tank 241-C-111: Results from Samples Collected with the Vapor Sampling System on 9/13/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R. B.; Ligotke, M. W.; McVeety, B. D.; McCulloch, M.; Goheen, S. C.; Clauss, T. W.; Pool, K. H.; Young, J. S.; Fruchter, J. S.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes inorganic and orgajc analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-111 (referred to as Tank C-111). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were quantitatively determined. Six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. None were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit.

  4. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-111: Results from samples collected on November 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-111 (referred to as Tank By-111). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The target analytes for TO- 14 compounds were extended to include 14 analytes identified by the Toxicological Review Panel for Tank C-103 and reported by Mahlum et al. (1994). Program management included these analytes for future tank analyses as identified in the fiscal year work plan. This plan is attached to a letter dated 9/30/94 and addressed to Mr. T.J. Kelly of WHC. The plan also requires PNL to analyze for the permanent gases as shown in Table 3.7. The sample job was designated S4083, and samples wee collected by WHC on November 16, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The results of the analyses are expected to be used to estimate the potential toxicity of tank-headspace gas as described in Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Vapor Issue Resolution, WHC-SD-WM-DQO-002, Rev. 0.

  5. Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Type 4 In Situ Vapor Samplers and Supernate and Sludge and Soft Saltcake Grab Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-09-28

    The DOE has identified a need to sample vapor space, exhaust ducts, supernate, sludge, and soft saltcake in waste tanks that store radioactive waste. This document provides the Design Compliance Matrix (DCM) for the Type 4 In-Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system and the Grab Sampling System that are used for completing this type of sampling function. The DCM identifies the design requirements and the source of the requirements for the Type 4 ISVS system and the Grab Sampling system. The DCM is a single-source compilation design requirements for sampling and sampling support equipment and supports the configuration management of these systems.

  6. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of As and Se in soil and sludge.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yen-Jia; Liu, Chung-Chang; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    2007-04-11

    Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization (ETV) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to determine As and Se in soil and sludge samples. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were reported. Pd and ascorbic acid were used as mixed modifiers to enhance the ion signals. The effectiveness of ETV sample introduction technique for alleviating various spectral interferences in ICP-MS analysis has been demonstrated. This method has been applied to determine As and Se in NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin soil reference material and NIST SRM 2781 domestic sludge reference material and a farmland soil sample collected locally. Since the sensitivities of As and Se in slurry solution and aqueous solution were different, analyte addition technique was used to determine As and Se in these samples. The As and Se analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The precision between sample replicates was better than 5% for all determinations. The method detection limit estimated from analyte addition curves was about 0.03 and 0.02 microg g(-1) for As and Se, respectively, in original soil and sludge samples.

  8. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  9. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  10. Direct determination of sulfur species in coals from the Argonne premium sample program by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Daniela; Vogt, Thomas; Klinger, Mathias; Masset, Patrick Joseph; Otto, Matthias

    2014-10-21

    A new direct solid sampling method for speciation of sulfur in coals by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ETV-ICP OES) is presented. On the basis of the controlled thermal decomposition of coal in an argon atmosphere, it is possible to determine the different sulfur species in addition to elemental sulfur in coals. For the assignment of the obtained peaks from the sulfur transient emission signal, several analytical techniques (reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction) were used. The developed direct solid sampling method enables a good accuracy (relative standard deviation ≤ 6%), precision and was applied to determine the sulfur forms in the Argonne premium coals, varying in rank. The generated method is time- and cost-effective and well suited for the fast characterization of sulfur species in coal. It can be automated to a large extent and is applicable for process-accompanying analyses.

  11. Immersed single-drop microextraction-electrothermal vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy for the trace determination of mercury in water samples.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Habib; Naderi, Mehrnoush

    2009-06-15

    A new method based on single-drop microextraction (SDME) combined with electrothermal vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETV-AAS) was developed for the trace determination of mercury in water samples. A microdrop of m-xylene was applied as the extraction solvent. After extraction, the microdrop was introduced, directly, into a graphite furnace of AAS. Some important extraction parameters such as type of solvent, volume of solvent, sample stirring, ionic strength, sample pH, chelating agent concentration, sample temperature, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The highest possible microdrop volume of 10 microL, a sampling temperature of 27 degrees C, and use of m-xylene containing dithizone, as complexing agent, are major parameters led to achieve a high enrichment factor of 970. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the method was 0.01 microg L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 6.1% (n=7). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of Hg in two river water samples. The effects of interfering species such as Pt, Pd, Cu, Au, and Bi, having the tendency to form complexes with dithizone, at two concentration levels of 100 and 1000 microg L(-1) were also studied.

  12. Determination of cadmium, mercury and lead in coal fly ash by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hsien-Chung; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    1999-08-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in coal fly ash samples. Thioacetamide (TAC) was used as the modifier. Since the sensitivities of the elements studied in coal fly ash slurry and aqueous solution were quite different, isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in these coal fly ash samples. The isotope ratios of each element were calculated from the peak areas of each injection peak. This method has been applied to the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in NIST SRM 1633a coal fly ash reference material and a coal fly ash sample collected from Kaohsiung area. Analysis results of reference sample NIST SRM 1633a coal fly ash agreed satisfactorily with the certified values. The other sample determined by isotope dilution and method of standard additions was agreed satisfactorily. Precision was better than 6% for most of the determinations and accuracy was better than 4% with the USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS method. Detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were in the range of 24-58, 6-28 and 108-110 ng g-1 for Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  13. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-107: Results from samples collected on 10/26/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The organic analytes for TO-14 compounds were extended to include 15 analytes identified by the Toxicological Review Panel for Tank C-103 and reported in Toxicological Evaluation of Analytes from Tank 241-C-103 PAE-10189. While these analytes are only of toxicological concern for Tank C-103, program management included these analytes for future tank analyses as identified in the fiscal year work plan. This plan is attached to a letter dated 9/30/94 and addressed to Mr. T. J. Kelly of WHC. The plan also requires PNL to analyze for the permanent gases as shown in Table 3.5. The sample job was designated S4077, and samples were collected by WHC on October 26, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and six SUMMA{trademark} canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on October 24. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on October 26 and were returned to PNL from the field on November 8. Inorganic (sorbent trap) samples were delivered to PNL on chain of custody (COC) 008071. The SUMMA{trademark} canisters were delivered on COC 008070. Three SUMMA{trademark} canister samples were stored at the PNL 326/23B laboratory pending further instruction from WHC to send them to the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) for analysis.

  14. Partitioning evapotranspiration via continuous sampling of water vapor isotopes over common row crops and candidate biofuel crops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; Black, C. K.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Global demand for renewable energy is accelerating land conversion from common row crops such as maize and soybean to cellulosic biofuel crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass. This land conversion is expected to alter ecohydrology via changes in evapotranspiration (ET). However, the direction in which evapotranspiration will shift, either partitioning more moisture through soil evaporation (E) or through plant transpiration (T) is uncertain. To investigate how land conversion from maize to miscanthus affects ET partitioning we measured the isotopic composition of water vapor via continuous air sampling. We obtained continuous diurnal measurements of δ2H and δ18O for miscanthus and maize on multiple days over the course of the growing season. Water vapor isotopes drawn from two heights were measured at 2 Hz using a cavity ringdown spectrometer and partitioned into components of E and T using a simple mixing equation. A second approach to partitioning was accomplished by subtracting transpiration measurements, obtained through sap flow sensors, from total ET, measured via eddy covariance. Preliminary results reveal that both methods compare favorably and that transpiration dominates variations in ET in miscanthus fields more so than in fields of maize.

  15. Determination of mercury in ash and soil samples by oxygen flask combustion method--cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS).

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhua; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2008-06-15

    A simple method was developed for the determination of mercury (Hg) in coal fly ash (CFA), waste incineration ash (WIA), and soil by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A KMnO4 solution was used as an absorbent in the OFC method, and the sample containing a combustion agent and an ash or soil sample was combusted by the OFC method. By use of Hg-free graphite as the combustion agent, the determination of Hg in ash and soil was successfully carried out; the Hg-free graphite was prepared by use of a mild pyrolysis procedure at 500 degrees C. For six certified reference materials (three CFA samples and three soil samples), the values of Hg obtained by this method were in good agreement with the certified or reference values. In addition, real samples including nine CFAs collected from some coal-fired power plants, five WIAs collected from waste incineration plants, and two soils were analyzed by the present method, and the data were compared to those from microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) method.

  16. Determination of Pd, Rh, Pt, Au in road dust by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Hsuan; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2013-09-10

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine Pd, Rh, Pt and Au in 0.5% m/v slurries of several road dust samples. 2% m/v ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was used as the modifier to enhance the ion count. The influence of instrument operating conditions, slurry preparation and interferences on the ion count was reported. This method has been applied to the determination of Pd, Rh, Pt and Au in BCR 723 Road Dust and NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin Soil reference materials and two road dust samples collected locally. The analysis results of the standard reference materials agreed with the certified values. Precision between sample replicates was better than 10% for all the determinations. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were 0.9, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.4ngg(-1) for Pd, Rh, Pt and Au, respectively, in original dust samples. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Simple, Efficient, and Rapid Methods to Determine the Potential for Vapor Intrusion into the Home: Temporal Trends, Vapor Intrusion Forecasting, Sampling Strategies, and Contaminant Migration Routes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current practice for evaluating the vapor intrusion pathway involves a multiple line of evidence approach based on direct measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater, external soil gas, subslab soil gas, and/or indoor air. No single line of evide...

  18. Simple, Efficient, and Rapid Methods to Determine the Potential for Vapor Intrusion into the Home: Temporal Trends, Vapor Intrusion Forecasting, Sampling Strategies, and Contaminant Migration Routes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current practice for evaluating the vapor intrusion pathway involves a multiple line of evidence approach based on direct measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater, external soil gas, subslab soil gas, and/or indoor air. No single line of evide...

  19. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected on 10/27/94

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-108 (referred to as Tank BY-108). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Trends in NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O samples indicated a possible sampling problem. Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 15 analytes. Of these, 17 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Also, eighty-one organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The nine organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1 and account for approximately 48% of the total organic components in the headspace of Tank BY-108. Three permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were also detected. Tank BY-108 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  20. Solid-Sampling Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry for Direct Determination of Total Oxygen in Coal.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Thomas; Bauer, Daniela; Nennstiel, David; Otto, Matthias

    2015-10-20

    A new analytical method for direct determination of total oxygen contents in eight coal samples of the Argonne Premium Coal (APC) series and in the NIST SRM 1632d is presented. The development of a suitable calibration procedure, optimization of measurement conditions, and the application of a tailored data processing for handling of plasma effects and high blanks enable the quantification of oxygen simultaneously with other trace, minor, or major elements in whole coal samples by means of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ETV-ICP OES). For comparison, the oxygen contents were determined by a direct oxygen analyzer. The obtained oxygen values of the APC and the reference material NIST SRM 1632d were compared to data in the literature. The precision of the ETV-ICP OES was within ±3.5%, and the recovery better than 92%. With this good accuracy, the developed direct solid sampling method ETV-ICP OES is well suited for the fast determination of oxygen in coals, varying in rank from lignite to semianthracite, in a content range of about 100 ppm up to 27% using 1.5 mg sample weight. This direct analysis method represents an accurate, advantageous alternative to currently used methods for estimation of total oxygen contents in coals.

  1. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105: Results from samples collected on 7/7/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes organic and inorganic results from vapors of the Hanford single-shell waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Several organic analytes were quantitatively determined, but quantities of non-TO-14 analytes were only estimated. Approximately 40 tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppb, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitative determination is beyond the scope of this study. The SUMMA{trademark} Canisters were also analyzed for components listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compendium Method TO-14. Of these only a few were observed above the 2-ppb detection limits. These are summarized in Table 3.1. Estimated quantitations also determined were of tentatively identified compounds (TICs). A summary of these results shows quantities of all TICs above the concentration of ca. 10 ppb. This consists of more than 40 organic analytes. The 6 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are shown in Table 1. These 6 analytes account for approximately 45% of the total organic components in Tank BY-105. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Unlike tanks previously studied, normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPHs) did not contribute significantly to the total organic concentration of the vapor headspace of Tank BY-105. The total concentration of TICs detected in the tank headspace samples was also much lower than that seen in other reported tanks averaging 6.5 Mg/m{sup 3} for all three canisters collected.

  2. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  3. Validation of adsorbents for sample preconcentration in compound-specific isotope analysis of common vapor intrusion pollutants.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Monika; Kuder, Tomasz; Philp, R Paul; McHugh, Thomas E

    2012-12-28

    Isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment are often of interest in contaminant fate studies. Adsorbent preconcentration-thermal desorption of VOCs can be used to collect environmental vapor samples for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). While active adsorbent samplers offer logistic benefits in handling large volumes of air, their performance in preserving VOCs isotope ratios was not previously tested under sampling conditions corresponding to typical indoor air sampling conditions. In this study, the performance of selected adsorbents was tested for preconcentration of TCE (for determination of C and Cl isotope ratios), PCE (C and Cl) and benzene (C and H). The key objective of the study was to identify the adsorbent(s) permitting preconcentration of the target VOCs present in air at low μg/m(3) concentrations, without significant alteration of their isotope ratios. Carboxen 1016 was found to perform well for the full range of tested parameters. Carboxen 1016 can be recommended for sampling of TCE, PCE and benzene, for CSIA, from air volumes up to 100 L. Variable extent of isotope ratio alteration was observed in the preconcentration of the target VOCs on Carbopack B and Carbopack X, resulting from partial analyte loss via adsorbent bed breakthrough and (possibly) via incomplete desorption. The results from testing the Carbopack B and Carbopack X highlight the need of adsorbent performance validation at conditions fully representative of actual sample collection conditions, and caution against extrapolation of performance data toward more challenging sampling conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-SX-103: Results from samples collected on 3/23/95

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage tank 241-SX-103 (referred to as Tank SX-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, two were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Two tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The four organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank SX-103. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank SX-103 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  5. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-T-104: Results from samples collected on 02/07/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the analytical results, which were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds; the analyses were performed by PNNL`s Vapor Analytical Laboratory. Results are summarized as: NH{sub 3} 105{+-}3 ppmv, NO{sub 2} 0.3{+-}0.1 ppmv, NO 0.3{+-}0.2 ppmv, H{sub 2}O 12.0{+-}0.5 mg/L, CO{sub 2} 241 ppmv, CO undetected, CH{sub 4} undetected, H{sub 2} detected, N{sub 2}O detected, and hydrocarbons 1.93 mg/m{sub 3}.

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-B-103: Results from samples collected on 2/8/95

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-B-103 (referred to as Tank B-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, five were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. Twenty-three TICs were measured in two or more SUMMA{trademark} canisters. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 66% of the total organic components in Tank BB-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected. Tank B-103 is on the Organic Watch List.

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 9/29/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-107 (referred to as Tank C-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 55 TO-14 extended analytes. Of these, 3 were observed above the 5-ppbv detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1 and account for approximately 96% of the total organic components in Tank C-107. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, were also detected.

  8. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-111 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 6/20/94

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; McCulloch, M.; Young, J.S.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-111 (referred to as Tank C-111). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Organic compounds were quantitatively determined. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes and observed 39. None of these compounds were above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrumental detection limit. However, it is believed that the detection of dichlorodifluoromethane and methyl benzene are real at these low concentrations. The five organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. The five analytes account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank C-111.

  9. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-107: Results from in situ sample collected on 3/25/94

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.K.; Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic results from vapors of the Hanford single-shell waste storage Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Samples for selected inorganic compounds were obtained but not anlayzed (Section 2.0). Quantitative results were obtained for several organic analytes, but quantities of analytes not listed in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compendium Method TO-14 were estimated. Approximately 80 tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitative determination is beyond the scope of this study. The SUMMATM canister samples were also analyzed for the 41 organic compounds listed in EPA compendium Method TO-14. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limits. These are summarized in Table 3.1. Estimated quantities were determined of tentatively identified compounds (TICs). A summary of these results shows quantities of all TICs above the concentration of ca. 10 ppbv. This consists of more than 80 organic analytes. The 12 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are shown.

  10. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-U-103: Results from samples collected on 2/15/95

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-103 (referred to as Tank U-103). The results described her were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 11 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 90% of the total organic components in Tank U-103. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected. Tank U-103 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  11. Development, evaluation and comparison of two independent sampling and analytical methods for ortho-phthalaldehyde vapors and condensation aerosols in air† ‡

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two independent sampling and analytical methods for ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) in air have been developed, evaluated and compared (1) a reagent-coated solid sorbent HPLC-UV method and (2) an impinger-fluorescence method. In the first method, air sampling is conducted at 1.0 L min−1 with a sampler containing 350 mg of silica gel coated with 1 mg of acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). After sampling, excess DNPH in ethyl acetate is added to the sampler prior to storage for 68 hours. The OPA-DNPH derivative is eluted with 4.0 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for measurement by HPLC with a UV detector set at 3S5 nm. The estimated detection limit is 0.016 µg per sample or 0.067 µg m−3 (0.012 ppb) for a 240 L air sample. Recoveries of vapor spikes at levels of 1.2 to 6.2 µg were 96 to 101%. Recoveries of spikes as mixtures of vapor and condensation aerosols were 97 to 100%. In the second method, air sampling is conducted at 1.0 L mm−1 with a midget impinger containing 10 mL of DMSO solution containing N-acetyl-l-cysteine and ethylenediamine. The fluorescence reading is taken 80 min after the completion of air sampling. Since the time of taking the fluorescence reading is critical, the reading is taken with a portable fluorometer. The estimated detection limit is 0.024 µg per sample or 0.1 µg m−3 (0.018 ppb) for a 240 L air sample. Recoveries of OPA vapor spikes at levels of 1.4 to 5.0 µg per sample were 97 to 105%. Recoveries of spikes as mixtures of vapors and condensation aerosols were 95 to 99%. The collection efficiency for a mixture of vapor and condensation aerosol was 99.4%. The two methods were compared side-by-side in a generation system constructed for producing controlled atmospheres of OPA vapor in air. Average air concentrations of OPA vapor found by both methods agreed within ±10%. PMID:26346658

  12. Vapor Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddell, H. M.; Garrard, G. C.; Houston, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Detector eliminates need for removing covers to take samples. Detector is canister consisting of screw-in base and clear plastic tube that contains two colors of silica gel. Monoethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide vapors are visually monitored with canister containing color-changing gels.

  13. Enhanced aerodynamic reach of vapor and aerosol sampling for real-time mass spectrometric detection using Venturi-assisted entrainment and ionization.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Thomas P; Staymates, Matthew

    2017-03-08

    Venturi-assisted ENTrainment and Ionization (VENTI) was developed, demonstrating efficient entrainment, collection, and transport of remotely sampled vapors, aerosols, and dust particulate for real-time mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Integrating the Venturi and Coandă effects at multiple locations generated flow and analyte transport from non-proximate locations and more importantly enhanced the aerodynamic reach at the point of collection. Transport through remote sampling probes up to 2.5 m in length was achieved with residence times on the order of 10(-2) s to 10(-1) s and Reynolds numbers on the order of 10(3) to 10(4). The Venturi-assisted entrainment successfully enhanced vapor collection and detection by greater than an order of magnitude at 20 cm stand-off (limit of simple suction). This enhancement is imperative, as simple suction restricts sampling to the immediate vicinity, requiring close proximity to the vapor source. In addition, the overall aerodynamic reach distance was increased by approximately 3-fold over simple suction under the investigated conditions. Enhanced aerodynamic reach was corroborated and observed with laser-light sheet flow visualization and schlieren imaging. Coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), the detection of a range of volatile chemical vapors; explosive vapors; explosive, narcotic, and mustard gas surrogate (methyl salicylate) aerosols; and explosive dust particulate was demonstrated. Continuous real-time Venturi-assisted monitoring of a large room (approximately 90 m(2) area, 570 m(3) volume) was demonstrated for a 60-min period without the remote sampling probe, exhibiting detection of chemical vapors and methyl salicylate at approximately 3 m stand-off distances within 2 min of exposure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-C-103: Inorganic results from sample Job 7B (May 12-25, 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lerner, B.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report is to provide analytical results for use in safety and toxicological evaluations of the vapor space of Hanford single-shell waste storage tanks C-103. Samples were analysed to determine concentrations of ammonia, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur oxides, and hydrogen cyanide. In addition to the samples, controls were analyzed that included blanks, spiked blanks, and spiked samples. These controls provided information about the suitability of sampling and analytical methods. Also included are the following: information describing the methods and sampling procedures used; results of sample analyses; and Conclusions and recommendations.

  15. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  16. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  17. Transport of explosives II: use of headspace-SPME/GC μ-ECD and TEEM GC/MS for detection of TNT vapors from sand buried samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Bibiana; Correa, Sandra N.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    The detection of hidden explosives using vapors emanating from explosives has been considered an area in explosives technology that requires high sensitivity and selectivity. In this work is reported the results of two methods for vapor explosive detection, GC-μECD and GC/MS coupled to a Tunable Electron Energy Monochromator (TEEM-GC/MS). Both used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) in Headspace (HS) mode to collect vapors above the samples. Optimum parameters for SPME were determined with the purpose of obtaining a high-quality extraction. The parameters were: type of SPME fiber, exposure time and desorption time at the injection port of the GC. Headspace SPME procedure was carried out in samples with crystals of TNT buried in soil. These samples were analyzed under important environmental conditions such as temperature and water content. Analyses at contact times after the TNT-soil mix preparation were carried out during 1 month. A comparison of results from both techniques was performed. Vapors of TNT and 2,4-DNT were found predominantly in the samples. HS-SPME coupled with GC-μ ECD and TEEM GC/MS exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity.

  18. Occupational dimethylformamide exposure. 1. Diffusive sampling of dimethylformamide vapor for determination of time-weighted average concentration in air.

    PubMed

    Yasugi, T; Kawai, T; Mizunuma, K; Horiguchi, S; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, M

    1992-01-01

    A diffusive sampling method with water as absorbent was examined in comparison with 3 conventional methods of diffusive sampling with carbon cloth as absorbent, pumping through National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) charcoal tubes, and pumping through NIOSH silica gel tubes to measure time-weighted average concentration of dimethylformamide (DMF). DMF vapors of constant concentrations at 3-110 ppm were generated by bubbling air at constant velocities through liquid DMF followed by dilution with fresh air. Both types of diffusive samplers could either absorb or adsorb DMF in proportion to time (0.25-8 h) and concentration (3-58 ppm), except that the DMF adsorbed was below the measurable amount when carbon cloth samplers were exposed at 3 ppm for less than 1 h. When both diffusive samplers were loaded with DMF and kept in fresh air, the DMF in water samplers stayed unchanged for at least for 12 h. The DMF in carbon cloth samplers showed a decay with a half-time of 14.3 h. When the carbon cloth was taken out immediately after termination of DMF exposure, wrapped in aluminum foil, and kept refrigerated, however, there was no measurable decrease in DMF for at least 3 weeks. When the air was drawn at 0.2 l/min, a breakthrough of the silica gel tube took place at about 4,000 ppm.min (as the lower 95% confidence limit), whereas charcoal tubes could tolerate even heavier exposures, suggesting that both tubes are fit to measure the 8-h time-weighted average of DMF at 10 ppm.

  19. Determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Laiana O B; Leao, Danilo J; dos Santos, Debora C; Matos, Geraldo D; de Andrade, Jailson B; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2014-09-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry (CVG AAS). Chemometric tools were employed to characterize the influence of several factors on the generation of volatile copper species. First, a two-level full factorial design was performed that included the following chemical variables: hydrochloric acid concentration, tetrahydroborate concentration, sulfanilamide concentration and tetrahydroborate volume, using absorbance as the response. Under the established experimental conditions, the hydrochloric acid concentration had the greatest influence on the generation of volatile copper species. Subsequently, a Box-Behnken design was performed to determine the optimum conditions for these parameters. A second chemometric study employing a two-level full factorial design was performed to evaluate the following physical factors: tetrahydroborate flow rate, flame composition, alcohol volume and sample volume. The results of this study demonstrated that the tetrahydroborate flow rate was critical for the process. The chemometric experiments determined the following experimental conditions for the method: hydrochloric acid concentration, 0.208 M; tetrahydroborate concentration, 4.59%; sulfanilamide concentration, 0.79%; tetrahydroborate volume, 2.50 mL; tetrahydroborate flow rate, 6.50 mL min(-1); alcohol volume, 200 µL; and sample volume, 7.0 mL. Thus, this method, using a slurry volume of 500 µL and a final dilution of 7 mL, allowed for the determination of copper with limits of detection and quantification of 0.30 and 0.99 µg L(-1), respectively. Precisions, expressed as RSD%, of 4.6 and 2.8% were obtained using copper solutions at concentrations of 5.0 and 50.0 µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of a certified reference material of urban particulate matter. The copper concentration

  20. Development of a flow controller for long-term sampling of gases and vapors using evacuated canisters.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Alan; Farant, Jean Pierre; Simon, Philippe; Wick, David P

    2002-11-15

    Anthropogenic activities contribute to the release of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into microenvironments. Developing and implementing new air sampling technologies that allow for the characterization of exposures to VOC can be useful for evaluating environmental and health concerns arising from such occurrences. A novel air sampler based on the use of a capillary flow controller connected to evacuated canisters (300 mL, 1 and 6 L) was designed and tested. The capillary tube, used to control the flow of air, is a variation on a sharp-edge orifice flow controller. It essentially controls the velocity of the fluid (air) as a function of the properties of the fluid, tube diameter and length. A model to predict flow rate in this dynamic system was developed. The mathematical model presented here was developed using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the ideal gas law to predict flow into the canisters used to sample for long periods of time. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation shows the relationship between flow rate, pressure gradient, capillary resistance, fluid viscosity, capillary length and diameter. The flow rates evaluated were extremely low, ranging from 0.05 to 1 mL min(-1). The model was compared with experimental results and was shown to overestimate the flow rate. Empirical equations were developed to more accurately predict flow for the 300 mL, 1 and 6 L canisters used for sampling periods ranging from several hours to one month. The theoretical and observed flow rates for different capillary geometries were evaluated. Each capillary flow controller geometry that was tested was found to generate very reproducible results, RSD < 2%. Also, the empirical formulas developed to predict flow rate given a specified diameter and capillary length were found to predict flow rate within 6% of the experimental data. The samplers were exposed to a variety of airborne vapors that allowed for comparison of the effectiveness of capillary flow controllers to

  1. Origin of isotopically light Zn in lunar samples through vaporization and the Zn isotope composition of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, C.; Valdes, M. C.; Dhaliwal, J.; Day, J. M.; Moynier, F.

    2013-12-01

    The origin of the volatile element depletion of the Moon compared to Earth remains a key question in planetary science. It has recently been shown that both high-Ti and low-Ti lunar basalts are enriched in the heavier isotopes of Zn compared to Earth with an effect of ~1.3 permil on the 66Zn/64Zn ratio (Paniello et al., Nature, 2012). In order to obtain a better understanding of Zn behavior in and on the Moon, we present new measurements of lunar basalts, pyroclastic green glass 15426, highland anorthosites, cataclastic dunite 77215, cataclastic norite 72415 and some lunar soils. Samples were analyzed using a Thermo-Fisher Neptune Plus multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) at Washington University in St Louis. The data presented below are reported as the permil deviation of the 66Zn/64Zn ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard (δ66Zn). Four new high Ti basalts and three low Ti basalts confirm the observations of Paniello et al. (2012), that there is an enrichment in the heavier isotopes of Zn compared with chondrites and terrestrial samples. Combining these data together with Paniello et al. (2012) and Herzog et al. (GCA, 2009) we calculate a new average for lunar basalts of δ66Zn= 1.4×0.4 (1sd, n = 27). A few exceptions (5 samples out of 32) are isotopically light and probably represent addition of isotopically light Zn condensed onto the lunar surface from Zn isotopic fractionation during meteoritic impact, creating correspondingly isotopically heavy soils. In contrast to the homogeneity of mare basalts, highland samples show large Zn isotopic variability (δ66Zn -11.4 up to +4.24 permil) which encompasses the entire Zn isotopic variability measured so far in the Solar System. These δ66Zn variations are negatively correlated with the Zn abundance, with the isotopically light samples having the highest Zn concentrations. We interpret these results as the consequence of meteoritic bombardment and volatilization/condensation of Zn at

  2. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  3. The effect of heated vapor-phase acidification on organic carbon concentrations and isotopic values in geologic rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. Z.; West, A. J.; Yager, J. A.; Rollins, N.; Li, G.; Berelson, W.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon signatures recorded in the modern and geologic rock record can give insight on the Earth's carbon cycle through time. This is especially true for organic carbon (OC), which can help us understand how the biosphere has evolved over Earth's history. However, carbon recorded in rocks is a combination of OC and inorganic carbon (IC) mostly in the form of carbonate minerals. To measure OC, IC must therefore first be removed through a process called "decarbonation." This is often done through a leaching process with hydrochloric acid (HCl). However, three well known problems exist for the decarbonation process: 1) Incomplete removal of IC, 2) Unintentional removal of OC, and 3) Addition of false carbon blank. Currently, vapor (gas) phase removal of OC is preferred to liquid phase treatment because it has been shown that OC is lost to solubilization during liquid phase acidification. Vapor phase treatment is largely thought to avoid the problem of OC loss, but this has not yet been rigorously investigated. This study investigates that assumption and shows that vapor phase treatment can cause unintentional OC loss. We show that vapor phase treatment must be sensitive to rock type and treatment length to produce robust OC isotopic measurements and concentrations.

  4. METHOD AND LOCATION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLING: IMPACT ON ATTENUATION FACTORS FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document was established to "address the incremental increases in exposures and risks from subsurface contaminants that my be intruding into indoor air". The document utilizes attenuation factors based on indoor air/soil gas or i...

  5. METHOD AND LOCATION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLING: IMPACT ON ATTENUATION FACTORS FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document was established to "address the incremental increases in exposures and risks from subsurface contaminants that my be intruding into indoor air". The document utilizes attenuation factors based on indoor air/soil gas or i...

  6. Tank vapor characterization report headspace vapor characterization of Hanford tank 241-S-105: results from samples collected on 12/07/95

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-S-105. The results described were obtained to support the safety evaluations and tank operations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results.

  7. Direct determination of cadmium in foods by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten coil trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Mao, Xuefei; Liu, Jixin; Wang, Min; Qian, Yongzhong; Gao, Chengling; Qi, Yuehan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a solid sampling device consisting of a tungsten coil trap, porous carbon vaporizer and on-line ashing furnace of a Ni-Cr coil was interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A modified double gas circuit system was employed that was composed of carrier and supplemental gas lines controlled by separate gas mass flow controllers. For Cd determination in food samples using the assembled solid sampling ICP-MS, the optimal ashing and vaporization conditions, flow rate of the argon-hydrogen (Ar/H2) (v:v = 24:1) carrier gas and supplemental gas, and minimum sampling mass were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of quantification was 0.5 pg and the relative standard deviation was within a 10.0% error range (n = 10). Furthermore, the mean spiked recoveries for various food samples were 99.4%-105.9% (n = 6). The Cd concentrations measured by the proposed method were all within the certified values of the reference materials or were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of the microwave digestion ICP-MS method, demonstrating the good accuracy and precision of the solid sampling ICP-MS method for Cd determination in food samples.

  8. Knowledge about Chemicals in e-Cigarette Secondhand Vapor and Perceived Harms of Exposure among a National Sample of U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andy S L; Mello, Susan; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Bigman, Cabral A

    2016-09-05

    Potentially harmful chemicals are detectable in e-cigarette secondhand vapor (hereafter SHV), contrary to advertising and marketing claims that it contains "only water vapor." We assessed public knowledge about the presence of chemicals in SHV and associations between knowledge and perceived harms of exposure to SHV. We conducted an online survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,449 U.S. adults (GfK's KnowledgePanel) from October to December 2013. Respondents were asked whether e-cigarette vapor contains only water vapor, contains tar, or contains formaldehyde (true/ false/ do not know). Responses to these three items were recoded (1 = incorrect, 2 = do not know, and 3 = correct) and averaged into a knowledge scale. They were also asked if they perceived breathing SHV to be harmful to one's health (two-item scale) and comparative harm of breathing SHV versus breathing secondhand smoke (SHS). Multiple regression analyses were weighted to the U.S. adult population and adjusted for potential confounders. Most respondents (58-75%) reported not knowing whether SHV contained only water vapor, if SHV contained tar, and if it contained formaldehyde. African-American respondents (vs. white) and current smokers (vs. nonsmokers) had lower levels of knowledge about chemicals in SHV. Adjusting for covariates, correct knowledge about chemicals in SHV was associated with higher perceived harms about SHV for one's health and perceived comparative harm of SHV versus SHS. These findings suggest a need to provide accurate information about the presence of chemicals in SHV (e.g., using product ingredient labels or public education).

  9. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-U-111: Results from samples collected on February 28, 1995. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Bredt, O.P.; Goheen, S.C.; Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Klinger, G.S.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-U-111. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  10. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-101 (in situ): Results from samples collected on August 5, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; McCulloch, M.; Goheen, S.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-TY-101. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  11. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-110. Results from samples collected on August 18, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 24l-C-110. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  12. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241;C-102: Results from samples collected on August 23, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-C-102. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  13. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-T-111. Results from samples collected on January 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-T-111. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  14. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-T-107. Results from samples collected on January 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-T-107 (referred to as Tank T-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, I was observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The estimated concentration of all 7 organic analytes observed in the tank headspace are listed in Table I and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank T-107. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected in the tank-headspace samples.

  15. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-U-106: Results from samples collected on March 7, 1995. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O) Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. The NH{sub 3} concentration was 16% greater than that determined from an ISS sample obtained in August 1994; the H{sub 2}O concentration was about 10% less. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 5 were observed in two or more canisters above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed in two or more canisters above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations account for approximately 90% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Three permanent gases, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (COD were also detected.

  16. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in cereals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    2009-08-12

    A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in cereals using flow injection chemical vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 6% m/v flour, 0.7% m/v thiourea, 0.4 microg mL(-1) Co(II), and 2.5% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the elements studied in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, a standard addition method and an isotope dilution method were used for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in selected cereal samples. The influences of vapor generation conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were reported. The effectiveness of the vapor generation sample introduction technique in alleviating various spectral interferences in ICP-MS analysis has been demonstrated. This method has been applied for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour reference material, NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour reference material, and cereal samples obtained from local market. The As, Cd, and Hg analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were about 0.10, 0.16, and 0.07 ng g(-1) for As, Cd, and Hg, respectively, in the original cereal samples.

  17. Direct determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in biological materials by solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gelaude, I; Dams, R; Resano, M; Vanhaecke, F; Moens, L

    2002-08-01

    This paper reports on the use of solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SS-EIV-ICPMS) for the direct and simultaneous determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in biological materials. The main advantage of this fast and sensitive method is that no sample preparation is required. In this way, the sample throughput can be considerably increased, problems of contamination and analyte losses are kept to a minimum and, even more important, the original chemical form of the different analyte species in the solid samples is preserved. To achieve this goal, a solid sample is inserted into a graphite furnace of the boat-in-tube type and is subsequently submitted to an appropriate temperature program, leading to the separate vaporization of methylmercury and inorganic mercury, which are transported into the ICP by means of an argon carrier gas. The separation was accomplished within 75 s. For the quantification of the two peaks, species-unspecific isotope dilution was used. For this purpose, a stable flow of argon loaded with gaseous Hg isotopically enriched in 200Hg was generated using a permeation tube that was constructed in-house. Its emission rate was determined by collecting the mercury released during a given time interval on a gold-coated silica absorber, after which the amount collected was released by heating of the absorber and determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A reference material from the Canadian National Research Council (NRC) (TORT-2) was used to assess the accuracy of the method. For the application of the method to samples with diverse mercury contents, the spike/sample ratio can be optimized by varying the emission rate of the permeation tube simply by adapting its temperature. To prove the feasibility of this approach, two reference materials (BCR 463 and DORM-2) with a methylmercury content more than 10

  18. Enhanced detection of nitroaromatic explosive vapors combining solid-phase extraction-air sampling, supercritical fluid extraction, and large-volume injection-GC.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Ramón; Carlsson, Håkan; Tollbäck, Petter; Colmsjö, Anders; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2003-07-01

    A complete method for sampling and analyzing of energetic compounds in the atmosphere is described. The method consists of the hyphenation of several techniques: active air sampling using a solid-phase extraction cartridge to collect the analytes, extraction of the sorbed analytes by toluene/methyl tert-butyl ether modified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and analysis of the extract by large-volume injection GC-nitrogen/phosphorus detection. The GC system is equipped with a loop-type injection interface with an early solvent vapor exit, a utilizing concurrent solvent evaporation technique. Chemometric approaches, based on a Plackett-Burman screening design and a central composite design for response surface modeling, were used to determine the optimum SFE conditions. The relative standard deviations of the optimized method were determined to be 4.3 to 7.7%, giving raise to method detection limits ranging from 0.06 to 0.36 ng in the sampling cartridge, equivalent to 6.2-36.4 pg/L in the atmosphere, standard sampling volume 10 L. The analytical method was applied to characterize headspace composition above military grade trinitrotoluene (TNT). Results confirm that 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) constitute the largest vapor flux, but TNT, 2,6-DNT, and trinitrobenzene TNB were also consistently detected in all the samples.

  19. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  20. 32-week holding-time study of SUMMA polished canisters and triple sorbent traps used to sample organic constituents in radioactive waste tank vapor headspace

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Huckaby, J.L.; Mitroshkov, A.V.; Julya, J.L.; Hayes, J.C.; Edwards, J.A.; Sasaki, L.M.

    1998-11-01

    Two sampling methods [SUMMA polished canisters and triple sorbent traps (TSTs)] were compared for long-term storage of trace organic vapor samples collected from the headspaces of high-level radioactive waste tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Washington State. The two methods were found to provide generally equivalent results. Because safety, quality assurance, radiological controls, and somewhat complex sample custody arrangements frequently precluded rapid analysis, the long-term stability of the sampling media during storage needed to be addressed. Samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) using cryogenic preconcentration or thermal desorption sample introduction techniques. SUMMA canister samples were also analyzed for total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOC) by GC/flame ionization detector (FID) using EPA Compendium Method TO-12. The 31 target organic analytes studied represented compounds with widely varying polarities and volatilities. To verify the long-term stability of the sampling media, multiple samples were collected in parallel from a typical passively ventilated radioactive waste tank known to contain moderately high concentrations of both polar and nonpolar organic compounds. Two sets of sorbent trap samples were collected to compare the effects of storage under refrigerated and room temperature conditions. Analyses for organic analytes and TNMOC were conducted at increasing intervals over a 32-week period to determine whether any systematic degradation of sample integrity occurred.

  1. 32-Week Holding-Time Study of SUMMA Polished Canisters and Triple Sorbent Traps Used To Sample Organic Constituents in Radioactive Waste Tank Vapor Headspace

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, John C. ); Huckaby, James L. ); Mitroshkov, Alexandre V. ); Julya, Janet L. ); Hayes, James C. ); Edwards, Jeffrey A.; Sasaki, Leela M.

    1997-11-01

    Two sampling methods[SUMMA polished canisters and triple sorbent traps (TSTs)] were compared for long-term storage of trace organic vapor samples collected from the headspaces of high-level radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. Because safety, quality assurance, radiological controls, the long-term stability of the sampling media during storage needed to be addressed. Samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) using cryogenic reconcentration or thermal desorption sample introduction techniques. SUMMA canister samples were also analyzed for total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOC) by GC/flame ionization detector (FID) using EPA Compendium Method TO-12 . To verify the long-term stability of the sampling media, multiple samples were collected in parallel from a typical passively ventilated radioactive waste tank known to contain moderately high concentrations of both polar and nonpolar organic compounds. Analyses for organic analytes and TNMOC were conducted at increasing intervals over a 32-week period to determine whether any systematic degradation of sample integrity occurred. Analytes collected in the SUMMA polished canisters generally showed good stability over the full 32 weeks with recoveries at the 80% level or better for all compounds studied. The TST data showed some loss (50-80% recovery) for a few high-volatility compounds even in the refrigerated samples; losses for unrefrigerated samples were far more pronounced with recoveries as low as 20% observed in a few cases.

  2. Quantification of VX vapor in ambient air by liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometric analysis of glass bead filled sampling tubes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ronald A; Smith, Wendy L; Nguyen, Nam-Phuong; Crouse, Kathy L; Crouse, Charles L; Norman, Steven D; Jakubowski, E Michael

    2011-02-15

    An analysis method has been developed for determining low parts-per-quadrillion by volume (ppqv) concentrations of nerve agent VX vapor actively sampled from ambient air. The method utilizes glass bead filled depot area air monitoring system (DAAMS) sampling tubes with isopropyl alcohol extraction and isotope dilution using liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS) with positive ion electrospray ionization for quantitation. The dynamic range was from one-tenth of the worker population limit (WPL) to the short-term exposure limit (STEL) for a 24 L air sample taken over a 1 h period. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated using liquid-spiked tubes, and the collection characteristics of the DAAMS tubes were assessed by collecting trace level vapor generated in a 1000 L continuous flow chamber. The method described here has significant improvements over currently employed thermal desorption techniques that utilize a silver fluoride pad during sampling to convert VX to a higher volatility G-analogue for gas chromatographic analysis. The benefits of this method are the ability to directly analyze VX with improved selectivity and sensitivity, the injection of a fraction of the extract, quantitation using an isotopically labeled internal standard, and a short instrument cycle time.

  3. Optimization of the operating conditions of solid sampling electrothermal vaporization coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the sensitive direct analysis of powdered rice.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Nausheen; Beauchemin, Diane

    2014-12-03

    Two different approaches were used to improve the capabilities of solid sampling (SS) electrothermal vaporization (ETV) coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the direct analysis of powdered rice. Firstly, a cooling step immediately before and after the vaporization step in the ETV temperature program resulted in a much sharper analyte signal peak. Secondly, point-by-point internal standardization with an Ar emission line significantly improved the linearity of calibration curves obtained with an increasing amount of rice flour certified reference material (CRM). Under the optimized conditions, detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 6ngg(-1) in the solid, depending on the element and wavelength selected. The method was validated through the quantitative analysis of corn bran and wheat flour CRMs. Application of the method to the multi-elemental analysis of 4-mg aliquots of real organic long grain rice (white and brown) also gave results for Al, As, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, Pb and Zn in agreement with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following acid digestion of 0.2-g aliquots. As the analysis takes roughly 5min per sample (2.5min for grinding, 0.5-1min for weighing a 4-mg aliquot and 87s for the ETV program), this approach shows great promise for fast screening of food samples.

  4. Simultaneous determination of bromine and chlorine in coal using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Pereira, Éderson R; Welz, Bernhard; Borges, Daniel L G

    2014-12-10

    A new method for the direct analysis of coal using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis was developed, aiming at the determination of Br and Cl. The procedure does not require any significant sample pretreatment and allows simultaneous determination of both elements to be carried out, requiring small mass aliquots of sample (about 0.5 mg). All operating parameters, including carrier gas flow-rate and RF power, were optimized for maximum sensitivity. The use of modifiers/aerosol carriers (Pd, Pd+Al and Pd+Ca) was evaluated, and the mixture of Pd and Ca was chosen, allowing pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures of 700°C and 1900°C, respectively. Chlorine was accurately determined using calibration against solid standards, whereas Br could also be determined using calibration against aqueous standard solutions. The limits of quantification were 0.03 μg g(-1) for Br and 7 μg g(-1) for Cl, and no spectral interferences were observed.

  5. Sensitive determination of bromine and iodine in aqueous and biological samples by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a chemical modifier.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Konishi, Chie; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Fujiwara, Terufumi; Ito, Kazuaki

    2008-06-01

    A procedure for the simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry was investigated. In order to prevent the decrease in the ionization efficiencies of bromine and iodine atoms caused by the introduction of water mist, electrothermal vaporization was used for sample introduction into the ICP mass spectrometer. To prevent loss of analytes during the drying process, a small amount of tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution was placed as a chemical modifier into the tungsten boat furnace. After evaporation of the solvent, the analytes instantly vaporized and were then introduced into the ICP ion source to detect the (79)Br(+), (81)Br(+), and (127)I(+) ions. By using this system, detection limits of 0.77 pg and 0.086 pg were achieved for bromine and iodine, respectively. These values correspond to 8.1 pg mL(-1) and 0.91 pg mL(-1) of the aqueous bromide and iodide ion concentrations, respectively, for a sampling volume of 95 microL. The relative standard deviations for eight replicate measurements were 2.2% and 2.8% for 20 pg of bromine and 2 pg of iodine, respectively. Approximately 25 batches were vaporizable per hour. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of various certified reference materials and practical situations as biological and aqueous samples. There is further potential for the simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine.

  6. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for OVS samples collected from Sample Job 7b, Parts I and II, received 5/18/94 and 5/24/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.R.; Edwards, J.A.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    On 5/18/94, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) delivered samples to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/16/94. These samples were from Sample Job (SJ) 7b, Part 1. On 5/24/94, WHC delivered samples to PNL that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/18/94. These samples were from SJ7b, Part 2. A summary of data derived from the sampling of waste Tank 241-C-103 for gravimetric (H{sub 2}O) and normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) concentrations are shown for SJ7b. Gravimetric analysis was performed on the samples within 24 hours of receipt by PNL. The NPH concentration of 10 samples collected for Part 1 was slightly higher than the average concentration for 15 samples collected in Part 2, 812 ({+-} 133) mg/m{sup 3} and 659 ({+-} 88) mg/m{sup 3}, respectively. The higher concentrations measured in Part 1 samples may be because the samples in Part 1 were collected at a single level, 0.79 meters above the air-liquid interface. Part 2 samples were collected at three different tank levels, 0.79, 2.92, and 5.05 m above the air-liquid interface. In Part 2, the average NPH concentrations for 5 samples collected at each of three levels was similar: 697 (60) mg/m{sup 3} at the low level, 631 (51) mg/m{sup 3} at the mid level, and 651 (134) mg/m{sup 3} at the high level. It is important to note that the measured tridecane to dodecane concentration remained constant in all samples collected in Parts 1 and 2. That ratio is 1.2 {+-} 0.05. This consistent ratio indicates that there were no random analytical biases towards either compound.

  7. Determination of Se in biological samples by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after digestion with aqua regia and on-line chemical vapor generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Éder José; Herrmann, Amanda Beatriz; de Caires, Suzete Kulik; Frescura, Vera Lúcia Azzolin; Curtius, Adilson José

    2009-06-01

    A simple and fast method for the determination of Se in biological samples, including food, by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using on-line chemical vapor generation (CVG-ICP OES) is proposed. The concentrations of HCl and NaBH 4, used in the chemical vapor generation were optimized by factorial analysis. Six certified materials (non-fat milk powder, lobster hepatopancreas, human hair, whole egg powder, oyster tissue, and lyophilised pig kidney) were treated with 10 mL of aqua regia in a microwave system under reflux for 15 min followed by additional 15 min in an ultrasonic bath. The solutions were transferred to a 100 mL volumetric flask and the final volume was made up with water. The Se was determined directly in these solutions by CVG-ICP OES, using the analytical line at 196.026 nm. Calibration against aqueous standards in 10% v/v aqua regia in the concentration range of 0.5-10.0 µg L - 1 Se(IV) was used for the analysis. The quantification limit, considering a 0.5 g sample weight in a final volume of 100 mL - 1 was 0.10 µg g - 1. The obtained concentration values were in agreement with the total certified concentrations, according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level.

  8. Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vapor intrusion occurs when there is a migration of volatile chemicals from contaminated groundwater or soil into an overlying building. Volatile chemicals can emit vapors that may migrate through subsurface soils and into indoor air spaces.

  9. Identification of V-type nerve agents in vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator and fluoridating conversion tube.

    PubMed

    Ohrui, Y; Nagoya, T; Kurimata, N; Sodeyama, M; Seto, Y

    2017-07-01

    A field-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system (Hapsite ER) was evaluated for the detection of nonvolatile V-type nerve agents (VX and Russian VX (RVX)) in the vapor phase. The Hapsite ER system consists of a Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler, a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary GC column and a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump. The GC-MS system was attached to a VX-G fluoridating conversion tube containing silver nitrate and potassium fluoride. Sample vapors of VX and RVX were converted into O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EtGB) and O-isobutyl methylphosphonofluoridate (iBuGB), respectively. These fluoridated derivatives were detected within 10 min. No compounds were detected when the VX and RVX samples were analyzed without the conversion tube. A vapor sample of tabun (GA) was analyzed, in which GA and O-ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate were detected. The molar recovery percentages of EtGB and iBuGB from VX and RVX vapors varied from 0.3 to 17%, which was attributed to variations in the vaporization efficiency of the glass vapor container. The conversion efficiencies of the VX-G conversion tube for VX and RVX to their phosphonate derivatives were estimated to be 40%. VX and RVX vapors were detected at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg m(-3) . Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the analyses of VX and RVX. In the presence of 160 mg m(-3) gasoline, the detection limits of VX and RVX vapor were increased to 20 mg m(-3) . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Scientific objectives of the primitive body sample return missions: An approach from the light-induced effect on water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, Mikio

    1994-01-01

    Water is undoubtedly one of the most crucial components of the solar nebula for determining planetary composition: planets were formed from the accretion of the dust particles in the nebula, and the redox state of Fe in the particles can be determined by the reaction of Fe with water vapor diffused into the interior of the particle in the early stage of solar system formation. It has been discussed from various observations that the cores of Mercury, Venus, and the Earth might be metallic Fe, although the core of the Earth may be somewhat oxidized by the high pressure and temperature reaction of liquid Fe with perovskite at the boundary of the mantle and the core, whereas the core of Mars may be highly oxidized, as suggested by its low density. Isotopic anomalies of various elements have frequently been observed in the solar system (in planetary atmospheres and in meteorites) and some of them can be attributed to the injection of exotic particles formed in other stars into the solar nebula. Hydrogen and D anomalies in planetary atmospheres were frequently believed to correlate with the differential escape of H and D from the exospheres of Venus and Mars, although no one knows the primordial D/H ratios before thermal escape. This paper explains the decrease of the observed D/H ratios with distance from the sun by considering the light-induced drift effect to displace H2(16)O alone to the outside in the solar nebula.

  11. Scientific objectives of the primitive body sample return missions: An approach from the light-induced effect on water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, Mikio

    1994-01-01

    Water is undoubtedly one of the most crucial components of the solar nebula for determining planetary composition: planets were formed from the accretion of the dust particles in the nebula, and the redox state of Fe in the particles can be determined by the reaction of Fe with water vapor diffused into the interior of the particle in the early stage of solar system formation. It has been discussed from various observations that the cores of Mercury, Venus, and the Earth might be metallic Fe, although the core of the Earth may be somewhat oxidized by the high pressure and temperature reaction of liquid Fe with perovskite at the boundary of the mantle and the core, whereas the core of Mars may be highly oxidized, as suggested by its low density. Isotopic anomalies of various elements have frequently been observed in the solar system (in planetary atmospheres and in meteorites) and some of them can be attributed to the injection of exotic particles formed in other stars into the solar nebula. Hydrogen and D anomalies in planetary atmospheres were frequently believed to correlate with the differential escape of H and D from the exospheres of Venus and Mars, although no one knows the primordial D/H ratios before thermal escape. This paper explains the decrease of the observed D/H ratios with distance from the sun by considering the light-induced drift effect to displace H2(16)O alone to the outside in the solar nebula.

  12. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1997-12-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  13. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  14. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  15. Micro- and nano-volume samples by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization sample introduction using removable, interchangeable and portable rhenium coiled-filament assemblies and axially-viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiei, Hamid R.; Lai, Bryant; Karanassios, Vassili

    2012-11-01

    An electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) sample introduction for micro- or nano-volume samples is described. Samples were pipetted onto coiled-filament assemblies that were purposely developed to be removable and interchangeable and were dried and vaporized into a small-volume vaporization chamber that clips onto any ICP torch with a ball joint. Interchangeable assemblies were also constructed to be small-size (e.g., less than 3 cm long with max diameter of 0.65 cm) and light-weight (1.4 g) so that they can be portable. Interchangeable assemblies with volume-capacities in three ranges (i.e., < 1 μL, 1-10 μL and 10-100 μL) were fabricated and used. The horizontally-operated NTV sample introduction was interfaced to an axially-viewed ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) system and NTV was optimized using ICP-AES and 8 elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, V, Ba, Mg, Be and Ca). Precision was 1.0-2.3% (peak height) and 1.1-2.4% (peak area). Detection limits (obtained using 5 μL volumes) expressed in absolute-amounts ranged between 4 pg for Pb to 0.3 fg (~ 5 million atoms) for Ca. Detection limits expressed in concentration units (obtained using 100 μL volumes of diluted, single-element standard solutions) were: 50 pg/mL for Pb; 10 pg/mL for Cd; 9 pg/mL for Zn; 1 pg/mL for V; 0.9 pg/mL for Ba; 0.5 pg/mL for Mg; 50 fg/mL for Be; and 3 fg/mL for Ca. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Pb in pg/mL levels of diluted natural water Certified Reference Material (CRM) and the determination of Zn in 80 nL volumes of the liquid extracted from an individual vesicle. It is shown that portable and interchangeable assemblies with dried sample residues on them can be transported without analyte loss (for the concentrations tested), thus opening up the possibility for "taking part of the lab to the sample" applications, such as testing for Cu concentration-compliance with the lead-copper rule of the Environmental

  16. Time-multiplexed open-path TDLAS spectrometer for dynamic, sampling-free, interstitial H2 18O and H2 16O vapor detection in ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnreich, B.; Wagner, S.; Habig, J. C.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Ebert, V.

    2015-04-01

    An advanced in situ diode laser hygrometer for simultaneous, sampling-free detection of interstitial H2 16O and H2 18O vapor was developed and tested in the aerosol interaction and dynamics in atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber during dynamic cloud formation processes. The spectrometer to measure isotope-resolved water vapor concentrations comprises two rapidly time-multiplexed DFB lasers near 1.4 and 2.7 µm and an open-path White cell with 227-m absorption path length and 4-m mirror separation. A dynamic water concentration range from 2.6 ppb to 87 ppm for H2 16O and 87 ppt to 3.6 ppm for H2 18O could be achieved and was used to enable a fast and direct detection of dynamic isotope ratio changes during ice cloud formation in the AIDA chamber at temperatures between 190 and 230 K. Relative changes in the H2 18O/H2 16O isotope ratio of 1 % could be detected and resolved with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7. This converts to an isotope ratio resolution limit of 0.15 % at 1-s time resolution.

  17. Automatic flow-batch system for cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey from Argentina using online sample treatment.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Marina A; Grünhut, Marcos; Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Di Nezio, María S; Centurión, María E

    2012-05-16

    An automatic flow-batch system that includes two borosilicate glass chambers to perform sample digestion and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey samples was designed. The sample digestion was performed by using a low-cost halogen lamp to obtain the optimum temperature. Optimization of the digestion procedure was done using a Box-Behnken experimental design. A linear response was observed from 2.30 to 11.20 μg Hg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 3.20% (n = 11, 6.81 μg Hg L(-1)), the sample throughput was 4 sample h(-1), and the detection limit was 0.68 μg Hg L(-1). The obtained results with the flow-batch method are in good agreement with those obtained with the reference method. The flow-batch system is simple, allows the use of both chambers simultaneously, is seen as a promising methodology for achieving green chemistry goals, and is a good proposal to improving the quality control of honey.

  18. Methylmercury in water samples at the pg/L level by online preconcentration liquid chromatography cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombach, Christoph-Cornelius; Chen, Bin; Corns, Warren T.; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M.

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-traces of methylmercury at the sub-ppt level can be magnified in the foodweb and is of concern. In environmental monitoring a routine robust analytical method is needed to determine methylmercury in water. The development of an analytical method for ultra-trace speciation analysis of methylmercury (MeHg) in water samples is described. The approach is based on HPLC-CV-AFS with on-line preconcentration of water samples up to 200 mL, resulting in a detection limit of 40 pg/L (ppq) for MeHg, expressed as Hg. The unit consists of an optimized preconcentration column filled with a sulfur-based sorption material, on which mercury species are preconcentrated and subsequently eluted, separated and detected via HPLC-CV-AFS (high performance liquid chromatography-cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry). During the method development a type of adsorbate material, the pH dependence, the sample load rate and the carry-over were investigated using breakthrough experiments. The method shows broad pH stability in the range of pH 0 to 7, without the need for buffer addition and shows limited matrix effects so that MeHg is quantitatively recovered from sewage, river and seawater directly in the acidified samples without sample preparation.

  19. Determination of mercury in agroindustrial samples by flow-injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry using ion exchange and reductive elution.

    PubMed

    Gomes Neto, J A; Zara, L F; Rocha, J C; Santos, A; Dakuzaku, C S; Nóbrega, J A

    2000-03-06

    A flow-injection system with a Chelite-S(R) cationic resin packed minicolumn is proposed for the determination of trace levels of mercury in agroindustrial samples by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Improved sensitivity and selectivity are attained since mercuric ions are on-line concentrated whereas other potential interferents are discarded. With on-line reductive elution procedure, concentrated hydrochloric acid could be replaced by 10% w/v SnCl(2), in 6 M HCl as eluent. The reversed-intermittent stream either carries the atomic mercury to the flow cell in the forward direction or removes the residue from reactor/gas-liquid separator to a discarding flask in the opposite direction. Concentration and volume of reagent, acidity, flow rates, commutation times and potential interfering species were investigated. For 120 s preconcentration time, the proposed system handles about 25 samples h(-1) (50.0-500 ng l(-1)), consuming about 10 ml sample and 5 mg SnCl(2) per determination. The detection limit is 0.8 ng l(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) (n=12) of a 76.7 ng l(-1) sample is about 5%. Results are in agreement with certified value of standard materials at 95% confidence level and good recoveries (97-128%) of spiked samples were found.

  20. Development of a method for total Hg determination in oil samples by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry after its extraction induced by emulsion breaking.

    PubMed

    Vicentino, Priscila de O; Brum, Daniel M; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the development of a novel extraction method for total Hg determination in oil samples. After extracting Hg from samples it was quantified in the extracts by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), employing a laboratory-made gas-liquid separator (GLS) and NaBH4 as reducing agent. The extraction of Hg from samples was carried out by extraction induced by emulsion breaking (EIEB), which is based on the formation and breaking of water-in-oil emulsion between the oil samples and an extractant solution containing an emulsifying agent (surfactant) and nitric acid. Operational parameters of the GLS were evaluated in order to set the best performance of the measurement system. In these studies it was proven that the volume of sample and the concentration of HCl added to the sample extracts had significant influence on Hg response. The best conditions were achieved by adding 0.5 mL of a 0.3 mol L(-1) HCl solution on 1 mL of sample extract. The extraction conditions were also optimized. The highest efficiency was observed when 4 mL of a solution containing 2.5% triton X-100 and 15% v/v HNO3 were employed for the extraction of Hg contained in 20 mL of sample. Emulsion breaking was performed by heating at 80 °C and took approximately 20 min. The limit of quantification of the method was 1.9 µg L(-1) and recovery percentages between 80% and 103% were observed when spiked samples (2 and 10 µg L(-1)) of diesel oil, biodiesel and mineral oil were analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of the solvent-based dissolution method to sample volatile organic compound vapors for compound-specific isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Daniel; Wanner, Philipp; Luo, Hong; McLoughlin, Patrick W; Henderson, James K; Pirkle, Robert J; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2017-10-20

    The methodology of the solvent-based dissolution method used to sample gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was optimized to lower the method detection limits for TCE and benzene. The sampling methodology previously evaluated by [1] consists in pulling the air through a solvent to dissolve and accumulate the gaseous VOC. After the sampling process, the solvent can then be treated similarly as groundwater samples to perform routine CSIA by diluting an aliquot of the solvent into water to reach the required concentration of the targeted contaminant. Among solvents tested, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TGDE) showed the best aptitude for the method. TGDE has a great affinity with TCE and benzene, hence efficiently dissolving the compounds during their transition through the solvent. The method detection limit for TCE (5±1μg/m(3)) and benzene (1.7±0.5μg/m(3)) is lower when using TGDE compared to methanol, which was previously used (385μg/m(3) for TCE and 130μg/m(3) for benzene) [2]. The method detection limit refers to the minimal gas phase concentration in ambient air required to load sufficient VOC mass into TGDE to perform δ(13)C analysis. Due to a different analytical procedure, the method detection limit associated with δ(37)Cl analysis was found to be 156±6μg/m(3) for TCE. Furthermore, the experimental results validated the relationship between the gas phase TCE and the progressive accumulation of dissolved TCE in the solvent during the sampling process. Accordingly, based on the air-solvent partitioning coefficient, the sampling methodology (e.g. sampling rate, sampling duration, amount of solvent) and the final TCE concentration in the solvent, the concentration of TCE in the gas phase prevailing during the sampling event can be determined. Moreover, the possibility to analyse for TCE concentration in the solvent after sampling (or other targeted VOCs) allows the field deployment of the

  2. Determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuefei; Jiang, Zucheng; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2007-07-01

    A method of fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS with polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent was developed for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for REEs were 0.1 pg m(-3)(Eu) to 6.7 pg m(-3)(Nd) with the precisions of 4.1%(Yb) to 10%(La) (c=1 microg L(-1), n=9). The proposed method was applied to determine trace REEs in coal fly ash, airborne particulates and NIES SRM No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. It was found that the determined values for Y, La, Pr and Nd obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration coincided with that obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. However, the determined values for Ce and Sm obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration were lower than that obtained by PN-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition.

  3. Imaging of elements in leaves of tobacco by solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Plants take up and store elements according to the environment in which they are growing. Because plants are at the base of the food chain, the determination of essential elements or toxic elements in plant materials is of importance. However, it is assumed that the element content determined on selected tissues may provide more specific information than that derived from the whole plant analysis. In this work, we assessed the feasibility of solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry analyses for quantitative imaging of Cd and Mg in plant leaves. Leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were selected to be used as samples. To produce a two dimensional image, sections cut from leaf samples were analyzed. Cellulose doped with multi-element solution standards was used as calibration samples. Two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves) were used to verify the accuracy of measurements with good agreement between the measured concentrations and the certified values. Quantitative imaging revealed the inhomogeneous distribution of the selected elements. Excess of Cd and Mg tended to be focused on peripheral regions and the tip of the leaf.

  4. Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A. C.

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in several cereal samples. Thioacetamide was used as the modifier to enhance the ion signals. The background ions at the masses of interest were reduced in intensity significantly by using 1.0 mL min- 1 methane (CH4) as reaction cell gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Since the sensitivities of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in different matrices were quite different, standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in these cereal samples. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were about 1, 10, 4, 12 and 2 ng g- 1 for Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se, respectively, in original cereal samples. This procedure has been applied to the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se whose concentrations are in μg g- 1 (except Cr and Se) in standard reference materials (SRM) of National institute of standards and technology (NIST), NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour and two cereal samples purchased from a local market. The analysis results of reference materials agreed with certified values at 95% confidence level according to Student's T-test. The results for the real world cereal samples were also found to be in good agreement with the pneumatic nebulization DRC ICP-MS results of the sample solutions.

  5. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-103: Results from samples collected on 11/1/94

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-103 (referred to as Tank BY-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Trends in NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O samples indicated a possible minor sampling problem. Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for target organic analytes, 39 TO-14 compounds, plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, four were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Fourteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank BY-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected in the tank headspace. Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were detected in the ambient air sample. Tank BY-103 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  6. Determination of airborne trialkyl and triaryl organophosphates originating from hydraulic fluids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Development of methodology for combined aerosol and vapor sampling.

    PubMed

    Solbu, K; Thorud, S; Hersson, M; Ovrebø, S; Ellingsen, D G; Lundanes, E; Molander, P

    2007-08-17

    Methodology for personal occupational exposure assessment of airborne trialkyl and triaryl organophosphates originating from hydraulic fluids by active combined aerosol and vapor sampling at 1.5L/min is presented. Determination of the organophosphates was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Combinations of adsorbents (Anasorb 747, Anasorb CSC, Chromosorb 106, XAD-2 and silica gel) with an upstream cassette with glass fiber or PTFE filters and different desorption/extraction solvents (CS(2), CS(2)-dimethylformamide (50:1, v/v), toluene, dichloromethane, methyl-t-butyl ether and methanol) have been evaluated for optimized combined vapor and aerosol air sampling of the organophosphates tri-isobutyl, tri-n-butyl, triphenyl, tri-o-cresyl, tri-m-cresyl and tri-p-cresyl phosphates. The combination of Chromosorb 106 and 37 mm filter cassette with glass fiber filter and dichloromethane as desorption/extraction solvent was the best combination for mixed phase air sampling of the organophosphates originating from hydraulic fluids. The triaryl phosphates were recovered solely from the filter, while the trialkyl phosphates were recovered from both the filter and the adsorbent. The total sampling efficiency on the combined sampler was in the range 92-101% for the studied organophosphates based on spiking experiments followed by pulling air through the sampler. Recoveries after 28 days storage were 98-102% and 99-101% when stored at 5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. The methodology was further evaluated in an exposure chamber with generated oil aerosol atmospheres with both synthetic and mineral base oils with added organophosphates in various concentrations, yielding total sampling efficiencies in close comparison to the spiking experiments. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by exposure measurements in a mechanical workshop where system suitability tests are performed on different aircraft components in a test bench, displaying tricresyl phosphate

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-103 (in situ): Results from samples collected on August 5, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-TY-103. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  8. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-107: Results from samples collected on 2/17/95

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-107 (referred to as Tank U-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 10 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank U-107. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank U-107 is on the Organic and the Hydrogen Watch Lists.

  9. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/25/94

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 target analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Ten organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv in two or more of the three samples collected and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 89% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Methyl isocyanate, a compound of possible concern in Tank U-106, was not detected. Tank U-106 is on the Organic Watch List.

  10. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-105: Results from samples collected on 2/24/95

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-105 (referred to as Tank U-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. All nine of the organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for 100% of the total organic components in Tank U-105. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace sample. Tank U-105 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  11. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-TY-104: Results from samples collected on 4/27/95

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-104 (referred to as Tank TY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 8 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Five tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 94% of the total organic components in Tank TY-104. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank TY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  12. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-TX-118 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/7/94

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TX-118 (referred to as Tank TX-118). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen cyanide (CHN), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 13 analytes. Hexane, normally included in the additional analytes, was removed because a calibration standard was not available during analysis of Tank TX-118 SUMMA{trademark} canisters. Of these, 12 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Fourteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TX-118. Permanent gas analysis was not conducted on the tank-headspace samples. Tank TX-118 is on both the Ferrocyanide and Organic Watch List.

  13. Determination of trace impurities in boron nitride by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using solid sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, P.; Hassler, J.; Kudrik, I.; Krivan, V.

    2007-09-01

    Two digestion-free methods for trace analysis of boron nitride based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma spectrometry optical emission (ETV-ICP-OES) using direct solid sampling have been developed and applied to the determination of Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr in four boron nitride materials in concentration intervals of 1-23, 54-735, 0.05-21, 0.005-1.3, 1.6-112, 4.5-20, 0.03-1.8, 6-46, 38-170 and 0.4-2.3 μg g - 1 , respectively. At optimized experimental conditions, with both methods, effective in-situ analyte/matrix separation was achieved and calibration could be performed using calibration curves measured with aqueous standard solutions. In solid sampling GFAAS, before sampling, the platform was covered with graphite powder and, for determination of Si, also the Pd/Mg(NO 3) 2 modifier was used. In the determination of all analyte elements by solid sampling ETV-ICP-OES, Freon R12 was added to argon carrier gas. For solid sampling GFAAS and ETV-ICP-OES, the achievable limits of detection were within 5 (Cu)-130 (Si) ng g - 1 and 8 (Cu)-200 (Si) ng g - 1 , respectively. The results obtained by these two methods for four boron nitride materials of different purity grades are compared each with the other and with those obtained in analysis of digests by ICP-OES. The performance of the two solid sampling methods is compared and discussed.

  14. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martinis, Estefanía M; Bertón, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-08-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF(6)]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 microl of 9.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3ngL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 microg L(-1) Hg(2+) was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  15. Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation of inorganic selenium in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Duan, Jiankun; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2013-10-15

    A novel method based on dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) determination was proposed for the speciation of inorganic selenium by using 5-mercapto-3-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thione potassium salt (Bismuthiol II) as both chelating reagent and chemical modifier. In this method, 500 μL ethanol (as disperser solvent) containing 70 μL chloroform (as extraction solvent) and 0.2 g L(-1) Bismuthiol II (as chelating reagent) was rapidly injected into a sample solution to form cloudy solution. The complex of Se(IV) with Bismuthiol II was rapidly extracted into the extraction solvent at pH 2.0, while Se(VI) was remained in the aqueous solutions. Thus, the separation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) could be realized. After centrifugation, the complex of Se(IV) and Bismuthiol II concentrated in the extraction solvent was introduced into the ETV-ICP-MS for determination of Se(IV). Se(VI) was reduced to Se(IV) prior to determination of total selenium, and its assay was based on subtracting Se(IV) from total selenium. The main factors influencing the DLLME and the vaporization behavior of selenium in ETV were investigated systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for Se(IV) was 0.047 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 7.2% (CSe(IV)=1.0 ng mL(-1), n=8) with an enhancement factor of 64.8-fold from only 5 mL of water sample. The proposed method was successfully applied to the speciation of inorganic selenium in different environmental water samples with recoveries ranging from 94.8 to 108% for the spiking samples. In order to validate the proposed method, a Certified Reference Material of Environment Water (GBW(E)080395) was analyzed, and the determined value obtained was in good agreement with the certified value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on 3/14/95

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-S-102 (referred to as Tank S-102). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 11 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank S-102. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  17. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TX-118: Results from samples collected on 12/16/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TX-118 (referred to as Tank TX-118). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 3 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 84% of the total organic components in Tank TX-118. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  18. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-103: Results from samples collected on 4/11/95

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-103 (referred to as Tank TY-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 16 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank TY-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  19. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-110: Results for samples collected on 11/11/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-110 (referred to as Tank BY-110). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}, nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, we looked for the 40 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 15 analytes. Of these, 10 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Forty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed and account for approximately 78% of the total organic components in Tank BY-110. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  20. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-TY-104 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/5/94

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-104 (referred to as Tank TY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, eight were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty-four organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TY-104. Tank TY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  1. Sorption of a diverse set of organic chemical vapors onto XAD-2 resin: Measurement, prediction and implications for air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Stephen J.; Lei, Ying D.; Wania, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The wide-spread use of styrene-divinylbenzene-copolymeric resin (XAD-2) in air sampling necessitates a quantitative understanding of its sorption characteristics for organic chemicals. Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) was used to measure the sorption of a diverse set of 52 organic chemicals to XAD-2 at temperatures between 40 °C and 100 °C and at relative humidities between 0 and 87%. Even though relative humidity has been shown to influence sorption to other sorbents, it did not significantly influence most chemicals' sorption to XAD-2, indicating that water does not form a strong physical barrier to sorption on XAD-2 at high relative humidity. The resin-air partition coefficients ( KXAD) determined by IGC and the enthalpies of sorption derived from them were regressed against solute descriptors to derive poly-parameter Linear Free Energy Relationships (ppLFERs) which allow the estimation of KXAD for chemicals which are not sufficiently volatile to be amenable to IGC and for temperatures outside the experimental range. KXAD values at 20 °C estimated for a set of 296 chemicals for which solute descriptors are available, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides, indicate that for many of the substances commonly found in the atmosphere sorption is higher to XAD-2 than to poly-urethane foam, another popular air sampling sorbent.

  2. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-S-111: Results from samples collected on 3/21/95

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-S-111 (referred to as Tank S-111). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, seven were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Five tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 98% of the total organic components in Tank S-111. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected. Tank S-111 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  3. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-SX-106: Results from samples collected on 3/24/95

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Litgotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-SX-106 (referred to as Tank SX-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 4 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 7 organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank SX-106. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was the only permanent gas detected. Tank SX-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  4. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-112: Results from samples collected on 8/11/94

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-112 (referred to as Tank C-112). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. None were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The five organic analytes with the highest concentration are listed in Table 1 and account for 100% of the total organic components in Tank C-112.

  5. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-109 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/22/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-109 (referred to as Tank BY-109). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty-three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 38. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. The ten organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. The ten analytes account for approximately 84% of the total organic components in Tank BY-109.

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BX-104: Results from samples collected on 12/30/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BX-104 (referred to as Tank BX-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained. for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SOx) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 13 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes, with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 70% of the total organic components in Tank BX-104. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  7. Simultaneous speciation of inorganic arsenic, selenium and tellurium in environmental water samples by dispersive liquid liquid microextraction combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-09-01

    A new method based on dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) was developed for the simultaneous speciation of inorganic arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te) with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) as both chelating reagent and chemical modifier. As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) were transformed into DDTC-chelates at pH 7 and extracted into the fine droplets formed by injecting the binary solution of bromobenzene (extraction solvent) and methanol (dispersive solvent) into the sample solution. After phase separation by centrifugation, As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) preconcentrated in the organic phase were determined by ETV-ICP-MS. Total inorganic As, Se and Te were obtained by reducing As(V), Se(VI) and Te(VI) to As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) with L-cysteine, which were then subjected to the same DLLME-ETV-ICP-MS process. The concentration of As(V), Se(VI), Te(VI) were calculated by subtracting the concentration of As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) from the total inorganic As, Se and Te, respectively. The main factors affecting the microextraction efficiency and the vaporization behavior of target species were investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were 2.5, 8.6 and 0.56 ng L(-1) for As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV), respectively, with the relative standard deviations (n=7) of 8.5-9.7%. The developed method was applied to the speciation of inorganic As, Se and Te in Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ50004-88, GBW(E)080395 and GBW(E)080548 environmental waters, and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values. The method was also successfully applied to the simultaneous speciation of inorganic As, Se and Te in different environmental water samples with the recoveries in the range of 86.3-107% for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vapor concentration monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  9. Evaluation of Mercury in Environmental Samples by a Supramolecular SolventBased Dispersive LiquidLiquid Microextraction Method Before Analysis by a Cold Vapor Generation Technique.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jamshed; Tuzen, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem G

    2017-02-01

    Supramolecular solvent–based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction was used as a preconcentration method for the determination of trace levels of Hg. This simple method accurately measured oxidized HgII content in claystone and sandstone samples obtained from the Thar Coalfield in Pakistan. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used as the detection technique because it is reliable and accurate. The HgII in acidic media forms a complex with dithizone (DTz) in the presence of supramolecular solvent (tetrahydrofuran and 1-undecanol), forming reverse micelles. Formation of the Hg-DTz complex was achieved to increase the interactions with the supramolecular solvent phase at pH 2.5 under the optimized experimental conditions. After addition of the supramolecular solvent to the aqueous solution, the micelles were uniformly mixed using a vortex mixer. The cloudy solution was centrifuged, and the Hg-DTz complex was extracted into the supramolecular solvent phase. Under optimized experimental conditions, the LOD and enrichment factor were found to be 5.61 ng/L and 77.8, respectively. Accuracy of the developed method was checked with Certified Reference Materials. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of HgII in claystone and sandstone samples from the Block VII and Block VIII areas of the Thar Coalfield on the basis of depth.

  10. Determination of mercury in water and fish samples by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction on agar modified with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, N; Ghanemi, K

    2009-01-30

    A novel solid phase extraction method for the determination of mercury has been developed. The Hg(II) ions were retained on a mini-column packed with agar powder modified with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole at a flow rate of 6 mL min(-1). The retained Hg(II) ions were eluted with 3 mol L(-1) solution of HCl and measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). The effect of different variables such as pH, sample flow rate, amounts of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole loaded on agar and SnCl(2) concentration was investigated and optimum conditions were established. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.040-2.40 ng mL(-1) with r=0.9994 (n=8). The limit of detection based on three times the standard deviation (3S(b)) (n=10) obtained under optimum conditions was 0.02 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for the determination of 0.4 and 2.0 ng mL(-1) of Hg(II) was 2.6 and 1.9% (n=8), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine Hg(II) in water, wastewater and fish samples.

  11. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-109 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 6/23/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-109 (referred to as Tank C-109). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Organic compounds were quantitatively determined. Thirteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrumental detection limit. However, it is believed, even though the values for dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are below the instrumental detection limit, they are accurate at these low concentrations. The six analytes account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank C-109. These six organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.

  12. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A C

    2015-02-20

    A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL(-1) Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  13. Sorption of N2 and EGME vapors on some soils, clays, and mineral oxides and determination of sample surface areas by use of sorption data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Rutherford, D.W.; Manes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Vapor sorption isotherms of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) at room temperature and isotherms of N2 gas at liquid nitrogen temperature were determined for various soils and minerals. The N2 monolayer capacities [Qm (N2)] were calculated from the BET equation and used to determine the surface areas. To examine whether EGME is an appropriate adsorbate for determination of surface areas, the apparent EGME monolayer capacities [Qm (EGME)ap] were also obtained by use of the BET equation. For sand, aluminum oxide, kaolinite, hematite, and synthetic hydrous iron oxide, which are relatively free of organic impurity and expanding/solvating minerals, the Qm (EGME)ap values are in good conformity with the corresponding Qm (N2) values and would give surface areas consistent with BET (N2) values. For other samples (Woodburn soil, a natural hydrous iron oxide, illite, and montmorillonite), the Qm (EGME)ap values overestimate the Qm (N2) values from a moderate to a large extent, depending on the sample. A high-organic-content peat shows a very small BET (N2) surface area; the EGME/ peat isotherm is linear and does not yield a calculation of the surface area. Large discrepancies between results of the two methods for some samples are attributed to the high solubility of polar EGME in soil organic matter and/ or to the cation solvation of EGME with solvating clays. The agreement for other samples is illustrative of the consistency of the BET method when different adsorbates are used, so long as they do not exhibit bulk penetration and/or cation solvation. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  14. Vapor Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  15. Direct determination of arsenic in soil samples by fast pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation using sodium formate as a reductant followed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xuchuan; Zhang, Jingya; Bu, Fanlong

    2015-09-01

    This new study shows for the first time that sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via fast pyrolysis - chemical vapor generation. We found that the presence of thiourea greatly enhanced the generation efficiency and eliminated the interference of copper. We studied the reaction temperature, the volume of sodium formate, the reaction acidity, and the carried argon rate using nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under optimal conditions of T = 500 °C, the volumes of 30% sodium formate and 10% thiourea were 0.2 ml and 0.05 ml, respectively. The carrier argon rate was 300 ml min- 1 and the detection limit and precision of arsenic were 0.39 ng and 3.25%, respectively. The amount of arsenic in soil can be directly determined by adding trace amount of hydrochloric acid as a decomposition reagent without any sample pretreatment. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amount of arsenic in two soil-certified reference materials (GBW07453 and GBW07450), and the results were found to be in agreement with certified reference values.

  16. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-104: Results from samples collected on 2/17/94 and 3/3/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-104 (referred to as Tank C-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were analyzed for tributyl phosphate. Twenty-four organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, two were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. These 10 analytes account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank C 104. Tank C-104 is not on any of the Watch Lists.

  17. Determination of As, Hg and Pb in herbs using slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chia-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of herbs for As, Hg and Pb has been carried out using slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with flow injection vapor generation. Slurry containing 0.5% m/v herbal powder, 0.1% m/v citric acid and 2% v/v HCl was injected into the VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of As, Hg and Pb that obviate dissolution and mineralization. Standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for quantifications in selected herbal powders. This method has been validated by the determination of As, Hg and Pb in NIST standard reference materials SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The As, Hg and Pb analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The precision obtained by the reported procedure was better than 7% for all determinations. The detection limit estimated from standard addition curve was 0.008, 0.003, and 0.007 ng mL(-1) for As, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  18. High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzel, O.; Klein, A.; Wagner, S.; Meffert, C.; Schulz, C.; Ebert, V.

    2012-11-01

    A novel, fiber-optic in situ laser hygrometer was developed to measure water vapor with microsecond time resolution directly inside an internal combustion (IC) engine. The instrument is intended for sampling-free quantification of recirculated exhaust gas in combustion engines. Direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to allow absolute and self-calibrating H2O measurements. The compact and user-friendly instrument combines a fiber-coupled, 1.37 μm distributed feedback diode laser with kHz-fast, continuous wavelength scanning. Only small, typically 10 mm, optical access ports in the engine are needed. The new in situ hygrometer was tested via measurements in a motored optical research engine operated on ambient air, without any artificial humidification. Scanning the laser at 4 kHz resulted in a time resolution of 250 μs (i.e., 3° crank angle at 2,000 rpm), while the DC-coupled detector signals are digitized with a 4MSamples/s 16-bit data acquisition system. Absolute water vapor concentrations around 1 vol.% could be measured and quantified during the full compression stroke, i.e., over a pressure/temperature range of 0.07-0.52 MPa/300-500 K. Without any scan averaging or bandwidth filtering we could demonstrate signal-to-noise ratios between 51 (at p = 0.1 MPa) and 33 (at p = 0.4 MPa), which corresponds to H2O detection limits between 0.02 and 0.035 vol.% or length and bandwidth normalized detectivities of 285 and 477 ppb m Hz-½, respectively. Comparison of the dynamic H2O behavior during the compression stroke across several engine cycles and different operating conditions showed good reproducibility and absolute accuracy of the results, consistent with the boundary conditions, i.e., motored air operation. This new sensor therefore opens up new possibilities for engine cycle-resolved, calibration-free in situ AGR quantification and optimization in engine applications.

  19. Vapor fragrancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Q. Tran; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1987-05-01

    This invention relates to a vapor fragrancer for continuously, uniformly, and economically odorizing or deodorizing an environment. Homes, offices, automobiles, and space stations require either odorizing or deodorizing of the atmosphere to create pleasant conditions for work or leisure. A vapor fragrancer is provided to accomplish these goals. A supplier continuously supplies a predetermined amount of desired liquid fragrance from a container to a retaining material, which is positioned in the circulation path of the atmosphere. The supplier is either a low powered pump or a gravity dispenser. The atmosphere flowing in a circulation path passes over the retaining material containing the liquid fragrance and lifts a fragrant vapor from the retaining material. The atmosphere is thereby continuously and uniformly fragranced.

  20. Simultaneous determination of gasoline oxygenates and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in water samples using headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez Pavón, José Luis; del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel; Fernández Laespada, María Esther; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2007-12-14

    A sensitive method is presented for the fast analysis of seven fuel oxygenates (methanol, ethanol, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE)) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene (BTEX) in water samples. The applicability of a headspace (HS) autosampler in combination with a GC device equipped with a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a MS detector is explored. The proposed method achieves a clear improvement in sensitivity with respect to conventional headspace methods due to the use of the PTV. Two different packed liners with materials of different trapping strengths (glass wool and Tenax-TA) were compared. The benefits of using Tenax-TA instead of glass wool as packed material for the measurement of the 11 compounds emerged as better signal-to-noise ratios and hence better detection limits. The proposed method is extremely sensitive. The limits of detection are of the order of ng/L for six of the compounds studied and of the order of microg/L for the rest, with the exception of the most polar and volatile compound: methanol. Precision (measured as the relative standard deviation for a level with an S/N ratio close to 3) was equal to or lower than 15% in all cases. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in natural matrixes (tap, river and sea water) and the results obtained can be considered highly satisfactory. The methodology has much lower detection limits than the concentration limits proposed in drinking water by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union for compounds under regulation.

  1. Method and apparatus for vapor detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Melvin (Inventor); Hood, Lyal V. (Inventor); Rommel, Marjorie A. (Inventor); Pettitt, Bruce C. (Inventor); Erikson, Charles M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The method disclosed herein may be practiced by passing the vapors to be sampled along a path with halogen vapor, preferably chlorine vapor, heating the mixed vapors to halogenate those of the sampled vapors subject to halogenation, removing unreacted halogen vapor, and then sensing the vapors for organic halogenated compounds. The apparatus disclosed herein comprises means for flowing the vapors, both sample and halogen vapors, into a common path, means for heating the mixed vapors to effect the halogenation reaction, means for removing unreacted halogen vapor, and a sensing device for sensing halogenated compounds. By such a method and means, the vapors of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, ketones and alcohols, when present, such as methane, ethane, acetone, ethanol, and the like are converted, at least in part, to halogenated compounds, then the excess halogen removed or trapped, and the resultant vapors of the halogenated compounds sensed or detected. The system is highly sensitive. For example, acetone in a concentration of 30 parts per billion (volume) is readily detected.

  2. Fuel Vaporization Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosque, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effects of fuel-air preparation characteristics on combustor performance and emissions at temperature and pressure ranges representative of actual gas turbine combustors is discussed. The effect of flameholding devices on the vaporization process and NOx formation is discussed. Flameholder blockage and geometry are some of the elements that affect the recirculation zone characteristics and subsequently alter combustion stability, emissions and performance. A water cooled combustor is used as the test rig. Preheated air and Jet A fuel are mixed at the entrance of the apparatus. A vaporization probe is used to determine percentage of vaporization and a gas sample probe to determine concentration of emissions in the exhaust gases. The experimental design is presented and experimental expected results are discussed.

  3. Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method that uses a simple apparatus to measure vapor pressure versus temperature in a closed system, in which the total pressure is the vapor pressure of the liquid sample, is described. The use of this apparatus gives students a more direct picture of vapor pressure than the isoteniscope method and results have generally been quite…

  4. Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method that uses a simple apparatus to measure vapor pressure versus temperature in a closed system, in which the total pressure is the vapor pressure of the liquid sample, is described. The use of this apparatus gives students a more direct picture of vapor pressure than the isoteniscope method and results have generally been quite…

  5. An assessment of the liquid-gas partitioning behavior of major wastewater odorants using two comparative experimental approaches: liquid sample-based vaporization vs. impinger-based dynamic headspace extraction into sorbent tubes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Cho, Jinwoo

    2014-01-01

    The gas-liquid partitioning behavior of major odorants (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, hexanoic acid, phenol, p-cresol, indole, skatole, and toluene (as a reference)) commonly found in microbially digested wastewaters was investigated by two experimental approaches. Firstly, a simple vaporization method was applied to measure the target odorants dissolved in liquid samples with the aid of sorbent tube/thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. As an alternative method, an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling method was also explored to measure the partitioning of target odorants between the gas and liquid phases with the same detection system. The relative extraction efficiency (in percent) of the odorants by dynamic headspace sampling was estimated against the calibration results derived by the vaporization method. Finally, the concentrations of the major odorants in real digested wastewater samples were also analyzed using both analytical approaches. Through a parallel application of the two experimental methods, we intended to develop an experimental approach to be able to assess the liquid-to-gas phase partitioning behavior of major odorants in a complex wastewater system. The relative sensitivity of the two methods expressed in terms of response factor ratios (RFvap/RFimp) of liquid standard calibration between vaporization and impinger-based calibrations varied widely from 981 (skatole) to 6,022 (acetic acid). Comparison of this relative sensitivity thus highlights the rather low extraction efficiency of the highly soluble and more acidic odorants from wastewater samples in dynamic headspace sampling.

  6. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  7. Sorption of N[sub 2] and EGME vapors on some soils, clays, and mineral oxides and determination of sample surface areas by use of sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Chlou, C.T.; Rutherford, D.W. ); Manes, M. )

    1993-08-01

    Vapor sorption isotherms of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) at room temperature and isotherms of N[sub 2] gas at liquid nitrogen temperature were determined for various soils and minerals. The N[sub 2] monolayer capacities [Q[sub m](N[sub 2])] were calculated from the BET equation and used to determine the surface areas. To examine whether EGME is an appropriate adsorbate for determination of surface areas, the apparent EGME monolayer capacities [Q[sub m](EGME)[sub ap

  8. Interference effect of iron on the determination of gold in geological samples using the vapor generation technique and preconcentration in a graphite furnace.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Gülay; Ataman, O Yavuz

    2006-04-01

    A vapor generation procedure for the production of volatile species of Au was studied using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The interference effects of iron in solution and in the gas phase in a quartz T-tube were studied for the first time in detail. A dual vapor generation system was used for a single heated quartz tube atomizer, so that it was possible to study interferences and classify them regarding their origins. Results show that both gas-phase and liquid-phase interferences are present. It was also concluded that since the total interference effect causes the Au signal to be lower as compared to only the presence of gas-phase interactions in the experiment, the net liquid-phase interference from Fe should be suppressed. The method described in this study was used for the determination of gold in an ore reference material, Carlin Ore Mine, for the purpose of demonstrating the ability of the reported method to determine Au without any extraction procedure.

  9. Hydrazine-Vapor Samplers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca; Mcbrearty, Charles; Curran, Dan; Leavitt, Nilgun

    1994-01-01

    Active sampling unit capable of detecting hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine vapors at levels as low as 10 ppb in air developed. Includes detachable badge holder and pump which draws air through badge holder at selectable rate of 1 or 2 L/min. Coated strip in each badge designed to align with air passage in badge holder. Two types of badge holders constructed: one has open-face design for general monitoring of air in open spaces, while other has closed-face design with viewing window and intended for sampling through small openings to detect leaks.

  10. Hydrazine-Vapor Samplers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca; Mcbrearty, Charles; Curran, Dan; Leavitt, Nilgun

    1994-01-01

    Active sampling unit capable of detecting hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine vapors at levels as low as 10 ppb in air developed. Includes detachable badge holder and pump which draws air through badge holder at selectable rate of 1 or 2 L/min. Coated strip in each badge designed to align with air passage in badge holder. Two types of badge holders constructed: one has open-face design for general monitoring of air in open spaces, while other has closed-face design with viewing window and intended for sampling through small openings to detect leaks.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber was used for the growth of Si films on glass, glass-ceramic, and polycrystalline ceramic substrates. Silicon vapor was produced by pyrolysis of SiH4 in a H2 or He carrier gas. Preliminary deposition experiments with two of the available glasses were not encouraging. Moderately encouraging results, however, were obtained with fired polycrystalline alumina substrates, which were used for Si deposition at temperatures above 1,000 C. The surfaces of both the substrates and the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, reflection electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy optical microscopy, and surface profilometric techniques. Several experiments were conducted to establish baseline performance data for the reactor system, including temperature distributions on the sample pedestal, effects of carrier gas flow rate on temperature and film thickness, and Si film growth rate as a function of temperature.

  12. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  13. Vapor deposition routes to conformal polymer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Moni, Priya; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Vapor phase syntheses, including parylene chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and initiated CVD, enable the deposition of conformal polymer thin films to benefit a diverse array of applications. This short review for nanotechnologists, including those new to vapor deposition methods, covers the basic theory in designing a conformal polymer film vapor deposition, sample preparation and imaging techniques to assess film conformality, and several applications that have benefited from vapor deposited, conformal polymer thin films. PMID:28487816

  14. Superfund Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In addition to basic information about vapor intrusion, the site contains technical and policy documents, tools and other resources to support vapor intrusion environmental investigations and mitigation activities.

  15. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  16. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.

  17. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  18. The use of electrothermal vaporizer coupled to the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of arsenic, selenium and transition metals in biological samples treated with formic acid.

    PubMed

    Tormen, Luciano; Gil, Raul A; Frescura, Vera L A; Martinez, Luis Dante; Curtius, Adilson J

    2012-03-02

    A fast method for the determination of As, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and V in biological samples by ETV-ICP-MS, after a simple sample treatment with formic acid, is proposed. Approximately 75 mg of each sample is mixed with 5 mL of formic acid, kept at 90°C for 1 h and then diluted with nitric acid aqueous solution to a 5% (v/v) formic acid and 1% (v/v) nitric acid final concentrations. A palladium solution was used as a chemical modifier. The instrumental conditions, such as carrier gas flow rate, RF power, pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures and argon internal flow rate during vaporization were optimized. The formic acid causes a slight decrease of the analytes signal intensities, but does not increase the signal of the mainly polyatomic ions ((14)N(35)Cl(+), (14)N(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(+), (13)C(37)Cl(+), (40)Ar(36)Ar(+), (40)Ar(35)Cl(+), (35)Cl(16)O(+), (40)Ar(18)O(+)) that affect the analytes signals. The effect of charge transfer reactions, that could increase the ionization efficiency of some elements with high ionization potentials was not observed due to the elimination of most of the organic compounds during the pyrolysis step. External calibration with aqueous standard solutions containing 5% (v/v) formic acid allows the simultaneous determination of all analytes with high accuracy. The detection limits in the samples were between 0.01 (Co) and 850 μg kg(-1) (Fe and Se) and the precision expressed by the relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 0.1% (Mn) and 10% (Ni). Accuracy was validated by the analysis of four certified reference biological materials of animal tissues (lobster hepatopancreas, dogfish muscle, oyster tissue and bovine liver). The recommended procedure avoids plasma instability, carbon deposit on the cones and does not require sample digestion.

  19. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Grate, Jay W.; Baldwin, David L.; Anheier, Jr., Norman C.

    2008-10-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  20. Sequential photocatalyst-assisted digestion and vapor generation device coupled with anion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for speciation analysis of selenium species in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yun-ni; Lin, Cheng-hsing; Hsu, I-hsiang; Sun, Yuh-chang

    2014-01-02

    We have developed an on-line sequential photocatalyst-assisted digestion and vaporization device (SPADVD), which operates through the nano-TiO2-catalyzed photo-oxidation and reduction of selenium (Se) species, for coupling between anion exchange chromatography (LC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) systems to provide a simple and sensitive hyphenated method for the speciation analysis of Se species without the need for conventional chemical digestion and vaporization techniques. Because our proposed on-line SPADVD allows both organic and inorganic Se species in the column effluent to be converted on-line into volatile Se products, which are then measured directly through ICP-MS, the complexity of the procedure and the probability of contamination arising from the use of additional chemicals are both low. Under the optimized conditions for SPADVD - using 1g of nano-TiO2 per liter, at pH 3, and illuminating for 80 s - we found that Se(IV), Se(VI), and selenomethionine (SeMet) were all converted quantitatively into volatile Se products. In addition, because the digestion and vaporization efficiencies of all the tested selenicals were improved when using our proposed on-line LC/SPADVD/ICP-MS system, the detection limits for Se(IV), Se(VI), and SeMet were all in the nanogram-per-liter range (based on 3σ). A series of validation experiments - analysis of neat and spiked extracted samples - indicated that our proposed methods could be applied satisfactorily to the speciation analysis of organic and inorganic Se species in the extracts of Se-enriched supplements.

  1. Solid Phase Extraction of Inorganic Mercury Using 5-Phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline and Determination by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Natural Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Daye, Mirna; Halwani, Jalal; Hamzeh, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was chosen as a powerful ligand for Hg solid phase extraction. Among several chelating resins based on 8-HQ, 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) is used for mercury extraction in which the adsorption dynamics were fully studied. It has been shown that Hg(II) is totally absorbed by 5Ph8HQ within the first 30 minutes of contact time with t1/2 5 minutes, following Langmuir adsorption model. At pH 4, the affinity of mercury is unchallenged by other metals except, for Cu(II), which have shown higher Kd value. With these latter characteristics, 5Ph8HQ was examined for the preconcentration of trace levels of Hg(II). The developed method showed quantitative recoveries of Hg(II) with LOD = 0.21 pg mL−1 and RSD = 3–6% using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) with a preconcentration factor greater than 250. PMID:24459417

  2. Solid phase extraction of inorganic mercury using 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline and determination by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy in natural water samples.

    PubMed

    Daye, Mirna; Ouddane, Baghdad; Halwani, Jalal; Hamzeh, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was chosen as a powerful ligand for Hg solid phase extraction. Among several chelating resins based on 8-HQ, 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) is used for mercury extraction in which the adsorption dynamics were fully studied. It has been shown that Hg(II) is totally absorbed by 5Ph8HQ within the first 30 minutes of contact time with t 1/2 5 minutes, following Langmuir adsorption model. At pH 4, the affinity of mercury is unchallenged by other metals except, for Cu(II), which have shown higher Kd value. With these latter characteristics, 5Ph8HQ was examined for the preconcentration of trace levels of Hg(II). The developed method showed quantitative recoveries of Hg(II) with LOD = 0.21 pg mL(-1) and RSD = 3-6% using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) with a preconcentration factor greater than 250.

  3. Vapor Pressure of GB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    EDGEWOOD CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL CENTER U.S. ARMY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING COMMAND ECBC-TR-686 VAPOR PRESSURE OF GB James H. Buchanan...275 °C under a flow rate of 20 seem UHP -grade helium for 5 min and transferred to the ACEM 900 tenax focusing trap maintained at 40 °C. Transfer...a flow rate of 8.0 seem UHP grade helium for 5 min to affect sample transfer to the gas chromatographic column. The 15 m x 0.53 mm i.d. fused silica

  4. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  5. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  6. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Eckels, D.E.; Hass, W.J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system is described for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses. 4 figs.

  7. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-07

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of charcoal cloth as a sorbent for integrated sampling of solvent vapors in mixed-expired breath using a new stainless steel sampler.

    PubMed

    Glaser, R A; Arnold, J E

    1989-02-01

    A stainless steel device for integrated sampling of solvents present in mixed-expired breath is described. During sampling, the subject inhales breathing air through commercial charcoal inhalation canisters. Exhaled breath is sampled from the mainstream using 45-mm wafers of charcoal cloth or from the sidestream on other sorbents. The device concentrates trace contaminants present in large volumes of breath. The charcoal cloth sorbent was evaluated for sampling and analysis of m-xylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane under simulated physiological conditions. These samples were collected from atmospheres of either analyte generated at 35 degrees-40 degrees C and 80%-90% relative humidity to simulate an exhaled breath sample matrix. Concentrations sampled ranged from 2.2 to 190 mg/m3 for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and from 0.44 to 35.6 mg/m3 for m-xylene. Volumes sampled ranged from 10 to 50 L. The m-xylene samples were collected using a 3-wafer front and a 2-wafer backup bed of charcoal cloth; 1,1,1-trichloroethane samples were collected using a 10-wafer front and a 1-wafer backup bed. All samples were desorbed in carbon disulfide and analyzed via gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The volume of desorption solvent ranged from 1.7 to 2.5 mL per wafer of cloth. The quantitation limit is estimated to be 2.0 micrograms/L for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 0.4 micrograms/L m-xylene for a 50-L sample. At least 80% recovery was obtained for m-xylene or 1,1,1-trichloroethane samples stored from 1 to 14 days after collection, if the samples were refrigerated at 0 degrees C after an initial 7-day storage period at room temperature. The recovery of hexane, 1-hexene, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, methylene chloride, and methyl isobutyl ketone from the charcoal cloth also has been investigated and is reported. With the exception of isopropanol, all analytes were recovered quantitatively from the charcoal cloth by desorption with carbon disulfide following storage for 1 to 17

  9. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  10. Measurement of vapor phase mercury emissions at coal-fired power plants using regular and speciating sorbent traps with in-stack and out-of-stack sampling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Chien-Wei Chen; Jiashun Zhu; Chin-Wei Chen; Yao-Wen Kuo; Tung-Han Lin; Shu-Hsien Wen; Yong-Siang Zeng; Juei-Chun Liu; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A systematic investigation of sorbent-trap sampling, which is a method that uses paired sorbent traps to measure total vapor phase mercury (Hg), was carried out at two coal-fired power plants. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects (if any) on data quality when the following aspects of the sorbent trap method are varied: (a) sorbent trap configuration; (b) sampling time; and (c) analytical technique. Also, the performance of a speciating sorbent trap (i.e., a trap capable of separating elemental Hg from oxidized Hg), was evaluated by direct comparison against the Ontario Hydro (OH) reference method. Flue gas samples were taken using both 'regular' and modified sorbent trap measurement systems. Both short-term (1.5 h) and long-term (18 h to 10 days) samples were collected. The in-stack and out-of-stack sampling methods produced satisfactory relative accuracy results for both the short-term and long-term testing. For the short-term tests, the in-stack sampling results compared more favorably to the OH method than did the out-of-stack results. The relative deviation between the paired traps was considerably higher for the short-term out-of-stack tests than for the long-term tests. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.1) between the direct combustion and wet-chemistry analytical methods used in the study; the results from the direct combustion method were consistently higher than the wet-chemistry results. The evaluation of the speciating mercury sorbent trap demonstrated that the trap is capable of providing reasonably accurate total mercury concentrations and speciation data that are somewhat comparable to data obtained with the OH method. 5 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Assessment of the Halogen Content of Brazilian Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM10) Using High Resolution Molecular Absorption Spectrometry and Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with Direct Solid Sample Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Almeida, Tarcisio S; Alves, Jeferson C; Araujo, Rennan G O; Borges, Daniel L G

    2016-03-15

    Halogens in the atmosphere play an important role in climate change and also represent a potential health hazard. However, quantification of halogens is not a trivial task, and methods that require minimum sample preparation are interesting alternatives. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of direct solid sample analysis using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS MAS) for F determination and electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for simultaneous Cl, Br, and I determination in airborne inhalable particulate matter (PM10) collected in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Analysis using HR-CS MAS was accomplished by monitoring the CaF molecule, which was generated at high temperatures in the graphite furnace after the addition of Ca. Analysis using ETV-ICP-MS was carried out using Ca as chemical modifier/aerosol carrier in order to avoid losses of Cl, Br, and I during the pyrolysis step, with concomitant use of Pd as a permanent modifier. The direct analysis approach resulted in LODs that were proven adequate for halogen determination in PM10, using either standard addition calibration or calibration against a certified reference material. The method allowed the quantification of the halogens in 14 PM10 samples collected in a northeastern coastal city in Brazil. The results demonstrated variations of halogen content according to meteorological conditions, particularly related to rainfall, humidity, and sunlight irradiation.

  12. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  13. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  14. Colorometric detection of ethylene glycol vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helm, C.; Mosier, B.; Verostko, C. E.

    1970-01-01

    Very low concentrations of ethylene glycol in air or other gases are detected by passing a sample through a glass tube with three partitioned compartments containing reagents which successively convert the ethylene glycol vapor into a colored compound.

  15. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 5/4/94 and 5/5/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-106 (referred to as Tank BY-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HCN, and H{sub 2}O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty-three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1. The 10 analytes account for approximately 64% of the total organic components in Tank BY-106. Tank BY-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  16. Stratospheric water vapor feedback.

    PubMed

    Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H

    2013-11-05

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause.

  17. Vapor phase pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis process is designed exclusively for the lunar production of oxygen. In this concept, granulated raw material (soil) that consists almost entirely of metal oxides is vaporized and the vapor is raised to a temperature where it dissociates into suboxides and free oxygen. Rapid cooling of the dissociated vapor to a discrete temperature causes condensation of the suboxides, while the oxygen remains essentially intact and can be collected downstream. The gas flow path and flow rate are maintained at an optimum level by control of the pressure differential between the vaporization region and the oxygen collection system with the aid of the environmental vacuum.

  18. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the growth of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials is investigated. The objective is to develop CVD techniques for producing large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells meeting the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Specific areas covered include: (1) modification and test of existing CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using standard and near-standard processing techniques.

  19. Synthesis and application of ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the extraction and preconcentration of mercury in water and food samples employing cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Shahryar; Khani, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    We describe a nanosized Hg(II)-imprinted polymer that was prepared from methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as radical initiator, 2, 2'-di pyrydyl amine as a specific ligand, and Hg (II) as the template ions by precipitation polymerization method in methanol as the progeny solvent. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, Hg (II) imprinted polymer amount, adsorption and desorption time, volume, and concentration of eluent. The synthesized polymer particles were characterized physically and morphologically by using infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent was 27.96 and 7.89 mg g(-1), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit for mercury was 0.01 μg L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 3.2 % (n = 6) at the 1.00 μg L(-1). The procedure was applied to determination of mercury in fish and water samples with satisfactory results.

  20. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  1. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  2. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  3. Analytical modeling of the subsurface volatile organic vapor concentration in vapor intrusion

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    The inhalation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that intrude from a subsurface contaminant source into indoor air has become the subject of health and safety concerns over the last twenty years. Building subslab and soil gas contaminant vapor concentration sampling have become integral parts of vapor intrusion field investigations. While numerical models can be of use in analyzing field data and in helping understand the subslab and soil gas vapor concentrations, they are not widely used due to the perceived effort in setting them up. In this manuscript, we present a new closed-form analytical expression describing subsurface contaminant vapor concentrations, including subslab vapor concentrations. The expression was derived using Schwarz-Christoffel mapping. Results from this analytical model match well the numerical modeling results. This manuscript also explores the relationship between subslab and exterior soil gas vapor concentrations, and offers insights on what parameters need to receive greater focus in field studies. PMID:24034829

  4. Analytical modeling of the subsurface volatile organic vapor concentration in vapor intrusion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    The inhalation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that intrude from a subsurface contaminant source into indoor air has become the subject of health and safety concerns over the last twenty years. Building subslab and soil gas contaminant vapor concentration sampling have become integral parts of vapor intrusion field investigations. While numerical models can be of use in analyzing field data and in helping understand the subslab and soil gas vapor concentrations, they are not widely used due to the perceived effort in setting them up. In this manuscript, we present a new closed-form analytical expression describing subsurface contaminant vapor concentrations, including subslab vapor concentrations. The expression was derived using Schwarz-Christoffel mapping. Results from this analytical model match well the numerical modeling results. This manuscript also explores the relationship between subslab and exterior soil gas vapor concentrations, and offers insights on what parameters need to receive greater focus in field studies.

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inspections b. Portable mercury vapor analyzer—ultraviolet light absorption detector A sample of gas is drawn... vapor in the cell room and other areas a. Portable mercury vapor analyzer—ultraviolet light...

  6. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOEpatents

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  7. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOEpatents

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  8. Dynamic headspace generation and quantitation of triacetone triperoxide vapor.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Braden C; Lubrano, Adam L; Field, Christopher R; Collins, Greg E

    2014-02-28

    Two methods for quantitation of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) vapor using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet coupled to a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) have been demonstrated. The dynamic headspace of bulk TATP was mixed with clean humid air to produce a TATP vapor stream. Sampling via a heated transfer line to a PTV inlet with a Tenax-TA™ filled liner allowed for direct injection of the vapor stream to a GC/MS for vapor quantitation. TATP was extracted from the vapor stream and subsequently desorbed from the PTV liner for splitless injection on the GC column. Calibration curves were prepared using solution standards with a standard split/splitless GC inlet for quantitation of the TATP vapor. Alternatively, vapor was sampled onto a Tenax-TA™ sample tube and placed into a thermal desorption system. In this instance, vapor was desorbed from the tube and subsequently trapped on a liquid nitrogen cooled PTV inlet. Calibration curves for this method were prepared from direct liquid injection of standards onto samples tube with the caveat that a vacuum is applied to the tube during deposition to ensure that the volatile TATP penetrates into the tube. Vapor concentration measurements, as determined by either GC/MS analysis or mass gravimetry of the bulk TATP, were statistically indistinguishable. Different approaches to broaden the TATP vapor dynamic range, including diluent air flow, sample chamber temperature, sample vial orifice size, and sample size are discussed. Vapor concentrations between 50 and 5400ngL(-1) are reported, with stable vapor generation observed for as long as 60 consecutive hours.

  9. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/temperature/humidity (FIFH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the Kennedy

  10. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/ temperature / humidity (FTH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the

  11. Explosive vapor detection payload for small robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimac, Phil J.; Pettit, Michael; Wetzel, John P.; Haas, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Detection of explosive hazards is a critical component of enabling and improving operational mobility and protection of US Forces. The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) developed by the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is addressing this challenge for dismounted soldiers. Under the AMDS program, ARA has developed a vapor sampling system that enhances the detection of explosive residues using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors. The Explosives Hazard Trace Detection (EHTD) payload is designed for plug-and-play installation and operation on small robotic platforms, addressing critical Army needs for more safely detecting concealed or exposed explosives in areas such as culverts, walls and vehicles. In this paper, we describe the development, robotic integration and performance of the explosive vapor sampling system, which consists of a sampling "head," a vapor transport tube and an extendable "boom." The sampling head and transport tube are integrated with the boom, allowing samples to be collected from targeted surfaces up to 7-ft away from the robotic platform. During sample collection, an IR lamp in the sampling head is used to heat a suspected object/surface and the vapors are drawn through the heated vapor transport tube to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection. The EHTD payload is capable of quickly (less than 30 seconds) detecting explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX at nanogram levels on common surfaces (brick, concrete, wood, glass, etc.).

  12. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  13. Water vapor - Stratospheric injection by thunderstorms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Lojko, M. S.; Petersen, E. V.

    1971-01-01

    Infrared radiometric inference measurements of the mass of water vapor injected into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by a number of plains thunderstorms show an average threefold increase over the fair weather background mass of water vapor. These airborne measurements, made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Convair 990 jet laboratory, extended over a sample size much larger than that possible by balloon and other techniques.

  14. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  15. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  16. Stratospheric water vapor feedback

    PubMed Central

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  17. Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Mcbrearty, Charles F.; Curran, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    The Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS) was developed to detect vapors of hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in air at parts-per-billion (ppb) concentration levels. The sampler consists of a commercial personal pump that draws ambient air through paper tape treated with vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). The paper tape is sandwiched in a thin cardboard housing inserted in one of the two specially designed holders to facilitate sampling. Contaminated air reacts with vanillin to develop a yellow color. The density of the color is proportional to the concentration of HZ or MMH. The AHVS can detect 10 ppb in less than 5 minutes. The sampler is easy to use, low cost, and intrinsically safe and contains no toxic material. It is most beneficial for use in locations with no laboratory capabilities for instrumentation calibration. This paper reviews the development, laboratory test, and field test of the device.

  18. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  19. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema

    Atkinson, David

    2016-07-12

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  20. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (Inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Campbell, A. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Shaw, G. L.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The objective was to investigate and develop chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the growth of large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with resulting sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells that would meet the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. The program involved six main technical tasks: (1) modification and test of an existing vertical-chamber CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using impurity diffusion and other standard and near-standard processing techniques supplemented late in the program by the in situ CVD growth of n(+)/p/p(+) sheet structures subsequently processed into experimental cells.

  2. Vapor generator wand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robelen, David B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for producing a stream of vapor for wind tunnel airflow visualization is described. An electrically conductive heating tube is used to resistively heat a vapor producing liquid. The heating and delivery systems are integrated to allow the device to present a small cross section to the air flow, thereby reducing disturbances due to the device. The simplicity of the design allows for inexpensive implementation and construction. The design is readily scaled for use in various wind tunnel applications. The device may also find uses in manufacturing, producing a vapor for deposition on a substrate.

  3. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  4. Comparative study of the vapor analytes of trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Cindy C.; Gibb, Julie; Dugan, Regina E.

    1998-12-01

    Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a high explosive used in most antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The Institute for Biological Detection Systems (IBDS) has developed a quantitative vapor delivery system, termed olfactometer, for conducting canine olfactory research. The research is conducted utilizing dynamic conditions, therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the headspace of TNT to ensure consistency with the dynamic generation of vapor. This study quantified the vapor headspace of military- grade TNT utilizing two different vapor generated methodologies, static and dynamic, reflecting differences between field and laboratory environments. Static vapor collection, which closely mimics conditions found during field detection, is defined as vapor collected in an open-air environment at ambient temperature. Dynamic vapor collection incorporates trapping of gases from a high flow vapor generation cell used during olfactometer operation. Analysis of samples collected by the two methodologies was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the results provided information with regard to the constituents detected. However, constituent concentration did vary between the sampling methods. This study provides essential information regarding the vapor constituents associated with the TNT sampled using different sampling methods. These differences may be important in determining the detection signature dogs use to recognize TNT.

  5. EPA Method 245.2: Mercury (Automated Cold Vapor Technique)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method 245.2 describes procedures for preparation and analysis of drinking water samples for analysis of mercury using acid digestion and cold vapor atomic absorption. Samples are prepared using an acid digestion technique.

  6. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOEpatents

    Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA; Baldwin, David L [Kennewick, WA; Anheier, Jr., Norman C.

    2012-06-05

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  7. AMTEC vapor-vapor series connected cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Mark L. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Nakamura, Barbara J. (Inventor); Oconnor, Dennis E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) having a plurality of cells structurally connected in series to form a septum dividing a plenum into two chambers, and electrically connected in series, is provided with porous metal anodes and porous metal cathodes in the cells. The cells may be planar or annular, and in either case a metal alkali vapor at a high temperature is provided to the plenum through one chamber on one side of the wall and returned to a vapor boiler after condensation at a chamber on the other side of the wall in the plenum. If the cells are annular, a heating core may be placed along the axis of the stacked cells. This arrangement of series-connected cells allows efficient generation of power at high voltage and low current.

  8. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  9. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  10. Vapor Control Layer Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    This information sheet describes the level of vapor control required on the interior side of framed walls with typical fibrous cavity insulation (fibreglass, rockwool, or cellulose, based on DOE climate zone of construction.

  11. Water Vapor Over Europa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-12

    This graphic shows the location of water vapor detected over Europa south pole in observations taken by NASA Hubble Space Telescope in December 2012. This is the first strong evidence of water plumes erupting off Europa surface.

  12. Vapor Deposition Rig

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-27

    The Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) Rig at NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig helps develop coatings for next-generation aircraft turbine components and create more efficient engines.

  13. Waste Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Birn, M.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Silvers, K.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report compiles information collected during the Fiscal Year 1995 pertaining to the waste tank vapor characterization project. Information covers the following topics: project management; organic sampling and analysis; inorganic sampling and analysis; waste tank vapor data reports; and the waste tanks vapor database.

  14. Continuous Determination of High-Vapor Phase Concentrations of Tetrachloroethylene Using On-Line Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed to determine the vapor concentration of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) at and below its equilibrium vapor phase concentration, 168,000 μg/L (25°C). Vapor samples were drawn by vacuum into a six-port sampling valve and injected through a jet separator into an io...

  15. Continuous Determination of High-Vapor Phase Concentrations of Tetrachloroethylene Using On-Line Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed to determine the vapor concentration of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) at and below its equilibrium vapor phase concentration, 168,000 μg/L (25°C). Vapor samples were drawn by vacuum into a six-port sampling valve and injected through a jet separator into an io...

  16. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  17. Quantitative Detection of Trace Explosive Vapors by Programmed Temperature Desorption Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector

    PubMed Central

    Field, Christopher R.; Lubrano, Adam; Woytowitz, Morgan; Giordano, Braden C.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can account for instrumentation losses, which makes it ideal for minimizing variability and quantitative trace chemical detection. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector is an instrumentation configuration sensitive to nitro-energetics, such as TNT and RDX, due to their relatively high electron affinity. However, vapor quantitation of these compounds is difficult without viable vapor standards. Thus, we eliminate the requirement for vapor standards by combining the sensitivity of the instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition protocol to analyze trace explosive vapor samples. PMID:25145416

  18. Quantitative detection of trace explosive vapors by programmed temperature desorption gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; Lubrano, Adam; Woytowitz, Morgan; Giordano, Braden C; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

    2014-07-25

    The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can account for instrumentation losses, which makes it ideal for minimizing variability and quantitative trace chemical detection. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector is an instrumentation configuration sensitive to nitro-energetics, such as TNT and RDX, due to their relatively high electron affinity. However, vapor quantitation of these compounds is difficult without viable vapor standards. Thus, we eliminate the requirement for vapor standards by combining the sensitivity of the instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition protocol to analyze trace explosive vapor samples.

  19. A novel capillary microextraction on ordered mesoporous titania coating combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of V, Cr and Cu in environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiwei; Hu, Bin; Hu, Wenling; Jiang, Zucheng; Li, Boyangzi

    2007-04-01

    In this work, an ordered mesoporous titania film was introduced to coat a capillary by means of sol-gel technique. Sol-gel titania coating was developed for the preconcentration/separation of trace V, Cr and Cu by capillary microextraction (CME), and the adsorbed analytes were eluted for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) detection. By immobilizing sol-gel titania on the inner surface of a fused-silica microextraction capillary, the sol-gel titania coating was prepared easily. Its adsorption properties, stability and the factors affecting the adsorption behaviors of V, Cr and Cu were investigated in detail. At pH range of 7 to 9, the titania-coated capillary (50 cm x 0.25 mm) is selective towards V, Cr and Cu, and the target analytes could be desorbed quantitatively with 50 microl of 1.0 mol l(-1) HNO3 at the rate of 0.05 ml min(-1). With a consumption of 2 ml sample solution, an enrichment factor of 33.3, and a detection limit (3 s) of 1.1 pg ml(-1) (10.5 fg) for V; 3.3 pg ml(-1) (33.0 fg) for Cr and 6.3 pg ml(-1) (63.1 fg) for Cu respectively were obtained. The precisions Relative Standard Deviations (RSDs) for nine replicate measurements of 1 ng ml(-1) V, Cr and Cu were 3.4, 5.1 and 6.4%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of V, Cr and Cu in human urine and lake water, and the recoveries for these elements were 89.2 approximately 105%. The developed method was also applied to the determination of the target elements in NIES No. 10-a (rice flour-unpolished) and NIES No. 9 (sargasso) certified reference materials, and the results found are in good agreement with the certified values. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Story, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

  1. Vapor generator wand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robelen, David B. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In low speed wind tunnels it is often desirable to visualize airflow to augment observations made with instruments such as strain and pressure gages. Current technology devices for delivery of a vapor are bulky and thus disrupt local airflow. It is the object of this invention to provide a device capable of delivering a stream of vapor with a minimal effect on local airflow. The present invention achieves this object by utilizing a narrow tube as a heating device for producing the vapor. Running an electrical current through the tube provides resistive heating to a liquid which produces a vapor when boiled. As the entire heating and delivery portion of the device is simply a small cylinder the disruption to airflow within the tunnel is minimized. this allows an experimenter to place the source of vapor fairly close to a model without causing too much change to the model data. The novelty of the present invention lies in reducing the bulk of current technology devices by combining the acts of heating and delivery.

  2. A smart sensor system for trace organic vapor detection using a temperature-controlled array of surface acoustic wave vapor sensors, automated preconcentrator tubes, and pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, J.W.; Rose-Pehrsson, S.L.; Klusty, M.; Wohltjen, H.

    1993-05-01

    A smart sensor system for the detection, of toxic organophosphorus and toxic organosulfur vapors at trace concentrations has been designed, fabricated, and tested against a wide variety of vapor challenges. The key features of the system are: An array of four surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapor sensors, temperature control of the vapor sensors, the use of pattern recognition to analyze the sensor data, and an automated sampling system including thermally-desorbed preconcentrator tubes (PCTs).

  3. Evaluation of vapor intrusion using controlled building pressure.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Thomas E; Beckley, Lila; Bailey, Danielle; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio; Brock, Samuel; MacGregor, Ian C

    2012-05-01

    The use of measured volatile organic chemical (VOC) concentrations in indoor air to evaluate vapor intrusion is complicated by (i) indoor sources of the same VOCs and (ii) temporal variability in vapor intrusion. This study evaluated the efficacy of utilizing induced negative and positive building pressure conditions during a vapor intrusion investigation program to provide an improved understanding of the potential for vapor intrusion. Pressure control was achieved in five of six buildings where the investigation program was tested. For these five buildings, the induced pressure differences were sufficient to control the flow of soil gas through the building foundation. A comparison of VOC concentrations in indoor air measured during the negative and positive pressure test conditions was sufficient to determine whether vapor intrusion was the primary source of VOCs in indoor air at these buildings. The study results indicate that sampling under controlled building pressure can help minimize ambiguity caused by both indoor sources of VOCs and temporal variability in vapor intrusion.

  4. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

  5. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    DOEpatents

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  6. Vapor core propulsion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Nils J.

    1991-01-01

    Many research issues were addressed. For example, it became obvious that uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) is a most preferred fuel over uranium hexafluoride (UF6). UF4 has a very attractive vaporization point (1 atm at 1800 K). Materials compatible with UF4 were looked at, like tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, carbon. It was found that in the molten state, UF4 and uranium attacked most everything, but in the vapor state they are not that bad. Compatible materials were identified for both the liquid and vapor states. A series of analyses were established to determine how the cavity should be designed. A series of experiments were performed to determine the properties of the fluid, including enhancement of the electrical conductivity of the system. CFD's and experimental programs are available that deal with most of the major issues.

  7. Vaporizing particle velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A velocimeter measures flow characteristics of a flow traveling through a chamber in a given direction. Tracer particles are entrained in the flow and a source of radiant energy produces an output stream directed transversely to the chamber, having a sufficient intensity to vaporize the particles as they pass through the output stream. Each of the vaporized particles explodes to produce a shock wave and a hot core, and a flow visualization system tracks the motion of the hot cores and shock waves to measure the velocity of each tracer particle and the temperature of the flow around the tracer.

  8. Vapor transport mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Raman scattering furnace for investigating vapor transport mechanisms was completed and checked out. Preliminary experiments demonstate that a temperature resolution of plus and minus 5 C is possible with this system operating in a backscatter mode. In the experiments presented with the GeI 4 plus excess Ge system at temperatures up to 600 C, only the GeI4 band at 150 cm superscript minus 1 was observed. Further experiments are in progress to determine if GeI2 does become the major vapor species above 440 C.

  9. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  10. BTSC VAPOR INSTRUSION PRIMER "VAPOR INTRUSION CONSIDERATION FOR REDEVELOPMENT"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This primer is designed for brownfields stakeholders concerned about vapor intrusion, including property owners, real estate developers, and contractors performing environmental site investigations. It provides an overview of the vapor intrusion issue and how it can impact the ap...

  11. BTSC VAPOR INSTRUSION PRIMER "VAPOR INTRUSION CONSIDERATION FOR REDEVELOPMENT"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This primer is designed for brownfields stakeholders concerned about vapor intrusion, including property owners, real estate developers, and contractors performing environmental site investigations. It provides an overview of the vapor intrusion issue and how it can impact the ap...

  12. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  13. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  14. Solvent vapor collector

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  15. Water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, R.; Mcilrath, T.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of measuring atmospheric water vapor by means of a tunable lidar operated from the space shuttle. The specific method evaluated was differential absorption, a two-color method in which the atmospheric path of interest is traversed by two laser pulses. Results are reported.

  16. Water vapor diffusion membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, F. F., Jr.; Smith, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The program is reported, which was designed to define the membrane technology of the vapor diffusion water recovery process and to test this technology using commercially available or experimental membranes. One membrane was selected, on the basis of the defined technology, and was subjected to a 30-day demonstration trial.

  17. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  18. BioVapor Model Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    General background on modeling and specifics of modeling vapor intrusion are given. Three classical model applications are described and related to the problem of petroleum vapor intrusion. These indicate the need for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Evaluation of Bi...

  19. BioVapor Model Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    General background on modeling and specifics of modeling vapor intrusion are given. Three classical model applications are described and related to the problem of petroleum vapor intrusion. These indicate the need for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Evaluation of Bi...

  20. Detailed Field Investigation of Vapor Intrusion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    University of Southern California for analysis of radon concentrations in air and soil gas (SG) samples; Chet Clarke of the Texas Commission on...foundation. Additional samples may be appropriate for larger structures. 1.4 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Spatial and temporal variability in volatile...organic compound (VOC) concentrations has a significant impact on vapor intrusion investigations. High spatial and long-term temporal variability in

  1. Sorption Equilibria of Vapor Phase Organic Pollutants on Unsaturated Soils and Soil Minerals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    employed. The method relies on measurement of vapor concentrations of mixtures of solid samples with volatile organic compounds iv contained in gas-tight...of China, assisted with construction of the gravimetric adsorption apparatus employed in Section IV , calibration of the quartz spring, and the water...Constant ..... .............. .. 83 D. CONCLUSIONS .......... ....................... 85 IV TCE VAPOR SORPTION ONTO SOIL MINERALS AT III;! .. 87 VAPOR

  2. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    DOE PAGES

    McHugh, Thomas; Beckley, Lila; Sullivan, Terry; ...

    2017-04-26

    We report the role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampled during most vapor intrusion investigations. We have used a tracer study and VOC concentration measurements to evaluate the role of the combined sanitary/storm sewer line in VOC transport at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex in Indianapolis, Indiana. The results from the tracer study demonstrated gas migration from the sewer main line into themore » duplex. The migration pathway appears to be complex and may include leakage from the sewer lateral at a location below the building foundation. Vapor samples collected from the sewer line demonstrated the presence of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and chloroform in the sewer main in front of the duplex and at multiple sample locations within the sewer line upstream of the duplex. Finally, these test results combined with results from the prior multi-year study of the duplex indicate that the sewer line plays an important role in transport of VOCs from the subsurface source to the immediate vicinity of the duplex building envelope.« less

  3. Chemiluminescence detection of hydrazine vapor.

    PubMed

    Collins, G E; Latturner, S; Rose-Pehrsson, S L

    1995-04-01

    An efficient, real-time chemiluminescence detector for hydrazine vapor, N(2)H(4)(g), is described, capable of monitoring sub part-per-billion levels of hydrazine in air. The catalytic oxidation of hydrazine by colloidal platinum forms an intermediate, oxidizing agent (e.g. OH or OOH) which subsequently oxidizes luminol, generating a chemiluminescence signal that is proportional to the hydrazine concentration. Major components of the instrument include a photomultiplier tube (PMT), a short length of glass tubing coiled directly in front of the PMT cathode surface, a vacuum pump for sampling the air, and a peristaltic pump for circulating the liquid reagent. The liquid reagent, a basic solution (pH 13) of luminol and colloidal platinum, is continuously recycled. The detection sequence is initiated by pumping the hydrazine vapor through a short length of teflon tubing that is concurrently transporting the liquid reagent. The liquid is separated from the gas stream in an impinger and quickly pumped to the PMT. We have evaluated the effect of solution pH, luminol and platinum concentrations, and air and liquid flow rates on the analytical characteristics of this system. A linear, dynamic detection range for hydrazine has been obtained from 1 to 2000 ppb in air, with an instrument response that is fully reversible and achieves plateau response in less than 2 min.

  4. FIELD TRAPPING OF SUBSURFACE VAPOR PHASE PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil gas samples from intact soil cores were collected on adsorbents at a field site, then thermally desorbed and analyzed by laboratory gas chromatography (GC). ertical concentration profiles of predominant vapor phase petroleum hydrocarbons under ambient conditions were obtaine...

  5. FIELD TRAPPING OF SUBSURFACE VAPOR PHASE PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil gas samples from intact soil cores were collected on adsorbents at a field site, then thermally desorbed and analyzed by laboratory gas chromatography (GC). ertical concentration profiles of predominant vapor phase petroleum hydrocarbons under ambient conditions were obtaine...

  6. Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, C.D. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

  7. Stratified vapor generator

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan [Lakewood, CO; Hassani, Vahab [Golden, CO

    2008-05-20

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  8. Water vaporization on Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A search is presently conducted for OH generated by the photodissociation of atmospheric water vapor in long-exposure IUE spectra of the region around Ceres. A statistically significant detection of OH is noted in an exposure off the northern limb of Ceres after perihelion. The amount of OH is consistent with a polar cap that might be replenished during winter by subsurface percolation, but which dissipates in summer.

  9. Filter vapor trap

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  10. Copper Vapor Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    percent measured during this program in a static copper vapor apparatus developed at PIB . This efficiency has been calculated by dividing the energy of a... laser medium. A measure of beam quality may be defined in terms ot the energy delivered in the tar field in relatum to the energy delivered by a...phase of the work the homogeneity requirements for the medium of a high -power laser was reviewed. These requirements were translated into measurable

  11. A Stereospecific Vapor Detector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-26

    to be done next is to determine the state of aggregation of the iron in the cesium iodide matrix. Is it present as single atoms, small clusters...its polarity and tendency to aggregate , on the properties of the host matrix material such as its heat of vaporization, and on the temperature and...has been filed. COry \\NSf’! CTED (ii) The next question had to do with the state of aggregation of the ’_ guest molecules: if these molecules are not

  12. Enceladus' water vapor plume.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Candice J; Esposito, L; Stewart, A I F; Colwell, J; Hendrix, A; Pryor, W; Shemansky, D; West, R

    2006-03-10

    The Cassini spacecraft flew close to Saturn's small moon Enceladus three times in 2005. Cassini's UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph observed stellar occultations on two flybys and confirmed the existence, composition, and regionally confined nature of a water vapor plume in the south polar region of Enceladus. This plume provides an adequate amount of water to resupply losses from Saturn's E ring and to be the dominant source of the neutral OH and atomic oxygen that fill the Saturnian system.

  13. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  14. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  15. Role of Co-Vapors in Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Younghee; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Huh, Jinyoung; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Sampath, Gayathri; Im, Won Bin; Huh, Yang–Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers were fabricated by vapor phase polymerization. Importantly, the vapor-phase deposition of PPy onto cellulose was assisted by employing different co-vapors namely methanol, ethanol, benzene, water, toluene and hexane, in addition to pyrrole. The resulting PPCL papers possessed high mechanical flexibility, large surface-to-volume ratio, and good redox properties. Their main properties were highly influenced by the nature of the co-vaporized solvent. The morphology and oxidation level of deposited PPy were tuned by employing co-vapors during the polymerization, which in turn led to change in the electrochemical properties of the PPCL papers. When methanol and ethanol were used as co-vapors, the conductivities of PPCL papers were found to have improved five times, which was likely due to the enhanced orientation of PPy chain by the polar co-vapors with high dipole moment. The specific capacitance of PPCL papers obtained using benzene, toluene, water and hexane co-vapors was higher than those of the others, which is attributed to the enlarged effective surface area of the electrode material. The results indicate that the judicious choice and combination of co-vapors in vapor-deposition polymerization (VDP) offers the possibility of tuning the morphological, electrical, and electrochemical properties of deposited conducting polymers. PMID:25673422

  16. Thermogravimetric study of vapor pressure of TATP synthesized without recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Mbah, Jonathan; Knott, Debra; Steward, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at characterizing the vapor pressure signatures generated by triacetone triperoxide (TATP) that was synthesized without recrystallization by thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA) for exploitation by standoff detection technologies of explosive devices. The thermal behavior of the nonrecrystallized sample was compared with reported values. Any phase change, melting point and decomposition identification were studied by differential scanning calorimeter. Vapor pressures were estimated by the Langmuir method of evaporation from an open surface in a vacuum. Vapor pressures of TATP at different temperatures were calculated using the linear logarithmic relationship obtained from benzoic acid reference standard. Sublimation of TATP was found to follow apparent zero-order kinetics and sublimes at steady rates at 298 K and above. While the enthalpy of sublimation found, 71.7 kJ mol(-1), is in agreement with reported values the vapor pressures deviated significantly. The differences in the vapor pressures behavior are attributable to the synthesis pathway chosen in this study.

  17. Vapor core turbulence in annular two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Trabold, T.A.; Kumar, R.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports a new technique to measure vapor turbulence in two-phase flows using hot-film anemometry. Continuous vapor turbulence measurements along with local void fraction, droplet frequency, droplet velocity and droplet diameter were measured in a thin, vertical duct. By first eliminating the portion of the output voltage signal resulting from the interaction of dispersed liquid droplets with the HFA sensor, the discrete voltage samples associated with the vapor phase were separately analyzed. The data revealed that, over the range of liquid droplet sizes and concentrations encountered, the presence of the droplet field acts to enhance vapor turbulence. In addition, there is evidence that vapor turbulence is significantly influenced by the wall-bounded liquid film. The present results are qualitatively consistent with the limited data available in the open literature.

  18. Optofluidic ring resonator sensors for rapid DNT vapor detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuze; Liu, Jing; Frye-Mason, Greg; Ja, Shiou-jyh; Thompson, Aaron K; Fan, Xudong

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrated rapid 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapor detection at room temperature based on an optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensor. With the unique on-column separation and detection features of OFRR vapor sensors, DNT can be identified from other interferences coexisting in the analyte sample mixture, which is especially useful in the detection of explosives from practical complicated vapor samples usually containing more volatile analytes. The DNT detection limit is approximately 200 pg, which corresponds to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling time of only 1 second at room temperature from equilibrium headspace. A theoretical analysis was also performed to account for the experimental results. Our study shows that the OFRR vapor sensor is a promising platform for the development of a rapid, low-cost, and portable analytical device for explosive detection and monitoring.

  19. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

  20. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

  1. Headspace gas and vapor characterization summary for the 43 vapor program suspect tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-10-05

    During the time period between February 1994 and September 1995, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) sampled the waste tank headspace of 43 single-shell tanks for a variety of gaseous and/or volatile and semi-volatile compounds. This report summarizes the results of analyses of those sampling activities with respect to both the Priority 1 Safety Issues and relative to the detection in the headspace of significant concentrations of target analytes relating to worker breathing space considerations as recommended by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Toxicology Review Panel. The information contained in the data tables was abstracted from the vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization reports. Selected results are tabulated and summarized. Sampling equipment and methods, as well as sample analyses, are briefly described. Vapor sampling of passively ventilated single-shell tanks (tanks C-105, C-106, and SX-106 were sampled and are actively ventilated) has served to highlight or confirm tank headspace conditions associated with both priority 1 safety issues and supports source term analysis associated with protecting worker health and safety from noxious vapors.

  2. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  3. Technical Transfer Report on a TNT Enzyluminescent Vapor Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    Cab NoI@w, Sm 1204. * irpa . VA W041=uOt v bO9th aeard Wed ARe-1a bmA?41" 4li. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE j.REPORT TYPE AND DAME...11 Detector Module .................................................................................... 15 Vapor Generator...Luciferase, Oxidoreductase, and Nitroreductase Assays ............... 1- 15 Appendix J Sample Train Drawings .. Appendix K Vapor Generator Draings

  4. Measurement of alkali vapors in PFBC exhaust. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Under the auspices of the US Department of Energy through Morgantown Energy Technology Center, laboratory-scale studies were conducted to develop a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA) for use in an in situ regenerable activated-bauxite sorber alkali monitor (RABSAM). The RABSAM is a sampling probe that does not require a high-temperature/high-pressure sampling line for reliable measurement of alkali vapor in the exhaust of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC). The RABA can be generated from the commercial grade activated bauxite by deactivating (or reacting) clay impurities in activated bauxite with NaCl or LiCl vapor. Under the atmospheric deactivation process, however, only a partial deactivation of clay impurities is achieved, probably due to limited access of NaCl or LiCl vapor into micropores of activated bauxite. Because LiCl vapor chemically reacts with alumina substrate of activated bauxite, resulting in pore enlargement, loss of pore surface area, and a decrease in the subsequent NaCl-vapor sorption capacity of the RABA, NaCl is a more suitable deactivation agent than LiCl vapor. In a simulated PFBC exhaust environment, the RABA behaves similarly to fresh activated bauxite in capturing NaCl vapor from the simulated PFBC exhaust. Based on results of this work, we recommend generating chemically and thermally stable RABA by deactivating clay impurities of commercial grade activated bauxite with NaCl or KCl vapor under simulated PFBC exhaust environment, that is, high-temperature, high-pressure, and high concentrations of NaCl or KCl vapor in simulated PFBC exhaust compositions.

  5. Mercury vapor levels in exhaust air from dental vacuum systems.

    PubMed

    Stone, Mark E; Cohen, Mark E; Debban, Brad A

    2007-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine mercury (Hg) vapor levels in the air exhausted from dental vacuum systems. Hg vapor concentrations from the dental vacuum system exhaust ports of three dental clinics were measured utilizing the Jerome 431-X mercury vapor analyzer and the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) method ID-140 in units of ng Hg/m3. Air velocity measurements and temperatures were determined with a constant temperature thermal anemometer. Hg emissions per unit time were then calculated in ng Hg/min. Ambient Hg concentrations from a location approximately 1000 feet away from the closest clinic sampled in this study were measured with an Ohio Lumex Inc. RA-915+ Hg vapor analyzer. Mean Hg vapor concentrations analyzed with the Jerome 431-X were: 46,526, 72,211, and 36,895 ng/m3 for clinic I (110 chairs), clinic II (30 chairs) and clinic III (2 chairs), respectively. Mean Hg vapor concentrations utilizing OSHA method ID-140 were 45,316, 73,737, and 35,421 ng/m3, respectively. Air flow values were: 11.6, 1.8, and 0.5 standard m3/min, respectively. Hg emission data utilizing air flow measurements were calculated to be 532,684, 131,353, and 18,079 ng/min, respectively, (P<0.001). There was no statistical difference between the two methods used to measure Hg vapor concentrations. The mean Hg concentration in ambient air approximately 1000 feet from the nearest clinic sampled was 13.2 ng/m3. The two different methods used to measure Hg vapor concentrations provided similar estimates of Hg concentrations from the exhaust air of three dental vacuum systems. Hg vapor release to the atmosphere from dental vacuums can be substantial and can exceed human exposure limits.

  6. Vapor pressures of acetylene at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterson, C. M.; Allen, John E., Jr.; Kraus, G. F.; Khanna, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheres of many of the outer planets and their satellites contain a large number of hydrocarbon species. In particular, acetylene (C2H2) has been identified at Jupiter, Saturn and its satellite Titan, Uranus and Neptune. In the lower atmospheres of these planets, where colder temperatures prevail, the condensation and/or freezing of acetylene is probable. In order to obtain accurate models of the acetylene in these atmospheres, it is necessary to have a complete understanding of its vapor pressures at low temperatures. Vapor pressures at low temperatures for acetylene are being determined. The vapor pressures are measured with two different techniques in order to cover a wide range of temperatures and pressures. In the first, the acetylene is placed in a sample tube which is immersed in a low temperature solvent/liquid nitrogen slush bath whose temperature is measured with a thermocouple. The vapor pressure is then measured directly with a capacitance manometer. For lower pressures, a second technique which was called the thin-film infrared method (TFIR) was developed. It involves measuring the disappearance rate of a thin film of acetylene at a particular temperature. The spectra are then analyzed using previously determined extinction coefficient values, to determine the disappearance rate R (where R = delta n/delta t, the number of molecules that disappear per unit time). This can be related to the vapor pressure directly. This technique facilitates measurement of the lower temperatures and pressures. Both techniques have been calibrated using CO2, and have shown good agreement with the existing literature data.

  7. Student Exposure to Mercury Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joyce

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problem of mercury vapors caused by spills in high school and college laboratories. Describes a study which compared the mercury vapor levels of laboratories in both an older and a newer building. Concludes that the mercurial contamination of chemistry laboratories presents minimal risks to the students. (TW)

  8. Iron bromide vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  9. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  10. THERMALLY OPERATED VAPOR VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Dorward, J.G. Jr.

    1959-02-10

    A valve is presented for use in a calutron to supply and control the vapor to be ionized. The invention provides a means readily operable from the exterior of the vacuum tank of the apparatuss without mechanical transmission of forces for the quick and accurate control of the ionizing arc by a corresponding control of gas flow theretos thereby producing an effective way of carefully regulating the operation of the calutron. The invention consists essentially of a tube member extending into the charge bottle of a calutron devices having a poppet type valve closing the lower end of the tube. An electrical heating means is provided in the valve stem to thermally vary the length of the stem to regulate the valve opening to control the flow of material from the charge bottle.

  11. Oxidation/vaporization of silicide coated columbium base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mass spectrometric and target collection experiments were made at 1600 K to elucidate the mode of oxidative vaporization of two columbium alloys, fused-slurry-coated with a complex silicide former (Si-20Cr-Fe). At oxygen pressures up to 0.0005 torr the major vapor component detected by mass spectrometry for oxidized samples was gaseous silicon monoxide. Analysis of condensates collected at oxygen pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 torr revealed that chromium-, silicon-, iron- and tungsten- containing species were the major products of vaporization. Equilibrium thermochemical diagrams were constructed for the metal-oxygen system corresponding to each constituent metal in both the coating and base alloy. The major vaporizing species are expected to be the gaseous oxides of chromium, silicon, iron and tungsten. Plots of vapor phase composition and maximum vaporization rate versus oxygen pressure were calculated for each coating constituent. The major contribution to weight loss by vaporization at oxygen pressures above 1 torr was shown to be the chromium-containing species.

  12. Adsorption and Desorption of Nitrogen and Water Vapor by clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Deshan; Chen, Qiong; Xiang, Wei; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Adsorption and desorption of nitrogen and water vapor by clay has a significant impact on unsaturated soil physical and mechanical properties. In order to study the adsorption and desorption characteristics of nitrogen and water vapor by montmorillonite, kaolin and sliding zone soils, the Autosorb-iQ specific surface area and pore size analyzer instrument of United State was taken to carry out the analysis test. The adsorption and desorption of nitrogen at 77K and water vapor at 293K on clay sample were conducted. The theories of BET, FHH and hydration energy were taken to calculate the specific surface, surface fractal dimension and adsorption energy. The results show that the calculated specific surface of water vapor by clay is bigger than nitrogen adsorption test because clay can adsorb more water vapor molecule than nitrogen. Smaller and polar water vapor molecule can access the micropore and then adsorb on the mineral surface and mineral intralayer, which make the mineral surface cations hydrate and the mineral surface smoother. Bigger and nonpolar nitrogen molecule can not enter into the micropore as water vapor molecule and has weak interaction with clay surface.

  13. SOFIA Water Vapor Monitor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, R.; Roellig, T. L.; Yuen, L.; Shiroyama, B.; Meyer, A.; Devincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The SOFIA Water Vapor Monitor (WVM) is a heterodyne radiometer designed to determine the integrated amount of water vapor along the telescope line of sight and directly to the zenith. The basic technique that was chosen for the WVM uses radiometric measurements of the center and wings of the 183.3 GHz rotational line of water to measure the water vapor. The WVM reports its measured water vapor levels to the aircraft Mission Controls and Communication System (MCCS) while the SOFIA observatory is in normal operation at flight altitude. The water vapor measurements are also available to other scientific instruments aboard the observatory. The electrical, mechanical and software design of the WVM are discussed.

  14. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedstrom, J. C.; Neeper, D. A.

    1985-09-01

    Progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating is described, which could also be applied to service water heating. The refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compared the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  15. Experimental vaporization of the Holbrook chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.; Muenow, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor phase composition obtained by heating samples of the Holbrook L6 chondrite to 1300 C was determined quantitatively by Knudsen cell-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Maximum observed vapor pressures, produced at 1200 C, are reported for Na, K, Fe, and Ni, and the implications of the Na/K ratio are considered. The Fe and Ni data are discussed with attention to their migration in individual equilibrated chondrites. S2 (with minor SO2), H2O, and CO2 were also present in the high-temperature gas phase. Vesicles formed by the release of intrinsically derived volatiles are compared with vesicles in the Ibitira eucrite. Chondrite evolution is briefly discussed.

  16. Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Edgar R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

  17. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  18. Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Edgar R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

  19. AEROBIC SOIL MICROCOSMS FOR LONG-TERM BIODEGRADATION OF HYDROCARBON VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aims of this research project included the development of laboratory protocols for the preparation of aerobic soil microcosms using aseptic field soil samples, and for the gas chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbon vapor biodegradation based on vapor samples obtained from th...

  20. AEROBIC SOIL MICROCOSMS FOR LONG-TERM BIODEGRADATION OF HYDROCARBON VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aims of this research project included the development of laboratory protocols for the preparation of aerobic soil microcosms using aseptic field soil samples, and for the gas chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbon vapor biodegradation based on vapor samples obtained from th...