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Sample records for 248-nm krf laser

  1. Analysis of damage threshold of K9 glass irradiated by 248-nm KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Shao, Jingzhen; Li, Hua; Nie, Jinsong; Fang, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical model of K9 glass irradiated by a 248-nm KrF excimer laser was established, and a numerical simulation was performed to calculate temperature and thermal stress fields in the K9 glass sample using the finite element method. The laser-induced damage thresholds were defined and calculated, and the effect of repetition frequency and the number of pulses on the damage threshold were also studied. Furthermore, the experiment research was carried out to confirm the numerical simulation. The damage threshold and damage morphology were analyzed by means of a metallurgical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The simulation and experimental results indicated that the damage mechanism of K9 glass irradiated by a KrF excimer laser was melting damage and stress damage, and the stress damage first appeared inside the K9 glass sample. The tensile stress damage threshold, the compressive stress damage threshold, and the melting damage threshold were 0.64, 0.76, and 1.05 J/cm2, respectively. The damage threshold decreased with increasing repetition frequency and number of laser pulses. The experimental results indicated that the damage threshold of K9 glass was 2.8 J/cm2.

  2. High average power, narrow band 248 nm alexandrite laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuper, J.W.; Chin, T.C.; Papanestor, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    A compact line-narrowed 248 nm solid state laser source operating at 15 mJ {at} 100 Hz PRF was demonstrated. Constraints due to thermal loading of components were addressed. Tradeoffs between pulse energy and repetition rate were investigated. A method for overcoming thermal dephasing in the THG material was achieved by scanning a slab shaped crystal.

  3. Rydberg state photochemistry of 1,4-diazabicyclo(2. 2. 2)octane excited by 193- and 248-nm lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.T.

    1987-05-21

    Linear and nonlinear photochemistries of 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (DABCO) are investigated at room temperature by using ArF (193 nm) and KrF (248 nm) lasers. With an unfocused beam geometry, DABCO vapor displays a strong fluorescence when excited at 248 nm, but it shows no detectable emission with 193-nm excitation. The linear photochemistry quantum yield for DABCO is determined as phi/sub p/(248nm) approx. 0.1 and phi/sub p/(193 nm) approx. 0.3. The main stable photochemical products are analyzed as C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ for 248- and 193-nm excitation, respectively. When focused beam excitation is used, both ArF and KrF lasers dissociate DABCO molecules and give three strong radical emissions of CN*(B vector /sup 2/..sigma.. ..-->.. X vector /sup 2/ ..sigma../sup +/), CH*(A vector /sup 2/..delta.. ..-->.. X vector /sup 2/II), and C/sub 2/*(D vector /sup 3/II/sub g/ ..-->.. a vector /sup 3/II/sub u/). The time behavior, the laser power dependence, and the sample pressure dependence of these emissive radicals are examined. The possible mechanisms for the Rydberg state photochemistry of DABCO are discussed.

  4. Laser-damage processes in cleaved and polished CaF{sub 2} at 248nm

    SciTech Connect

    Reichling, M.; Gogoll, S.; Stenzel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Single-shot irradiation of single crystal CaF{sub 2} with 248nm/14ns laser light results in various degrees of degradation and damage depending on the applied laser fluence. Phenomena range from subtle, non-topographic surface modification only detectable by secondary electrons of scanning electron microscopy (SE-SEM) over cracking along crystallographic directions to the ablation of crystalline material. Significant differences are found for cleaved and polished surfaces. Findings from SEM investigations, in-situ photoacoustic mirage measurements and visual inspection of irradiated samples form a comprehensive picture of the stages of laser-induced damage.

  5. Negative tone imaging (NTI) with KrF: extension of 248nm IIP lithography to under sub-20nm logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yura; Kim, Jahee; Heo, Sujeong; Youn, Bumjoon; Seo, Jaekyung; Yoon, Kwang-Sub; Choi, Byoung-il

    2013-03-01

    One of the most prospective alternative lithography ways prior to EUV implementation is the reverse imaging by means of a negative tone development (NTD) process with solvent-based developer. Contact and trench patterns can be printed in CAR (Chemically amplified resist) using a bright field mask through NTD development, and can give much better image contrast (NILS) than PTD process. Not only for contact or trench masks, but also pattering of IIP (Ion Implantation) layers whose mask opening ratio is less than 20% may get the benefit of NTD process, not only in the point of aerial imaging, but also in achievement of vertical resist profile, especially for post gate layers which have complex sub_topologies and nitride substrate. In this paper, we present applications for the NTD technique to IIP (Ion Implantation) layer lithography patterning, via KrF exposure, comparing the performance to that of the PTD process. Especially, to extend 248nm IIP litho to sub-20nm logic device, optimization of negative tone imaging (NTI) with KrF exposure is the main focus in this paper. With the special resin system designed for KrF NTD process, even sub 100nm half-pitch trench pattern can be defined with enough process margin and vertical resist profiles can be also obtained on the nitride substrate with KrF exposure.

  6. Laser conditioning of LaF 3 MgF 2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eva, E.; Mann, K.; Kaiser, N.; Anton, B.; Henking, R.; Ristau, D.; Weissbrodt, P.; Mademann, D.; Raupach, L.; Hacker, E.

    1996-10-01

    Highly reflective LaF3/MgF2 systems for a wavelength of 248 nm on MgF2 and crystalline quartz substrates were investigated. The influence of laser conditioning on damage threshold and absorptance was remarkable in those coatings that had a high initial absorptance. Monitoring with a laser calorimeter revealed the conditioning effect to be a function of the irradiation dose rather than of energy density or pulse rate. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations showed that conditioning induces stoichiometric and structural changes in the multilayers, especially in near-surface sublayers, whereas scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations indicated that the surface remains unchanged.

  7. 248nm silicon photoablation: Microstructuring basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poopalan, P.; Najamudin, S. H.; Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.

    2015-05-01

    248nm pulses from a KrF excimer laser was used to ablate a Si wafer in order to ascertain the laser pulse and energy effects for use as a microstructuring tool for MEMS fabrication. The laser pulses were varied between two different energy levels of 8mJ and 4mJ while the number of pulses for ablation was varied. The corresponding ablated depths were found to range between 11 µm and 49 µm, depending on the demagnified beam fluence.

  8. 248nm silicon photoablation: Microstructuring basics

    SciTech Connect

    Poopalan, P.; Najamudin, S. H.; Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.

    2015-05-15

    248nm pulses from a KrF excimer laser was used to ablate a Si wafer in order to ascertain the laser pulse and energy effects for use as a microstructuring tool for MEMS fabrication. The laser pulses were varied between two different energy levels of 8mJ and 4mJ while the number of pulses for ablation was varied. The corresponding ablated depths were found to range between 11 µm and 49 µm, depending on the demagnified beam fluence.

  9. Laser-induced etching of titanium by Br2 and CCl3Br at 248 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyndall, George W.; Moylan, Christopher R.

    1990-06-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been used to study the KrF* excimer laser-induced etching of titanium by bromine-containing compounds. The experiment consists of focusing the pulsed UV laser beam at normal incidence onto the surface of a quartz crystal coated with 1 μm of polycrystalline titanium. The removal of titanium from the surface is monitored in real time by measuring the change in the frequency of the quartz crystal. The dependence of the etch rate on etchant pressure and laser fluence was measured and found to be consistent with a two-step etching mechanism. The initial step in the etching of titanium is reaction between the etchant and the surface to form the etch product between laser pulses. The etch product is subsequently removed from the surface during the laser pulse via a laser-induced thermal desorption process. The maximum etch rate obtained in this work was 6.2 Å-pulse-1, indicating that between two and three atomic layers of Ti can be removed per laser pulse. The energy required for desorption of the etch product is calculated to be 172 kJ-mole-1, which is consistent with the sublimation enthalpy of TiBr2 (168 kJ-mole-1). The proposed product in the etching of titanium by Br2 and CCl3Br is thus TiBr2. In the etching of Ti by Br2, formation of TiBr2 proceeds predominantly through the dissociative chemisorption of Br2. In the case of etching with CCl3Br, TiBr2 is formed via chemisorption of Br atoms produced in the gas-phase photodissociation of CCl3Br.

  10. Designing dual-trench alternating phase-shift masks for 140-nm and smaller features using 248-nm KrF and 193-nm ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, John S.; Socha, Robert J.; Naderi, Alex R.; Baker, Catherine A.; Rizvi, Syed A.; Van Den Broeke, Douglas J.; Kachwala, Nishrin; Chen, J. Fung; Laidig, Thomas L.; Wampler, Kurt E.; Caldwell, Roger F.; Takeuchi, Susumu; Yamada, Yoshiro; Senoh, Takashi; McCallum, Martin

    1998-09-01

    One method for making the alternating phase-shift mask involves cutting a trench into the quartz of the mask using an anisotropic dry etch, followed by an isotropic etch to move the corners of the trench underneath the chrome to minimize problems caused by diffraction at the bottom corners of the phase-trench. This manufacturing method makes the addition of subresolution scattering bars and serifs problematic, because the amount of the undercut causes chrome lifting of these small features. Adding an additional anisotropically etched trench to both cut and uncut regions is helpful, but the etch does not move the trench corners under the chrome and result in a loss to intensity and image contrast. At 248 nm illumination and 4X magnification, our work shows that a combination of 240 nm dual-trench and 5 nm to 10 nm undercut produces images with equal intensity between shifted and unshifted regions without loss of image contrasts. This paper demonstrates optical proximity correction for doing 100 nm, 120 nm, 140 nm and 180 nm lines of varying pitch for a simple alternating phase-shift mask, with no dual-trench or undercut. Then the electromagnetic field simulator, TEMPEST, is used to find the best combination of dual-trench depth and amount of undercut for an alternating phase-shift mask. Phase measurement using 248 nm light and depth measurement of thirty-six unique combinations of dual-trench and phase-shift trench are shown. Based on modeling and experimental results, recommendations for making a fine tuned dual-trench 248 nm mask, as well as an extension of the dual-trench alternating phase-shift technique to 193 nm lithography, are made.

  11. Laser Plasma and Hydrodynamics Experiments with KrF Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, James

    2006-10-01

    The proposed Fusion Test Facility (FTF) will exploit the unique features of Krypton Fluoride (KrF) lasers to achieve ignition and substantial gain (>20) at <500 kJ laser energies using direct drive.[1] The strategy uses highly uniform, high bandwidth, 248 nm KrF laser illumination at intensities near 2 x 10^15 W/cm^2 to accelerate low-aspect ratio pellets to implosion velocities of 400 km/s. Higher than usual implosion velocity allows ignition at substantially reduced laser energy. Amplitudes of both hydrodynamic instability during the pellet implosion and deleterious laser plasma instability (LPI) in the corona must be kept sufficiently low if one is to achieve ignition and gain. Increased laser intensity reduces hydrodynamic instability because it allows acceleration of thicker, low aspect ratio pellets, but is also more likely to produce deleterious LPI. The deep UV wavelength of KrF should allow use of these higher intensities. Studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and laser plasma instabilities (LPI) are the subject of ongoing experiments at the 2-3 kJ Nike KrF laser. The Nike laser has demonstrated highly uniform UV irradiation of planar targets at moderate laser intensities (I˜10^14 W/cm^2), including the recent addition of short duration ``spike'' prepulses for hydrodynamic stability studies. A new effort in LPI physics is underway at the Nike facility where the peak intensity is being extended above 10^15 W/cm^2 by a combination of smaller focal diameters and shorter pulse lengths. This talk will discuss progress in the ongoing experiments at Nike in support of the FTF design. [1] S. P. Obenschain, et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056329 (2006).

  12. The NIKE KrF laser program

    SciTech Connect

    Sethian, J.D.; Bodner, S.E.; Gerber, K.A.; Lehmberg, R.H.; McLean, E.A.; Obenschain, S.P.; Pawley, C.J.; Pronko, M.S.; Stamper, J.A.; Deniz, A.V.; Hardgrove, J.; Lehecka, T.; McGeoch, M.W.

    1994-10-05

    NIKE is a large angularly multiplexed Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser under development at the Naval Research Laboratory. It is designed to explore the technical and physics issues of direct drive laser fusion. When completed, NIKE will deliver 2--3 kJ of 248 nm light in a 4 nsec pulse with intensities exceeding 2{times}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} onto a planar target. Spatially and temporally incoherent light will be used to reduce the ablation pressure nonuniformities to less than 2% in the target focal plane. These parameters are predicted to be those required for a high gain ICF pellet. The NIKE system consists of a commercial oscillator/amplifier front end, an array of gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers (one with a 20{times}20 cm{sup 2} aperture, the other with a 60{times}60 cm{sup 2} aperture) and the optics required to relay, encode, and decode the beam. Approximately two-thirds of the system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The output of the smaller e-beam system, the 20 cm Amplifier, exceeds both the uniformity and energy required to drive the final e-beam system, the 60 cm Amplifier. The pulsed power components of the 60 cm Amplifier have been built, and initial tests show the electron beam deposited by the system meets the laser requirements for pumping uniformity and energy deposition. {copyright} 1994 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  13. Laser-induced fluorescence of ketones at elevated temperatures for pressures up to 20 bars by using a 248 nm excitation laser wavelength: experiments and model improvements.

    PubMed

    Braeuer, Andreas; Beyrau, Frank; Leipertz, Alfred

    2006-07-10

    Laser-induced fluorescence of acetone and 3-pentanone for a 248 nm excitation wavelength was investigated for conditions relevant for internal combustion engines regarding temperature, pressure, and gas composition. An optically accessible calibration chamber with continuous gas flow was operated by using CO2 and air as a bath gas. According to the varying pressure and temperature conditions during the compression stroke of a spark ignition engine, fluorescence experiments were performed under isothermal pressure variations from 1 to 20 bars for different temperatures between 293 and 700 K. The ketone fluorescence behavior predictions, based on a model previously developed by Thurber et al. [Appl. Opt. 37, 4963 (1998)], were found to overestimate the pressure-related fluorescence increase for high temperature and small wavelength excitation at 248 nm. The parameters influencing the model only in the large vibrational energy regime were newly adjusted, which resulted in an improved model with a better agreement with the experiment. The model's validity for excitation at larger wavelengths was not influenced. For the air bath gas an additional collision and vibrational energy sensitive quenching rate was implemented in the model for both tracers, acetone and 3-pentanone. PMID:16807609

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence of ketones at elevated temperatures for pressures up to 20 bars by using a 248 nm excitation laser wavelength: experiments and model improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, Andreas; Beyrau, Frank; Leipertz, Alfred

    2006-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence of acetone and 3-pentanone for a 248 nm excitation wavelength was investigated for conditions relevant for internal combustion engines regarding temperature, pressure, and gas composition. An optically accessible calibration chamber with continuous gas flow was operated by using CO2 and air as a bath gas. According to the varying pressure and temperature conditions during the compression stroke of a spark ignition engine, fluorescence experiments were performed under isothermal pressure variations from 1 to 20 bars for different temperatures between 293 and 700 K. The ketone fluorescence behavior predictions, based on a model previously developed by Thurber et al. [Appl. Opt. 37, 4963 (1998)], were found to overestimate the pressure-related fluorescence increase for high temperature and small wavelength excitation at 248 nm. The parameters influencing the model only in the large vibrational energy regime were newly adjusted, which resulted in an improved model with a better agreement with the experiment. The model's validity for excitation at larger wavelengths was not influenced. For the air bath gas an additional collision and vibrational energy sensitive quenching rate was implemented in the model for both tracers, acetone and 3-pentanone.

  15. L-shell emission from high-Z solid targets by intense 10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2} irradiation with a 248nm laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.R.; Borisov, A.B.; Boyer, K.

    2000-01-05

    Efficient (1.2% yield) multikilovolt x-ray emission from Ba(L) (2.4--2.8{angstrom}) and Gd(L) (1.7--2.1{angstrom}) is produced by ultraviolet (248nm) laser-excited BaF{sub 2} and Gd solids. The high efficiency is attributed to an inner shell-selective collisional electron ejection. Much effort has been expended recently in attempts to develop an efficient coherent x-ray source suitable for high-resolution biological imaging. To this end, many experiments have been performed studying the x-ray emissions from high-Z materials under intense (>10{sup 18}W/cm{sup 2}) irradiation, with the most promising results coming from the irradiation of Xe clusters with a UV (248nm) laser at intensities of 10{sup 18}--10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2}. In this paper the authors report the production of prompt x-rays with energies in excess of 5keV with efficiencies on the order of 1% as a result of intense irradiation of BaF{sub 2} and Gd targets with a terawatt 248nm laser. The efficiency is attributed to an inner shell-selective collisional electron ejection mechanism in which the previously photoionized electrons are ponderomotively driven into an ion while retaining a portion of their atomic phase and symmetry. This partial coherence of the laser-driven electrons has a pronounced effect on the collisional cross-section for the electron ion interaction.

  16. Laser ablation of ceramic Al2O3 at 193 nm and 248 nm: The importance of single-photon ionization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez, R. J.; Afonso, C. N.; Bator, M.; Lippert, T.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that single-photon photoionization processes make a significant difference in the expansion and temperature of the plasma produced by laser ablation of ceramic Al2O3 in vacuum as well as to show their consequences in the kinetic energy distribution of the species that eventually will impact on the film properties produced by pulsed laser deposition. This work compares results obtained by mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy on the composition and features of the plasma produced by laser ablation at 193 nm and 248 nm, i.e., photon energies that are, respectively, above and below the ionization potential of Al, and for fluences between threshold for visible plasma and up to ≈2 times higher. The results show that the ionic composition and excitation of the plasma as well as the ion kinetic energies are much higher at 193 nm than at 248 nm and, in the latter case, the population of excited ions is even negligible. The comparison of Maxwell-Boltzmann temperature, electron temperatures, and densities of the plasmas produced with the two laser wavelengths suggests that the expansion of the plasma produced at 248 nm is dominated by a single population. Instead, the one produced at 193 nm is consistent with the existence of two populations of cold and hot species, the latter associated to Al+ ions that travel at the forefront and produced by single photon ionization as well as Al neutrals and double ionized ions produced by electron-ion impact. The results also show that the most energetic Al neutrals in the plasma produced at the two studied wavelengths are in the ground state.

  17. Laser plasma instability experiments with KrF lasersa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Brown, C.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Mostovych, A. N.; Holland, G.; Obenschain, S.; Chan, L.-Y.; Kehne, D.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Schmitt, A. J.; Colombant, D.; Velikovich, A.

    2007-05-01

    Deleterious effects of laser-plasma instability (LPI) may limit the maximum laser irradiation that can be used for inertial confinement fusion. The short wavelength (248nm), large bandwidth, and very uniform illumination available with krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers should increase the maximum usable intensity by suppressing LPI. The concomitant increase in ablation pressure would allow implosion of low-aspect-ratio pellets to ignition with substantial gain (>20) at much reduced laser energy. The proposed KrF-laser-based Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would exploit this strategy to achieve significant fusion power (150MW) with a rep-rate system that has a per pulse laser energy well below 1 MJ. Measurements of LPI using the Nike KrF laser are presented at and above intensities needed for the FTF (I˜2×1015W/cm2). The results to date indicate that LPI is indeed suppressed. With overlapped beam intensity above the planar, single beam intensity threshold for the two-plasmon decay instability, no evidence of instability was observed via measurements of 3/2ωo and 1/2ωo harmonic emissions.

  18. Dependence of ultraviolet nanosecond laser polymer ablation on polymer molecular weight: Poly(methyl methacrylate) at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Bounos, Giannis; Selimis, Alexandros; Georgiou, Savas; Rebollar, Esther; Castillejo, Marta; Bityurin, Nikita

    2006-12-01

    We rely on a methodology demonstrated previously for assessing the temperature evolution and polymer viscosity changes in the 248 nm irradiation of poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMAs) with molecular weights (M{sub w}) ranging from 2.5 to 996 kDa. Briefly, this methodology [G. Bounos et al., J. Appl. Phys. 98, 084317 (2005)] relies on monitoring the formation of aryl products in the irradiation of polymer doped with iodonaphthalene or iodophenanthrene. The results demonstrate that higher temperatures are attained with increasing M{sub w}. The surface temperatures at the corresponding ablation thresholds are estimated to be {approx}850-900 K for M{sub w}{>=}120 kDa vs {approx}600 K for 2.5 kDa PMMA. In addition, for all M{sub w}'s, melting is demonstrated (viscosity values of {approx_equal}10{sup 1} Pa s), but it lasts longer for high M{sub w} PMMAs. We ascribe these differences to the fact that low M{sub w} PMMAs dissociate efficiently to desorbing monomers/oligomers, thereby resulting in more efficient energy removal. Even so, the ablation threshold of the high M{sub w} PMMAs is attained at higher fluences. This can be ascribed to the higher fraction of bonds that is required to be broken, and also plausibly to the higher gaseous product pressures that must be attained, for material ejection to be effected. The results are overall well accounted by the bulk photothermal model.

  19. Aurora project: optical design for a kilojoule class KrF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; McLeod, J.; Sollid, J.E.; Horn, W. III; Carmichael, R.; Kortegaard, B.; Woodfin, G.; Rosocha, L..

    1985-01-01

    Aurora is a 248-nm, 10-kilojoule laser system being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of large KrF laser systems for laser fusion. It was designed as a test bed to demonstrate: (1) efficiet energy extraction at 248 nm; (2) an angularly multiplexed optical system that is scaleable to large system designs; (3) the control of parasitics and ASE (amplified spontaneous emission); (4) long path pulse propagation at uv wavelengths; (5) alignment systems for multibeam systems; and (6) new or novel approaches to optical hardware that can lead to cost reduction on large systems. In this paper only issues pertinent to the optical system are addressed. First, a description of the entire system is given. The design constraints on the optical system are explained, concurrent with a discussion of the final design. This is followed by a very brief discussion of coatings; in particular, the use of sol-gels for antireflection coatings is presented.

  20. Use of the selected overlap LIDAR experiment (SOLEX) system with the 248 nm krypton fluoride and the 355 nm neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet lasers for the calibration of LIDAR systems for water vapor determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Francis Emmanuel Tofodji

    Water vapor is one of the most important atmospheric variables that play a key role in air quality, global warming, climate change and hurricane formation. In this dissertation, use was made of two laser systems, the 248-nm KrF laser and the 355 nm Nd-YAG laser, with the use of Raman scattering to measure water vapor in the atmosphere. These two systems have been calibrated more accurately, using the LIDAR approach named SOLEX (Selected Overlap LIDAR Experiment). All the experiments were carried out at the Howard University Beltsville campus located on a 107 acre research site, at Beltsville, MD, 15 miles from downtown Washington DC, near the National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The geographical coordinates are: 39°04.01'N latitude, and 76°52.31'W longitude. The receiver system used during these experiments is a 30" (76.2 cm), f/ 9 Cassegranian telescope, while the detector system uses a prism spectrometer (Beckman), with a 2-meter, double-fold optical path and a variable slit width is placed at the image plane of the telescope. With the use of the SOLEX system, this dissertation provides an accurate calibration of the two LIDAR Systems for water vapor measurement in the troposphere at the following ranges: 83.7 ft, 600 ft, 800 ft, 1000 ft and 1080 ft. Data analysis shows a pretty high sensitivity of the LIDAR system for water vapor measurement and the efficiency of the SOLEX method.

  1. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser irradiation. IX. Photoinduced atomic desorption from cleaved NaCl(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K.H.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2005-07-01

    Neutral atomic sodium and chlorine emissions from cleaved, single-crystal NaCl(100) surfaces due to pulsed, 248-nm excimer laser irradiation have been characterized by time-resolved, quadrupole mass spectroscopy. At laser fluences below the threshold for optical breakdown, the resulting time-of-flight signals are consistent with particles emitted in thermal equilibrium with a laser-heated surface. Activation energy measurements made by varying the substrate temperature are consistent with F-H pair formation under UV excitation. By varying the laser fluence and estimating the effective surface temperature from the time-of-flight signals, additional activation energy measurements were made. The corresponding rate-limiting step is attributed to a thermally assisted, photoelectronic process involving atomic steps. Atomic force microscope images of surfaces irradiated at low fluences show monolayer islands that are created by the aggregation of material desorbed from steps. At somewhat higher fluences, monolayer pits due to F-center aggregation are also observed.

  2. Transient conductivity OF 1,3-dimethyluracil, uridine and 3-methyluridine in aqueous solution following 20-ns laser excitation at 248 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görner, Helmut; Currell, Leslie J.

    1996-09-01

    Uridine, 3-methyluridine and 1,3-dimethyluracil in aqueous solution were studied by timeresolved conductimetry after excitation at 248 nm by 20-ns laser pulses. The conductivity signal increases to the maximum value at the pulse end (Δκ m) and decreases then with time, depending on the saturating gas (Ar, N 2O, O 2 or McCI) and pH. The Δκ m signal is suggested to originate from hydrated electrons (e aq-) and protons, the latter resulting from radical cations after rapid reaction with water. Biphotonic photoionization occurs in the whole pH range 3-11 with a quantum yield of 0.016 or smaller for laser intensities of ⩽ 8 MW/cm 2. The reaction of eaq with uncharged bases in Ar-saturated solution at pH 5-8 generates radical anions which are subsequently protonated. The neutralization reaction kinetics of the uracil derivatives depend essentially on the transient proton concentration and lead to the disappearance of most of the conductivity (>90%) within a few microseconds or less in neutral or acidic solution, respectively. For 3-methyluridine and uridine after neutralization, the presence of a long-lived species with acidic properties was observed (in small yield) upon biphotonic (but not monophotonic) excitation. The time-resolved conductivity pattern in the alkaline pH range is different for each of the three pyrimidines, depending essentially on the generation or consumption of OH - in the radical termination reactions.

  3. Interaction of Wide-Band-Gap Single Crystals with 248-nm Excimer Laser Irradiation: X. Laser-Induced Near-Surface Absorption in Single-Crystal NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K H.; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2005-02-15

    Ultraviolet laser-induced desorption of neutral atoms and molecules from nominally transparent, ionic materials can yield particle velocities consistent with surface temperatures of a few thousand Kelvin, even in the absence of visible surface damage. The origin of the laser required for this surface heating has been often overlooked. In this work, we report simultaneous neutral emission and laser transmission measurements on single crystal NaCl exposed to 248-nm excimer laser radiation. As much as 20% of the incident radiation at 248 nm must be absorbed in the near surface region to account for the observed particle velocities. We show that the laser absorption grows from low values over several pulses and saturates at values sufficient to account for the surface temperatures required to explain the observed particle velocity distributions. The growth of absorption in these early pulses is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the emission intensities. Diffuse reflectance spectra acquired after exposure suggest that near surface V-type centers are responsible for most of the absorption at 248 nm in single crystal NaCl.

  4. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser irradiation. X. Laser-induced near-surface absorption in single-crystal NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K.H.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.; Hess, W.P.

    2005-02-15

    Ultraviolet laser-induced desorption of neutral atoms and molecules from nominally transparent, ionic materials can yield particle velocities consistent with surface temperatures of a few thousand kelvin even in the absence of visible surface damage. The origin of the laser absorption required for this surface heating has been often overlooked. In this work, we report simultaneous neutral emission and laser transmission measurements on single-crystal NaCl exposed to 248-nm excimer laser radiation. As much as 20% of the incident radiation at 248 nm must be absorbed in the near-surface region to account for the observed particle velocities. We show that the laser absorption grows from low values over several pulses and saturates at values sufficient to account for the surface temperatures required to explain the observed particle velocity distributions. The growth of absorption in these early pulses is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the emission intensities. The diffuse reflectance spectra acquired after exposure suggest that near-surface V-type centers are responsible for most of the absorption at 248 nm in single-crystal NaCl.

  5. Ion-forming processes on 248 NM laser excitation of uracil and methyl-monosubstituted uracils: A time-resolved transient conductivity study in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görner, Helmut; Schulte-Frohlinde, Dietrich

    1995-04-01

    Uracil, thymine and 1-, 3-, and 6-methyluracil were studied by time-resolved optical and conductometric methods after 248 nm excitation with 20 ns laser pulses. The transient conductivity in argon-saturated aqueous solution, showing a maximum increase ( Δκmax) during the pulse, is ascribed to the generation of hydrated electrons (e aq-) and protons. Biphotonic photoionization as the primary process is inferred from the almost linear dependence of Δκmax on the square of the laser pulse intensity ( IL2). The quantum yield, obtained from either Δκmax or optical detection of e aq-, e.g. gfe- = 0.02 for uracil at pH 7 and IL = 12 MW cm -2, varies by a factor of about two for the five pyrimidines. The neutralization kinetics depend strongly on pH and the concentrations of laser-induced e aq- and H +, i.e. on IL. At pH 6-7 the Δκ signal decays by second-order kinetics. Under argon the electron adds to the (methyl)uracil and neutralization occurs by reaction of the radical anion with a proton, which originates from a fast decay of the radical cation. Virtually the same conductivity pattern was found for the neutralization reaction of OH - and H + under N 2O. In the acidic pH range the decay changes to first-order kinetics due to reaction of H + with e aq- under argon or with OH - under N 2O. In the alkaline pH range OH - release is involved in the relaxation process resulting from the radical cation after excitation of the conjugate base. No indication of a specific spatial correlation of the charged species, as proposed earlier by Grossweiner for other systems, was found.

  6. Repetitively pulsed, high energy KrF lasers for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, M. C.; Sethian, J. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Lehmberg, R.; Kepple, P.; Wolford, M. F.; Hegeler, F.; Friedman, M.; Jones, T. C.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weidenheimer, D.; Rose, D.

    2004-12-01

    Krypton fluoride (KrF) lasers produce highly uniform beams at 248 nm, allow the capability of 'zooming' the spot size to follow an imploding pellet, naturally assume a modular architecture and have been developed into a pulsed-power-based industrial technology that readily scales to a fusion power plant sized system. There are two main challenges for the fusion power plant application: to develop a system with an overall efficiency of greater than 6% (based on target gains of 100) and to achieve a durability of greater than 3 × 108 shots (two years at 5 Hz). These two issues are being addressed with the Electra (700 J, 5 Hz) and Nike (3000 J, single shot) KrF lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory. Based on recent advances in pulsed power, electron beam generation and transport, hibachi (foil support structure) design and KrF physics, wall plug efficiencies of greater than 7% should be achievable. Moreover, recent experiments show that it may be possible to realize long lived electron beam diodes using ceramic honeycomb cathodes and anode foils that are convectively cooled by periodically deflecting the laser gas. This paper is a summary of the progress in the development of the critical KrF technologies for laser fusion energy.

  7. 248-nm laser photolysis of CHBr3/O-atom mixtures: kinetic evidence for UV CO(A) chemiluminescence in the reaction of methylidyne radicals with atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L

    2005-03-17

    The 4th positive and Cameron band emissions from electronically excited CO have been observed for the first time in 248-nm pulsed laser photolysis of a trace amount of CHBr(3) vapor in an excess of O atoms. O atoms were produced by dissociation of N(2)O (or O(2)) in a cw-microwave discharge cavity in 2.0 Torr of He at 298 K. The CO emission intensity in these bands showed a quadratic dependence on the laser fluence employed. Temporal profiles of the CO(A) and other excited-state products that formed in the photoproduced precursor + O-atom reactions were measured by recording their time-resolved chemiluminescence in discrete vibronic bands. The CO 4th positive transition (A(1)Pi, v' = 0 --> X(1)Sigma(+), v' ' = 2) near 165.7 nm was monitored in this work to deduce the pseudo-first-order decay kinetics of the CO(A) chemiluminescence in the presence of various added substrates (CH(4), NO, N(2)O, H(2), and O(2)). From this, the second-order rate coefficient values were determined for reactions of these substrates with the photoproduced precursors. The measured reactivity trends suggest that the prominent precursors responsible for the CO(A) chemiluminescence are the methylidyne radicals, CH(X(2)Pi) and CH(a(4)Sigma(-)), whose production requires the absorption of at least 2 laser photons by the photolysis mixture. The O-atom reactions with brominated precursors (CBr, CHBr, and CBr(2)), which also form in the photolysis, are shown to play a minor role in the production of the CO(A or a) chemiluminescence. However, the CBr(2) + O-atom reaction was identified as a significant source for the 289.9-nm Br(2) chemiluminescence that was also observed in this work. The 282.2-nm OH and the 336.2-nm NH chemiluminescences were also monitored to deduce the kinetics of CH(X(2)Pi) and CH(a(4)Sigma(-)) reactions when excess O(2) and NO were present. PMID:16838991

  8. Bandwidth Dependence of Laser Plasma Instabilities Driven by the Nike KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Phillips, L.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.; Feldman, U.

    2011-10-01

    The Nike krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser at the Naval Research Laboratory operates in the deep UV (248 nm) and employs beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). In the first ISI studies at longer wavelengths (1054 nm and 527 nm) [Obenschain, PRL 62, 768(1989);Mostovych, PRL, 59, 1193(1987); Peyser, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1479(1991)], stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the two plasmon decay instability were reduced when wide bandwidth ISI (δν / ν ~ 0.03-0.19%) pulses irradiated targets at moderate to high intensities (1014-1015W/cm2) . Recent Nike work showed that the threshold for quarter critical instabilities increased with the expected wavelength scaling, without accounting for the large bandwidth (δν ~ 1-3 THz). New experiments will compare laser plasma instabilities (LPI) driven by narrower bandwidth pulses to those observed with the standard operation. The bandwidth of KrF lasers can be reduced by adding narrow filters (etalons or gratings) in the initial stages of the laser. This talk will discuss the method used to narrow the output spectrum of Nike, the laser performance for this new operating mode, and target observations of LPI in planar CH targets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  9. KrF lasers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; Cartwright, D.C.; Figueira, J.F.; McDonald, T.E.; Sorem, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The KrF laser has been proposed for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) since its discovery in 1975. Since that time, the laser has seen significant development and has been increased in energy many orders of magnitude to the several kilojoule energy level. The suitability of the KrF laser as a driver for ICF energy applications has been continually reviewed. The latest assessments indicate that the KrF laser still appears to be the leading laser candidate. A worldwide effort exists to advance the KrF laser for ICF applications. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Optimization of power compression and stability of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of 248 nm laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.; Borisov, A.B.

    2004-12-01

    The controlled formation in an underdense plasma of stable multi-PW relativistic micrometer-scale channels, which conduct a confined power at 248 nm exceeding 10{sup 4} critical powers and establish a peak channel intensity of {approx}10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}, can be achieved with the use of an appropriate gradient in the electron density in the initial launching phase of the confined propagation. This mode of channel formation optimizes both the power compression and the stability by smoothing the transition from the incident spatial profile to that associated with the lowest channel eigenmode, the dynamically robust structure that governs the confined propagation. A chief outcome is the ability to stably conduct coherent energy at fluences greater than 10{sup 9} J/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Electra: Repetitively Pulsed Angularly Multiplexed KrF Laser System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolford, Matthew; Myers, Matthew; Giuliani, John; Sethian, John; Burns, Patrick; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-11-01

    As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system. The multistage amplifier system consists of a commercial discharge laser and two doubled sided electron beam pumped amplifiers. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Two angularly multiplexed beams have extracted 30 J of KrF laser light with an aperture 8 x 10 cm^2, which is sufficient to extract over 500 J from the main amplifier and models agree. The main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated single shot and rep-rate laser energies exceeding 700 J with 100 ns pulsewidth at 248 nm with an aperture 29 x 29 cm^2. Continuous operation of the KrF electron beam pumped oscillator has lasted for more than 2.5 hours without failure at 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The measured intensity and pulse energy for durations greater than thousand shots are consistent at measurable rep-rates of 1 Hz, 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz.

  12. Odd oxygen formation in the laser irradiation of O2 at 248 nm - Evidence for reactions of O2 in the Herzberg states with ground state O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jichun; Barker, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Two O3 formation processes (initiation and autocatalytic) are studied in pure O2 and in O2+N2 and O2+Ar mixtures at pressures between 200 and 1600 torr and at temperatures between 298 and 370 K. Evidence is presented that the initiation process produces O3 through chemical reactions between ground state O2 and excited O2 in the Herzberg states, which are produced by the photoabsorption of O2 at 248 nm. For the autocatalytic process, the results are consistent with the proposal that the O3 formation is accelerated by photodissociating vibrationally excited O2(nu), produced in the photolysis of O3 following its initial formation. It is argued that the O2 Herzberg states and O2(nu) may play important roles in the odd oxygen chemistry in the middle atmosphere. It is estimated that the O2(A3Sigma-u(+))+O2 reaction may yield up to about 6 percent of the total odd oxygen production rate near 50 km.

  13. Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering Measurements with Nike KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.

    2008-11-01

    With the short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1˜2 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser is expected to have higher LPI thresholds than observed at other laser facilities. Previous measurements using the Nike laser [J. L. Weaver et al, Phys. Plasmas 14, 056316 (2007)] showed no LPI evidence from CH targets up to I˜2x10^15 W/cm^2. For further experiments to detect LPI excitation, Nike capabilities have been extended to achieve higher laser intensities by tighter beam focusing and higher power pulses. This talk will present results of a recent LPI experiment with the extended Nike capabilities focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and Two-Plasmon Decay (TPD) instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. The measurements were conducted at laser intensities of 10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2 on planar targets of CH solids and RF foams.

  14. Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C.

    2013-02-01

    The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength (λ =248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers (λ =351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns≤τ≤1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2×1015 W/cm2). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.

  15. Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    2013-02-15

    The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength ({lambda}=248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers ({lambda}=351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns{<=}{tau}{<=}1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.

  16. Single pulse vibrational Raman scattering by a broadband KrF excimer laser in a hydrogen-air flame.

    PubMed

    Pitz, R W; Wehrmeyer, J A; Bowling, J M; Cheng, T S

    1990-05-20

    Spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) is produced by a broadband excimer laser at 248 nm (KrF) in a H(2)-air flame and VRS spectra are recorded for lean, stoichiometric, and rich flames. Except at very lean flame conditions, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) processes interfere with VRS Stokes lines from H(2), H(2)O, and O(2). No interference is found for the N(2) Stokes and N(2) anti-Stokes lines. In a stoichiometric H(2)/air flame, single-pulse measurements of N(2) concentration and temperature (by the VRS Stokes to anti-Stokes ratio) have relative standard deviation of 7.7 and 10%, respectively. These single pulse measurement errors compare well with photon statistics calculations using measured Raman cross sections. PMID:20563170

  17. Interaction of wide band gap single crystals with 248 nm excimer laser radiation. XII. The emission of negative atomic ions from alkali halides

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Kenichi; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2007-12-01

    Many wide band gap materials yield charged and neutral emissions when exposed to sub-band-gap laser radiation at power densities below the threshold for optical breakdown and plume formation. In this work, we report the observation of negative alkali ions from several alkali halides under comparable conditions. We observe no evidence for negative halogen ions, in spite of the high electron affinities of the halogens. Significantly, the positive and negative alkali ions show a high degree of spatial and temporal overlap. A detailed study of all the relevant particle emissions from potassium chloride (KCl) suggests that K{sup -} is formed by the sequential attachment of two electrons to K{sup +}.

  18. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/I<3×10-7 in intensity and FASE/F<1.5×10-5 in fluence. Finally, the paper proposes a front-end pulse shaping technique that combines an optical Kerr gate with cw 248nm light and a 1μm control beam shaped by advanced fiber optic technology, such as the one used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser.

  19. Preparation of Ultrafine Fe–Pt Alloy and Au Nanoparticle Colloids by KrF Excimer Laser Solution Photolysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We prepared ultrafine Fe–Pt alloy nanoparticle colloids by UV laser solution photolysis (KrF excimer laser of 248 nm wavelength) using precursors of methanol solutions into which iron and platinum complexes were dissolved together with PVP dispersant to prevent aggregations. From TEM observations, the Fe–Pt nanoparticles were found to be composed of disordered FCC A1 phase with average diameters of 0.5–3 nm regardless of the preparation conditions. Higher iron compositions of nanoparticles require irradiations of higher laser pulse energies typically more than 350 mJ, which is considered to be due to the difficulty in dissociation of Fe(III) acetylacetonate compared with Pt(II) acetylacetonate. Au colloid preparation by the same method was also attempted, resulting in Au nanoparticle colloids with over 10 times larger diameters than the Fe–Pt nanoparticles and UV–visible absorption peaks around 530 nm that originate from the surface plasmon resonance. Differences between the Fe–Pt and Au nanoparticles prepared by the KrF excimer laser solution photolysis are also discussed. PMID:20596425

  20. Plasma mirrors for short pulse KrF lasers.

    PubMed

    Gilicze, Barnabás; Barna, Angéla; Kovács, Zsolt; Szatmári, Sándor; Földes, István B

    2016-08-01

    It is demonstrated for the first time that plasma mirrors can be successfully applied for KrF laser systems. High reflectivity up to 70% is achieved by optimization of the beam quality on the plasma mirror. The modest spectral shift and the good reflected beam quality allow its applicability for high power laser systems for which a new arrangement is suggested. PMID:27587094

  1. Plasma mirrors for short pulse KrF lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilicze, Barnabás; Barna, Angéla; Kovács, Zsolt; Szatmári, Sándor; Földes, István B.

    2016-08-01

    It is demonstrated for the first time that plasma mirrors can be successfully applied for KrF laser systems. High reflectivity up to 70% is achieved by optimization of the beam quality on the plasma mirror. The modest spectral shift and the good reflected beam quality allow its applicability for high power laser systems for which a new arrangement is suggested.

  2. Measurement of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering from Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Serlin, V.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E. A.; Manka, C. K.

    2010-11-01

    With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1˜3 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique research opportunities and potential for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous Nike experiments observed two plasmon decay (TPD) driven signals from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜2x10^15 W/cm^2 with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 ps FWHM pulses. We have performed a further experiment with longer laser pulses (0.5˜4.0 ns FWHM) and will present combined results of the experiments focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. Time- or space-resolved spectral features of TPD were detected at different viewing angles and the absolute intensity calibrated spectra of thermal background were used to obtain blackbody temperatures in the plasma corona. The wave vector distribution in k-space of the participating TPD plasmons will be also discussed. These results show promise for the proposed direct-drive designs.

  3. Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering Measurements with 44 beam-lines of Nike KrF Laser^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Phillips, L. S.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Manka, C. K.

    2009-11-01

    With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (˜1 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique opportunities of LPI research for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous experiments at intensities (10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2) exceeded two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability threshold using 12 beam-lines of Nike laser.^a,b For further experiments to study LPI excitation in bigger plasma volumes, 44 Nike main beams have been used to produce plasmas with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 psec FWHM pulses. This talk will present results of the recent LPI experiment focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. Blackbody temperature and expansion speed measurements of the plasmas were also made. The experiment was conducted at laser intensities of (1˜4)x10^15 W/cm^2 on solid planar CH targets. ^a J. L. Weaver, et al, NO4.14, APS DPP (2008) ^b J. Oh, et al, NO4.15, APS DPP (2008) * Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  4. Boron trichloride purification with a KrF excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, R.C.; Hartford, A. Jr.; Atencio, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using a KrF excimer laser has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a binary mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this technique.

  5. Biocompatible layers fabricated using KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomás; Vrbová, Miroslava; Konarík, David; Remsa, Jan

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with silver and thin diamond like carbon layers were prepared using KrF excimer laser deposition. Tooth prostheses, textile blood vessels and artificial heart valves were covered and tested. Examples of physical tests, and in vitro and in vivo analysis using minipigs and sheep are presented.

  6. High power KrF laser development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.; Cartwright, D.; Fenstermacher, C.; Figueira, J.; Goldstone, P.; Harris, D.; Mead, W.; Rosocha, L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the high power laser development program at Los Alamos is to appraise the potential of the KrF laser as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), ultimately at energy levels that will produce high target gain (gain of order 100). A KrF laser system prototype, the 10-kJ Aurora laser, which is nearing initial system operation, will serve as a feasibility demonstration of KrF technology and system design concepts appropriate to large scale ICF driver systems. The issues of affordable cost, which is a major concern for all ICF drivers now under development, and technology scaling are also being examined. It is found that, through technology advances and component cost reductions, the potential exists for a KrF driver to achieve a cost goal in the neighborhood of $100 per joule. The authors suggest that the next step toward a multimegajoule laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is an ''Intermediate Driver'' facility in the few hundred kilojoule to one megajoule range, which will help verify the scaling of driver technology and cost to an LMF size. An Intermediate Driver facility would also increase the confidence in the estimates of energy needed for an LMF and would reduce the risk in target performance. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. High-power, highly stable KrF laser with a 4-kHz pulse repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V. M.; El'tsov, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2015-08-01

    An electric-discharge KrF laser (248 nm) with an average output power of 300 W is developed and studied. A number of new design features are related to the use of a laser chamber based on an Al2O3 ceramic tube. A high power and pulse repetition rate are achieved by using a volume discharge with lateral preionisation by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of a homogeneous plasma sheet on the surface of a plane sapphire plate. Various generators for pumping the laser are studied. The maximum laser efficiency is 3.1%, the maximum laser energy is 160 mJ pulse-1, and the pulse duration at half maximum is 7.5 ns. In the case of long-term operation at a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and an output power of 300 W, high stability of laser output energy (σ <= 0.7%) is achieved using an all-solid-state pump system.

  8. Liquid phase silylation process for 248-nm lithography using EL IR photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guojing; Smith, Bruce W.; Fuller, Lynn F.

    1994-05-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop a 0.3 micron silylation process for 248 nm exposure, using a commercial photoresist material. Presented are results from investigation into liquid silylation of 248 nm exposure of Dynachem EL IRTM, a non-melamine image reversal novalac material designed for i-line application. A GCA BOLD 0.42 NA, 248 nm excimer laser projection system was used for exposure. A process has been developed utilizing a silylation solution of hexamethyl- cyclotrisilazane (HMCTS), propylene-glycol-methyl-ether-acetate (PGMEA), and xylene mixtures. Using a 15 run Box-Behnken statistically designed experiment, dry development in 02 RIE has been optimized with chamber pressure, flow rate, and 02 flow as process factors. Process responses optimized were selectivity, etch rate, and anisotropy. Results show capabilities and sensitivities of the process. Response surfaces are presented, along with resist image results of 0.3 microns at 5:1 aspect ratio.

  9. Surface studies on benzophenone doped PDMS microstructures fabricated using KrF excimer laser direct write lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Madhushree Bute; Shinde, Shashikant D.; Bodas, Dhananjay; Patil, K. R.; Sathe, V. G.; Adhi, K. P.; Gosavi, S. W.

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses microfabrication process for benzophenone doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using laser lithography. KrF excimer laser of 248 nm with 20 ns pulse width at repetition rate of 1 Hz was used for microfabrication of undoped and benzophenone doped PDMS. The doped-PDMS shows sensitivity below 365 nm, permitting processing under ambient light. The analysis of etch depth revealed that doped PDMS shows self developable sensitivity at lower fluence of ∼250 mJ/cm2. The unexposed and exposed surface was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrocopic analysis indicated increase in Csbnd O, Cdbnd O, Sisbnd O3 and Sisbnd O4 bonding at the expense of Sisbnd C and Sisbnd O2 bonds of PDMS. In case of laser exposed doped-PDMS, removal of benzophenone from probe depth of spectroscopy was observed. Whereas the surface morphology of exposed and unexposed doped-PDMS was observed to be same, indicating clean development of PDMS micropatterns. The present study indicates that addition of 3.0 wt.% benzophenone in PDMS enhance self development sensitivity of PDMS. The self developable results on doped-PDMS are quite encouraging for its potential use in point of care Lab-On-Chip applications, for fabricating micropatterns using direct write laser lithography technology.

  10. High-power gas-discharge excimer ArF, KrCl, KrF and XeCl lasers utilising two-component gas mixtures without a buffer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.; Churkin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of a gas mixture (laser active medium) composition on an output energy and total efficiency of gas-discharge excimer lasers on ArF* (193 nm), KrCl* (222 nm), KrF* (248 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) molecules operating without a buffer gas are presented. The optimal ratios of gas components (from the viewpoint of a maximum output energy) of an active medium are found, which provide an efficient operation of laser sources. It is experimentally confirmed that for gas-discharge excimer lasers on halogenides of inert gases the presence of a buffer gas in an active medium is not a necessary condition for efficient operation. For the first time, in two-component gas mixtures of repetitively pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers on electron transitions of excimer molecules ArF*, KrCl*, KrF* and XeCl*, the pulsed energy of laser radiation obtained under pumping by a transverse volume electric discharge in a low-pressure gas mixture without a buffer gas reached up to 170 mJ and a high pulsed output power (of up to 24 MW) was obtained at a FWHM duration of the KrF-laser pulse of 7 ns. The maximal total efficiency obtained in the experiment with two-component gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers was 0.8%.

  11. Quantum yield for carbon monoxide production in the 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Z.; Stickel, R. E.; Wine, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been coupled with excimer laser flash photolysis to measure the quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) relative to the well-known quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photolysis of phosgene (Cl2CO2). The temporal resolution of the experiments was sufficient to distinguish CO formed directly by photodissociation from that formed by subsequent S((sup 3)P(sub J)) reaction with OCS. Under the experimental conditions employed, CO formation via the fast S((sup 1)D(sub 2)) + OCS reaction was minimal. Measurements at 297K and total pressures from 4 to 100 Torr N2 + N2O show the CO yield to be greater than 0.95 and most likely unity. This result suggests that the contribution of OCS as a precursor to the lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is somewhat larger than previously thought.

  12. Photoluminescence excited by ArF and KrF lasers and optical absorption of stishovite mono-crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhin, Anatoly N.; Dyuzheva, Tatyana I.; Lityagina, Ludmila M.; Bendeliani, Nikolai A.

    2008-04-01

    Two photoluminescence bands were found in a stishovite (silicon dioxide) mono-crystal sample under ArF (193 nm) and KrF (248 nm) excitation. The blue band is situated at 3.17 ± 0.02 eV in the case of ArF and at 3 ± 0.2 in the case of KrF. The UV band is at 4.55 ± 0.05 eV in the case of ArF and at 4.5 ± 0.05 eV in the case of KrF. The position of the UV emission band correlates with that excited by x rays. This position is 4.6 ± 0.05 eV with FWHM 0.8 ± 0.05 eV (Truhins et al 2003 Solid State Commun. 127 415). The blue band possesses slow decay kinetics with time constant 16 ± 2 µs and the UV band is fast on the level of 2 ± 0.5 ns, similarly for both lasers. Thermal quenching of both bands begins for T higher than 150 K. The activation energies are similar for intensity and time constant, and are equal to 0.23 ± 0.01 eV and 0.13 ± 0.01 eV for blue and UV bands, respectively, with equal values of frequency factor, 2 × 1011 s-1. Optical absorption contains bands at 4.5, 5.5, and 7 eV and a strong band starting from 7 eV adjacent to the intrinsic absorption threshold above 8.75 eV. Excitation at 7.86 eV (F2 laser) does not provide luminescence. The nature of the luminescence excited in the transparency range of stishovite is ascribed to a defect, presumably created by previous irradiation of the crystal. Similarity of the stishovite luminescence to that of oxygen-deficient silica glass and also to that induced by irradiation of α-quartz crystals allows us to conclude similar natures for the defect centers in these dissimilar materials.

  13. Characterization of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.

    2011-10-01

    Previous experiments with Nike KrF laser (λ = 248 nm , Δν ~ 1 THz) observed LPI signatures near quarter critical density (nc / 4) in CH plasmas, however, detailed measurement of the temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles was missing. The current Nike LPI campaign will perform experimental determination of the plasma profiles. A side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) is the main diagnostic to resolve Te and ne in space taking 2D snapshots of probe laser (λ = 266 nm , Δt = 8 psec) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at laser peak time. Ray tracing of the beamlets through hydrodynamically simulated (FASTRAD3D) plasma profiles estimates the refractometer may access densities up to ~ 0 . 2nc . With the measured Te and ne profiles in the plasma corona, we will discuss analysis of light data radiated from the plasmas in spectral ranges relevant to two plasmon decay and convective Raman instabilities. Validity of the (Te ,ne) data will also be discussed for the thermal transport study. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR and performed at NRL.

  14. Species-resolved imaging and gated photon counting spectroscopy of laser ablation plume dynamics during KrF- and ArF-laser PLD of amorphous diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, D.B.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Gated photon counting spectroscopy and species-resolved ICCD photography were used to study the weak plasma luminescence following the propagation of the initial ablation plume in vacuum and during the rebound of the plume with a substrate during pulsed laser deposition of amorphous diamond. These methods techniques were required in order to investigate notable differences between amorphous diamond-like carbon films formed by pulsed laser deposition from ArF (193 nm) and KrF (248 nm) irradiation of pyrolytic graphite in vacuum. Three principal regions of plume emission were found: (1) a bright luminescent ball (v {approximately}3--5 cm/{mu}s) displaying nearly entirely C{sup +} emission which appears to result from laser interaction with the initial ejecta, (2) a spherical ball of emission (v {approximately} 1 cm/{mu}s) displaying neutral carbon atomic emission lines and, at early times, jets of excited C{sub 2}, and (3) a well-defined region of broadband emission (v {approximately} 0.3 cm/{mu}s) near the target surface first containing emission bands from C{sub 2}, then weak, continuum emission thought to result from C{sub 3} and higher clusters and/or blackbody emission from hot clusters or nanoparticles.

  15. Stable formation of ultrahigh power-density 248 nm channels in Xe cluster targets

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, Alex B.; Racz, Ervin; Khan, Shahab F.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; McCorkindale, John C.; Boguta, John; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2012-07-11

    The optimization of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of ultra-powerful 248 nm laser pulses launched in underdense plasmas with an appropriate longitudinal gradient in the electron density profile located at the initial stage of the self-channeling leads to (1) stable channel formation and (2) highly efficient power compression producing power densities in the 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 3} range. The comparison of theoretical studies with experimental results involving the correlation of (a) Thomson images of the electron density with (b) x-ray images of the channel morphology demonstrates that more than 90% of the incident 248 nm power can be trapped in stable channels and that this stable propagation can be extended to power levels significantly exceeding the critical power of the self-channeling process.

  16. Unique capabilities for ICF and HEDP research with the KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenschain, Stephen; Bates, Jason; Chan, Lop-Yung; Karasik, Max; Kehne, David; Sethian, John; Serlin, Victor; Weaver, James; Oh, Jaechul; Jenkins, Bruce; Lehmberg, Robert; Hegeler, Frank; Terrell, Stephen; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Schmitt, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser provides the shortest wavelength, broadest bandwidth and most uniform target illumination of all developed high-energy lasers. For directly driven targets these characteristics result in higher and more uniform ablation pressures as well as higher intensity thresholds for laser-plasma instability. The ISI beam smoothing scheme implemented on the NRL Nike KrF facility allows easy implementation of focal zooming where the laser radial profile is varied during the laser pulse. The capability for near continuous zooming with KrF would be valuable towards minimizing the effects of cross beam energy transport (CBET) in directly driven capsule implosions. The broad bandwidth ISI beam smoothing that is utilized with the Nike KrF facility may further inhibit certain laser plasma instability. In this presentation we will summarize our current understanding of laser target interaction with the KrF laser and the benefits it provides for ICF and certain HEDP experiments. Status and progress in high-energy KrF laser technology will also be discussed. Work supported by the Deparment of Energy, NNSA.

  17. Synthesis of diamond on WC-Co substrates using a KrF excimer laser in combination with a combustion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. X.; Ling, H.; Lu, Y. F.

    2007-02-01

    A KrF excimer laser was used in combination with a combustion flame to deposit diamond films on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates. The laser has a wavelength of 248 nm, a pulse width of 23 ns, a pulse energy range of 84~450 mJ, and a repetition rate up to 50 Hz. Using the combustion flame method, diamond films were deposited on the laser-processed WC-Co substrates for 10 min. The morphologies of the deposited diamond films were examined using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition and bonding structures in the deposited films were studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The film adhesion was characterized by scratching a razor across the films. It was found that C composition on WC-Co substrate surfaces was eliminated by the laser irradiation. As a consequence, diamond nucleation density decreased and diamond grains grew larger in the laser-processed areas. Based on the experimental results, a film growth mechanism at different deposition temperature ranges corresponding to pre-deposition laser-surface-treatment effects was proposed.

  18. 850 J, 150 ns narrow-band krypton fluoride laser

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhar, J.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Murray, J.R.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1983-12-16

    We report laser experiments on a 248 nm KrF laser with a 30x40x120 cm gain volume and an injection locked unstable resonator cavity. The volume is pumped by six 450 kV, 90 kA electron beam generators using water pulse forming lines.

  19. Periodic structure with a periodicity of 2-3.5 μm on crystalline TiO2 induced by unpolarized KrF excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rong; Ma, Hongliang; Zheng, Jiahui; Han, Yongmei; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing

    2016-08-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on the TiO2 bulk surface under the irradiation of 248 nm unpolarized KrF excimer laser pulses in air. Spatial LIPSS periods ranging from 2 to 3.5 μm are ascribed to the capillary wave. These microstructures were analyzed at different laser pulse numbers with the laser energy from 192 to 164 mJ. The scanning electron microscopy results indicated eventually stripes that have been disrupted as the increase in the laser pulse numbers, which is reasonably explained by the energy accumulating effect. In addition, investigations were concentrated on the surface modifications at pre-focal plane, focal plane and post-focal plane in the same defocusing amount. Compared with condition at pre-focal plane, in addition to the plasma produced at target, the air was also breakdown for the situation of post-focal plane. So it was reasonable that stripes appeared at pre-focal plane but not at post-focal plane.

  20. Absolutely calibrated vacuum ultraviolet spectra in the 150-250-nm range from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, G. E.; Weaver, J. L.; Mostovych, A. N.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Lehmberg, R.; Kjornarattanawanich, Benjawan; Back, C. A.

    2005-06-01

    High-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra were recorded from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser for the purpose of observing emission from the two-plasmon decay instability (TPDI) at 2/3 the NIKE wavelength (165nm). The targets were irradiated by up to 43 overlapping beams with intensity up to ≈1014W/cm2 and with beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets consisted of planar foils of CH, BN, Al, Si, S, Ti, Pd, and Au. Titanium-doped silica aerogels in Pyrex cylinders were also irradiated. The spectra of the target elements were observed from charge states ranging from the neutral atoms to five times ionized. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and absolute VUV plasma emission intensities were determined. Emission from the TPDI at 165-nm wavelength was not observed from any of the irradiated targets. An upper bound on the possible TPDI emission was less than 4×10-8 the incident NIKE laser energy. The NIKE laser radiation backscattered from the silica aerogel targets at 248nm was typically 6×10-6 the incident NIKE laser energy, and the spectral broadening corresponded to the 1-THz bandwidth of the ISI smoothing. The spectra from the moderately charged plasma ions (up to five times ionized), spectral linewidths, absolute continuum emission level, and slope of the continuum were consistent with plasma temperatures in the 100-300-eV range.

  1. Observation of atmospheric ozone by dial with Raman lasers pumped by a KrF laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, M.; Shibata, T.

    1986-01-01

    Since the XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) was first used in Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for stratospheric ozone detection, the XeCl ozone lidar became a useful tool for the monitoring of the stratospheric ozone concentration. Shorter wavelength lasers are needed for the observation of ozone in the troposphere where the ozone concentration is about one order of magnitude smaller than in the stratosphere. In 1983, tropospheric ozone was observed with the combination of the second Stokes line (290.4 nm) of stimulated Raman scattering from methane pumped by a KrF laser and the XeCl laser line. The measurement of the ozone distribution from ground to 30 km was reported, using three Stokes lines of Raman lasers pumped by a KrF laser. At wavelengths shorter than 295 nm, the background solar radiation is effectively suppressed by atmospheric ozone. Such a solar-blind effect can be expected when two wavelengths 277 and 290.4 nm are used for DIAL ozone detection. A preliminary measurement of the day time ozone distribution in the troposphere is presented using these wavelengths generated by a KrF laser with a Raman shifter. Analysis using the lidar equation predicts the maximum detectable range is 7 km.

  2. Double-sided electron-beam generator for KrF laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Schlitt, L.; Swingle, J.

    1980-05-01

    Several laser systems excited by electron beam have been identified as candidates for pump sources for laser fusion applications. The electron beam generators required must be compact, reliable and capable of synchronization with other system components. A KrF laser producing a minimum output of 25 J was needed for the RAPIER (Raman Amplifier Pumped by Intensified Excimer Radiation) system. A double-sided electron beam system was designed and constructed specifically for this purpose and has produced > 35 J of KrF output. Each of the two electron beam machines in the system operates with an rms jitter of 0.4 ns and together occupy approx. 3.5 m/sup 2/ of floor space. The successful operation of this laser has engendered requests for a description of the engineering details of this system. This document contains a brief description of the design issues and a full set of engineering drawings for this KrF laser amplifier.

  3. KrF laser-induced ablation and patterning of Y--Ba--Cu--O films

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, J.; Wang, X.Z.; Schwab, P.; Baeuerle, D. ); Schultz, L. )

    1990-09-01

    The ablation and patterning of Y--Ba--Cu--O films on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} and (100) MgO substrates by KrF excimer-laser light projection was investigated. Three different regimes of laser-material interactions were observed. Transition temperatures and critical current densities in laser-fabricated strip lines were investigated.

  4. Measurement of intensity-dependent rates of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atomic hydrogen at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.D.

    1991-04-01

    Measured rates of multiphoton ionization (MPI) from the ground state of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser pulse at 248 nm wavelength are compared to predictions of lowest-order perturbation theory, Floquet theory, and Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss (KFR) theory with and without Coulomb correction for peak irradiance of 3 {times} 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}. The Coulomb-corrected Keldysh model falls closest to the measured rates, the others being much higher or much lower. At 5 {times} 10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2}, the number of ATI electrons decreased by a factor of approximately 40 with each additional photon absorbed. ATI of the molecular hydrogen background and of atoms from photodissociation of the molecules were also observed. The experiment employed a crossed-beam technique at ultrahigh vacuum with an rf-discharge atomic hydrogen source and a magnetic-bottle type electron time-of-flight spectrometer to count the electrons in the different ATI channels separately. The apparatus was calibrated to allow comparison of absolute as well as relative ionization rates to the theoretical predictions. This calibration involved measuring the distribution of irradiance in a focal volume that moved randomly and changed its size from time to time. A data collection system under computer control divided the time-of-flight spectra into bins according to the energy of each laser pulse. This is the first measurement of absolute rates of ATI in atomic hydrogen, and the first measurement of absolute test of MPI in atomic hydrogen without a large factor to account for multiple modes in the laser field. As such, the results of this work are important to the development of ATI theories, which presently differ by orders of magnitude in their prediction of the ionization rates. They are also important to recent calculations of temperatures in laser-heated plasmas, many of which incorporate KFR theory.

  5. Plasma Profile Measurements for Laser Fusion Research with the Nike KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The grid image refractometer of the Nike laser facility (Nike-GIR) has demonstrated the capability of simultaneously measuring electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) profiles of coronal plasma. For laser plasma instability (LPI) research, the first Nike-GIR experiment successfully measured the plasma profiles in density regions up to ne ~ 4 ×1021 cm-3 (22% of the critical density for 248 nm light of Nike) using an ultraviolet probe laser (λp = 263 nm). The probe laser has been recently replaced with a shorter wavelength laser (λp = 213 nm, a 5th harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser) to diagnose a higher density region. The Nike-GIR system is being further extended to measure plasma profiles in the on-going experiment using 135°-separated Nike beam arrays for the cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) studies. We present an overview of the extended Nike-GIR arrangements and a new numerical algorithm to extract self-consistant plasma profiles with the measured quantities. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  6. Picosecond VUV anti-Stokes Raman laser pumped by a KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akihiko; Maeda, Mitsuo; Muraoka, Katsunori; Akazaki, Masanori

    1989-02-01

    Generation of picosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses by anti-Stokes stimulated Raman Scattering (ASRS) in hydrogen gas is reported. A tunable picosecond KrF excimer laser (30 ps FWHM, 12 mJ) is used as a pump source, and a series of anti-Stokes lines up to the 9th order (128.8 nm) is efficiently generated. The transient effects due to the finite decay time of the Raman medium are discussed for the present picosecond ASRS experiment.

  7. Recent progress in the Los Alamos KrF Program

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E.; Cartwright, D.C.; Coggeshall, S.V.; Fenstermacher, C.A.; Figueira, J.F.; Foreman, L.R.; Goldstone, P.D.; Hanson, D.E.; Harris, D.B.; Hauer, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program (ICF) is to develop the ability to ignite and burn small masses of thermonuclear fuel. Although the present near-term objectives of the program are directed toward defense applications, ICF research continues to be carried out with a view to the longer term goal of commercial power production. The characteristics of a KrF laser make it an attractive candidate as an ICF driver. The KrF wavelength of 248 nm provides a target coupling that is very high at intensities of 10/sup 14/w/cm/sup 2/. In addition, the KrF laser can be repetitively operated at frequencies appropriate for a power reactor and has an intrinsically high efficiency, which allows projections to the long-term goal of energy production. The ICF program at Los Alamos consists of driver development, target design and fabrication, and target experimentation. The major effort at present is the investigation and development of KrF technology to determine its applicability for use in a laboratory driver at Los Alamos. Such a driver would be used in defense related technology studies and in areas of scientific study such as highly ionized materials and high-energy-density physics.

  8. Formation of laser irradiation by non-uniform pumping discharge of KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Yurii I.; Panchenko, Yurii N.; Yampolskaya, Sofiya A.; Yastremskii, Arcadii G.

    2015-12-01

    Results of 2D simulation of a KrF laser are presented. In the model, inhomogeneities of distributions of the electric field and plasma particle concentration are considered. It is demonstrated, that the laser energy depends not only on the value of the total pump power, but also from its spatial distribution. The shape of the electrodes is a major determinant of the spatial distribution of pumping power in the active medium. For electrodes with small radii of curvature, the pumping power in the center of the discharge may be too high. This leads to the suppression of radiation in the center of the discharge and the limitation of the laser energy.

  9. Near-field nonuniformities in angularly multiplexed KrF fusion lasers with induced spatial incoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmberg, Robert H.; Chan, Yung

    2005-05-01

    Induced spatial incoherence (ISI) has been proposed for KrF laser drivers to achieve the high degree of spatial beam uniformity required for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Although ISI provides ultrasmooth illumination at the far field of the laser, where the target is located, it can still allow the beams in the quasi-near field to develop a time-averaged spatial structure. This speckle, which arises primarily from random-phase aberration, builds up as the laser beams propagate away from the pupil plane located at the final amplifier stage; it is distinct from any structure imposed by gain nonuniformities in the amplifiers. Because of the spatial incoherence, the speckle is significantly smaller than that experienced by coherent beams. Nevertheless, it remains a damage issue, especially for the long beam delay paths required in angularly multiplexed KrF lasers. We develop a novel algorithm for calculating the time-integrated intensities; compare simulations and measurements of the near-field speckle in the Nike KrF laser; and explore options, such as aberration reduction and optical relaying, for controlling the problem in future angularly multiplexed KrF drivers. © Optical Society of America

  10. Thin film type 248-nm bottom antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Tomoyuki; Nakayama, Keisuke; Mizusawa, Kenichi; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Yoon, Sangwoong; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Ho; Chung, Hoesik; Chon, Sang Mun

    2003-06-01

    A frequent problem encountered by photoresists during the manufacturing of semiconductor device is that activating radiation is reflected back into the photoresist by the substrate. So, it is necessary that the light reflection is reduced from the substrate. One approach to reduce the light reflection is the use of bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) applied to the substrate beneath the photoresist layer. The BARC technology has been utilized for a few years to minimize the reflectivity. As the chip size is reduced to sub 0.13-micron, the photoresist thickness has to decrease with the aspect ratio being less than 3.0. Therefore, new Organic BARC is strongly required which has the minimum reflectivity with thinner BARC thickness and higher etch selectivity towards resist. SAMSUNG Electronics has developed the advanced Organic BARC with Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd. and Brewer Science, Inc. for achieving the above purpose. As a result, the suitable high performance SNAC2002 series KrF Organic BARCs were developed. Using CF4 gas as etchant, the plasma etch rate of SNAC2002 series is about 1.4 times higher than that of conventional KrF resists and 1.25 times higher than the existing product. The SNAC2002 series can minimize the substrate reflectivity at below 40nm BARC thickness, shows excellent litho performance and coating properties.

  11. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Kinetic Processes in a KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Yu. I.; Yastremskii, A. G.; Yampolskaya, S. A.; Losev, V. F.; Dudarev, V. V.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Puchikin, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The KrF laser with radiation pulse duration at half maximum of 20 ns is experimentally investigated. A self-consistent model is developed considering the electric circuit, the kinetic processes in the active medium, and the formation of laser radiation in a resonator. Time dependences of the discharge current and voltage on the capacitor and discharge electrodes, plasma particle concentration, and rate constants of the processes determining the characteristics of the discharge and laser radiation are presented. Processes are revealed that determines the characteristics of the space charge and laser radiation. The kinetics of the processes of production and annihilation of KrF excimer molecules is studied in detail. It is demonstrated that high rates of destruction of excimer molecules increases the time of delay of generation thereby decreasing the efficiency of laser generation and limiting the possibility of decreasing laser radiation pulse duration.

  12. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors.

    PubMed

    Gower, M C

    1982-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated. PMID:19714043

  13. Sub-megajoule high performance KrF direct-drive target designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombant, Denis; Gardner, J. H.; Afeyan, B. B.; Manheimer, W.

    2005-10-01

    In direct-drive ICF, the intensity on target has historically been kept lower than about 10^15/cm^2 to avoid potential laser plasma instabilities. However, because of the I 2̂ scaling of most of the laser plasma instabilities, the KrF laser at 248 nm has a factor of 2 advantage over its closest competitor, the third harmonic of Nd glass laser light (351 nm). In addition, the smaller wavelength of KrF gives higher collisional absorption and the > 1 THz bandwidth is advantageous for both beam smoothing and instability suppression. The laser architecture makes it easy to zoom the focal spot to follow an imploding pellet and thereby increase absorption efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what can be gained in terms of performance and hydrodynamic stability by making use of the factor of 2 in laser intensity, as well as zooming. Our preliminary results indicate that KrF allows substantial reductions in the laser energy required for ignition while maintaining moderate gains. Target designs will be presented showing how the trade-off between gain and hydrodynamic stability is altered by using the advantages of KrF.

  14. Two-photon-absorption of frequency converter crystals at 248 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divall, M.; Osvay, K.; Kurdi, G.; Divall, E. J.; Klebniczki, J.; Bohus, J.; Péter, Á.; Polgár, K.

    2005-12-01

    The two-photon-absorption coefficient of KDP, BBO, LTB, and CLBO crystals has been determined from the measurement of the intensity dependent transmission through long samples. The intensity of the sub-picosecond KrF excimer laser pulses on the samples was varied from 0.2-80 GW/cm2. The linear absorption of the samples was determined by using a low intensity, long pulse KrF laser. The first-principle simulations to the experimental data show a TPA value of 0.48 cm/GW for KDP, 0.5 cm/GW (o-ray) and 0.34 cm/GW (e-ray) in BBO, 0.22 cm/GW in LTB and 0.53 cm/GW in CLBO.

  15. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-06-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining. PMID:24784833

  16. Spectrally narrowed lasing of a self-injection KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Yasuhiro; Wani, Koichi; Miki, Tadaaki; Kawahara, Hidehito; Mimasu, Mutsumi; Ogata, Yoshiro

    1990-08-01

    Spectrally nantwed lasing of a KrF excimer laser has teen ahieved by a self-injection technique using abeam splitter for power extraction aixi intravity etalons for spectral-narrowing. The laser cavity is divithi into an amplifying branch aix! a spectralnarrowing branch. The spectral bandwidth was narrowed to <3pm FWHM with air-sed etalons placed in the spectral-narrowing branch. A laser propagation model was intrOdUced for describing the laser intensity traveling in the laser cavity. The calculated intensityincident onthe intracavityetalons wassmaller thanthat in theconventional Fabry-Perotcavity withplane-parallel mirrors.

  17. KrF laser cost/performance model for ICF commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Simple expressions suitable for use in commercial-applications plant parameter studies for the direct capital cost plus indirect field costs and for the efficiency as a function of repetition rate were developed for pure-optical-compression KrF laser fusion drivers. These simple expressions summarize estimates obtained from detailed cost-performance studies incorporating recent results of ongoing physics, design, and cost studies. Contributions of KrF laser capital charges and D and M costs to total levelized constant-dollar (1984) unit ICF power generation cost are estimated as a function of plant size and driver pulse energy using a published gain for short-wavelength lasers and representative values of plant parameters.

  18. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser.

    PubMed

    Kehne, D M; Karasik, M; Aglitsky, Y; Smyth, Z; Terrell, S; Weaver, J L; Chan, Y; Lehmberg, R H; Obenschain, S P

    2013-01-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 μm thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters. PMID:23387652

  19. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Aglitsky, Y.; Smyth, Z.; Terrell, S.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 μm thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  20. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Obenschain, S. P.; Aglitsky, Y.; Smyth, Z.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Terrell, S.

    2013-01-15

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser ({lambda}= 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 {mu}m thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  1. Measurements of low-level prepulse on Nike KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max; Mostovych, A. N.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Chan, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2005-09-01

    The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser is a leading candidate driver for inertial fusion energy. Some of the current fusion target designs call for targets with thin metallic coatings. These targets could be particularly susceptible to preheat by a low-level laser prepulse. Knowledge of the prepulse can be important in understanding and modeling the behavior of such targets. This paper presents measurements of low-level prepulse on target with the Nike KrF laser. Sources of prepulse are discussed and measurements are performed under several specific laser conditions in order to evaluate the relative contribution of these sources to the overall prepulse. Prepulse is found to be ˜2×10-7 from peak intensity for approximately 120ns prior to the main laser pulse. Prepulse energy density on target is ˜2J/cm2. The first laser amplifier in the time- and angle-multiplexed section of the laser is found to be the dominant source of prepulse.

  2. UV Raman spectroscopy of H2-air flames excited with a narrowband KrF laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Raman spectra of H2 and H2O in flames excited by a narrowband KrF excimer laser are reported. Observations are made over a porous-plug, flat-flame burner reacting H2 in air, fuel-rich with nitrogen dilution to control the temperature, and with an H2 diffusion flame. Measurements made from UV Raman spectra show good agreement with measurements made by other means, both for gas temperature and relative major species concentrations. Laser-induced fluorescence interferences arising from OH and O2 are observed in emission near the Raman spectra. These interferences do not preclude Raman measurements, however.

  3. Rapid discharge-pumped wide aperture X-ray preionized KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, H.; Endoh, A.; Jethwa, J.; Rácz, B.; Schäfer, F. P.

    1991-03-01

    A wide aperture X-ray preionized discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser has been constructed. A flat plate pulse-forming line (36 nF, 340 kV) charges a peaking capacitor (6 nF) through a rail-gap to facilitate a rapid discharge in the laser head. Collimated X-ray preionization is employed to obtain a wide and uniform discharge. The laser is intended to be used as a short pulse amplifier and results are presented when characterized as an oscillator. The active cross-section of the laser beam is 10×8 cm2 with 50 cm effective electrode length. The laser pulse energy exceeds 4.7 J in a 28 ns pulse (FWHM).

  4. Raman shifting of KrF laser radiation for tropospheric ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Ismail, Syed

    1991-01-01

    The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurement of tropospheric ozone requires use of high average power UV lasers operating at two appropriate DIAL wavelengths. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that a KrF excimer laser can be used to generate several wavelengths with good energy conversion efficiencies by stimulated Raman shifting using hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2). Computer simulations for an airborne lidar have shown that these laser emissions can be used for the less than 5 percent random error, high resolution measuremment of ozone across the troposphere using the DIAL technique. In the region of strong ozone absorption, laser wavelengths of 277.0 and 291.7 nm were generated using H2 and D2, respectively. In addition, a laser wavelength at 302.0 nm was generated using two cells in series, with the first containing D2 and the second containing H2. The energy conversion efficiency for each wavelength was between 14 and 27 percent.

  5. Sub-500-nm patterning of glass by nanosecond KrF excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekesi, J.; Meinertz, J.; Simon, P.; Ihlemann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of flint glass of type F2 is patterned by nanosecond KrF excimer laser ablation. Strong UV absorption provides a comparatively low ablation threshold and precise ablation contours. By using a two-grating interferometer, periodic surface patterns with 330 nm period and 100 nm modulation depth are obtained. This method enables the fabrication of 7 mm×13 mm wide grating areas with perfectly aligned grooves without the need of high-precision sample positioning. By double exposure, crossed gratings with adjustable depths in the two orthogonal directions can be generated.

  6. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaljaničová, I.; Slepička, P.; Heitz, J.; Barb, R. A.; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  7. Blue-green atomic mercury photodissociation laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fill, E.; Gerck, E.

    The accomplishment of a blue-green Hg laser after dissociating HgI2 with a KrF laser is reported. The iodide was contained in a cell with an aluminum mirror, and heating with the KrF laser caused green laser emission at 180 C and a blue line above 210 C, with total emission increasing up to 260 C and then tailing off. The emitted wavelengths were measured at 435-8 and 546.1 nm, with the pulse shape having a duration of 1 ns with peak power of 3 kW for the blue and an order of magnitude less for the green. The KrF laser was tuned to emit at 248 nm, and no decrease in the resulting emissions were detected after 10,000 pulses in the iodide laser.

  8. Thermal activation in KrF laser ablation of CuCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuper, S.; Brannon, J.

    1994-07-01

    248 nm excimer abaltion of carefully prepared CuCi samples is reported, and shown to occur by a predominantly thermal mechanism. Using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor abaltion, a precise detailed plot of single-pulse mass removal versus incident fluence was obtained for fluences up to 150 mJ/sq cm. A two-parameter Arrhenius exponential function was found to fit the experimental abaltion data. Calculations of laser-induced surface heating were caried out by use of a finite-difference heating code, formulated in terms of enthalpy. Ablation was observed to commence at a fluence of 25 mJ/sq cm, where the calculated surface temperature is approximately 910 K-some 200 K above the melting point. Dynamic ablation was included in the finite-difference calculation by allowing the position of the CuCl surface Xi to vary in time. The best data fit is provided by the zeroth-order kinetic equation: d Xi/dt = (16 A/ns)exp(-38 kJ/mole)/RT(sub Xi) where T(sub Xi) is the surface temperature. A thermodynamic calculation shows the average heat of CuCl vaporization in the temperature range from 900 to 2000 K to be near the fit of value of 38 kJ/mole. From plots of the ablation depth versus time, the CuCl surface was estimated to recede during the ablation at rates up to 10 cm/s.

  9. Practical resolution enhancement effect by new complete antireflective layer in KrF excimer laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tohru; Kimura, Mitsumori; Gocho, Tetsuo; Tomo, Yoichi; Tsumori, Toshiro

    1993-08-01

    A new complete anti-reflective layer (ARL) for KrF excimer laser lithography, which becomes an excimer laser lithography to a practical mass production tool beyond 0.35 micrometers rule devices, is developed. This new ARL, whose material is a type of hydro silicon oxynitride film (SiOxNy:H), can be applied to tungsten silicide (W-Si) and even to aluminum silicon (Al- Si) substrates by controlling deposition conditions in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition systems. Using this SiOxNy:H film with 30 nm and 25 nm thicknesses on W-Si and Al-Si substrates respectively, critical dimension variations for both substrates are drastically reduced to within 0.02 micrometers for 0.30 micrometers imaging. On actual device structures, with these SiOxNy:H film as an ARL, notching effects by halation are completely reduced. Moreover, these SiOxNy:H film can not only be deposited with topographical uniformity but also etched with conventional SiO2 etching conditions. Another advantage with ARL is a depth of focus enhancement effect. With a SiOxNy:H film depth of focus for the critical dimension is enlarged more than 23% for 0.35 micrometers line and space patterns. Accordingly, practical resolution is enhanced. From the above effect, the limitations of KrF excimer laser lithography for ideal substrate conditions are considered from the point of view of optimal projection lens NA for various feature sizes.

  10. Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Wehrmeyer, J A; Cheng, T S; Pitz, R W

    1992-04-01

    Using a narrow-band tunable KrF excimer laser as a spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering source, we demonstrate that single-pulse concentration and temperature measurements, with only minimal fluorescence interference, are possible for all major species (O(2), N(2), H(2)O, and H(2)) at all stoichiometries (fuel-lean to fuel-rich) of H(2)-air flames. Photon-statistics-limited precisions in these instantaneous and spatially resolved single-pulse measurements are typically 5%, which are based on the relative standard deviations of single-pulse probability distributions. Optimal tuning of the narrow-band KrF excimer laser (248.623 nm) for the minimization of OH A(2)Sigma-X(2)II and O(2)B(3)Sigma(u)(-)-X(3)Sigma(g)(-) fluorescence interference is determined from fluorescence excitation spectra. In addition to the single-pulse N(2) Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio temperature measurement technique, a time-averaged temperature measurement technique ispresented that matches the N(2) Stokes Raman spectrum to theoretical spectra by using a single intermediate sta frequency to account for near-resonance enhancement. Raman flame spectra in CH(4)-air flames are presented that have good signal-to-noise characteristics and show promise for single-pulse UV Raman measurements in hydrocarbon flames. PMID:20720783

  11. The Nike electron-beam-pumped KrF laser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Sethian, J.D.; Pawley, C.J.; Obenschain, S.P.

    1997-04-01

    Nike is a recently completed multikilojoule krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study the physics of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. The two final amplifiers of the Nike laser are both electron-beam-pumped systems. This paper describes these two amplifiers, with an emphasis on the pulsed power. The smaller of the two has a 20 x 20 cm aperture, and produces an output laser beam energy in excess of 100 J. This 20 cm Amplifier uses a single 12 kJ Marx generator to inject two 300 kV, 75 kA, 140 ns flat-top electron beams into opposite sides of the laser cell. The larger amplifier in Nike has a 60 x 60 cm aperture, and amplifies the laser beam up to 5 kJ. This 60 cm amplifier has two independent electron beam systems. Each system has a 170 kJ Marx generator that produces a 670 kV, 540 kA, 240 ns flat-top electron beam. Both amplifiers are complete, fully integrated into the laser, meet the Nike system requirements, and are used routinely for laser-target experiments.

  12. Electra: durable repetitively pulsed angularly multiplexed KrF laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolford, Matthew F.; Myers, Matthew C.; Giuliani, John L.; Sethian, John D.; Burns, Patrick M.; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-02-01

    Electra is a repetitively pulsed, electron beam pumped Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser at the Naval Research Laboratory that is developing the technologies that can meet the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) requirements for durability, efficiency, and cost. The technologies developed on Electra should be directly scalable to a full size fusion power plant beam line. As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system which, consists of a commercial discharge laser (LPX 305i, Lambda Physik), 175 keV electron beam pumped (40 ns flat-top) preamplifier, and 530 keV (100 ns flat-top) main amplifier. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Single shot yield of 452 J has been extracted from the initial shots of the Electra laser system using a relatively low energy preamplifier laser beam. In rep-rate burst of 5 Hz for durations of one second a total energy of 1.585 kJ (average 317 J/pulse) has been attained. Total energy of 2.5 kJ has been attained over a two second period. For comparison, the main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated at 2.5 Hz rep-rate average laser yield of 270 J over a 2 hour period.

  13. Cl{sub 2}O photochemistry: Ultraviolet/vis absorption spectrum temperature dependence and O({sup 3}P) quantum yield at 193 and 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Feierabend, Karl J.; Burkholder, James B.

    2011-05-28

    The photochemistry of Cl{sub 2}O (dichlorine monoxide) was studied using measurements of its UV/vis absorption spectrum temperature dependence and the O({sup 3}P) atom quantum yield, {Phi}{sub Cl{sub 2}O}{sup O}({lambda}), in its photolysis at 193 and 248 nm. The Cl{sub 2}O UV/vis absorption spectrum was measured over the temperature range 201-296 K between 200 and 500 nm using diode array spectroscopy. Cl{sub 2}O absorption cross sections, {sigma}{sub Cl{sub 2}O}({lambda},T), at temperatures <296 K were determined relative to its well established room temperature values. A wavelength and temperature dependent parameterization of the Cl{sub 2}O spectrum using the sum of six Gaussian functions, which empirically represent transitions from the ground {sup 1}A{sub 1} electronic state to excited states, is presented. The Gaussian functions are found to correlate well with published theoretically calculated vertical excitation energies. O({sup 3}P) quantum yields in the photolysis of Cl{sub 2}O at 193 and 248 nm were measured using pulsed laser photolysis combined with atomic resonance fluorescence detection of O({sup 3}P) atoms. O({sup 3}P) quantum yields were measured to be 0.85 {+-} 0.15 for 193 nm photolysis at 296 K and 0.20 {+-} 0.03 at 248 nm, which was also found to be independent of temperature (220-352 K) and pressure (17 and 28 Torr, N{sub 2}). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2{sigma} (95% confidence) level and include estimated systematic errors. ClO radical temporal profiles obtained following the photolysis of Cl{sub 2}O at 248 nm, as reported previously in Feierabend et al.[J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 12052, (2010)], were interpreted to establish a <5% upper-limit for the O + Cl{sub 2} photodissociation channel, which indicates that O({sup 3}P) is primarily formed in the three-body, O + 2Cl, photodissociation channel at 248 nm. The analysis also indirectly provided a Cl atom quantum yield of 1.2 {+-} 0.1 at 248 nm. The results from this work are compared

  14. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, R; Barna, A; Suta, T; Bohus, J; Földes, I B; Szatmári, S; Mikołajczyk, J; Bartnik, A; Fiedorowicz, H; Verona, C; Verona Rinati, G; Margarone, D; Nowak, T; Rosiński, M; Ryć, L

    2014-12-01

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence. PMID:25554270

  15. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowski, R.; Barna, A.; Suta, T.; Bohus, J.; Földes, I. B.; Szatmári, S.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Margarone, D.; Nowak, T.; Rosiński, M.; Ryć, L.

    2014-12-01

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence.

  16. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, R.; Barna, A.; Suta, T.; Földes, I. B.; Bohus, J.; Szatmári, S.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Margarone, D.; Nowak, T.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence.

  17. Novel wafer track-based resolution enhancement technology for 248-nm DUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Tom X.; Gurer, Emir; Lewellen, John W.; Lee, Ed C.

    2000-06-01

    248 nm DUV lithography has become a mainstream production technology for sub-0.25 micrometer feature sizes due to its superior process technology and improved cost of ownership (COO). As the semiconductor industry moves to sub-0.18 micron critical layer feature sizes, there is an enormous economic incentive to extend 248 nm technology towards smaller geometries. Traditionally, resolution enhancement technologies such as various illumination types (off-axis, annular ring and quadrapole) and phase shifted masks are based on the optimization of the diffracted aerial image wave front and they concentrate on the exposure tools and masks. In this paper we report a new novel resolution enhancement technology based on the wafer track. We have demonstrated that this new technology, along with the scanner-based resolution enhancement techniques, can substantially improve resolution capabilities and process latitudes of the 248 nm technology. Consequently, semiconductor manufacturers will be able to extend 248 nm DUV technology for smaller feature sizes than was possible before. Our new resolution enhancement technology allowed us to increase the contrast of an acetal-based DUV resist from about 5 to 13 by carefully controlling the environment during the post exposure bake process. This technology provided a continuous contrast knob that could be controlled and set based on the application. Increased photoresist contrast in turn made it possible to pattern 0.15 micrometer isolated lines and 0.2 micrometer dense lines using a 248 nm mercury lamp-based scanner with projection optics designed for 0.35 micrometer features. A DOF of 0.8 micrometer for 0.25 micrometer dense lines was achieved using this PEB- based resolution enhancement technology whereas conventional technology could not resolve 0.25 micrometer dense lines at all. Detailed lithographic characterization identified a 30% improvement in process latitude. Furthermore, cross sectional SEM studies revealed high quality

  18. Extending the performance of KrF laser for microlithography by using novel F2 control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, Paolo; Gong, Mengxiong; Carlesi, Jason; Padmabandu, Gunasiri G.; Binder, Mike; Swanson, Ken; Das, Palash P.

    2000-07-01

    Exposure tools for 248nm lithography have reached a level of maturity comparable to those based on i-line. With this increase in maturity, there is a concomitant requirement for greater flexibility from the laser by the process engineers. Usually, these requirements pertain to energy, spectral width and repetition rate. By utilizing a combination of laser parameters, the process engineers are often able to optimize throughput, reduce cost-of-operation or achieve greater process margin. Hitherto, such flexibility of laser operation was possible only via significant changes to various laser modules. During our investigation, we found that the key measure of the laser that impacts the aforementioned parameters is its F2 concentration. By monitoring and controlling its slope efficiency, the laser's F2 concentration may be precisely controlled. Thus a laser may tune to operate under specifications as diverse as 7mJ, (Delta) (lambda) FWHM < 0.3 pm and 10mJ, (Delta) (lambda) FWHM < 0.6pm and still meet the host of requirements necessary for lithography. We discus this new F2 control technique and highlight some laser performance parameters.

  19. Photoablation of polyimide with IR and UV laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, R.; Nowak, R.; Hess, P.; Oetzmann, H.; Schmidt, C.

    1989-12-01

    IR and UV ablation experiments were performed for freestanding polyimide foils (75 μm) and spincoated films of polyimide (6-7 μm). Compared to results reported in the literature a considerably improved etch quality was obtained with a pulsed TEA CO2 laser. Distinct interference effects were found for KrF laser radiation and CO2 laser radiation. The fluence dependence of the etch rates was studied for excimer laser light at 248 nm and IR laser light at 1082.3, 1057.3 and 970.5 cm-1. The optical absorption coefficient was determined by reflectivity and transmittance measurements.

  20. Photodissociation of dichlorocarbene CCl 2 at 248 nm in a cold beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, G. P.; Felder, P.; Huber, J. Robert

    1994-03-01

    The photodissociation of the dichlorocarbene radical CCl 2 at 248 nm has been studied by photofragment translational spectroscopy. An intense beam of cold CCl 2 was generated from CHCl 3 by a pulsed molecular beam source equipped with a flash pyrolysis nozzle. The photolysis proceeds exclusively via CCl bond fission yielding CCl+Cl. The photofragment recoil distributions imply that more than 60% of the available energy is channeled into the internal degree of freedom of CCl and that the angular distribution is almost isotropic.

  1. Acceleration to High Velocities and Heating by Impact Using Nike KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max

    2009-11-01

    Shock ignition, impact ignition, as well as higher intensity conventional hot spot ignition designs reduce driver energy requirement by pushing the envelope in laser intensity and target implosion velocities. This talk will describe experiments that for the first time reach target velocities in the range of 700 -- 1000 km/s. The highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene, some with bromine doping, are made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Target acceleration and collision are diagnosed using large field of view monochromatic x-ray imaging with backlighting as well as bremsstrahlung self-emission. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with over 10^6 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2 -- 3 keV. The experiments are performed on the Nike facility, reconfigured specifically for high intensity operation. The short wavelength and high illumination uniformity of Nike KrF laser uniquely enable access to this new parameter regime. Intensities of (0.4 -- 1.2) x 10^15 W/cm^2 and pulse durations of 0.4 -- 2 ns were utilized. Modeling of the target acceleration, collision, and neutron production is performed using the FAST3D radiation hydrodynamics code with a non-LTE radiation model. Work is supported by US Department of Energy.

  2. KrF excimer laser lithography with a phase-shifting mask for gigabit-scale ultra large scale integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Akira; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Hasegawa, Norio; Asai, Naoko; Tanaka, Toshihiko P.; Okazaki, Shinji

    1996-10-01

    Resolution-enhancement technologies such as alternating-type phase-shifting masks (PSMs), half-tone PSMs, and the off- axis illumination method in optical lithography are necessary for manufacturing gigabit-scale ultra large scale integration (ULSI) devices. Because an alternating-type PSM is the most effective way to enhance resolution, we examine the resolution capabilities of KrF excimer laser lithography combined with the use of an alternating-type PSM through simulations. Our goal is to apply this technique to attain pattern delineation smaller than 200 nm. We simulate light intensity profiles for various types of PSMs in terms of the 3-D mask structure, and find that a PSM structure with a spin-on glass (SOG) phase shifter on a Cr layer that is thinner than in a conventional mask is one of the best choices for KrF excimer laser lithography. We examine potential problems such as the durability of the SOG phase shifters to KrF excimer laser irradiation exposure, and phase angle error due to the surface topography of the Cr aperture patterns. From our experimental results, we confirm that the optical characteristics of the PSM are not degraded, and the phase angle can be controlled with an accuracy sufficient for gigabit-scale ULSI device fabrication. Improved PSMs with a thin Cr layer and SOG phase shifters were successfully used to fabricate several layers of experimental 1-Gbit dynamic random access memory (DRAM) devices with sufficient resolution capability.

  3. Plume diagnostics and room-temperature deposition of carbon nanotubes and nano-onions at 248 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Adams, P. M.; Ross, F. D.

    2007-04-01

    We report on the deposition of carbon nanotubes and nano-onions at room temperature using excimer laser radiation at 248 nm to ablate mixed graphite-nickel/cobalt targets in the presence of O2 gas. The carbon nanotubes are frequently seen to connect individual onions and have a wall thickness on the order of 20-25 nm, with an overall external tube diameter of 100-200 nm. These tubes have notably large channel diameters and are significantly larger than typically reported single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The observed onion structures are both single and clustered and are 100-200 nm in diameter. Ablation of the same targets in comparable pressures of Ar does not result in these nanostructures but instead produces amorphous carbon. Ablating a pure graphite target under the same laser conditions, with or without metal, also does not yield the tubes and onions. In-situ time-resolved emission spectroscopy has been used to follow the emission from molecular carbon such as C2, as well as metals such as Ni or Co in the different ambients.

  4. Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF excimer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Cheng, Tsarng-Sheng; Pitz, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A narrow-band tunable KrF excimer laser is used as a spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering source to demonstrate that single-pulse concentration and temperature measurements, with only minimal fluorescence interference, are possible for all major species (O2, N2, H2O, and H2) at all stoichiometries (fuel-lean to fuel rich) of H2-air flames. Photon-statistics-limited precisions in these instantaneous and spatially resolved single-pulse measurements are typically 5 percent, which are based on the relative standard deviations of single-pulse probability distributions. In addition to the single-pulse N2 Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio temperature measurement technique, a time-averaged temperature measurement technique is presented that matches the N2 Stokes Raman spectrum to theoretical spectra by using a single intermediate state frequency to account for near-resonance enhancement. Raman flame spectra in CH4-air flames are presented that have good signal-to-noise characteristics and show promise for single-pulse UV Raman measurements in hydrocarbon flames.

  5. Photodissociation of pernitric acid (HO2NO2) at 248 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, Helene; Smith, Gregory P.; Golden, David M.

    1989-01-01

    The photodissociation of pernitric acid (PNA) was studied at 248 nm. The quantum yield for production of OH radicals is 34 + or - 16 percent. The yield of OH from PNA was measured relative to that of H2O2. The translational and rotational energy content of the OH photofragment from PNA was characterized. A fluorescent emission was also observed and characterized. It is attributed to electronically excited NO2 produced in the PNA photodissociation. A maximum yield of 30 percent for NO2 production was determined. The intensity of this emission, and a mass spectrometric peak at m/e = 33, were found to be useful means of characterizing the purity of the PNA sample.

  6. The research progress of metrological 248nm deep ultraviolent microscope inspection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-xin; Li, Qi; Gao, Si-tian; Shi, Yu-shu; Li, Wei; Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    In lithography process, the precision of wafer pattern to a large extent depends on the geometric dimensioning and tolerance of photomasks when accuracy of lithography aligner is certain. Since the minimum linewidth (Critical Dimension) of the aligner exposing shrinks to a few tens of nanometers in size, one-tenth of tolerance errors in fabrication may lead to microchip function failure, so it is very important to calibrate these errors of photomasks. Among different error measurement instruments, deep ultraviolent (DUV) microscope because of its high resolution, as well as its advantages compared to scanning probe microscope restrained by measuring range and scanning electron microscope restrained by vacuum environment, makes itself the most suitable apparatus. But currently there is very few DUV microscope adopting 248nm optical system, means it can attain 80nm resolution; furthermore, there is almost no DUV microscope possessing traceable calibration capability. For these reason, the National Institute of Metrology, China is developing a metrological 248nm DUV microscope mainly consists of DUV microscopic components, PZT and air supporting stages as well as interferometer calibration framework. In DUV microscopic component, the Köhler high aperture transmit condenser, DUV splitting optical elements and PMT pinhole scanning elements are built. In PZT and air supporting stages, a novel PZT actuating flexural hinge stage nested separate X, Y direction kinematics and a friction wheel driving long range air supporting stage are researched. In interferometer framework, a heterodyne multi-pass interferometer measures XY axis translation and Z axis rotation through Zerodur mirror mounted on stage. It is expected the apparatus has the capability to calibrate one dimensional linewidths and two dimensional pitches ranging from 200nm to 50μm with expanded uncertainty below 20nm.

  7. Analysis of selective laser cleaning of patina on bronze coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccolieri, G.; Nassisi, V.; Torrisi, L.; Buccolieri, A.; Castellano, A.; Di Giulio, M.; Giuffreda, E.; Delle Side, D.; Velardi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The patina, is the result of a large number of chemical, electrochemical and physical processes which occur spontaneously during interaction of metal surfaces with the environment. In this work we want to analyze and remove the patina in artefacts, exposed to atmosphere for various decades. Here, experimental results about the laser cleaning of bronze coins by KrF (248 nm) and Nd:YAG (532 nm) lasers are reported. Both laser wavelengths were efficient to reduce the chlorine concentration on the surface of the coins more than 80 %, as demonstrated by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence analyses.

  8. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  9. Negative resist profiles in 248 nm photolithography: experiment, modelling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karafyllidis, I.; Hagouel, P. I.; Neureuther, A. R.

    1998-06-01

    We consider the effects both of exposure energy dose and of developer temperature on the developed negative resist profiles. The spin-formatted resist film tends to have macromolecules oriented parallel to the substrate surface. The orientation of the resist macromolecules introduces an anisotropic component to the etch rate: higher in the direction parallel to the substrate surface and lower in the perpendicular one. We performed a series of experiments for 400 nm pitch periodic and isolated lines on Shipley SNR-248 negative resist coated Si wafers using a stepper and a deep UV source at 248 nm. We obtained scanning electron micrographs for various developer temperatures and exposure doses. The variation of the lateral etch rate manifested itself in sidewall profile slopes. We used Dill's ABC parameter model to model and quantify the exposure, and cellular automata to model the resist cross-linking during post-exposure bake and the resist etching. Simulation using an algorithm based on this model validated the experimental results.

  10. Photodissociation of the Propargyl (C3D3) Radicals at 248 nm and 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Neumark., D.M.; Crider, P.E.; Castiglioni, L.; Kautzman, K.K.

    2009-01-21

    The photodissociation of perdeuterated propargyl (D{sub 2}CCCD) and propynyl (D{sub 3}CCC) radicals was investigated using fast beam photofragment translational spectroscopy. Radicals were produced from their respective anions by photodetachment at 540 nm and 450 nm (below and above the electron affinity of propynyl). The radicals were then photodissociated by 248 nm or 193 nm light. The recoiling photofragments were detected in coincidence with a time- and position-sensitive detector. Three channels were observed: D{sub 2} loss, CD + C{sub 2}D{sub 2}, and CD{sub 3} + C{sub 2}. Obervation of the D loss channel was incompatible with this experiment and was not attempted. Our translational energy distributions for D{sub 2} loss peaked at nonzero translational energy, consistent with ground state dissociation over small (< 1 eV) exit barriers with respect to separated products. Translational energy distributions for the two heavy channels peaked near zero kinetic energy, indicating dissociation on the ground state in the absence of exit barriers.

  11. Direct synthesis of graphene on any nonmetallic substrate based on KrF laser ablation of ordered pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. C.; Man, B. Y.; Jiang, S. Z.; Liu, A. H.; Hu, G. D.; Chen, C. S.; Liu, M.; Yang, C.; Feng, D. J.; Zhang, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present a method for few-layer graphene growth on nonmetallic substrates using excimer KrF laser ablation of ordered pyrolytic graphite. The graphene is scalable and its thickness is controllable. It can be deposited on virtually any nonmetallic substrates at a relative low temperature of 750 °C. This laser-based method is highly efficient and the whole growing process takes less than 100 s. Raman spectroscopy confirms the formation of sp2-bonded carbon with a grain size of about 40 nm. The optical transmittance and conductivity of the graphene films are comparable with exfoliated or metal-catalyzed graphene. This work demonstrates a promising laser-based, transfer-free technique for synthesis of graphene.

  12. Subpicosecond high-brightness uv laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    A laser system that produces intense subpicosecond pulses of 248 nm light is under development. Ultrashort pulses are generated in the visible in a synchronously-pumped mode-locked dye oscillator, heterodyned into the uv by two KDP crystals, and amplified in a chain of KrF* amplifiers. Front end output of 5 ..mu..J is amplified to 20 mJ and focused to peak intensities of order 10/sup 17/ W cm/sup -2/. Additional amplification is expected to permit experiments at intensities >10/sup 20/ W cm/sup -2/.

  13. Photodissociation of dibromoethanes at 248 nm: An ignored channel of Br{sub 2} elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hsin-Lung; Lee, Ping-Chen; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Kuo, H. H.; Chen, P. H.; Chang, A. H. H.

    2009-05-14

    Br{sub 2} molecular elimination is probed in the photodissociation of 1,1- and 1,2-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}Br{sub 2} isomeric forms at 248 nm by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. Their photodissociation processes differ markedly from each other. The quantum yield of the Br{sub 2} fragment in 1,2-dibromoethane is 0.36{+-}0.18, in contrast to a value of 0.05{+-}0.03 in 1,1-dibromoethane. The vibrational population ratios of Br{sub 2}(v=1)/Br{sub 2}(v=0) are 0.8{+-}0.1 and 0.5{+-}0.2 for 1,2- and 1,1-dibromoethanes, respectively. The Br{sub 2} yield densities are found to increase by a factor of 35% and 190% for 1,2- and 1,1-dibromoethanes within the same temperature increment. In the ab initio potential energy calculations, the transition state (TS) along the adiabatic ground state surface may correlate to the Br{sub 2} products. The TS energy for 1,2-dibromoethane is well below the excitation energy at 483 kJ/mol, whereas that for 1,1-dibromoethane is slightly above. Such a small TS energy barrier impedes the photodissociation of the ground state 1,1-dibromoethane such that the production yield of Br{sub 2} may become relatively low, but rise rapidly with the temperature. The TS structure shows a larger bond distance of Br-Br in 1,2-dibromoethane than that in 1,1-dibromoethane. That explains why the former isomer may result in hotter vibrational population of the Br{sub 2} fragments.

  14. Excimer laser ablation of ferrite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, A. C.; Leung, W. P.; Krajnovich, D.

    We study the ablation of Ni-Zn or Mn-7n ferrites by 248-nm KrF excimer laser irradiation for high-resolution patterning. A transfer lens system is used to project the image of a mask irradiated by the pulsed KrF laser onto the ferrite sample. The threshold fluente for ablation of the ferrite surface is about 0.3 J/cm2. A typical fluente of 1 J/cm2 is used to produce good-quality patterning. Scanning electron microscopy of the ablated area shows a "glassy" skin with extensive microcracks and solidified droplets being ejected that is frozen in action. This skin can be removed by ultrasonic cleaning.

  15. Nanobump arrays fabricated by laser irradiation of polystyrene particle layers on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.M.; Sun, Z.; Luk'yanchuk, B.S.; Hong, M.H.; Shi, L.P.

    2005-04-18

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanobump arrays were fabricated by laser irradiation of a regular lattice of absorptive polystyrene (PS) microspheres on an undoped (100) Si wafer. The experiments were performed with single-pulse 248 nm KrF laser radiation. The structure of the arrays fabricated by this method was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The near-field effects under the absorptive particle are studied. The ablation and thermal processes induced by the optical near-field around the particles are investigated. The formation mechanism of nanobumps is discussed.

  16. Pulsed Laser Processing of Functionalized Polysaccharides for Controlled Release Drug Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Popescu, A. C.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.; Caraene, G.; Albulescu, R.; Buruiana, T.; Chrisey, D.

    We report on the deposition of triacetate-pullulan polysaccharide thin films on drug pellets (diclofenac sodium) by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation method. The radiation generated by a pulsed excimer KrF* laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 20 ns) operated at 2 Hz repetition rate was used for ice targets evaporation. The timed - controlled drug delivery was proved by spectroscopic in vitro studies and in vivo anti-inflammatory investigations on rabbits. We showed that the coating of drug pellets with triacetate-pullulan thin films resulted in the delayed delivery of the drug for up to 30 min.

  17. Excimer Laser Ablation of Egg Tempera Paints and Varnishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, P. J.; Bordalo, R.; Santos, L. dos; Marques, S. F.; Salgueiredo, E.; Gouveia, H.

    In this work a series of egg tempera paint and varnish systems have been prepared, artificially aged and irradiated with KrF excimer laser at a wavelength of 248 nm. The samples were prepared with pure pigments and selected mixtures. It was found that, for some pigments, the colour changed upon laser irradiation even at low energy densities, below the ablation threshold while for other inorganic pigmented egg temperas the degree of discoloration is very small at moderate fluence of ˜0.30 J cm?2. The varnish systems did not present signs of discoloration. The thickness, superficial roughness and magnitude of the colour changes of the samples were measured. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and UV/visible spectroscopy were used in order to investigate the changes induced by the KrF excimer laser radiation.

  18. Choice of the laser wavelength for a herpetic keratitis treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, Alexander M.; Bagayev, Sergei N.; Chernikh, Valery V.; Kargapoltsev, Evgeny S.; Trunov, Alexander; Zhupikov, Andrey A.

    2002-06-01

    For the first time the effect of the UV laser radiation to human eye cornea with herpetic keratitis was experimentally investigated. In experiments the UV radiation of ArF (193 nm), KrCl (223 nm), KrF (248 nm) excimer lasers were used. Optimal laser radiation parameters for the treatment of the herpetic keratitis were determined. The immuno-biochemical investigations were carried out and the results of clinical trials are presented. The maximum ablation rate was obtained for the 248 nm radiation wavelength. The process of healing was successful but in some cases the haze on the surface of the cornea was observed. When used the 193 nm radiation wavelength the corneal surface was clear without any hazes but the epithelization process was slower than for 248 nm wavelength and in some cases the relapse was occurred. The best results for herpetic keratitis treatment have been achieved by utilizing the 223 nm radiation wavelength of the KrCl excimer laser. The use of the 223 nm radiation wavelength allows treating the herpetic keratitis with low traumatic process of ablation and provides high quality of corneal surface.

  19. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation of poly( D, L-lactide) thin films for controlled-release drug systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Doraiswamy, A.; Patz, T.; Socol, G.; Grigorescu, S.; Axente, E.; Sima, F.; Narayan, R. J.; Mihaiescu, D.; Moldovan, A.; Stamatin, I.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Chisholm, B.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2007-07-01

    We report the successful deposition of the porous polymer poly( D, L-lactide) by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) using a KrF* excimer laser (248 nm, τ = 7 ns) operated at 2 Hz repetition rate. The chemical structure of the starting materials was preserved in the resulting thin films. Fluence played a key role in optimizing our depositions of the polymer. We demonstrated MAPLE was able to improve current approaches to grow high quality thin films of poly( D, L-lactide), including a porosity control highly required in targeted drug delivery.

  20. KrF- and ArF-excimer-laser-induced absorption in silica glasses produced by melting synthetic silica powder

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzuu, Nobu; Sasaki, Toshiya; Kojima, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Jun-ichiro; Nakamura, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Hideharu

    2013-07-07

    KrF- and ArF-excimer-laser-induced absorption of silica glasses produced by electric melting and flame fusion of synthetic silica powder were investigated. The growth of KrF-laser-induced absorption was more gradual than that of ArF-laser-induced absorption. Induced absorption spectra exhibited a peak at about 5.8 eV, of which the position and width differed slightly among samples and laser species. Widths of ArF-laser-induced absorption spectra were wider than those of KrF-laser-induced spectra. KrF-laser-induced absorption is reproducible by two Gaussian absorption bands peaking at 5.80 eV with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.62 eV and at 6.50 eV with FWHM of 0.74 eV. For reproduction of ArF-laser-induced absorption, Gaussian bands at 5.41 eV with FWHM of 0.62 eV was necessary in addition to components used for reproducing KrF-laser-induced absorption. Based on the discussion of the change of defect structures evaluated from change of absorption components, we proposed that the precursor of the 5.8-eV band ascribed to E Prime center ({identical_to}Si{center_dot}) is {identical_to}Si-H HO-Si{identical_to} structures formed by the reaction between strained Si-O-Si bonds and interstitial H{sub 2} molecules during the irradiation.

  1. Target designs for inertial confinement fusion using approximately 1 MJ of direct KrF laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Jason; Schmitt, Andrew; Fyfe, David; Obenschain, Steve; Zalesak, Steve

    2008-11-01

    We report on recent numerical simulations with the FAST radiation hydro-code of direct-drive target implosions. Our discussion focuses on both conventional and ``shock-ignited'' target designs that utilize about 1 MJ of KrF laser light. Each class of designs has its own advantages, but it appears that shock-ignited targets may be superior in that gains of approximately 200 can be achieved with only 862 kJ of laser energy, according to one-dimensional simulations. This represents a significant improvement over the conventional ``central-hot-spot'' approach to laser fusion energy. In this presentation, we examine the two-dimensional stability of both types of targets by analyzing their performance in the presence of realistic inner- and outer-surface perturbations. Other important design issues, such as the susceptibility of the targets to laser-plasma instabilities and beam power misalignment, are also briefly addressed. R. Betti, C.D. Zhou, K.S. Anderson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155001 (2007).

  2. Osseointegration of KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6A14V alloy by mini-pigs: loaded osseointegration of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Himmlova, Lucia; Grivas, Christos

    1999-05-01

    Aim of study was to evaluate osseointegration of the KrF laser hydroxyapatite coated titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless- steel deposition chamber was used. Thickness of HA films were round 1 μm . Mini-pigs were used in this investigation. Implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks unloaded osseointegration the metal ceramic crowns were inserted. the experimental animals were sacrificed (1 year post insertion). The vertical position of implants was controlled with a radiograph. Microscopical sections were cut and ground. Sections were viewed using microscope with CCD camera. 1 year osseointegration in lower jaw confirmed by all implants presence of newly formed bone around the all implants. Laser-deposited coating the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only seldom. In the control group (titamium implant without cover) the fibrous connective tissue was seen between implant and newly formed bone.

  3. High-NA high-throughput scanner compatible 2-kHz KrF excimer laser for DUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakarai, Hiroaki; Hisanaga, Naoto; Suzuki, Natsushi; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Asayama, Takeshi; Akita, Jun; Igarashi, Toru; Ariga, Tatsuya; Bushida, Satoru; Enami, Tatsuo; Nodomi, Ryoichi; Takabayashi, Yuichi; Sakanishi, Syouich; Suzuki, Takashi; Tomaru, Hitoshi; Nakao, Kiyoharu

    2000-07-01

    We have succeeded in the development of an excimer laser with ultra narrow bandwidth applicable to high N.A. scanners targeting on the 0.13micrometers -design rule. Key word of our solution for 0.13micrometers -design rule was 'extended technologies of currently available KrF excimer laser unit. As the result we could shorten development time remarkably. The narrower the laser spectrum, the less the influence of chromatic aberration on exposure projection lens; this is a well-known fact. We have developed the technologies to achieve spectral bandwidths less than 0.5pm, 20 percent narrower than our current model G20K. In order to attain this number, the major design change was made on line narrowing module, which was redesigned to minimize the dispersion of wavelength element. In addition gas condition was fine-tuned for the new line narrowing module. Integrated energy stability has been improved within +/- 0.35 percent with 35 pulses window by the introduction of a high efficiency pules power module and a faster gas circulation system. The rest of oscillation performances and durability equate with the base model G20K. The intelligent gas control system extended gas exchange interval up to 200 million pulses or 7 days. The G20K already passed through 10 billion-pulse test. Total energy loss was within 4mJ which is small enough to be compensated by gas injection and voltage change; it is a unique compensation system of Komatsu.

  4. 100-nm node lithography with KrF?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritze, Michael; Tyrrell, Brian; Astolfi, David K.; Yost, Donna; Davis, Paul; Wheeler, Bruce; Mallen, Renee D.; Jarmolowicz, J.; Cann, Susan G.; Liu, Hua-Yu; Ma, M.; Chan, David Y.; Rhyins, Peter D.; Carney, Chris; Ferri, John E.; Blachowicz, B. A.

    2001-09-01

    We present results looking into the feasibility of 100-nm Node imaging using KrF, 248-nm, exposure technology. This possibility is not currently envisioned by the 1999 ITRS Roadmap which lists 5 possible options for this 2005 Node, not including KrF. We show that double-exposure strong phase- shift, combined with two mask OPC, is capable of correcting the significant proximity effects present for 100-nm Node imaging at these low k1 factors. We also introduce a new PSM Paradigm, dubbed 'GRATEFUL,' that can image aggressive 100-nm Node features without using OPC. This is achieved by utilizing an optimized 'dense-only' imaging approach. The method also allows the re-use of a single PSM for multiple levels and designs, thus addressing the mask cost and turnaround time issues of concern in PSM technology.

  5. Molecular design and synthesis of 3-oxocyclohexyl methacrylate for ArF and KrF excimer laser resist

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaki, Koji; Kaimoto, Yuko; Takahashi, Makoto

    1994-09-01

    The authors originally designed 3-oxocyclohexyl methacrylate (OCMA) for an acid-labile component in chemical amplification. The key concept of the molecular design of the 3-oxocyclohexyl substituent was the introduction of acidic protons at the {alpha}-position of the elimination site by using a ketone functional group. OCMA was synthesized by esterification of 1,3-cyclohexanediol and methacryloyl chloride followed by pyridinium dichromate oxidation. Using AIBN as an initiator, the authors also prepared poly(OCMA-co-AdMA) (AdMA: adamantyl methacrylate) by a thermally induced radical copolymerization of OCMA and AdMA. The resist comprises the copolymer and 10 wt % of triphenylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate as a photoacid generator (PAG). This resist has high sensitivity, good thermal stability, good dry etch resistance, and good postexposure delay durability. Using a KrF excimer laser stepper (NA = 0.45) and 2-propanol mixed aqueous alkali developer, the authors obtained 0.3-{mu}m line and space patterns with this resist. A resist with 1 wt % of the PAG has an acceptable transmittance at 193 nm, proving that this resist is suitable for ArF excimer lithography. 29 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Plasma conditions generated by interaction of a high brightness, prepulse free Raman amplified KrF laser pulse with solid targets

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.; Gizzi, L.A.; Khattak, F.Y.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Viana, S.M.; Willi, O. )

    1992-12-28

    A high brightness, Raman amplified KrF laser has been used to irradiate solid targets with 12 ps laser pulses at intensities above 10[sup 15] W/cm[sup 2] without the presence of a preformed plasma caused by low level amplified spontaneous emission prepulse. Time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy of the [ital K]-shell emission from aluminum was used to infer electron densities in excess of 10[sup 23] cm[sup [minus]3] at temperatures of several hundred electronvolts.

  7. Species-resolved laser-probing investigations of the hydrodynamics of KrF excimer and copper vapor laser ablation processing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Ching, Chi H.; Lindley, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    Hydrodynamic phenomena from KrF excimer laser ablation (10-3-20 J/cm2) of polyimide, polyethyleneterephthalate, and aluminum are diagnosed by laser beam deflection, schlieren photography, shadowgraphy, laser-induced-fluorescence and dye-laser- resonance absorption photography (DLRAP). Experiments were performed in vacuum and gaseous environments (10-5 to 760 Torr). In vacuum, the DLRAP diagnostic shows species-resolved plume expansion which is consistent with that of a reflected rarefaction wave. Increasing the background gas pressure reveals the formation of sound/shock compared to CN in the laser-ablated polyimide (Vespel) plume/shock in inert (e.g. argon) and reactive (e.g. air) gases. At low pressures (less than 10 Torr) Al and CN species are in close contact with the shock front. As the pressure increases, the species front tends to recede, until at high pressures (over 200 Torr) the species are restrained to only a few mm above the target surface. After sufficient expansion, Al and CN are no longer detectable; only the shadowgraph of the hot gas plume remains. Since CN is observable in both inert and reactive environments, it can be concluded that CN is not a reaction product between the background gas and the ablated species. By way of comparison to excimer laser ablation processing of materials, copper vapor laser machined polyimide and polymethylmethacrylate (transparent to green and yellow copper vapor laser light) are also investigated. The two polymers are observed to have markedly different machined surfaces. Hydrodynamic effects for the copper vapor laser machined materials are investigated using HeNe laser beam deflection.

  8. Laser buffing of nickel-phosphorous surface after mechanical texturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daming; Lu, Yongfeng; Neo, Y. Y.; Wang, Weijie; Low, Tohsiew

    1998-08-01

    Laser buffing of nickel-phosphorous (NiP) surface after mechanic texturing has been investigated. A KrF excimer laser ((lambda) equals 248 nm, (tau) equals 23 ns) was employed in the experiment as an irradiation source. The sample is a mechanic- textured hard disk. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to analyze the surface morphologies before and after laser irradiation. The results show that the surface was buffed in micro-scale after laser irradiation. The surface root mean square roughness and average roughness decreased. One- dimensional thermal conduction model was used to simulate the temperature distribution in the irradiated region. The mechanisms of laser buffing are proposed based on the investigation. It is more likely due to selectively localized melting during laser irradiation.

  9. Laser Machining For Fabrication Of Hohlraums And Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Shirk, M D; Kelly, B T; Haynes, S M; Stuart, B C; Sanchez, J J; Moody, J D; Cook, R C

    2005-06-24

    Laser machining technology has been used to demonstrate the ability to rapidly perform jobs on all aspects of ICF targets. Lasers are able to rapidly perform modifications and repairs to the gold metal parts on hohlraums, make cuts in the delicate polymer parts of the hohlraum, and drill holes in the capsules to enable them to be filled with fuel. Lasers investigated in this work include 193 nm ArF and 248 nm KrF excimers and 810 nm chirped-pulse amplification Ti:Sapphire lasers. The excimer lasers showed a definite advantage in drilling and machining of polymeric materials and the ultrashort infrared pulses of the Ti:Sapphire laser were far better for the gold structures.

  10. Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; H.M. Fan; J.W. Hartfield; R.J. Hawryluk; F. Hegeler; P.J. Heitzenroeder; C.H. Jun; L.P. Ku; P.H. LaMarche; M.C. Myers; J.J. Parker; R.F. Parsells; M. Payen; S. Raftopoulos; J.D. Sethian

    2002-11-21

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, <100>, <110> and <111>) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W {center_dot} cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated with 500 nm thin-film silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), has been fabricated. The window consists of 81 square panes with a thickness of 0.019 mm {+-} 0.001 mm. Stiffened (orthogonal) sections are 0.065 mm in width and 0.500 mm thick (approximate). Appended drawing (Figure 1) depicts the window configuration. Assessment of silicon (and silicon nitride) material properties and CAD modeling and analysis of the window design suggest that silicon may be a viable solution to inherent parameters and constraints.

  11. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 < n < nc/4) of the plasma is essential to understanding the LPI observation. However, numerical simulation was the only way to access the profiles for the previous experiments. In the current Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (λ= 263 nm, δt = 10 psec) beamlets (50μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  12. Application of a high-power KrF laser for the study of supersonic gas flows and the development of hydrodynamic instabilities in layered media

    SciTech Connect

    Zvorykin, V D; Lebo, I G

    2000-06-30

    The design of a miniature laser shock tube for the study of a wide range of hydrodynamic phenomena in liquids at pressures greater than 10 kbar and in supersonic flows with large Mach numbers (greater than 10) is discussed. A substance filling a chamber of quadratic cross section, with a characteristic size of several centimetres, is compressed and accelerated due to local absorption of 100 ns, 100 J KrF laser pulses near the entrance window. It is proposed to focus a laser beam by a prism raster, which provides a uniform intensity distribution over the tube cross section. The system can be used to study the hypersonic flow past objects of complex shape and the development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the case of a passage of a shock wave or a compression wave through the interfaces between different media. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Numerical investigation of the electron dynamic dependence on gas pressure in the breakdown of hydrogen by KrF laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamal, Yosr E. E.-D.; Elsayed, Khaled A.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the measurements that were carried out by Yagi et al. [12] to study the breakdown of molecular hydrogen induced by short laser of wavelength 248 nm and pulse duration 20 ns. The aim of the study is to give a detailed description of the physical processes which contributed to the breakdown of molecular hydrogen at focused intensities between 4×1012 W/cm2 and 8.0×1012 W/cm2 over gas pressure range extended from 150 to 7000 Torr. The applied computer simulation model is based on the numerical solution of the time dependent Boltzmann equation and a set of rate equations that describe the rate of change of the formed excited states population. The experimentally measured rate constants and cross-sections for the various physical processes involved in the model are used in the calculations. Provision is made for the electron impact ionization and photoionization of the excited states. The former process is incorporated parametrically in the calculation owing to the lack of quantitative description of this process. Computations are performed at each gas pressure. The calculated threshold intensities are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally measured ones, both showing a noticeable increase in the higher pressure region. Moreover, calculation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and its parameters demonstrated the exact correlation between gas pressure and the physical processes responsible for determining the breakdown threshold intensity.

  14. Effects of Laser Wavelength and Fluence in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Ge Films

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, Seong Shan; Reenaas, Turid Worren; Siew, Wee Ong; Tou, Teck Yong; Ladam, Cecile

    2011-03-30

    Nanosecond lasers with ultra-violet, visible and infrared wavelengths: KrF (248 nm, 25 ns) and Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 532 nm, 355 nm, 5 ns) were used to ablate polycrystalline Ge target and deposit Ge films in vacuum (<10-6 Torr). Time-integrated optical emission spectra were obtained for laser fluence from 0.5-10 J/cm{sup 2}. Neutrals and ionized Ge species in the plasma plume were detected by optical emission spectroscopy. Ge neutrals dominated the plasma plume at low laser fluence while Ge{sup +} ions above some threshold fluence. The deposited amorphous thin-film samples consisted of particulates of size from nano to micron. The relation of the film properties and plume species at different laser fluence and wavelengths were discussed.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of laser ablation plumes of artwork materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oujja, M.; Rebollar, E.; Castillejo, M.

    2003-04-01

    Studies on the plasma plume created during KrF laser (248 nm) ablation of dosimeter tempera samples in vacuum have been carried out to investigate the basic interactions of the laser with paint materials. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to measure the translational velocity of electronically excited transients in the plasma plume. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) studies using a probe dye laser, allowed to determine the velocities of non-emitting species. The propagation velocities of C 2 in the a 3π u and d 3π g electronic states and of excited atomic species are indicative of a high translational temperature. Differences between the velocities of organic and inorganic species and between emissions from the tempera systems and from the pigments as pellets allow to discuss the participation of photochemical mechanisms in the laser irradiation of the paint systems.

  16. Conceptual design of a 1. 5-MJ, 2-Hz KrF fusion laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Caird, J.; Allen, W.O.; Hipkin, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    The report consists of two major elements: Section II presents an overview of the design study and discusses the major results and conclusions derived from this study; and Section III provides details of the technical analyses and results and presents technical summaries that discuss e-beam pulsed-power conditioning, optical-system design, mechanical-systems design, facilities, overall laser-system efficiency, and capital costs.

  17. Multisectional KrF laser with a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and inductive-capacitive discharge stabilisation

    SciTech Connect

    Andramanov, A V; Kabaev, S A; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevyan, V A; Pisetskaya, A V; Selemir, Victor D

    2006-02-28

    An electric-discharge KrF laser with an inductive-capacitive discharge stabilisation and a pulse repetition rate up to 4 kHz is developed. The multisectional discharge gap with a total length of 25 cm is formed by 25 pairs of anode-cathode plates. A discharge width of no more than 1 mm is realised. Ne and He are used as the buffer gases, and F{sub 2} serves as the fluorine donor. The maximum output pulse energy is {approx}6 mJ for the Ne-Kr-F{sub 2} mixture at a total pressure of 1.6-3.2 atm. The maximum efficiency of the laser is {approx}1.4%. An original optical technique is worked out for measuring the gas velocity in the working gap. The maximum gas velocity in the gap between the electrodes is found to be 19 ms{sup -1} in the experiments. The average output power of the laser for a pulse repetition rate of 3-4 kHz is {approx}12 W, while the relative rms deviation of the laser pulse energy lies in the range 2%-3.8%. It is shown that the refractive index gradient of the active medium, which is related to the free electron concentration in the discharge plasma, plays a significant role in the formation of laser radiation field in the resonator. The characteristic value of the refractive index gradient is found to be no less than 10{sup -5} cm{sup -1} for the KrF laser wavelength. (lasers)

  18. Cost reduction study for the LANL KrF laser-driven LMF design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-27

    This report is in fulfillment of the deliverable requirements for the optical components portions of the LANL-KrF Laser-Driven LMF Design Cost Reduction Study. This report examines the future cost reductions that may accrue through the use of mass production, innovative manufacturing techniques, and new materials. Results are based on data collection and survey of optical component manufacturers, BDM experience, and existing cost models. These data provide a good representation of current methods and technologies from which future estimates can be made. From these data, a series of scaling relationships were developed to project future costs for a selected set of technologies. The scaling relationships are sensitive to cost driving parameters such as size and surface figure requirements as well as quantity requirements, production rate, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition to the scaling relationships, descriptions of the selected processes were developed along with graphical representations of the processes. This report provides a useful tool in projecting the costs of advanced laser concepts at the component level of detail. A mix of the most diverse yet comparable technologies was chosen for this study. This yielded a useful, yet manageable number of variables to examine. The study has resulted in a first-order cost model which predicts the relative cost behavior of optical components within different variable constraints.

  19. Formation of Si nanocrystals in SiOx, SiOx:C:H films and Si/SiO2 multilayer nano-heterostructures by pulse laser treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neizvestniy, I. G.; Volodin, V. A.; Gismatulin, A. A.; Kamaev, G. N.; Antonenko, A. H.; Cherkov, A. G.; Litovchenko, V. G.; Lisovsky, I. P.; Maidanchuk, I. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Furnace annealing and pulse laser treatments, including nanosecond laser treatments (KrF laser 248 nm wavelength, 20 ns pulse duration and XeCl laser 308 nm wavelength, 10 ns pulse duration) and femtosecond laser treatments (Tisapphire laser, 800 nm wavelength, <30 fs pulse duration) were applied for crystallization of amorphous hydrogenated silicon films, SiOx films and multilayer nanostructures. The as-deposited and annealed structures were studied using optical methods and electron microscopy techniques. The influence of impurities on crystallization and formation of Si nanoclusters was studied. Regimes for pulse laser crystallization of amorphous Si nanoclusters and nanolayers were found. The developed approach can be used for the creation of dielectric films with semiconductor nanoclusters on nonrefractory substrates.

  20. Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Heng; Ko, Seung Hwan; Misra, Nipun; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2009-02-01

    We report a rapid and low temperature process for fabricating composite TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics by in tandem spray deposition and laser annealing. A homogenized KrF excimer laser beam (248 nm) was used to layer-by-layer anneal spray deposited TiO2 nanoparticles. The produced TiO2 film is crack free and contains small particles (30 nm) mixed with different fractions of larger particles (100-200 nm) controlled by the applied laser fluence. Laser annealed double-layered structure is demonstrated for both doctor-blade deposited and spray-deposited electrodes and performance enhancement can be observed. The highest demonstrated all-laser-annealed cells utilizing ruthenium dye and liquid electrolyte showed power conversion efficiency of ˜3.8% under simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  1. 10 x 10 cm-sq aperture 1 Hz repetition rate X-ray preionized-discharge pumped KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, H.; Endoh, A.; Jethwa, J.; Schaefer, F. P.

    A 10 x 10 sq cm aperture X-ray preionized discharge-pumped KrF excimer amplifier for subpicosecond pulse amplification is demonstrated experimentally in the oscillator mode operation. A fast pulse-forming line (36 nF, 340 kV) together with a peaking capacitor (6 nF) switched with a rail-gap switch, and collimated X-ray preionization is employed to obtain a wide and uniform discharge. The active cross section of the laser beam is about 10 x 8 sq cm and the intense plateau region is about 10 x 5.5 sq cm. The laser pulse energy exceeds 4.7 J in a 28 ns pulse (FWHM).

  2. Ignition by excimer laser photolysis of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.; Dunn-Rankin, D.; Hom, K.; Brown, N.J.

    1987-08-01

    The authors have ignited mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone in closed cells with 248 nm radiation from a KrF excimer laser. Ozone, the only significant absorber in this system, absorbs a single photon and produces oxygen atoms which initiate combustion. A discretized, time-dependent Beer's law model is used to demonstrate that the radical concentration immediately after photolysis is a function of laser power, ozone concentration, focal length, and separation between the lens and reactions cell. Spark schlieren photographs are used to visualize the ignition events and identify the ignition sites. The effects of equivalence ratio, pressure, and the initial gas temperature on the minimum ozone concentration needed to produce ignition are presented, and only the initial temperature has a significant effect.

  3. Excimer laser ablation of ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, A. C.; Leung, W. P.; Krajnovich, D.

    1991-02-01

    Laser etching of ferrites was previously done by scanning a focused continuous-wave laser beam on a ferrite sample in a chemical environment. We study the phenomenon of photo-ablation of Ni-Zn or Mn-Zn ferrites by pulsed 248-nm KrF excimer laser irradiation. A transfer lens system is used to project a grating pattern of a mask irradiated by the pulsed KrF laser onto the ferrite sample. The threshold fluence for ablation at the ferrite surface is about 0.3 J/cm2. A typical fluence of 1 J/cm2 is used. The etched grooves produced are typically 20-50 μm wide, with depths achieved as deep as 70 μm . Groove straightness is good as long as a sharp image is projected onto the sample surface. The wall angle is steeper than 60 degrees. Scanning electron microscopy of the etched area shows a ``glassy'' skin with extensive microcracks and solidified droplets being ejected that is frozen in action. We found that this skin can be entirely removed by ultrasonic cleaning. A fairly efficient etching rate of about 10 nm/pulse for a patterned area of about 2 mm×2 mm is obtained at a fluence of 1 J/cm2. This study shows that projection excimer laser ablation is useful for micromachining of ferrite ceramics, and indicates that a hydrodynamic sputtering mechanism involving droplet emission is a cause of material removal.

  4. Optical properties of zinc phthalocyanine thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, M.; Bulir, J.; Bensalah-Ledoux, A.; Guy, S.; Fitl, P.; Vrnata, M.; Lancok, J.; Moine, B.

    2014-10-01

    ZnPc thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (KrF laser, λ = 248 nm, τ = 5 ns, f = 50 Hz) on suprasil substrates in vacuum. Optical properties in UV-Vis spectral region were analyzed as functions of laser fluence from 40 to 100 mJ/cm2 by spectrophotometric and spectral ellipsometry measurements. The spectral ellipsometry data were treated using a three-layer model (substrate, film, roughness). The best results of data fitting were obtained when Q band was characterized by two Lorentz oscillators, while two Gaussian oscillators were used for B and C band fitting. We derived the band gap using Tauc plot considering ZnPc a direct band gap semiconductor. The band gap values were found decreasing from 3.13 to 3.09 eV with increasing laser fluence, which might be related with formation of trapping sites at higher fluence.

  5. Assessing the Two-Plasmon Decay Threat Through Simulations and Experiments on the NIKE Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Lee; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.

    2010-11-01

    NIKE is a Krf laser system at the Naval Research Laboratory used to explore hydrodynamic stability, equation of state, and other physics problems arising in IFE research. The comparatively short KrF wavelength is expected to raise the threshold of most parametric instabilities. We report on simulations performed using the FAST3d radiation hydrocode to design TPD experiments that have have allowed us to explore the validity of simple threshold formulas and help establish the accuracy of our simulations. We have also studied proposed high-gain shock ignition designs and devised experiments that can approach the relevant scalelength-temperature regime, allowing us a potential experimental method to study the LPI threat to these designs by direct observation. Through FAST3d studies of shock-ignited and conventional direct-drive designs with KrF (248 nm) and 3rd harmonic (351nm) drivers, we examine the benefits of the shorter wavelength KrF light in reducing the LPI threat.

  6. LPI Experiments at the Nike Laser*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S.; Chan, L.-Y.; Kehne, D.; Brown, D.; Schmitt, A.; Velikovich, A.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Aglitskiy, Y.

    2007-11-01

    Advanced implosion designs under development at NRL for direct drive inertial confinement fusion incorporate high intensity pulses from a krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser to achieve significant gain with lower total laser energy (Etot˜500 kJ). These designs will be affected by the thresholds and magnitudes of laser plasma instabilities (LPI). The Nike laser can create short, high intensity pulses (t <0.4 ns; I>10^15 W/cm^2) to explore how LPI will be influenced by the deep UV (248 nm), broad bandwidth (2-3 THz), and induced spatial incoherence beam smoothing of the NRL KrF laser systems. Previous results demonstrated no visible/VUV signatures of two-plasmon decay (2φp) for overlapped intensities ˜2x10^15 W/cm^2. We have increased the laser intensity and expanded the range of targets and diagnostics. Single and double pulse experiments are being planned with solid, foam, and cryogenic targets. In addition to spectrometers to study SRS, 2φp, SBS, and the parametric decay instability, hard x-ray spectrometers (hν>2 keV) and a scintillator/photomultiplier array (hν>10 keV) have been deployed to examine hot electron generation. *Work supported by U. S. DoE.

  7. Lithography process for KrF in the sub-0.11 μm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhang, Zhao; Jun, Zhu; Jiarong, Tong; Xuan, Zeng

    2009-09-01

    Currently, 200 mm wafer foundry companies are beginning to explore production feasibility under ground rules smaller than 0.11 μm while maintain the cost advantages of KrF exposure tool systems. The k1 factor under 0.11 μm at 248 nm illumination will be below 0.35, which means the process complexity is comparable with 65 nm at 193 nm illumination. In this paper, we present our initial study in the CD process window, mask error factor and CD through pitch performance at the 0.09 μm ground rule for three critical layers—gate poly, metal and contact. The wafer data in the process window and optical proximity will be analyzed. Based on the result, it is shown that the KrF tool is fully capable of sub 0.11 μm node mass production.

  8. Improvement of the atmospheric discharge laser-triggered ability using multiple pulses from a kilohertz KrF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru

    2005-08-15

    The potential ability of lasers to control lightning can be improved by using a train of pulses with submillisecond separations. Laser-triggered experiments in a small-scale (10-mm gap) atmospheric discharge facility show that the triggering is dramatically enhanced when a five-pulse train of sub-Joule energy is used instead of a single pulse. This effect increases rapidly as the pulse interval is reduced. It appears that at a submillisecond pulse interval, sufficient positive and negative ions survive in subsequent pulses, thus enabling easy deionization. Hence, significant plasma buildup occurs from one pulse to the next. However, this persistence of ions would appear to imply that the rate of recombination (effectively a charge transfer between ions) is considerably lower than previously believed.

  9. Pulsed laser annealing of Be-implanted GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.T.; Tan, L.S.; Chor, E.F.

    2005-11-01

    Postimplantation thermal processing of Be in molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown GaN by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and pulsed laser annealing (PLA) was investigated. It has been found that the activation of Be dopants and the repair of implantation-induced defects in GaN films cannot be achieved efficiently by conventional RTA alone. On the other hand, good dopant activation and surface morphology and quality were obtained when the Be-implanted GaN film was annealed by PLA with a 248 nm KrF excimer laser. However, observations of off-resonant micro-Raman and high-resolution x-ray-diffraction spectra indicated that crystal defects and strain resulting from Be implantation were still existent after PLA, which probably degraded the carrier mobility and limited the activation efficiency to some extent. This can be attributed to the shallow penetration depth of the 248 nm laser in GaN, which only repaired the crystal defects in a thin near-surface layer, while the deeper defects were not annealed out well. This situation was significantly improved when the Be-implanted GaN was subjected to a combined process of PLA followed by RTA, which produced good activation of the dopants, good surface morphology, and repaired bulk and surface defects well.

  10. Progress on CBET Platform at the Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; McKenty, P.; Oh, J.; Kehne, D.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Lehmberg, R.; Tsung, F.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-beam energy transport (CBET) studies are underway at the Nike krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser at NRL. This facility has unique characteristics that provide an excellent platform for CBET work - including short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1-3 THz), beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI), and full aperture focal spot zooming. Nike's two beam arrays are widely separated (135° in azimuth) which facilitates CBET studies in a nearly opposing geometry, relevant to Polar Direct Drive implosions. Various target types are planned: planar slabs, cylindrical and spherical shells, and low-density targets. The solid targets will be used to examine gradient geometries and the latter will access larger volume, more uniform plasmas. The initial campaign is exploring changes observed by scattered light diagnostics for both beam arrays as the probe laser spectrum is modified. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  11. Laser-induced photodestruction of the organo-phosphates: DIMP and DMMP

    SciTech Connect

    Radziemski, L.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The infrared and ultraviolet laser-induced photodestruction of diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) has been surveyed. We used the excimer lasers ArF (193 nm), KrF (248 nm), XeCl (308 nm), and quadrupled Nd:YAG (266 nm) as well as a pulsed CO/sup 2/ laser. Samples were irradiated in the vapor and liquid phases. Photodissociation was observed at all irradiation wavelengths, being most efficient when ArF irradiated DIMP or DMMP in the vapor phase in the presence of air or oxygen. Pulsed, focused CO/sup 2/ radiation led to multiple photon dissociation and pyrolytic destruction. Light hydrocarbon gases were the principal decomposition products. Hydrogen, CO, CO/sup 2/ and water were also detected. The residual liquid is likely to be a phosphorus-bearing acid.

  12. Laser-induced photodestruction of the organo-phosphates: DIMP and DMMP.

    PubMed

    Radziemski, L J

    1981-01-01

    The infrared and ultraviolet laser-induced photodestruction of diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) has been surveyed. We used the excimer lasers ArF (193 nm), KrF (248 nm), XeCl (308 nm), and quadrupled Nd:YAG (266 nm) as well as a pulsed CO2 laser. Samples were irradiated in the vapor and liquid phases. Photodissociation was observed at all irradiation wavelengths, being most efficient when ArF irradiated DIMP or DMMP in the vapor phase in the presence of air or oxygen. Pulsed, focused CO2 radiation led to multiple photon dissociation and pyrolytic destruction. Light hydrocarbon gases were the principal decomposition products. Hydrogen, CO, CO2 and water were also detected. The residual liquid is likely to be a phosphorus-bearing acid. PMID:7252066

  13. Luminescence from pigments and resins for oil paintings induced by laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, Ilaria; Fantoni, Roberta; Flamini, Chiara; Di Palma, Tonia M.; Giardini Guidoni, Anna; Mele, Aldo

    1998-05-01

    The present work reports results of an extensive study of laser induced luminescence by tripled Nd:YAG laser ( λ=355 nm) of a few most common painting materials, namely, natural and synthetic pigments and resins. The luminescence spectra have been analyzed by an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA III). Luminescence time decay has been measured by a Streak camera or by the OMA III. Pigments and resins show characteristic emission spectra with bands peaking in the visible. The decay ranges from less than 1 ns up to 700 μs for pigments and for resins. The mechanism of excitation and relaxation leading to luminescence is discussed for the various materials. Oil colour specimens have been irradiated by a UV KrF laser ( λ=248 nm). Luminescence photographs have been detected by an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera at different time delays.

  14. Line Raman, Rayleigh, and laser-induced predissociation fluorescence technique for combustion with a tunable KrF excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Mansour, M S; Chen, Y C

    1996-07-20

    We have applied a line UV Raman, Rayleigh, and laser-induced predissociation fluorescence technique for measurement of turbulent hydrocarbon flames. The species concentration of CO(2), O(2), CO, N(2), CH(4), H(2)O, OH, and H(2) and the temperature are measured instantaneously and simultaneously along a line of 11.4 mm, from which the gradients with respect to mixture fraction and spatial direction are obtained. The technique has been successfully tested in a laminar premixed stoichiometric methane flame and a laminar hydrogen diffusion flame. In addition the technique has been tested in a highly turbulent rich premixed methane flame. The data show that the technique can be used to provide instantaneous measurements of local profiles that describe the local flame structure in highly turbulent flames. PMID:21102834

  15. Removal of Simulated Dust from Water-Based Acrylic Emulsion Paints by Laser Irradiation at IR, VIS and UV Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westergaard, M.; Pouli, P.; Theodorakopoulos, C.; Zafiropulos, Vassilis; Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn; Dinesen, U. Staal

    This study aims to investigate whether laser cleaning may be a valuable method for the removal of soiling from water-based acrylic emulsion paints in comparison to traditional cleaning methods. Acrylic-grounded canvas was painted with three different paints (yellow ochre, titanium white and red alizarin) in a polybutyl- acrylate and methyl methacrylate binder. An acrylic binder was used as a reference. The samples were covered with carbon, SiO2 and soot. Cleaning process ablation rate studies were carried out with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1,064, 532 and 355nm and a KrF Excimer laser at 248 nm. The energy densities varied from 0.03 to 0.69 J cm?2. The irradiated tests at 248nm were monitored by LIBS analysis. On the samples irradiated at 1,064 nm, various analytical methods were carried out. A determined alteration of the titanium white paint resulted in a marked decrease in the glass transition temperature (Tg). Furthermore, discoloration (yellowing) occurred on the binder and the titanium white paint. The ochre darkened slightly but the alizarin was unchanged. When compared with the samples cleaned with water-based solvents, the samples cleaned with laser appeared cleaner. However, SEM/EDX and ATR showed that SiO2 was still present on the surface after laser cleaning at the tested conditions.

  16. Implementation of contact hole patterning performance with KrF resist flow process for 80nm DRAM application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-ryeun; Park, DongHeok; Kim, HyeongSoo

    2005-05-01

    Currently, 193nm lithography including contact hole patterning is being integrated into manufacturable process at 80nm technology nodes. However, for 193nm contact hole patterning, many researchers have reported various troubles such as poor profiles, low exposure dose, and pattern edge roughness due to inherent flaws of ArF resist materials. Also, it is desirable to be extended the KrF lithography at a cost. Of course, the patterning of very small contact hole features for the 80nm DRAM device generation will be a difficult challenge for 248nm lithography. In this work, we study the potential for contact photoresist reflow to be used with 248nm photoresist to increase process windows of small contact dimensions at the 80nm DRAM device generation. In KrF 0.80NA scanner, resist flow process and layout optimization was carried out to achieve the contact hole patterning. The contact CD at best focus is 140nm and the amount of photoresist flow is approximately 52nm. For a contact hole with CDs of 88nm +/- 10%, Focus-Exposure windows over the wafer are 0.3um and 10%, respectively. In conclusion, we have successfully achieved the contact hole patterning with KrF resist flow process for 80nm DRAM device.

  17. Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, W. S.; Sands, T.; Cheung, N. W.; Kneissl, M.; Bour, D. P.; Mei, P.; Romano, L. T.; Johnson, N. M.

    1999-09-01

    Indium-gallium nitride (InGaN) multiple-quantum-well (MQW) light-emitting diode (LED) membranes, prefabricated on sapphire growth substrates, were created using pulsed-excimer laser processing. The thin-film InGaN MQW LED structures, grown on sapphire substrates, were first bonded onto a Si support substrate with an ethyl cyanoacrylate-based adhesive. A single 600 mJ/cm2, 38 ns KrF (248 nm) excimer laser pulse was directed through the transparent sapphire, followed by a low-temperature heat treatment to remove the substrate. Free-standing InGaN LED membranes were then fabricated by immersing the InGaN LED/adhesive/Si structure in acetone to release the device from the supporting Si substrate. The current-voltage characteristics and room-temperature emission spectrum of the LEDs before and after laser lift-off were unchanged.

  18. Photo-fragmentation of selenium powder by Excimer laser ablation in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Overschelde, O.; Guisbiers, G.

    2015-10-01

    Laser ablation in liquids is especially adapted to produce nanoparticles free of any contamination as suited for biological and medical applications. A KrF Excimer laser delivering an UV light at 248 nm and operating at low fluence (F~0.5 J/cm2) was used to irradiate a micro-sized powder of selenium dispersed into a de-ionized water solution. To avoid any agglomeration of the selenium nanoparticles during the irradiation, surfactants (SDS and CTAB) were added to the solution and their efficiency was compared. The concentration of surfactants had to be chosen around the critical micellar concentration to produce small selenium nanoparticles (<60 nm). Moreover, SDS shows better mono-disperse size distribution compared to CTAB. Finally, photo-fragmentation is found to be more efficient than bulk thermal ablation to produce very small selenium nanoparticles (less than 10 nm).

  19. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymer-antibiotic thin films fabricated by advanced pulsed laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Dorcioman, G.; Miroiu, F. M.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Gittard, S. D.; Miller, P. R.; Narayan, R. J.; Enculescu, M.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2013-08-01

    We report on thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of two polymer-drug composite thin film systems. A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used to deposit composite thin films of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) containing several gentamicin concentrations. FTIR spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical structures similar to those of drop cast materials. Scanning electron microscopy data indicated that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of PDLLA-gentamicin composite thin films against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using drop testing. The influence of drug concentration on microbial viability was also assessed. Our studies indicate that polymer-drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE may be used to impart antimicrobial activity to implants, medical devices, and other contact surfaces.

  20. Coupling effects of the number of pulses, pulse repetition rate and fluence during laser PMMA ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Feng, Y.; Yi, X.-S.

    2000-10-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was ablated using a 248-nm long-pulsed KrF excimer laser operating at a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of 2 and 10 Hz, and fluence varying from 0.4 to 2 J/cm 2. The coupling effects of multiple shots, PRR, and fluence are found and discussed on the etching depth data and topography of PMMA. An increase in either PRR, or fluence or the number of pulses can accelerate the etching efficiency in terms of ablation rate, as a result of strengthened thermal effects. Quality of the craters such as roughness, porosity and contamination is sensitively dependent on the specific laser operating conditions. Basically, increasing the PRR and the number of pulses gives rise to a crater with smoother and less porous bottom.

  1. From small aromatic molecules to functional nanostructured carbon by pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, R. R.; Thakare, V. P.; Warule, S.; Lefez, B.; Hannoyer, B.; Jog, J. P.; Ogale, S. B.

    2012-06-01

    A novel route employing UV laser pulses (KrF Excimer, 248 nm) to cleave small aromatic molecules and stitch the generated free radicals into functional nanostructured forms of carbon is introduced. The process differs distinctly from any strategies wherein the aromatic rings are broken in the primary process. It is demonstrated that this pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching (PLPS) process when applied to routine laboratory solvents (or toxic chemical wastes when discarded) Chlorobenzene and o-Dichlorobenzene yields Carbon Nanospheres (CNSs) comprising of graphene-like sheets assembled in onion-like configurations. This room temperature process implemented under normal laboratory conditions is versatile and clearly applicable to the whole family of haloaromatic compounds without and with additions of precursors or other nanomaterials. We further bring out its applicability for synthesis of metal-oxide based carbon nanocomposites.

  2. LPI Thresholds in Longer Scale Length Plasmas Driven by the Nike Laser*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J.; Oh, J.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive driver for inertial confinement fusion due to its short wavelength (248nm), large bandwidth (1-3 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. Experiments with the Nike KrF laser have demonstrated intensity thresholds for laser plasma instabilities (LPI) higher than reported for other high power lasers operating at longer wavelengths (>=351 nm). The previous Nike experiments used short pulses (350 ps FWHM) and small spots (<260 μm FWHM) that created short density scale length plasmas (Ln˜50-70 μm) from planar CH targets and demonstrated the onset of two-plasmon decay (2φp) at laser intensities ˜2x10^15 W/cm^2. This talk will present an overview of the current campaign that uses longer pulses (0.5-4.0 ns) to achieve greater density scale lengths (Ln˜100-200 μm). X-rays, emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2φo harmonics, and reflected laser light have been monitored for onset of 2φp. The longer density scale lengths will allow better comparison to results from other laser facilities. *Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR.

  3. Aminodisilanes as silylating agents for dry-developed positive-tone resists for deep-ultraviolet (248-nm) and extreme ultraviolet (13.5-nm) microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, David R.; Hutton, Richard S.; Boyce, Craig H.; Stein, Susan M.; Cirelli, Raymond A.; Taylor, Gary N.

    1995-06-01

    Disilanes are used as silylating reagents for near-surface imaging with deep-UV (248 nm) and EUV (13.5 nm) lithography. A relatively thin imaging layer of a photo-cross-linking resist is spun over a thicker layer of hard-baked resist that functions as a planarizing layer and antireflective coating. Photoinduced acid generation and subsequent heating crosslinks render exposed areas impermeable to an aminodisilane that reacts with the unexposed regions. Subsequent silylation and reactive ion etching affords a positive-tone image. The use of disilanes introduces a higher concentration of silicon into the polymer than is possible with silicon reagents that incorporate only one silicon atom per reactive site. The higher silicon content in the silylated polymer increases etching selectivity between exposed and unexposed regions and thereby increases the contrast. The synthesis and reactivity of `smaller' disilanes, N,N-dimethylamino-1,2-dimethyldisilane, (DMADMDS), and N,N-diethylamino-1,2- dimethyldisilane also are described. Additional silylation improvements that minimize flow during silylation also are discussed including the addition of bifunctional disilanes to the monofunctional DMAPMDS. This causes the crosslinking to occur during silylation which minimizes flow. We have resolved high aspect ratio, very high quality 0.20 micrometers line and space patterns at 248 nm with a stepper having a numerical aperture (NA) equals 0.53 and have resolved

  4. High silicon content silylating reagents for dry-developed positive-tone resists for extreme ultraviolet (13.5 nm) and deep ultraviolet (248 nm) microlithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.; Scharrer, E.; Kubiak, G.

    1994-12-31

    Recent results in the use of disilanes as silylating reagents for near-surface imaging with deep-UV (248 nm) and EUV (13.5 nm) lithography are reported. A relatively thin imaging layer of a photo-cross-linking resist is spun over a thicker layer of hard-baked resist that functions as a planarizing layer and antireflective coating. Photoinduced acid generation and subsequent heating crosslinks and renders exposed areas impermeable to an aminodisilane that reacts with the unexposed regions. Subsequent silylation and reactive ion etching afford a positive-tone image. The use of disilanes introduces a higher concentration of silicon into the polymer than is possible with silicon reagents that incorporate only one silicon atom per reactive site. The higher silicon content in the silylated polymer increases etching selectivity between exposed and unexposed regions and thereby increases the contrast. Additional improvements that help to minimize flow during silylation are also discussed, including the addition of bifunctional disilanes. We have resolved high aspect ratio, very high quality 0.20 {mu}m line and space patterns at 248 nm with a stepper having a numerical aperture (NA)= 0.53, and have resolved {<=} 0.15 {mu}m line and spaces at 13.5 nm.

  5. Ablation with a single micropatterned KrF laser pulse: quantitative evidence of transient liquid microflow driven by the plume pressure gradient at the surface of polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbuch, F.; Tokarev, V. N.; Lazare, S.; Débarre, D.

    A microscopic flow of a transient liquid film produced by KrF laser ablation is evidenced on targets of PET and PEN. Experiments were done by using single pulses of the excimer laser beam micropatterned with the aid of submicron projection optics and grating masks. The samples of various crystalline states, ablated with a grating-forming beam (period Λ=3.7 μm), were precisely measured by atomic force microscopy, in order to evidence any deviation from the ablation behavior predicted by the current theory (combination of ablation curve and beam profile). This was confirmed by comparing various behaviors dependent on the polymer nature (PC, PET and PEN). PC is a normally ablating polymer in the sense that the ablated profile can be predicted with previous theory neglecting liquid-flow effects. This case is called `dry' ablation and PC is used as a reference material. But, for some particular samples like crystalline PET, it is revealed that during ablation a film of transient liquid, composed of various components, which are discussed, can flow under the transient action of the gradient of the pressure of the ablation plume and resolidify at the border of the spot after the end of the pulse. This mechanism is further supported by a hydrodynamics theoretical model in which a laser-induced viscosity drop and the gradient of the plume pressure play an important role. The volume of displaced liquid increases with fluence (0.5 to 2 J/cm2) and satisfactory quantitative agreement is obtained with the present model. The same experiment done on the same PET polymer but prepared in the amorphous state does not show microflow, and such an amorphous sample behaves like the reference PC (`dry' ablation). The reasons for this surprising result are discussed.

  6. Influence of a TiN interlayer on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelea, Valentin D.; Ristoscu, Carmen; Colis, Silviu; Arens, Simona; Pelletier, Herve; Mihailescu, Ion N.; Mille, Pierre

    2001-04-01

    Crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films grown on metallic substrates is the best choice for bone restoration. This is due to the good biological compatibility of the hydroxyapatite material combined with the good mechanical characteristics of the substrates. We deposit HA thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) in vacuum at room temperature using a KrF* excimer laser ((lambda) equals 248 nm, (tau) FWHM >= 20 ns). The depositions were performed directly on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe or on substrates previously coated with a TiN buffer layer. The HA deposited structures were characterized by complementary techniques: GIXRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, EDS and nanoindentation. Properties of the HA films grown with and without the TiN buffer were discussed in term of microstructure and mechanical behavior. The films with interlayer preserve the stoichiometry, are completely recrystallized and present better mechanical characteristics as compared with those without buffer.

  7. Photodissociation of CH3CHO at 248 nm by time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy: Verification of roaming and triple fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Kai-Chan; Tsai, Po-Yu; Li, Hou-Kuan; Lin, King-Chuen

    2014-02-01

    By using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy, the HCO fragment dissociated from acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) at 248 nm is found to partially decompose to H and CO. The fragment yields are enhanced by the Ar addition that facilitates the collision-induced internal conversion. The channels to CH2CO + H2 and CH3CO + H are not detected significantly. The rotational population distribution of CO, after removing the Ar collision effect, shows a bimodal feature comprising both low- and high-rotational (J) components, sharing a fraction of 19% and 81%, respectively, for the vibrational state v = 1. The low-J component is ascribed to both roaming pathway and triple fragmentation. They are determined to have a branching ratio of <0.13 and >0.06, respectively, relative to the whole v = 1 population. The CO roaming is accompanied by a highly vibrational population of CH4 that yields a vibrational bimodality.

  8. Nanobumps on silicon created with polystyrene spheres and 248 or 308 nm laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Piparia, Reema; Rothe, Erhard W.; Baird, R. J.

    2006-11-27

    Huang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161911 (2005)] formed arrays of nanobumps on a silicon substrate. They applied a 248 nm laser pulse to a surface monolayer of 1-{mu}m-diameter polystyrene spheres. The authors first replicated their experiment with 248 nm light. But when 308 nm pulses were applied instead, the nanobumps had a different shape and composition. At 248 nm, much of the laser light is absorbed in the polystyrene, which serves to quickly distort, melt, and ablate the sphere. At 308 nm, very little light is absorbed. The nanobumps from 248 nm radiation are organic polymers, while those formed with 308 nm pulses are silicon based.

  9. Performance Optimization of a High-Repetition-Rate KrF Laser Plasma X-Ray Source for Microlithography.

    PubMed

    Bukerk, F; Louis, E; Turcu, E C; Tallents, G J; Batani, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop a high-intensity laser plasma x-ray source appropriate for industrial application of x-ray lithography, experiments have been carried out using a high-repetition-rate (up to 40 Hz) excimer laser (249 nm, 300 mJ) with a power density of 2 × 1013 W/ cm2 in the laser focus. In this study emphasis is given to remedying specific problems inherent in operating the laser plasma x-ray source at high repetition rates and in its prolonged operation. Two different methods of minimizing the production of target debris are investigated. First, the use of helium as a quenching gas results in a reduction of the amount of atomic debris particles by more than two orders of magnitude with negligible x-ray absorption. Second, a tape target as opposed to a solid target reduces the production of larger debris particles by a further factor of 100. Remaining debris is stopped by an aluminized plastic or beryllium filter used to avoid exposure of the resist by plasma ultraviolet radiation. The x-ray source has been used to image x-ray transmission mask structures down to 0.3 μm onto general purpose x-ray photo-resist. Results have been analyzed with SEM. The x-ray emission spectrum of the repetitive laser plasmas created from an iron target has been recorded and the conversion efficiency of the laser light into x-rays that contribute to exposure of the resist was measured to be 0.3% over 2π sr. PMID:21307442

  10. Br{sub 2} molecular elimination in photolysis of (COBr){sub 2} at 248 nm by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy: A photodissociation channel being ignored

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chia-Ching; Lin, Hsiang-Chin; Chang, Yuan-Bin; Tsai, Po-Yu; Yeh, Yu-Ying; Fan, He; Lin, King-Chuen; Francisco, J. S.

    2011-12-21

    A primary dissociation channel of Br{sub 2} elimination is detected following a single-photon absorption of (COBr){sub 2} at 248 nm by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. The technique contains two laser beams propagating in a perpendicular configuration. The tunable laser beam along the axis of the ring-down cell probes the Br{sub 2} fragment in the B{sup 3}{Pi}{sub ou}{sup +}-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} transition. The measurements of laser energy- and pressure-dependence and addition of a Br scavenger are further carried out to rule out the probability of Br{sub 2} contribution from a secondary reaction. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population for v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.65 {+-} 0.09):(0.34 {+-} 0.07), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 893 {+-} 31 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br{sub 2} elimination reaction is determined to be 0.11 {+-} 0.06. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the pathway of molecular elimination is proposed on the energetic ground state (COBr){sub 2} via internal conversion. A four-center dissociation mechanism is followed synchronously or sequentially yielding three fragments of Br{sub 2}+ 2CO. The resulting Br{sub 2} is anticipated to be vibrationally hot. The measurement of a positive temperature effect supports the proposed mechanism.

  11. Excimer Laser Etching

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Longmire, Hu Foster; Rouleau, Christopher M; Gray, Allison S

    2008-04-01

    Excimer laser radiation at a wavelength of = 248 nm represents a new etching method for the preparation of metallographic specimens. The method is shown to be particularly effective for enhancing the contrast between different phases in a multiphase metallographic specimen.

  12. Evaporation of solids by pulsed laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafast, H.; Von Przychowski, M.

    The focused beam of a KrF laser (248 nm) has been applied to irradiate targets of Al 2O 3, SiC, graphite, Pb, Ni, Cr, quartz, and NaCl at variable laser energy flux is the range 0-13 J/cm 2. The amount of target material ejected into the vacuum (background pressure about 8 × 10 -4 Torr) was determined from the target weight before and after laser irradiation. The average number of particles (formula weight) evaporated per laser pulse and per unit of irradiated target area is non-linearly dependent on the laser energy flux. The evaporation of Al 2O 3, SiC, and graphite is showing a well-defined flux threshold while the vaporization of Pb, Ni and Cr is rising smoothly with increasing flux. With both groups of materials laser evaporation is monotonically increasing with the laser energy flux. NaCl and quartz, on the other hand, are showing an intermediate maximum in the laser vaporization efficiency.

  13. High Resolution Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging of Targets Irradiated by the Nike KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Brown, C.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Holland, G.

    1996-11-01

    Planar CH foils were accelerated by the main Nike laser driving beams and were backlit by Si plasmas. A spherically-bent quartz crystal (R=25cm, 2d=6.68703 Åimaged the radiation of He-like Si resonance line that was transmitted through the target foil. The intensity of the backlighted image (6 beams, 250 J) was 160 times greater than the self emission from a driven CH foil. The magnified (X9.6) images on DEF film had the resolution about 5 μ m (3 μ m with R=10cm). The resulting 10 μ m spatial resolution in the gated images was determined by 100 μ m resolution of the framing camera. Images of CH targets were recorded 2 nsec after the peak of the laser pulse and revealed the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities that were seeded by patterns with amplitude as small as 0.25 μ m. The image of driven smooth CH target was quite smooth compared to those of the patterned CH foil. A future imaging instrument will have multiple backlighter plasmas and better quality bent crystals that can be bent into a toroidal shape. Up to four images with higher magnification and spatial resolution of 5 μ m may be recorded on the framing camera. This work supported by the US Department of Energy

  14. Laser-LIGA for Ni microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hengyi; Harvey, Erol C.; Hayes, Jason P.; Ghantasala, Muralidhar K.; Fu, Yao; Jolic, Karlo; Solomon, Matthew; Graves, Kynan

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents our design and experimental results of nickel microcantilevers, which were fabricated using a laser-LIGA process, based on KrF (248 nm) excimer laser micromachining. A chrome-on-quartz mask, containing the desired mask patterns was prepared for this work. The substrate of copper (30 μm thick) clad printed circuit board (PCB) was laminated with Laminar 5038 photopolymer to be laser patterned. Following laser patterning and laser cleaning, all the samples were electroformed with nickel on top of the copper layer. To release the Ni microcantilevers, the excimer laser was employed again to remove the polymer in the localised area to facilitate Cu selective etching. Here, copper acted as the sacrificial layer as well. The Cu selective etching was carried out with ~ 20 % (wt) aqueous solution of ammonium persulfate. Because the Cu selective etching is isotropic, some undercuts happened next to the anchor area. The samples were characterised using optical microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope and SEM, and some of Ni cantilevers were tested electro-thermally. Their performance was analyzed with respect to the simulation results.

  15. Photodissociation of gaseous CH3COSH at 248 nm by time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy: Observation of three dissociation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, En-Lan; Tsai, Po-Yu; Fan, He; Lin, King-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Upon one-photon excitation at 248 nm, gaseous CH3C(O)SH is dissociated following three pathways with the products of (1) OCS + CH4, (2) CH3SH + CO, and (3) CH2CO + H2S that are detected using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy. The excited state 1(nO, π*CO) has a radiative lifetime of 249 ± 11 ns long enough to allow for Ar collisions that induce internal conversion and enhance the fragment yields. The rate constant of collision-induced internal conversion is estimated to be 1.1 × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Among the primary dissociation products, a fraction of the CH2CO moiety may undergo further decomposition to CH2 + CO, of which CH2 is confirmed by reaction with O2 producing CO2, CO, OH, and H2CO. Such a secondary decomposition was not observed previously in the Ar matrix-isolated experiments. The high-resolution spectra of CO are analyzed to determine the ro-vibrational energy deposition of 8.7 ± 0.7 kcal/mol, while the remaining primary products with smaller rotational constants are recognized but cannot be spectrally resolved. The CO fragment detected is mainly ascribed to the primary production. A prior distribution method is applied to predict the vibrational distribution of CO that is consistent with the experimental findings.

  16. Molecular elimination of Br2 in photodissociation of CH2BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, He; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Yan, Chi-Yu; Yang, Shu-Wei; Chang, A. H. H.

    2012-12-01

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH2BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 ± 0.1):(0.2 ± 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 ± 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br2 elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 ± 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br2 fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br2 products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br2 yields are obtained analogously from CH3CHBrC(O)Br and (CH3)2CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br2 yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br2 production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  17. Characterization of molecular channel in photodissociation of SOCl2 at 248 nm: Cl2 probing by cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Jung; Tsai, Po-Yu; Huang, Ting-Kang; Xia, Zhu-Hong; Lin, King-Chuen; Chiou, Chuei-Jhih; Sun, Bing-Jian; Chang, A H H

    2015-03-28

    A primary elimination channel of the chlorine molecule in the one-photon dissociation of SOCl2 at 248 nm was investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy (CRDS). By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of the vibrational population in the v = 0, 1, and 2 levels was evaluated to be 1 : (0.10 ± 0.02) : (0.009 ± 0.005), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 340 ± 30 K. The Cl2 molecular channel was obtained with a quantum yield of 0.4 ± 0.2 from the X(1)A' ground state of SOCl2via internal conversion. The dissociation mechanism differs from a prior study where a smaller yield of <3% was obtained, initiated from the 2(1)A' excited state. Temperature-dependence measurements of the Cl2 fragment turn out to support our mechanism. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, two dissociation routes to the molecular products were found, including one synchronous dissociation pathway via a three-center transition state (TS) and the other sequential dissociation pathway via a roaming-mediated isomerization TS. The latter mechanism with a lower energy barrier dominates the dissociation reaction. PMID:25715942

  18. Photodissociation of gaseous CH{sub 3}COSH at 248 nm by time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy: Observation of three dissociation channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, En-Lan; Tsai, Po-Yu; Fan, He; Lin, King-Chuen

    2013-01-07

    Upon one-photon excitation at 248 nm, gaseous CH{sub 3}C(O)SH is dissociated following three pathways with the products of (1) OCS + CH{sub 4}, (2) CH{sub 3}SH + CO, and (3) CH{sub 2}CO + H{sub 2}S that are detected using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy. The excited state {sup 1}(n{sub O}, {pi}{sup *}{sub CO}) has a radiative lifetime of 249 {+-} 11 ns long enough to allow for Ar collisions that induce internal conversion and enhance the fragment yields. The rate constant of collision-induced internal conversion is estimated to be 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Among the primary dissociation products, a fraction of the CH{sub 2}CO moiety may undergo further decomposition to CH{sub 2}+ CO, of which CH{sub 2} is confirmed by reaction with O{sub 2} producing CO{sub 2}, CO, OH, and H{sub 2}CO. Such a secondary decomposition was not observed previously in the Ar matrix-isolated experiments. The high-resolution spectra of CO are analyzed to determine the ro-vibrational energy deposition of 8.7 {+-} 0.7 kcal/mol, while the remaining primary products with smaller rotational constants are recognized but cannot be spectrally resolved. The CO fragment detected is mainly ascribed to the primary production. A prior distribution method is applied to predict the vibrational distribution of CO that is consistent with the experimental findings.

  19. Novel spin-coating technology for 248-nm/193-nm DUV lithography and low-k spin on dielectrics of 200-mm/300-mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurer, Emir; Zhong, Tom X.; Lewellen, John W.; Lee, Ed C.

    2000-06-01

    An alternative coating technology was developed for 248 nm/193 nm DUV lithography and low-k spin on dielectric (SOD) materials used in the interconnect area. This is a 300 mm enabling technology which overcomes turbulent flow limitations above 2000 rpm and it prevents 40 - 60% reduction on the process latitudes of evaporation-related variables, common to 300 mm conventional coaters. Our new coating technology is fully enclosed and it is capable of controlling the solvent concentration above the resist film dynamically in the gas phase. This feature allows a direct control of the evaporation mass transfer which determines the quality of the final resist profiles. Following process advantages are reported in this paper: (1) Demonstrated that final resist film thickness can be routinely varied by 4000 angstrom at a fixed drying spin speed, thus minimizing the impact of turbulence wall for 300 mm wafers. (2) Evaporation control allows wider range of useful thickness from a fixed viscosity material. (3) Latitudes of evaporation-related process variables is about 40% larger than that of a conventional coater. (4) Highly uniform films of 0.05% were obtained for 8800 angstrom target thickness with tighter wafer-wafer profile control because of the enclosed nature of the technology. (5) Dynamic evaporation control facilitates resist consumption minimization. Preliminary results indicate feasibility of a 0.4 cc process of record (POR) for a 200 mm substrate. (6) Lower COO due to demonstrated relative insensitivity to environmental variables, robust resist consumption minimization and superior process capabilities. (7) Improved planarization and gap fill properties for the new generation photoresist/low-k SOD materials deposited using this enclosed coating technology.

  20. Progress in LPI Experiments at the NikeLaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J.; Kehne, D.; Obenschain, S.; Schmitt, A.; Serlin, V.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R.; Tsung, F.; McKenty, P.; Seely, J.

    2014-10-01

    The experimental program at the Nike laser facility at NRL is studying laser plasma instabilities (LPI) in the quarter critical region and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). The Nike krypton-fluorine (KrF) laser has unique characteristics that allow parametric studies of LPI. These features include short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (~2-3 THz), beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI), and full aperture focal spot zooming during the laser pulse. Nike also has a unique beam geometry that combines two widely separated beam arrays (145° in azimuth) with close beam-beam spacing (as low as 3.5°) within the main drive array. Particularly relevant for the CBET studies, recent campaigns have demonstrated the capability to alter the laser bandwidth by a factor of ~10 as well as shifts in the peak laser wavelength. An extensive LPI diagnostic suite is available for observation of stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, stimulated Brillouin scattering, the parametric decay instability, and hard x-ray emission due to hot electrons. An overview of the observations of scattered laser light made during the previous studies of instabilities in the quarter critical region will be presented. Ongoing analysis of observed LPI emission from rotated targets will also be included. Plans for upcoming experiments related to quarter critical instabilities and CBET will be discussed. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  1. Frequency doubling of copper lasers using temperature-tuned ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Molander, W.A.

    1994-03-01

    The ability to generate high average power uv at 255 nm by frequency doubling the green line (510.6 nm) of copper lasers would greatly extend the utility of copper lasers. Material processing and microlithography are two areas of interest. The frequency-doubled copper laser could replace the KrF excimer laser, which has a similar wavelength (248 nm), in some applications. The frequency-doubled copper laser has a narrow linewidth and excellent beam quality at a competitive cost. Other attractive features are high reliability, low operating costs, and the absence of toxic gases. This paper will report recent progress in high-efficiency, high-average-power harmonic generation of the copper laser green line using noncritical phase matching in ADP. Frequency doubling of the yellow line (578.2 nm) and sum-frequency mixing of the two lines are also of interest. These processes, however, cannot be phase-matched in ADP and, therefore, will not be discussed here. The results reported and the issues identified here would be important in these other processes and also in many other frequency conversion schemes in the uv such as 4{omega} conversion of Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers.

  2. The thermodynamic response of soft biological tissues to pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, V; Nishioka, N S; Mikić, B B

    1995-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that enable short pulses of high-intensity ultraviolet laser radiation to remove tissue, in a process known as laser ablation, remain obscure. The thermodynamic response of biological tissue to pulsed laser irradiation was investigated by measuring and subsequently analyzing the stress transients generated by pulsed argon fluorine (ArF, lambda = 193 nm) and krypton fluorine (KrF, lambda = 248 nm) excimer laser irradiation of porcine dermis using thin-film piezoelectric transducers. For radiant exposures that do not cause material removal, the stress transients are consistent with rapid thermal expansion of the tissue. At the threshold radiant exposure for ablation, the peak stress amplitude generated by 248 nm irradiation is more than an order of magnitude larger than that produced by 193 nm irradiation. For radiant exposures where material removal is achieved, the temporal structure of the stress transient indicates that the onset of material removal occurs during irradiation. In this regime, the variation of the peak compressive stress with radiant exposure is consistent with laser-induced rapid surface vaporization. For 193 nm irradiation, ionization of the ablated material occurs at even greater radiant exposures and is accompanied by a change in the variation of peak stress with radiant exposure consistent with a plasma-mediated ablation process. These results suggest that absorption of ultraviolet laser radiation by the extracellular matrix of tissue leads to decomposition of tissue on the time scale of the laser pulse. The difference in volumetric energy density at ablation threshold between the two wavelengths indicates that the larger stresses generated by 248 nm irradiation may facilitate the onset of material removal. However, once material removal is achieved, the stress measurements demonstrate that energy not directly responsible for target decomposition contributes to increasing the specific energy of the plume (and plasma

  3. Simulations of Foils Irradiated by Finite Laser Spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Lee

    2006-10-01

    Recent proposed designs (Obenchain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities with lower laser energies combined with higher irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) that may lead, for example, to the generation of fast electrons. The proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser is expected to minimize LPI, and this is being studied by experiments on NRL's NIKE laser. Here we report on simulations aimed at designing and interpreting these experiments. The 2d simulations employ a modification of the FAST code to ablate plasma from CH and DT foils using laser pulses with arbitrary spatial and temporal profiles. These include the customary hypergaussian NIKE profile, gaussian profiles, and combinations of these. The simulations model the structure of the ablating plasma and the absorption of the laser light, providing parameters for design of the experiment and indicating where the relevant LPI (two-plasmon, Raman) may be observed.

  4. 100 nm half-pitch double exposure KrF lithography using binary masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, S.; Bauer, J.; Haak, U.; Stolarek, D.; Schulz, K.; Wolf, H.; Meier, W.; Trojahn, M.; Matthus, E.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the process margin for the 100nm half - pitch double exposure KrF lithography using binary masks for different illumination settings. The application of Double Exposure Lithography (DEL) would enlarge the capability of 248 nm exposure technique to smaller pitch e.g. for the integration of dedicated layers into 0.13 μm BiCMOS with critical dimension (CD) requirements exceeding the standard 248 nm lithography specification. The DEL was carried out with a KrF Scanner (Nikon S207D, NA Lens = 0.82) for a critical dimension (CD) of 100nm half pitch. The chemical amplified positive resists SL4800 or UV2000 (Rohm & Haas) with a thickness of 325nm were coated on a 70 nm AR10L (Rohm & Haas) bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC). With a single exposure and using binary masks it is not possible to resolve 100nm lines with a pitch of 200 nm, due to the refraction and the resolution limit. First we investigated the effect of focus variation. It is shown that the focus difference of 1st and 2nd exposure is one critical parameter of the DEL. This requires a good focus repeatability of the scanner. The depth of focus (DOF) of 360 nm with the coherence parameter σ = 0.4 was achieved for DEL with SL4800 resist. The influence of the better resist resolution of UV2000 on the process window will be shown (DOF = 460 nm). If we change the focus of one of the exposures the CD and DOF performance of spaces is reduced with simultaneous line position changing. Second we investigated the effect of different illumination shapes and settings. The results for conventional illumination with different values for σ and annular illumination with σ inner = 0.57 and σ outer = 0.85 will be shown. In summary, the results show that DEL has the potential to be a practical lithography enhancement method for device fabrication using high NA KrF tool generation.

  5. Characterization of excimer laser ablation generated pepsin particles using multi-wavelength photoacoustic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Kecskeméti, G.; Smausz, T.; Ajtai, T.; Filep, A.; Utry, N.; Kohut, A.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2012-05-01

    Preparation of organic thin layers on various special substrates using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is an important task from the point of view of bioengineering and biosensor technologies. Earlier studies demonstrated that particle ejection starts during the ablating laser pulse resulting in significant shielding effects which can influence the real fluence on the target surface and consequently the efficiency of layer preparation. In this study, we introduce a photoacoustic absorption measurement technique for in-situ characterization of ablated particles during PLD experiments. A KrF excimer laser beam ( λ=248 nm, FWHM=18 ns) was focused onto pepsin targets in a PLD chamber; the applied laser fluences were 440 and 660 mJ/cm2. We determined the wavelength dependence of optical absorption and mass specific absorption coefficient of laser ablation generated pepsin aerosols in the UV-VIS-NIR range. On the basis of our measurements, we calculated the absorbance at the ablating laser wavelength, too. We demonstrated that when the laser ablation generated pepsin aerosols spread through the whole PLD chamber the effect of absorptivity is negligible for the subsequent pulses. However, the interaction of the laser pulse and the just formed particle cloud generated by the same pulse is more significant.

  6. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  7. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J L; Karasik, M; Chan, L Y

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (∼1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 10(15) W/cm(2). The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 10(21) cm(-3) with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting n(e) and T(e) profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light. PMID:26329186

  8. Absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer of fungi (Trichoderma conidia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Smausz, T.; Antal, Zs.; Kresz, N.; Bor, Zs.; Chrisey, D.

    2004-09-01

    We present an investigation on absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer (AFA-LIFT) of fungus (Trichoderma) conidia. A KrF excimer laser beam [λ =248nm,FWHM=30ns (FWHM, full width at half maximum)] was directed through a quartz plate and focused onto its silver coated surface where conidia of the Trichoderma strain were uniformly spread. The laser fluence was varied in the range of 0-2600mJ/cm2 and each laser pulse transferred a pixel of target material. The average irradiated area was 8×10-2mm2. After the transfer procedure, the yeast extract medium covered glass slide and the transferred conidia patterns were incubated for 20 h and then observed using an optical microscope. The transferred conidia pixels were germinated and the areas of the culture medium surfaces covered by the pixels were evaluated as a function of laser fluence. As the laser fluence was increased from 0 to 355mJ/cm2 the transferred and germinated pixel area increased from 0 to 0.25mm2. Further increase in fluence resulted in a drastic decrease down to an approximately constant value of 0.06mm2. The yield of successful transfer by AFA-LIFT and germination was as much as 75% at 355mJ/cm2. The results prove that AFA-LIFT can successfully be applied for the controlled transfer of biological objects.

  9. Ignition by excimer laser photolysis of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.; Dunn-Rankin, D.; Hom, K.; Brown, N.J.

    1986-10-01

    We have ignited mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone in closed cells with 248 nm radiation from a KrF excimer laser. Ozone, the only significant absorber in this system, absorbs a single photon and produces oxygen atoms which initiate combustion. A discretized, time-dependent Beer's law model is used to demonstrate that the radical concentration immediately after photolysis is a function of laser power, ozone concentration, focal length, and separation between the lens and reaction cell. Spark schileren photographs are used to visualize the ignition events and identify the ignition sites. The effects of equivalence ratio, pressure, and the initial gas temperature on the minimum ozone concentration needed to produce ignition are presented, and only the initial temperature has a significant effect. Modelling studies of the ignition process aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, and show that the ignition we observe is not due solely to thermal effects, but is strongly dependent on the number and type of radicals present initially after photolysis. Ignition using other hydocarbons as fuels was also demonstrated. 30 refs., 9 figs. 2 tabs.

  10. Ignition by excimer laser photolysis of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.; Dunn-Rankin, D.; Hom, K.; Brown, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have ignited mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone in closed cells with 248 nm radiation from a KrF excimer laser. Ozone, the only significant absorber in this system, absorbs a single photon and produces oxygen atoms which initiate combustion. A discretized, time-dependent Beer's law model is used to demonstrate that the radical concentration immediately after photolysis is a function of laser power, ozone concentration, focal length, and separation between the lens and reaction cell. Spark schlieren photographs are used to visualize the ignition events and identify the ignition sites. The effects of equivalence ratio, pressure, and the initial gas temperature on the minimum ozone concentration needed to produce ignition are presented, and only the initial temperature has a significant effect. Modelling studies of the igniton process aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, and show that the ignition is not due solely to thermal effects, but is strongly dependent on the number and type of radicals present initially after photolysis. Ignition using other hydrocarbons as fuels was also demonstrated.

  11. Excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon carbide produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedler, A.; Urban, S.; Falk, F.; Hobert, H.; Wesch, W.

    2003-01-01

    4H-SiC was implanted with 100-250 keV Ge + and Xe + ions and doses of 1×10 14 to 1×10 16 cm -2 at room temperature in order to produce 40-200 nm thick amorphous surface layers. The samples were irradiated with 1-50,000 pulses of a KrF excimer laser (248 nm wavelength, 30 ns pulse duration) using fluences of 150-900 mJ/cm 2 to investigate the crystallization process as a function of the laser parameters. Crystallization as well as redistribution of the impurity atoms were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and infrared reflection measurements. Phase transitions occurring during the irradiation were studied by means of time-resolved reflectivity measurements. In order to explain the observed phase transitions numerical analysis was performed by solving the inhomogeneous heat flow equation using the parameters of the corresponding phases. In this work, we give a consistent description of the experimental results by the numerical simulations for the given laser setup. Depending on the amorphous layer thickness, melting, solidification, and crystallization of the amorphous phase can be effectively controlled by both the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses.

  12. Measurements of Laser Imprint with High-Z Coated targets on Omega EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max; Oh, J.; Stoeckl, C.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Schmitt, A. J.; Bates, J. W.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Previous experiments on Nike KrF laser (λ = 248nm) at NRL found that a thin (400-800 Å) high-Z (Au or Pd) overcoat on the laser side of the target is effective in suppressing broadband imprint and reducing ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov growth. The overcoat initially absorbs the laser and emits soft x-rays that ablate the target, forming a large stand-off distance between laser absorption and ablation and driving the target at higher mass ablation rate. Implementation of this technique on the frequency-tripled Nd:glass (351 nm) NIF would enable a wider range direct drive experiments there. To this end, we are carrying out experiments using the NIF-like beams of Omega EP. Analogous to experiments on Nike, areal mass perturbations due to RT-amplified laser imprint are measured using curved crystal imaging coupled to a streak camera. High-Z coating dynamics and target trajectory are imaged side-on. First results indicate that imprint suppression is observed, albeit with thicker coatings. Work supported by the Department of Energy/NNSA.

  13. Effect of ambient environment on excimer laser induced micro and nano-structuring of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umm-i-Kalsoom; Bashir, Shazia; Ali, Nisar; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Ahmad, Riaz

    2012-11-01

    The effect of laser fluence and an ambient environment on the formation and development of the micro and nano-structures on the laser irradiated stainless steel (AISI-304) targets have been investigated. For this purpose KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, t = 20 ns, repetition rate 20 Hz) has been used. The targets are exposed for various laser fluences ranging from 0.72 J cm-2 to 1.27 J cm-2 under the vacuum condition and in the oxygen environment at a pressure of 133 mbar. Various features of treated targets, such as surface morphology, chemical composition and crystalline structure are analyzed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. Scanning electron microscope analysis reveals the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), cavities, hillocks in both ambient environments (vacuum, oxygen). Cone-formation on the top of wave like ridges is observed under vacuum condition. In case of oxygen only redeposition is observed. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis exhibits that there is variation in chemical composition in both environments. When the target is treated in oxygen environment enhancement of the surface oxygen content is observed. X-ray diffraction exhibits that no new phases are formed under vacuum condition but a phase change in oxygen ambient is observed. For various fluences the variation in the peak intensity, crystallinity and d-spacing is observed under both ambient conditions.

  14. Excimer laser activation of ultra-shallow junctions in doped Si: Modeling, experiments and real time process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmar, Nadjib; Darif, Mohamed; Millon, Eric; Petit, Agnès; Etienne, Hasnaa; Delaporte, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    This work concerns the ALDIP (Laser Activation of Doping agents Implanted by Plasma immersion) project that was a successful collaboration with Ion Beam Services (IBS) corporation, the "Lasers, Plasmas and Photonic Processes" (LP3) laboratory and the GREMI laboratory. The aim of this work is to control the melted thickness (i.e. junction thickness in the range 10-100 nm) by the Real Time Reflectivity (TRR) monitoring during the Laser Thermal Processing (LTP). The LTP is achieved by using a KrF laser beam (248 nm, 27 ns) with a homogeneous 'Top-Hat' space distribution to induce a selective melting and the resolidification of the doped Si:B samples on few nanometers. This recrystallization is conducted here after the pre-amorphisation process resulting from the ionic implantation of Si (PIII IBS implanter). Thus, all the studied samples are partially amorphized and boron doped. TRR method allows the accurate evaluation of the melting threshold, the duration of the melting phase, and the maximum melted thickness. Obtained results versus laser fluence are shown in the new case of under vacuum treatment. In order to calibrate the TRR method (to determine the intensity and the profile of the TRR signal versus the melting depth), we have used the secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. This technique gives the doping agents profile versus the depth before and after LTP and confirms also the melting kinetics from TRR results.

  15. Analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented compact tungsten carbides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, K.; Staňková, A.; Häkkänen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Otruba, V.; Kanický, V.

    2007-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the direct analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented tungsten carbides. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of quantitative determination of the niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt. The investigated samples were in the form of pellets, pressed with and without binder (powdered silver) and in the form of cemented tungsten carbides. The pellets were prepared by pressing the powdered material in a hydraulic press. Cemented tungsten carbides were embedded in resin for easier manipulation. Several lasers and detection systems were utilized. The Nd:YAG laser working at a basic wavelength of 1064 nm and fourth-harmonic frequency of 266 nm with a gated photomultiplier or ICCD detector HORIBA JY was used for the determination of niobium which was chosen as a model element. Different types of surrounding gases (air, He, Ar) were investigated for analysis. The ICCD detector DICAM PRO with Mechelle 7500 spectrometer with ArF laser (193 nm) and KrF laser (248 nm) were employed for the determination of niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt in samples under air atmosphere. Good calibration curves were obtained for Nb, Ti, and Ta (coefficients of determination r2 > 0.96). Acceptable calibration curves were acquired for the determination of cobalt (coefficient of determination r2 = 0.7994) but only for the cemented samples. In the case of powdered carbide precursors, the calibration for cobalt was found to be problematic.

  16. Transparent Conducting Nb-Doped TiO2 Electrodes Activated by Laser Annealing for Inexpensive Flexible Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    A KrF excimer laser (λ= 248 nm) has been adopted for annealing cost-effective Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) films. Sputtered NTO layers were annealed on SiO2-coated flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. This local laser annealing technique is very useful for the formation of anatase NTO electrodes used in flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). An amorphous NTO film with a high resistivity and a low transparency was transformed significantly into a conductive and transparent anatase NTO electrode by laser irradiation. The 210 nm anatase NTO film shows a sheet resistance of 50 Ω and an average optical transmittance of 83.5% in the wavelength range from 450 to 600 nm after annealing at 0.25 J/cm2. The activation of Nb dopants and the formation of the anatase phase contribute to the high conductivity of the laser-annealed NTO electrode. Nb activation causes an increase in the optical band gap due to the Burstein-Moss effect. The electrical properties are in agreement with the material characteristics determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The irradiation energy for the NTO electrode also affects the performance of the organic solar cell. The laser annealing technique provides good properties of the anatase NTO film used as a transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) without damage to the PET substrate or layer delamination from the substrate.

  17. Laser-Plasma Interactions on NIKE and the Fusion Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Lee; Weaver, James

    2008-11-01

    Recent proposed designs for a Fusion Test Facility (FTF) (Obenchain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities combined with higher laser irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) but the proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser to drive these targets is expected to minimize the LPI risk. We examine, using simulation results from NRL's FAST hydrocode, the proposed operational regimes of the FTF in relation to the thresholds for the SRS, SBS, and 2-plasmon instabilities. Simulations are also used to help design and interpret ongoing experiments being conducted at NRL's NIKE facility for the purpose of generating and studying LPI. Target geometries and laser pulseshapes were devised in order to create plasma conditions with long scalelengths and low electron temperatures that allow the growth of parametric instabilities. These simulations include the effects of finite beam angles through the use of raytracing.

  18. Design of an Experiment to Observe Laser-Plasma Interactions on NIKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, L.; Weaver, J.; Manheimer, W.; Zalesak, S.; Schmitt, A.; Fyfe, D.; Afeyan, B.; Charbonneau-Lefort, M.

    2007-11-01

    Recent proposed designs (Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities combined with higher laser irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) that may lead, for example, to the generation of fast electrons. The proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser to drive these targets is expected to minimize LPI; this is being studied by experiments at NRL's NIKE facility. We used a modification of the FAST code that models laser pulses with arbitrary spatial and temporal profiles to assist in designing these experiments. The goal is to design targets and pulseshapes to create plasma conditions that will produce sufficient growth of LPI to be observable on NIKE. Using, for example, a cryogenic DT target that is heated by a brief pulse and allowed to expand freely before interacting with a second, high-intensity pulse, allows the development of long scalelengths at low electron temperatures and leads to a predicted 20-efold growth in two-plasmon amplitude.

  19. Laser ablation of micro-photonic structures for efficient light collection and distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaobing; Desmet, Andres; De Smet, Jelle; Joshi, Pankaj; Cuypers, Dieter; Van Put, Steven; Van Steenberge, Geert; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; De Smet, Herbert

    2015-06-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of polymer micro-photonic gratings for use in liquid-crystal based actively tunable electro-optic components. The gratings are produced by moving the sample surface sideways across a perpendicularly impinging KrF excimer laser beam (λ  =  248 nm), which is shaped by specially designed triangular and trapezoidal masks. To obtain correctly dimensioned and smooth grating surfaces, different materials (SU-8, polycarbonate, Epoclad and Epocore) are subjected to the laser ablation with optimized laser processing parameters. The resulting grating structures on Epocore exhibit the best surface roughness and dimensional fidelity. Optionally, spacers for maintaining the cell gap of the superimposed liquid crystal layer can also be fabricated in the same process. Two different methods were demonstrated: overlapping ablation and double mask ablation. Micro-grating structures were produced that deflect a monochromatic (543 nm) laser beam to the theoretically predicted 11th order with an angle of 7°.

  20. Gas Effect On Plasma Dynamics Of Laser Ablation Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Lafane, S.; Malek, S.

    2008-09-01

    In order to synthesis zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures, laser ablation of ZnO target into both vacuum and oxygen atmosphere was performed. The gas effect on the plume dynamics was studied for O2 pressures varied between 10-2 to 70 mbar. Plasma plume evolution was investigated by ICCD camera fast imaging. The plasma was created by a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) at a fluence of 2 J/cm2. The light emitted by the plume was observed along the perpendicular to the ejection direction through a fast intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD). We have found that the plasma dynamics is very affected by the gas pressures. The photographs reveal the stratification of plasma into slow and fast components for 0.5 mbar O2 pressures and beyond. The photographs also show the apparition of hydrodynamic instabilities which are related to chemical reactions between the plasma and the surrounding gas for a certain range of pressures.

  1. Gas Effect On Plasma Dynamics Of Laser Ablation Zinc Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Lafane, S.; Malek, S.

    2008-09-23

    In order to synthesis zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures, laser ablation of ZnO target into both vacuum and oxygen atmosphere was performed. The gas effect on the plume dynamics was studied for O{sub 2} pressures varied between 10{sup -2} to 70 mbar. Plasma plume evolution was investigated by ICCD camera fast imaging. The plasma was created by a KrF excimer laser ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns) at a fluence of 2 J/cm{sup 2}. The light emitted by the plume was observed along the perpendicular to the ejection direction through a fast intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD). We have found that the plasma dynamics is very affected by the gas pressures. The photographs reveal the stratification of plasma into slow and fast components for 0.5 mbar O{sub 2} pressures and beyond. The photographs also show the apparition of hydrodynamic instabilities which are related to chemical reactions between the plasma and the surrounding gas for a certain range of pressures.

  2. Richtmyer-Meshkov jet formation from rear target ripples in plastic and plastic/aluminum laser targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Velikovich, A. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    We report experimental observations of jets produced from the rear surface of laser targets after a passage of the laser-driven shock wave. As in our previous work, Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas (2012), the jets are produced via the shaped-charge mechanism, a manifestation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for a particular case of the Atwood number A =-1. The experiments done on the KrF Nike laser facility with laser wavelength 248 nm, a 4 ns pulse, and low-energy drive regime that used only 1 to 3 overlapping Nike beams and generated ablative pressure below 1 Mbar. Our 50 um thick planar targets were rippled on the rear side with wavelength 45 μm and peak-to-valley amplitude 15 μm. The targets were made either of solid plastic or of aluminum with a 10 μm thick plastic ablator attached to avoid the radiation preheat. The jets were extremely well collimated, which made possible our side-on observations with monochromatic x-ray imaging. We saw a regular set of jets, clearly separated along the 500 μm line of sight. Aluminum jets were found to be slightly better collimated than plastic jets. A quasi-spherical late-time expansion of Al jets starting from the tips has not been previously seen in experiments or simulations. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  3. Magnetic and crystallographic properties of Co-Cr-(Ta,Pt)/Cr films deposited by excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, A.; Tanahashi, K.; Yahisa, Y.; Hosoe, Y.; Shiroishi, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of Co-alloy films deposited by KrF excimer laser ablation were investigated. A pulsed laser beam with wavelength of 248 nm was focused onto the deposition targets which were fixed in the vacuum chamber. Cr underlayer and Co-alloy films were successively deposited at a rate of 0.012 nm/pulse. The film surface was microscopically smooth compared to the sputtered films. This may be due to the low shadowing effect during the laser deposition. The composition of the film was reproducibly controlled, though there was a slight difference between the composition of film and target material. The coercivities of Co-Cr-Pt/Cr films formed on the Si and Ni-P substrates at 250 °C were 130 and 220 Oe, which were about one-fifth of the coercivity of sputtered films. Crystallographic analyses showed that Cr underlayer had no crystal orientation, and Co-alloy film consisted of fine fcc-type crystal grains. Low coercivity of the laser-deposited film is probably due to the lack of hcp Co phase.

  4. Pulsed laser ablation of borax target in vacuum and hydrogen DC glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, A. N.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of our experiment was to produce a material with B sbnd H bonds for applications in hydrogen storage and generation. By using KrF excimer laser ( λ = 248 nm) ablation of borax (Na 2B 4O 7) target, thin films were deposited on KBr and silicon substrates. Ablation was performed both in vacuum and in hydrogen atmosphere. DC glow discharge technique was utilized to enhance hydrogen gas ionization. Experiments were performed using laser fluence from 5 to 20 J/cm 2. Films were deposited under gas pressure of 1 × 10 -5 to 5 × 10 -2 mbar and substrate temperatures of 130-450 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of films showed presence of circular particulates. Film thickness, roughness and particulates number increased with increase in laser fluence. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis shows that sodium content in the particulates is higher than in the target. This effect is discussed in terms of atomic arrangements (both at surface and bulk) in systems where ionic and covalent bonds are present and by looking at the increased surface/bulk ratio of the particulates with respect to the deposited films. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements showed presence of B sbnd O stretching and B sbnd O sbnd B bending bonds. Possible reasons for absence of B sbnd H bonds are attributed to binding enthalpy of the competing molecules.

  5. The Role of Crystalline Water in the Interaction of Excimer Laser Light with Brushite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, M. L.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    1998-03-01

    A number of minerals of environmental interest contain waters of hydration, sometimes called crystalline water. Hydrated crystals often show dramatic changes in optical properties as well as mechanical properties, both influencing the response of the material to radiation. From an analytic point of view, very little is known about the influence of hydration regarding laser desorption and ablation phenomena. We explore the interaction of excimer laser light (KrF 248 nm) with single crystal brushite (CaHPO_4.2H_2O), a model biomineral phosphate containing H_2O. We first show that defects dominate the interactions as revealed by high sensitivity detection of Ca^+ at low fluences and that this ion emission predicts ablation thresholds. The most probable ion energy, which occurs at 11 eV, is much higher than the incident photon energy of 5 eV. The ion intensities also display a highly nonlinear fluence dependence, typically 6-8th order, entirely consistent with ion emission models we have recently presented. We show that laser coupling can be enhanced several orders of magnitude by generation of defects, i.e., by mechanical treatment, heating, or exposure to electron beams and that the consequences of crystalline H_2O and HPO_4^2- decomposition play major and related roles in this defect production.

  6. Laser abrading of carbon fibre reinforced composite for improving paint adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Tian Long; Liu, Zhu; Cheetham, Simon; Dilworth, Steve; Li, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Surface contaminations (originating from manufacturing processes), smooth surface, and poor wettability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite impair its successful paint adhesion. Surface pre-treatment of composite materials is often required. Previous approaches of using manual sand-papering result in non-uniform surface conditions and occasional damages to the fibres. Furthermore, the process is labour intensive, slow and can be hazardous to the workers if protections are not appropriate. This paper reports an investigation into a new surface treatment method based on laser multi-tasking surface abrading and surface cleaning/texturing for the improvement of paint adhesion. A KrF Excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm is used as the laser source. Significant improvement in paint adhesion has been demonstrated compared with as-received and sand-papered samples. This improvement is achieved by eliminating surface contaminants, minimizing chain scission and increasing in surface active functional groups as well as increasing in surface roughness. The former two play dominant roles.

  7. Bombyx mori silk protein films microprocessing with a nanosecond ultraviolet laser and a femtosecond laser workstation: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, S.; Sionkowska, A.; Zaborowicz, M.; Planecka, A.; Lopez, J.; Dijoux, M.; Louména, C.; Hernandez, M.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Laser microprocessing of several biopolymers from renewable resources is studied. Three proteinic materials were either extracted from the extracellular matrix like Silk Fibroin/Sericin and collagen, or coming from a commercial source like gelatin. All can find future applications in biomedical experimentation, in particular for cell scaffolding. Films of ˜hundred of microns thick were made by aqueous solution drying and laser irradiation. Attention is paid to the properties making them processable with two laser sources: the ultraviolet and nanosecond (ns) KrF (248 nm) excimer and the infrared and femtosecond (fs) Yb:KGW laser. The UV radiation is absorbed in a one-photon resonant process to yield ablation and the surface foaming characteristics of a laser-induced pressure wave. To the contrary, resonant absorption of the IR photons of the fs laser is not possible and does not take place. However, the high field of the intense I>˜1012 W/cm2 femtosecond laser pulse ionizes the film by the multiphoton absorption followed by the electron impact mechanism, yielding a dense plasma capable to further absorb the incident radiation of the end of the pulse. The theoretical model of this absorption is described in detail, and used to discuss the presented experimental effects (cutting, ablation and foaming) of the fs laser. The ultraviolet laser was used to perform simultaneous multiple spots experiments in which energetic foaming yields melt ejection and filament spinning. Airborne nanosize filaments "horizontally suspended by both ends" (0.25 μm diameter and 10 μm length) of silk biopolymer were observed upon irradiation with large fluences.

  8. Photolysis of CH{sub 3}CHO at 248 nm: Evidence of triple fragmentation from primary quantum yield of CH{sub 3} and HCO radicals and H atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Morajkar, Pranay; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Bossolasco, Adriana

    2014-06-07

    Radical quantum yields have been measured following the 248 nm photolysis of acetaldehyde, CH{sub 3}CHO. HCO radical and H atom yields have been quantified by time resolved continuous wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the near infrared following their conversion to HO{sub 2} radicals by reaction with O{sub 2}. The CH{sub 3} radical yield has been determined using the same technique following their conversion into CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}. Absolute yields have been deduced for HCO radicals and H atoms through fitting of time resolved HO{sub 2} profiles, obtained under various O{sub 2} concentrations, to a complex model, while the CH{sub 3} yield has been determined relative to the CH{sub 3} yield from 248 nm photolysis of CH{sub 3}I. Time resolved HO{sub 2} profiles under very low O{sub 2} concentrations suggest that another unknown HO{sub 2} forming reaction path exists in this reaction system besides the conversion of HCO radicals and H atoms by reaction with O{sub 2}. HO{sub 2} profiles can be well reproduced under a large range of experimental conditions with the following quantum yields: CH{sub 3}CHO + hν{sub 248nm} → CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *}, CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *} → CH{sub 3} + HCO ϕ{sub 1a} = 0.125 ± 0.03, CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *} → CH{sub 3} + H + CO ϕ{sub 1e} = 0.205 ± 0.04, CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *}→{sup o{sub 2}}CH{sub 3}CO + HO{sub 2} ϕ{sub 1f} = 0.07 ± 0.01. The CH{sub 3}O{sub 2} quantum yield has been determined in separate experiments as ϕ{sub CH{sub 3}} = 0.33 ± 0.03 and is in excellent agreement with the CH{sub 3} yields derived from the HO{sub 2} measurements considering that the triple fragmentation (R1e) is an important reaction path in the 248 nm photolysis of CH{sub 3}CHO. From arithmetic considerations taking into account the HO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} measurements we deduce a remaining quantum yield for the molecular pathway: CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *} → CH{sub 4} + CO ϕ{sub 1b} = 0.6. All experiments can be

  9. Observed transition from Richtmyer-Meshkov jet formation through feedout oscillations to Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a laser target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Kessler, T. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Nikitin, S. P.; Metzler, N.; Oh, J.

    2012-10-01

    Experimental study of hydrodynamic perturbation evolution triggered by a laser-driven shock wave breakout at the free rippled rear surface of a plastic target is reported. We observed a transition between two qualitatively distinct types of perturbation evolution: jet formation at low shock pressure and areal mass oscillations at high shock pressure, which correspond respectively to high and low values of effective adiabatic index. The experiments were done on the KrF Nike laser facility with laser wavelength 248 nm and a 4 ns pulse. We varied the number of beams overlapped on the plastic target to change the ablative pressure driving the shock wave through the target: 36 beams produce pressure of ˜8 Mbar, whereas a single beam irradiation reduces the pressure to ˜0.7 Mbar. With the help of side-on monochromatic x-ray imaging, planar jets manifesting the development of the Richtmyer-Meshkov-type instability in a non-accelerated target are observed at sub-megabar shock pressure. As the shock pressure exceeds 1 Mbar, instead of jet formation an oscillatory rippled expansion wave is observed, followed by the ``feedout'' of the rear-surface perturbations to the ablation front and the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which breaks up the accelerated target.

  10. Substrate dependent structural and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited Fe3O4 thin films.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rajendra N; Kaur, Davinder; Pandey, Ashish K

    2010-12-01

    Nanocrystalline iron oxide thin films have been deposited on various substrates such as quartz, MgO(100), and Si(100) by pulsed laser deposition technique using excimer KrF laser (248 nm). The orientations, crystallite size and lattice parameters were studied using X-ray diffraction. The XRD results show that the films deposited on MgO and Si substrates are highly oriented and show only (400) and (311) reflections respectively. On the other hand, the orientation of the films deposited on quarts substrate changed from (311) to (400) with an increase in the substrate temperature from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C, indicating thereby that the film growth direction is highly affected with nature of substrate and substrate temperature. The surface morphology of the deposited films was studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and spherical ball like regular features of nanometer size grains were obtained. The magnetic properties were studied by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer in the magnetic field +/- 6 Tesla. The magnetic field dependent magnetization (M-H) curves of all the Fe3O4 thin films measured at 5 K and 300 K show the ferrimagnetic nature. The electrochemical sensing of dopamine studied for these films shows that the film deposited on MgO substrate can be used as a sensing electrode. PMID:21121292

  11. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  12. Advantages of dual-laser ablation in the growth of multicomponent thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Devajyoti; Hyde, Robert; Mukherjee, Pritish; Witanachchi, Sarath

    2012-07-01

    We report the use of a dual-laser deposition process to grow stoichiometric films of the piezoelectric material PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) and the thermoelectric material Ba8Ga16Ge30. High volatility of Pb and Ba in these materials leads to non-stoichiometric growth in conventional PLD processes. Dual-laser ablation process preserves the Pb and Ba stoichiometry while significantly reducing the thickness variation and particulate density on the deposited films. This lead to the growth of smooth uniform films with enhanced ferroelectric and electrical properties. The dual-laser ablation combines the pulses of a KrF excimer laser (248 nm wavelength, 30 ns pulse width) and a CO2 laser (10.6 μm wavelength, 250 ns pulse width) where the beams are spatially overlapped on the ablation target and temporally delayed. At an optimum delay that is dependent on the physical properties of the material, CO2 pulse energy is coupled into the plume, generating a high temperature plasma (>25,000K). Laser-target interaction studies have shown the evaporation to be stoichiometric. Emission spectroscopy studies have shown ten-fold increase in emission intensities in dual-laser ablation while time-gated 2D ICCD imaging studies revealed the plume expansion to be stoichiometric over a large cone-angle of the plume under these conditions. Time-of-flight investigations in concert with hydrodynamic modeling provided a clear understanding of the mechanism of dual-laser ablation. Furthermore, plasma generated in the process is highly ionized (>75%) leading to films with high density and crystallinity. This paper will show the enhancement in properties attainable by the dual-laser ablation process in comparison to the single laser ablation.

  13. Time-resolved spatial distribution of plasma in the ablation of a Ba₀.₆Sr₀.₄TiO₃ target by 25 ns KrF ultraviolet laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, J. F.; Wolfman, J.; Motret, O.; Hermann, J.

    2014-10-07

    We performed radially and longitudinally time-resolved plasma analysis during pulsed laser deposition of Ba₀.₆Sr₀.₄TiO₃ thin films. The plasma is shown to be optically thick and strongly non-uniform during the early expansion phase and the resonance line Ba II (455.4 nm) is strongly self-reversed during this time. Plasma temperature and electron density were obtained by comparing experimental emission spectra with the spectral radiance computed for a non-uniform plasma in local thermal equilibrium.

  14. Characteristics of a laser triggered spark gap using air, Ar, CH4, H2, He, N2, SF6, and Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, W. D.; Kushner, M. J.; Seamans, J. F.

    1988-03-01

    A KrF discharge laser (248 nm) has been used to laser trigger, by volume preionization, a spark gap switch (38-65 kV, >10 kA, 100 ns pulse duration) filled with 20 different gas mixtures using various combinations of air, Ar, CH4, H2, He, N2 SF6, and Xe. A pulsed laser interferometer is used to probe the spark column. Characteristics studied include the internal structure of the column, the arc expansion rate, and evidence of any photoionization precursor effect. Our results show that the rate of arc expansion varies depending on the average molecular weight of the mixtures. In this experiment, pure H2 has the highest rate (≊9.5×105 cm/s) and air has one of the lowest (≊7×105 cm/s) for the same hold-off voltage. A computer model of the spark column formation is able to predict most of the structure observed in the arcs, including the effect of mixing gases with widely different molecular weights. The work suggests that, under proper circumstances, the spark gap switch performance may be improved by using gases lighter than conventional switch gases such as SF6.

  15. Antiresorption implant coatings based on calcium alendronate and octacalcium phosphate deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation.

    PubMed

    Boanini, Elisa; Torricelli, Paola; Forte, Lucia; Pagani, Stefania; Mihailescu, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N; Bigi, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    The integration of an implant material with bone tissue depends on the chemistry and physics of the implant surface. In this study we applied matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) in order to synthesize calcium alendronate monohydrate (a bisphosphonate obtained by calcium sequestration from octacalcium phosphate by alendronate) and calcium alendronate monohydrate/octacalcium phosphate composite thin films on titanium substrates. Octacalcium phosphate coatings were prepared as reference material. The powders, which were synthesized in aqueous medium, were suspended in deionised water, frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and used as targets for MAPLE experiments. The transfer was conducted with a KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns) in mild conditions of temperature and pressure. XRD, FTIR and SEM analyses confirmed that the coatings contain the same crystalline phases as the as-prepared powder samples. Osteoblast derived from stem cells and osteoclast derived from monocytes of osteoporotic subjects were co-cultured on the coatings up to 14 days. Osteoclast displayed significantly reduced proliferation and differentiation in the presence of calcium alendronate monohydrate, pointing to a clear role of the coatings containing this bisphosphonate on inhibiting excessive bone resorption. At variance, osteoblast production of alkaline phosphatase and type I pro-collagen were promoted by the presence of bisphosphonate, which also decreased the production of interleukin 6. The positive influence towards osteoblast differentiation was even more enhanced in the composite coatings, thanks to the presence of octacalcium phosphate. PMID:26445021

  16. Early Stages of Pulsed-Laser Growth of Silicon Microcolumns and Microcones in Air and SF6

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Pedraza, Antonio J.

    1999-07-29

    Dense arrays of high-aspect-ratio silicon microcolumns and microcones are formed by cumulative nanosecond pulsed excimer laser irradiation of single-crystal silicon in oxidizing atmospheres such as air and SF6. Growth of such surface microstructures requires a redeposition model and also involves elements of self-organization. The shape of the microstructures, i.e. straight columns vs steeply sloping cones and connecting walls, is governed by the type and concentration of the oxidizing species, e.g. oxygen vs fluorine. Growth is believed to occur by a "catalyst-free" VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) mechanism that involves repetitive melting of the tips of the columns/cones and deposition there of the ablated flux of Si-containing vapor. Results are presented of a new investigation of how such different final microstructures as microcolumns or microcones joined by walls nucleate and develop. The changes in silicon surface morphology were systematically determined and compared as the number of pulsed KrF (248 nm) laser shots was increased from 25 to several thousand in both air and SF6. The experiments in air and SF6 reveal significant differences in initial surface cracking and pattern formation. Consequently, local protrusions are first produced and column or cone/wall growth is initiated by different processes and at different rates. Differences in the spatial organization of column or cone/wall growth also are apparent.

  17. Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanza, F. J.; Laguna, M. F.; Casquel, R.; Holgado, M.; Barrios, C. A.; Ortega, F. J.; López-Romero, D.; García-Ballesteros, J. J.; Bañuls, M. J.; Maquieira, A.; Puchades, R.

    2011-04-01

    Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures on a silicon substrate were developed using 248 nm excimer laser KrF projection, studying the influence of the different variables on the final pattern geometry, finding out that the most critical are exposure dose and post-bake condition. Also a novel and cost effective type of photomask based on commercial polyimide Kapton produced by 355 nm DPSS laser microprocessing was developed, studying the influence of the cutting conditions on the photomask. Finally, as a likely application the biosensing capability with a standard BSA/antiBSA immunoassay over a 10 × 10 micro-plates square lattice of around 10 μm in diameter, 15 μm of spacing and 400 nm in height was demonstrated, finding a limit of detection (LOD) of 33.4 ng/ml which is in the order of magnitude of bioapplications such as detection of cortisol hormone or insulin-like growth factor. Low cost fabrication and vertical interrogation characterization techniques lead to a promising future in the biosensing technology field.

  18. Mechanical properties improvement of pulsed laser-deposited hydroxyapatite thin films by high energy ion-beam implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelea, V.; Pelletier, H.; Müller, D.; Broll, N.; Mille, P.; Ristoscu, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2002-01-01

    Major problems in the hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca 5(PO 4) 3OH, thin films processing still keep the poor mechanical properties and the lack in density. We present a study on the feasibility of high energy ion-beam implantation technique to densify HA bioceramic films. Crystalline HA films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using an excimer KrFlaser ( λ=248 nm, τ FWHM≥20 ns). The films were deposited on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloys substrates previously coated with a ceramic TiN buffer layer. After deposition the films were implanted with Ar + ions at high energy. Optical microscopy (OM), white light confocal microscopy (WLCM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Berkovich nanoindentation in normal and scratch options have been applied for the characterization of the obtained structures. We put into evidence an enhancement of the mechanical characteristics after implantation, while GIXRD measurements confirm that the crystalline structure of HA phase is preserved. The improvement in mechanical properties is an effect of a densification after ion treatment as a result of pores elimination and grains regrowth.

  19. Effect of phase transformation on optical and dielectric properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Praveen K.; Salim, Mohammad; Kaur, Davinder

    2016-04-01

    Zinc titanate (ZnTiO3) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reaction method using ZnO and TiO2 in a molar ratio of 1:1 with optimized parameters. It was found that the sample sintered at 800 °C for 12 h exhibit single hexagonal phase of ZnTiO3. ZnTiO3 thin film have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique employing a KrF laser source (λ = 248 nm). In present work, the effect of substrate temperature, which leads to transformation of hexagonal phase to cubic phase, has been studied. The XRD pattern revealed that pure hexagonal phase of ZnTiO3 appear upto 400 °C and more increment in substrate temperature leads to transformation of hexagonal phase to cubic phase. We have observed the blue shift in absorption edge at lower temperature. When the substrate temperature increases from 300 to 400 °C the band gap decreases due to strong hexagonal phase, but more increment in substrate temperature increases the band gap causes by change of phase from hexagonal to cubic. The dielectric constant of ZnTiO3 thin film increases as the substrate temperature increases due to the enhancement in crystallinity and improved morphology.

  20. Optimisation study of the synthesis of vanadium oxide nanostructures using pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, B. N.; Lafane, S.; Wu, L.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Forbes, A.

    2014-02-01

    Fast imaging plasma plume study have been carried out on vanadium-oxygen plasma generated using 248 nm, 25 ns pulses from an excimer KrF laser under oxygen atmosphere. The plume expansion dynamics of an ablated VO2 target was investigated using a fast-imaging technique. The free expansion, splitting, sharpening and stopping of the plume were observed during these oxygen pressures, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mbar. The influence of the plume dynamics study on the properties of the obtained vanadium oxide thin films were examined using X-Ray Diffraction method. A vanadium dioxide phases were deposited at 0.05 mbar oxygen pressure for target-substrate distance of 40 mm and 50 mm. Mixed phases of vanadium oxide were deposited at 0.01, 0.10 and 0.20 mbar oxygen pressure for target-substrate distance of 40 mm. Transition temperatures of around 60.9oC have been measured from sample deposited at 0.05 mbar oxygen pressure for target-substrate distance of 50 mm. We observe mixed nanostructures for thin film prepared at 0.05 mbar for target-substrate distance of 40 mm, while the thin film prepared at 0.05 mbar for target-substrate of 50 mm shows an uniform nanostructure film.

  1. Inorganic-organic thin implant coatings deposited by lasers.

    PubMed

    Sima, Felix; Davidson, Patricia M; Dentzer, Joseph; Gadiou, Roger; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Gallet, Olivier; Mihailescu, Ion N; Anselme, Karine

    2015-01-14

    The lifetime of bone implants inside the human body is directly related to their osseointegration. Ideally, future materials should be inspired by human tissues and provide the material structure-function relationship from which synthetic advanced biomimetic materials capable of replacing, repairing, or regenerating human tissues can be produced. This work describes the development of biomimetic thin coatings on titanium implants to improve implant osseointegration. The assembly of an inorganic-organic biomimetic structure by UV laser pulses is reported. The structure consists of a hydroxyapatite (HA) film grown onto a titanium substrate by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and activated by a top fibronectin (FN) coating deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was employed at fluences of 7 and 0.7J/cm(2) for HA and FN transfer, respectively. Films approximately 1500 and 450 nm thick were obtained for HA and FN, respectively. A new cryogenic temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry analysis method was employed to accurately measure the quantity of immobilized protein. We determined that less than 7 μg FN per cm(2) HA surface is adequate to improve adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. We believe that the proposed fabrication method opens the door to combining and immobilizing two or more inorganic and organic materials on a solid substrate in a well-defined manner. The flexibility of this method enables the synthesis of new hybrid materials by simply tailoring the irradiation conditions according to the thermo-physical properties of the starting materials. PMID:25485841

  2. Molecular elimination of Br{sub 2} in photodissociation of CH{sub 2}BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fan He; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Yan, Chi-Yu; Yang, Shu-Wei; Chang, A. H. H.

    2012-12-07

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH{sub 2}BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 {+-} 0.1):(0.2 {+-} 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 {+-} 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br{sub 2} elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 {+-} 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br{sub 2} fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br{sub 2} products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br{sub 2} yields are obtained analogously from CH{sub 3}CHBrC(O)Br and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br{sub 2} yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br{sub 2} production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  3. UV laser-induced DNA photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Minton, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies examining the effects of UV laser irradiation of nucleosides and nucleotides have determined that qualitative and quantitative differences exist between irradiation at low and high intensities. Multi-photon events involving the singlet and triplet excited states of DNA bases occur following irradiation at high intensity, leading to degradation of bases due to intra-molecular bond cleavage; such events are not seen following irradiation at low intensity. This work extends these studies. Salmon sperm and plasmid DNA were irradiated at low (3.15 [times] 10[sup 7] W/m[sup 2]), intermediate (2.5 [times] 10[sup 9] and 1.16 [times] 10[sup 10] W/m[sup 2]), and high (1.25 [times] 10[sup 11] W/m[sup 2]) intensities, using a KrF excimer laser emitting at 248 nm. DNA damage was then assayed, with the following findings; (1) pyrimidine cyclobutane dimer and bipyrimidine T(6-4)C photoadduct formation was reduced at high intensity relative to low intensity; (2) free thymine and thymine fragments were released from DNA at high intensity, but not at low intensity; (3) DNA strand break formation increased with increasing intensity; (4) double-stranded breaks occurred in DNA at high intensity. A mathematical model describing the effect of high intensity UV radiation on plasmid DNa conformation was developed and fit to experimental data on strand breaks. Using the model, dose constants for single- and double-stranded breaks were determined and found to increase with intensity. These results are consistent with the absorption of a second photon by long-lived triplet excited states of DNA following irradiation at high intensity, but not low intensity. Absorption of two photons leads to the depopulation of triplet excited states in DNA through ionization and fragmentation of bases, causing decreased levels of pyrimidine dimer formation and increased amounts of strand breakage in DNA components, and help extend our understanding of DNA-UV light interactions.

  4. Research of the quenched dye lasers pumped by excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Shaolin; Lou Qihong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, the quenched dye lasers pumped by XeCl and KrF excimer lasers were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Dye laser pulses with duration of 0.8 ns for XeCl laser pumping and 2 ns for KrF laser pumping were obtained. The dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in methyl was used as the active medium in the quenched dye laser. When the pump laser was KrF and the active medium was Coumarin 498 the quenched dye laser emitted pulse with duration of about 2 ns. The characteristics of the quenched dye laser was also investigated in detail.

  5. Growth of CsLiB6O10 thin films on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition using SiO2 and CaF2 as buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, J. S.; Akella, A.; Huang, T. F.; Hesselink, L.

    1998-03-01

    CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) thin films are grown on Si (100) and (111) substrates using lower index SiO2 and CaF2 as buffer layers by pulsed KrF (248 nm) excimer laser ablation of stoichiometric CLBO targets over a temperature range of 425 to 725°C. A CaF2 buffer layer is grown on Si by laser ablation while SiO2 is prepared by standard thermal oxidation. From extended x-ray analysis, it is determined that CaF2 is growth with preferred orientation on Si (100) at temperatures lower than 525°C while on Si (111) substrate, CaF2 is grown epitaxially over the temperature range; this agrees well with observed reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns. X-ray 2θ-scans indicate that crystalline CLBO are grown on SiO2/Si and CaF2/Si (100). Analysis of reflectance spectra from CLBO/SiO2/Si yields the absorption edge at 182 nm. Surface roughness of the CaF2 and CLBO/CaF2/Si film are 19 and 15 nm, respectively. This relatively rough surface caused by the ablation of wide bandgap CaF2 and CLBO limits the application of CLBO for waveguiding measurement.

  6. Hydroxyapatite thin films growth by pulsed laser deposition: effects of the Ti alloys substrate passivation on the film properties by the insertion of a TiN buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelea, Valentin D.; Ristoscu, Carmen; Ghica, Cornel; Pelletier, Herve; Mihailescu, Ion N.; Mille, Pierre

    2001-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca5(PO4)3OH, is now widely used in stomatology and orthopedic surgery. Due to a good biocompatibility combined favorable bioactivity make as HA to be considered as a challenge to successful bone repair. We grow HA thin films on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were deposited in vacuum at room temperature using a KrF excimer laser ((lambda) equals 248 nm, (tau) FWHM >= 20 ns). After deposition the HA films were annealed at 550 degree(s)C in ambient air. The insertion of a bioinert TiN buffer layer at the HA film-metallic substrate interface was studied in terms of HA film microstructure and mechanical properties. SEM, TEM and SAED analysis structurally characterized films. The mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation tests in static and scratch modes. Films with TiN interlayer contain uniquely crystalline HA phase and present better mechanical characteristics as compared with those deposited directly on Ti-alloy substrate.

  7. Nanostructuring and texturing of pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunbin; Catledge, Shane; Vohra, Yogesh; Camata, Renato; Lacefield, William

    2003-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca_10(PO_4)_6(OH)_2] is commonly deposited onto orthopedic and dental metallic implants to speed up bone formation around devices, allowing earlier stabilization in a patient. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a suitable means of placing thin HA films on these implants because of its control over stoichiometry, crystallinity, and nanostructure. These characteristics determine the mechanical properties of the films that must be optimized to improve the performance of load-bearing implants and other devices that undergo bone insertion. We have used PLD to produce nanostructured and preferentially oriented HA films and evaluated their mechanical properties. Pure, highly crystalline HA films on Ti-6Al-4V substrates were obtained using a KrF excimer laser (248nm) with energy density of 4-8 J/cm^2 and deposition temperature of 500-700^rcC. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies reveal that our careful manipulation of energy density and substrate temperature has led to films made up of HA grains in the nanometer scale. Broadening of x-ray diffraction peaks as a function of deposition temperature suggests it may be possible to control the film nanostructure to a great extent. X-ray diffraction also shows that as the laser energy density is increased in the 4-8 J/cm^2 range, the hexagonal HA films become preferentially oriented along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Texture, nanostructure, and phase make-up all significantly influence the mechanical properties. We will discuss how each of these factors affects hardness and Young's modulus of the HA films as measured by nanoindentation.

  8. Femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of biological and biocompatible thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Smausz, T.; Kecskeméti, G.; Klini, A.; Bor, Zs.

    2007-07-01

    In our study we investigate and report the femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of biological and biocompatible materials. Teflon, polyhydroxybutyrate, polyglycolic-acid, pepsin and tooth in the form of pressed pellets were used as target materials. Thin layers were deposited using pulses from a femtosecond KrF excimer laser system (FWHM = 450 fs, λ = 248 nm, f = 10 Hz) at different fluences: 0.6, 0.9, 1.6, 2.2, 2.8 and 3.5 J/cm 2, respectively. Potassium bromide were used as substrates for diagnostic measurements of the films on a FTIR spectrometer. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 1 × 10 -3 Pa, and in the case of tooth and Teflon the substrates were heated at 250 °C. Under the optimized conditions the chemical structure of the deposited materials seemed to be largely preserved as evidenced by the corresponding IR spectra. The polyglycolic-acid films showed new spectral features indicating considerable morphological changes during PLD. Surface structure and thickness of the layers deposited on Si substrates were examined by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a surface profilometer. An empirical model has been elaborated for the description of the femtosecond PLD process. According to this the laser photons are absorbed in the surface layer of target resulting in chemical dissociation of molecules. The fast decomposition causes explosion-like gas expansion generating recoil forces which can tear off and accelerate solid particles. These grains containing target molecules without any chemical damages are ejected from the target and deposited onto the substrate forming a thin layer.

  9. Mapping neutral, ion, and electron number densities within laser-ablated plasma plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, I.; Doyle, Liam A.; Martin, G. W.; Riley, Dave; Lamb, M. J.; Graham, William G.; Morrow, Tom; Lewis, Ciaran L. S.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially and temporally varying neutral, ion and electron number densities have been mapped out within laser ablated plasma plumes expanding into vacuum. Ablation of a magnesium target was performed using a KrF laser, 30 ns pulse duration and 248 nm wavelength. During the initial stage of plasma expansion (t laser power densities on target in the range 1.3 - 3.0 X 108 W/cm2. Later in the plasma expansion (t equals 1 microsecond(s) ) simultaneous absorption and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to determine 3D neutral and ion number densities, for a power density equal to 6.7 X 107 W/cm2. Two distinct regions within the plume were identified. One is a fast component (approximately 106 cm-1) consisting of ions and neutrals with maximum number densities observed to be approximately 30 and 4 X 1012 cm-3 respectively, and the second consists of slow moving neutral material at a number density of up to 1015 cm-3. Additionally a Langmuir probe has been used to obtain ion and electron number densities at very late times in the plasma expansion (1 microsecond(s) laser, 7.5 ns duration and 532 nm (2 (omega) ) wavelength, with a power density on target equal to 6 X 108 W/cm2. Two regions within the plume with different velocities were observed. Within a fast component (approximately 3 X 106 cms-1) electron and ion number densities of the order 5 X 1012 cm-3 were observed and within the second slower component (approximately 106 cms-1) electron and ion number densities of the order 1 - 2 X 1013 cm-3 were determined.

  10. Characteristics of laser produced plasmas and lasers for pulsed ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, K.; Suzuki, T.; Itoh, Y.; Kamiya, T.; Watanabe, M.; Kawakita, Y.; Shioda, K.; Kanazawa, H.

    1996-05-01

    Preliminary experiments were performed to investigate the fundamental characteristics of the laser produced plasmas and the KrF lasers for the pulsed ion beam production. (1) Lithium target was irradiated by a small e-beam pumped KrF laser and the exhausted plasmas were measured. (2) A larger KrF laser of the same kind was operated and the output characteristics were observed. (3) The mode patterns of a discharge-pumped KrF laser was also measured most recently to prepare the future target irradiation to produce ion-source plasmas. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Highly doped p-ZnTe films and quantum well structures grown by nonequilibrium pulsed laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, D.H.; Rouleau, C.M.; Budai, J.D.; Geohegan, D.B.; McCamy, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Highly p-doped ZnTe films have been grown on semi-insulating GaAs (001) and unintentionally doped (p-type) GaSb (001) substrates by pulsed KrF (248 nm) excimer laser ablation of a ZnTe target through an N{sub 2} ambient, without the use of any assisting (DC or AC) plasma source. Free hole concentrations in the mid-10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3} to > 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3} range have been obtained. This appears to be the first time that any wide band gap (E{sub g} {ge} 2 eV) II-VI compound (or other) semiconductor has been impurity-doped from the gas phase by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA). The maximum carrier concentrations also may be the highest obtained for ZnTe by any method thus far. Because pulsed laser deposition is inherently digital, attractive deposition rates can be combined with precise control of layer thickness in epitaxial multilayered structures. Typical deposition conditions are < 0.5 {angstrom} per laser pulse, with crystalline quality governed by tradeoffs between substrate temperature, pulse repetition rate, and the focused pulsed laser energy density. PLA`s capability for growth of very thin epitaxial layers is being exploited and studied through growth of doped heteroepitaxial quantum well structures in the nearly lattice-matched ZnTe/CdSe//GaSb(substrate) system. Results obtained from growth and characterization of heterostructures in this system will be presented.

  12. Characterization of sputtered iridium oxide thin films on planar and laser micro-structured platinum thin film surfaces for neural stimulation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanawala, Sachin

    Electrical stimulation of neurons provides promising results for treatment of a number of diseases and for restoration of lost function. Clinical examples include retinal stimulation for treatment of blindness and cochlear implants for deafness and deep brain stimulation for treatment of Parkinsons disease. A wide variety of materials have been tested for fabrication of electrodes for neural stimulation applications, some of which are platinum and its alloys, titanium nitride, and iridium oxide. In this study iridium oxide thin films were sputtered onto laser micro-structured platinum thin films by pulsed-DC reactive sputtering of iridium metal in oxygen-containing atmosphere, to obtain high charge capacity coatings for neural stimulation applications. The micro-structuring of platinum films was achieved by a pulsed-laser-based technique (KrF excimer laser emitting at lambda=248nm). The surface morphology of the micro-structured films was studied using different surface characterization techniques. In-vitro biocompatibility of these laser micro-structured films coated with iridium oxide thin films was evaluated using cortical neurons isolated from rat embryo brain. Characterization of these laser micro-structured films coated with iridium oxide, by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy has revealed a considerable decrease in impedance and increase in charge capacity. A comparison between amorphous and crystalline iridium oxide thin films as electrode materials indicated that amorphous iridium oxide has significantly higher charge capacity and lower impedance making it preferable material for neural stimulation application. Our biocompatibility studies show that neural cells can grow and differentiate successfully on our laser micro-structured films coated with iridium oxide. This indicates that reactively sputtered iridium oxide (SIROF) is biocompatible.

  13. Formation of ozone by irradiation of oxygen at 248 nanometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. E.; Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    While Slanger et al. (1988) have reported that the 248-nm KrF laser radiation generates ozone from oxygen, despite this wavelength's exceeding of the conventionally accepted photodissociation threshold of 242.4 for the ground electronic state, the initiating mechanism for this ozone formation remains obscure. It is presently suggested that the initiating step is the absorption of the 248-nm radiation by O2. In a reply to the present authors, Slanger et al. indicate that their original experiment should have been performed by introducing pure O2 into a baked cell, with the start time defined by the unblocking of the 248-nm laser.

  14. Excimer laser produced plasmas in copper wire targets and water droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Elastically scattered incident radiation (ESIR) from a copper wire target illuminated by a KrF laser pulse at lambda = 248 nm shows a dinstinct two-peak structure which is dependent on the incident energy. The time required to reach the critical electron density (n(sub c) approximately = 1.8 x 10(exp 22) electrons/cu cm) is estimated at 11 ns based on experimental results. Detailed ESIR characteristics for water have been reported previously by the authors. Initiation of the broadband emission for copper plasma begins at 6.5 +/- 1.45 ns after the arrival of the laser pulse. However, the broadband emission occurs at 11 +/- 0.36 ns for water. For a diatomic substance such as water, the electron energy rapidly dissipates due to dissociation of water molecules, which is absent in a monatomic species such as copper. When the energy falls below the excitation energy of the lowest electron state for water, it becomes a subexcitation electron. Lifetimes of the subexcited electrons to the vibrational states are estimated to be of the order of 10(exp -9) s. In addition, the ionization potential of copper (440-530 nm) is approximately 6 eV, which is about two times smaller than the 13 eV ionization potential reported for water. The higher ionization potential contributes to the longer observed delay time for plasma formation in water. After initiation, a longer time is required for copper plasma to reach its peak value. This time delay in reaching the maximum intensity is attributed to the energy loss during the interband transition in copper.

  15. Laser ablated high T(sub c) superconducting thin YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on substrates suitable for microwave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J. D.; Meola, J. E.; Jenkins, K. A.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1990-01-01

    The development of high temperature superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films on substrates suitable for microwave applications is of great interest for evaluating their applications for space radar, communication, and sensor systems. Thin films of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) were formed on SrTiO3, ZrO2, MgO, and LaAlO3 substrates by laser ablation. The wavelength used was 248 nm from a KrF excimer laser. During deposition the films were heated to 600 C in a flowing oxygen environment, and required no post annealing. The low substrate temperature during deposition with no post annealing gave films which were smooth, which had their c-axis aligned to the substrates, and which had grains ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 microns in size. The films being c-axis aligned gave excellent surface resistance at 35 GHz which was lower than that of copper at 77 K. At present, LaAlO3 substrates with a dielectric constant of 22, appears suitable as a substrate for microwave and electronic applications. The films were characterized by resistance-temperature measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and x ray diffraction. The highest critical transition temperatures (T sub c) are above 89 K for films on SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, above 88 K for ZrO2, and above 86 K for MgO. The critical current density (J sub c) of the films on SrTiO3 is above 2 x 10(exp 6) amperes/sq cm at 77 K. The T(sub c) and J(sub c) are reported as a function of laser power, composition of the substrate, and temperature of the substrate during deposition.

  16. In vitro dissolution and mechanical behavior of c-axis preferentially oriented hydroxyapatite thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunbin; Camata, Renato P.; Chowdhury, Shafiul; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to its resemblance to the major inorganic constituent of bone and tooth, hydroxyapatite is recognized as one of the most biocompatible materials and is widely used in systems for bone replacement and regeneration. In this study the pulsed laser deposition technique was chosen to produce hydroxyapatite with different crystallographic orientations in order to investigate some of the material properties, including its in vitro dissolution behavior, as well as mechanical properties. The crystallographic orientations of hydroxyapatite coatings can be carefully controlled, mainly by varying the energy density of the KrF excimer laser (248 nm) used for deposition. Nanoindentation results showed that highly c-axis oriented hydroxyapatite coatings have higher hardness and Young's modulus values compared with the values of randomly oriented coatings. After 24 h immersion in simulated physiological solution the overall surface morphology of the highly oriented coatings was dramatically altered. The porosity was drastically increased and sub-micron pores were formed throughout the coatings, whereas the average size of the grains in the coatings was not significantly changed. The composition of the textured hydroxyapatite coatings remained essentially unchanged. Their c-axis texture, on the other hand, was rather enhanced with an increase in immersion time. The c-axis oriented hydroxyapatite surfaces are likely to promote preferentially oriented growth through a cyclic process of dissolution and reprecipitation, followed by homoepitaxial growth. The remarkable morphological and microstructural changes after dissolution suggest a capability of highly textured hydroxyapatite as a tissue engineering scaffold with an interconnecting porous network that may be beneficial for cellular activity. PMID:20188868

  17. Photoluminescence properties of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+} thin phosphor films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Nsimama, P. D.; Pitale, Shreyas; Nagpure, I. M.; Kumar, Vinay; Coetsee, E.; Terblans, J. J.; Swart, H. C.; Sechogela, P. T.

    2010-07-15

    Thin films of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+} phosphor were deposited on silicon [Si (100)] substrates using a 248 nm KrF pulsed laser. Deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature, pulse repetition rate, number of laser pulses, and base pressure, were varied during the film deposition process. Based on the x-ray diffraction data, all the films were amorphous but were emitting visible light when excited by a monochromatic xenon lamp. The chemical composition and the stoichiometry of the films determined by the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were consistent with the commercial SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+} powder used to prepare the films. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the films were characterized by major green emission with a maximum at {approx}520 nm and minor red emission with a maximum at 630 nm. The green and red photoluminescence at 520 and 630 nm are associated with the 4f{sup 6}5d{yields}4f{sup 7}({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}) and {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 2+} and residual Eu{sup 3+} ions, respectively. Brighter films were shown to have relatively higher values of the root mean square surface roughness, which were determined from the atomic force microscopy data. The effects of processing parameters on the PL intensity are discussed.

  18. UV laser ablation of parylene films from gold substrates

    SciTech Connect

    O. R. Musaev, P. Scott, J. M. Wrobel, and M. B. Kruger

    2009-11-19

    Parylene films, coating gold substrates, were removed by laser ablation using 248 nm light from an excimer laser. Each sample was processed by a different number of pulses in one of three different environments: air at atmospheric pressure, nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, and vacuum. The laser-induced craters were analyzed by optical microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Multi-pulse ablation thresholds of gold and parylene were estimated.

  19. The study on the effect of erbium on diamond-like carbon deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Y. M.; Hsieh, J.; Li, X.; Chua, D. H. C.

    2009-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films doped with a small fraction of erbium (0.5-2.0 at. %, at 0.5 at. % interval) were prepared by using a 248 nm KrF pulsed laser deposition technique. The effects of erbium on the surface morphology, microstructure, chemical binding states, tribological property, and the adhesion strength of DLC films were investigated. Atomic force microscopy showed that the surface roughness of the films increased with the increasing of erbium fraction, but generally the nanocomposite films were smooth with rms below 1 nm. Raman analysis showed broad peaks centered at 1550 cm-1 on all the samples. The deconvoluted Raman spectra on DLC doped with different fractions of erbium showed that the ID/IG ratio increased with increasing erbium content, and the comparative percent of sp3 is between 50% and 58% for erbium fraction between 0.5 and 2.0 at. %. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the C 1s peaks had slightly shifted away from 285.2 (diamond) to 284.5 eV (graphite). The deconvolution of the spectra further confirmed the influence of erbium to the sp3 contents and revealed the presence of SiC with the increasing of Er fraction. Microscratch tester results showed that the adhesion strength (critical load) of the films improved with the presence of SiC bonding at the interface. This hinted that the presence of the heavier erbium may force the impinging carbon ions to react more with the interface to form silicon carbide bonds, thus enhancing the adhesion strength. Although the presence of erbium increased the surface roughness of the films, the coefficients of friction of the erbium doped DLC films were still closely resembled to pure DLC, i.e., 0.11-0.12 compared to 0.10 for pure DLC.

  20. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm2 and 4 J/cm2 resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm2 under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm2, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly dependent upon the laser fluence as well as environmental conditions. The difference in surface morphology is attributable to cooling, confinement and shielding effects as well as difference in plasma temperature, density and pressure of environmental media that corresponds to different energy deposition

  1. Pulsed laser ablation of Germanium under vacuum and hydrogen environments at various fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Dawood, Asadullah; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Hayat, Asma; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif; Mahmood, Arshad

    2015-07-01

    Laser fluence and ambient environment play a significant role for the formation and development of the micro/nano-structures on the laser irradiated targets. Single crystal (1 0 0) Germanium (Ge) has been ablated under two environments of vacuum (10-3 Torr) and hydrogen (100 Torr) at various fluences ranging from 4.5 J cm-2 to 6 J cm-2. For this purpose KrF Excimer laser with wavelength of 248 nm, pulse duration of 18 ns and repetition rate of 20 Hz has been employed. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets was explored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity of the irradiated Ge is measured by four probe method. SEM analysis exhibits the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), cones and micro-bumps in both ambient environments (vacuum and hydrogen). The formation as well as development of these structures is strongly dependent upon the laser fluence and environmental conditions. The periodicity of LIPSS or ripples varies from 38 μm to 60 μm in case of vacuum whereas in case of hydrogen environment, the periodicity varies from 20 μm to 45 μm. The difference in number of ripples and periodicity as well as in shape and size of cones and bumps in vacuum and hydrogen is explained on the basis of confinement and shielding effect of plasma. FTIR spectroscopy reveals that no new bands are formed for laser ablated Ge under vacuum, whereas Csbnd H stretching vibration band is formed for two moderate fluences (5 J cm-2 and 5.5 J cm-2) in case of ablation in hydrogen. Raman spectroscopy shows that no new bands are formed in case of ablation in both environments; however a slight Raman shift is observed which is attributed to laser-induced stresses. The electrical conductivity of the irradiated Ge increases with increasing fluence and is also dependent upon the environment as well as grown structures.

  2. Conceptual design of a KrF scaling module. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    A conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF laser module for Inertial Confinement Fusion is presented. Optical designs for encoding, beam packing and beam transfer between amplifier stages are developed; emphasis is placed on reducing prepulse problems and achieving acceptable optical quality. An axisymmetric optical design is identified as optimum in terms of simplicity, optical quality, cost and alignment. A kinetic code model was developed for the KrF amplifier and was used to derive scaling maps for the 50 kJ module. Attention was given to reducing parasitics, achieving acceptable extraction efficiency and accounting for amplified spontaneous emission effects. The size of the module is constrained by parasitic suppression and damage thresholds; the power gain is constrained by demanding 40% extraction efficiency in a double pass extraction geometry; and, the run time is constrained by the pulsed power technology (PFN or PFL) and acceptable values of g/sub 0/L. The bounds imposed on the design by the pulsed power technology were examined. Both PFLs and PFNs were considered along with their associated diode, hibachi and guide field requirements. A base line design for a 50 kJ module including amplifier staging, layout and overall size is discussed. Cost analysis and scaling for optical components, pulsed power technology and the guide field are also presented.

  3. Impact of open de-ionized water thin film laminar immersion on the liquid-immersed ablation threshold and ablation rate of features machined by KrF excimer laser ablation of bisphenol A polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowding, C. F.; Lawrence, J.

    2009-11-01

    Debris control and surface quality are potential major benefits of sample liquid immersion when laser micromachining; however, the use of an immersion technique potentially modifies the ablation mechanism when compared to an ambient air interaction. To investigate the machining characteristics, bisphenol A polycarbonate has been laser machined in air and under a controllable open liquid film. To provide quantitative analysis, ablation threshold, ablation rate and the attenuation coefficient of the immersing de-ionized (DI) water fluid were measured. In ambient air the threshold fluence was measured to be 37 mJ cm -2. Thin film immersion displayed two trends: threshold fluences of 58.6 and 83.9 mJ cm -2. The attenuation of DI water was found to be negligible; thus, the change in ablation rate resulted from increased confinement of the vapour plume by the liquid medium, generating higher Bremsstrahlung attenuation of the beam, lowering the laser etch rate. Simultaneously, splashing motivated by the confined ablation plume allowed release of plume pressure before plume etching commenced. This contributed to the loss of total etching efficiency. Two interaction scenarios were obsereved as a result of splashing: (i) intermediate threshold fluence, where splashing occured after every pulse in a mode that interrupted the flow entirely, leaving an ambient air interaction for the following pulse; (ii) high threshold fluence, where splashing occured for every pulse in a mode that allowed the flow to recommence over the image before the next pulse causing every pulse to experience Bremsstrahlung attenuation. Since attenuation of the immersion liquid was negligible, it is the action of the constrained ablation plume within a thin flowing immersion liquid, the resultant Bremsstrahlung attenuation and splashing events that are the critical mechanisms that modify the primary ablation characteristics.

  4. Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenschain, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.

  5. Online laser desorption-multiphoton postionization mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles: molecular source indicators for particles emitted from different traffic-related and wood combustion sources.

    PubMed

    Bente, Matthias; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-12-01

    Direct inlet aerosol mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in applied and fundamental aerosol and nanoparticle research. Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) based techniques for single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-SP-TOFMS) are a promising approach in the chemical analysis of single aerosol particles, especially for the detection of inorganic species and distinction of particle classes. However, until now the detection of molecular organic compounds on a single particle basis has been difficult due to the high laser power densities which are required for the LDI process as well as due to the inherent matrix effects associated with this ionization technique. By the application of a two-step approach, where an IR desorption laser pulse is applied to perform a gentle desorption of organic material from the single particle surface and a second UV-laser performs the soft ionization of the desorbed species, this drawback of laser based single particles mass spectrometry can be overcome. The postionization of the desorbed molecules has been accomplished in this work by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) using a KrF excimer laser (248 nm). REMPI allows an almost fragmentation free trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives from individual single particles (laser desorption-REMPI postionization-single particle-time-of-flight mass spectrometry or LD-REMPI-SP-TOFMS). Crucial system parameters of the home-built aerosol mass spectrometer such as the power densities and the relative timing of both lasers were optimized with respect to the detectability of particle source specific organic signatures using well characterized standard particles. In a second step, the LD-REMPI-SP-TOFMS system was applied to analyze different real world aerosols (spruce wood combustion, gasoline car exhaust, beech wood combustion, and diesel car exhaust). It was possible to distinguish the particles from different

  6. In situ analysis of Titan's tholins by Laser 2 steps Desorption Ionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilan, Y.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.; Gazeau, M.; Mahjoub, A.; Szopa, C.; Schwell, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of the whole project developed in collaboration (LISA/LATMOS) is to provide a better understanding of the chemical composition of Titan aerosols laboratory analogs, called tholins, and thereby of their formation pathways. The tholins are produced in the PAMPRE reactor (French acronyme for Aerosols Microgravity Production by Reactives Plasmas) developed at LATMOS. These tholins are generated in levitation (wall effects are thus limited) in a low pressure radiofrequency plasma. Up to now, the determination of the physical and chemical properties of these tholins was achieved after their collection and ex-situ analysis by several methods. Their bulk composition was then determined but their insoluble part is still unknown. Other studies were performed after the transfer of the soluble part of the aerosols to different analytical instruments. Therefore, possible artifacts could have influenced the results. We present the SMARD (a French acronym for Mass Spectrometry of Aerosols by InfraRed Laser Desorption) program. A challenging issue of our work is to perform the soluble and unsoluble parts of PAMPRE tholins' analysis in real time and in situ. The coupling of the PAMPRE reactor to a unique instrument (Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry) developed at LISA should allow determining in real time and in situ the characteristics (chemical composition together with granulometry) of the nanometric aerosols. The later are introduced in the analytical instrument using an aerodynamic lens device. Their detection and aerodynamic diameter are determined using two continuous diode lasers operating at λ = 403 nm. Then, the L2DI (Laser 2 steps Desorption Ionisation) technique is used in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles: they are vaporized using a 10 μm CO2 pulsed laser and the gas produced is then ionized by a 248 nm KrF Excimer laser. Finally, the molecular ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass

  7. Excimer laser ablation of the lens.

    PubMed

    Nanevicz, T M; Prince, M R; Gawande, A A; Puliafito, C A

    1986-12-01

    Ablation of the bovine crystalline lens was studied using radiation from an excimer laser at four ultraviolet wave lengths as follows: 193 nm (argon fluoride), 248 nm (krypton fluoride), 308 nm (xenon chloride), and 351 nm (xenon fluoride). The ablation process was quantitated by measuring mass ablated with an electronic balance, and characterized by examining ablation craters with scanning electron microscopy. The highest ablation rate was observed at 248 nm with lower rates at 193 and 308 nm. No ablation was observed at 351 nm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the smoothest craters at 193 nm while at 248 nm there was vacuolization in the crater walls and greater disruption of surrounding tissue. The craters made at 308 nm did not have as smooth a contour as the 193-nm lesions. The spectral absorbance of the bovine lens was calculated at the wavelengths used for ablation and correlated with ablation rates and thresholds. High peak-power, pulsed ultraviolet laser radiation may have a role in surgical removal of the lens. PMID:3789982

  8. Possibility of methane conversion into heavier hydrocarbons using nanosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navid, H. A.; Irani, E.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of nanosecond lasers on the methane dissociation is experimentally studied by using three different laser wavelengths at 248 nm, 355 nm and 532 nm. C2H2 generation is measured as a major reaction product in experiments and the energy consumptions in production of this component are measured as 5.8 MJ/mol, 3.1 MJ/mol and 69.0 MJ/mol, for 355 nm, 532 nm and 248 nm wavelengths, respectively. The mechanism of conversion and production of new stable hydrocarbons is also theoretically investigated. It is found that in theoretical calculations, the ion-molecule reactions should be included and this leads to a unique approach in proper explanation of the experimental measurements.

  9. Possibility of methane conversion into heavier hydrocarbons using nanosecond lasers.

    PubMed

    Navid, H A; Irani, E; Sadighi-Bonabi, R

    2016-03-01

    Effect of nanosecond lasers on the methane dissociation is experimentally studied by using three different laser wavelengths at 248 nm, 355 nm and 532 nm. C2H2 generation is measured as a major reaction product in experiments and the energy consumptions in production of this component are measured as 5.8 MJ/mol, 3.1 MJ/mol and 69.0 MJ/mol, for 355 nm, 532 nm and 248 nm wavelengths, respectively. The mechanism of conversion and production of new stable hydrocarbons is also theoretically investigated. It is found that in theoretical calculations, the ion-molecule reactions should be included and this leads to a unique approach in proper explanation of the experimental measurements. PMID:26655072

  10. Laser photoablation of spin-on-glass and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M.; Magan, J. D.; Blau, W.; Lunney, J. G.; Woods, J.

    The laser photoablation characteristics, at 193 and 248 nm, of a spin-on-glass (Allied Accuglass 204) in the pre-cured state, and a novel poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) photoresist material have been studied using a low power He-Ne laser to monitor interferometrically the ablation. The etching behaviour of the photoresist material is compared with the photoablation model of Sutcliffe and Srinavasan. The dry microlithographic potential of both materials was investigated.

  11. Growth of centimeter-scale atomically thin MoS{sub 2} films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Gene; Venkata Subbaiah, Y. P.; Prestgard, Megan C.; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-05-01

    We are reporting the growth of single layer and few-layer MoS{sub 2} films on single crystal sapphire substrates using a pulsed-laser deposition technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (wavelength: 248 nm; pulse width: 25 ns) was used to ablate a polycrystalline MoS{sub 2} target. The material thus ablated was deposited on a single crystal sapphire (0001) substrate kept at 700 °C in an ambient vacuum of 10{sup −6} Torr. Detailed characterization of the films was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The ablation of the MoS{sub 2} target by 50 laser pulses (energy density: 1.5 J/cm{sup 2}) was found to result in the formation of a monolayer of MoS{sub 2} as shown by AFM results. In the Raman spectrum, A{sub 1g} and E{sup 1}{sub 2g} peaks were observed at 404.6 cm{sup −1} and 384.5 cm{sup −1} with a spacing of 20.1 cm{sup −1}, confirming the monolayer thickness of the film. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum exhibited two exciton absorption bands at 672 nm (1.85 eV) and 615 nm (2.02 eV), with an energy split of 0.17 eV, which is in excellent agreement with the theoretically predicted value of 0.15 eV. The monolayer MoS{sub 2} exhibited a PL peak at 1.85 eV confirming the direct nature of the band-gap. By varying the number of laser pulses, bi-layer, tri-layer, and few-layer MoS{sub 2} films were prepared. It was found that as the number of monolayers (n) in the MoS{sub 2} films increases, the spacing between the A{sub 1g} and E{sup 1}{sub 2g} Raman peaks (Δf) increases following an empirical relation, Δf=26.45−(15.42)/(1+1.44 n{sup 0.9}) cm{sup −1}.

  12. Application of pulsed-uv laser Raman spectroscopy to chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, P.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Raman detection limits obtained with a KrF laser excitation source were comparable to those obtained by laser-induced fluorescence and photofragment emission spectroscopy under chemical vapor deposition conditions.

  13. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications. PMID:26560597

  14. Nuclear pumped electronic transition laser studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. M.; Helmick, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is proposed that should yield unambiguous absolute results on the production efficiency of rare gas excimers from fission fragments. Laser threshold efficiency is parameterized and calculations indicate that some lasers can be operated using relatively simple experimental apparatus adjacent to GODIVA. Operation of a KrF excimer laser adjacent to GODIVA appears to be possible, although the neutron pulse width is not well matched to the laser pulse duration. However, calculation indicates that KrF excimer laser output on the order of a joule may be possible.

  15. Ablation par laser pulse de revetements antierosion pour le domaine aeronautique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragusich, Alexis

    Erosion resistant coatings (ERCs) are frequently used to protect aircraft engine components against erosion, and therefore, to extend their lifetime and reduce maintenance cost. However, after many hours in service, certain areas of the coating will begin to deteriorate. Given that such components are generally very costly, it is desirable to replace only the coating instead of the part itself. This research is part of the MANU 4 project, supported by CRIAQ and NSERC, which aims to study the feasibility of stripping an erosion-resistant coating deposited on a titanium-based alloy with three different techniques: wet chemical etching, plasma etching and pulse laser ablation. This thesis focuses more specifically on the etching with a pulsed laser of a 20-mum thick TiAlN ERC deposited on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate. This work compares the suitability of two pulsed lasers: a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser emitting at 800 nm and a nanosecond KrF excimer laser centred at 248 nm. These two lasers were chosen since they are frequently used for micromachining applications and allow us to study the effect of the wavelength and pulse duration. Preliminary findings have allowed us to identify four most critical variables that influence the etch rate and the surface roughness: (i) beam size, (ii) laser power, (iii) stage speed, and (iv) step distance between scanned lines. For each laser, optimal etching conditions were obtained by varying a single parameter at a time. Final results show that the higher energy per pulse offered by the excimer laser allows one to increase by one order of magnitude the etch rate, but almost doubles, from 1 mum to 1.8 mum, the surface roughness, in comparison with results obtained with the Ti:Sapphire laser. Compared with other techniques, pulse laser ablation has the potential to offer very high selectivity. In this regard, plume emission spectroscopy was studied as an in situ technique to monitor the etching progress and determine the precise moment

  16. Improved model for the angular dependence of excimer laser ablation rates in polymer materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pedder, J. E. A.; Holmes, A. S.; Dyer, P. E.

    2009-10-26

    Measurements of the angle-dependent ablation rates of polymers that have applications in microdevice fabrication are reported. A simple model based on Beer's law, including plume absorption, is shown to give good agreement with the experimental findings for polycarbonate and SU8, ablated using the 193 and 248 nm excimer lasers, respectively. The modeling forms a useful tool for designing masks needed to fabricate complex surface relief by ablation.

  17. Holographic Generation Of Gratings With Periodicities Below 150 nm With An Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlhorn, T.; Pohlmann, Hauke; Kotthaus, Jorg P.

    1989-04-01

    Holographic generation of gratings with periodicities down to 140nm in thin polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layers on Si-substrates using a narrow band KrF-excimer laser (λ=248 nm) is reported. At low single pulse energy densities (<3OmJ/cm2) the gratings are prepared by conventional photolithography. At higher single pulse energy densities (>70mJ/cm2) we directly write gratings in the PMMA by photoetching (ablation).

  18. The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) laser system and its laser pulse shaper

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; Hill, N.; Ho, C.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1993-08-01

    Generating a 100 nC, 20 ps (FWHM) pulse length electron beam at the AWA requires a stable laser system capable of producing 1--3 ps, 1 mJ pulses at 248 nm and the capability of shaping the wave front. A wave front shaping device has been designed and built. It consists of nine concentric cylindrical mirrors. Each cylinder`s position can be adjusted relative to the others by a system of computer controlled stepping motors. The reflecting surfaces were optically polished and dielectric coated. Detailed characterizations of the laser pulse shaper`s performance using a streak camera and its associated optics are presented.

  19. Wavelength conversion with excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.; Eichner, L.; Storz, R.H.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Freeman, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Harmonic generation was studied using a high powered, ultrashort pulse KrF excimer laser. Third, fifth, and seventh harmonic outputs were observed at 82.8 nm, 49.7 nm, and 35.5 nm. The nonlinear interaction took place at the intersection of the laser focus with a pulsed, supersonic gas jet expansion.

  20. Progress in discharge-pumped excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Charles T.

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes recent results achieved in the development of discharge pumped excimer lasers at the Textron Defense Systems organization (formerly the Avco Research Laboratory). Included is a description of a KrF laser with more than one Joule output at 2.4% efficiency, a 200 mJ XeCl laser operating with a 500 nsec wide pulse, and a several Joule, discharge pumped, KrCl laser operating at 222 nm. All of these devices are switched using thyratrons and are therefore capable of repetitive performance. The KrF and XeCl experiments were conducted with the same laser device operating with a conventional capacitor transfer excitation circuit for the KrF experiments but modified to operate with a pulser-sustainer discharge circuit using magnetic switching for the XeCl tests. The KrCl device is a 40 liter volume system built by Northrop and also operates with a magnetically switched discharge.

  1. Surface 3D Micro Free Forms: Multifunctional Microstructured Mesoporous α-Alumina by in Situ Slip Casting Using Excimer Laser Ablated Polycarbonate Molds.

    PubMed

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Böhlen, Karl; Bowen, Paul; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2015-11-11

    Ceramic surface microstructuring is a rapidly growing field with a variety of applications in tribology, wetting, biology, and so on. However, there are limitations to large-area microstructuring and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) micro free forms. Here, we present a route to obtain intricate surface structures through in situ slip casting using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) negative molds which are replicated from excimer laser ablated polycarbonate (PC) master molds. PC sheets are ablated with a nanosecond KrF (λ = 248 nm) excimer laser mask projection system to obtain micron-scale 3D surface features over a large area of up to 3 m(2). Complex surface structures that include 3D free forms such as 3D topography of Switzerland, shallow structures such as diffractive optical elements (60 nm step) and conical micropillars have been obtained. The samples are defect-free produced with thicknesses of up to 10 mm and 120 mm diameter. The drying process of the slip cast alumina slurry takes place as a one-dimensional process, through surface evaporation and water permeation through the PDMS membrane. This allows homogeneous one-dimensional shrinkage during the drying process, independent of the sample's lateral dimensions. A linear mass diffusion model has been proposed to predict and explain the drying process of these ceramic colloidal suspensions. The calculated drying time is linearly proportional to the height of the slurry and the thickness of the negatively structured PDMS and is validated by the experimental results. An experimentally observed optimum Sylgard PDMS thickness range of ∼400 μm to 1 mm has achieved the best quality microstructured green compacts. Further, the model predicts that the drying time is independent of the microstructured areas and was validated using experimental observations carried out with microstructured areas of 300 mm(2), 1200 mm(2), and 120 cm(2). Therefore, in principle, the structures can be further replicated in areas up

  2. Deterministic sub-micron 2D grating structures on steel by UV-fs-laser interference patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekesi, J.; Simon, P.; Ihlemann, J.

    2014-01-01

    Large area linear and crossed grating structures on steel surfaces are obtained by UV-femtosecond-laser ablation at 248 nm. High resolution on large areas is secured using a beam delivery system based on a two-grating interferometer. Thus, deterministic gratings with periods down to 330 nm and modulation depths of more than 100 nm are fabricated on tool steel and stainless steel. Areas of up to mm can be processed without stitching errors.

  3. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Optical breakdown of quartz glass by XeF laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amosov, A. V.; Barabanov, V. S.; Gerasimov, S. Yu; Morozov, Nikolai V.; Sergeev, P. B.; Stepanchuk, V. N.

    1994-04-01

    The bulk optical strengths of KU1 and KUVI quartz glasses were determined for pulses of 85 ns duration at the wavelength of 353 nm. The damage thresholds of these materials were the same and amounted to 280 GW cm-2. The optical breakdown thresholds of KU1 at λ = 248 nm and λ = 193 nm, obtained earlier for the same samples under otherwise identical conditions, were used together with the present results to plot the wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of this material. These results showed that nonlinear absorption is the main mechanism responsible for damage to quartz glass in high-intensity ultraviolet laser radiation fields.

  4. A comparative study of corneal incisions induced by diamond and steel knives and two ultraviolet radiations from an excimer laser.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J; Trokel, S; Rothery, S; Krueger, R R

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential role of excimer lasers in corneal surgery. The morphology of incisions induced by two wavelengths of excimer laser radiation, 193 nm and 248 nm, are compared with the morphology of incisions produced by diamond and steel knives. Analysis suggests that ablation induced by excimer laser results from highly localised photochemical reactions and that 193 nm is the optimal wavelength for surgery. The only significant complication of laser surgery is loss of endothelial cells when incisions are within 40 micron of Descemet's membrane. Images PMID:3013283

  5. Submicron surface patterning by laser ablation with short UV pulses using a proximity phase mask setup

    SciTech Connect

    Borchers, B.; Bekesi, J.; Simon, P.; Ihlemann, J.

    2010-03-15

    A new approach for the generation of large-area periodic surface structures on different materials, like polymers and semiconductors, by direct laser ablation is presented. The surfaces were illuminated with the interference pattern emerging in close proximity behind a laser irradiated phase mask. In the experiments, nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses at 248 nm were applied. To prevent contamination or damage of the phase mask caused by the ablated material, the mask is protected by a thin water film or a thin quartz plate. In addition we present a technique to eliminate a lateral variation of the generated structures due to insufficient alignment precision of the workpiece.

  6. Excimer Laser Surface Treatment Of Non-Ferrous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiopoulos, Michael; Hontzopoulos, Elias I.; Fotakis, Costas; Tsipas, D. N.; Floros, T.

    1989-04-01

    Excimer laser (KrF, ArF) radiation has been used for the surface modification of Al - Si and Ni alloys with the aim to improve their corrosion-errosion and hardness properties. A variety of experimental techniques including direct laser surface treatment and laser assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) have been employed and the parameters for process optimization have been determined.

  7. Influence of pulse width and target density on pulsed laser deposition of thin YBaCuO film.

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, S.

    1999-01-20

    We have studied the effects of temporal pulse width and target density on the deposition of thin films of YBaCuO. A 248nm excimer laser and an 825nm Ti-sapphire laser were used to conduct the experiments with pulse widths of 27 ns, 16 ns, and 150 fs, and target densities of 80% and 90%. Scanning electron microscope photomicrographs and profilometer traces show a striking difference between nanosecond and femtosecond laser irradiation. Shortening the pulse width reduced particulate formation, provided stoichiometry, and improved the film properties. Decreasing the target density raised the ablation rate, produced thicker but nonuniform films, and reduced particulate formation.

  8. Effects of 2 mass % Si admixture in a laser-produced Fe plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasa, Josef; Laska, Leos; Rohlena, Karel; Velyhan, Andriy; Lorusso, Antonella; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Czarnecka, Agata; Parys, Piotr; Ryc, Leszek; Wolowski, Jerzy

    2008-11-10

    Emission of multiply charged ions and soft x-rays from the plasmas produced by laser pulses focused on (111) surface of Fe and Fe-2 mass % Si single crystals is investigated for wavelengths of 1064 and 248 nm and intensities up to {approx_equal}1x10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}. It is demonstrated that the Si admixture in the Fe plasma results in a higher emission of Fe{sup q+} ions (1{<=}q{<=}4) but in a markedly lower x-ray emission. The relation of wavelengths and pulse durations of laser beams used is figured in the fluence dependence of the ion emission.

  9. Photochemical and thermal changes in tissue autofluorescence during excimer laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, Daniel J., Sr.; Jacques, Steven L.; Hayes, Amy S.

    1990-06-01

    A striking consequence of 248-nm excimer laser irradiation of skin is a stable vivid blue fluorescence easily visualized under UVA illumination. Its spectral properties (excitation maximum at "335 nm; emission maximum at ''43O nm) are somewhat similar to those of the fluorescent pigments associated with aging of tissue and peroxidation of lipids, and the fluorescent pigments formed during exposure to high temperatures. This study explores the spectral properties, magnitude, dose response, and laser pulse intensity dependence of this phenomenon in both isolated stratum corneum and epidermal cell suspensions from human skin.

  10. Numbers Of Merit In Excimer Laser Reliability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Lindsay; Basting, Dirk; Kahlert, Hans-Jurgen; Rebhan, Ulrich; Muckenheim, Wolfgang

    1989-04-01

    Recent results confirm new advances in XeC1 excimer laser discharge design have achieved major milestones in reliability - 1010 pulses without replacing the thyratron, electrodes, capacitors or power supply. Other data on standard KrF excimer lasers allow statistical analysis of numbers of merit, including MTBF and maintenance intervals. Projections are made of operating costs and maintenance for both continuous operation and low duty cycle of two different size lasers with all major gases: XeCl, KrF and ArF.

  11. Design and performance of a production-oriented deep-UV wafer stepper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollman, Richard F.; Cleveland, Frederick; Da Silveira, Elvino M.; McCleary, Roger W.; Strauten, Robert W.

    1990-06-01

    Significant advaixements sire the deliveiy of the AWLS stepper in 1987 have led to the introduction of a true production-oriented excimer laser stepper. T1 Laserstep 200 system a third generation deep IN stepper benefits from imprcwements in 248nm projection lenses and from t1 availability of more powerful reliable and fully integrated excimer lasers designed for lithography use. The design of the Laserstep system overcomes previous limitations in performance associated with tl use of pulsed 248nm KrF laser illumination. Waferless automated system calibration features previously developed for GCA g-line and i-linc systems have been adapted to function with a pulsed excimer laser source. These features maintain tl instrument in a production-qualified state while also prwiding valuable statistical process control data. Ikse control of 1 is achieved with exposures well under 200 msec allowing high throughput on the sensitive deep UV resists becoming available. 1.

  12. Terraced copper growth deposited onto Teflon AF1600 by the excimer laser irradiation of Cu(hfac)TMVS

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, D.; Piyakis, K.; Sacher, E.; Meunier, M.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are studying the feasibility of constructing Cu/fluoropolymer multilayer devices, in an effort to reduce both metal R and insulator C, a necessary condition in VLSI and GSI microelectronic applications. The laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of the organometallic precursor Cu(hfac)TMVS (hexafluoroacetylacetonate)(trimethylvinylsilane) is used to grow copper films on a Teflon AF1600 substrate. Exposure to excimer laser radiation at 248 nm results in a terraced copper growth. A simple model, based on interference effects in the Teflon and copper layers, is presented to account for this structure.

  13. Plasma channel produced by femtosecond laser pulses as a medium for amplifying electromagnetic radiation of the subterahertz frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatskaya, A V; Volkova, E A; Popov, A M

    2013-12-31

    The electron energy distribution function in the plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse with a wavelength of 248 nm in atmospheric-pressure gases was considered. Conditions were determined whereby this channel may be employed for amplifying electromagnetic waves up to the terahertz frequency range over the energy spectrum relaxation time ∼10{sup -7} s. Gains were calculated as functions of time and radiation frequency. The effect of electron – electron collisions on the rate of relaxation processes in the plasma and on its ability to amplify the electromagnetic radiation was investigated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  14. Development of KrF hybrid resist for a dual-isolation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sen; Holmes, Steven; Chen, Kuang Jung; Huang, Wu-song; Kwong, Ranee; Breyta, Greg; Doris, Bruce; Cheng, Kangguo; Luning, Scott; Vinet, Maud; Grenouillet, Laurent; Liu, Qing; Colburn, Matt; Wu, Chung-Hsi

    2013-03-01

    As an option to traditional positive or negative photoresist, hybrid resist has been developed to provide an alternative way to create small trench features, at the range of 20-60 nm, by generating with a single expose, with both positive and negative responses to TMAH developer in one resist layer. [1] Here we report the design and development of a series of frequency-doubling KrF hybrid resists for an Extremely Thin Silicon on Insulator (ETSOI) dual-isolation application for 20 nm node and beyond. The resist formulations were optimized in terms of photo-acid generators (PAGs), PAG loading level and polymers. The resulting KrF hybrid resists are compatible with conventional KrF lithography processes, including conventional illumination, binary masks and 0.26 N TMAH developer, to afford a spacewidth of 20-60 nm. The space CD can be controlled by means of formulation and process options, but is insensitive to expose dose and mask CD. On integrated wafers, the hybrid resists have demonstrated good lithography performance, including through-pitch CD uniformity, focus/expose process window, profile, LER and RIE behavior. This hybrid resist process has been used to fabricate initial development structures for high performance dual-isolation ETSOI devices.

  15. Pulse- and time-dependent observation of UV-laser-induced structures on polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesting, Wolfgang; Knittel, Dierk; Bahners, Thomas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation of highly absorbing polymers with a pulsed excimer laser can change the surface topography under certain conditions. Fibres made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyamide show a characteristic roll-like morphology after treatment with 193 or 248 nm laser irradiation, which promises interesting applications in industrial processing of textile fibres. For a systematic study of the influences of the various parameters monofilaments made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and poly(propylene) were irradiated in place in a microscope. This allowed the observation of the evolution of the structure shot by shot. Quantitative data were taken by use of an image analysing system. The study was done with various laser fluences, wavelengths and in dependence on mechanical stress (draw) on the sample. With increasing number of shots the morphology gets more coarse due to a sort of "combining" of the rolls showing a logarithmic dependence of the mean roll-distance on the number of pulses applied. Characteristically, the fibre decomposes into ellipsoidal pieces after a sufficient number of shots. The polyolefinic material cannot be modified directly with 193 or 248 nm laser radiation due to the low absorption coefficient for these wavelenghts. By using a 157 nm F 2 laser certain surface modifications were observed on fibres and films. The structures were similar to the effects previously found on poly(ethylene terephthalate).

  16. Ion-molecule processes in lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Three classes of molecular electronic transition lasers produced by hybrid pumping of high pressure rate gas mixtures are discussed. These are (1) rare gas dimer lasers (such as excited Ar2, Kr2, and Xe2) lasing in the VUV, (2) rare gas halide lasers or excimer lasers (such as KrF, ArF, and XeCl excimers) lasing in the UV, and (3) the charge transfer molecular ion laser (such as N2/+/) lasing in the visible range. Laser excitation methods and kinetic sequences are examined for these lasers.

  17. Laser-induced surface modification and metallization of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerichs, H.; Stricker, J.; Wesner, D. A.; Kreutz, E. W.

    1995-02-01

    Laser-induced surface modification of different polymers is presented as a suitable pretreatment of surfaces in a two-step metallization process. Materials such as polyamide (PA), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), acrylbutadienestyrene (ABS), styreneacrylnitrile (SAN), polybutadieneterephthalate (PBT), and polyoxymethylene (POM) were treated by excimer-laser radiation at 248 nm in air. The aim of this study is to investigate different processing regimes of surface modification and ablation to increase surface roughness. Therefore, the laser-processing variables fluence F, repetition rate v and pulse number N are varied and the ablation depth, optical penetration depth, absorption coefficient and ablation threshold are determined. The metallization of pretreated (laser, wet chemical and plasma etching) polymers is investigated for different surface morphologies. The used metallization processes were electroplating and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The adhesion of the deposited films is measured with scratch and tape test methods in order to determine the regimes of suitable surface modification for metallization.

  18. Observation of LPI Thresholds for the Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Charbonneau-Lefort, M.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.

    2008-11-01

    The Nike laser is being used to study thresholds for laser plasma instabilities (LPI) at intensities (10^15-10^16 W/cm^2) relevant to advanced implosion designs for direct drive inertial confinement fusion. The combination of short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1-2 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence available with this krypton-fluoride laser make these experiments unique among current facilities. This talk will present an overview of results with an emphasis on the two-plasmon decay instability (2φp). Measurements of x-rays and emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2 φo harmonics of the laser wavelength have been collected over a wide range of intensities for both solid and foam targets. Data indicate collective multiple-angle driven excitation compatible with previous observations using solid planar targets.

  19. Applications of the 308-nm excimer laser in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, A.; Kemeny, L.

    2006-05-01

    Excimer lasers contain a mixture of a noble inert gas and a halogen, which form excited dimers only in the activated state. High-energy current is used to produce these dimers, which have a very short lifetime, and after their fast dissociation they release the excitation energy through ultraviolet photons. The application of these lasers proved to be successful in medicine, including the field of ophthalmology, cardiology, angiology, dentistry, orthopaedics, and, in recent years, dermatology. For medical purposes, the 193-nm argon fluoride, the 248-nm krypton fluoride, the 351-nm xenon fluoride, and the 308-nm xenon chloride lasers are used. Recently, the 308-nm xenon chloride laser has gained much attention as a very effective treatment modality in dermatological disorders. It was successfully utilized in psoriasis; later, it proved to be useful in handling other lightsensitive skin disorders and even in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review summarizes the possible applications of this promising tool in dermatology.

  20. Sample temperature profile during the excimer laser annealing of silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caninenberg, M.; Verheyen, E.; Kiesler, D.; Stoib, B.; Brandt, M. S.; Benson, N.; Schmechel, R.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the heat diffusion equation we describe the temperature profile of a silicon nanoparticle thin film on silicon during excimer laser annealing using COMSOL Multiphysics. For this purpose system specific material parameters are determined such as the silicon nanoparticle melting point at 1683 K, the surface reflectivity at 248 nm of 20% and the nanoparticle thermal conductivity between 0.3 and 1.2 W/m K. To validate our model, the simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained by Raman spectroscopy, SEM microscopy and electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements (ECV). The experimental data are in good agreement with our theoretical findings and support the validity of the model.

  1. Laser microprocessing unit and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumitsu, Kenshi; Oie, Tomonori

    2000-11-01

    This is the report for compact laser micro processing unit excimer laser employed featuring a very fine process with high accuracy. This unit consists of objective lens, of which magnification is 10 to 80, used for both processing and observation. It makes possible high energy density resulting 0.5micrometers resolution at 248nm, accurate positioning and compact size. Applications 1) Removing upper metal layer of LSI in order to inspect pattern of the bottom layer. 2) Creating fine geometrical pattern on PET fiber cloth in order to apply new function such as better dyeing and adhesiveness. 3) Creating 100micrometers dia. Hole to artificial blood vessel made of polyurethane tube with 2mm inner dia. In order to have similar mechanical property to real blood vessel.

  2. Patterning of nanostructured thin films by structured light illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Fort, E.; Lacharme, J.P.; Ricolleau, C.

    2005-10-03

    Light-induced reshaping of silver nanostructured films near the percolation threshold are investigated using a KrF excimer laser emitting at 248 nm. Depending on the laser intensity and the number of pulses, striking effects are observed for which the irregular particles melt and transform into spherical shaped particles. We show that the laser-induced modifications can be spatially designed by irradiating through masks and gratings taking advantage of their respective diffractive properties. This permits an easy and well controlled way to produce a variety of submicron patterning. The induced patterns accurately coincide with the intensity variations of the illumination field.

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence detection strategies for sodium atoms and compounds in high-pressure combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J. R.; Wise, Michael L.; Smith, Gregory P.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of laser-induced fluorescence schemes were examined experimentally in atmospheric pressure flames to determine their use for sodium atom and salt detection in high-pressure, optically thick environments. Collisional energy transfer plays a large role in fluorescence detection. Optimum sensitivity, at the parts in 10 exp 9 level for a single laser pulse, was obtained with the excitation of the 4p-3s transition at 330 nm and the detection of the 3d-3p fluorescence at 818 nm. Fluorescence loss processes, such as ionization and amplified spontaneous emission, were examined. A new laser-induced atomization/laser-induced fluorescence detection technique was demonstrated for NaOH and NaCl. A 248-nm excimer laser photodissociates the salt molecules present in the seeded flames prior to atom detection by laser-induced fluorescence.

  4. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  5. UV-laser investigation of dielectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ettrich, K.; Blaschke, H.; Welsch, E.

    1996-12-31

    Utilizing thermal Mirage technique, UV laser damage resistivity studies on LaF{sub 3}/MgF{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}, and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer stacks have been performed at {lambda} = 248nm, {tau} = 20ns. Investigating these stacks by changing the number of (HL) pairs and the substrate material, optical and thermal coating properties were shown to be responsible for UV single-shot laser damage. Similarly, the damage threshold of selected samples is to be influenced by the deposition technique. Furthermore, multishot damage measurements on LaF{sub 3}/MgF{sub 2} high-reflecting multilayer coatings reveal the accumulation of laser energy in the predamage range.

  6. Soft X-Ray Optics by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    1996-01-01

    Mo/Si and C/Co multilayers for soft x-ray optics were designed for spectral regions of interest in possible applications. Fabrication was effected by Pulsed Laser Deposition using Nd:YAG (355 nm) or excimer (248 nm) lasers in order to evaluate the suitability of this technique. Results for Mo/Si structures were not considered satisfactory due mainly to problems with particulate production and target surface modification during Si ablation. These problems may be alleviated by a two-wavelength approach, using separate lasers for each target. Results for C/Co multilayers are much more encouraging, since indication of good layering was observed for extremely thin layers. We expect to continue investigating this possibility. In order to compete with traditional PVD techniques, it is necessary to achieve film coverage uniformity over large enough areas. It was shown that this is feasible, and novel means of achieving it were devised.

  7. Comparison study for sub-0.13-μm lithography between ArF and KrF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seok-Kyun; Kim, YoungSik; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Ham, Young-Mog; Baik, Ki-Ho

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we investigated the feasibility of printing sub-0.13 micrometers device patterns with ArF and KrF lithography by using experiment and simulation. To do this we evaluated various cell structures with different sizes from 0.26 micrometers to 0.20 micrometers pitch. In experiment 0.60NA ArF and 0.70NA KrF exposure tools, commercial and in house resists and bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) materials are used. To predict and compare with experimental data we also used our developed simulation tool HOST base don diffused aerial iamge model. We found that ArF lithography performance is a little bit better than KrF and therefore 0.70NA KrF lithography can be used up to 0.12 micrometers design rule device and 0.60NA ArF lithography can be used up to 0.11 micrometers . But to get more than 10 percent expose latitude, 0.13 micrometers with KrF and 0.12 micrometers with ArF are the minimum design rule size. However to obtain process margin we had to use extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) which results in large isolated- dense bias and poor linearity including isolated pattern. Using higher NA can reduce ID bias and mask error factor. For contact hole it is more effective to use KrF lithography because resist thermal flow process can be used to shrink C/H size. Our developed ArF resist and BARC shows good performance and we can reduce k1 value up to 0.34. Through this study we verified again that ArF lithography can be applied for sub-0.13 micrometers device through sub-0.10 micrometers with high contrast resist and 0.75NA exposure tool.

  8. Biomolecular papain thin films grown by matrix assisted and conventional pulsed laser deposition: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Sauthier, G.; Figueras, A.

    2009-12-01

    Biomolecular papain thin films were grown both by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques with the aid of an UV KrF∗ (λ =248 nm, τFWHM≅20 ns) excimer laser source. For the MAPLE experiments the targets submitted to laser radiation consisted on frozen composites obtained by dissolving the biomaterial powder in distilled water at 10 wt % concentration. Conventional pressed biomaterial powder targets were used in the PLD experiments. The surface morphology of the obtained thin films was studied by atomic force microscopy and their structure and composition were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The possible physical mechanisms implied in the ablation processes of the two techniques, under comparable experimental conditions were identified. The results showed that the growth mode, surface morphology as well as structure of the deposited biomaterial thin films are determined both by the incident laser fluence value as well as target preparation procedure.

  9. A study of laser-based removal of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, W; Kapadia, P; Thomas, T

    1996-06-01

    Complications are often produced with the removal of bone cement from the femoral cavity in the treatment of a failed hip prosthesis. Apart from being slow and difficult the conventional process runs the risk of producing damage to the femur. Ultrasonic techniques have been suggested to achieve these ends but removal of the cement by this approach is not entirely easy. The alternative laser-based approach would seem to have significant advantages over conventional techniques. The laser is capable of delivering energy to a specific region or surface under close control. The choice of laser is determined by its ability to ablate the cement and the ease with which it can be delivered to the base of the femur cavity. This paper examines several laser wavelengths: CO2 (10.6 microns), excimer (248 nm), Hol:YAG (2.12 microns), and presents polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) vaporization thresholds for each laser. PMID:10163354

  10. Practicing extension of 248-nm DUV optical lithography using trim-mask PSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, Michael E.; Cave, Nigel; Falch, Bradley J.; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Green, Kent G.; Lucas, Kevin D.; Roman, Bernard J.; Reich, Alfred J.; Sturtevant, John L.; Tian, Ruiqi; Russell, Drew R.; Karklin, Linard; Wang, Yao-Ting

    1999-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that semiconductor manufacturers must rise to the challenge of extending optical microlithography beyond what is forecast by the current SIA roadmap. Capabilities must be developed that allow the use of conventional exposure methods beyond their designed capabilities. This is driven in part by the desire to keep up with the predictions of Moore's law. Additional motivation for implementing optical extension methods is provided by the need for workable alternatives in the event that manufacturing capable post-optical lithography is delayed beyond 2003. Major programs are in place at semiconductor manufacturers, development organization, and EDA software providers to continue optical microlithography far past what were once thought to be recognized limits. This paper details efforts undertaken by Motorola to produce functional high density silicon devices with sub-eighth micron transistor gates using DUV microlithography. The preferred enhancement technique discussed here utilizes complementary or dual-exposure trim-mask PSM which incorporates a combined exposure of both Levenson hard shifter and binary trim masks.

  11. Dye laser studies using zig-zag optical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Klimek, D.E.; Mandl, A.E.; Willman, B. )

    1994-06-01

    The authors report a substantial advance in dye laser performance using a zig-zag optical cavity. This configuration drastically reduces the effects of intrapulse medium disturbances due to acoustics and thermal lensing on pulse duration, beam quality, and extraction efficiency. Laser outputs of up to 2 J were observed from Coumarin-498 dye pumped by a KrF excimer laser. The dye laser output faithfully replicates the flat-top KrF laser pump pulse over the entire 1.7-[mu]s pulse duration. An intrinsic laser photon conversion efficiency (Photons[sub in]/Photons[sub absorbed]) of 44% was measured. When unstable resonator optics were used, beam qualities of about 2 XDL were measured.

  12. Short Pulse Experimental Capability at the Nike Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Gardner, J.; Giuliani, J.; Karasik, M.; Kehne, D.; Mostovych, A.; Obenschain, S.; Velikovich, A.; Schmitt, A.; Serlin, V.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Metzler, N.; Smyth, Z.; Terrell, S.

    2004-11-01

    Recent simulations demonstrated high gain for direct drive pellets compressed by a laser pulse incorporating a short pulse prior to the main pulse. Theoretical work has also shown that a short prepulse can create a tailored density profile that reduces the initial instability growth due to laser imprinting. A new short pulse (0.35-0.75 ns FWHM)is being added to the Nike KrF laser system to facilitate hydrodynamic experiments with short prepulses. This capability has been incorporated into the initial stages of the laser system and the propagation of these pulses through the angularly multiplexed amplifiers is being studied. Measurements of pulse shape and energy will be compared to simulations using the KrF physics code Orestes for the next to last amplifier of the laser system, the 20 cm x 20 cm e-beam pumped laser cell. The effects of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) upon individual output pulses will be also discussed.

  13. Laser micromachining of chemically altered polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.

    1998-08-01

    During the last decade laser processing of polymers has become an important field of applied and fundamental research. One of the most promising proposals, to use laser ablation as dry etching technique in photolithography, has not yet become an industrial application. Many disadvantages of laser ablation, compared to conventional photolithography, are the result of the use of standard polymers. These polymers are designed for totally different applications, but are compared to the highly specialized photoresist. A new approach to laser polymer ablation will be described; the development of polymers, specially designed for high resolution laser ablation. These polymers have photolabile groups in the polymer backbone, which decompose upon laser irradiation or standard polymers are modified for ablation at a specific irradiation wavelength. The absorption maximum can be tailored for specific laser emissino lines, e.g. 351, 308 and 248 nm lines of excimer lasers. The authors show that with this approach many problems associated with the application of laser ablation for photolithography can be solved. The mechanism of ablation for these photopolymers is photochemical, whereas for most of the standard polymers this mechanism is photothermal. The photochemical decomposition mechanism results in high resolution ablation with no thermal damage at the edges of the etched structures. In addition there are no redeposited ablation products or surface modifications of the polymer after ablation.

  14. Novel routes toward sub-70-nm contact windows by using new KrF photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Koh, Cha-Won; Lee, Geunsu; Jung, Jae Chang; Shin, Ki-Soo

    2001-08-01

    To overcome C/H(contact holes) shrinkage limitation of Resist Flow Process (RFP), we investigated and analyzed the tendency of the shrink bias according to the baking temperature and other process factors. Based on this basic test, we found that the shrink bias for the baking temperature could be modeled on the simple linear function. And also we estimated new Hotplate to improve CD uniformity after the resist flow and evaluated newly developed photoresist (New Resist) for the stable C/H shrinkage. In this study, we could recognize that CD uniformity after the resist flow was very dependent on actual temperature uniformity of Hotplate. Actually New Hotplate, which was superior to normal Hotplate, showed good CD uniformity (16nm) at the strong brink bias(140nm). On the other hand, the C/H shrinkage of New Resist was more stable than those of normal KrF Resists and its C/H profiles could not be severely deformed at even high baking temperature to shrink Sub-70nm C/H from original C/H(200nm). Based on these results, the progressive Resist Flow Process in KrF lithography will be a very robust candidate at even high gigabit generation devices.

  15. Implantation of Organic Molecules into Biotissue by Pulsed Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masahiro; Ichinose, Nobuyuki; Kawanishi, Shunichi; Fukumura, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Zinc tetraphenyl porphyrin (ZnTPP) molecules were implanted into a piece of chicken skin by irradiation with KrF laser pulses. The study of the implanted ZnTPP at the skin surface using a fluorescence microscope indicated that the molecules are space-selectively introduced at the irradiated area.

  16. Research on radiation induced laser plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Rowe, M. J.; Carter, B. D.; Walters, R. A.; Cox, J. D.; Liang, R.; Roxey, T.; Zapata, L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of high power nuclear pumped lasers is discussed. The excitation mechanism of continuous wave (CW) HeNe nuclear pumped lasers is studied and a CO2 nuclear pumped laser is used to demonstrate the CW output in the order of watts. The assumption that high power densities are only achievable by volume fission fragment sources is used to identify laser gases which are compatible with UF6 by excited states lifetime measurements. The examination of Xe2, XeF, and KrF under nuclear irradiation to determine if they are good candidates for nuclear-pumped lasers is described.

  17. Soot particle disintegration and detection using two laserELFFS

    SciTech Connect

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-11-17

    A two laser technique is used to study laser-particle interactions and the disintegration of soot by high power UV light. Two separate 20 ns laser pulses irradiate combustion generated soot nanoparticles with 193 nm photons. The first laser pulse, from 0 to 14.7 J/cm{sup 2}, photofragments the soot particles and electronically excites the liberated carbon atoms. The second laser pulse, held constant at 13 J/cm{sup 2}, irradiates the remaining particle fragments and other products of the first laser pulse. The atomic carbon fluorescence at 248 nm produced by the first laser pulse increases linearly with laser fluence from 1 to 6 J/cm{sup 2}. At higher fluences, the signal from atomic carbon signal saturates. The carbon fluorescence from the second laser pulse decreases as the fluence from the first laser increases, ultimately approaching zero as first laser fluence approaches 10 J/cm{sup 2}, suggesting that the particles fully disintegrate at high laser fluences. We use an energy balance parameter, called the photon-atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding laser-particle interactions. These results help define the regimes where photofragmentation fluorescence methods quantitatively measure total soot concentrations.

  18. Updated LPI Thresholds for the Nike Laser*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Manka, C.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.

    2009-11-01

    Advanced implosion designs for direct drive inertial confinement fusion use high laser intensities (10^15-10^16 W/cm^2) to achieve gain (g>100) with a reduction in total laser energy (E<1 MJ). Krypton-fluoride lasers such as the Nike laser at NRL are an attractive choice due to their combination of short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1-2 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence but the potential threat from laser-plasma instabilities (LPI) needs to be assessed. The 2008 LPI campaign at Nike yielded threshold intensities above 10^15 W/cm^2 for the two-plasmon instability, a value higher than reported for 351 nm glass lasers. The experiments used a planar geometry, solid polystyrene targets, and a subset of beams (E<200 J) with a reduced focal spot (d<125 μm). The 2009 campaign extended the shot parameters to higher laser energies (E<1 kJ) and larger spot sizes (d<300 μm). Spectrally-resolved and time-resolved measurements of x-rays and emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2φo harmonics of the laser wavelength show threshold intensities consistent with the 2008 results. *Work supported by DoE/NNSA

  19. Laser interactions with embedded Ca metal nanoparticles in single crystal CaF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, L.P.; Schubert, B.E.; Petite, P.S.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2005-04-01

    Single crystal calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) is an important material for vacuum-ultraviolet optics. Nevertheless, prolonged exposure to energetic radiation can color the material by producing calcium metal nanoparticles. We compare the effectiveness of laser conditioning treatments at wavelengths ranging from the near infrared to the deep ultraviolet in removing this coloration. Treatments at 157, 532, and 1064 nm can significantly reduce the visible coloration due to nanoparticles. In contrast, irradiation at 248 nm has little effect at fluences below the damage threshold for the material employed in this work. We present evidence that the effect of laser irradiation on coloration is principally thermal and is largely confined to the first 50 ns after each laser pulse. We attribute the wavelength dependence of the bleaching process to the wavelength dependence associated with Mie absorption by metal nanoparticles. The consequences of these observations with regard to laser conditioning processes in bulk optical materials are discussed.

  20. Time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the study of excimer laser damage of chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, L.; Mihailescu, I.; Radu, S.; Gazdaru, D.

    2007-09-01

    The analysis of chromatin damage produced by a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, for doses of 0.3-3 MJ/m 2 was carried out by time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The chromatin was extracted from a normal and a tumoral tissue of Wistar rats. The decrease with laser dose of the relative contribution of the excited state lifetimes of ethidium bromide (EtBr) bounded to chromatin constitutes an evidence of the reduction of chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand structure. FRET was performed from dansyl chloride to acridine orange, both coupled to chromatin. The increase of the average distance between these ligands, under the action of laser radiation, reflects a loosening of the chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of tumor tissue chromatin is higher than that of a normal tissue. The determination of the chromatin structure modification in an excimer laser field can be of interest in laser therapy.

  1. Laser assisted works for pulsed ion sources: Plasma productions, diagnostics and related computations

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, K.; Watanabe, M.; Matsuno, S.; Kamiya, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hushiki, T.; Horioka, K.; Kawakita, Y.; Kuwahara, T.; Shioda, K.; Kanazawa, H.; Okuda, H. )

    1994-10-05

    Recent laser assisted works for pulsed ion beam drivers are described in this paper. The first one is a plasma production by a KrF laser light which may be applicable to an ion source. The second item is a transverse-mode-diagnostic of a discharge-pumped laser. The third one is a one-dimensional computation of the latter laser. [copyright][ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics] 1994

  2. Particle Generation by Pulsed Excimer Laser Ablation in Liquid: Hollow Structures and Laser-Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zijie

    2011-12-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of solid targets in liquid media is a powerful method to fabricate micro-/nanoparticles, which has attracted much interest in the past decade. It represents a combinatorial library of constituents and interactions, and one can explore disparate regions of parameter space with outcomes that are impossible to envision a priori. In this work, a pulsed excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm, pulse width 30 ns) has been used to ablate targets in liquid media with varying laser fluences, frequencies, ablation times and surfactants. It is observed that hollow particles could be fabricated by excimer laser ablation of Al, Pt, Zn, Mg, Ag, Si, TiO2, and Nb2O5 in water or aqueous solutions. The hollow particles, with sizes from tens of nanometers to micrometers, may have smooth and continuous shells or have morphologies demonstrating that they were assembled from nanoparticles. A new mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of these novel particle geometries. They were formed on laser-produced bubbles through bubble interface pinning by laser-produced solid species. Considering the bubble dynamics, thermodynamic and kinetic requirements have been discussed in the mechanism that can explain some phenomena associated with the formation of hollow particles, especially (1) larger particles are more likely to be hollow particles; (2) Mg and Al targets have stronger tendency to generate hollow particles; and (3) the 248 nm excimer laser is more beneficial to fabricate hollow particles in water than other lasers with longer wavelengths. The work has also demonstrated the possiblities to fabricate novel nanostructures through laser-induced reactions. Zn(OH)2/dodecyl sulfate flower-like nanostructures, AgCl cubes, and Ag2O cubes, pyramids, triangular plates, pentagonal rods and bars have been obtained via reactions between laser-produced species with water, electrolyes, or surfactant molecules. The underlying mechanisms of forming these structures have been

  3. Characterization and modeling of Bragg gratings written in polymer fiber for use as filters in the THz region.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shu Fan; Reekie, Laurence; Chan, Hau Ping; Chow, Yuk Tak; Chung, Po Sheun; Luk, Kwai Man

    2012-04-23

    We demonstrate fiber Bragg gratings written in polymer fiber for use in the THz window for the first time. A KrF excimer laser operating at 248 nm was used to inscribe notch-type gratings in single component Topas subwavelength fiber. A transmission loss at the centre wavelength of the grating of 60 dB is observed in short gratings containing only 192 notches. Experimental results and modeling are presented. The gratings are expected to find use in THz signal filtering and chemical or biosensing applications. PMID:22535048

  4. Synthesis of materials with infrared and ultraviolet lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses three divergent examples of synthesis of materials with lasers. The three techniques are: (1) infrared (CO/sub 2/) laser synthesis of silane (SiH/sub 4/) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/); (2) excimer (ArF) laser production of fine silicon powders from methyl- and chloro-substituted silanes; and, (3) excimer (KrF) laser production of fine metallic powders by laser ablation. The mechanism for each process is discussed along with some conclusions about the features of the laser radiation that enable each application. 19 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Laser-nanostructured Ag films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, S.J.; Carey, J.D.; Silva, S.R.P.

    2006-02-20

    Pulsed-laser (248 nm) irradiation of Ag thin films was employed to produce nanostructured Ag/SiO{sub 2} substrates. By tailoring the laser fluence, it was possible to controllably adjust the mean diameter of the resultant near-spherical Ag droplets. Thin films of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) were subsequently deposited onto the nanostructured substrates. Visible Raman measurements were performed on the ta-C films, where it was observed that the intensity of the Raman signal was increased by nearly two orders of magnitude, when compared with ta-C films grown on nonstructured substrates. The use of laser annealing as a method of preparing substrates, at low macroscopic temperatures, for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on subnanometer-thick films is discussed.

  6. Structural modifications in fused silica induced by ultraviolet fs laser filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zergioti, I.; Kyrkis, K. D.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Tzortzakis, S.

    2007-07-01

    It is shown that the tight focusing of short ultraviolet laser pulses (248 nm, 450 fs) in the bulk of high bandgap transparent solids (fused silica) can result in structural modifications in the material. These can vary from small changes of the refractive index to birefringence, cracks and voids. This restructuring of the medium is due to the high laser intensities attained, and the plasma that is generated through multi-photon processes. The restructuring comes in the form of a string, which is the result of the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in the medium as a self-trapped filament. We resume the conditions for the generation of the different types of modifications and comment on the temporal evolution and the role of the plasma strings at the trail of the light filaments.

  7. Sub-picosecond ultraviolet laser filamentation-induced bulk modifications in fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazoglou, D. G.; Zergioti, I.; Tzortzakis, S.; Sgouros, G.; Maravelias, G.; Christopoulos, S.; Fotakis, C.

    2005-07-01

    We present experiments with sub-picosecond ultraviolet laser pulses (248 nm, 450 fs) tightly focused in the bulk of fused-silica samples. The high laser intensities attained generate plasma through multi-photon absorption and electron avalanche processes in the bulk of the material. Depending on the initial experimental conditions three distinct types of structural changes in the material are observed, from small changes of the refractive index to birefringence, and even cracks and voids. We also observe the creation of micro-channels, up to 115 μm in length, inside the material due to self-guiding and filamentation of the laser pulses in the transparent material. The selective change of the refractive index is a promising method for the fabrication of photonic structures such as waveguides and three-dimensional integrated optical devices.

  8. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-01-15

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-{alpha}) and 2.88 nm (He-{alpha}) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} radiation.

  9. Excimer laser ablation of thick SiOx-films: Etch rate measurements and simulation of the ablation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihlemann, J.; Meinertz, J.; Danev, G.

    2012-08-01

    Excimer laser ablation of 4.5 μm thick SiOx-films with x ≈ 1 is investigated at 193 nm, 248 nm, and 308 nm. Strong absorption enables precisely tunable removal depths. The ablation rates correlate with laser penetration depths calculated from low level absorption coefficients. The experimental ablation thresholds are in agreement with numerical simulations on the basis of linear absorption and one-dimensional heat flow. This behaviour is similar to that of strongly UV-absorbing polymers, leading to well controllable micro machining prospects. After laser processing, SiOx can be converted to SiO2, opening a route to laser based fabrication of micro optical components.

  10. Bandgap engineering of InGaAsP/InP laser structure by photo-absorption-induced point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleem, Mohammad; Nazir, Sajid; Saqib, Nazar Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Integration of photonic components on the same photonic wafer permits future optical communication systems to be dense and advanced performance. This enables very fast information handling between photonic active components interconnected through passive optical low loss channels. We demonstrate the UV-Laser based Quantum Well Intermixing (QWI) procedure to engineer the band-gap of compressively strained InGaAsP/InP Quantum Well (QW) laser material. We achieved around 135nm of blue-shift by simply applying excimer laser (λ= 248nm). The under observation laser processed material also exhibits higher photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Encouraging experimental results indicate that this simple technique has the potential to produce photonic integrated devices and circuits.

  11. Fluid mechanics of fusion lasers. Final report, September 11, 1978-June 5, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Shwartz, J; Kulkarny, V A; Ausherman, D A; Legner, H H; Sturtevant, B

    1980-01-01

    Flow loop components required to operate continuous-flow, repetitively-pulsed CO/sub 2/ and KrF laser drivers for ICF were identified and their performance requirements were specified. It was found that the laser flow loops can have a major effect on the laser beam quality and overall efficiency. The pressure wave suppressor was identified as the most critical flow loop component. The performance of vented side-wall suppressors was evaluated both analytically and experimentally and found capable of meeting the performance requirements of the CO/sub 2/ and KrF fusion lasers. All other laser flow loop components are essentially similar to those used in conventional, low speed wind tunnels and are therefore well characterized and can be readily incorporated into fusion laser flow systems designs.

  12. Laser direct writing of GaN-based light-emitting diodes—The suitable laser source for mesa definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Rüdiger; Goßler, Christian; Kunzer, Michael; Köhler, Klaus; Pletschen, Wilfried; Brunne, Jens; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Wagner, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    The development of a process chain allowing for rapid prototyping of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is presented, which does not rely on photolithography. Structuring of the epitaxial layers is realized by direct-writing laser ablation, allowing a flexible chip layout that can be changed rapidly and at low cost. Besides contact metallization and trench formation, mesa definition is the most critical processing step. For mesa formation and to expose the n-GaN contact layer, the epitaxial grown p-GaN layer together with the active region has to be removed completely without forming cracks or crystal defects in the n-GaN layer or the mesa sidewalls, which would cause sidewall leakage currents. In developing an appropriate laser ablation process that meets these requirements, three different laser systems have been employed in a comparative study. These are a frequency-tripled picosecond (ps) Nd:YVO4 laser emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm and a pulse length of 10 ps and two 20 nanosecond (ns) pulse length laser systems, operating at a wavelength of 248 nm (Excimer laser) and 355 nm (frequency-tripled Nd:YVO4 laser), respectively. First, the laser sources are compared regarding the morphological properties of the resulting laser trenches. Due to band filling effects resulting in optical bleaching of the GaN material when irradiating with ps-laser pulses at 355 nm, the resulting ablation process suffers from cracking. Laser ablation using ns-pulses at both 355 nm and 248 nm leads to crack-free material removal up to a well-defined depth. To keep reverse-bias leakage currents at a level comparable to that of conventional dry-etched mesa-LEDs, subsequent wet etching is essential to remove residues in the mesa-trenches irrespective of the laser source used. Besides wet etching, an additional annealing step has to be applied to mesa-trenches fabricated using ns- and ps-laser pulses at a wavelength of 355 nm. Due to the larger penetration depth at 355 nm, defects

  13. Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xinxing Thelander, Erik; Lorenz, Pierre; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-10-07

    Phase transformations between amorphous and crystalline states induced by irradiation of pulsed laser deposition grown GeTe thin films with nanosecond laser pulses at 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns are studied. Structural and optical properties of the Ge-Te phase-change films were studied by X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity measurements as a function of the number of laser pulses between 0 and 30 pulses and of the laser fluence up to 195 mJ/cm². A reversible phase transition by using pulse numbers ≥ 5 at a fluence above the threshold fluence between 11 and 14 mJ/cm² for crystallization and single pulses at a fluence between 162 and 182 mJ/cm² for amorphization could be proved. For laser fluences from 36 up to 130 mJ/cm², a high optical contrast of 14.7% between the amorphous and crystalline state is measured. A simple model is used that allows the discussion on the distribution of temperature in dependency on the laser fluence.

  14. The Nike Laser Facility and its Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serlin, V.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Karasik, M.; Kehne, D. M.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Weaver, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Nike laser is a 56-beam krypton fluoride (KrF) system that provides 3 to 4 kJ of laser energy on target. The laser uses induced spatial incoherence to achieve highly uniform focal distributions. 44 beams are overlapped onto target with peak intensities up to 1016 W/cm2. The effective time-averaged illumination nonuniformity is < 0 . 2 %. Nike produces highly uniform ablation pressures on target allowing well-controlled experiments at pressures up to 20 Mbar. The other 12 laser beams are used to generate diagnostic x-rays radiographing the primary laser-illuminated target. The facility includes a front end that generates the desired temporal and spatial laser profiles, two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers, a computer-controlled optical system, and a vacuum target chamber for experiments. Nike is used to study the physics and technology issues of direct-drive laser fusion, such as, hydrodynamic and laser-plasma instabilities, studies of the response of materials to extreme pressures, and generation of X rays from laser-heated targets. Nike features a computer-controlled data acquisition system, high-speed, high-resolution x-ray and visible imaging systems, x-ray and visible spectrometers, and cryogenic target capability. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  15. Laser damage and ablation of differently prepared CaF2(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sils, J.; Reichling, M.; Matthias, E.; Johansen, H.

    1999-12-01

    Ablation thresholds and damage behavior of cleaved and polished CaF2(111) surfaces produced by single shot irradiation with 248 nm/14 ns laser pulses have been investigated using the photoacoustic mirage technique and scanning electron microscopy. The standard polishing yields an ablation threshold of typically 20 J/cm2. When surfaces are polished chemo-mechanically the threshold is raised to 43 J/cm2. Polishing by diamond turning leads to intermediate values around 30 J/cm2. Cleaved surfaces possess no well-defined damage threshold. The damage topography of conventionally polished surfaces shows ablation of flakes across the laser heated area with cracks along the cleavage planes. In the case of chemo-mechanical polishing only a few cracks appear. Diamond turned surfaces show small optical absorption, but cracks and ablation of tiles. The origin of such different damage behavior is discussed.

  16. Below band-gap laser ablation of diamond for transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Foote, M. C.; Vasquez, R. P.; Fortier, E. P.; Posthill, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    A 248 nm excimer laser was used to thin naturally occurring type 1a diamond substrates at normal and glancing (22 deg) incidence. Perforation of a 250-micron-thick substrate was achieved in about 15 min at normal incidence. While the substrate thinned at glancing incidence was found to have large electron-transparent areas, that thinned at normal incidence required additional argon-ion milling to achieve electron transparency. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the back surface of the diamond failed to detect any graphite or glassy carbon, confirming that damage due to laser ablation occurs only at the incident surface. Samples prepared using this technique imaged in the transmission electron microscope were observed to have retained the nitrogen platelets characteristic of such type 1a diamonds.

  17. Review of structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, E.; Lauth, H.; Weibbrodt, P.

    1996-12-31

    The laser damage thresholds (LDT) of optical coatings lie, as a rule, markedly below those of the respective bulk materials. This is due to diverse specific real structure properties with regard to composition, crystallography, microstructure and the physico-chemical structure of the interfaces. These properties depend in a highly complex and sensitive way on the substrate treatment, coating techniques and deposition conditions. With evaporated and sputtered oxide coatings as example, some correlations between structural thin film properties (e.g. crystallography, microstructure, anisotropy, chemical composition, defects) and the ultraviolet (248 nm) or near infrared (1064 nm) laser damage thresholds are discussed with concern to a further increase of the damage resistance. It is evident from data that an approach to the problem requires complex investigations of the technology-structure-properties relationships.

  18. Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süske, Erik; Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich; Panchenko, Elena; Junkers, Thomas; Egorov, Mark; Buback, Michael; Kijewski, Harald

    2005-03-01

    The chemical composition, amount of cross-linking and its influence on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a wavelength of 248nm under ultrahigh vacuum were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation experiments. The films consist of two components, one fraction with a molecular weight well below that of the target material and a second fraction, which is cross-linked. Compared to bulk material, the Young's modulus of the film is increased. The amount of cross-linking in the film can be tuned by the applied laser fluence leading to changes of the mechanical properties.

  19. Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Sueske, Erik; Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich; Panchenko, Elena; Junkers, Thomas; Egorov, Mark; Buback, Michael; Kijewski, Harald

    2005-03-15

    The chemical composition, amount of cross-linking and its influence on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a wavelength of 248 nm under ultrahigh vacuum were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation experiments. The films consist of two components, one fraction with a molecular weight well below that of the target material and a second fraction, which is cross-linked. Compared to bulk material, the Young's modulus of the film is increased. The amount of cross-linking in the film can be tuned by the applied laser fluence leading to changes of the mechanical properties.

  20. Improving copper plating adhesion on glass using laser machining techniques and areal surface texture parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Baofeng; Petzing, Jon; Webb, Patrick; Leach, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Glass is a promising substitute substrate material being evaluated for electronic packaging technology. Improving the electroless copper plated layer adhesion of the glass is one of the most important considerations for development of the technology. An excimer laser (248 nm) was used for structured texturing of glass surfaces (to improve adhesion) by changing mask dimensions, laser operating parameters and overlapping pitch spacing, and therefore producing a range of micro-scale features. Electroless plated copper adhesion strength was assessed using quantitative scratch testing, demonstrating that micro-patterned structures can significantly improve copper/glass adhesion. New ISO 25178 Part 2 areal surface texture parameters were used to characterise the surface roughness of ablated glass surfaces, and correlated to the scratch testing results. Highly correlated parameters were identified that could be used as predictive surface design tools, directly linking surface topography to adhesion performance, without the need for destructive adhesion quantification via scratch testing.

  1. Maximization of process window for low-k1 spacing using KrF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Shih-Chi; Kuo, Ching-Sen; Shiu, Feng-Jia; Chen, Jieh-Jang; Tsia, Chia-Shiung; Ho, Chia-Tong; Wang, Chung

    2003-06-01

    The spaces between floating-gate poly-silicon are critical for the electrical properties of advanced non-volatile memory (NVM). However, the patterning of low-k1 semi-dense spaces in NVM cells is more challenging than the patterning of dense lines in DRAM cells as the former is of lower normalized image log slope (NILS) and optical contrast. Many experiments, including various NA/σ trials, binary intensity or attenuated phase-shift masks (AttPSM), application of various sizes of sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF), or even negative-type photoresist (N-PR) by clear-field patterning, are tested and compared for the 140nm spaces with L:S ratio of 3:1 using KrF lithography. Combined with aerial image simulations and a process window analyzer, the optimal process condition was found. The SRAF functions to mimic the environment of dense pattern and thereby extends the process latitude of the semi-dense spaces. But it damages the image pattern if the side-lobe intensity approaches the intensity threshold. The maximum allowable SRAF depends on mask type and field used. Generally speaking, the SRAF should be smaller in bright-field exposure using the negative-type photoresist (N-PR) than in dark-field exposure using the positive-type photoresist (P-PR) application. The N-PR, despite its intrinsic poorer pattern profile and larger line-edge-roughness as contributed from photoresist effect, was found to surpass the P-PR in process window. A trade-off among process window, mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), pattern profile and mask cost is unavoidable to the selection of mask type or mask bias, and is considered in this paper in the last.

  2. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with tempera paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, Solenne; Oujja, Mohamed; Moreno, Pablo; Méndez, Cruz; García, Ana; Domingo, Concepción; Castillejo, Marta

    2008-12-01

    For the implementation of femtosecond (fs) laser cleaning methodologies of light-sensitive substrates as those encountered in artistic paintings, the interaction between fs laser pulses and painting components has to be well characterized. In this work, the modifications induced by fs laser irradiation of paints are examined in unvarnished aged model temperas. Irradiation at fluences below or above the ablation thresholds by 120 fs pulses at 795 nm from a Ti:Sapphire laser of unpigmented and traditional artist's pigment temperas (cinnabar and chrome yellow) is shown to result in various degrees of discolouration and changes of the laser-induced fluorescence signal. Fourier transform FT-Raman (at 1064 nm) and micro-Raman (at 785 nm) spectroscopic measurements were carried out to assess the changes induced. Noticeable modifications of the Raman bands of the pigments are absent while build-up of extra bands of amorphous carbon (indicative of carbonization or charring) does not take place, in contrast with previous observations upon irradiation with 248 nm, 25 ns pulses. It is concluded that IR fs irradiation provides a high degree of control over the induced modifications, a feature of interest in the design of new laser restoration schemes.

  4. Studies of bandwidth dependence of laser plasma instabilities driven by the Nike laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J.; Kehne, D.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    2012-10-01

    Experiments at the Nike laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory are exploring the influence of laser bandwidth on laser plasma instabilities (LPI) driven by a deep ultraviolet pump (248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). In early ISI studies with longer wavelength Nd:glass lasers (1054 nm and 527 nm),footnotetextObenschain, PRL 62(1989);Mostovych, PRL 62(1987);Peyser, Phys. Fluids B 3(1991). stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the two plasmon decay instability were reduced when wide bandwidth ISI (δν/ν˜0.03-0.19%) pulses irradiated targets at moderate to high intensities (10^14-10^15 W/cm^2). The current studies will compare the emission signatures of LPI from planar CH targets during Nike operation at large bandwidth (δν˜1THz) to observations for narrower bandwidth operation (δν˜0.1-0.3THz). These studies will help clarify the relative importance of the short wavelength and wide bandwidth to the increased LPI intensity thresholds observed at Nike. New pulse shapes are being used to generate plasmas with larger electron density scale-lengths that are closer to conditions during pellet implosions for direct drive inertial confinement fusion.

  5. Ultraviolet laser quantum well intermixing based prototyping of bandgap tuned heterostructures for the fabrication of superluminescent diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, Romain; Moumanis, Khalid; Aimez, Vincent; Dubowski, Jan J.

    2016-04-01

    The ultraviolet laser induced quantum well intermixing process has been investigated for prototyping of multiple bandgap quantum well (QW) wafers designed for the fabrication of superluminescent diodes (SLDs). The process takes advantage of a krypton fluoride excimer laser (λ=248 nm) that by irradiating an InP layer capping GaInAs/GaInAsP QW heterostructure leads to the modification of its surface chemical composition and formation of point defects. A subsequent rapid thermal annealing step results in the selective area intermixing of the investigated heterostructures achieving a high quality bandgap tuned material for the fabrication of broad spectrum SLDs. The devices made from a 3-bandgap material are characterized by ~100 nm wide emission spectra with relatively flat profiles and emission exceeding 1 mW.

  6. T-v energy transfer and chemical reactions of laser-produced hot H and D atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cousins, L.M.; Leone, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Laser photolysis of various molecular precursors provides a means to generate translationally fast H and D atoms with laboratory energies in the range of 1 - 3 eV. Because of the large disparity in the mass of the H atom compared to the mass of the other photolysis fragment, almost all of the excess energy of the photon is deposited into the kinetic energy of the light H atom. From conservation of energy and momentum, the energy of the H atom may be calculated almost exactly. With typical precursors such as HI, HBr, HC1, and H/sub 2/S, and excimer laser wavelengths at 193 and 248 nm, the widths of the H atom kinetic energy distributions are small compared to the total energies, providing a rather precise collision energy.

  7. Short-pulse laser-produced plasma from C60 molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Wuelker, Cornelius; Theobald, Wolfgang; Ouw, Donald; Schaefer, Fritz P.; Chichkov, Boris N.

    1995-05-01

    The first experimental observations of a plasma produced in a vapor of C60 molecules with a high-intensity subpicosecond KrF laser (6x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}) are reported. It differs from a plasma created in an ordinary carbon preplasma by reaching much higher ionization stages under the same experimental conditions. This remarkable property of C60 molecules (and other clusters) opens new prospects for short-pulse driven X-ray lasers.

  8. Surface treatments by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, A. L.; Benzerga, R.; Basillais, Armelle; Georges, Cecile; Fariaut, Francois; Semmar, Nadjib; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal

    2003-07-01

    Laser treatments of various metals are studying depending on the laser wavelength, pulse time duration and shape, and fluence (laser/metal interaction regime). Low fluence excimer UV laser melting process of gold layer is shown to improve the corrosion resistance of multilayer (Au/Ni/Cu alloy) electrical contacts. For this application the homogenity of the laser beam as well as the initial Cu substrate roughness are found to be limiting parameters of the process. Carburization of Al alloy, performed in C3H6 atmosphere with a KrF laser induces the incorporation of carbon atoms over about 4 μm depth. The crystalline Al4C3 synthesized at the surface leads to a strengthening of the light Al alloy, which is of great interest for application in car industry. The study shows that diffusion of C atom in the target is possible because of a plasma presence on the surface which supports the molten bath life time and induces dissociation of the ambient gas. In the last example of laser metal surface treatment presented in that paper, a commonly used steel is treated in air with different lasers at a fluence above the plasma formation threshold. It is seen that the machining oils covering the surface before the treatment can be efficiently removed and that new compounds (nitride, carbide and oxides) are formed at the surface.

  9. Microlens Array Fabricated by Excimer Laser Micromachining with Gray-tone Photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Chung-Hao; Chien, Yeh-En; Chiu, Yi; Shieh, Han-Ping D.

    2003-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a refractive microlens array by using 248 nm excimer laser micromachining with coded gray-tone mask photolithography. With pre-corrections to the nonlinear exposure process, the maximum deviation from the designed shape was below 5%. The fabricated hemispherical lens of 30 μm radius was used as a solid immersion lens (SIL) and combined with a 0.54 numerical aperture (NA) objective to achieve a 0.87 effective NA through the knife-edge scanning test. The experimental results agreed with those of the simulation. Unlike the methods such as the thermal melting process, this one-step optical exposure method with a coded mask provides a relatively fast and cost-effective way to realize a microlens array in optical data storage, information processing, and optical interconnection applications.

  10. Influence of pulse width on ultraviolet laser ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Braren, Bodil

    1988-10-01

    The etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using pulses of 248 nm laser radiation which had a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 40-100 ns is reported. These pulses were created by combining two identical pulses, each of 40 ns FWHM, with a set time delay. The etch depth/pulse is sensitive to the pulse width and, therefore, the power density in this polymer. It can be explained by the changes in absorptivity during a pulse that have been reported by G. M. Davis and M. C. Gower [J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2090 (1987)]. The shape of the pulse was also found to influence the etch depth/pulse. The etching of polyimide by these extended pulses shows trends that are opposite to those observed in poly(methyl methacrylate). In this instance, the shielding of the latter portion of the incoming pulse by the products that are ablated by the front portion is probably a serious effect.

  11. Laser-induced surface modification and metallization of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerichs, Hartmut; Wesner, David A.; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang

    1995-04-01

    Laser-induced surface modification of various polymers is presented as a suitable pretreatment of surfaces in a two-step metallization process. Materials such as polyamide (PA), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), acrylbutadienestyrene (ABS), styreneacrylnitril (SAN), polybutadieneterphtalate (PBT), and polyoxymethylen (POM) were treated by excimer laser radiation ((lambda) equals 248 nm) in air. The aim of this study is to investigate different processing regimes of surface modification. Therefore the laser processing variables fluence F, repetition rate v and pulse number N are varied and the absorption coefficient, optical penetration depth, ablation depth and ablation threshold are determined. The surface morphology and surface roughness are studied by optical surface profilometry and secondary electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of laser treatment on chemical composition of modified and ablated surfaces is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Depending on the processing parameters and materials properties different microstructures and values of surface roughness are generated on the micrometer length scale. Pretreatment for the subsequent metallization is performed with laser radiation, wet chemical and plasma etching. The metallization of polymers is investigated for different surface morphologies. The used metallization processes are electroplating and physical vapor deposition (PVD). Adhesion of the deposited films, measured with scratch and tape test methods, is used as a criterion for determining regimes of suitable surface modification for subsequent metallization.

  12. Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on laser-doped silicon with different surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Joon; Franklin, Evan; Fell, Andreas; Ernst, Marco; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy (μ-PLS) is applied to investigate shallow layers of laser-processed silicon for solar cell applications. Micron-scale measurement (with spatial resolution down to 1 μm) enables investigation of the fundamental impact of laser processing on the electronic properties of silicon as a function of position within the laser-processed region, and in particular at specific positions such as at the boundary/edge of processed and unprocessed regions. Low-temperature μ-PLS enables qualitative analysis of laser-processed regions by identifying PLS signals corresponding to both laser-induced doping and laser-induced damage. We show that the position of particular luminescence peaks can be attributed to band-gap narrowing corresponding to different levels of subsurface laser doping, which is achieved via multiple 248 nm nanosecond excimer laser pulses with fluences in the range 1.5-4 J/cm2 and using commercially available boron-rich spin-on-dopant precursor films. We demonstrate that characteristic defect PL spectra can be observed subsequent to laser doping, providing evidence of laser-induced crystal damage. The impact of laser parameters such as fluence and number of repeat pulses on laser-induced damage is also analyzed by observing the relative level of defect PL spectra and absolute luminescence intensity. Luminescence owing to laser-induced damage is observed to be considerably larger at the boundaries of laser-doped regions than at the centers, highlighting the significant role of the edges of laser-doped region on laser doping quality. Furthermore, by comparing the damage signal observed after laser processing of two different substrate surface conditions (chemically-mechanically polished and tetramethylammonium hydroxide etched), we show that wafer preparation can be an important factor impacting the quality of laser-processed silicon and solar cells.

  13. Periodic structure formation and surface morphology evolution of glassy carbon surfaces applying 35-fs-200-ps laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csontos, J.; Toth, Z.; Pápa, Z.; Budai, J.; Kiss, B.; Börzsönyi, A.; Füle, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this work laser-induced periodic structures with lateral dimensions smaller than the central wavelength of the laser were studied on glassy carbon as a function of laser pulse duration. To generate diverse pulse durations titanium-sapphire (Ti:S) laser (center wavelength 800 nm, pulse durations: 35 fs-200 ps) and a dye-KrF excimer laser system (248 nm, pulse durations: 280 fs, 2.1 ps) were used. In the case of Ti:S laser treatment comparing the central part of the laser-treated areas a striking difference is observed between the femtoseconds and picoseconds treatments. Ripple structure generated with short pulse durations can be characterized with periodic length significantly smaller than the laser wavelength (between 120 and 165 nm). At higher pulse durations the structure has a higher periodic length (between 780 and 800 nm), which is comparable to the wavelength. In case of the excimer laser treatment the different pulse durations produced similar surface structures with different periodic length and different orientation. One of the structures was parallel with the polarization of the laser light and has a higher periodic length (~335 nm), and the other was perpendicular with smaller periodic length (~78-80 nm). The possible mechanisms of structure formation will be outlined and discussed in the frame of our experimental results.

  14. Time-resolved diagnostics of excimer laser-generated ablation plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Characteristics of laser plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films are examined with four in situ diagnostic techniques: Optical emission spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, ion probe studies, and gated ICCD (intensified charge-coupled-device array) fast photography. These four techniques are complementary and permit simultaneous views of the transport of ions, excited states, ground state neutrals and ions, and hot particulates following KrF laser ablation of YBCO, BN, graphite and Si in vacuum and background gases. The implementation and advantages of the four techniques are first described in order to introduce the key features of laser plasmas for pulsed laser deposition. Aspects of the interaction of the ablation plume with background gases (i.e., thermalization, attenuation, shock formation) and the collision of the plasma plume with the substrate heater are then summarized. The techniques of fast ICCD photography and gated photon counting are then applied to investigate the temperature, velocity, and spatial distribution of hot particles generated during KrF ablation of YBCO, BN, Si and graphite. Finally, key features of fast imaging of the laser ablation of graphite into high pressure rare gases are presented in order to elucidate internal reflected shocks within the plume, redeposition of material on a surface, and formation of hot nanoparticles within the plume.

  15. IR laser ablation of doped poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, S.; Oujja, M.; Rebollar, E.; Walczak, M.; Díaz, L.; Santos, M.; Castillejo, M.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the TEA CO 2 laser ablation of films of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, with average MW 2.5, 120 and 996 kDa doped with photosensitive compounds iodo-naphthalene (NapI) and iodo-phenanthrene (PhenI) by examining the induced morphological and physicochemical modifications. The films casted on CaF 2 substrates were irradiated with a pulsed CO 2 laser (10P(20) line at 10.59 μm) in resonance with vibrational modes of PMMA and of the dopants at fluences up to 6 J/cm 2. Laser induced fluorescence probing of photoproducts in a pump and probe configuration is carried out at 266 nm. Formation of naphthalene (NapH) and phenanthrene (PhenH) is observed in NapI and PhenI doped PMMA, respectively, with relatively higher yields in high MW polymer, in similarity with results obtained previously upon irradiation in the UV at 248 nm. Above threshold, formation of photoproducts is nearly complete after 200 ms. As established via optical microscopy, bubbles are formed in the irradiated areas with sizes that depend on polymer MW and filaments are observed to be ejected out of the irradiated volume in the samples made with high MW polymer. The implications of these results for the mechanisms of polymer IR laser ablation are discussed and compared with UV range studies.

  16. An exceptionally simple method of preparation of biradicals. 2. Low-temperature fluorescence spectra and ambient temperature laser-induced fluorescence spectra of 1,3-, 1,6-, 2,6-, and 2,7-naphthoquinodimethane

    SciTech Connect

    Biewer, M.C.; Biehn, C.R.; Platz, M.S. ); Despres, A.; Migirdicyan, E. )

    1991-01-16

    1,3-, 1,6-, 2,6-, and 2,7-naphthoquinodimethane have been obtained by photolysis (254 nm) of bis(chloromethyl)naphthalenes in glassy media at 77 K or in solution at ambient temperature by KrF (249 nm) laser flash photolysis. These species are detected and characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  17. Development and diagnostics of revised ion beam analyzer, ion or laser produced plasmas and X-ray pre-ionizer for gas lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, K.; Watanabe, M.; Kamiya, T.; Nishigori, K.; Funatsu, M.; Ido, D.; Ebine, T.; Okayama, H.; Sunami, H.; Wu, C.; Adachi, T.; Hotta, E.; Hattori, T.; Yasuike, K.; Nakai, S.; Miyamoto, S.

    1997-04-15

    A CCD element was tested as an end plate of a Thomson parabola analyzer. This element was directly irradiated by ion beams to produce electric signals associated with the beams. With a pin-hole camera, we also tried to measure the divergence angle of ion beams. Coated thin layers of ion source materials on a quartz plate were back-lighted by an e-beam pumped KrF laser, and the produced plasmas were observed to supply advanced source plasmas for pulsed ion diodes. We built a cryogenic target which was cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the ice-covered target was irradiated by proton beams to measure the concerned ablation processes. Fundamental characteristics of an X-ray source with wire-initiated discharge plasmas for pre-ionization of gas mixtures of our former discharge-pumped KrF laser in place of UV pre-ionization were also investigated.

  18. Beyond k1=0.25 lithography: 70-nm L/S patterning using KrF scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Takeaki; Levenson, Marc D.; Liu, Wei; He, Jim; Yeh, Wendy; Ahn, Sang; Oga, Toshihiro; Shen, Meihua; M'saad, Hichem

    2003-12-01

    The extendibility of optical lithography using KrF and ArF exposure tools is still being investigated, even, being demanded strongly now, due to the unforeseen issues, high cost, and general difficulty of NGLs - including F2 and immersion lithography. In spite of these challenges Moore's Law requires continued shrinks and the ITRS roadmap still keeps its aggressive timetable. In order to follow the ITRS roadmap, the resolution must keep improving by increasing the lens NA for optical exposure tools. However, the conventional limit of optical resolution (kpitch=0.5) is very close for the current technologies, perhaps limiting progress unless NGL becomes available quickly. Therefore we need to find a way to overcome this seemingly fundamental limit of optical resolution. In this paper, we propose two practical two-mask /double-exposure schemes for doubling resolution in future lithography. One method uses a Si-containing bi-layer resist, and the other method uses Applied Materials' APF (a removable hard mask). The basic ideas of both methods are similar: The first exposure forms 1:3 ratio L/S patterns in one resist/hard mask layer, then the second exposure images another 1:3 ratio L/S pattern in-between the two lines (or two spaces) formed by the first exposure. The combination of these two exposures can form, in theory, kpitch=0.25 patterns. In this paper, we will demonstrate 70nm L/S pattern (140nm pitch) or smaller by using a NA0.68 KrF Scanner and a strong-RET reticle, which corresponds to kpitch = 0.38 (k1=0.19). We will also investigate the critical alignment and CD control issues for these two-mask/dual-exposure schemes.

  19. Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields have been measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 + or - 2 percent and it falls off to 53.4 + or - 2 percent and 44.0 + or - 4 percent at 284 and 248 nm, respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I(asterisk) quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I(asterisk) yields reported here. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I(asterisk) quantum yield results.

  20. Effect of molecular weight on the physicochemical modifications induced in the UV laser ablation of doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollar, E.; Bounos, G.; Oujja, M.; Georgiou, S.; Castillejo, M.

    2007-04-01

    This work investigates the effect of polymer molecular weight MW on the UV ablation of iodo-naphthalene- and iodo-phenanthrene-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA, and polystyrene PS films following irradiation at 248 nm. For irradiation at weakly absorbed wavelengths, the ablation threshold increases with increasing MW. However, at strongly absorbed wavelengths, the difference in the ablation thresholds is much smaller, or minimal. In parallel, bubble formation due to accumulation of gas produced by polymer and dopant decomposition differs depending on MW. For highly absorbing PS, the differences of behaviour show a less dramatic dependence on MW. These results are explained within the framework of the bulk photothermal model, according to which ejection requires that a critical number of bonds is broken. In all, they are of direct importance for the optimisation of laser processing schemes and applications and provide the first indication of explosive boiling in UV ablation of polymers.

  1. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Tian Long; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin; Zhong, Xiang Li

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser-material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 0.087 J/cm2) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 1.576 J/cm2), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α-1 = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α-1 = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the Cdbnd C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas Cdbnd C bond is partially eliminated through the femtosecond laser treatment due to the difference in photon energy of the two laser beams. A reduction in the Cdbnd C bond through the chain scission process creates free radical carbons which then form crosslinks with each other or react with oxygen, nitrogen and water in air producing oxygen-rich (Csbnd O and Cdbnd O bond) and nitrogen-rich (Csbnd N) functional groups.

  2. Predictions and Observations of Two-Plasmon Decay on the NIKE Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Lee; Weaver, James; Oh, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.; Velikovich, A.

    2011-10-01

    NIKE is a Krf laser system at the Naval Research Laboratory used to explore hydrodynamic stability, equation of state, and other physics problems arising in IFE research. The short wavelength and large bandwidth of the NIKE laser is predicted to raise the threshold of parametric instabilities such as two-plasmon decay (TPD). We report on simulations performed using the FAST3d radiation hydrocode to design TPD experiments that have allowed us to explore the validity of simple threshold formulas and demonstrate the advantages of the KrF wavelength in suppressing LPI. We consider proposed high-gain shock ignition designs and show, through analytic estimates and simulations, that we can explore the relevant scalelength-temperature regime, providing an experimental method to study the LPI threat to these targets at a small fraction of their designed input energies. This research is funded by the US DOE, NRL, and ONR.

  3. Doped biocompatible layers prepared by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, M.; Weiserová, M.; Kocourek, T.; Jurek, K.; Strnad, J.

    2010-03-01

    The contribution deals with KrF laser synthesis and study of doped biocompatible materials with focus on diamond-like carbon (DLC) and hydroxyapatite (HA). Overview of materials used for dopation is given. Experimental results of study of HA layers doped with silver are presented. Films properties were characterized using profilometer, SEM, WDX, XRD and optical transmission. Content of silver in layers moved from 0.06 to 13.7 at %. The antibacterial properties of HA, silver and doped HA layers were studied in vivo using Escherichia coli cells.

  4. A Moiré Cavity Plasmonic Dye Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karademir, Ertugrul; Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2015-03-01

    From its first conception to its first demonstration, plasmonic lasers have been an intriguing topic of research. In this work, Moiré gratings which manifest a cavity state in the SPP dispersion curve. We used a reverse Kretschmann setup to decouple the amplified light component of SPPs. We employed a Moiré cavity with 250 +256 nm periodicity together with a Styryl 7 laser dye dissolved in ethylene glycol in 5 mM concentration and obtained a lasing at 718 nm. Pumping threshold was 1.5 mJ/cm2 with FWHM of 2.8 nm. Furthermore, periodicities of 242 +248 nm and 260 +266 nm resulted in proportional shift of the lasing peak. We did not observe any lasing action on samples with Au and Ti coatings, although solely Au coated samples showed plasmonic modes in the spectrum. Resulting lasing peak is highly TM polarized. Reflection map measurements confirm that lasing mode is supported with the cavity state of the metallic Moiré cavity and simulations support reflection map measurements. Thus, we demonstrated, to our knowledge, the first plasmonic dye laser on a Moiré cavity. TUBITAK 110T790, 110T589, 112T091.

  5. Laser surface cleaning of organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Liu, Z.; Vilar, R.; Yi, X.-S.

    1999-08-01

    Laser surface cleaning process has been a useful and efficient technique for various industrial applications. The removal of photoresist contaminants on silicon wafers was investigated with a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser, and the irradiated area was characterized using a profilometer, a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), an Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and a Fourier transition infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It was found that there exist an optimal number of pulses to remove the contaminant from the substrate surface without any laser-induced damage, depending on the laser density on the surface. A model to predict the optimal number of pulses, which agrees well with Beer-Lambert's law, is proposed and proved to be operable.

  6. Spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, X. K.; Sun, J.; Ling, H.; Lu, Y. F.

    2007-08-20

    The spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown of aluminum (Al) targets in air have been investigated both by optical emission spectroscopy and fast photography. A KrF excimer laser was used to produce plasmas from Al targets in air. Al atomic emission lines show an obvious enhancement in the emission intensity when a pair of Al-plate walls were placed to spatially confine the plasma plumes. Images of the Al plasma plumes showed that the plasma plumes evolved into a torus shape and were compressed in the Al walls. The mechanism for the confinement effects was discussed using shock wave theory.

  7. Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC by liquid immersion excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Akihiro; Nishi, Koji; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-02-04

    Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC is performed by KrF excimer laser irradiation of 4H SiC immersed in phosphoric acid. Phosphorus is incorporated to a depth of a few tens of nanometers at a concentration of over 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} without generating significant crystal defects. Formation of a pn junction diode with an ideality factor of 1.06 is demonstrated.

  8. High sensitivity quadrupole mass spectrometry of neutrals sputtered by UV-laser ablation of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, Sylvain; Guan, Weiping; Drilhole, David

    1996-04-01

    Laser Ablation-Sputtered Neutrals Spectrometry is developed as a portable system which consists of a commercial gas analyser (quadrupole mass spectrometer with e-beam ionization) in ultrahigh vacuum. ArF and KrF ablation of 20 polymers yielded mass spectra (1-200), rich in information, and mass intensity versus etching time for depth profiling analysis. The sensitivity is very high (100 ng of polymer can be probed) and microablation can be recorded by LA-SNMS.

  9. Generation of strongly coupled plasmas by high power excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongxiang; Liu, Jingru; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Zhang, Jiyan; Zheng, Zhijian; Ye, Xisheng

    2013-05-01

    (ultraviolet). To generate strongly coupled plasmas (SCP) by high power excimer laser, an Au-CH-Al-CH target is used to make the Al sample reach the state of SCP, in which the Au layer transforms laser energy to X-ray that heating the sample by volume and the CH layers provides necessary constraints. With aid of the MULTI-1D code, we calculate the state of the Al sample and its relationship with peak intensity, width and wavelength of laser pulses. The calculated results suggest that an excimer laser with peak intensity of the magnitude of 1013W/cm2 and pulse width being 5ns - 10ns is suitable to generate SCP with the temperature being tens of eV and the density of electron being of the order of 1022/cm-3. Lasers with shorter wavelength, such as KrF laser, are preferable.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of potential iron–platinum drugs and supplements by laser liquid photolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nkosi, Steven S; Mwakikunga, Bonex W; Sideras-Haddad, Elias; Forbes, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Highly crystalline nanospherical iron–platinum systems were produced by 248 nm laser irradiation of a liquid precursor at different laser fluences, ranging from 100–375 mJ/cm2. The influence of laser intensity on particle size, iron composition, and structure was systematically investigated. Different nanostructures of iron–platinum alloy and chemically disordered iron–platinum L10 phase were obtained without annealing. The prepared precursor solution underwent deep photolysis to polycrystalline iron–platinum nanoalloys through Fe(III) acetylacetonate and Pt(II) acetylacetonate. Fe(II) and Pt(I) acetylacetone decomposed into Fe0 and Pt0 nanoparticles. We found that the (001) diffraction peak shifted linearly to a lower angle, with the last peak shifting in opposition to the others. This caused the face-centered cubic L10 structure to change its composition according to laser fluence. The nanostructures were shown to contain iron and platinum only by energy-dispersive spectroscopy at several spots. The response of these iron–platinum nanoparticles to infrared depends on their stoichiometric composition, which is controlled by laser fluence. PMID:24198494

  11. XeCl Avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: (0.2%-0.4% chlorine donor/2.5%-10% Xe/97.3%-89.6% Ar). The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl.sub.4 BCl.sub.3. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  12. XeCl avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.

    1979-10-10

    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: 0.2 to 0.4% chlorine donor/2.5% to 10% Xe/97.3% to 89.6% Ar) is provided. The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl/sub 4/ BCl/sub 3/. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  13. Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF lasera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Watari, T.; Arikawa, Y.; Sakaiya, T.; Oh, J.; Velikovich, A. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Bates, J. W.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Murakami, M.; Azechi, H.

    2010-05-01

    The Nike krypton fluoride laser [S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] is used to accelerate planar plastic foils to velocities that for the first time reach 1000 km/s. Collision of the highly accelerated deuterated polystyrene foil with a stationary target produces ˜Gbar shock pressures and results in heating of the foil to thermonuclear temperatures. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with ˜106 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2-3 keV.

  14. Damage precursor measurements on UV-optical coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ettrich, K.; Blaschke, H.; Welsch, E.

    1995-12-31

    For application in UV thin film optics the thermal contribution to the laser-induced optical breakdown was investigated utilizing time-resolved photothermal probe beam deflection (MIRAGE) technique. The potentiality of this method for the determination of both the subdamage range and the onset of single-shot-damage of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} and LaF{sub 3}/MgF{sub 2} high-reflective coatings by using the thermal branch of the MIRAGE technique could be demonstrated. Examining the dielectric mirrors by 248 nm KrF laser irradiation, distinct damage precursor features were found. Thus, the physical origin of the UV pulsed radiation breakdown in HR coatings can be elucidated.

  15. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to show whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions in fabricating crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed shows that the use of PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for diffusion, aluminum BSF and an extra cleaning step in the baseline process. The cost advantage of the PELA process depends on improving the average cell efficiency from 14% to 16%, which would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. An optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production is to be developed, and increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis demonstrated. An excimer laser annealing station was set-up and made operational. The first experiment used 248 nm radiation to anneal phosphorus implants in polished and texture-etched silicon.

  16. Hardening of smooth pulsed laser deposited PMMA films by heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Britta; Schlenkrich, Felix; Seyffarth, Susanne; Meschede, Andreas; Rotzoll, Robert; Vana, Philipp; Großmann, Peter; Mann, Klaus; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-03-01

    Smooth poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films without any droplets were pulsed laser deposited at a wavelength of 248 nm and a laser fluence of 125 mJ/cm2. After deposition at room temperature, the films possess low universal hardness of only 3 N/mm2. Thermal treatments up to 200°C, either during deposition or afterwards, lead to film hardening up to values of 200 N/mm2. Using a combination of complementary methods, two main mechanisms could be made responsible for this temperature induced hardening effect well above the glass transition temperature of 102°C. The first process is induced by the evaporation of chain fragments and low molecular mass material, which are present in the film due to the ablation process, leading to an increase of the average molecular mass and thus to hardening. The second mechanism can be seen in partial cross-linking of the polymer film as soon as chain scission occurs at higher temperatures and the mobility and reactivity of the polymer material is high enough.

  17. Femtosecond laser printing of living cells using absorbing film-assisted laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Béla; Smausz, Tomi; Szabó, Gábor; Kolozsvári, Lajos; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Fotakis, Costas; Nógrádi, Antal

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of a femtosecond KrF laser in absorbing film-assisted, laser-induced forward transfer of living cells was studied. The absorbing materials were 50-nm-thick metal films and biomaterials (gelatine, Matrigel, each 50 μm thick, and polyhydroxybutyrate, 2 μm). The used cell types were human neuroblastoma, chronic myeloid leukemia, and osteogenic sarcoma cell lines, and primary astroglial rat cells. Pulses of a 500-fs KrF excimer laser focused onto the absorbing layer in a 250-μm diameter spot with 225 mJ/cm2 fluence were used to transfer the cells to the acceptor plate placed at 0.6 mm distance, which was a glass slide either pure or covered with biomaterials. While the low-absorptivity biomaterial absorbing layers proved to be ineffective in transfer of cells, when applied on the surface of acceptor plate, the wet gelatine and Matrigel layers successfully ameliorated the impact of the cells, which otherwise did not survive the arrival onto a hard surface. The best short- and long-term survival rate was between 65% and 70% for neuroblastoma and astroglial cells. The long-term survival of the transferred osteosarcoma cells was low, while the myeloid leukemia cells did not tolerate the procedure under the applied experimental conditions.

  18. Polarization of plastic targets by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffreda, E.; Delle Side, D.; Krasa, J.; Nassisi, V.

    2016-05-01

    Charge separation in plasmas produced on plastic targets by low laser irradiance, structure of the ion front, and the current of fast electrons expanding into the vacuum chamber ahead of ions are characterized. Of particular interest is the negative current flowing through the plastic targets to the grounded vacuum chamber during the period of laser-target interaction. The subsequent multi - peaked structure of positive target current is correlated with occurrence of double sheet layers. The late-time negative charging of targets provides evidence for production of very slow ions by ionization of neutrals ablated at the target crater by radiation from plasma produced by 23 ns excimer KrF laser. The experimental setting allowing the target current observation is discussed.

  19. A computer modeling study of isotopically selective, laser photodissociation of OCS in cryogenic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zittel, P.F.

    1991-12-23

    Computer model calculations are presented for enrichments of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur isotopes by two-step, IR/UV, laser photodissociation of OCS in rare gas liquid solutions. The model calculations are based on previously measured fundamental physical properties, including spectroscopic parameters of the IR absorption bands of OCS in cryogenic solution, UV photodissociation cross sections for specific vibrational levels of OCS, and rates for vibrational relaxation of OCS by cryogenic solvents. Results are presented for both pulsed and continuous wave laser sources. Photodissociation through both the 2{nu}{sub 2} and {nu}{sub 1} intermediate vibrational levels of OCS is investigated. The laser characteristics required to obtain optimum enrichments are determined by modeling the dependence of enrichment on laser wavelength and intensity, as well as pulse width and timing for pulsed sources. Optimum carbon and oxygen isotope enrichment factors of 9--14 are found for two-step photodissociation through the OCS(2{nu}{sub 2}) vibrational level, using pulsed CO{sub 2} and KrF excimer laser sources. Optimum sulfur isotope enrichment factors of 5--6 are found for photodissociation through the OCS({nu}{sub 1}) level, using a pulsed 12 {mu}m laser and a KrF excimer laser. The enrichments found for continuous wave laser sources are smaller than those for pulsed sources. 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Relative elemental sensitivity factors in non-resonant laser-SNMS.

    PubMed

    Wahl, M; Koch, D; Berthold, W; Wucher, A

    1995-10-01

    Using a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the ionization process in non-resonant Laser postionization Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) has been investigated. In particular, the postionization efficiencies (PIE) achieved by multi photon and single photon absorption have been compared by ionizing ten elements sputtered from a NIST standard reference material by excimer laser radiation of 248 nm, 193 nm and 157 nm. Only in the case of single photon ionization (SPI) the measured laser intensity dependence of the PIE can be understood quantitatively in terms of corresponding theory. From the results, absolute values of the SPI cross sections have been evaluated for atoms of nine elements, which show a total variation over about two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, even in the regime of high laser intensity, where the ionization of all atoms is completely saturated, different elements have been detected with relative sensitivity factors which scatter over about one order of magnitude. This has been attributed to element dependent variations of the effective ionization volume which are caused by the different kinetic energy and angular distributions of different sputtered atoms. PMID:15048498

  1. Melting evaporation and recrystallization of a-SiC:H films by excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramanayaka, S.; Kitamura, K.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hatanaka, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A study of laser annealing of a-SiC:H films was carried out in order to obtain poly-SiC films. First, a-SiC:H films were fabricated at temperatures ranging from 30 to 400 C. All these films show amorphous structure before the annealing process. After annealing by a single pulse of 248 nm laser, films show poly-SiC structure. The pulse energies used for these anneals varied from 30 to 300 mJ/pulse. After exposing to a laser pulse, the a-SiC:H films melt and recrystallize forming poly-SiC structure. In addition to this process, a fraction of the film is observed to be vaporized. This vaporized fraction depends on the original film composition, hardness and the laser pulse-energy. Electrical resistivity of the films before the annealing process lies in the region of 10{sup 15} {Omega}cm. This resistivity drops drastically after the annealing process.

  2. Energy transmission by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF) and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of superlong ionised channels with a characteristic diameter of ~ 100 mkm in atmosphere along the beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below 1016 cm-3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0.5 - 1.0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation. In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~ 100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J). An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m). Not so long ago scientific group from P.N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap -1m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m) electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result - 16 m long conducting channel controlled by a laser spark at the voltage - 3 MV - was obtained more than 20years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2 laser with energy - 0.5 kJ. An average electric field strength was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  3. Pump laser wavelength-dependent control of the efficiency of kilovolt x-ray emission from atomic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, W. Andreas; Omenetto, F. G.; Borisov, A. B.; Longworth, J. W.; McPherson, A.; Jordan, C.; Boyer, K.; Kondo, K.; Rhodes, C. K.

    1998-11-01

    An explanation is presented for the recently reported striking differences in the kilovolt Xe L-shell 0953-4075/31/22/014/img15 x-ray emission from Xe cluster targets excited by comparable terawatt ultraviolet (248 nm) and infrared (800 nm) femtosecond laser pulses under nearly identical experimental conditions (Kondo K et al 1997 J. Phys. B.: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 2707-16). A classical analysis of these results, within the framework of the first Born approximation for electron-atom collisions producing inner-shell ionization, strongly suggests that both the 0953-4075/31/22/014/img16 times stronger Xe(L) emission under ultraviolet laser excitation and the observed differences in the x-ray spectra are caused primarily by the different ultraviolet and infrared pump laser wavelengths. The kinematics of photoionized electrons in the intense laser fields (0953-4075/31/22/014/img17-0953-4075/31/22/014/img18) and the Coulomb-driven expansion of the electron distribution photoionized from the atomic cluster both indicate that the strong pump-laser wavelength scaling in the production of kilovolt x-rays from Xe clusters results from the more localized and controlled electron-cluster interactions afforded by a shorter optical period.

  4. Optical emission spectroscopy and time-of-flight investigations of plasmas generated from AlN targets in cases of pulsed laser deposition with sub-ps and ns ultraviolet laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N.; Velegrakis, Michalis; Massaouti, Maria; Klini, Argyro; Fotakis, Costas

    2003-02-01

    We performed a comparative study of the plasma generated from AlN targets under sub-ps vs ns UV (λ=248 nm) excimer laser pulses. Optical emission and time-of-flight spectra recorded in cases of samples irradiated with ns laser pulses showed the presence of Al lines, which became prevalent after the first laser pulse was incident on the target. These observations are congruent with the metallization of AlN targets inside each crater under multipulse ns laser action at laser fluences above the ablation threshold, observed by visual inspection and optical microscopy. Metallization was not observed when working with sub-ps laser pulses. Moreover, our studies confirmed the predominant presence of AlN positive molecular ions in the plasma generated in front of AlN targets submitted to sub-ps multipulse laser irradiation. The optical emission data are in good agreement with time-of-flight mass analysis. We emphasize that all investigations support the experimental evidence reported by György et al. [E. György et al., J. Appl. Phys. 90, 456 (2001)], according to which thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition with ns laser pulses contain a significant amount of metallic Al, while only AlN is detected in films obtained with sub-ps laser pulses. Measurements of the velocity and kinetic energy distributions of AlN+ indicate that in the case of ns-laser ablation the ions are emitted with thermal energy, while in the case of sub-ps-laser ablation a bimodal distribution exists and has thermal (1 eV) and hyperthermal (10 eV) energy components. This points to different plasma formation mechanisms for the two cases.

  5. Generation of solid-density ultraintense ion beams by a picosecond laser pulse of circular polarization.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, S; Badziak, J

    2012-02-01

    This contribution reports particle-in-cell numerical studies of deuteron beam acceleration by a picosecond laser pulse of circular polarization. The effect of laser wavelength λ and the I(L)λ(2) product (I(L) is laser intensity) on the ion beam parameters is investigated. It is shown that at the I(L)λ(2) product fixed, the beam parameters (, I(i), F(i)) as well as the laser-ions energy conversion efficiency quickly increase with a decrease in the laser wavelength and the best results are achieved for a KrF laser (λ = 0.248 μm). In particular, a 2-ps KrF laser pulse of I(L)λ(2) ∼ 2 × 10(20) Wcm(-2) μm(2) interacting with a 10-μm deuteron target produces a quasi-monoenergetic, solid-density deuteron beam of parameters approaching those required for inertial confinement fusion fast ignition. PMID:22380262

  6. Generation of solid-density ultraintense ion beams by a picosecond laser pulse of circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, S.; Badziak, J.

    2012-02-15

    This contribution reports particle-in-cell numerical studies of deuteron beam acceleration by a picosecond laser pulse of circular polarization. The effect of laser wavelength {lambda} and the I{sub L}{lambda}{sup 2} product (I{sub L} is laser intensity) on the ion beam parameters is investigated. It is shown that at the I{sub L}{lambda}{sup 2} product fixed, the beam parameters (, I{sub i}, F{sub i}) as well as the laser-ions energy conversion efficiency quickly increase with a decrease in the laser wavelength and the best results are achieved for a KrF laser ({lambda}= 0.248 {mu}m). In particular, a 2-ps KrF laser pulse of I{sub L}{lambda}{sup 2}{approx} 2 x 10{sup 20} Wcm{sup -2} {mu}m{sup 2} interacting with a 10-{mu}m deuteron target produces a quasi-monoenergetic, solid-density deuteron beam of parameters approaching those required for inertial confinement fusion fast ignition.

  7. Pulsed laser facilities operating from UV to IR at the Gas Laser Lab of the Lebedev Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, Andrei; Kholin, Igor; Vasil'Ev, Boris; Zvorykin, Vladimir

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed laser facilities developed at the Gas Lasers Lab of the Lebedev Physics Institute and their applications for different laser-matter interactions are discussed. The lasers operating from UV to mid-IR spectral region are as follows: e-beam pumped KrF laser (λ= 0.248 μm) with output energy 100 J; e-beam sustained discharge CO2(10.6 μm) and fundamental band CO (5-6 μm) lasers with output energy up to ~1 kJ; overtone CO laser (2.5-4.2 μm) with output energy ~ 50 J and N2O laser (10.9 μm) with output energy of 100 J; optically pumped NH3 laser (11-14 μm). Special attention is paid to an e-beam sustained discharge Ar-Xe laser (1.73 μm ~ 100 J) as a potential candidate for a laser-propulsion facility. The high energy laser facilities are used for interaction of laser radiation with polymer materials, metals, graphite, rocks, etc.

  8. A new insight into defect-induced laser damage in UV multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Reichling, M.; Bodemann, A.; Kaiser, N.

    1995-12-31

    High performance Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} mirror coatings for 248 nm have been investigated with respect to their excimer laser damage resistivity. Global damage thresholds (in the range of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2}) averaged over large areas were determined with the pulsed photoacoustic mirage detection method. With a raster scanning technique utilizing the same detection scheme, the local damage behaviour was studied with 100 {mu}m spatial resolution. It was found that the local damage threshold at specific sites was lower than the global damage threshold and it was assumed that this phenomenon was associated with micrometer-scale defects in the multilayer coating. To test this hypothesis photothermal displacement microscopy with {mu}m lateral resolution was performed on the investigated regions prior to excimer laser light irradiation. Photothermal images revealed an extremely small background absorption and a small number of absorbing defect sites. For a number of such sites a clear correlation between the local absorption and the onset of laser damage at that specific location was found. We conclude that the crucial factor determining the damage resistivity of the high quality coating systems are defects and contaminants and that it will be possible to predict their damage thresholds by a complete microscopic photothermal inspection.

  9. Efficient gas lasers pumped by generators with inductive energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Alexei N.; Tel'minov, Alexei E.

    2008-05-01

    Laser and discharge parameters in mixtures of rare gases with halogens driven by a pre-pulse-sustainer circuit technique are studied. Inductive energy storage with semiconductor opening switch was used for the high-voltage pre-pulse formation. It was shown that the pre-pulse with a high amplitude and short rise-time along with sharp increase of discharge current and uniform UV- and x-ray preionization allow to form long-lived stable discharge in halogen containing gas mixtures. Improvement of both pulse duration and output energy was achieved for XeCl-, XeF-, KrCl- and KrF excimer lasers. Maximal laser output was as high as 1 J at efficiency up to 4%. Increase both of the radiation power and laser pulse duration were achieved in N2-NF3 (SF6) and He-F2 (NF3) gas mixtures, as well.

  10. Probing on growth and characterizations of SnFe2O4 epitaxial thin films on MgAl2O4 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ram; Candler, J.; Kumar, D.; Gupta, Bipin; Kahol, Pawan

    2014-08-01

    Epitaxial tin ferrite (SnFe2O4) thin films were grown using KrF excimer (248 nm) pulsed laser deposition technique under different growth conditions. Highly epitaxial thin films were obtained at growth temperature of 650 ˚C. The quality and epitaxial nature of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction technique. Furthermore, the phi scans of the film and substrate exhibit four folds symmetry which indicates a cube-on-cube epitaxial growth of the film on MgAl2O4 substrate. Moreover, the magnetic force microscopy measurement shows domains with cluster-like structure which is associated with ferromagnetic phase at room temperature. The coercive field and remnant magnetization of the films decrease with increase in temperature. These high quality ingenious magnetic films could be potentially used in data storage devices.

  11. Deposition and characterization of strontium hexa ferrite (SrFe12O19) by PLD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Bhatti, K. A.; Rafique, M. S.; Latif, A.; fou-uz-Zia, Sultana

    2013-04-01

    KrF* excimer laser (248 nm wavelength) is tightly focused on strontium hexa ferrite (SrFe12O19) to deposit its thin films on glass. Thin films were deposited at room temperature (25 °C) and at 350 °C in the absence and presence of the externally applied (0.5 T) magnetic field in transverse direction. The experiments were performed under vacuum ˜10-6 Torr. All deposited films were characterized for crystallographic structure, surface morphology, magnetic properties, and optical properties using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The results thus obtained show that magneto-optical properties of deposited thin films have been enhanced in the presence of magnetic field.

  12. Nonequilibrium vibrational population measurements in an expanding flow using spontaneous Raman scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Ruffin, Stephen M.; Gillespie, Walter D.; Meyer, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    Vibrational relaxation of nitrogen in a 2D nozzle flow is studied using spontaneous Raman scattering. An electric arc driven shock tube operating as a reflected shock tunnel produces stagnation conditions of 5600 K and 100 atm. A 248 nm KrF laser pulse is focused into the nozzle to produce spatially resolved spontaneous Raman spectra. Vibrational population distributions are derived from the spectra for the states v = 0 to v = 8. The experimental results are compared with two theoretical models: the Landau-Teller relaxation model and a numerical solution of the master equations using transition rates derived from SSH theory. The Landau-Teller correction factor has been measured at 1.0 - 1.5.

  13. Vibrational relaxation measurements in an expanding flow using spontaneous Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.P.; Ruffin, S.M.; Gillespie, W.D.; Meyer, S.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Vibrational relaxation of nitrogen in a two-dimensional nozzle flow is studied with spontaneous Raman scattering. An electric arc-driven shock tube operating as a reflected shock tunnel produces stagnation conditions of 5600 K and 100 atm. A 248-nm KrF laser pulse is focused into the nozzle to produce spatially resolved spontaneous Raman spectra. Vibrational population distributions are derived from the spectra for the states v = 0 to v = 8. The experimental results are compared with two theoretical models: (1) the Landau-Teller relaxation model and (2) a numerical solution of the master equations using transition rates derived from Schwartz, Slawsky and Herzfeld (SSH) theory. We have measured a value for the Landau-Teller correction factor (phi) to be 1.0-1.5. 13 refs.

  14. Internal photopumping of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states in yttrium aluminum garnet by excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers and Fe3+ continuum emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, J. D.; Spinka, T. M.; Senin, A. A.; Eden, J. G.

    2011-07-01

    Photoexcitation of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states by the broad (˜70 nm FWHM), near-infrared continuum provided by Fe3+ has been observed at 300 K in bulk yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) crystals doped with trace concentrations (<50 ppm) of Fe, Cr, and Eu. Irradiation of YAG at 248 nm with a KrF laser, which excites the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) in YAG having peak absorption at ˜240 nm, culminates in ODC→Fe3+ excitation transfer and subsequent Fe3+ emission. This internal optical pumping mechanism for rare earth ions is unencumbered by the requirement for donor-acceptor proximity that constrains conventional Förster-Dexter excitation transfer in co-doped crystals.

  15. Observation of Broadband Ultraviolet Emission From Hg 3 *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenting; Glavin, Thomas; Eden, James; Laboratory for Optical Physics; Engineering Team

    2016-05-01

    A previously-unobserved emission continuum, peaking at ~ 380 nm, has been observed when Hg vapor is photoexcited at 248 nm (KrF laser). Attributed to the mercury trimer, Hg3, this emission continuum has a spectral breadth (FWHM) which increases from ~ 65 nm to ~ 90 nm when the Hg number density rises from ~1016 cm-3 to ~ 2 ×1019 cm-3. Over the same interval in [Hg], the emission decay rate increases only slightly (~ 6 ×103 s-1 to ~ 7 ×103 s-1). Comparisons of the observed spectrum with theory suggest that the observed continuum is the result of transitions between pairs of electronic states having a linear or equilateral triangular configuration.

  16. Anti-Stokes Raman laser investigations on atomic Tl and Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewigt, K.; Birkmann, K.; Wellegehausen, B.

    1984-03-01

    Anti-Stokes Raman laser experiments using metastable atomic Tl and Sn have been performed. The required metastable population inversion is generated by photodissociation of TlI and SnBr2 with KrF laser radiation. The Tl(Sn) system permits frequency up-conversion by 7793 cm-1 (17,163 cm-1). By optimization of system parameters, uv output energies up to 2.5 mJ (377 nm) and conversion efficiencies of more than 25% have been achieved for Tl. Further improvements and principal limitations will be discussed.

  17. Structural characterization and electronic structure of laser treated TiN thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, Sheetal; Nair, K. G. M.; Phase, D. M.; Gupta, Ratnesh

    2012-06-05

    TiN thin films prepared by laser treatment using Kr-F excimer laser in the controlled atmosphere. The depth distribution and composition of nitrogen and contaminated oxygen have been determined by non-Rutherford proton backscattering using 1.7 MeV Tendetron accelerator. The electronic structure of TiN thin film have been characterized by resonant photoelectron spectroscopy using indus-I synchrotron radiation. Specifically, complex resonance profile that shows the enhancement at 45 eV which is consistent with the resonant photoemission of Ti 3d states involved in the Titanium nitride and oxide.

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of polymer-metal nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenkrich, Felix; Seyffarth, Susanne; Fuchs, Britta; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    Different polymer-metal nanocomposites, metal clusters on a polymer surface and for the first time also polymer/metal multilayers, were pulsed laser deposited at a wavelength of 248 nm. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Bisphenol A dimeth-acrylate (BisDMA), which strongly differ in their hardness of 3 and 180 N/mm 2, respectively, were taken as polymer components. Metals Ag and Cu were chosen because of their different reactivity to polymers. When depositing Ag on PMMA, spherical clusters are formed due to high diffusion and total coalescence. For Cu, much smaller grains with partially elongated shapes occur because of lower diffusivity and incomplete coalescence. Compared to the results on the soft PMMA, the clusters formed on the harder BisDMA are much larger due to higher diffusivity on this underlayer. In PMMA/Cu multilayers, wavy layered structures and buckling is observed due to relaxation of compressive stress in the Cu layers. Smooth Cu layers with higher thicknesses can only be obtained, when the hardness of the polymer is sufficiently high, as in the case of BisDMA/Cu multilayers.

  19. Surface morphology and subsurface damaged layer of various glasses machined by 193-nm ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yunn-shiuan; Chen, Ying-Tung; Chao, Choung-Lii; Liu, Yih-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the high bonding energy, most of the glasses are removed by photo-thermal rather than photo-chemical effect when they are ablated by the 193 or 248nm excimer lasers. Typically, the machined surface is covered by re-deposited debris and the sub-surface, sometimes surface as well, is scattered with micro-cracks introduced by thermal stress generated during the process. This study aimed to investigate the nature and extent of the surface morphology and sub-surface damaged (SSD) layer induced by the laser ablation. The effects of laser parameters such as fluence, shot number and repetition rate on the morphology and SSD were discussed. An ArF excimer laser (193 nm) was used in the present study to machine glasses such as soda-lime, Zerodur and BK-7. It is found that the melt ejection and debris deposition tend to pile up higher and become denser in structure under a higher energy density, repetition rate and shot number. There are thermal stress induced lateral cracks when the debris covered top layer is etched away. Higher fluence and repetition rate tend to generate more lateral and median cracks which propagate into the substrate. The changes of mechanical properties of the SSD layer were also investigated.

  20. Effect of laser annealing using high repetition rate pulsed laser on optical properties of phosphorus-ion-implanted ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimogaki, Tetsuya; Ofuji, Taihei; Tetsuyama, Norihiro; Okazaki, Kota; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa; Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-02-01

    The effect of high repetition rate pulsed laser annealing with a KrF excimer laser on the optical properties of phosphorus-ion-implanted zinc oxide nanorods has been investigated. The recovery levels of phosphorus-ion-implanted zinc oxide nanorods have been measured by photoluminescence spectra and cathode luminescence images. Cathode luminescence disappeared over 300 nm below the surface due to the damage caused by ion implantation with an acceleration voltage of 25 kV. When the annealing was performed at a low repetition rate of the KrF excimer laser, cathode luminescence was recovered only in a shallow area below the surface. The depth of the annealed area was increased along with the repetition rate of the annealing laser. By optimizing the annealing conditions such as the repetition rate, the irradiation fluence and so on, we have succeeded in annealing the whole damaged area of over 300 nm in depth and in observing cathode luminescence. Thus, the effectiveness of high repetition rate pulsed laser annealing on phosphorus-ion-implanted zinc oxide nanorods was demonstrated.

  1. Physics of laser fusion. Volume III. High-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Eimerl, D.; George, E.V.; Trenholme, J.B.; Simmons, W.W.; Hunt, J.T.

    1982-09-01

    High-power pulsed lasers can deliver sufficient energy on inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) time scales (0.1 to 10 ns) to heat and compress deuterium-tritium fuel to fusion-reaction conditions. Several laser systems have been examined, including Nd:glass, CO/sub 2/, KrF, and I/sub 2/, for their ICF applicability. A great deal of developmental effort has been applied to the Nd:glass laser and the CO/sub 2/ gas laser systems; these systems now deliver > 10/sup 4/ J and 20 x 10/sup 12/ W to ICF targets. We are constructing the Nova Nd:glass laser at LLNL to provide > 100 kJ and > 100 x 10/sup 12/ W of 1-..mu..m radiation for fusion experimentation in the mid-1980s. For ICF target gain > 100 times the laser input, we expect that the laser driver must deliver approx. 3 to 5 MJ of energy on a time scale of 10 to 20 ns. In this paper we review the technological status of fusion-laser systems and outline approaches to constructing high-power pulsed laser drivers.

  2. Time resolved optical methods for investigation of phase transformations in materials exposed to nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martan, J.; Semmar, N.; Cibulka, O.

    2011-06-01

    Infrared (IR) radiometry and time resolved reflectivity (TRR) methods can be used for investigation of laser pulse effects on materials in nanosecond time scale. The methods in combination are capable to quantify object temperature and detect phase transformations in the solid state, melting and plasma formation from vapour. Measurements with different laser pulse energy densities provide threshold of the transformation. The melt duration can be also determined. The experimental system is described. It contains KrF excimer laser with homogenizer and variable attenuator, fast IR detector for radiometry, continuous probing laser with Si photodiode for reflectivity measurement and UV detector for pump laser pulse reflection measurement. The system was applied to investigation of responses to laser light of silicon and different pure metals and alloys. The range of energy densities used was 1-5500 mJ.cm-2 and measurements were done with temporal resolution of 6 ns for radiometry and 1 ns for reflectivity.

  3. Polysiloxanes with a Phenol Moiety for Bilayer Photoresist Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yasunobu; Ushirogouchi, Touru; Horiguchi, Rumiko; Hayase, Shuzi

    1989-08-01

    Novel Polysiloxanes with a phenol pendant group were synthesized and applied to bilayer photoresists for g-line and deep-UV (248 nm) lithography. These polymers had adequate aqueous-base solubility and oxygen-RIE resistance to serve as the base resin component for top imaging resists in bilayer resist systems. One of these polysiloxanes was synthesized from chlorodiethoxyphenylsilane and m-trimethylsiloxychlobenzene. Others were synthesized from dichlorophenylsilane and phenol and phenols with a double bond moiety (eugenol, isoeugenol and m-isopropenylphenol). These polysiloxanes had from 9.8 wt.% to 13.1 wt.X Si content and displayed an oxygen-RIE resistance 10 times greater than novolak resin. The m.p. values for these polymers ranged from 30°C to 90°C. The UV transmittance value (at 248 nm, 1 micron thickness) were from 7 % to 76 X. Resists were prepared from these polysiloxanes and sensitizers. In g-line lithography, the sensitizer was naphthoquinonediazide. In deep-UV (248 nm) lithography, the sensitizer was selected from naphtoquinonediazide, diazide and diazo compounds. 0.5 micron line and space patterns were obtained, when the resist was exposed using a g-line stepper, and using a tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution (ca. 1.3 %). 0.4 micron line and space patterns were resolved, when the resist was exposed using a KrF excimer laser stepper, and developed using the same solution. The top layer pattern could be transferred to the bottom layer (hard baked positive resist OFPR-5000) using oxygen-RIE. The etching rate for the silicon containing resist was 35 nm/min, while that for OFPR-5000 was 555 nm/min. These polysiloxanes make it possible to obtain the fine pattern resolution required in VLSI processing.

  4. Laser crystallisation during pulsed laser deposition of barium titanate thin films at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottmann, J.; Vosseler, B.; Kreutz, E. W.

    2002-09-01

    Using a high dielectric material as substitute for SiO xN y in dielectric film capacitors of dynamic memories (DRAM) allows a significantly higher integration density and a reduction of the die size, even with planar capacitors. BaTiO 3 is such a material. A dielectric constant of ɛr>1000 has been achieved in thin films, made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). For applications in microelectronic memories it is necessary to produce crystalline, defect-free and oriented BaTiO 3 thin films at substrate temperatures, TS<450 °C. Sintered targets of BaTiO 3 are ablated by KrF excimer laser radiation. The processing gas atmosphere consists of O 2 at pressures of 0.1-50 Pa. The substrate is resitively heated to 360-440 °C and annealed after or during PLD on Pt/Ti/Si multilayer substrates using KrF excimer laser radiation with fluences up to 120 mJ/cm 2. The temperature distribution in the BaTiO 3/Pt/Ti/Si multilayers during laser annealing is dynamically modelled and related to the resulting crystal quality and the dielectric properties of the films. With PLD a minimum substrate temperature of 500 °C is necessary to deposit crystalline BaTiO 3 films. Using in situ laser crystallisation crystalline BaTiO 3 films can be deposited at substrate temperatures of TS=360-440 °C showing a dielectric constant of up to ɛr=1200. The ferroelectric and dielectric properties of the films are determined by C- V and P- V impedance measurements and correlated to the chemical and structural properties, as determined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Effects of different laser and plasma treatments on the interface and adherence between evaporated aluminium and polyethylene terephthalate films: X-ray photoemission, and adhesion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelean, H.; Petit, S.; Laurens, P.; Marcus, P.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.

    2005-04-01

    Chemical functionalities, topography and adherence between Al and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, modified by laser treatment below the polymer ablation threshold fluence in air and in helium at different wavelengths, fluences, pulse numbers and by low pressure plasma treatment in He 95% with O 2 5%, at 0.2 W/cm 3 were investigated by XPS, AFM, water contact angle and adhesion measurements. XPS results revealed (i) formation of polar-oxygenated functional groups (C dbnd O, O sbnd C dbnd O) by laser treatments in air and (ii) incorporation of ester and ether groups by plasma treatment in He 95% with O 2 5%. After deposition of thermally evaporated Al on laser or plasma treated PET films, U-Peel tests indicated that laser treatment in air at 248 nm and 20 mJ/cm 2, and plasma treatment improved Al/PET adhesion. XPS studies revealed the presence of an increasing number of Al sbnd O sbnd C stable and cohesive interfacial complexes formed by chemical interaction between aluminium and the laser treated in air or plasma treated in He 95% with O 2 5% PET films. These interfacial compounds play an important role in the enhancement of the metal/polymer adhesion.

  6. Two-Plasmon Decay: Simulations and Experiments on the NIKE Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Lee; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.; Colombant, D.

    2009-11-01

    NIKE is a Krf laser system at the Naval Research Laboratory used to explore hydrodynamic stability, equation of state, and other issues arising in the research toward inertial fusion energy. The relatively small KrF wavelength, according to widely used theories, raises the threshold of most parametric instabilities. We report on simulations performed using the FAST3d radiation hydrocode to design TPD experiments. By post-processing the results of the simulations we have designed experiments that have explored the use of simple threshold formulas (from developing theories) and help establish the soundness of our simulational approach. Turning to the targets proposed for ICF energy research, we have found that among the designs for the proposed Fusion Test Facility (Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)), are some that are below LPI thresholds. We have also studied high-gain KrF shock ignition designs and found that they are below LPI thresholds for most of the implosion, becoming susceptible to TPD only late in the pulse.

  7. A survey of advanced excimer optical imaging and lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Suwa, Kyoichi

    1998-11-01

    The first item discussed in this paper is to estimate the future trend regarding minimum geometry and the optical parameters, such as NA and wavelength. Simulations based on aerial images are performed for the estimation. The resolution limit is defined as a minimum feature size which retains practical depth of focus (DOF). Pattern geometry is classified into two categories, which are dense lines and isolated lines. Available wavelengths are assumed to be KrF excimer laser (λ=248 nm), ArF excimer laser (λ=193 nm) and F2 excimer laser (λ=157 nm). Based upon the simulation results, the resolution limit is estimated for each geometry and each wavelength. The second item is to survey ArF optics. At present, the ArF excimer laser is regarded as one of the most promising candidates as a next-generation light source. Discussions are ranging over some critical issues. The lifetime of ArF optics supposedly limited by the radiation compaction of silica glass is estimated in comparison with KrF optics. Availability of calcium fluoride (CaF2) is also discussed. As a designing issue, a comparative study is made about the optical configuration, dioptric or catadioptric. In the end, our resist-based performance is shown.

  8. Lithography optics: its present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Mori, Takashi

    1998-09-01

    Firstly, various technical aspects of ArF optics are surveyed. At present, the ArF excimer laser is regarded as one of the most promising candidates as a next-generation light source for optical lithography. Discussions are ranging over some critical issues of ArF optics. The lifetime of ArF optics supposedly limited by the radiation compaction of silica glass is estimated in comparison with KrF optics. Availability of calcium fluoride (CaF2) is also discussed. As a designing issue, a comparative study is made about the optical configuration, dioptric or catadioptric. In the end, our resist-based performance is shown. Secondly, estimated are the future trend regarding minimum geometry and the optical parameters, such as numerical aperture and wavelength. For the estimation, simulations based on aerial images are performed, where in the resolution limit is defined as a minimum feature size which retains practical depth of focus. Pattern geometry is classified into two categories, which are dense lines and isolated lines. Available wavelengths are assumed to be KrF excimer laser ((λ =248 nm), ArF excimer laser (λ =193 nm) and F2 excimer laser (λ =157 nm). Based upon the simulation results, the resolution limit is estimated for each geometry and each wavelength.

  9. Excimer laser induced nanostructuring of silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Krishna, Mamidipudi Ghanashyam; Bhattacharya, Ashok

    2009-05-01

    The effect of KrF excimer laser energy density (below and above the ablation threshold), number of shots and angle of laser incidence on the morphological reconstruction, structure and specular reflectance of Si[311] surfaces is reported. At low energy densities (0.1 to 0.3 J/cm2) laser irradiation results in a variety of nanostructures, depending on laser energy density and number of shots, such as nanopores (40-60 nm dia) and nanoparticles (40-80 nm dia). At energies greater than the laser ablation threshold (2 to 5 J/cm2) the formation of nanowires (200 nm dia, 6-8 microm length), and closely spaced silicon nanograins (100-150 nm dia) is observed. Experiments to study the effect of laser irradiation in the proximity of a fixed shape such as a linear step edge in the form of a stainless steel blade and a cylindrical cross-section Cu wire were also carried out. In both cases, linearly organized nanoparticles (150-200 nm diameter) and nanowires (60-80 nm diameter) formed close to the edge. There is a systematic degradation of long-range order with the number of shots and laser energy density as evidenced from X-ray diffraction studies. At an energy density of 2 J/cm2, and 100 shots the [311] oriented silicon surface made a transition to a randomly oriented nanocrystalline state. PMID:19452995

  10. Numerical simulation of microwave amplification in a plasma channel produced in a gas via multiphoton ionisation by a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatskaya, A V; Popov, A M; Volkova, E A

    2014-12-31

    This paper examines the evolution of a nonequilibrium plasma channel produced in xenon by a femtosecond KrF laser pulse. We demonstrate that such a channel can be used to amplify microwave pulses over times of the order of the relaxation time of the photoelectron energy spectrum in xenon. Using the slowly varying amplitude approximation, we analyse the propagation and amplification of an rf pulse in a plasma channel, in particular when the rf field influences the electron energy distribution function in the plasma. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  11. Laser-assisted structuring and modification of LiCoO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, R.; Proell, J.; Ulrich, S.; Trouillet, V.; Indris, S.; Przybylski, M.; Pfleging, W.

    2009-02-01

    The material development of improved lithium ion batteries will play an important role in future mobile applications and energy storage systems. Electrode materials made of nano-composited materials are expected to improve battery lifetime and will lead to an enhancement of lithium diffusion and thus improve battery capacity and cyclability. In this study, research was conducted to further improve the electrochemical properties of thin film cathodes by increasing the surface to volume ratio and thereby the lithium intercalation rate. Cathode materials were synthesised by r.f. magnetron sputtering of LiCoO2 targets in a pure argon plasma. LiCoO2 films 3 μm thick and with a grain size of 10 to 500 nm were deposited on silicon and stainless steel substrates. The deposition parameters (argon pressure, substrate bias) were varied to create stoichiometric films with controlled nano-crystalline texture and morphology. During laser-assisted surface treatment, cone-shaped periodic surface structures were produced. For this purpose high repetition excimer laser radiation at wavelengths of 193 nm and 248 nm and with short laser pulse widths (4-6 ns) were used. Structure sizes varied with laser and processing parameters, e.g. laser fluences, pulse number, wavelength and processing gas. Laser annealing in air or furnace annealing in a controlled argon/oxygen environment were then used to create the high temperature phase of LiCoO2 (HT-LiCoO2). The sputtered films were studied with Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction to determine their stoichiometry and crystallinity before and after laser treatment. The development of HT-LiCoO2 and also the formation of a Co3O4 phase were discussed. By means of electrochemical cycling, the performance of the manufactured films was investigated.

  12. Simulation-based formulation of a nonchemically amplified resist for 257-nm laser mask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsack, Benjamen M.; Tabery, Cyrus E.; Stachowiak, Timothy B.; Albelo, Jeff A.; Willson, C. Grant

    2000-06-01

    The demand for smaller and more uniform features on photomasks has inspired consideration of a DUV (257 nm) resist process for optical pattern generation. Chemically amplified resists require storage and exposure in carbon filtered environments, and they require post-exposure bakes. Few mask facilities are set up to handle chemically amplified resists commonly used in deep UV wafer fabrication process. Hence, it is appropriate to explore the lithographic performance of non-chemically amplified resist materials for 257 nm laser photomask lithography. Resist characterization and lithography simulation were used to formulate a 257 nm resist from DNQ/novolak materials provided by a commercial resist supplier. Diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ)/novolak resists have not been used for DUV Integrated Circuit (IC) applications mainly due to the low sensitivity and the strong absorbance of the DNQ photoactive compound (PAC) at 248 nm. However, a 2,1,4 DNQ based resist has been characterized that bleaches at 257 nm and inhibits novolak. The photoproduct of the 2,1,4 DNQ PAC is much more transparent at 257 nm than 248 nm. Novolak resin also has an absorbance minimum in the DUV at 257 nm that provides transparency similar to poly (hydroxystyrene). Traditional photoresist formulation requires tedious, iterative, and expensive manufacturing trials. Resist characterization and lithography simulation can be used to relate lithographic performance (resolution, sidewall and process latitude) to resist formulation parameters (PAC concentration, developer concentration, etc.), thereby supporting the formulation optimization. An exposure system using a 257 nm frequency doubled argon laser system has been constructed to study the resist photokinetics. Dill exposure parameters (A, B and C) have been extracted for a 2,1,4 DNQ/novolak based resist. Dissolution rate measurements have been made with a development rate monitor developed at the University of Texas at Austin. Simulation using the

  13. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  14. Rigid biodegradable photopolymer structures of high resolution using deep-UV laser photocuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, F.; Anjum, F.; Ceseracciu, L.; Barone, A. C.; Athanassiou, A.

    2011-05-01

    Recently there has been increasing effort in using microstereolithography to produce scaffolds of crosslinkable and biodegradable polymers, with desired configurations of high spatial resolution, able to regulate the growth and distribution of cells and consequently the tissue development and engineering on them. The use of deep-UV radiation allows high resolution both in the transversal plane (optical resolution) and in the vertical direction (curing depth) due to the intrinsic large absorption of polymers in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Herein we present high-resolution photocrosslinking of the biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF), using pulsed laser light at 248 nm. The curing depth can be modulated between a few hundreds of nanometers (nm) and a few micrometers (µm) by adjusting the energy dose, the number of incident pulses and the weight ratios of PPF, DEF and photoinitiator in the photocrosslinkable mixtures. The lateral resolution is evaluated by projecting a pattern of a grid with a specified line width and line spacing, and is found to be a few µm. Young's modulus of the cured parts is measured and found to be several GPa, high enough to support bone formation. The results presented here demonstrate that the proposed technique is suitable for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures with defined patterns of micrometer resolution in all three spatial dimensions, setting the first step toward deep-UV laser microstereolithography.

  15. Analysis of plume following ultraviolet laser ablation of doped polymers: Dependence on polymer molecular weight

    SciTech Connect

    Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Bounos, Giannis; Kolloch, Andreas; Georgiou, Savas; Castillejo, Marta

    2007-02-01

    This work investigates the effect of polymer molecular weight M{sub W} on the plume characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) films doped with iodonaphthalene (NapI) and iodophenanthrene (PhenI) following irradiation in vacuum at 248 nm. Laser-induced fluorescence probing of the plume reveals the presence of ArH products (NapH and PhenH from, respectively, NapI- and PhenI-doped films). While a bimodal translational distribution of these products is observed in all cases, on average, a slower translational distribution is observed in the low M{sub W} system. The extent of the observed dependence is reduced as the optical absorption coefficient of the film increases, i.e., in the sequence NapI/PMMA, PhenI/PMMA, and PS-doped films. Further confirmation of the bimodal translational distributions is provided by monitoring in situ the temporally resolved attenuation by the plume as it expands in vacuum of a continuous wave helium-neon laser propagating parallel to the substrate. Results are discussed in the framework of the bulk photothermal model, according to which ejection requires that a critical number of bonds are broken.

  16. Multiphoton ionisation and dissociation of NO 2 by 50 fs laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, R. P.; Kilic, H. S.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; Kosmidis, C.; McCanny, T.; Langley, A. J.; Shaikh, W.

    1996-04-01

    Multiphoton ionisation and dissociation of NO 2 has been studied experimentally at 375 nm for laser pulse widths of 10 ns and 50 fs. The parent NO 2 ion peak is not seen in the ns data. In all spectra, the main peak observed is due to the ionisation of the NO molecule which results from the dissociation of excited NO 2 formed after absorbing a 375 nm photon. The intensity dependencies of both NO and NO 2 ion peaks have also been measured. The data has been analysed within the context of a rate equation model using published cross-sections and dissociation rates except for the two-photon ionisation cross-section for NO 2 which was chosen to reproduce the NO 2/NO ion signal ratios at 50 fs. The rate equation model provides a good description of the complete set of data. Indirectly, it may be concluded that coherence effects do not play an important role in the multiphoton excitation/ionisation of NO 2. The data also rules out the importance of above-ionisation dissociation in NO 2 — a conclusion which is consistent with previous data at 496 and 248 nm for laser pulse widths ⩾ 300 fs.

  17. Tunable stoichiometry of SiOx-BaTiOy-BOz fabricated by multitarget pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, John G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Smith, Steven R.; Landis, Gerald R.; Grazulis, Lawrence; Sun, Lirong; Murphy, Neil R.; Kozlowski, Gregory; Jakubiak, Rachel; Stutz, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Oxide materials of desired stoichiometry are challenging to make in small quantities. Nanostructured thin films of multiple oxide materials were obtained by using pulsed laser deposition and multiple independent targets consisting of Si, BaTiO3, and B. Programmable stoichiometry of nanostructured thin films was achieved by synchronizing a 248-nm krypton fluoride excimer laser at an energy of 300 mJ/pulse, a galvanometer mirror system, and the three independent target materials with a background pressure of oxygen. Island growth occurred on a per pulse basis; some 500 pulses are required to deposit 1 nm of material. The number of pulses on each target was programmed with a high degree of precision. Trends in material properties were systematically identified by varying the stoichiometry of multiple nanostructured thin films and comparing the resulting properties measured using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, capacitance measurements including relative permittivity and loss, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Films were deposited ˜150 to 907 nm thickness, and in situ ellipsometry data were modeled to calculate thickness n and k. A representative atomic force microscopy measurement was also collected. EDS, ellipsometry, and capacitance measurements were all performed on each of the samples, with one sample having a calculated permittivity greater than 20,000 at 1 kHz.

  18. Selective Area Modification of Silicon Surface Wettability by Pulsed UV Laser Irradiation in Liquid Environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Neng; Moumanis, Khalid; Dubowski, Jan J

    2015-01-01

    The wettability of silicon (Si) is one of the important parameters in the technology of surface functionalization of this material and fabrication of biosensing devices. We report on a protocol of using KrF and ArF lasers irradiating Si (001) samples immersed in a liquid environment with low number of pulses and operating at moderately low pulse fluences to induce Si wettability modification. Wafers immersed for up to 4 hr in a 0.01% H2O2/H2O solution did not show measurable change in their initial contact angle (CA) ~75°. However, the 500-pulse KrF and ArF lasers irradiation of such wafers in a microchamber filled with 0.01% H2O2/H2O solution at 250 and 65 mJ/cm(2), respectively, has decreased the CA to near 15°, indicating the formation of a superhydrophilic surface. The formation of OH-terminated Si (001), with no measurable change of the wafer's surface morphology, has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. The selective area irradiated samples were then immersed in a biotin-conjugated fluorescein-stained nanospheres solution for 2 hr, resulting in a successful immobilization of the nanospheres in the non-irradiated area. This illustrates the potential of the method for selective area biofunctionalization and fabrication of advanced Si-based biosensing architectures. We also describe a similar protocol of irradiation of wafers immersed in methanol (CH3OH) using ArF laser operating at pulse fluence of 65 mJ/cm(2) and in situ formation of a strongly hydrophobic surface of Si (001) with the CA of 103°. The XPS results indicate ArF laser induced formation of Si-(OCH3)x compounds responsible for the observed hydrophobicity. However, no such compounds were found by XPS on the Si surface irradiated by KrF laser in methanol, demonstrating the inability of the KrF laser to photodissociate methanol and create -OCH3 radicals. PMID:26575362

  19. Optimization of substrate-target distance for pulsed laser deposition of tungsten oxide thin films using Langmuir probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, A. Kumar; Singh, A.; Thirumurugesan, R.; Kuppusami, P.; Mohandas, E.

    2015-09-01

    The paper investigates the spatial and temporal variation of laser produced plasma of tungsten oxide using a Langmuir probe. The plasma was produced by laser ablation of tungsten oxide target using an Excimer laser of wavelength 248 nm. Our experimental studies confirmed that oxygen partial pressure (P) of 2× 10-2 mbar is sufficient enough to get stoichiometric tungsten oxide thin films and the plume dynamics was diagnosed for their spatial and temporal behaviour at the above optimised oxygen pressure. Spatial distribution was recorded with the target to substrate distance (D) ranging from the target position to a distance of 75 mm away from the target, whereas the temporal variation was taken in the range of 0-50 μ S with an interval of 0.5 μ S. The average electron densities were found to be maximum at 30 mm from the target position. However, ion density was constant beyond the probe distance of 45 mm from the target. The plasma current was found to be maximum at 28 μ S. The target to substrate distance was optimized for homogenous adherent good quality thin films using plasma parameters such as ion density and average electron density obtained at different oxygen pressure. The target distance and background gas pressure were correlated as PD scaling law and fitted as PD3 in the model.

  20. Modifications in surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass using laser induced Ni plasma as an ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, M. Shahid; Yousaf, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced Ni plasma has been employed as source of ion implantation for surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass. Excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns, 120mJ and 30 Hz) was used for the generation of Ni plasma. Thomson parabola technique was employed to estimate the energy of generated ions using CR39 as a detector. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, the ion dose varies from 60 × 1013 to 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 with constant energy of 138 KeV. SEM analysis reveals the growth of nano/micro sized cavities, pores, pits, voids and cracks for the ion dose ranging from 60 × 1013 to 70 × 1015 ions/cm2. However, at maximum ion dose of 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 the granular morphology is observed. XRD analysis reveals that new phase of CuZnNi (200) is formed in the brass substrate after ion implantation. However, an anomalous trend in peak intensity, crystallite size, dislocation line density and induced stresses is observed in response to the implantation with various doses. The increase in ion dose causes to decrease the Yield Stress (YS), Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and hardness. However, for the maximum ion dose the highest values of these mechanical properties are achieved. The variations in the mechanical properties are correlated with surface and crystallographical changes of ion implanted brass.

  1. Contrasting damage characteristics in direct incidence and surface plasmon mediated single-shot laser ablation of aluminium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, D. A.; Morrow, T.; Dawson, P.

    1998-05-01

    Thin, oxidised Al films grown on one face of fused silica prisms are exposed, under ambient conditions, to single shots from an excimer laser operating at wavelength 248 nm. Preliminary characterisation of the films using attenuated total reflection yields optical and thickness data for the Al and Al oxide layers; this step facilitates the subsequent, accurate tuning of the excimer laser pulse to the surface plasmon resonance at the Al/(oxide)/air interface and the calculation of the fluence actually absorbed by the thin film system. Ablation damage is characterised using scanning electron, and atomic force microscopy. When the laser pulse is incident, through the prism, on the sample at less than critical angle, the damage features are molten in nature with small islands of sub-micrometer dimension much in evidence; a mechanism of film melt-through and subsequent blow-off due to the build up of vapour pressure at the substrate/film interface is appropriate. By contrast, when the optical input is surface plasmon mediated, predominately mechanical damage results with the film fragmenting into large flakes of dimensions on the order of 10 μm. It is suggested that the ability of surface plasmons to transport energy leads to enhanced, preferential absorption of energy at defect sites causing stress throughout the film which exceeds the ultimate tensile stress for the film; this in turn leads to film break-up before melting can onset.

  2. Production and characterization of Nd,Cr:GSGG thin films on Si(001) grown by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, P. R.; Manoravi, P.; Holliday, K.

    Nd,Cr:Gd3Sc2Ga3O12 (GSGG) thin films have been produced for the first time. They were grown on Si(001) substrates at 650 °C by pulsed laser ablation at 248 nm of a crystalline Nd,Cr:GSGG target rod. The laser plume was analyzed using time-of-flight quadrupole mass spectroscopy, and consisted of elemental and metal oxide fragments with kinetic energies typically in the range 10 to 40 eV, though extending up to 100 eV. Although films deposited in vacuum using laser fluences of 0.8+/-0.1 Jcm-2 reproduced the Nd,Cr:GSGG bulk stoichiometry, those deposited using fluences above 3 Jcm-2 resulted in noncongruent material transfer and were deficient in Ga and Cr. Attempts to grow films using synchronized oxygen or oxygen/argon pulses yielded mixed oxide phases. Under optimal growth conditions, the films were heteroepitaxial, with GSGG(001)[100]∥Si(001)[100], and exhibited Volmer-Weber-type growth. Room-temperature emission spectra of the films suggest efficient non-radiative energy transfer between Cr3+ and Nd3+ ions, similar to that of the bulk crystal.

  3. Rapid fabrication of rigid biodegradable scaffolds by excimer laser mask projection technique: a comparison between 248 and 308 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beke, S.; Anjum, F.; Ceseracciu, L.; Romano, I.; Athanassiou, A.; Diaspro, A.; Brandi, F.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution photocrosslinking of the biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF), using pulsed laser light at 248 and 308 nm is presented. The curing depth can be modulated between a few hundreds of nm and a few μm when using 248 nm and ten to a hundred μm when using 308 nm. By adjusting the total fluence (pulse numbers×laser fluence) dose and the weight ratios of PPF, DEF, and the photoinitiator in the photocrosslinkable mixtures, the height of polymerized structures can be precisely tuned. The lateral resolution is evaluated by projecting a pattern of a grid with a specified line width and line spacing. Young’s modulus of the cured parts is measured and found to be several GPa for both wavelengths, high enough to support bone formation. Several 2D and 2.5D microstructures, as well as porous 3D scaffolds fabricated by a layer-by-layer method, are presented. The results demonstrate that excimer laser-based photocuring is suitable for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures with defined patterns of micrometer resolution in all three spatial dimensions.

  4. Ti:sapphire/KrF hybrid laser system generating trains of subterawatt subpicosecond UV pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Zvorykin, V D; Ionin, A A; Levchenko, A O; Mesyats, G A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Ustinovskii, N N; Shutov, A V

    2014-05-30

    The GARPUN-MTW Ti:sapphire/KrF hybrid laser system is used to investigate different multipass schemes for amplifying trains of ultrashort pulses (USPs) of subpicosecond duration. It is shown that, for an USP repetition period of 3 – 5 ns, which exceeds the gain-medium recovery time (∼2 ns), trains are amplified in the same way as single USPs. Due to this, a train can efficiently extract pump energy from the amplifier and sum energies of individual USPs. The energy of a four-USP train, extracted during four passes through the preamplifier and two passes through the final KrF amplifier (4 + 2 scheme), is saturated at a level of 1.6 J and corresponds to maximum USP peak powers of about 0.6 TW. The energy of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), on the contrary, rapidly increases at a large total gain length L{sub eff} ≈ 6 m and is approximately equal to the USP energy. In the (4 + 1) and (2 + 2) schemes the USP energy decreases only slightly, to E{sub out} = 1.3 and 1.2 J, and the ASE fraction is reduced to about 10% and 3%, respectively. USP self-focusing leads to multiple laser beam filamentation and a 200-fold local increase in the radiation intensity in filaments, to ∼2 × 10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}, a level at which the nonlinear loss in the output CaF{sub 2} windows of the KrF amplifier, caused by three-photon absorption, nonlinear scattering, and broadening of the radiation spectrum to a value exceeding the gain band of the KrF laser transition, becomes the main factor determining the saturation of the USP output energy. (lasers)

  5. Laser Driven Shock Experiments for Deuterium EOS Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Mostovych, Andrew

    2005-10-01

    With the Nike KrF laser facility at the Naval Research Laboratory, we have conducted laser driven shock experiments along the primary Hugoniot of deuterium in the pressure range 25 ˜ 200 GPa (0.25 ˜ 2 Mbar). A streak camera was used to resolve the optical self-emission from the shocks and provide information about the shock temperatures. A NIST traceable lamp with photomultipliers was used to calibrate in situ the device for the temperature measurements. Velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) measured the shock speed and the reflectivity at the shock front. The preheat effect on the shock formation is also investigated. The results from these measurements will be presented to evaluate various EOS models. This research was performed in Laser Plasma Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory and was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Deposition of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veligdan, James; Branch, D.; Vanier, P. E.; Barietta, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000 C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing involved the use of a CO2 laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl5 gas near the substrate. The results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  7. Study of thin TiC xN 1-x films fabricated by hybrid magnetron-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Studnička, Václav; Kadlec, Jaromír

    2006-02-01

    Titanium- carbonitride thin films were grown at room temperature using a hybrid deposition arrangement combining DC magnetron sputtering and KrF pulsed laser deposition (MSPLD). Carbon and titanium were simultaneously deposited on the same Si substrate, dimensions of 3 cm × 3 cm. Films were fabricated in argon- nitrogen atmosphere of 1 Pa - 5 Pa, for laser fluence of 15 Jcm -2 and magnetron power of 150 W. Film properties were modified by RF discharge held between the target and substrate. Film crystallinity was studied by XRD and the composition depth profile of TiCN layers by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES).

  8. Crystallization to polycrystalline silicon thin film and simultaneous inactivation of electrical defects by underwater laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Emi; Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ikenoue, Hiroshi

    2012-12-17

    We propose a low-temperature laser annealing method of a underwater laser annealing (WLA) for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films. We performed crystallization to poly-Si films by laser irradiation in flowing deionized-water where KrF excimer laser was used for annealing. We demonstrated that the maximum value of maximum grain size of WLA samples was 1.5 {mu}m, and that of the average grain size was 2.8 times larger than that of conventional laser annealing in air (LA) samples. Moreover, WLA forms poly-Si films which show lower conductivity and larger carrier life time attributed to fewer electrical defects as compared to LA poly-Si films.

  9. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  10. On the role of multiphoton light absorption in pulsed laser nanoablation of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komlenok, M. S.; Kononenko, V. V.; Gololobov, V. M.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The rates of multipulse nanoablation of the diamond surface in air by pico- and nanosecond laser pulses that cause singlephoton, two-photon, three-photon and four-photon absorption in diamond are measured. In the experiments the radiation of ArF, KrF and Ti : Al2O3 lasers and the second harmonic of the Yb : YAG laser was used. The power dependence of the material etching rate on the fluence of laser pulses was found. The power exponent of this dependence appeared to be twice lower than that found earlier for femtosecond pulses. We discuss the causes of the difference in the nanoablation regularities for 'short' and 'long' laser pulses.

  11. Formation of a narrow beam from an excimer laser pumped by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevyan, V A

    2002-06-30

    A laser pumped by a travelling gamma-radiation wave and consisting of a cylindrical part forming spontaneous superradiation and a conical amplifier is considered. The energy parameters of an excimer conical KrF amplifier are investigated. The factors influencing the divergence of induced radiation at the output of the conical amplifier are analysed for various durations of a pump pulse. It is shown that the divergence of radiation emitted by the laser with an active medium length of 10 m may be as high as 10{sup -4} rad. The scheme of laser-beam focusing on the target for the purposes of laser-induced fusion is considered. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  12. KrF resists for implant layers patterning extreme high-aspect ratio structures with a double focal plane exposure technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafaelli, Giorgio; Ferri, Fabio; Volpi, Stefano; Hong, Chisun

    2012-03-01

    The design rules for advanced image sensor applications are requiring continuous CD shrinkage, and increasing aspect ratios which resulting in major challenges associated with using KrF technology. For the implant photo layers in particular, the need to block high-energy boron implants (well above 2 MeV) with extremely localized implant profiles requires an aspect ratio of deep well structures greater than 10:1. Other desirable attributes of a good photoresist for such demanding applications are high transparency, a steep wall profile consistent throughout the entire film, good adhesion with no structure collapse, and a wide process window. In this paper, we will discuss the role of a chemically amplified, ESCAP-type of resist in meeting these design criteria using a double focal plane exposure technique.

  13. Laser-induced UV photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane: dynamics of OH and Br formation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ankur; Kawade, Monali; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D

    2011-01-28

    Photoexcitation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane (BNP) at 248 and 193 nm generates OH, Br, and NO(2) among other products. The OH fragment is detected by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and its translational and internal state distributions (vibration, rotation, spin-orbit, and Λ-doubling components) are probed. At both 248 and 193 nm, the OH fragment is produced translationally hot with the energy of 10.8 and 17.2 kcal∕mol, respectively. It is produced vibrationally cold (v" = 0) at 248 nm, and excited (v" = 1) at 193 nm with a vibrational temperature of 1870 ± 150 K. It is also generated with rotational excitation, rotational populations of OH(v" = 0) being characterized by a temperature of 550 ± 50 and 925 ± 100 K at 248 and 193 nm excitation of BNP, respectively. The spin-orbit components of OH(X(2)Π) are not in equilibrium on excitation at 193 nm, but the Λ-doublets are almost in equilibrium, implying no preference for its π lobe with respect to the plane of rotation. The NO(2) product is produced electronically excited, as detected by measuring UV-visible fluorescence, at 193 nm and mostly in the ground electronic state at 248 nm. The Br product is detected employing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometer for better understanding of the dynamics of dissociation. The forward convolution analysis of the experimental data has provided translational energy distributions and anisotropy parameters for both Br((2)P(3∕2)) and Br∗((2)P(1∕2)). The average translational energies for the Br and Br∗ channels are 5.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 1.5 kcal∕mol. No recoil anisotropies were observed for these products. Most plausible mechanisms of OH and Br formation are discussed based on both the experimental and the theoretical results. Results suggest that the electronically excited BNP molecules at 248 and 234 nm relax to the ground state, and subsequently dissociate to produce OH and Br through different channels. The

  14. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-09-27

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm/sup -1/, which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs.

  15. Extended plasma channels created by UV laser in air and their application to control electric discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Zvorykin, V. D. Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2015-02-15

    Results are presented from a series of experimental and theoretical studies on creating weakly ionized extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by 248-nm UV laser radiation and their application to control long high-voltage discharges. The main mechanisms of air ionization by UV laser pulses with durations from 100 fs to 25 ns and intensities in the ranges of 3×10{sup 11}–1.5×10{sup 13} and 3×10{sup 6}–3×10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}, respectively, which are below the threshold for optical gas breakdown, as well as the main relaxation processes in plasma with a density of 10{sup 9}–10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, are considered. It is shown that plasma channels in air can be efficiently created by amplitude-modulated UV pulses consisting of a train of subpicosecond pulses producing primary photoelectrons and a long UV pulse suppressing electron attachment and sustaining the density of free electrons in plasma. Different modes of the generation and amplification of trains of subterawatt subpicosecond pulses and amplitude-modulated UV pulses with an energy of several tens of joules were implemented on the GARPUN-MTW hybrid Ti:sapphire-KrF laser facility. The filamentation of such UV laser beams during their propagation in air over distances of up to 100 m and the parameters of the corresponding plasma channels were studied experimentally and theoretically. Laser initiation of high-voltage electric discharges and control of their trajectories by means of amplitude-modulated UV pulses, as well as the spatiotemporal structure of breakdowns in air gaps with length of up to 80 cm, were studied.

  16. Excimer Laser Application For Cataract Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bath, Patricia E.; Mueller, Gerhard; Apple, David J.; Stolzenburg, Norbert M.

    1988-06-01

    The ablation threshold of bovine lenses was determined for excimer laser radiatiF at 308 nanreters. The ablation th5eshold for bovine lenses was approximately 0.6J/cm +/-0.1J/cm , for cortex and 1J/cm for nucleus. The threshold for bovine nucleus was higher than the threshold for cortex and difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level. The relatively low ablation threshold for bovine lenses demonstrates the potential effectiveness of excimer laser radiation at 308 nm for cataract surgery. An experimental prototype has been developed and results of its application demonstrated. Further experiments to demonstrate safety for the retina and adjacent ocular structures are necessary because of the well known hazards of ultraviolet radiation. The potential of theleymir laser for keratorefractive surgery is currently under intensive investigation. In preliminary studies the ablation behavior of bovine lenses was investigated. The objective of this study was to quantify ablation rates as the first step in determining the specification for a laser system which would be practical in the clinical setting. Although excimer laser systems are available at 193 nm (ArF), 248 (KrF) and 351 (xeF) we selected 308 nm because of the availability of fiberoptics for the transmission of 308 nm as well as the known absorbance of human lenses in the 280 nm region.

  17. Kinetic modelling of krypton fluoride laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jancaitis, K.S.

    1983-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for the KrF* rare gas halide laser system, specifically for electron-beam pumped mixtures of krypton, fluorine, and either helium or argon. The excitation produced in the laser gas by the e-beam was calculated numerically using an algorithm checked by comparing the predicted ionization yields in the pure rare gases with their experimental values. The excitation of the laser media by multi-kilovolt x-rays was also modeled and shown to be similar to that produced by high energy electrons. A system of equations describing the transfer of the initial gas excitation into the laser upper level was assembled using reaction rate constants from both experiment and theory. A one-dimensional treatment of the interaction of the laser radiation with the gas was formulated which considered spontaneous and stimulated emission and absorption. The predictions of this model were in good agreement with the fluorescence signals and gain and absorption measured experimentally.

  18. Enhanced electrical and optical properties of room temperature deposited Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films by excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hamali, S. O.; Cranton, W. M.; Kalfagiannis, N.; Hou, X.; Ranson, R.; Koutsogeorgis, D. C.

    2016-05-01

    High quality transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) often require a high thermal budget fabrication process. In this study, Excimer Laser Annealing (ELA) at a wavelength of 248 nm has been explored as a processing mechanism to facilitate low thermal budget fabrication of high quality aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films. 180 nm thick AZO films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature on fused silica substrates. The effects of the applied RF power and the sputtering pressure on the outcome of ELA at different laser energy densities and number of pulses have been investigated. AZO films deposited with no intentional heating at 180 W, and at 2 mTorr of 0.2% oxygen in argon were selected as the optimum as-deposited films in this work, with a resistivity of 1×10-3 Ω.cm, and an average visible transmission of 85%. ELA was found to result in noticeably reduced resistivity of 5×10-4 Ω.cm, and enhancing the average visible transmission to 90% when AZO is processed with 5 pulses at 125 mJ/cm2. Therefore, the combination of RF magnetron sputtering and ELA, both low thermal budget and scalable techniques, can provide a viable fabrication route of high quality AZO films for use as transparent electrodes.

  19. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells. Quarterly technical report No. 1, 26 March-30 June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this research is to show whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions in fabricating crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed during the first quarter of this program shows that the use of PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for diffusion, aluminum BSF and an extra cleaning step in the baseline process described by JPL. The cost advantage of the PELA process depends on improving the average cell efficiency from 14% to 16%, which would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. The technical goal of this research is to develop an optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production, and to demonstrate increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis. During the first quarter of this program an excimer laser annealing station was set-up and made operational. The first experiment used 248 nm radiation to anneal phosphorus implants in polished and texture-etched silicon. Preliminary results showed that the PELA processed cells had overall efficiencies comparable to furnace annealed ion implanted controls, and that texture-etched material requires lower fluence for annealing than polished silicon. Process optimization will be carried out in the second quarter.

  20. Thermoelectric conversion via laser-induced voltage in highly textured polycrystalline Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, G. W.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Yu, L.; Zhang, P. X.; Habermeier, H.-U.

    2011-11-15

    We have studied and analyzed the laser-induced voltage effect in highly c-axis-oriented polycrystalline Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. The textured and layered stacking Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x {approx} 0.7) bulks were prepared by a solid-state reaction process. Under the irradiation on Na{sub 0.67}CoO{sub 2} bulk surface with pulsed laser ({lambda} = 248 nm), the induced voltage signals were observed on the inclined surface with rise time 30 ns-43 ns and peak voltage 200 mV-500 mV; the voltage peak values show a linear dependence of laser energy densities. The crystal grains orientation plays a critical role in voltage peak value whether in film or texture bulk. The transverse voltage signal brings the information of thermoelectric anisotropy. In Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} band structure, the Fermi surface is different in the ab plane and along the c axis, leading to anisotropy of Seebeck coefficient. Additionally, the artificial structure of the inclined surface for highly textured bulk enables us to obtain a transverse voltage on inclined surface. These results demonstrated the layered textured bulk has potential applications in waste-heat conversion via transverse thermoelectric effect.

  1. Multi-level diffractive optical elements produced by excimer laser ablation of sol-gel.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Estelle; Flury, Manuel; Mager, Loïc; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Fort, Alain; Montgomery, Paul; Gérard, Philippe; Fontaine, Joël; Robert, Stéphane

    2008-09-01

    Material ablation by excimer laser micromachining is a promising approach for structuring sol-gel materials as we demonstrate in the present study. Using the well-known direct etching technique, the behaviour of different hybrid organic/inorganic self-made sol-gel materials is examined with a KrF* laser. Ablated depths ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 microm are obtained with a few laser pulses at low fluence (< 1 J/cm(2)). The aim is to rapidly transfer surface relief multi-level diffractive patterns in such a substrate, without intermediate steps. The combination with the 3D profilometry technique of coherence probe microscopy permits to analyse the etching process with the aim of producing multi-level Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). Examples of four-level DOEs with 10 microm square elementary cells are presented, as well as their laser reconstructions in the infrared. PMID:18773015

  2. Laser modification and characterization of Li-Mn-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Adelhelm, C.; Bruns, M.; Torge, M.; Heißler, S.; Przybylski, M.; Ziebert, C.; Pfleging, W.

    2011-03-01

    The development of future battery systems is mainly focused on powerful rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. To satisfy this demand, current studies are focused on cathodes based on nano-composite materials which lead to an increase in power density of the LIB primarily due to large electrochemically active surface areas. Electrode materials made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) are assumed to replace commonly used cathode materials like LiCoO2 due to less toxicity and lower costs. Thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering of a LiMn2O4 target on silicon and stainless steel substrates. In order to enhance power density and cycle stability of the cathode material, direct laser structuring methods were investigated using a laser system operating at a wavelength of 248 nm. Therefore, high aspect ratio micro-structures were formed on the thin films. Laser annealing processes were investigated in order to achieve an appropriate crystalline phase for unstructured and structured thin films as well as for an increase in energy density and control of grain size. Laser annealing was realized via a high power diode laser system. The effects of post-thermal treatment on the thin films were studied with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of electrochemically active and inactive phases was discussed. Surface chemistry was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Interaction between UV-laser radiation and the thin film material was analyzed through ablation experiments. Finally, to investigate the electrochemical properties, the manufactured thin film cathodes were cycled against a lithium anode. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on the cathode side was discussed.

  3. Transformation of medical grade silicone rubber under Nd:YAG and excimer laser irradiation: First step towards a new miniaturized nerve electrode fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Robbe, O.; Addad, A.; Turrell, S.; Derozier, D.

    2009-08-01

    Medical grade silicone rubber, poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used biomaterial. Like for many polymers, its surface can be modified in order to change one or several of its properties which further allow this surface to be functionalized. Laser-induced surface modification of PDMS under ambient conditions is an easy and powerful method for the surface modification of PDMS without altering its bulk properties. In particular, we profit from both UV laser inducing surface modification and of UV laser micromachining to develop a first part of a new process aiming at increasing the number of contacts and tracks within the same electrode surface to improve the nerve selectivity of implantable self sizing spiral cuff electrodes. The second and last part of the process is to further immerse the engraved electrode in an autocatalytic Pt bath leading in a selective Pt metallization of the laser irradiated tracks and contacts and thus to a functionalized PDMS surface. In the present work, we describe the different physical and chemical transformations of a medical grade PDMS as a function of the UV laser and of the irradiation conditions used. We show that the ablation depths, chemical composition, structure and morphology vary with (i) the laser wavelength (using an excimer laser at 248 nm and a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm), (ii) the conditions of irradiation and (iii) the pulse duration. These different modified properties are expected to have a strong influence on the nucleation and growth rates of platinum which govern the adhesion and the thickness of the Pt layer on the electrodes and thus the DC resistance of tracks.

  4. Control of optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanocrystals by nanosecond-laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimogaki, T.; Ofuji, T.; Tetsuyama, N.; Kawahara, H.; Higashihata, M.; Ikenoue, H.; Nakamura, D.; Okada, T.

    2014-03-01

    Effects of laser annealing on electrical and optical properties of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals, which are expected as building blocks for optoelectronic devices, have been investigated in this study. In the case of fabricating p-n junction in single one-dimensional ZnO nanocrystal, phosphorus-ions implanted p-type ZnO nanocrystals were recrystallized and recovered in the optical properties by nanosecond-laser annealing using a KrF excimer laser. Antimony-doped p-type ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by irradiating laminated structure which antimony thin film were deposited on ZnO nanocrystals with the laser beam. Additionally, it is possible to control the growth rate of ZnO nanowires by using laser annealing. Irradiating with pulsed laser a part of ZnO buffer layer deposited on the a-cut sapphire substrate, then ZnO nanowires were grown on the ZnO buffer layer by the nanoparticle assisted pulsed laser deposition method. As a result, the clear boundary of the laser annealed and non-laser annealed area was appeared. It was observed that ZnO nanowires were grown densely at non-laser annealed area, on the other hand, sparse ones were grown at the laser-annealed region. In this report, the possibility of laser annealing techniques to establish the stable and reliable fabrication process of ZnO nanowires-based LD and LED are discussed on the basis of experimental results.

  5. Summary of the laser working group

    SciTech Connect

    Bigio, I.J.; Kurnit, N.A. ); Donaldson, W.R. . Lab. for Laser Energetics); Geissler, K. ); Srinivasan-Rao, T. )

    1988-10-01

    The laser working group considered several options to deliver synchronized laser pulses of the required energy to the photocathode and laser triggered switches. These requirements actually decreased during the course of the workshop, and the values finally settled upon (<10 {mu}J in 100 fs at {approximately}250 nm for the photocathode and {approximately}20 mJ in 2 ps near either 250 nm or 1 {mu}m for the switches) were considered to be well within the state of the art. Some development work may be required, however, to provide a system that has the desirable characteristics of stability, ease of use and low maintenance. The baseline concept, which is similar to a number of existing systems, utilizes doubled Nd:YAG-pumped dye oscillator/amplifiers to produce an upconverted picosecond pulse that can be amplified to tens of mJ in a KrF excimer laser. A fraction of the dye oscillator output is also compressed by means of a fiber-grating compressor and further amplified in a dye amplifier before being upconverted to produce the synchronized pulse for the photocathode. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Periodic Nanostructuring of Au with Ultrashort UV Laser Pulses near the Damage Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, D. S.; Lipp, V. P.; Blumenstein, A.; Kleinwort, F.; Veiko, V. P.; Yakovlev, E.; Roddatis, V.; Garcia, M. E.; Rethfeld, B.; Ihlemann, J.; Simon, P.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism of surface restructuring by ultrashort laser pulses involves a number of fast, nonequilibrium, and interrelated processes while the solid is in a transient state. As a result, the analysis of the experimental data cannot address all of the mechanisms of nanostructuring. In this paper, we present a direct comparison of a simulation and the experimental results of surface nanomodifications induced by a single laser pulse. The experimental results are obtained by using a mask-projection setup with a laser wavelength of 248 nm and a pulse length of 1.6 ps. Two-beam interference of this short wavelength allows for producing a large-area intensity grating of 40 μ m in diameter on a gold surface with a sinusoidal shape and a period of 500 nm. The formed structures are analyzed at the surface and in a cross section by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. Then a hybrid atomistic-continuum model capable of capturing the essential mechanisms responsible for the nanostructuring process is used to model the interaction of the laser pulse with a thick gold target. The good agreement between the modeling results and the experimental data justifies the proposed approach as a powerful tool revealing the physics behind the nanostructuring process at a gold surface and providing a microscopic insight into the dynamics of the structuring processes of metals in general. The presented model, therefore, is an important step towards a computational tool for predicting a materials response to an ultrashort laser pulse on the atomic scale. This detailed understanding of the dynamics of the process will pave the way towards predesigned topologies for functionalized surfaces on nanoscales and microscales.

  7. Diffraction-aided laser-induced microstructuring of thin TiO{sub 2} films on glass

    SciTech Connect

    Overschelde, O. van; Wautelet, M.

    2006-10-16

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2} are deposited by magnetron sputtering on glass substrate and are irradiated by ultraviolet radiation using a KrF excimer laser. These thin films are patterned with a razor blade placed in the way of the radiation. When the fluence is in the 1250-1550 mJ/cm{sup 2} range, a regular structure appears, with controlled ablation of the films. It is shown that above a critical local fluence, the ablated depth varies linearly with the local fluence. The proportionality factor is shown to be equal to two photons per evaporated molecule.

  8. Electron stimulated desorption of the metallic substrate at monolayer coverage: Sensitive detection via 193 nm laser photoionization of neutral aluminum desorbed from CH3O/Al(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. E.; Whitten, J. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Jones, P. L.

    A fortuitous overlap between the gain profile of the 193 nm ArF excimer laser and the Al autoionizing transition (sup 2)S(sub 1/2) (512753/cm) yields to the left (sup 2)P(sup 0)J has been exploited in the direct observation of substrate metal atoms in an electron simulated desorption (ESD) process from the monolayer adsorbate system CH3O/Al(111). The identity of the mass 27 photoion was established as Al(+) by (1) isotopic substitution of C-13 in the methanol employed for methoxy formation, and (2) tunable laser scans utilizing the DJ-2 (J = 3/2, 5/2) intermediate levels at approximately 32436/cm and a 248 nm ionization step. An ESD yield of approximately x 10(exp -6) Al atoms/(electron at 1 keV) was established by comparison with a sputtering experiment in the same apparatus. Velocity distributions measured for the desorbed Al species showed some differences in comparison with methoxy velocity data: a slightly lower peak velocity and a significantly less prominent high-velocity component.

  9. Investigation of a UV-laser generated planar polymeric waveguide directly and after five years of preparation using an interferometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams El-Din, M. A.; Ramadan, W. A.; Wochnowski, C.; Wahba, H. H.; Aboleneen, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    Polymeric integrated-optical waveguides were prepared in a planar chip using UV-laser lithographic method. Five waveguide samples were irradiated by an excimer laser of wavelength 248 nm with different irradiation parameters (fluence and irradiation doses). Using Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the refractive index depth profiles of these samples are determined in two cases, directly and five years later of preparation. A crucial change of refractive indices profiles has been recorded after five years of preparation. In the first case we got double region waveguides fitted a Gaussian shape, while in the second one we observe a single region waveguide which has exponential shape. The photochemical reactions responsible for these changes in the two cases are demonstrated. This is quite important when such waveguides are used in the applications. Also it was interesting to investigate the aging impact on mode field distributions and the effective mode indices. The mode parameters are determined based on a theoretical model and the experimentally obtained data. The results show a notable change in the mode field distributions and the propagation coefficients as influence of aging.

  10. UV exposure and the tensile strength of optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, Diann A.; Le Blanc, S. P.; Kane, Martin D.

    2001-04-01

    The tensile strength of fiber Bragg gratings is dependent on the type of UV laser exposure. The basic conclusion for the traditional method of producing gratings (exposure in the near-field region of a phase mask) is that the pulsed KrF excimer laser (248 nm) damages the fiber and the continuous wave frequency-doubled argon ion laser (244 nm) does not, provided that the fibers are handled carefully. Using the excimer laser at a low fluence (~5 mJ/cm2 pulse) and hydrogen loaded fiber, we demonstrate that Bragg gratings with an index change of 1.25x10-4 can be written. Although this index change is not enough to write a highly reflecting WDM grating, it is enough to write a weakly reflecting pump stabilization grating. The tensile strength of these fibers follow a Weibull distribution similar to pristine fiber with a median tensile strength of ~4.4 GPa (640 kpsi). A small percentage of the fibers are minimally damaged. As the fluence is increased, the median tensile strength decreases and the variability increases. The probability of damage from the laser as a function of the laser intensity suggests a damage mechanism related to laser-induced dielectric breakdown.

  11. Multi-pulse LIBDE of fused silica at different thicknesses of the organic absorber layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yunxiang; Ehrhardt, Martin; Lorenz, Pierre; Han, Bing; Hopp, Bela; Vass, Csaba; Ni, Xiaowu; Zimmer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Laser-induced etching techniques feature several unique characteristics that enable ultraprecise machining of transparent materials. However, LIBDE (laser-induced back side dry etching) and LIBWE (laser-induced back side wet etching) are preferentially studied due to experimental feasibilities either using a very thin or a bulk absorber at the rear side of the transparent material. This study aims to fill the gap by examining the thickness dependence of the absorbing material. Multi-pulse-LIBDE (MP-LIBDE) of fused silica using different thick photoresist absorber layers (dL = 0.2-11.7 μm) was performed with a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, tp ≈ 20 ns). The influence of several experimental parameters, such as laser fluence, pulse number, film thickness, on the ablation morphology and the etching rate were investigated. Especially at moderate fluences (F = 0.7-1.5 J/cm2) MP-LIBDE and LIBWE show several similar process characteristics such as the etching rate dependence on the laser fluence and the pulse number with a typical etching rate of approx. 12 nm at 1 J/cm2. However, the specific etching rate values depend on the absorber layer thickness, for instance. The morphology of the etched surface is smooth with a roughness of below 5 nm rms. Further, the modification of the surface has been observed and will be discussed in relation to the multi-pulse laser etching mechanism.

  12. Compact 36 kJ electron beam system for laser pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Schlitt, L.G.

    1981-05-31

    An electron beam machine consisting of six modules is being constructed for the 'B' amplifier of the RAPIER KrF laser system. Each module consists of a diode, a 5 ..cap omega.. positive charged water dielectric Blumlein pulse-forming line, and a five stage Marx generator. Separate 25 cm x 41 cm electron beams are formed in magnetically isolated diodes which when arranged in groups of three produce two nearly continuous 25 cm x 125 cm beams that enter the laser cell from opposite sides. The pulse-forming lines operate at 450 keV and produce 150 ns long pulses. The lines employ electrically triggered annular SF/sub 6/ output switches. The two concentric transmission lines of each pulse-forming line are charged in 1 ..mu..s through symmetric circuits to reduce diode prepulse voltage. The six modules together with the laser cell will occupy less than 15 m/sup 2/ of floor space.

  13. Numerically Simulating Collisions of Plastic and Foam Laser-Driven Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Schmitt, A. J.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Metzler, N.

    2007-11-01

    Interest in experiments on colliding planar foils has recently been stimulated by (a) the Impact Fast Ignition approach to laser fusion [1], and (b) the approach to a high-repetition rate ignition facility based on direct drive with the KrF laser [2]. Simulating the evolution of perturbations to such foils can be a numerical challenge, especially if the initial perturbation amplitudes are small. We discuss the numerical issues involved in such simulations, describe their benchmarking against recently-developed analytic results, and present simulations of such experiments on NRL's Nike laser. [1] M. Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 46, 99 (2006) [2] S. P. Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056320 (2006).

  14. Overview of the program on soft x-ray lasers and their applications at Princeton

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Ilcisin, K. . Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    In the last several years, rapid progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers (SXL) has been observed at a number of laboratories worldwide. Although SXLs are very young'' devices they have already been used for microscopy and holography, and new ideas emerging for broader application of SXLs to microscopy, holography and lithography. This paper describes the work at Princeton University on the development of a soft x-ray imaging transmission microscopy using a SXL as a radiation source and work on the development of a novel soft x-ray reflection microscope and its application to biological cell studies and lithography. Progress in the development of a photopumped VUV laser (60 nm), and programs for the development of a small scale SXL and for the application of a powerful subpicosecond KrF laser system are also discussed. 35 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Deposition and modification of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Branch, D.; Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000[degrees]C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing, involved the use of a CO[sub 2] laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl[sub 5] gas near the substrate. Results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  16. Deposition and modification of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Branch, D.; Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000{degrees}C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing, involved the use of a CO{sub 2} laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl{sub 5} gas near the substrate. Results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  17. Etching of fused silica and glass with excimer laser at 351 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, K.; Braun, A.; Böhme, R.

    2003-03-01

    The etching of solid surfaces at the interface to liquids is a new promising method for micro-machining of transparent materials. To extend the method to additional materials the pulsed radiation of a XeF-excimer laser (351 nm) was used for etching different types of glass (Corning Inc.: Pyrex, 7059 and Schott Group: D263, AF45) and fused silica for comparison. The etch rates of the investigated materials increase almost linear at low laser fluences. Threshold fluences for glass as low as 0.5 J/cm 2 and etch rates from 6 to 10 nm per pulse at 1 J/cm 2 have been determined. The etch rate and the threshold fluence depend also on the used liquid, consisting of a solvent (acetone, toluene) and a certain concentration of dissolved pyrene, but only little on the glass type. Due to the low etch rate typically very smooth surfaces are achieved. The surface roughness measured by AFM on Corning 7059-glass at an etch depth of 3.7 μm is as low as 4 nm. Contrary to the other glasses the surface roughness of Pyrex is much higher and dominated by typical arbitrary etch pits with micron dimensions. Comparing the etching of fused silica at a wavelength of 248 and 351 nm the used solution influences both the etch threshold and the etch rate. In accordance to earlier investigations at 248 nm also XeF-laser etching at the interface to an absorbing liquid results in a good surface quality, well defined patterns and almost no debris deposition. Thus, this technique is a good candidate for precise micro-machining applications.

  18. Nanosecond laser-induced ablation and laser-induced shockwave structuring of polymer foils down to sub-μm patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, P.; Bayer, L.; Ehrhardt, M.; Zimmer, K.; Engisch, L.

    2015-03-01

    Micro- and nanostructures exhibit a growing commercial interest where a fast, cost-effective, and large-area production is attainable. Laser methods have a great potential for the easy fabrication of surface structures into flexible polymer foils like polyimide (PI). In this study two different concepts for the structuring of polymer foils using a KrF excimer laser were tested and compared: the laser-induced ablation and the laser-induced shock wave structuring. The direct front side laser irradiation of these polymers allows the fabrication of different surface structures. For example: The low laser fluence treatment of PI results in nano-sized cone structures where the cone density can be controlled by the laser parameters. This allows inter alia the laser fabrication of microscopic QR code and high-resolution grey-tone images. Furthermore, the laser treatment of the front side of the polymer foil allows the rear side structuring due to a laserinduced shock wave. The resultant surface structures were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as white light interferometry (WLI).

  19. Foil Cooling for the Rep-Rated Electron Beam Pumped Electra Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Hegeler, F.; Wolford, M. F.; Abdel-Khalik, S.

    2005-10-01

    The Electra program at the Naval Research Laboratory is developing the science and technologies for implementation of krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers in inertial fusion energy. Large aperture KrF lasers are pumped by electron beams which transit a foil separating the gas target at >=1 atm pressure from the vacuum diode. A fraction of the beam energy is deposited in the foil and thus long term (>=10^8 shots), rep-rated (5 Hz) operation requires active cooling of the foil to prevent thermal yield relaxation and cycling fatigue. This paper will report on experimental data and theoretical analysis of two diverse approaches to foil thermal management: convective and conductive cooling. Convective turbulent cooling has been operational on the Electra main amp through the use of oscillating louvers within a gas recirculator containing the pumped lasing region. At 5 Hz the foil temperature (Tf) can be maintained at ˜400 ^oC for a 1 mil SS foil. Conduction cooling provides the simplest configuration with only the need for water channels in the ribs of the hibachi. For a 1 mil Al foil, Tf is predicted to be ˜140 ^oC at 5 Hz. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results and advanced foil materials will be discussed.

  20. Surface micro-structuring of intercalation cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries: a study of laser-assisted cone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleging, W.; Smyrek, P.; Hund, J.; Bergfeldt, T.; Pröll, J.

    2015-03-01

    Strong efforts are currently undertaken in order to further improve the electrochemical performance of high energy lithium-ion batteries containing thick composite electrode materials. The properties of these electrode materials such as active surface area, film thickness, and film porosity strongly impact the cell life-time and cycling stability. A rather new approach is to generate hierarchical architectures into cathode materials by laser direct ablation as well as by laserassisted formation of self-organized structures. It could be shown that appropriate surface structures can lead to a significant improvement of lithium-ion diffusion kinetics leading to higher specific capacities at high charging and discharging currents. In this paper, the formation of self-organized conical structures in intercalation materials such as LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the cathode materials are exposed to excimer laser radiation with wavelengths of 248 nm and 193 nm leading to cone structures with outer dimensions in the micrometer range. The process of cone formation is investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Cone formation can be initiated for laser fluences up to 3 J/cm2 while selective removal of lithium was observed to be one of the key issues for starting the cone formation process. It could be shown that material re-deposition supports the cone-growth process leading to a low loss of active material. Besides the cone formation process, laser-induced chemical surface modification will be analysed by LIBS.

  1. Shock-induced perturbation evolution in planar laser targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Kessler, T. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Metzler, N.; Oh, J.

    2013-10-01

    Experimental studies of hydrodynamic perturbation evolution triggered by a laser-driven shock wave in a planar target done on the KrF Nike laser facility are reported. The targets were made of solid plastic and/or plastic foam with single mode sinusoidal perturbation on the front or back surface or plastic/foam interface. Two specific cases are discussed. When a planar solid plastic target rippled at the front side is irradiated with a 350 ps long laser pulse, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) oscillation of its areal mass modulation amplitude is detected while the laser is on, followed by observed strong oscillations of the areal mass in the unsupported shock flow after the laser pulse ends. When the target is rippled at the rear side, the nature of the perturbation evolution after the shock breakout is determined by the strength of the laser-driven shock wave. At pressure below 1 Mbar shock interaction with rear-surface ripples produces planar collimated jets manifesting the development of a classical RM instability in a weakly compressible shocked fluid. At shock pressure ~ 8 Mbar sufficient for vaporizing the shocked target material we observed instead the strong areal mass oscillations characteristic of a rippled centered rarefaction wave. Work supported by US DOE, Defense Programs.

  2. Optimal Path to a Laser Fusion Energy Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    There was a decision in the mid 1990s to attempt ignition using indirect-drive targets. It is now obvious that this decision was unjustified. The target design was too geometrically complex, too inefficient, and too far above plasma instability thresholds. By that same time, the mid 1990s, there had also been major advances in the direct-drive target concept. It also was not yet ready for a major test. Now, finally, because of significant advances in target designs, laser-target experiments, and laser development, the direct-drive fusion concept is ready for significant enhancements in funding, on the path to commercial fusion energy. There are two laser contenders. A KrF laser is attractive because of its shortest wavelength, broad bandwidth, and superb beam uniformity. A frequency-converted DPSSL has the disadvantage of inherently narrow bandwidth and longer wavelength, but by combining many beams in parallel one might be able to produce at the target the equivalent of an ultra-broad bandwidth. One or both of these lasers may also meet all of the engineering and economic requirements for a reactor. It is time to further develop and evaluate these two lasers as rep-rate systems, in preparation for a future high-gain fusion test.

  3. Laser profiling of 3D microturbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Andrew S.; Heaton, Mark E.; Hong, Guodong; Pullen, Keith R.; Rumsby, Phil T.

    2003-11-01

    We have used KrF excimer laser ablation in the fabrication of a novel MEMS power conversion device based on an axial-flow turbine with an integral axial-flux electromagnetic generator. The device has a sandwich structure, comprising a pair of silicon stators either side of an SU8 polymer rotor. The curved turbine rotor blades were fabricated by projection ablation of SU8 parts performed by conventional UV lithography. A variable aperture mask, implemented by stepping a moving aperture in front of a fixed one, was used to achieve the desired spatial variation in the ablated depth. An automatic process was set up on a commercial laser workstation, with the laser firing and mask motion being controlled by computer. High quality SU8 rotor parts with diameters of 13 mm and depths of 1 mm were produced at a fluence of 0.7 J/cm2, corresponding to a material removal rate of approximately 0.3 μm per pulse. A similar approach was used to form SU8 guide vane inserts for the stators.

  4. High Sensitivity Imprint Measurements on Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max

    2005-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instability seeded by laser non-uniformity (laser imprint) is an important factor in performance of direct-drive ICF targets. Most of the imprint occurs during the initial low-intensity (``foot'') part of the pulse, necessary to compress the target to achieve high gain. Experiments are carried out on Nike KrF laser with induced spatial incoherence (ISI) smoothing. The amount of imprint is varied by changing the uniformity the foot of the pulse. The resulting Raleigh-Taylor (RT) amplified areal mass non-uniformity is measured by face-on x-ray radiography using Bragg reflection from a curved crystal coupled to an x-ray streak camera. The streak camera was recently retrofitted with a new high sensitivity CCD camera. The sensitivity of the CCD has enabled it to be fiberoptically coupled directly to the streak camera output, without an image intensifier and lens coupling. This gave an increased overall spatial resolution as well as lower noise. Because of the strong short wavelength component of RT amplified imprint, the increased resolution and lower noise resulted in much lower noise floor in the measurement. Experimental results are compared with 2D simulations using FAST hydrocode for a range of foot uniformities and intensities. Work supported by the U. S. DOE/NNSA.

  5. Development of a sub-100nm integrated imaging system using chromeless phase-shifting imaging with very high NA KrF exposure and off-axis illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, John S.; Conley, Will; Roman, Bernard J.; Litt, Lloyd C.; Lucas, Kevin; Wu, Wei; Van Den Broeke, Douglas J.; Chen, J. Fung; Laidig, Thomas L.; Wampler, Kurt E.; Gerold, David J.; Maslow, Mark J.; Socha, Robert J.; van Praagh, Judith; Droste, Richard

    2002-07-01

    experimental data using high numerical aperture KrF exposure.

  6. Ionic alkali halide XUV laser feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.T.; Gylys, V.T.; Bower, R.D.; Harris, D.G.; Blauer, J.A.; Turner, C.E.; Hindy, R.N.

    1989-11-10

    The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of a select set of ionic alkali halide XUV laser concepts by obtaining the relevant kinetic and spectroscopic parameters required for a proof-of-principle and conceptual design. The proposed lasers operate in the 80--200 nm spectral region and do not require input from outside radiation sources for their operation. Frequency up-conversion and frequency mixing techniques and therefore not considered in the work to be described. An experimental and theoretical study of a new type of laser operating in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region has been conducted. The lasing species are singly ionized alkali halide molecules such as Rb{sup 2+}F{sub {minus}}, Rb{sup 2+}Br{sup {minus}} and Cs{sup 2+}F{sup {minus}}. These species are similar in electronic structure to the rare gas halide excimers, such as XeF and Krf, except that the ionic molecules emit at wavelengths of 80--200 nm, much shorter than the conventional rare-gas halide excimer laser. The radiative lifetime of these molecules are typically near 1 ns, which is about an order of magnitude shorter than that for rare-gas halide systems. The values of the cross section for stimulated emission are on the order of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}cm{sup 2}. Because of the fundamental similarity to existing UV lasers, these systems show promise as a high power, efficient XUV lasers. 55 refs., 50 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Excimer laser ablation of polymer-clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, I.-Ta

    The ablation behavior of Polystyrene-Organically Modified Montmorillonite (OMMT) nanocomposites was evaluated by measuring the weight loss induced by KrF excimer laser irradiation of the nanocomposite specimens under air atmosphere. The characteristic values of ablation, ablation threshold fluence and effective absorption coefficient for polystyrene and its naonocomposites were calculated based on the weight loss data. The effects of morphology due to spatial variation in injection molded samples are also discussed in this work. Results demonstrate that both the dispersion state and the concentration of clay play important roles in excimer laser ablation. The sensitivity of threshold fluence and absorption coefficient to dispersion state of OMMT depends on the clay concentration. The excimer laser induced surface micro/nano structure formation and modification of PS-Clay Nanocomposites at various OMMT concentrations were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance accessory were utilized to analyze the ablated surface. Results show that, in general, better dispersion of OMMT leads to less continuous surface structures and more pronounced carbonyl regions on FTIR spectra. Clay nanoparticles are exposed on ablated surfaces and affect surface structure formation after irradiation by laser. A mechanism for the formation of excimer laser induced surface structures on injection molded parts is thus proposed.

  8. Si-doped carbon nanostructured films by pulsed laser deposition from a liquid target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csákó, T.; Berkesi, O.; Kovács, I.; Radnóczi, G.; Szörényi, T.

    2009-10-01

    Ablation of a silicone oil, Dow Corning's DC-705 with laser pulses of sub-ps duration in high vacuum is a novel approach to fabrication of Si-doped carbon nanocomposite films. Gently focused, temporally clean 700 fs pulses @ 248 nm of a hybrid dye/excimer laser system produce power densities of the order of 10 11-10 12 W cm -2 on the target surface. The evolution of the chemical structure of film material is followed by comparing Fourier Transformed Infrared and X-ray Photoelectron spectra of films deposited at temperatures between room temperature and 250 °C. Despite the low thermal budget technique, in the spectrum of films deposited at room temperature the fingerprint of the silicone oil can clearly be identified. With increasing substrate temperature the contribution of the features characteristic of the oil gradually diminishes, but does not completely disappear even at 250 °C. This result is intriguing since the chance of oil droplets to survive in their original liquid form on the hot surface should be minimal. The results of the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy suggest that the chemical structure of the film material resembles that of the oil. Both reflection mode optical microscopy and low magnification Scanning Electron Microscopy reveal that the films are inhomogeneous: areas of lateral dimensions ranging from a few to tens of micrometers, characterized by different contrasts can be identified. On the other hand, surface mapping by Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopy unambiguously proves that all films possess a solid surface consisting of nanoparticles of less than 100 nm dimension, without the presence of any drop of oil. Possible explanations of the puzzling results can be that the films are polymers consisting mainly of the molecules of the target material, or composites of solid C:Si nanoparticles and oil residues.

  9. [Influence of C-Fe Lines Interference Correction on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Measurement of Unburned Carbon in Fly Ash].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shun-chun; Chen, Jian-chao; Lu, Ji-dong; Shen, Yue-liang; Pan, Gang

    2015-06-01

    In coal-fired plants, Unburned carbon (UC) in fly ash is the major determinant of combustion efficiency in coal-fired boiler. The balance between unburned carbon and NO(x) emissions stresses the need for rapid and accurate methods for the measurement of unburned carbon. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is employed to measure the unburned carbon content in fly ash. In this case, it is found that the C line interference with Fe line at about 248 nm. The interference leads to C could not be quantified independently from Fe. A correction approach for extracting C integrated intensity from the overlapping peak is proposed. The Fe 248.33 nm, Fe 254.60 nm and Fe 272.36 nm lines are used to correct the Fe 247.98 nm line which interference with C 247.86 nm, respectively. Then, the corrected C integrated intensity is compared with the uncorrected C integrated intensity for constructing calibration curves of unburned carbon, and also for the precision and accuracy of repeat measurements. The analysis results show that the regression coefficients of the calibration curves and the precision and accuracy of repeat measurements are improved by correcting C-Fe interference, especially for the fly ash samples with low level unburned carbon content. However, the choice of the Fe line need to avoid a over-correction for C line. Obviously, Fe 254.60 nm is the best PMID:26601397

  10. Development of a technology for fabricating low-cost parallel optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Steenberge, Geert; Hendrickx, Nina; Geerinck, Peter; Bosman, Erwin; Van Put, Steven; Van Daele, Peter

    2006-04-01

    We present a fabrication technology for integrating polymer waveguides and 45° micromirror couplers into standard electrical printed circuit boards (PCBs). The most critical point that is being addressed is the low-cost manufacturing and the compatibility with current PCB production. The latter refers to the processes as well as material compatibility. In the fist part the waveguide fabrication technology is discussed, both photo lithography and laser ablation are proposed. It is shown that a frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser (355 nm) offers a lot of potential for defining single mode interconnections. Emphasis is on multimode waveguides, defined by KrF excimer laser (248 nm) ablation using acrylate polymers. The first conclusion out of loss spectrum measurements is a 'yellowing effect' of laser ablated waveguides, leading to an increased loss at shorter wavelengths. The second important conclusion is a potential low loss at a wavelength of 850 nm, 980 nm and 1310 nm. This is verified at 850 nm by cut-back measurements on 10-cm-long waveguides showing an average propagation loss of 0.13 dB/cm. Photo lithographically defined waveguides using inorganic-organic hybrid polymers show an attenuation loss of 0.15 dB/cm at 850 nm. The generation of debris and the presence of microstructures are two main concerns for KrF excimer laser ablation of hybrid polymers. In the second part a process for embedding metal coated 45° micromirrors in optical waveguiding layers is described. Mirrors are selectively metallized using a lift-off process. Filling up the angled via without the presence of air bubbles and providing a flat surface above the mirror is only possible by enhancing the cladding deposition process with ultrasound agitation. Initial loss measurements indicate an excess mirror loss of 1.5 dB.

  11. Emittance dependence on anode morphology of an ion beam provided by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velardi, L.; Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we studied the characteristics of ion beams generated by Platone accelerator in different anode configurations. The accelerator is a laser ion source with two gaps which accelerate the ions in cascade. The laser is a ns pulsed KrF able to apply irradiances of 109-1010 W/cm2. The target ablated was pure disk of Cu. The accelerating voltage applied in this work was 60 kV. The emittance evaluation was performed by the pepper pot method utilizing radio-chromic films, EBT Gafchromic, as sensible targets. The study was performed by varying the geometric configuration of the anode (the extracting electrode), modifying the hole morphology, e.g. a plane and curved grid were mounted in order to change the extraction configuration. The results were compared with the ones obtained with the extraction hole without any grid. For the normalized emittance the lowest value was 0.20π mm mrad.

  12. On the Emittance dependence on anode morphology of laser induced ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velardi, L.; Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we studied the characteristics of ion beams generated by PLATONE accelerator in different anode configurations. The accelerator is a laser ion source with two gaps which accelerate the ions in cascade. The laser is an excimer KrF able to work at irradiances of 108-1010 W/cm2. The target ablated was disk of Cu. The accelerating voltage applied in this work was 60 kV. The emittance evaluation was performed by the pepper pot method utilising radio-chromic films, EBT Gafchromic, as sensible targets. The study was performed by varying the geometric configuration of the anode (the extracting electrode), modifying the hole morphology. A plane and curved grids were mounted in order to change the extraction configuration. The results were compared with the ones obtained with the extraction hole without any grid. For the normalized emittance the lowest value found was 0.20 π mm mrad.

  13. Characterization of a novel double-gas-jet laser plasma EUV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, Rene; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fledderus, H. F.; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Hegeman, Petra; Constantinescu, Raluca C.; Bijkerk, Fred

    2000-07-01

    A novel laser plasma EUV source geometry based on a (pulsed) double gas jet system has been characterized for utilization in EUV Lithography. The use of a secondary annular jet of a buffer gas in conjunction with the primary jet of target gas provides a considerable gain in EUV yield of an order of magnitude. The best CE data at 12.8 nm were obtained using xenon as target gas and hydrogen as buffer gas. The plasma source was driven using a short-wavelength KrF laser (0.9 J, 27 ns). Conversion efficiencies (CE) and EUV pulse shapes have been measured using calibrated Mo/Si multilayer mirrors and filtered junction diodes. A pinhole camera, equipped with a back illuminated CCD camera, was used to determine the plasma size in a wavelength range from 6 - 16 nm.

  14. Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by short pulsed laser ablation in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švrček, Vladimir; Kondo, Michio

    2009-09-01

    The pulsed laser processing in liquid media is an attractive alternative to produce room temperature luminescent silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs). We report on a blue luminescent Si-ncs preparation by using nanosecond pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, KrF excimer) processing in transparent polymer and water. The Si-ncs fabrication is assured by ablation of crystalline silicon target immersed in liquids. During the processing and following aging in liquids, oxide based liquid media, induce shell formation around fresh nanocrystals that provides a natural and stable form of surface passivation. The stable room temperature blue-photoluminescent Si-ncs are prepared with maxima located around ˜440 nm with corresponding optical band gap around ˜2.8 eV (˜430 nm). Due to the reduction of surface defects, the Si-ncs preparation in water, leads to a narrowing of full-width-half-maxima of the photoluminescence spectra.

  15. Laser generation and detection of surface acoustic waves - Elastic properties of surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubrand, A.; Hess, P.

    1992-01-01

    A noncontact all-optical method for surface photoacoustics is described. The surface acoustic waves (SAWs) were excited employing a KrF laser and detected with a Michelson interferometer using a 633-nm HeNe laser. Due to an active stabilization scheme developed for the interferometer a surface displacement of 0.2 A could be detected. The materials investigated included pure materials such as polycrystalline aluminum, and crystalline silicon; films of gold, silver, aluminum, iron, and nickel on fused silica; and a Si:H on Si(100). In the case of pure materials the shape of the acoustic pulse and the phase velocity were determined. The dispersion of the SAW phase velocity observed for the film systems was used to extract information on the film thickness, density, and transverse and longitudinal sound velocity. Models for the theoretical treatment of film systems and the calculation of dispersion curves are presented.

  16. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited under higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.

  17. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited undermore » higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.« less

  18. Combinatorial MAPLE deposition of antimicrobial orthopedic maps fabricated from chitosan and biomimetic apatite powders.

    PubMed

    Visan, A; Stan, G E; Ristoscu, C; Popescu-Pelin, G; Sopronyi, M; Besleaga, C; Luculescu, C; Chifiriuc, M C; Hussien, M D; Marsan, O; Kergourlay, E; Grossin, D; Brouillet, F; Mihailescu, I N

    2016-09-10

    Chitosan/biomimetic apatite thin films were grown in mild conditions of temperature and pressure by Combinatorial Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on Ti, Si or glass substrates. Compositional gradients were obtained by simultaneous laser vaporization of the two distinct material targets. A KrF* excimer (λ=248nm, τFWHM=25ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The nature and surface composition of deposited materials and the spatial distribution of constituents were studied by SEM, EDS, AFM, GIXRD, FTIR, micro-Raman, and XPS. The antimicrobial efficiency of the chitosan/biomimetic apatite layers against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains was interrogated by viable cell count assay. The obtained thin films were XRD amorphous and exhibited a morphology characteristic to the laser deposited structures composed of nanometric round shaped grains. The surface roughness has progressively increased with chitosan concentration. FTIR, EDS and XPS analyses indicated that the composition of the BmAp-CHT C-MAPLE composite films gradually modified from pure apatite to chitosan. The bioevaluation tests indicated that S. aureus biofilm is more susceptible to the action of chitosan-rich areas of the films, whilst the E. coli biofilm proved more sensible to areas containing less chitosan. The best compromise should therefore go, in our opinion, to zones with intermediate-to-high chitosan concentration which can assure a large spectrum of antimicrobial protection concomitantly with a significant enhancement of osseointegration, favored by the presence of biomimetic hydroxyapatite. PMID:27418570

  19. Unseeded Scalar Velocity Measurements for Propulsion Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, Robert W.; Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Seasholtz, Richard G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Unseeded molecular tagging methods based on single-photon processes that produce long tag lines (>50 mm) have been recently developed and demonstrated by the Combustion Laser Diagnostics Group (Mechanical Engineering Department) at Vanderbilt University [1,2]. In Ozone Tagging Velocimetry (OTV) a line of ozone (O3) is produced by a single photon from a pulsed narrowband argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser operating at - 193 nm. After a known time delay, t, the position of the displaced (convected in the flow field) O3 tag line is revealed by photodissociation of O3 and subsequent fluorescence of O2, caused by a pulsed laser sheet from a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser operating at - 248 nm. Intensified CCD camera images of the fluorescence are taken from the initial and final tag line locations thus providing unobtrusive means of establishing a velocity profile in the interrogated flow field. The O3 lines are "written" and subsequently "read" by the following reactions:

  20. The Quantum Yield of NO3 from Peroxyacetyl Nitrate Photolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazely, Troy L.; Friedl, Randall R.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1997-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) vapor was photolyzed at 248nm and the NO3 photoproduct was detected by laser induced fluorescence. The excited state flourescence contributions were investigated and a data analysis methodology was established to minimize their effects.

  1. Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Sethian, J.D.; Obenschain, S.P.; Gerber, K.A.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Sullivan, C.A.; Webster, W.; Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; McGeoch, M.W.; Altes, R.A.; Corcoran, P.A.; Smith, I.D.; Barr, O.C.

    1997-06-01

    Nike is a recently completed multi-kilojoule krypton fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study the physics of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. This paper describes in detail both the pulsed power and optical performance of the largest amplifier in the Nike laser, the 60 cm amplifier. This is a double pass, double sided, electron beam-pumped system that amplifies the laser beam from an input of 50 J to an output of up to 5 kJ. It has an optical aperture of 60 cm {times} 60 cm and a gain length of 200 cm. The two electron beams are 60 cm high {times} 200 cm wide, have a voltage of 640 kV, a current of 540 kA, and a flat top power pulse duration of 250 ns. A 2 kG magnetic field is used to guide the beams and prevent self-pinching. Each electron beam is produced by its own Marx/pulse forming line system. The amplifier has been fully integrated into the Nike system and is used on a daily basis for laser-target experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Submicro foaming in biopolymers by UV pulsed laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oujja, Mohamed; Rebollar, Esther; Gaspard, Solenne; Abrusci, Concepción; Catalina, Fernando; Lazare, Sylvain; Castillejo, Marta

    2006-05-01

    Microstructuring of polymers and biopolymers is of application in medical technology and biotechnology. Using different fabrication techniques three-dimensionally shaped and micro structured constructs can be developed for drug release and tissue engineering. As an alternative method, laser microstructuring offers a series of advantages including high resolution capability, low heat deposition in the substrate and high level of flexibility. In this work we present evidence of laser microfoam formation in collagen and gelatine by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation in the UV at 248 and 266 nm. Irradiation at 355 nm produces melting followed by resolidification of the substrate, whereas irradiation at 532 and 1064 nm induces the formation of craters of irregular contours. Single pulse irradiation of a collagen film with an homogenized KrF microbeam yields a 20 μm thick expanded layer, which displays the interesting features of a nanofibrous 3-dimensional network with open cells. In gelatine, irradiation at 248 and 266 nm produces similar morphological modifications. The effect of the structural properties of the substrate on the laser induced microfoam is studied by comparing gelatines differing in gel strength (Bloom values 225 and 75) and in crosslinking degree. While results are discussed on the basis of thermal and photomechanical mechanisms and of the role played by the water content of the substrates, it is thought that such structures could have a biomimic function in future 3D cell culture devices for research.

  3. Ferroelectric thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Raluca; Vrejoiu, I.; Verardi, P.; Craciun, F.; Dinescu, Maria

    2001-06-01

    Influence of substrate and electrode on the properties of PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition technique (1060 nm wavelength Nd:YAG laser light, 10 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate, 0.35 J/pulse, 25 J/cm2 laser fluence, deposition rate about 1 angstrom/pulse) was studied. The substrate temperatures were in the range 380 degree(s)C-400 degree(s)C. Oriented crystalline PZT layers with 1-3 micrometers thickness were deposited on glass substrates plated with Au/Pt/NiCr electrodes, from a PZT commercial target in oxygen reactive atmosphere. The deposited PZT films with perovskite structure were preferentially oriented along the (111) direction as revealed from XRD spectra. Piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 30 pC/N were obtained on as deposited films. Ferroelectric hysteresis loops at 100 Hz revealed a remanent polarization of 15 (mu) C/cm2 and a coercive field of 100 kV/cm. A comparison with properties of PZT films deposited using a KrF laser and with SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) films is reported.

  4. Imprinting of Pre-Imposed Laser Perturbations on Targets With a High-Z Overcoat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Oh, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Bates, J. W.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2014-10-01

    In direct drive ICF, most of the laser imprint is expected to occur during the initial part of the laser pulse, which generates the first shocks necessary to compress the target to achieve high gain. Previous experiments found that a thin (400-800Å) high-Z (Au or Pd) overcoat on the laser side of the target is effective in suppressing broadband imprint. The overcoat initially absorbs the laser and emits soft x-rays that ablate the target, forming a large stand-off distance between laser absorption and ablation and smoothing the drive perturbations. We investigate the effectiveness of imprint suppression for different spatial wavelengths via perturbations imposed on top of the beams smoothed by Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI). Measurements of areal mass non-uniformity on planar targets driven by the Nike KrF laser are made by curved crystal x-ray radiography. Simultaneous side-on radiography allows observation of the layer dynamics and monitoring of the laser absorption - target ablation stand-off. X-ray flux from the high-Z layer is monitored using absolutely calibrated time-resolved x-ray spectrometers. Work supported by the Department of Energy/NNSA.

  5. An efficient, selective collisional ejection mechanism for inner-shell population inversion in laser-driven plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, W. Andreas; Nelson, T. R.; Borisov, A. B.; Longworth, J. W.; Boyer, K.; Rhodes, C. K.

    2001-02-01

    A theoretical analysis of laser-driven collisional ejection of inner-shell electrons is presented to explain the previously observed anomalous kilovolt L-shell x-ray emission spectra from atomic Xe cluster targets excited by intense sub-picosecond 248 nm ultraviolet radiation (McPherson A et al 1994 Nature 370 631-4). For incident ponderomotively-driven electrons photoionized by strong above threshold ionization, the collisional ejection mechanism is shown to be highly l-state and significantly n-state (i.e. radially) selective for time periods shorter than the collisional dephasing time of the photoionized electronic wavefunction. The resulting preference for the collisional ejection of 2p electrons by an ionized 4p state produces the measured anomalous Xe(L) emission which contains direct evidence for (i) the generation of Xe27+(2p53d10) and Xe28+(2p53d9) ions exhibiting inner-shell population inversion and (ii) a coherent correlated electron state collision responsible for the production of double 2p vacancies. For longer time periods, the selectivity of this coherent impact ionization mechanism is rapidly reduced by the combined effects of intrinsic quantum mechanical spreading and dephasing - in agreement with the experimentally observed and extremely strong ~λ-6 pump-laser wavelength dependence of the efficiency of inner-shell (2p) vacancy production in Xe clusters excited in underdense plasmas (Kondo K et al 1997 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 2707-16).

  6. On Predtechensky and Mayorov model for the plume expansion dynamics study into an ambient gas during thin film deposition by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafane, S.; Kerdja, T.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Malek, S.; Kechouane, M.

    2013-01-01

    The plume expansion dynamics for the Sm1- x Nd x NiO3 thin films deposition by a KrF excimer laser into oxygen atmosphere has been investigated using fast imaging. The study was carried out at 0.2 and 0.3 mbar of oxygen pressure and for different laser fluences. The plasma plume dynamics was analysed in the framework of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM) model. It was found that PM model gives a general description of the plume expansion by using parameters (laser fluence and oxygen pressure) that ensure a hemispherical expansion of the plume. The latter was discussed in the framework of the shock-wave model and the plume dimensions.

  7. Photosensitive GeO2-SiO2 films for ultraviolet laser writing of channel waveguides and bragg gratings with Cr-loaded waveguide structure.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahide; Sakoh, Akifumi; Ichii, Kentaro; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu; Nishii, Junji

    2003-08-01

    Irradiation with intense ultraviolet laser pulses induced a large refractive-index change in 30GeO2-70SiO2 waveguide-grade thin films prepared by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, which contained a large amount of photoactive Ge2+ defects. The maximum index change in the as-deposited films by KrF and XeF excimer laser irradiation was estimated to be 1.2 x 10(-3) and 0.28 x 10(-3), respectively. These results clearly indicate that the photorefractivity of GeO2-SiO2 glasses is due to a Ge2+ defect in origin. The channel waveguide and the planar Bragg gratings were directly written in the photoactive Ge(2+)-enriched GeOs-SiO2 thin films by pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation with a Cr-metal-loaded-type waveguide structure. PMID:12916627

  8. Surface modification of biomaterials by pulsed laser ablation deposition and plasma/gamma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Kaustubh R.

    ablation was developed for the 248 nm laser irradiation of silicone. The model demonstrated a good fit to the experimental data and showed that silicone underwent ablation by a thermal mechanism. In addition to PLAD studies, functionalization of stainless steel was carried out by a combined plasma/gamma method involving deposition of a hexane plasma polymer by RF plasma polymerization, followed by gamma radiation graft polymerization of methacrylic acid. The hydrograft modified surfaces were further modified by chemisorption reactions with poly(ethylene imine) to produce amine-rich surfaces. Bovine serum albumin was then bound via amino groups using glutaraldehyde coupling. A streaming potential cell was also built and used to measure the zeta potential of these ionic surfaces.

  9. Laser Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  10. Selective structuring of multi-layer functional thin films using a laser-induced shockwave delamination process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Bayer, L.; Molpeceres, C.; Ramirez, C. Antonio Herrera; Zimmer, K.

    2016-03-01

    The laser assisted micro structuring of thin films especially for electronic applications without influence the functionality of the multi-layer system e.g. due to melting products is a challenge for the laser micro machining techniques. The P2 scribing of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) solar cells on stainless steel carrier foil was studied using shockwave- induced film delamination (SWIFD) patterning. The delamination process is induced by a shock wave generated by the laser ablation of the rear side of the carrier foil. In the present study UV nanosecond laser pulses provided by a KrF excimer laser were used to induce the SWIFD process. The morphology and size of the achieved thin-film structures were studied in dependence on various laser irradiation parameters by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the materials composition after the laser patterning was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The temporal sequences of processes involved in the SWIFD process were analyzed with high speed shadowgraph experiments. The results of the present study shows that in dependence on the laser parameter used a large process window exist in which the CIGS thin film can be removed from the substrate without visible thermal modification of the CIGS thin film.

  11. Laser annealing induced ferromagnetism in SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. S. Prater, J. T.; Lee, Y. F.; Narayan, J.; Smirnov, A. I.

    2014-07-28

    The appearance of ferromagnetic order up to 400 K upon KrF (248 nm) laser irradiation is reported in un-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) single crystal. The high resolution x-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal a strong shift of Sr-, Ti-, and O-related peaks. X-ray diffraction of laser annealed STO does not reveal a signature of either secondary magnetic or amorphous phases. 300 K X-band (∼9.543 GHz) angle-dependent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements showed no evidence of additional magnetic peaks upon laser irradiation. XPS and EPR data did not provide a strong evidence of Ti{sup 3+} formation upon laser annealing. No differences in the visible 300 K Raman spectra of pristine and laser annealed STO are noticed. Interestingly, the magnetic moment is decreased by almost 10-fold upon oxygen annealing of laser annealed STO, inferring that oxygen vacancies play an important role in establishing the observed ferromagnetism.

  12. Laser Imprint Suppression for Spike Pulseshapes using a Thin High-Z Overcoat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max; Aglitskiy, Y.; Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Bates, J. W.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2013-10-01

    In directly driven ICF, most of the laser imprint is expected to occur during the initial part of the laser pulse, which generates the first shocks necessary to compress the target to achieve high gain. Previous experiments where the laser pulse had a low intensity foot to generate the first shock found that a thin (< 1000 Å) high-Z overcoat is effective in suppressing imprint [PoP 9, 2234 (2002)]. The overcoat initially absorbs the laser and emits soft x-rays that ablate the target, allowing a large stand-off distance between laser absorption and ablation and giving higher ablation velocity. The coating is thin so that it becomes transparent to the main part of the pulse, minimizing x-ray preheat. The present experiments aim to extend this method to spike pulseshapes used in current target designs, with a view to direct drive on the NIF. Measurements of RT-amplified areal mass non-uniformity on planar targets driven by ISI-smoothed Nike KrF laser are made by curved crystal x-ray radiography. X-ray flux from the high-Z layer is monitored using absolutely calibrated time-resolved x-ray spectrometers. Simultaneous side-on radiography allows observation of the layer dynamics as well as target trajectory. The effect on imprint as well as pre-imposed ripple growth will be presented. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  13. High-pulse-repetition-rate UV lasers with the inductance-capacitance discharge stabilisation

    SciTech Connect

    Andramanov, A V; Kabaev, S A; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevyan, V A; Pisetskaya, A V; Selemir, Victor D

    2009-02-28

    Compact high-pulse-repetition-rate XeF and KrF excimer lasers and an N{sub 2} laser with plate electrodes and the inductive-capacitance discharge stabilisation are studied. The composition and pressure of the active medium of lasers are optimised for obtaining the maximum output energy and maximum pulse repetition rate at comparatively low (no more than 19 m s{sup -1}) active-medium flow rates in the interelectrode gap. The pulse repetition rate achieved 4-5 kHz for the relative root-mean-square deviation of the laser pulse energy less than 2%. It is found that the energy of the N{sub 2}-laser pulses changes periodically under the action of acoustic perturbations appearing at high pulse repetition rates. It is shown that the use of the inductance-capacitance stabilisation of the discharge provides the increase in the maximum pulse repetition rate by 0.5-1.5 kHz (depending on the active medium type). It is found that the stability of the output energy and maximum pulse repetition rate depend on the location of preionisation sparks with respect to the gas flow direction. Some ways for the development of the technology of plate electrodes and inductance-capacitance discharge stabilisation are proposed. (lasers)

  14. Micromachining of transparent materials by laser ablation of organic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    2000-11-01

    Transparent materials such as fused silica, quartz, calcium fluoride, and fluorocarbon polymer were etched upon irradiation of organic solution containing pyrene with a conventional KrF excimer laser. Threshold fluence for etching was 240 mJ/cm2 for fused silica. Etch rate remarkably depended on a concentration of pyrene: higher etch rate with the increase of pyrene concentration. It means that pyrene molecules play an important role in this process. The etch rate can be easily controlled through changing a laser pulse number, a laser fluence and a concentration of solution. The mechanism for this process is discussed by cyclic multiphotonic absorption of pyrene in the excited states, thermal relaxation, and formation of super-heated solution. As the results, it is suggested that the process is based on the combination of two processes in the interface between the transparent materials and the liquid: one is a heating process by a super-heated liquid and the other is an attacking process by a high temperature and pressure vapor.

  15. Understanding lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gibilisco, S.

    1989-01-01

    Covering all different types of laser applications-Gibilisco offers an overview of this fascinating phenomenon of light. Here he describes what lasers are and how they work and examines in detail the different kinds of lasers in use today. Topics of particular interest include: the way lasers work; the different kinds of lasers; infrared, ultraviolet and x-ray lasers; use of lasers in industry and manufacturing; use of lasers for long-distance communications; fiberoptic communications; the way laser shows work; the reality of Star Wars; lasers in surgical and medical applications; and holography and the future of laser technology.

  16. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    for several reasons. The first reason is that the polymer/solvent mix as well as the sample holder are both exposed to the humidity in the air which will coat the entire surface of the holder and target with water vapor. Some polymer and/or solvent materials may not react well with water vapor. Also, the layer of water vapor absorbed on the target surface may then absorb the incident laser radiation until it is removed from the surface. Thus, it may be unclear when the water vapor is fully removed from the polymer/solvent surface and the MAPLE deposition process actually occurs. This makes deposition of specific polymer thickness difficult to calculate. While it is well known that Quartz crystal microbalances do not work well for PLD of oxide materials it can be used for the deposition of MAPLE materials. However, with rastered laser beams the tooling factor becomes a dynamic number making interpretation of final thickness potentially difficult without careful pre-calibration. Another serious issue with the initial MAPLE process was related to the use of UV lasers such as an excimer operating at 193- or 248-nm or frequency tripled, Nd:YAG lasers at 355 nm. These lasers have high energy per photon (between about 6.4 to 3.5 eV) which can lead to a variety of deleterious photochemical mechanisms that can damage the polymer chains or organic structure. Such mechanisms can be direct photo-decomposition by photochemical bond breaking and photothermal effects. Alternative lasers, such as a Er:YAG laser operating at 2.9 microns produce photons with energy of ˜0.43 eV. Such longer wavelength lasers have been used for the IR-MAPLE process and may be very useful for future MAPLE systems. A third issue with the initial approach to MAPLE was that the process did not lend itself easily to growing multilayer films. Most standard pulsed laser deposition tools have "multi-target" carousels that allow for easy target changes and multilayer film growth. This is true for sputtering, MBE

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and pulsed laser ablation of molecular sieves for thin film applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Trinidad, Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Molecular sieves are one class of crystalline low density metal oxides which are made up of one-, two-, and three dimensional pores and/or cages. We have investigated the synthesis and characterization of metal substituted aluminophosphates and all silica molecular sieves for thin film applications. A new copper substituted aluminophosphate, CuAPO-5 has been synthesized and characterized using x-ray powder diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation provided supporting evidence of framework incorporation of Cu(II) ions. Thus, an exciting addition has been added to the family of metal substituted aluminophosphates where substitution of the metal has been demonstrated as framework species. Also presented here is the synthesis and characterization of an iron substituted aluminophosphate, FeAPO-5, and an all silica zeolite, UTD-1 for thin film applications. Pulsed laser ablation has been employed as the technique to generate thin films. Here an excimer laser (KrFsp*, 248 nm) was used to deposit the molecular sieves on a variety of substrates including polished silicon, titanium nitride, and porous stainless steel disks. The crystallinity of the deposited films was enhanced by a post hydrothermal treatment. A vapor phase treatment of the laser deposited FeAPO-5 films has been shown to increase the crystallinity of the film without increasing film thickness. Thin films of the FeAPO-5 molecular sieves were subsequently used as the dielectric phase in capacitive type chemical sensors. The capacitance change of the FeAPO-5 devices to the relative moisture makes them potential humidity sensors. The all silica zeolite UTD-1 thin films were deposited on polished silicon and porous supports. A brief post hydrothermal treatment of the laser deposited films deposited on polished silicon and porous metal supports resulted in oriented film growth lending these films to applications in gas separations

  18. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Surdu, A. V.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Oprea, A. E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O.; Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Mihaiescu, D.; Enculescu, M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization, highlighting their potential to be used for the design of anti-biofilm surfaces.

  19. Stress analysis of transferred thin-GaN LED by Au-Si wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S. C.; Liu, C. Y.

    2005-09-01

    Nowadays, the high power GaN-based LED has attracted serious attention for the lighting application. One of key issues for high power GaN-base LED to achieve sufficient lighting efficiency over the traditional light sources, such as, white incandescent and halogen light bulb is the efficiency of heat dissipation. Typically, GaN epi-layer is grown on sapphire substrates. The poor thermal conductivity of sapphire substrate has been identified to be the main limitation for the application of high power GaN LED. To improve the heat dissipation and lighting efficiency, we report a thin GaN structure by using Au-Si wafer bonding and Laser lift-off (LLO) technique. The GaN wafer was first deposited with a Au bonding layer and bonded onto a good thermal conduction substrate, i.e., heavy-doped Si. Then, 248nm KrF excimer Laser was used to strip the original sapphire substrate. To assure a successful GaN epi-layer transferring, Raman spectrum on the transferred GaN layer was performed and the result shows no quality change in the transferred GaN layer. In this work, we also fabricated the vertical LED devices on the transferred GaN epi-layer. Therefore, L-I-V result was obtained which will be presented in this talk. Moreover, we will discuss the effects and advantages of Au-Si bonding on the efficiency of lighting.

  20. Control of extended high-voltage electric discharges in atmospheric air by UV KrF-laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zvorykin, V D; Levchenko, A O; Ustinovskii, N N

    2011-03-31

    Experiments in the commutation of extended ({approx}1-m long) high-voltage (up to 390 kV) electric discharges were carried out with the aid of 100-ns long UV pulses of the GARPUN KrF laser, in which we demonstrated a one-and-a-half-fold lengthening of the discharge gap broken down in the presence of laser illumination. Total control of discharge trajectory along the direction of the laser beam was observed for a radiation energy of {approx}300 mJ (the corresponding intensity I = 5x10{sup 8} W cm{sup -2} and its attendant initial electron density Ne {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) and partial control for an energy of 40 mJ (I = 7x10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}, Ne {approx} 8x10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) with a 100% probability of breakdown. We discuss the advantages of employing a UV laser for active lightning protection in comparison with IR lasers and ultrashort-pulse laser systems. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  1. An electrically triggered 200 kV rail-gap switch for wide aperture excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endoh, A.; Watanabe, S.; Watanabe, M.

    1984-03-01

    A wide aperture (7 x 7 sq cm), high output energy (5 J in KrF and 13.8 J in XeCl), UV preionized excimer laser is described. A self-breakdown rail gap was employed as an output switch with the maximum voltage and current up to 230 kV and 300 kA, respectively. To solve the switching jitter problem associated with the self-breakdown, an electrical triggering was investigated. The measured minimum switching time delay and gap closing time were 40 and 10 ns, respectively. The number of channels up to 50 was observed with a uniform distribution over the 80-cm electrode length. The triggering jitter was measured to be less than a nanosecond. The maximum operation voltage of the triggered rail gap was 200 kV. The successful trigger operation was obtained in the range 30-98 percent of the self-breakdown voltage.

  2. Hydrodynamics of laser-driven double-foil collisions studied by orthogonal x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Metzler, N.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Velikovich, A. L.; Gardner, J. H.; Weaver, J.; Oh, J.

    2006-10-01

    With this experiment we start the study of the physics of hydrodynamic instability seeding and growth during the deceleration and stagnation phases. Our first targets consisted of two separated parallel plastic foils -- flat and rippled. The flat foil was irradiated by the 4 ns Nike KrF laser pulses at 50 TW/cm^2 and accelerated towards the rippled one. Orthogonal imaging, i. e., a simultaneous side-on and face-on radiography of the targets has been used in these experiments. Side-on x-ray radiography and VISAR data yield shock and target velocities before and after the collision. Face-on streaks revealed well-pronounced oscillatory behavior of the single-mode mass perturbations. Both sets of synchronized data were compared with 1D and 2D simulations. Observed velocities, timing and the peak value of areal mass variation are in good agreement with the simulated ones.

  3. Hydrogen blisters on beta-NbD after laser pulse heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, T.; Bechthold, P. S.

    1994-08-01

    Plates of beta-NbD(0.7) were irradiated with single pulses of a KrF excimer laser having a wavelength of 248.4 nm. The power level was varied from roughly 0.1 to 1 GW/sq cm. The pulse length was about 15 ns. The irradiated areas at low and medium power displayed individual hydrogen (deuterium) blisters which started overlapping at higher power levels. Calculation of the thermal diffusivity showed that a surface layer roughly 0.6 micrometers thick was heated during the pulse. Applying Bechtel's formula for the temperature increase in the heated layer demonstrated that melting of the heated layer must have occurred during the pulse. The formation of hydrogen (deuterium) blisters is understandable in terms of the very high equilibrium vapor pressure of the hydrides near the melting temperature. A model for the formation of the blisters is presented.

  4. Benefits and prospects of aqueous silylation for novel dry developable high-resolution resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezi, Recai; Sebald, Michael; Leuschner, Rainer; Ahne, Hellmut; Birkle, Siegfried; Borndoerfer, Horst

    1990-06-01

    The paper presents a novel surface imaging resist, consisting of an anhydride-containing copolymer and a diazoquinone photoactive compound (PAC). As base resin, alternating copolymers of styrene and maleic anhydride were prepared which show benefits such as high glass transition temperature (Tg = 170 °C) or low deep-UV absorbance (0.12/pm at 248 nm), in addition to the simplicity of synthesis with high yields. After imaging exposure, the exposed areas are selectively silylated in a standard puddle development track at room temperature within 90 to 120 s md. rinsing. The silylation is performed with an aqueous solution ofabis-aminosiloxane in water and a dissolution promoter and is accompanied by a film thickness increase, the extent of which depends on several factors such as exposure dose, PAC content in the resist, molecular weight of the base resin, aminosiloxane concentration and silylation time. The resist is developed through reactive ion etching in oxygen plasma, giving negative tone patterns. Lateral structure deformation has not been observed with this system since the resist is silylated far below the Tg of the base resin. The use of suitable 2-diazo-1-naphthalenone-4-sulphonic acid esters as PAC and the absence of crosslinking during deep-UV exposure offer the advantage that the same resist can be applied in the same mode (neg.) for i-line and KrF excimer laser lithography. By this means, lines and spaces down to 0.4 pm and 0.3 pm were achieved in 2 pm thick resist after exposures with an i-line (NA = 0.4) or KrF excimer laser stepper (NA =0.37), respectively.

  5. Removal of dust particles from metal-mirror surfaces by excimer-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Mueller, F.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of particle desorption from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way of cleaning the Al coatings of future very large telescope mirrors. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples, taking particularly into account laser-induced damage and degradation effects of coating and substrate. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence, being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Therefore, parameters influencing the damage threshold of metal coatings like wavelength, pulse width, and number of pulses have been studied in detail. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be reinstalled, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied. Hence, laser desorption seems to be a viable method of cleaning large Al mirrors for telescopes.

  6. A 3-level Model for Schumann-Runge O2 Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Glenn S.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.

    1996-01-01

    A three level model has been developed for the analysis of Schumann-Runge band (B(sup 3)Sigma(sup -)(sub u ) <- X(sup 3)Sigma(sup -)(sub g)) laser-induced fluorescence of molecular oxygen, O2. Such a model is required due to the severe lower state depletion which can occur when transitions having relatively large absorption cross-sections are excited. Such transitions are often utilized via ArF* or KrF* excimer or dye-laser excitation in high temperature environments. The rapid predissociation of the upper state prevents substantial repopulation of the lower state by collisional processes, and the lower state may be largely depleted, even at laser fluences as low as 10-100 mJ/sq cm. The resulting LIF signal in such cases no longer varies linearly with laser pulse energy, and the extent of the sublinear behavior varies with the particular rovibrational transition of interest. Relating the measured signal to the lower state population, then, necessitates the use of exceedingly low laser fluences. These low fluences in turn lead to the need to compromise spatial resolution in order to generate sufficient signal.

  7. Laser-induced PVD technique for deposition of diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Mueller, F.

    1993-04-01

    Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films have been grown on various substrates at low temperatures and low pressure by ablation of carbon particles using KrF excimer laser pulses of 30 ns duration. It is shown that the film properties strongly depend on the energy density of the incident laser beam and the deposition temperature. At energy densities above 8 J/cm2 and low substrate temperatures (< 200 degree(s)C) the coatings are transparent, while at lower energy densities or higher substrate temperatures only opaque films are obtained. The thin films were characterized by optical spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and secondary electron microscopy. In addition to film growth and characterization, the kinetic energies and masses of laser ablated carbon ions have been investigated by time-of-flight spectroscopy. We observe an almost linear relation between kinetic particle energy and laser energy density, with maximum values as high as 220 eV at 23 J/cm2, indicating a strong correlation between laser energy density, particle energies and DLC film properties.

  8. Laser-driven mechanical fracture in fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmani, Faiz

    1999-10-01

    Fused silica, widely used as optical-window material in high-fluence requirements on glass and KrF lasers, experiences optical damage. Under fatigue conditions, the damage is initiated by slow crack growth and culminates, if not arrested, with catastrophic crack growth and implosive failure when the stress intensity approaches the critical value. Since laser-induced cracks cannot be eliminated entirely, the behavior of cracked structures under service conditions must be quantified to be predicted. Systematic scientific rules must be devised to characterize laser-induced cracks and their effects, and to predict if and when it may become necessary to replace the damaged components. This thesis makes a contribution toward this end. Measurements of fatigue failure strength of laser-cracked fused silica in air at room temperature for different number of laser pulses and laser fluences are presented. The failure-strength variability is found to be due mainly to the spectrum of crack depths. Agreement with theory suggests the incorporation of a residual term into the failure-strength equation. Experiments on residual stresses induced in fused silica by the presence of a laser-induced crack are carried out using two different techniques. Theoretical modelings show that this residual stress field is of shear nature and mouth-opening. A correlation between the reduction in fracture strength of fused silica and the increase of the residual-stress field is established, providing laser systems designers and operators with guidance on the rate of crack growth as well as on the stress-related ramifications such as laser-driven cracks entail. Specifically, a hoop-stress in the immediate vicinity of a crack growing along the beam propagation direction is identified as strongly coupling to both the laser fluence and the crack growth. This coupling prompted the question of whether or not breaking the hoop stress symmetry by some external perturbation will accelerate or stymie crack

  9. Improved photomask accuracy with a high-productivity DUV laser pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öström, Thomas; Måhlén, Jonas; Karawajczyk, Andrzej; Rosling, Mats; Carlqvist, Per; Askebjer, Per; Karlin, Tord; Sallander, Jesper; Österberg, Anders

    2006-10-01

    A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to maximize the use of high-speed deep-UV laser pattern generators, reserving e-beam tools for the most critical photomask layers. With a 248 nm excimer laser and 0.82 NA projection optics, the Sigma7500 increases the application space of laser pattern generators. A programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) is imaged with partially coherent optics to compose the photomask pattern. Image profiles are enhanced with phase shifting in the pattern generator, and features below 200 nm are reliably printed. The Sigma7500 extends the SLM-based architecture with improvements to CD uniformity and placement accuracy, resulting from an error budget-based methodology. Among these improvements is a stiffer focus stage design with digital servos, resulting in improved focus stability. Tighter climate controls and improved dose control reduce drift during mask patterning. As a result, global composite CD uniformity below 5 nm (3σ) has been demonstrated, with placement accuracy below 10 nm (3σ) across the mask. Self-calibration methods are used to optimize and monitor system performance, reducing the need to print test plates. The SLM calibration camera views programmed test patterns, making it possible to evaluate image metrics such as CD uniformity and line edge roughness. The camera is also used to characterize image placement over the optical field. A feature called ProcessEqualizer TM has been developed to correct long-range CD errors arising from process effects on production photomasks. Mask data is sized in real time to compensate for pattern-dependent errors related to local pattern density, as well as for systematic pattern-independent errors such as radial CD signatures. Corrections are made in the pixel domain in the advanced adjustments processor, which also performs global biasing, stamp distortion compensation, and corner enhancement. In the Sigma7500, the mask pattern is imaged with full edge addressability in each

  10. Pulsed Laser Deposition of High Temperature Protonic Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred W.; Berger, M. H.; Sayir, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to fabricate nanostructured BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3- sigma) films. Protonic conduction of fabricated BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) films was compared to sintered BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma). Sintered samples and laser targets were prepared by sintering BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) powders derived by solid state synthesis. Films 1 to 8 micron thick were deposited by KrF excimer laser on porous Al2O3 substrates. Thin films were fabricated at deposition temperatures of 700 to 950 C at O2 pressures up to 200 mTorr using laser pulse energies of 0.45 - 0.95 J. Fabricated films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Single phase BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) films with a columnar growth morphology are observed with preferred crystal growth along the [100] or [001] direction. Results indicate [100] growth dependence upon laser pulse energy. Electrical conductivity of bulk samples produced by solid state sintering and thin film samples were measured over a temperature range of 100 C to 900 C. Electrical conduction behavior was dependent upon film deposition temperature. Maximum conductivity occurs at deposition temperature of 900 oC; the electrical conductivity exceeds the sintered specimen. All other deposited films exhibit a lower electrical conductivity than the sintered specimen. Activation energy for electrical conduction showed dependence upon deposition temperature, it varied

  11. Time-resolved transmission study of fused silica during laser-induced backside dry etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smausz, T.; Zalatnai, Z.; Papdi, B.; Csákó, T.; Bor, Zs.; Hopp, B.

    2009-03-01

    Laser-induced backside dry etching (LIBDE) is a promising technique for micro- and nanomachining of transparent materials. Although several experiments have already proved the suitability and effectiveness of the technique, there are several open questions concerning the etching mechanism and the concomitant processes. In this paper time-resolved light transmission investigations of etching process of fused silica are presented. 125 nm thick silver coating was irradiated through the carrying 1 mm thick fused silica plate by single pulses of a nanosecond KrF excimer laser. The applied fluences were 0.38, 0.71 and 1 J/cm 2. During the etching process the irradiated spots were illuminated by an electronically delayed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser. The delay between the pump and probe pulses was varied in the range of 0 ns and 20 μs. It was found that the transmitted probe beam intensity strongly depends on the applied delays and fluences. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the etched surface showed the existence of silver droplets and fragments on the illuminated surfaces and silver atoms built into the treated surface layer influencing the transmission behavior of the studied samples.

  12. Random noise can help to improve synchronization of excimer laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Mingesz, Róbert; Barna, Angéla; Mellár, János

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported on a compact microcontroller-based unit developed to accurately synchronize excimer laser pulses (Mingesz et al. 2012 Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240007 (doi:10.1142/S021947751240007X)). We have shown that dithering based on random jitter noise plus pseudorandom numbers can be used in the digital control system to radically reduce the long-term drift of the laser pulse from the trigger and to improve the accuracy of the synchronization. In this update paper, we present our new experimental results obtained by the use of the delay-controller unit to tune the timing of a KrF excimer laser as an addition to our previous numerical simulation results. The hardware was interfaced to the laser using optical signal paths in order to reduce sensitivity to electromagnetic interference and the control algorithm tested by simulations was applied in the experiments. We have found that the system is able to reduce the delay uncertainty very close to the theoretical limit and performs well in real applications. The simple, compact and flexible system is universal enough to also be used in various multidisciplinary applications. PMID:26998325

  13. Random noise can help to improve synchronization of excimer laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Mingesz, Róbert; Barna, Angéla; Gingl, Zoltán; Mellár, János

    2016-02-01

    Recently, we have reported on a compact microcontroller-based unit developed to accurately synchronize excimer laser pulses (Mingesz et al. 2012 Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240007 (doi:10.1142/S021947751240007X)). We have shown that dithering based on random jitter noise plus pseudorandom numbers can be used in the digital control system to radically reduce the long-term drift of the laser pulse from the trigger and to improve the accuracy of the synchronization. In this update paper, we present our new experimental results obtained by the use of the delay-controller unit to tune the timing of a KrF excimer laser as an addition to our previous numerical simulation results. The hardware was interfaced to the laser using optical signal paths in order to reduce sensitivity to electromagnetic interference and the control algorithm tested by simulations was applied in the experiments. We have found that the system is able to reduce the delay uncertainty very close to the theoretical limit and performs well in real applications. The simple, compact and flexible system is universal enough to also be used in various multidisciplinary applications. PMID:26998325

  14. Infrared absorption of gaseous ClCS detected with time-resolved Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Li-Kang; Han, Hui-Ling; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2007-05-07

    A transient infrared absorption spectrum of gaseous ClCS was detected with a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. ClCS was produced upon irradiating a flowing mixture of Cl{sub 2}CS and N{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} with a KrF excimer laser at 248 nm. A transient band in the region of 1160-1220 cm{sup -1}, which diminished on prolonged reaction, is assigned to the C-S stretching ({nu}{sub 1}) mode of ClCS. Calculations with density-functional theory (B3P86 and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ) predict the geometry, vibrational wave numbers, and rotational parameters of ClCS. The rotational contour of the spectrum of ClCS simulated based on predicted rotational parameters agrees satisfactorily with experimental observation; from spectral simulation, the band origin is determined to be at 1194.4 cm{sup -1}. Reaction kinetics involving ClCS, CS, and CS{sub 2} are discussed.

  15. Dynamics of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazumasa; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2008-03-01

    Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) has been used in KrF excimer laser (248 nm) lithography as a backbone polymer, and is also a promising material for EUV or electron beam lithography. Analysis of the intermediate species is important for the control of reactions in resist materials. Since the size of integrated circuits fabricated for mass production will decrease below 30 nm and the size error must also be decreased to the molecular level, the elucidation of proton dynamics at the molecular level is also important for reducing the deviation of the resist pattern size. In this study, the dynamics of PHS radical cations were studied, because PHS radical cation is main source of proton. The transient absorption of PHS was observed in the near-infrared region (NIR) in p-dioxane solutions by pulse radiolysis. The intramolecular PHS dimer radical cation (M2 +.) were observed, whereas p-cresol shows no distinct CR band. Although the radical cations of phenol derivatives are known to be easily deprotonated, it was found that M2 +. formation prevents deprotonation by its charge resonance stabilization.

  16. Everything you ever wanted to know about why the semiconductor industry needs a high-refractive index photoresist but were afraid to ask: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Will; Socha, Robert

    2006-03-01

    The lithography prognosticator of the early 1980's declared the end of optics for sub-0.5μm imaging. However, significant improvements in optics, photoresist and mask technology continued through the mercury lamp lines (436, 405 & 365nm) and into laser bands of 248nm and to 193nm. As each wavelength matured, innovative optical solutions and further improvements in photoresist technology have demonstrated that extending imaging resolution is possible thus further reducing k I. Several authors have recently discussed manufacturing imaging solutions for sub-0.3k I and the integration challenges. Our industry will continue to focus on the most cost effective solution. What continues to motivate lithographers to discover new and innovative lithography solutions? The answer is cost. Recent publications have demonstrated sub 0.30 k I imaging. The development of new tooling, masks and even photoresist platforms impacts cost. The switch from KrF to ArF imaging materials has a significant impact on process integration. This paper will focus on the need to increase the refractive index of ArF photoresist systems to enhance process capability for ultra-high NA's that are near the limitation of the immersion fluid. Data will be presented demonstrating the impact of higher refractive index photoresist systems have on the further extension of ArF Immersion. Advanced RET's will be incorporated to further explore improvements in critical imaging levels along with dominant mask effects.

  17. Fabrication of Ohmic contact on semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate by laser thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yue; Lu, Wu-yue; Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhi-zhan

    2016-06-01

    The Ni contact layer was deposited on semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate by magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited samples were treated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and KrF excimer laser thermal annealing (LTA), respectively. The RTA annealed sample is rectifying while the LTA sample is Ohmic. The specific contact resistance (ρc) is 1.97 × 10-3 Ω.cm2, which was determined by the circular transmission line model. High resolution transmission electron microscopy morphologies and selected area electron diffraction patterns demonstrate that the 3C-SiC transition zone is formed in the near-interface region of the SiC after the as-deposited sample is treated by LTA, which is responsible for the Ohmic contact formation in the semi-insulating 4H-SiC.

  18. Copper vapor laser machining of polyimide and polymethylmethacrylate in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzek, P. L. G.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Ching, C. H.; Lindley, R. A.; McColl, W. B.

    1992-10-01

    A repetitively pulsed copper vapor laser (510 and 578 nm) is used to machine an opaque polymer (polyimide-Vespel) and a transparent polymer (polymethylmethacrylate-Lucite). Lucite is machinable by coating the surface with an ink which is semi-opaque to the green and yellow laser light. The repetition rate of the laser was 10 kHz with approximately 0.35 mJ/pulse and 3.5 W average power at the copper vapor laser wavelengths for a pulse width of 40 ns. The copper vapor laser thermally loads the target, generating thermal waves and sound waves in the gas which are investigated using HeNe laser beam deflection. The gas adjacent to the target is heated to steady state on the order of 100-400 s. Above the etching threshold, at approximately 10 mJ/cm2/pulse, the target is rapidly machined: 2-mm-diam, 2-mm-deep holes are drilled in 300 s in Vespel. At higher fluences of 100-150 mJ/cm2/pulse in 760 Torr of air it takes 180 s to bore through a 2-mm-thick disk of Vespel. The machined surfaces of the two polymers are very different. Machined Vespel samples are charred and cratered, whereas the Lucite samples show evidence of melting with little charring. The machining of polymers by visible-light copper vapor lasers is being compared to UV photoablation by KrF excimer laser light in order to study thermal versus nonthermal etching mechanisms.

  19. Combination Of Narrow Bandwidth Excimer Laser And Monochromatic Reduction Projection Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiyama, K.; Saito, K.; Moro, N.; Maeda, Y.; Natsuaki, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will discuss the problems associated with excimer laser photo-lithography -the combination of a KrF narrow band width excimer laser (non-injection locked type) with a large field fused silica monochromatic reduction lens. An excimer laser with a KrF narrow bandwidth, in combination with a large field monochromatic lens which is appropriate for use with such laser, have been developed and tested. The system's resolution capability has been confirmed at 0.4 um L/S with MP2400 resist. The laser has been designed so as to be installed and maintained in a clean room environment as well as to have a very narrow spectrum line. A very narrow band-width beam, down to 0.003nm, has been attained through a stable resonator with more than 20mJ pulse energy. The ultra-compact laser head (300mm x 545mm x 1100mm) contains a small laser discharge unit (182mm x 156mm x 584mm), and no amplifier because the oscillator is highly efficient in spite of the narrow line emission. Maintenance is much easier in the clean room environment. Users can replace the discharge unit as easily as they would change Hg-lamp, only taking twenty minutes, and while they clean the window and check the electrodes of the removed unit, the laser can be operated with the easily installed replacement -already passivated discharge unit. The laser head unit is separated from a gas circulating unit and trigger pulse circuit - vibration, heat, EMI noise and particle generation. Therefore, it can be installed even in the thermal clean chamber of a stepper. The N.A. (numerical aperture) of the monochromatic lens is 0.36 and the field size is 15mm x 15mm. In fact, three kinds of lenses with N.A.s of 0.4, 0.35 and 0.3 respectively, were designed and individually evaluated for their OTF's and defocus's dependence on the light source's spectral width, and also their co-relationship. In parallel, simulations on the relationship between each lens' chromatic aberration and laser spectral width were completed and

  20. The effect of microarc oxidation and excimer laser processing on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Zr-1Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiaoxi; Wang, Xin; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Xibing; Wang, Rongshan; Zhang, Yanwei; Xue, Wenbin

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of microarc oxidation (MAO) and excimer laser processing on the corrosion resistance of Zr-1Nb alloy in service environment. The pre-oxide film was fabricated on the surface of Zr-1Nb cladding tubes by MAO processing, and then subjected to KrF excimer laser irradiation. The surface morphology of the pre-oxide film was observed using a scanning electron microscope; phase compositions and quantities were determined using an X-ray diffraction; surface roughness was determined using a profilometer; and thermal expansion coefficient was measured using a dilatometer. Autoclave experiments were conducted for 94 days in an aqueous condition of 360 °C under 18.6 MPa in 0.01 mol/L LiOH solutions. The results showed that MAO + laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of Zr-1Nb cladding tubes at high temperatures, because laser melting and etching could lead to a reduction in surface roughness and an increase in compactness of the pre-oxide film, and laser processing could promote the transformation of m-ZrO2 phase to t-ZrO2 phase. The best corrosion resistance was obtained when the pulse energy was 500 mJ, scanning speed was 0.13 mm/s, and pulse number was 2400.