Science.gov

Sample records for 24mic cosmos imaging

  1. Image processing with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stobie, R. S.; Dodd, R. J.; MacGillivray, H. T.

    1981-12-01

    It is noted that astronomers have for some time been fascinated by the possibility of automatic plate measurement and that measuring engines have been constructed with an ever increasing degree of automation. A description is given of the COSMOS (CoOrdinates, Sizes, Magnitudes, Orientations, and Shapes) system at the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh. An automatic high-speed microdensitometer controlled by a minicomputer is linked to a very fast microcomputer that performs immediate image analysis. The movable carriage, whose position in two coordinates is controlled digitally to an accuracy of 0.5 micron (0.0005 mm) will take plates as large as 356 mm on a side. It is noted that currently the machine operates primarily in the Image Analysis Mode, in which COSMOS must first detect the presence of an image. It does this by scanning and digitizing the photograph in 'raster' fashion and then searching for local enhancements in the density of the exposed emulsion.

  2. The Subaru COSMOS 20: Subaru optical imaging of the HST COSMOS field with 20 filters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Capak, Peter L.; Aussel, Herve; Ichikawa, Akie; Murayama, Takashi; Scoville, Nick Z.; Ilbert, Olivier; Salvato, Mara; Sanders, David B. B.; Mobasher, Bahram; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Renzini, Alvio; Rich, Michael; Schinnerer, Eva; Kaifu, Norio; Karoji, Hiroshi; Arimoto, Nobuo; Okamura, Sadanori; Ohta, Kouji; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2015-12-01

    We present both the observations and the data reduction procedures of the Subaru COSMOS 20 project, an optical imaging survey of the HST COSMOS field, carried out by using Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope with the following 20 optical filters: six broad-band (B, g', V, r', i', and z'), two narrow-band (NB711 and NB816), and 12 intermediate-band filters (IA427, IA464, IA484, IA505, IA527, IA574, IA624, IA679, IA709, IA738, IA767, and IA827). Part of this project is described in Taniguchi et al. (2007, ApJS, 172, 9) and Capak et al. (2007, ApJS, 172, 99) for the six broad-band and one narrow-band (NB816) filter data. In this paper, we present details of the observations and data reduction for the remaining 13 filters (the 12 IA filters and NB711). In particular, we describe the accuracy of both the photometry and astrometry in all the filter bands. We also present the optical properties of the Suprime-Cam IA filter system in appendices.

  3. Millimeter imaging of submillimeter galaxies in the COSMOS field: redshift distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Navarrete, F.; Schinnerer, E.; Riechers, D. A.; Bertoldi, F.; Feruglio, C.; Finoguenov, A.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Albrecht, M.; Karim, A.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C. L.; Cappelluti, N.; Elvis, M.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J.; Lilly, S.; Sanders, D.; Sheth, K.; Scoville, N. Z.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We present new IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) 1.3 mm continuum observations at 1.5'' resolution of 28 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), previously discovered with the 870 μm bolometer LABOCA at the APEX telescope from the central 0.7 deg2 of the COSMOS field. Nineteen out of the 28 LABOCA sources were detected with PdBI at a ≳3σ level of ≈1.4 mJy/beam. A combined analysis of this new sample with existing interferometrically identified SMGs in the COSMOS field yields the following results: i) ≳15%, and possibly up to 40% of single-dish detected SMGs consist of multiple sources; ii) statistical analysis of multi-wavelength counterparts to single-dish SMGs shows that only 50% have real radio or IR counterparts; iii) 18% of interferometric SMGs have either no multi-wavelength counterpart or only a radio-counterpart; and iv) 50-70% of z ≳ 3 SMGs have no radio counterparts (down to an rms of 7-12 μJy at 1.4 GHz). Using the exactinterferometric positions to identify the multi-wavelength counterparts allows us to determine accurate photometric redshifts for these sources. The redshift distributions of the combined and the individual 1.1 mm and 870 μm selected samples shows a higher mean and a broader width than those derived in previous studies. This study finds that on average brighter and/or mm- selected SMGs are located at higher redshifts, consistent with previous studies. The mean redshift for the 1.1 mm selected sample (bar{z} = 3.1 ± 0.4) is tentatively higher than that for the 870 μm selected sample (bar{z} = 2.6 ± 0.4). Based on our nearly complete sample of AzTEC 1.1 mm SMGs in a 0.15 deg2 area, we infer a higher surface density of z ≳ 4 SMGs than predicted by current cosmological models. In summary, our findings imply that interferometric identifications at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths are crucial to build statistically complete and unbiased samples of SMGs. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer

  4. The Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Filippenko, Alex

    2013-10-01

    Preface; About the authors; 1. A grand tour of the heavens; 2. Light, matter and energy: powering the Universe; 3. Light and telescopes: extending our senses; 4. Observing the stars and planets: clockwork of the Universe; 5. Gravitation and motion: the early history of astronomy; 6. The terrestrial planets: Earth, Moon, and their relatives; 7. The Jovian planets: windswept giants; 8. Pluto, comets, and space debris; 9. Our Solar System and others; 10. Our star: the Sun; 11. Stars: distant suns; 12. How the stars shine: cosmic furnaces; 13. The death of stars: recycling; 14. Black holes: the end of space and time; 15. The Milky Way: our home in the Universe; 16. A Universe of galaxies; 17. Quasars and active galaxies; 18. Cosmology: the birth and life of the cosmos; 19. In the beginning; 20. Life in the Universe; Epilogue; Appendices; Selected readings; Glossary; Index.

  5. Cosmos 2229

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. Reggie; Roy, Roland R.; Hodgson, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The 6 weeks preflight activities of the Cosmos project during 1993 included: modification of EMG connector to improve the reliability of EMG recording; 24 hour cage activity recording from all but two of the flight animals (monkeys); attempts to record from flight candidates during foot lever task; and force transducer calibrations on all flight candidate animals. The 4 week postflight recordings included: postflight recordings from flight animals; postflight recordings on 3 control (non-flight) animals; postflight recalibration of force transducers on 1 flight and 4 control (non-flight) animals; and attempts to record EMG and video data from the flight animals during postflight locomotion and postural activity. The flight EMG recordings suggest that significant changes in muscle control may occur in spaceflight. It is also clear from recordings that levels of EMG recorded during spaceflight can attain values similar to those measured on earth. Amplifier gain settings should therefore probably not be changed for spaceflight.

  6. Calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling (COSMOS): a method for conditioning the inverse problem from measured magnetic field map to susceptibility source image in MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Kressler, Bryan; Wang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility differs among tissues based on their contents of iron, calcium, contrast agent, and other molecular compositions. Susceptibility modifies the magnetic field detected in the MR signal phase. The determination of an arbitrary susceptibility distribution from the induced field shifts is a challenging, ill-posed inverse problem. A method called "calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling" (COSMOS) is proposed to stabilize this inverse problem. The field created by the susceptibility distribution is sampled at multiple orientations with respect to the polarization field, B(0), and the susceptibility map is reconstructed by weighted linear least squares to account for field noise and the signal void region. Numerical simulations and phantom and in vitro imaging validations demonstrated that COSMOS is a stable and precise approach to quantify a susceptibility distribution using MRI.

  7. Morphology enabled dipole inversion (MEDI) from a single-angle acquisition: comparison with COSMOS in human brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Liu, Jing; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Khalidov, Ildar; Ledoux, James Robert; Wang, Yi

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic susceptibility varies among brain structures and provides insights into the chemical and molecular composition of brain tissues. However, the determination of an arbitrary susceptibility distribution from the measured MR signal phase is a challenging, ill-conditioned inverse problem. Although a previous method named calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling (COSMOS) has solved this inverse problem both theoretically and experimentally using multiple angle acquisitions, it is often impractical to carry out on human subjects. Recently, the feasibility of calculating the brain susceptibility distribution from a single-angle acquisition was demonstrated using morphology enabled dipole inversion (MEDI). In this study, we further improved the original MEDI method by sparsifying the edges in the quantitative susceptibility map that do not have a corresponding edge in the magnitude image. Quantitative susceptibility maps generated by the improved MEDI were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with those generated by calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling. The results show a high degree of agreement between MEDI and calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling, and the practicality of MEDI allows many potential clinical applications.

  8. One Click to the Cosmos: The AstroPix Image Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, Robert L.; Llamas, J.; Squires, G. K.; Brinkworth, C.; X-ray Center, Chandra; ESO/ESA; Science Center, Spitzer; STScI

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a single website that acts as a portal to the entire wealth of public imagery spanning the world's observatories. This is the goal of the AstroPix project (astropix.ipac.caltech.edu), and you can use it today! Although still in a beta development state, this past year has seen the inclusion of thousands of images spanning some of the most prominent observatories in the world, including Chandra, ESO, Galex, Herschel, Hubble, Spitzer, and WISE, with more on the way. The archive is unique as it is built around the Astronomical Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard, which captures the rich contextual information for each image. This ranges from titles and descriptions, to color representations and observation details, to sky coordinates. AVM enables AstroPix imagery to be used in a variety of unique ways that benefit formal and informal education as well as astronomers and the general public. Visitors to Astropix can search the database using simple free-text queries, or use a structured search (similar to "Smart Playlists" found in iTunes, for example). We are also developing public application programming interfaces (APIs) to allow third party software and websites to access the growing content for a variety of uses (planetarium software, museum kiosks, mobile apps, and creative web interfaces, to name a few). Contributing image assets to AstroPix is as easy as tagging the images with the relevant metadata and including the web links to the images in a simple RSS feed. We will cover some of the latest information about tools to contribute images to AstroPix and ways to use the site.

  9. COSMOS Launch Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  10. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. III. Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Miettinen, O.; Tomičić, N.; Zamorani, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Lemaux, B. C.; Aravena, M.; Capak, P.; Chiang, Y.-K.; Civano, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Ilbert, O.; Jurlin, N.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the environment of 23 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from a signal-to-noise (S/N)-limited sample of SMGs originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey of a Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) subfield and then followed up with the Submillimetre Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 890 μm and 1.3 mm, respectively. These SMGs already have well-defined multiwavelength counterparts and redshifts. We also analyse the environments of four COSMOS SMGs spectroscopically confirmed to lie at redshifts zspec > 4.5, and one at zspec = 2.49 resulting in a total SMG sample size of 28. We search for overdensities using the COSMOS photometric redshifts based on over 30 UV-NIR photometric measurements including the new UltraVISTA data release 2 and Spitzer/SPLASH data, and reaching an accuracy of σΔz/ (1 + z) = 0.0067 (0.0155) at z < 3.5 (>3.5). To identify overdensities we apply the Voronoi tessellation analysis, and estimate the redshift-space overdensity estimator δg as a function of distance from the SMG and/or overdensity centre. We test and validate our approach via simulations, X-ray detected groups or clusters, and spectroscopic verifications using VUDS and zCOSMOS catalogues which show that even with photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field we can efficiently retrieve overdensities out to z ≈ 5. Our results yield that 11 out of 23 (48%) JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm SMGs occupy overdense environments. Considering the entire JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm S/N ≥ 4 sample and taking the expected fraction of spurious detections into account, this means that 35-61% of the SMGs in the S/N-limited sample occupy overdense environments. We perform an X-ray stacking analysis in the 0.5-2 keV band using a 32″ aperture and our SMG positions, and find statistically significant detections. For our z < 2 subsample we find an average flux of (4.0 ± 0.8) × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2 and a corresponding total mass of M200 = 2.8 × 1013M

  11. Carl Sagan Cosmos Voyager

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Excerpt from "Cosmos", read by Carl Sagan, part of the NASA.gov multimedia piece celebrating NASA's 50th anniversary in 2008. Used by permission of Carl Sagan Associates. To see the whole interacti...

  12. Signals from the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  13. Signals from the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  14. Take a Splash Into the Cosmos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-09

    Millions of galaxies populate the patch of sky known as the COSMOS field, short for Cosmic Evolution Survey, a portion of which is shown here. Even the smallest dots in this image are galaxies, some up to 12 billion light-years away.

  15. Surveying the cosmos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-19

    The object in the middle of this image, sitting alone within a star-studded cosmos, is a galaxy known as ESO 486-21. ESO 486-21 is a spiral galaxy — albeit with a somewhat irregular and ill-defined structure — located some 30 million light-years from Earth. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope observed this object while performing a survey — the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) — of 50 nearby star-forming galaxies. The LEGUS sample was selected to cover a diverse range of galactic morphologies, star formation rates, galaxy masses, and more. Astronomers use such data to understand how stars form and evolve within clusters, and how these processes affect both their home galaxy and the wider Universe. ESO 486-21 is an ideal candidate for inclusion in such a survey as it is known to be in the process of forming new stars, which are created when large clouds of gas and dust (seen here in pink) within the galaxy crumple inwards upon themselves. LEGUS made use of Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The WFC3 obtained detailed observations of the target objects while the ACS obtained what are known as parallel fields — instead of leaving ACS idle, it was instead trained on a small patch of sky just offset from the target field itself, allowing it to gather additional valuable information while the primary target was being observed by WFC3. Parallel fields played an important role in Hubble’s Frontier Fields programme, which used the magnifying power of large galaxy clusters (via a phenomenon known as gravitational lensing) to explore objects in the distant Universe.

  16. Visualizing the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Space, as Douglas Adams once wrote, is big. Really big. But just how big is it? And what else, aside from our own planet Earth, is out there in it? Cosmos: the Infographic Book of Space answers these questions in a stunning fashion, but to describe it as a beautiful book full of interesting facts does not do it justice.

  17. Cosmos: 1989 immunology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    The effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM were determined. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies performed on Cosmos 1887. Spleen and bone marrow cells were obtained from flown, vivarium control, synchronous control, and suspended rats. The cells were stained with a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against rat leukocyte cell surface antigens. Control cells were stained with a monoclonal antibody directed against an irrelevant species or were unstained. Cells were then analyzed for fluorescence using a FACSCAN flow cytometer. Bone marrow cells were placed in culture with GM-CSF in McCoy's 5a medium and incubated for 5 days. Cultures were then evaluated for the number of colonies of 50 cells or greater.

  18. Engines for the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.; Reisz, Al; Wyckoff, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Galactic forces spiral across the cosmos fueled by nuclear fission and fusion and atoms in plasmatic states with throes of constraints of gravitational forces and magnetic fields, In their wanderings these galaxies spew light, radiation, atomic and subatomic particles throughout the universe. Throughout the ages of man visions of journeying through the stars have been wondered. If humans and human devices from Earth are to go beyond the Moon and journey into deep space, it must be accomplished with like forces of the cosmos such as electrical fields, magnetic fields, ions, electrons and energies generated from the manipulation of subatomic and atomic particles. Forms of electromagnetic waves such as light, radio waves and lasers must control deep space engines. We won't get far on our Earth accustomed hydrocarbon fuels.

  19. COSMOS Galaxy Morphology Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, M.; Impey, C.; Scoville, N.; COSMOS Collaboration

    2004-05-01

    The COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) project will be the largest HST imaging survey ever, covering two square degrees with the ACS instrument. The survey is designed to sample the full range of cosmic structures up to scales of 100 Mpc, map the evolution of galaxy morphology, galaxy merging, and star formation out to z of 2, use weak lensing to reconstruct the dark matter distribution out to z of 1, and study the joint evolution of galaxies and black holes via the AGN population. Extensive multi-wavelength observations of the field have also been committed for X-ray, UV, FIR, NIR, millimeter, and radio wavelengths. We present results from a pilot project using only the central 10.4 by 10.4 arcmin portion of the field. The goal is to understand the reliability of galaxy morphological information derived from GALFIT and other methods. Morphology has been derived from both g and i ACS images in terms of bulge/disk ratio and Sersic index. These measures have been augmented by CAS and Gini coefficients as a way of identifying galaxies that are disturbed or interacting, or where the axisymmetric assumptions of GALFIT are not warranted. We present results on how morphology correlates with global quantities such as luminosity, scale length, and mean surface brightness as well as with various broad band color combinations, which serve as proxies for overall stellar populations and ages. Using photo-z's we study all these relationships in terms of cosmic evolution. This pilot project will be used to optimize analysis strategies for the much larger amount of data in the overall COSMOS project. Funding for this work was provided by a NSF Graduate Fellowship and a NASA/HST GO Grant.

  20. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. II. The spatial extent of the radio-emitting regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Novak, M.; Smolčić, V.; Schinnerer, E.; Sargent, M.; Murphy, E. J.; Aravena, M.; Bondi, M.; Carilli, C. L.; Karim, A.; Salvato, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Radio emission at centimetre wavelengths from highly star-forming galaxies, like submillimetre galaxies (SMGs), is dominated by synchrotron radiation arising from supernova activity. Hence, radio continuum imaging has the potential to determine the spatial extent of star formation in these types of galaxies. Using deep, high-resolution (1σ = 2.3 μJy beam-1; 0.75 arcsec) centimetre radio-continuum observations taken by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA)-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project, we studied the radio-emitting sizes of a flux-limited sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field. The target SMGs were originally discovered in a 1.1 mm continuum survey carried out with the AzTEC bolometer, and followed up with higher resolution interferometric (sub)millimetre continuum observations. Of the 39 SMGs studied here, 3 GHz emission was detected towards 18 of them (~46 ± 11%) with signal-to-noise ratios in the range of S/N = 4.2-37.4. Towards four SMGs (AzTEC2, 5, 8, and 11), we detected two separate 3 GHz sources with projected separations of ~1''&dotbelow;5-6''&dotbelow;6, but they might be physically related in only one or two cases (AzTEC2 and 11). Using two-dimensional elliptical Gaussian fits, we derived a median deconvolved major axis FWHM size of 0''&dotbelow;54±0''&dotbelow;11 for our 18 SMGs detected at 3 GHz. For the 15 SMGs with known redshift we derived a median linear major axis FWHM of 4.2 ± 0.9 kpc. No clear correlation was found between the radio-emitting size and the 3 GHz or submm flux density, or the redshift of the SMG. However, there is a hint of larger radio sizes at z ~ 2.5-5 compared to lower redshifts. The sizes we derived are consistent with previous SMG sizes measured at 1.4 GHz and in mid-J CO emission, but significantly larger than those seen in the (sub)mm continuum emission (typically probing the rest-frame far-infrared with median FWHM sizes of only ~1.5-2.5 kpc). One possible scenario is that SMGs have i) an extended gas component with a

  1. THE COSMOS-WIRCam NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY. I. BzK-SELECTED PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z approx> 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Aussel, H.; Daddi, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Ilbert, O.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Kartaltepe, J.; Willott, C. J.; Mancini, C.; Renzini, A.; Cook, R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Murayama, T.; Shioya, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new near-infrared survey covering the 2 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field conducted using WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. By combining our near-infrared data with Subaru B and z images, we construct a deep, wide-field optical-infrared catalog. At K{sub s} < 23 (AB magnitudes), our survey completeness is greater than 90% and 70% for stars and galaxies, respectively, and contains 143,466 galaxies and 13,254 stars. Using the BzK diagram, we divide our galaxy catalog into quiescent and star-forming galaxy candidates. At z approx 2, our catalogs contain 3931 quiescent and 25,757 star-forming galaxies representing the largest and most secure sample at these depths and redshifts to date. Our counts of quiescent galaxies turns over at K{sub s} approx 22, an effect that we demonstrate cannot be due to sample incompleteness. Both the number of faint and bright quiescent objects in our catalogs exceed the predictions of a recent semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, indicating potentially the need for further refinements in the amount of merging and active galactic nucleus feedback at z approx 2 in these models. We measure the angular correlation function for each sample and find that the slope of the field galaxy correlation function flattens to 1.5 by K{sub s} approx 23. At small angular scales, the angular correlation function for passive BzK galaxies is considerably in excess of the clustering of dark matter. We use precise 30-band photometric redshifts to derive the spatial correlation length and the redshift distributions for each object class. At K{sub s} < 22, we find r {sup g}amma{sup /1.8}{sub 0} = 7.0 +- 0.5h {sup -1} Mpc for the passive BzK candidates and 4.7 +- 0.8 h {sup -1} Mpc for the star-forming BzK galaxies. Our pBzK galaxies have an average photometric redshift of z{sub p} approx 1.4, in approximate agreement with the limited spectroscopic information currently available. The stacked K{sub s} image will be made publicly available from

  2. The New Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicher, David J.; Filippenko, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Foreword Alex Filippenko; 1. The awakening of astronomy; 2. How the Sun will die; 3. The end of life on Earth; 4. How the moon formed; 5. Where has all the water gone?; 6. Why did Venus turn inside-out?; 7. Is Pluto a planet?; 8. Planets everywhere; 9. The Milky Way as barred spiral; 10. Here comes Milkomeda; 11. The Big Bang's cosmic echo; 12. How large is the universe?; 13. The mystery of dark matter; 14. The bigger mystery of dark energy; 15. Black holes are ubiquitous; 16. What is the universe's fate?; 17. The meaning of life in the cosmos; Glossary; Bibliography; Index.

  3. Cosmos-1989 immunology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The current study involved a determination of the effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies carried out on Cosmos 1887.

  4. COSMOS 2044 Mission: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Ballard, R. W.; Connol, J. P.; Vasques, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The COSMOS 2044 spaceflight was the ninth Soviet-International joint mission dedicated to space biomedicine and the seventh in which the United States has participated. The unmanned Vostok vehicle carried 10 rats and two rhesus monkeys on its 14-day voyage. This spaceflight yielded an unprecedented bounty of data on physiological responses to the microgravity environment. The tissues studied and the numbers and types of studies performed by members of the international science community constituted a new record. Many of the results obtained by the approximately 80 American scientists who participated are reported in the series of COSMOS 2044 papers in this issue. Descriptions of the spaceflight and animal procedures are detailed elsewhere. The broad goals of the space biomedical program are threefold. The first is to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the biological responses to the microgravity environment, be they adaptive or pathological. The second goal is to clarify the physiological-biochemical mechanisms mediating the responses to microgravity. The third goal of this program is to use the space environment as a tool to better understand adaptive and disease processes in terrestrial organisms.

  5. Cosmos 1887 - Science overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty two groups of U.S. investigators participated in joint studies of ten male rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite. A summary of these studies embracing skeletal muscle, bone, endocrine, neural, intestinal, metabolic, immunology, cardiac, and gonadal investigations is presented. Three general objectives of the rat experiments are outlined - verification of previous observations of the biological responses to microgravity; clarification of the effects of microgravity on both the tissues investigated and the measurements performed; and relation of biological responses to flight duration. It is concluded that the first objective is met fully and the second with a varying degree of success. The confounding effects of overshooting the designated landing site and delayed recovery of the animals largely precluded meeting the last objective. It is also noted that investigations were performed for the first time on brain and spinal cord enzymes, a neurotransmitter, transmitter receptors, hypothalamic regulatory factors, pineal metabolites, atrial granules, liver histology, and jejunal mitotic rate in spaceflight animals.

  6. Cosmos 1887 - Science overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty two groups of U.S. investigators participated in joint studies of ten male rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite. A summary of these studies embracing skeletal muscle, bone, endocrine, neural, intestinal, metabolic, immunology, cardiac, and gonadal investigations is presented. Three general objectives of the rat experiments are outlined - verification of previous observations of the biological responses to microgravity; clarification of the effects of microgravity on both the tissues investigated and the measurements performed; and relation of biological responses to flight duration. It is concluded that the first objective is met fully and the second with a varying degree of success. The confounding effects of overshooting the designated landing site and delayed recovery of the animals largely precluded meeting the last objective. It is also noted that investigations were performed for the first time on brain and spinal cord enzymes, a neurotransmitter, transmitter receptors, hypothalamic regulatory factors, pineal metabolites, atrial granules, liver histology, and jejunal mitotic rate in spaceflight animals.

  7. The COSMOS-WIRCam Near-Infrared Imaging Survey. I. BzK-Selected Passive and Star-Forming Galaxy Candidates at z gsim 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, H. J.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Thompson, D.; Daddi, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Willott, C. J.; Mancini, C.; Renzini, A.; Cook, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mellier, Y.; Murayama, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Shioya, Y.; Tanaguchi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new near-infrared survey covering the 2 deg2 COSMOS field conducted using WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. By combining our near-infrared data with Subaru B and z images, we construct a deep, wide-field optical-infrared catalog. At K s < 23 (AB magnitudes), our survey completeness is greater than 90% and 70% for stars and galaxies, respectively, and contains 143,466 galaxies and 13,254 stars. Using the BzK diagram, we divide our galaxy catalog into quiescent and star-forming galaxy candidates. At z ~ 2, our catalogs contain 3931 quiescent and 25,757 star-forming galaxies representing the largest and most secure sample at these depths and redshifts to date. Our counts of quiescent galaxies turns over at K s ~ 22, an effect that we demonstrate cannot be due to sample incompleteness. Both the number of faint and bright quiescent objects in our catalogs exceed the predictions of a recent semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, indicating potentially the need for further refinements in the amount of merging and active galactic nucleus feedback at z ~ 2 in these models. We measure the angular correlation function for each sample and find that the slope of the field galaxy correlation function flattens to 1.5 by K s ~ 23. At small angular scales, the angular correlation function for passive BzK galaxies is considerably in excess of the clustering of dark matter. We use precise 30-band photometric redshifts to derive the spatial correlation length and the redshift distributions for each object class. At K s < 22, we find r γ/1.8 0 = 7.0 ± 0.5h -1 Mpc for the passive BzK candidates and 4.7 ± 0.8 h -1 Mpc for the star-forming BzK galaxies. Our pBzK galaxies have an average photometric redshift of zp ~ 1.4, in approximate agreement with the limited spectroscopic information currently available. The stacked K s image will be made publicly available from IRSA. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National

  8. The Cosmos Portal and the IYA2009 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, Bernard M.; Sims, M.; Lindblom, J.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the non-profit Digital Universe Foundation (DUF) launched the Earth Portal as a comprehensive resource for timely, objective, science-based information about the environment. There are currently over 1000 scholars from 60 countries engaged in this rapidly growing web-based collaboration. The Cosmos Portal is the second major DUF initiative (digitaluniverse.net/cosmos). In support of the IYA2009 effort, the Cosmos Portal is recruiting astronomy professionals to make use of easy online tools to publish articles, blogs, news items, image galleries, class notes, lectures, powerpoint presentations, links to other high quality websites or other educational material. In parallel we intend to bring hundreds of amateur astronomy organizations and thousands of amateur astronomers and telescope makers together in a community of portals (digitaluniverse.net/cosmoscommunity). This will allow vibrant online collaboration and information sharing. We encourage you to start a portal on your favorite topic or join an existing topic as a contributor.

  9. The Chemically Controlled Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Williams, D. A.

    1996-06-01

    Simple chemistry governs a host of the exotic objects that populate our cosmos. For example, molecules in the early Universe acted as natural temperature regulators, keeping the primordial gas cool and, in turn, allowing galaxies and stars to form. What are the tools of the trade for the cosmic chemist and what can they teach us about the Universe we live in? These are the questions answered in this engaging and informative guide--the first book for nonspecialists on molecular astrophysics. In clear, nontechnical terms, and without formal mathematics, Hartquist and Williams show how to study and understand the behavior of molecules in a host of astronomical situations. Readers will learn about the secretive formation of stars deep within interstellar clouds; the origin of our own solar system; the cataclysmic deaths of many massive stars that explode as supernovae; and the hearts of active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. This book provides an accessible introduction to a wealth of astrophysics, and an understanding of how cosmic chemistry allows the investigation of many of the most exciting questions concerning astronomy today.

  10. The contribution of SUBARU-HSC faint galaxies to the Spitzer-CIB fluctuations in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Joyce; Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Cooper, Rachel Ann

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the possible contribution of the diffuse background of optical galaxies to the source subtracted cosmic infrared background fluctuations of the COSMOS field. Using data from the COSMOS catalogue and from HSC observations, we artificially created optical galaxies images of the COSMOS. The power spectrum at four different AB magnitude intervals, [mlim, mlim-2, mlim-4, mlim-6], and four redshift intervals, [0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4], for these images were then calculated and compared to the power spectrum of an infrared image of the same field. We found that the coherence of these two images was close to zero and determined that the optical galaxies must only contribute a negligible contribution to the infrared background in the COSMOS field.

  11. Cosmos, an international center for advanced studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, Iurii; Alifanov, Oleg; Sadin, Stanley; Coleman, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The concept of Cosmos, a Soviet operating center for aerospace activities, is presented. The main Cosmos participants are the Institute for Aerospace Education, the Institute for Research and Commercial Development, and the Department of Space Policy and Socio-Economic Studies. Cosmos sponsors a number of educational programs, basic research, and studies of the social impact of space-related technologies.

  12. Cosmos, an international center for advanced studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, Iurii; Alifanov, Oleg; Sadin, Stanley; Coleman, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The concept of Cosmos, a Soviet operating center for aerospace activities, is presented. The main Cosmos participants are the Institute for Aerospace Education, the Institute for Research and Commercial Development, and the Department of Space Policy and Socio-Economic Studies. Cosmos sponsors a number of educational programs, basic research, and studies of the social impact of space-related technologies.

  13. A Runaway Black Hole in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca

    2010-09-01

    We ask for 80ks of HRC imaging observation to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission, and unveil the nature, of two optical sources hosted by a galaxy in the COSMOS field {CID-42} and separated by only 0.495??. One of the two sources is the best candidate to date for being a recoiling super-massive black hole {SMBH} with both spectroscopic and imaging signatures, in a recently merged system. CID-42 is a possible ??Rosetta stone?? for the study of SMBH mergers that are believed to occur during galaxy-galaxy mergers. Is CID-42 {1} a GW recoiling SMBH from a recent merger or {2} a slingshot recoiling SMBH in a triple SMBH system? HRC imaging will decide clearly.

  14. A Runaway Black Hole in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca

    2010-09-01

    We ask for 80ks of HRC imaging observation to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission, and unveil the nature, of two optical sources hosted by a galaxy in the COSMOS field (CID-42) and separated by only 0.495''. One of the two sources is the best candidate to date for being a recoiling super-massive black hole (SMBH) with both spectroscopic and imaging signatures, in a recently merged system. CID-42 is a possible ``Rosetta stone'' for the study of SMBH mergers that are believed to occur during galaxy-galaxy mergers. Is CID-42 (1) a GW recoiling SMBH from a recent merger or (2) a slingshot recoiling SMBH in a triple SMBH system? HRC imaging will decide clearly.

  15. New Worlds in the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Michel; Frei, Pierre-Yves; Roukema, Boud

    2003-09-01

    Preface; 1. The quest begins; 2. Infinity and beyond; 3. New arrivals in the Solar System; 4. Why stars wobble; 5. Neutron planets; 6. Brown dwarfs in the headlines; 7. Sirens in the cosmos; 8. Foreign planets different to our home-grown ones; 9. Destination: earths!; 10. Further yet: life.

  16. Hubble's new view of the cosmos

    PubMed

    Villard, R

    1996-05-01

    Since the December 1993 repair of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) optics by the crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the rapid-fire scientific achievements have brought a new era of discovery to the field of astronomy. Hubble has confirmed some astronomical theories, challenged others, and often come up with complete surprises. Some images are so unexpected that astronomers have to develop new theories to explain what they are seeing. The HST has detected galaxies out to the visible horizon of the cosmos, and has made an attempt at pinning down the universe's expansion rate. Both of these key research areas should ultimately yield answers to age-old questions: What has happened since the beginning of time, and will the universe go on forever?

  17. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the COSMOS field: The extent of the radio-emitting region revealed by 3 GHz imaging with the Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Novak, M.; Smolčić, V.; Delvecchio, I.; Aravena, M.; Brisbin, D.; Karim, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Albrecht, M.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P. L.; Casey, C. M.; Civano, F.; Hayward, C. C.; Herrera Ruiz, N.; Ilbert, O.; Jiang, C.; Laigle, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Magnelli, B.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Middelberg, E.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F.; Padilla, N. D.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Scott, K. S.; Sheth, K.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Bondi, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The observed spatial scale of the radio continuum emission from star-forming galaxies can be used to investigate the spatial extent of active star formation, constrain the importance of cosmic-ray transport, and examine the effects of galaxy interactions. Aims: We determine the radio size distribution of a large sample of 152 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the COSMOS field that were pre-selected at 1.1 mm, and later detected with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) in the observed-frame 1.3 mm dust continuum emission at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ≥5. Methods: We used the deep, subarcsecond-resolution (1σ = 2.3μJy beam-1;.̋75) centimetre radio continuum observations taken by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA)-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project. Results: One hundred and fifteen of the 152 target SMGs (76% ± 7%) were found to have a 3 GHz counterpart (≥ 4.2σ), which renders the radio detection rate notably high. The median value of the deconvolved major axis full width at half maximum (FWHM) size at 3 GHz is derived to be 0.̋59 ± 0.̋05 , or 4.6 ± 0.4 kpc in physical units, where the median redshift of the sources is z = 2.23 ± 0.13 (23% are spectroscopic and 77% are photometric values). The radio sizes are roughly log-normally distributed, and they show no evolutionary trend with redshift, or difference between different galaxy morphologies. We also derived the spectral indices between 1.4 and 3 GHz, and 3 GHz brightness temperatures for the sources, and the median values were found to be α1.4 GHz3 GHz = -0.67 (Sν ∝ να) and TB = 12.6 ± 2 K. Three of the target SMGs, which are also detected with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 1.4 GHz (AzTEC/C24b, 61, and 77a), show clearly higher brightness temperatures than the typical values, reaching TB(3 GHz) > 104.03 K for AzTEC/C61. Conclusions: The derived median radio spectral index agrees with a value expected for optically thin non-thermal synchrotron radiation

  18. Cardiac morphology after conditions of microgravity during Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Margaret A.; Edwards, Robert J.; Schroeter, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Light- and electron-microscopic studies were performed on cardiac muscle from rats flown on Cosmos 2044 and from four control groups. Average cross-sectional area of myofibers was measured by video analysis of the light-microscopic images of papillary and ventricular muscle samples from all animals. This cross-sectional area was significantly decreased in flight rats (P = 0.03) compared with synchronous controls. Additional findings at the electron microscopic level consistent with this atrophy were obtained by stereological analysis and optical diffraction analysis of papillary muscle samples. Slightly higher mitochondrial volume density values and mitochondria-to-myofibril ratios as well as normal A-band spacings (d1,0) and Z-band spacings of myofibrils were observed in the tail-suspension and flight groups. General morphological features similar to those in ventricular samples from the previous Cosmos 1887 flight were observed.

  19. Cardiac morphology after conditions of microgravity during Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Margaret A.; Edwards, Robert J.; Schroeter, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Light- and electron-microscopic studies were performed on cardiac muscle from rats flown on Cosmos 2044 and from four control groups. Average cross-sectional area of myofibers was measured by video analysis of the light-microscopic images of papillary and ventricular muscle samples from all animals. This cross-sectional area was significantly decreased in flight rats (P = 0.03) compared with synchronous controls. Additional findings at the electron microscopic level consistent with this atrophy were obtained by stereological analysis and optical diffraction analysis of papillary muscle samples. Slightly higher mitochondrial volume density values and mitochondria-to-myofibril ratios as well as normal A-band spacings (d1,0) and Z-band spacings of myofibrils were observed in the tail-suspension and flight groups. General morphological features similar to those in ventricular samples from the previous Cosmos 1887 flight were observed.

  20. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. I. Multiwavelength identifications and redshift distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Smolčić, V.; Novak, M.; Aravena, M.; Karim, A.; Masters, D.; Riechers, D. A.; Bussmann, R. S.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Feruglio, C.; Halliday, C.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Navarrete, F.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.

    2015-05-01

    We used the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) to map a sample of 15 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the COSMOS field at the wavelength of 1.3 mm. The target SMGs were originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey at S/N1.1 mm = 4-4.5. This paper presents, for the first time, interferometric millimetre-wavelength observations of these sources. The angular resolution of our observations, 1''&dotbelow;8, allowed us to accurately determine the positions of the target SMGs. Using a detection threshold of S/N1.3 mm> 4.5 regardless of multiwavelength counterpart association, and 4

  1. Seven Wonders of the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    1999-04-01

    Our cosmic tour begins here. As we leave the secure confines of the Earth and journey into space, we find a plethora of strange and unexpected phenomena. Little can we anticipate from the quiet, star-studded sky the violent events in the cosmos. Stars explode. Powerful radio sources eject matter in jets. The ever-changing Universe grows more beautiful and more complex the deeper into it we go. Professor Narlikar skillfully steers us through a cosmic journey of discovery, starting from the Earth and Solar System and stepping out to the farthest reaches of the Universe. Using simple analogies, humorous anecdotes, and a wealth of illustrations, he conveys the thrill of observing strange and surprising features of the Universe. The seven wonders represent a range of mysterious phenomena, a class of spectacular events, or remarkable cosmic objects that have challenged human curiosity and defied explanation. They concern the giants and dwarfs of the stellar world, the catastrophic explosion of massive stars, pulsars--the ultimate timekeepers of the cosmos, the strange effects of gravity, illusions of space, and the majestic expansion of the Universe as a whole. With lucid prose, the author weaves together a host of exciting recent discoveries in astronomy and shows us how these motivate astronomers to unravel the wonders of tomorrow.

  2. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. IV. Physical properties derived from spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Delvecchio, I.; Smolčić, V.; Novak, M.; Aravena, M.; Karim, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Laigle, C.; McCracken, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the early Universe are potential antecedents of the most massive galaxies we see in the present-day Universe. An important step towards quantifying this galactic evolutionary connection is to investigate the fundamental physical properties of SMGs, such as their stellar mass content (M⋆) and star formation rate (SFR). Aims: We attempt to characterise the physical nature of a 1.1 mm selected, flux-limited, and interferometrically followed up sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field. Methods: We used the latest release of the MAGPHYS code to fit the multiwavelength (UV to radio) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 16 of the target SMGs, which lie at redshifts z ≃ 1.6-5.3. We also constructed the pure radio SEDs of our SMGs using three different radio bands (325 MHz, 1.4 GHz, and 3 GHz). Moreover, since two SMGs in our sample, AzTEC 1 and AzTEC 3, benefit from previous 12C16O line observations, we studied their properties in more detail. Results: The median and 16th-84th percentile ranges of M⋆, infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosity (LIR), SFR, dust temperature (Tdust), and dust mass (Mdust) were derived to be log (M⋆/M⊙) = 10.96+ 0.34-0.19, log (LIR/L⊙) = 12.93+ 0.09-0.19, SFR = 856+ 191-310M⊙ yr-1, Tdust = 40.6+ 7.5-8.1 K, and log (Mdust/M⊙) = 9.17+ 0.03-0.33, respectively. We found that 63% of our target SMGs lie above the galaxy main sequence by more than a factor of 3 and, hence, are starbursts. The 3 GHz radio sizes we have previously measured for the target SMGs were compared with the present M⋆ estimates, and we found that the z> 3 SMGs are fairly consistent with the mass-size relationship of z 2 compact, quiescent galaxies (cQGs). The median radio spectral index is found to be α = -0.77+ 0.28-0.42. The median IR-radio correlation parameter is found to be q = 2.27+ 0.27-0.13, which is lower than was measured locally (median q = 2.64). The gas-to-dust mass ratio for AzTEC 1 is derived to be δgdr = 90+ 23

  3. A 6 GHz Synoptic Survey of the COSMOS Deep Field with the JVLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sink, Joseph R.; Myers, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) covers two square degrees, and is observed over a large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray to Radio. Key science goals of COSMOS include probing the evolution of galaxies, AGN, and large scale structures of the Universe. As well as constraining cosmological models and the star and structure formation history of the Universe. The wide range of frequencies and deep surveys are suitable for many astrophysical studies.Beginning in 2013, observations of the COSMOS field in C-band (4 - 8 GHz) using the JVLA have been carried out in every configuration spanning 21 months (April 2013 - Jan 2015) for a total of 13 observations. The observations are comprised of 1 hour time blocks using a technique called On-The-Fly Mosaicking (OTFM). Using OTFM we see an increased efficiency for an allotted observation block by collecting data as the array scans across the field, rather than a pointed mosaic which requires settle down time after each new pointing. Each observation consists of 2160 1-second integrations on 432 phase centers that require calibration and image processing before they can be mosaicked to create the final image of the entire COSMOS field.The primary science goal of this survey is to identify, catalog, and study the variable and transient radio sources in the COSMOS field, comparing these to other radio, optical, IR, and X-ray observations. The main class of variables we are interested in Active Galactic Nuclei.

  4. A tour de force of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, Lionel

    2017-02-01

    I find Priyamvada Natarajan's book Mapping the Heavens: the Radical Scientific Ideas that Reveal the Cosmos to be an instructive and thought-provoking exploration of the connections, tensions and mishaps that so often accompany scientific venture.

  5. Station Astronauts Do Experiment for 'Cosmos'

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 38 Commander Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA help 'Cosmos' host Neil deGrasse...

  6. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Water appears to be essential to all life on Earth. For this reason, "Follow the Water" has been adopted as a mantra for the search for Life in the Cosmos. Expeditions have helped to establish the limits and biodiversity of life in the most extreme environments on Earth. Microbial extremophiles inhabit acidic streams; hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools; the cold deep sea floor, permafrost, rocks, glaciers, and perennially ice-covered lakes of the polar environments; geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hydrothermal vents and hot rocks deep within the Earth's crust. The ESA Venus Express Spacecraft entered Venusian Orbit in 2006 and continues to produce exciting results. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument made the first detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere of Venus, indicating it is much more similar to Earth and Mars than previously thought. Huge hurricane-like vortices have been found above the poles of the planet and as yet unidentified UV absorbers that form mysterious dark bands in the upper atmosphere. At 70 km and below, water vapor and sulfur dioxide combine to form sulfuric acid droplets that create a haze above the cloud tops. Thermophilic acidophiles, such as have recently been discovered on Earth, could possibly survive in the hot sulfuric acid droplets that exist in the upper atmosphere of Venus. In order to understand how to search for life elsewhere in the Solar System, over 40 VIRTIS images of Earth from Venus have been obtained to search for evidence of life on Earth. The signatures of water and molecular Oxygen were detected in the Earth s atmosphere, but the atmosphere of Venus also exhibits these signatures. The water and water ice are far more abundant on comet, the polar caps and permafrost of Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. These "frozen worlds" of our Solar System, are much more promising regimes where extant or extinct microbial life may exist. The ESA Mars Advanced Radar for

  7. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Water appears to be essential to all life on Earth. For this reason, "Follow the Water" has been adopted as a mantra for the search for Life in the Cosmos. Expeditions have helped to establish the limits and biodiversity of life in the most extreme environments on Earth. Microbial extremophiles inhabit acidic streams; hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools; the cold deep sea floor, permafrost, rocks, glaciers, and perennially ice-covered lakes of the polar environments; geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hydrothermal vents and hot rocks deep within the Earth's crust. The ESA Venus Express Spacecraft entered Venusian Orbit in 2006 and continues to produce exciting results. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument made the first detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere of Venus, indicating it is much more similar to Earth and Mars than previously thought. Huge hurricane-like vortices have been found above the poles of the planet and as yet unidentified UV absorbers that form mysterious dark bands in the upper atmosphere. At 70 km and below, water vapor and sulfur dioxide combine to form sulfuric acid droplets that create a haze above the cloud tops. Thermophilic acidophiles, such as have recently been discovered on Earth, could possibly survive in the hot sulfuric acid droplets that exist in the upper atmosphere of Venus. In order to understand how to search for life elsewhere in the Solar System, over 40 VIRTIS images of Earth from Venus have been obtained to search for evidence of life on Earth. The signatures of water and molecular Oxygen were detected in the Earth s atmosphere, but the atmosphere of Venus also exhibits these signatures. The water and water ice are far more abundant on comet, the polar caps and permafrost of Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. These "frozen worlds" of our Solar System, are much more promising regimes where extant or extinct microbial life may exist. The ESA Mars Advanced Radar for

  8. Muscle Feasibility for Cosmos Rhesus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. Reggie (Principal Investigator); Roland, Roy R.; Hodgson, John A.

    1994-01-01

    The following tasks were proposed for the Cosmos project: 1) Complete recordings of all preflight candidates during performance of a foot pedal motor control task while in the space capsule mock-up. 2) Complete recordings of all preflight candidates during locomotion and postural tasks. 3) Complete recordings of 24-hour spontaneous cage activity in the two flight monkeys before and after flight and of at least three control (non-flight) monkeys after the flight has been completed. 4) Complete recordings of the foot pedal and motor control tasks during flight and postflight as scheduled. 5) Complete recordings of the vertical drop test pre, during and postflight for the two flight and three control monkeys. 6) Complete recordings of locomotion and posture tests of the two flight monkeys postflight. 7) Complete recordings of locomotion and postural tests of at least three control (non-flight) monkeys during the postflight period. 8) Recalibrate buckles of the two flight and of at least three control monkeys postflight. 9) Complete analysis of the 24 hour EMG recordings of all monkeys. 10) Complete analysis of the foot pedal, locomotor and postural motor control tasks for the two flight and three control monkeys. It was proposed that efforts in the first postflight year be concentrated on the two flight animals and three postflight animals.

  9. THE CHANDRA COSMOS SURVEY. I. OVERVIEW AND POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Elvis, Martin; Civano, Francesca; Aldcroft, T. L.; Fruscione, Antonella; Vignali, Cristian; Puccetti, Simonetta; Fiore, Fabrizio; Cappelluti, Nico; Brusa, Marcella; Finoguenov, Alexis; Brunner, Hermann; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, Andrea; Gilli, Roberto; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Damiani, Francesco; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Urry, C.M.; Silverman, John; Mainieri, Vincenzo

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that has imaged the central 0.5 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field (centered at 10 {sup h}, +02 deg.) with an effective exposure of {approx}160 ks, and an outer 0.4 deg{sup 2} area with an effective exposure of {approx}80 ks. The limiting source detection depths are 1.9 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the soft (0.5-2 keV) band, 7.3 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the hard (2-10 keV) band, and 5.7 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the full (0.5-10 keV) band. Here we describe the strategy, design, and execution of the C-COSMOS survey, and present the catalog of 1761 point sources detected at a probability of being spurious of <2 x 10{sup -5} (1655 in the full, 1340 in the soft, and 1017 in the hard bands). By using a grid of 36 heavily ({approx}50%) overlapping pointing positions with the ACIS-I imager, a remarkably uniform ({+-}12%) exposure across the inner 0.5 deg{sup 2} field was obtained, leading to a sharply defined lower flux limit. The widely different point-spread functions obtained in each exposure at each point in the field required a novel source detection method, because of the overlapping tiling strategy, which is described in a companion paper. This method produced reliable sources down to a 7-12 counts, as verified by the resulting logN-logS curve, with subarcsecond positions, enabling optical and infrared identifications of virtually all sources, as reported in a second companion paper. The full catalog is described here in detail and is available online.

  10. Seeing the Sky through Hubble's Eye: The COSMOS SkyWalker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Koekemoer, A.

    2006-08-01

    Large, high-resolution space-based imaging surveys produce a volume of data that is difficult to present to the public in a comprehensible way. While megapixel-sized images can still be printed out or downloaded via the World Wide Web, this is no longer feasible for images with 109 pixels (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys [ACS] images of the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs [GEMS] project) or even 1010 pixels (for the ACS Cosmic Evolution Survey [COSMOS]). We present a Web-based utility called the COSMOS SkyWalker that allows viewing of the huge ACS image data set, even through slow Internet connections. Using standard HTML and JavaScript, the application successively loads only those portions of the image at a time that are currently being viewed on the screen. The user can move within the image by using the mouse or interacting with an overview image. Using an astrometrically registered image for the COSMOS SkyWalker allows the display of calibrated world coordinates for use in science. The SkyWalker ``technique'' can be applied to other data sets. This requires some customization, notably the slicing up of a data set into small (e.g., 2562 pixel) subimages. An advantage of the SkyWalker is the use of standard Web browser components; thus, it requires no installation of any software and can therefore be viewed by anyone across many operating systems.

  11. Radio-optical galaxy shape correlations in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunbridge, Ben; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the correlations in galaxy shapes between optical and radio wavelengths using archival observations of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. Cross-correlation studies between different wavebands will become increasingly important for precision cosmology as future large surveys may be dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors. In the case of weak lensing, galaxy shapes must be measured to extraordinary accuracy (shear systematics of <0.01 per cent) in order to achieve good constraints on dark energy parameters. By using shape information from overlapping surveys in optical and radio bands, robustness to systematics may be significantly improved without loss of constraining power. Here we use HST-ACS (Hubble Space Telescope-Advanced Camera for Surveys) optical data, Very Large Array (VLA) radio data and extensive simulations to investigate both our ability to make precision measurements of source shapes from realistic radio data and to constrain the intrinsic astrophysical scatter between the shapes of galaxies as measured in the optical and radio wavebands. By producing a new image from the VLA-COSMOS L-band radio visibility data that are well suited to galaxy shape measurements, we are able to extract precise measurements of galaxy position angles. Comparing to corresponding measurements from the HST optical image, we set a lower limit on the intrinsic astrophysical scatter in position angles, between the optical and radio bands, of σα > 0.212π rad (or 38.2°) at a 95 per cent confidence level.

  12. Cosmos Photometric Redshifts with 30-Bands for 2-deg2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; McCracken, H. J.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Kartaltepe, J.; Arnouts, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mobasher, B.; Taniguchi, Y.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Sasaki, S.; Thompson, D.; Zamojski, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Cook, R.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Looper, D.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mellier, Y.; Mignoli, M.; Murayama, T.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Schiminovich, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Shioya, Y.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present accurate photometric redshifts (photo-z) in the 2-deg2 COSMOS field. The redshifts are computed with 30 broad, intermediate, and narrowbands covering the UV (Galaxy Evolution Explorer), visible near-IR (NIR; Subaru, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, and National Optical Astronomy Observatory), and mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC). A χ2 template-fitting method (Le Phare) was used and calibrated with large spectroscopic samples from the Very Large Telescope Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph and the Keck Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. We develop and implement a new method which accounts for the contributions from emission lines ([O II], Hβ, Hα, and Lyα) to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The treatment of emission lines improves the photo-z accuracy by a factor of 2.5. Comparison of the derived photo-z with 4148 spectroscopic redshifts (i.e., Δz = z s - z p) indicates a dispersion of σ_{Δ z/(1+z_s)}=0.007 at i + AB < 22.5, a factor of 2-6 times more accurate than earlier photo-z in the COSMOS, CFHT Legacy Survey, and the Classifying Object by Medium-Band Observations-17 survey fields. At fainter magnitudes i + AB < 24 and z < 1.25, the accuracy is σ_{Δ z/(1+z_s)}=0.012. The deep NIR and Infrared Array Camera coverage enables the photo-z to be extended to z ~ 2, albeit with a lower accuracy (σ_{Δ z/(1+z_s)}=0.06 at i + AB ~ 24). The redshift distribution of large magnitude-selected samples is derived and the median redshift is found to range from z m = 0.66 at 22 < i + AB < 22.5 to z m = 1.06 at 24.5 < i + AB < 25. At i + AB < 26.0, the multiwavelength COSMOS catalog includes approximately 607,617 objects. The COSMOS-30 photo-z enables the full exploitation of this survey for studies of galaxy and large-scale structure evolution at high redshift.

  13. NASA Facts, American Experiments on Cosmos 782.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is a summary report of the American experiments conducted on the Soviet Cosmos 782 satellite in November and December, l975. Each of the four passive and seven cooperating experiments developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are reviewed. (SL)

  14. Cosmos: An Information Retrieval System that Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Katherine; Grossman, Alvin

    1980-01-01

    Briefly described is the County of San Mateo Online System (COSMOS) which was developed and is used by the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC) to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Fugitive Information Data Organizer (FIDO) databases as well as the curriculum guides housed at SMERC. (TG)

  15. NASA Facts, American Experiments on Cosmos 782.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is a summary report of the American experiments conducted on the Soviet Cosmos 782 satellite in November and December, l975. Each of the four passive and seven cooperating experiments developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are reviewed. (SL)

  16. The VLA-COSMOS Survey - V. 324 MHz continuum observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, Vernesa; Ciliegi, Paolo; Jelić, Vibor; Bondi, Marco; Schinnerer, Eva; Carilli, Chris L.; Riechers, Dominik A.; Salvato, Mara; Brković, Alen; Capak, Peter; Ilbert, Olivier; Karim, Alexander; McCracken, Henry; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2014-09-01

    We present 90 cm Very Large Array imaging of the COSMOS field, comprising a circular area of 3.14 square degrees at 8.0arcsec × 6.0arcsec angular resolution with an average rms of 0.5 mJy beam-1. The extracted catalogue contains 182 sources (down to 5.5σ), 30 of which are multicomponent sources. Using Monte Carlo artificial source simulations, we derive the completeness of the catalogue, and we show that our 90 cm source counts agree very well with those from previous studies. Using X-ray, NUV-NIR and radio COSMOS data to investigate the population mix of our 90 cm radio sample, we find that our sample is dominated by active galactic nuclei. The average 90-20 cm spectral index (Sν ∝ να, where Sν is the flux density at frequency ν and α the spectral index) of our 90 cm selected sources is -0.70, with an interquartile range from -0.90 to -0.53. Only a few ultra-steep-spectrum sources are present in our sample, consistent with results in the literature for similar fields. Our data do not show clear steepening of the spectral index with redshift. Nevertheless, our sample suggests that sources with spectral indices steeper than -1 all lie at z ≳ 1, in agreement with the idea that ultra-steep-spectrum radio sources may trace intermediate-redshift galaxies (z ≳ 1).

  17. The Cosmos Portal and the IYA2009 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, Bernard M.; Sims, M.; Lindblom, J.

    2009-05-01

    In 2007 the non-profit Digital Universe Foundation (DUF) launched the Earth Portal (earthportal.org) as a comprehensive resource for timely, objective, science-based information about the environment. There are currently over 1000 scholars from 60 countries engaged in this rapidly growing web-based collaboration. The Cosmos Portal is the second major DUF initiative (cosmosportal.org). In support of the IYA2009 effort, the Cosmos Portal is recruiting astronomy professionals to make use of easy online tools to publish articles, blogs, news items, image galleries, class notes, lectures, powerpoint presentations, links to other high quality websites or other educational material. A major difference between the Digital Universe and Wikipedia is that educational material is produced by identified experts, not anonymous contributors with unknown qualifications. The Digital Universe is a 501(c)(3) public charity whose goal is to evolve into a worldwide online community (a social network) whose centerpiece is an ever growing Asimov-Sagan Encyclopedia Galactica created by experts. We encourage you to write an encylopedia article or start a portal on your favorite topic or join an existing topic as an expert contributor.

  18. Astrobiology: traces of life in the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.

    2002-07-01

    The discovery of traces of life in the ancient Mars meteorite triggered the development of the rapidly emerging field of Astrobiology. Astrobiologists are seeking to develop conclusive methods to recognize biosignatures and microfossils of bacteria and other microbiota as well as to understand the spatial, temporal, environmental and chemical limitations of microbial extremophiles. Recent discoveries have revealed the great distribution and diversity of microbial extremophiles on Earth and profoundly increased the probability that life may exist elsewhere in the Cosmos. The rapidly emerging science of Bacterial Paleontology has provided important new information critical to the recognition of fossil bacteria on Earth and in Astromaterials. We have recently conducted independent scanning electron microscopy and x-ray analysis investigations in the US and Russia in order to better understand the morphology and chemical composition of microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites. In this paper, we review some aspects of microbial extremophiles of Earth as modals for life on other bodies of the Solar System. We consider several of the important chemical, mineral and morphological biomarkers that provide definitive evidence of biogenic activity in ancient rocks and meteorites. We present Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope images of microfossils found in-situ in freshly fractured meteorite surfaces and describe Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Link microprobe analysis of the chemical elements in the mineralized and/or kerogenous microfossils and meteorite rock matrix. We also discuss technqiues and methods that may be used to help discriminate indigenous microfosils from recent terrestrial contaminants. We will also present new data from our in-situ investigations of living cyanobacteria and bacteria and freshly broken surfaces of terrestrial rocks and meteorites. Comparative analysis of these images are interpreted as providing

  19. SPITZER 70 AND 160 {mu}m OBSERVATIONS OF THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Frayer, D. T.; Huynh, M. T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Fadda, D.; Helou, G.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Lee, N.; Surace, J. A.; Capak, P.; Murphy, E.; Aussel, H.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Fu, H.; Afonso-Luis, A.; Sargent, M. T.

    2009-11-15

    We present Spitzer 70 and 160 {mu}m observations of the COSMOS Spitzer survey (S-COSMOS). The data processing techniques are discussed for the publicly released products consisting of images and source catalogs. We present accurate 70 and 160 {mu}m source counts of the COSMOS field and find reasonable agreement with measurements in other fields and with model predictions. The previously reported counts for GOODS-North and the extragalactic First Look Survey are updated with the latest calibration, and counts are measured based on the large area SWIRE survey to constrain the bright source counts. We measure an extragalactic confusion noise level of {sigma} {sub c} = 9.4 {+-} 3.3 mJy (q = 5) for the MIPS 160 {mu}m band based on the deep S-COSMOS data and report an updated confusion noise level of {sigma} {sub c} = 0.35 {+-} 0.15 mJy (q = 5) for the MIPS 70 {mu}m band.

  20. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.

  1. Cosmos 1129 - Spaceflight and bone changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1980-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during spaceflight were determined to be a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, and a decreased trabecular bone volume and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

  2. The VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project: Continuum data and source catalog release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Novak, M.; Bondi, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Mooley, K. P.; Schinnerer, E.; Zamorani, G.; Navarrete, F.; Bourke, S.; Karim, A.; Vardoulaki, E.; Leslie, S.; Delhaize, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Myers, S. T.; Baran, N.; Delvecchio, I.; Miettinen, O.; Banfield, J.; Baloković, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Frail, D. A.; Hallinan, G.; Hao, H.; Herrera Ruiz, N.; Horesh, A.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H.; Jelić, V.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Krpan, J.; Kulkarni, S. R.; McCracken, H.; Laigle, C.; Middleberg, E.; Murphy, E. J.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sheth, K.

    2017-06-01

    We present the VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project based on 384 h of observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 3 GHz (10 cm) toward the two square degree Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The final mosaic reaches a median rms of 2.3 μJy beam-1 over the two square degrees at an angular resolution of 0.75″. To fully account for the spectral shape and resolution variations across the broad (2 GHz) band, we image all data with a multiscale, multifrequency synthesis algorithm. We present a catalog of 10 830 radio sources down to 5σ, out of which 67 are combined from multiple components.Comparing the positions of our 3 GHz sources with those from the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)-COSMOS survey, we estimate that the astrometry is accurate to 0.01″ at the bright end (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N3 GHz > 20). Survival analysis on our data combined with the VLA-COSMOS 1.4 GHz Joint Project catalog yields an expected median radio spectral index of α = -0.7. We compute completeness corrections via Monte Carlo simulations to derive the corrected 3 GHz source counts. Our counts are in agreement with previously derived 3 GHz counts based on single-pointing (0.087 square degrees) VLA data. In summary, the VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project simultaneously provides the largest and deepest radio continuum survey at high (0.75″) angular resolution to date, bridging the gap between last-generation and next-generation surveys. The catalog is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/602/A1

  3. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-10-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized Community Earth System Models (COSMOS, version: COSMOS-landveg r2413, 2009) and document the procedures that we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo- and preindustrial (PI) time slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene, as simulated with our COSMOS setup and PRISM boundary conditions, is both warmer and wetter in the global mean than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  4. COSMOS - a study comparing peripheral intravenous systems.

    PubMed

    López, Juan Luis González; Del Palacio, Encarnación Ferenández; Marti, Carmen Benedicto; Corral, Javier Olivares; Portal, Pilar Herrera; Vilela, Ana Arribi

    In many areas of the world, safety peripheral intravenous systems have come into widespread use. The Madrid region was the first in Spain to adopt such an approach. These systems, though initially introduced to protect users from sharps injuries, have now evolved to include patient protection features as well. Patient protection, simply stated, means closing the system to pathogen entry. The authors' purpose was to investigate, in a prospective and randomized study, the clinical performance of a closed safe intravenous system versus an open system (COSMOS - Compact Closed System versus Mounted Open System). COSMOS is designed to provide definitive answers, from a nursing perspective, to many topics related to peripheral venous catheterization, which have important implications in intravenous therapy and which have not been validated scientifically. Furthermore, it forms pioneering research in that it is the first clinical trial on medical devices in a legislated environment carried out entirely by nurses and whose promoter and principal investigator is a nurse. The objectives of COSMOS are to compare the effectiveness (as defined by time of survival without complications) and rates of catheter-related complications, such as phlebitis, pain, extravasation, blockage and catheter-related infections. It also looks at rates of catheter colonization, the ease of handling of both systems and overall costs. This article outlines the authors' approach, both in preparing hospital units for such an evaluation as well as in the choice of parameters and their method of study. Further articles will detail the results and findings of the study.

  5. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): curation and reanalysis of 16.6k redshifts in the G10/COSMOS region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Lange, R.; Liske, J.; Meyer, M.; Popping, A.; Wilkins, S. M.; Wright, A. H.

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the construction of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) 10h region (G10) using publicly available data in the Cosmic Evolution Survey region (COSMOS) in order to extend the GAMA survey to z ˜ 1 in a single deg2 field. In order to obtain the maximum number of high precision spectroscopic redshifts we re-reduce all archival zCOSMOS-bright data and use the GAMA automatic cross-correlation redshift fitting code AUTOZ. We use all available redshift information (AUTOZ, zCOSMOS-bright 10k, PRIMUS, VVDS, SDSS and photometric redshifts) to calculate robust best-fitting redshifts for all galaxies and visually inspect all 1D and 2D spectra to obtain 16 583 robust redshifts in the full COSMOS region. We then define the G10 region to be the central ˜1 deg2 of COSMOS, which has relatively high spectroscopic completeness, and encompasses the CHILES VLA region. We define a combined r < 23.0 mag and i < 22.0 mag G10 sample (selected to have the highest bijective overlap) with which to perform future analysis, containing 9861 sources with reliable high-precision VLT-VIMOS spectra. All tables, spectra and imaging are available at http://ict.icrar.org/cutout/G10.

  6. The COSMOS2015 Catalog: Exploring the 1 < z < 6 Universe with Half a Million Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laigle, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Hsieh, B. C.; Davidzon, I.; Capak, P.; Hasinger, G.; Silverman, J. D.; Pichon, C.; Coupon, J.; Aussel, H.; Le Borgne, D.; Caputi, K.; Cassata, P.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Civano, F.; Dunlop, J.; Fynbo, J.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leauthaud, A.; Lilly, S.; Lin, L.; Marchesi, S.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Smolcic, V.; Stockmann, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S.; Vaccari, Mattia; Zabl, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present the COSMOS201524 catalog, which contains precise photometric redshifts and stellar masses for more than half a million objects over the 2deg2 COSMOS field. Including new {{YJHK}}{{s}} images from the UltraVISTA-DR2 survey, Y-band images from Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam, and infrared data from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Spitzer legacy program, this near-infrared-selected catalog is highly optimized for the study of galaxy evolution and environments in the early universe. To maximize catalog completeness for bluer objects and at higher redshifts, objects have been detected on a χ 2 sum of the {{YJHK}}{{s}} and z ++ images. The catalog contains ˜ 6× {10}5 objects in the 1.5 deg2 UltraVISTA-DR2 region and ˜ 1.5× {10}5 objects are detected in the “ultra-deep stripes” (0.62 deg2) at {K}{{s}}≤slant 24.7 (3σ, 3″, AB magnitude). Through a comparison with the zCOSMOS-bright spectroscopic redshifts, we measure a photometric redshift precision of {σ }{{Δ }z/(1+{z}s)} = 0.007 and a catastrophic failure fraction of η = 0.5%. At 3\\lt z\\lt 6, using the unique database of spectroscopic redshifts in COSMOS, we find {σ }{{Δ }z/(1+{z}s)} = 0.021 and η = 13.2 % . The deepest regions reach a 90% completeness limit of {10}10{M}⊙ to z = 4. Detailed comparisons of the color distributions, number counts, and clustering show excellent agreement with the literature in the same mass ranges. COSMOS2015 represents a unique, publicly available, valuable resource with which to investigate the evolution of galaxies within their environment back to the earliest stages of the history of the universe. The COSMOS2015 catalog is distributed via anonymous ftp and through the usual astronomical archive systems (CDS, ESO Phase 3, IRSA).

  7. CoSMoS unravels mysteries of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Gourse, Richard L; Landick, Robert

    2012-02-17

    Using a fluorescence method called colocalization single-molecule spectroscopy (CoSMoS), Friedman and Gelles dissect the kinetics of transcription initiation at a bacterial promoter. Ultimately, CoSMoS could greatly aid the study of the effects of DNA sequence and transcription factors on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters.

  8. COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System). A Searcher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Superintendent of Schools, Redwood City, CA. Educational Resources Center.

    Operating procedures are explained for COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System), a computerized information retrieval system designed for the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC), which provides interactive access to both ERIC and a local file of fugitive documents. COSMOS hardware and modem compatibility requirements are reviewed,…

  9. Adaptation of skeletal muscle to spaceflight: Cosmos rhesus project. Cosmos 2044 and 2229

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1994-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medial gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These effects were assessed by examining the biochemical and morphological properties of muscle fibers obtained from biopsies in young Rhesus monkeys (3-4 Kg). Biopsies taken from ground base experiments were analyzed to determine: (1) the effects of chair restraint at 1 G on muscle properties and (2) the growth rate of flexor and extensor muscles in the Rhesus. In addition, two sets of biopsies were taken from monkeys which were in the flight pool and the four monkeys that flew on the Cosmos 2044 and 2229 biosatellite missions. Based on data collected in rats it is generally assumed that extensors atrophy to a greater extent than flexors in response to spaceflight or hindlimb suspension. Consequently, the finding that fibers in the TA (a fast flexor) of the flight monkeys atrophied, whereas fibers in the Sol (a predominantly slow extensor) and MG (a fast extensor) grew after a 14-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) and 12-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2229) was unexpected. In Cosmos 2044, the TA in both flight monkeys had a 21 percent decrease in fiber size, whereas the Sol and MG both had a 79 percent increase in fiber size. In Cosmos 2229, the TA in both flight monkeys showed significant atrophy, whereas the Sol and MG showed slight growth in one monkey (906) and slight atrophy in the other monkey (151).

  10. Bulgarian Activities in the Project COSMOS: An Advanced Scientific Repository for Science Teaching and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchev, D.; Kyurkchieva, D.; Borisov, B.; Radeva, V.

    2010-09-01

    One of the main purposes of the European educational project COSMOS (co-funded by the European Commission under the program eContentplus), is to create an experimental laboratory for the school of tomorrow in order to improve the education in astronomy by expanding the resources for teaching and learning in schools and universities and by providing more challenging and authentic learning experiences for students. A large educational database was created as a result of the project activities made by 15 partner institutions. The unusual electronic "library" offers to students and teachers unique educational resources: learning scenarios, images, presentations, videos and animations (most of them are impossible to produce in any scientific laboratory). It is freely accessible to anyone, anywhere, anytime. Our poster presents the contribution of the Shumen university (the only partner from Bulgaria) in the project: uploading more than 12000 astronomical images in the COSMOS portal; creation of 45 learning scenarios; holding 5 teaching workshops at different places for more than 100 Bulgarian teachers to use the possibilities of the COSMOS portal (including creation of their own learning scenarios). Our analysis of the questionnaires filled-in by the participating teachers shows the necessity of such projects and workshops.

  11. KOSMOS and COSMOS: new facility instruments for the NOAO 4-meter telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Paul; Elias, J.; Points, S.; Sprayberry, D.; Derwent, Mark A.; Gonzalez, Raymond; Mason, J. A.; O'Brien, T. P.; Pappalardo, D. P.; Pogge, Richard W.; Stoll, R.; Zhelem, R.; Daly, Phil; Fitzpatrick, M.; George, J. R.; Hunten, M.; Marshall, R.; Poczulp, Gary; Rath, S.; Seaman, R.; Trueblood, M.; Zelaya, K.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the design, construction and measured performance of the Kitt Peak Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) for the 4-m Mayall telescope and the Cerro Tololo Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (COSMOS) for the 4-m Blanco telescope. These nearly identical imaging spectrographs are modified versions of the OSMOS instrument; they provide a pair of new, high-efficiency instruments to the NOAO user community. KOSMOS and COSMOS may be used for imaging, long-slit, and multi-slit spectroscopy over a 100 square arcminute field of view with a pixel scale of 0.29 arcseconds. Each contains two VPH grisms that provide R~2500 with a one arcsecond slit and their wavelengths of peak diffraction efficiency are approximately 510nm and 750nm. Both may also be used with either a thin, blue-optimized CCD from e2v or a thick, fully depleted, red-optimized CCD from LBNL. These instruments were developed in response to the ReSTAR process. KOSMOS was commissioned in 2013B and COSMOS was commissioned in 2014A.

  12. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized community earth system models (COSMOS) and document the procedures which we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM) mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo and preindustrial (PI) time-slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene as simulated with our COSMOS-setup and PRISM boundary conditions is both warmer and wetter than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  13. The concept of a hierarchical cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujić, P. V.

    2003-10-01

    The idea of a hierachically structured cosmos can be traced back to the Presocratic Hellada. In the fifth century BC Anaxagoras from Clazomenae developed an idea of a sort of fractal material world, by introducing the concept of seeds (spermata), or homoeomeries as Aristotle dubbed it later (Grujić 2001). Anaxagoras ideas have been grossly neglected during the Middle Ages, to be invoked by a number of post-Renaissance thinkers, like Leibniz, Kant, etc, though neither of them referred to their Greek predecessor. But the real resurrections of the hierarchical paradigm started at the beginning of the last century, with Fournier and Charlier (Grujić 2002). Second half of the 20th century witnessed an intensive development of the theoretical models based on the (multi)fractal paradigm, as well as a considerable body of the observational evidence in favour of the hierarchical cosmos (Saar 1988). We overview the state of the art of the cosmological fractal concept, both within the astrophysical (Sylos Labini et al 1998), methodological (Ribeiro 2001) and epistemological (Ribeiro and Videira 1998) context.

  14. SPS Fabric of the Cosmos Cafe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anish

    2012-02-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best-selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four- part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked-off by 30 ``Cosmic Cafes'' being held around the country funded by an NSF grant which allows SPS-NOVA to fund SPS chapters for these events. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick-off, reviewing and suggesting revisions of resources related to the NOVA series to make them relevant to an SPS audience. I also got to organize and moderate the first ``Cosmic Cafe.'' The Cosmic cafe that I organized was discussion based, with our speaker Dr. James Gates starting with a short talk and then opening the floor up for questions. By organizing a ``Cosmic cafe,'' I got real hand experience about the challenges an SPS chapter would face while organizing a cafe themselves. Based on my experience I shall also discuss the effectiveness of the first ever themed science cafe blitz. A science caf'e is an informal discussion with an expert in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. A science cafe is mostly discussion based, but has a lot of freedom for the format. A ``Cosmic'' cafe is a science cafe which is based around the topics discussed in the documentary ``The Fabric of the Cosmos.''

  15. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Water appears to be essential to all life on Earth. For this reason, "Follow the Water" has been adopted as a mantra for the search for Life in the Cosmos. Expeditions have helped to establish the limits and biodiversity of life in the most extreme environments on Earth. Microbial extremophiles inhabit acidic streams; hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools; the cold deep sea floor, permafrost, rocks, glaciers, and perennially ice-covered lakes of the polar environments; geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hydrothermal vents and hot rocks deep within the Earth's crust. The ESA Venus Express Spacecraft entered Venusian Orbit in 2006 and continues to produce exciting results. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument made the first detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere of Venus, indicating it is much more similar to Earth and Mars than previously thought. Huge hurricane-like vortices have been found above the poles of the planet and as yet unidentified UV absorbers that form mysterious dark bands in the upper atmosphere. At 70 km and below, water vapor and sulfur dioxide combine to form sulfuric acid droplets that create a haze above the cloud tops. Thermophilic acidophiles, such as have recently been discovered on Earth, could possibly survive in the hot sulfuric acid droplets that exist in the upper atmosphere of Venus. In order to understand how to search for life elsewhere in the Solar System, over 40 VIRTIS images of Earth from Venus have been obtained to search for evidence of life on Earth. The signatures of water and molecular Oxygen were detected in the Earth s atmosphere, but the atmosphere of Venus also exhibits these signatures. The water and water ice are far more abundant on comet, the polar caps and permafrost of Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. These "frozen worlds" of our Solar System, are much more promising regimes where extant or extinct microbial life may exist. The ESA Mars Advanced Radar for

  16. Genetic diversity of Cosmos species revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernal, A; Piña-Escutia, J L; Vázquez-García, L M; Arzate-Fernández, A M

    2013-12-04

    The genus Cosmos is native of America and is constituted by 34 species; 28 of them are endemic of Mexico. The cosmos are used as a nematicide, antimalarial, and antioxidative agent. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among 7 cosmos species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequences repeats (ISSR) markers. With RAPD markers, the obtained polymorphism was 91.7 % and the genetic diversity was 0.33, whereas these values were 65.6%, and 0.22 from ISSR markers, respectively, indicating the presence of high genetic diversity among the Cosmos species that were analyzed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrograms that were obtained with both markers were notably similar, revealing 2 clusters and indicating a clear genetic differentiation among the Cosmos species that were assessed. The first cluster comprised the species Cosmos sulphureus, Cosmos pacificus, and Cosmos diversifolius, while the second cluster included the species Cosmos purpureus, Cosmos crithmifolius, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Cosmos parviflorus. Besides this, the Cosmos species were clustered according to their collection sites. The Mantel test corroborates the correlation between the genetic distance and the geographic altitude of each Cosmos species. The results suggest that it is necessary to preserve the Cosmos species in their natural habitat in addition to the germoplasm collection for ex situ conservation.

  17. Commissioning COSMOS: Detection of Lithium in Young Stars in Lupus 3 through Multi-Object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, Kyle; Briceno, Cesar; Elias, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph and imager, is a new instrument on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. In order to demonstrate the instrument's operations during commissioning, we used COSMOS, its red grism and three custom slit masks to conduct a spectroscopic survey of the star-forming core of the Lupus 3 dark cloud in an effort to detect the presence of Lithium in the T Tauri stars that have been previously identified in that region. We detected the Li I 6708 Angstrom resonance transition in several (but not all) stars that were observed, consistent with prior studies that have observed Lithium in other young stars at the center of the Lupus 3 dark cloud and in other star-forming regions. These results also demonstrate the ability of COSMOS to significantly reduce the time required to complete spectroscopic surveys, relative to single-object instruments.Lackey was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UDS/COSMOS HiZELS galaxies (Sobral+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral, D.; Smail, I.; Best, P. N.; Geach, J. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Stott, J. P.; Cirasuolo, M.; Kurk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical imaging data were obtained with Suprime-Cam using the NB921 narrow-band filter. The COSMOS field was observed in service mode in 2010 December with four different pointings covering the central 1.1deg2. Total exposure times were 2.9ks per pointing, composed of individual exposures of 360s dithered over eight different positions. The UDS field has also been observed with the NB921 filter (see Ouchi et al., 2010ApJ...723..869O), and these data have been extracted from the archive. The COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS fields were observed with WFCAM on UKIRT , using the NBJ, NBH and NBK narrow-band filters. The UKIDSS UDS and COSMOS fields were observed with the HAWK-I instrument on the VLT during 2009. A single dithered pointing was obtained in each of the fields using the H2 filter, characterized by λc=2.124um and δλ=0.030um (note that the filter is slightly wider than that on WFCAM). (4 data files).

  19. Antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of extracts from cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Jang, In-Cheol; Park, Jae-Hee; Park, Eunju; Park, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmos bipinnatus has been used in a traditional herbal remedy for various diseases such as jaundice, intermittent fever, and splenomegaly. The present study describes the preliminary evaluation of antioxidant activities and antigenotoxic effect of Cosmos bipinnatus flowers according to four different colors (white, pink, orange, and violet). The antioxidants properties were evaluated by determining TPC, DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and RP. The highest TPC of methanolic CFE (at concentration of 1 mg/ml) showed in violet colored CF (1,013 microM), and IC(50) of DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and RP were also the lowest in violet colored CFE with values of 0.61, 1.48, and 0.82 mg/ml, respectively. The antigenotoxic effect of the CFE on DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) in human leukocytes was evaluated by Comet assay. Pretreatments with CFE produced significant reductions in oxidative DNA damage at the concentration of 500 microg/ml, except for violet colored CFE. The ED(50) value of white colored CFE has shown the highest inhibition (0.40 mg/ml) on H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage, followed by orange > pink > violet color. These results suggested that Cosmos bipinnatus has significant antioxidant activity and protective effect against oxidative DNA damage.

  20. Investigations onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1667

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Ilyin, E. A.

    The program of the 7-day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1667 launched in July 1985 included experiments on two rhesus monkeys, ten Wistar SPF rats, ten newts, Drosophila flies, maize seedlings, lettuce sprouts, and unicellular organisms - Tetrahymena. The primate study demonstrated that transition to orbital flight was accompanied by a greater excitability of the vestibular apparatus and an increased linear blood flow velocity in the common carotid artery. The rat studies showed that atrophy of antigravity muscles and osteoporosis of limb bones developed even during short-term exposure to microgravity. The experiments on other living systems revealed no microgravity effects on the cell division rate, proliferative activity of cells of regenerating tissues and organs, energy metabolism of developing insects, structure or chemical composition of higher plant seedlings.

  1. COSMOS: Python library for massively parallel workflows.

    PubMed

    Gafni, Erik; Luquette, Lovelace J; Lancaster, Alex K; Hawkins, Jared B; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Souilmi, Yassine; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2014-10-15

    Efficient workflows to shepherd clinically generated genomic data through the multiple stages of a next-generation sequencing pipeline are of critical importance in translational biomedical science. Here we present COSMOS, a Python library for workflow management that allows formal description of pipelines and partitioning of jobs. In addition, it includes a user interface for tracking the progress of jobs, abstraction of the queuing system and fine-grained control over the workflow. Workflows can be created on traditional computing clusters as well as cloud-based services. Source code is available for academic non-commercial research purposes. Links to code and documentation are provided at http://lpm.hms.harvard.edu and http://wall-lab.stanford.edu. dpwall@stanford.edu or peter_tonellato@hms.harvard.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Biological investigations aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tairbekov, M. G.; Parfyonov, G. P.; Platonova, R. W.; Abramova, V. M.; Golov, V. K.; Rostopshina, A. V.; Lyubchenko, V. Yu.; Chuchkin, V. G.

    Experiments on insects, higher plants and lower fungi were carried out aboard the biological satellite Cosmos-1129, in Earth orbit, from 25 September to 14 October 1979. The main objective of these experiments was to gain more profound knowledge of the effect of weightlessness on living organisms and to study the mechanisms by which these various organisms with different life cycles can adjust and develop in weightlessness. Experiments on insects (Drosophila melanogaster) were made with a view towards understanding gravitational preference in flies, the life cycle of which took place on board the biosatellite under conditions of artificial gravity. Experiments on higher plants (Zea mays, Arabidopsis taliana, Lycopersicum esculentum) and lower fungi (Physarum polycephalum) were performed.

  3. Do we really understand the cosmos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2017-03-01

    Our knowledge about the universe has increased tremendously in the last three decades or so - thanks to the progress in observations - but our understanding has improved very little. There are several fundamental questions about our universe for which we have no answers within the current, operationally very successful, approach to cosmology. Worse still, we do not even know how to address some of these issues within the conventional approach to cosmology. This fact suggests that we are missing some important theoretical ingredients in the overall description of the cosmos. I will argue that these issues - some of which are not fully appreciated or emphasized in the literature - demand a paradigm shift: We should not think of the universe as described by a specific solution to the gravitational field equations; instead, it should be treated as a special physical system governed by a different mathematical description, rooted in the quantum description of spacetime. I will outline how this can possibly be done.

  4. Introduction to Particle Acceleration in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Horwitz, J. L.; Perez, J.; Quenby, J.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated charged particles have been used on Earth since 1930 to explore the very essence of matter, for industrial applications, and for medical treatments. Throughout the universe nature employs a dizzying array of acceleration processes to produce particles spanning twenty orders of magnitude in energy range, while shaping our cosmic environment. Here, we introduce and review the basic physical processes causing particle acceleration, in astrophysical plasmas from geospace to the outer reaches of the cosmos. These processes are chiefly divided into four categories: adiabatic and other forms of non-stochastic acceleration, magnetic energy storage and stochastic acceleration, shock acceleration, and plasma wave and turbulent acceleration. The purpose of this introduction is to set the stage and context for the individual papers comprising this monograph.

  5. Introduction to Particle Acceleration in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Horwitz, J. L.; Perez, J.; Quenby, J.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated charged particles have been used on Earth since 1930 to explore the very essence of matter, for industrial applications, and for medical treatments. Throughout the universe nature employs a dizzying array of acceleration processes to produce particles spanning twenty orders of magnitude in energy range, while shaping our cosmic environment. Here, we introduce and review the basic physical processes causing particle acceleration, in astrophysical plasmas from geospace to the outer reaches of the cosmos. These processes are chiefly divided into four categories: adiabatic and other forms of non-stochastic acceleration, magnetic energy storage and stochastic acceleration, shock acceleration, and plasma wave and turbulent acceleration. The purpose of this introduction is to set the stage and context for the individual papers comprising this monograph.

  6. Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Dahlen, T.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Thompson, D. J.; Feldmann, R.; Tasca, L.; Le Fevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; McCracken, H.; Mould, J.; Renzini, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ajiki, M.; Shioya, Y.; Contini, T.; Giavalisco, M.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Scodeggio, M.

    2007-09-01

    We present photometric redshifts for the COSMOS survey derived from a new code, optimized to yield accurate and reliable redshifts and spectral types of galaxies down to faint magnitudes and redshifts out to z~1.2. The technique uses χ2 template fitting, combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to estimate the internal extinction [or E(B-V)]. The median most probable redshift, best-fit spectral type and reddening, absolute magnitude, and stellar mass are derived in addition to the full redshift probability distributions. Using simulations with sampling and noise similar to those in COSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios, and the number of bands used. We find from the simulations that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the χ2 probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. To evaluate the reliability of the photometric redshifts, we compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z<1.2 from zCOSMOS. Considering different scenarios, depending on using prior, no prior, and/or extinction, we compare the photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for this sample. The rms scatter between the estimated photometric redshifts and known spectroscopic redshifts is σ(Δ(z))=0.031, where Δ(z)=(zphot-zspec)/(1+zspec) with a small fraction of outliers (<2.5%) [outliers are defined as objects with Δ(z)>3σ(Δ(z)), where σ(Δ(z)) is the rms scatter in Δ(z)]. We also find good agreement [σ(Δ(z))=0.10] between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for type II AGNs. We compare results from our photometric redshift procedure with three other independent codes and find them in excellent agreement. We show preliminary results, based on photometric redshifts

  7. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, 1950, by Bernard Locroft, Civil Engineer (Showing Grounds as They Were at End of Sumner Welles Era) SITE PLAN - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. The SuperCOSMOS Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambly, N.; Read, M.; Mann, R.; Sutorius, E.; Bond, I.; MacGillivray, H.; Williams, P.; Lawrence, A.

    2004-07-01

    The SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey (SSS {http://www-wfau.roe.ac.uk/sss}; Hambly et al., 2001) consists of digitised scans of Schmidt photographic survey material in a multi-colour (BRI), multi-epoch, uniformly calibrated product. It covers the whole southern hemisphere, with an extension into the north currently underway. Public online access to the 2 Tbytes of SSS pixel data and object catalogues has been available for some time; data are being downloaded at a rate of several gigabytes per week, and many new science results are emerging from community use of the data. In this poster we describe the terabyte-scale SuperCOSMOS Science Archive {http://thoth.roe.ac.uk/ssa} (SSA), which is a recasting of the SSS object catalogue system from flat files into an RDBMS, with an enhanced user interface. We describe some aspects of the hardware and schema design of the SSA, which aims to produce a high performance, VO-compatible database, suitable for data mining by `power users', while maintaining the ease of use praised in the old SSS system. Initially, the SSA will allow access through web forms and a flexible SQL interface. It acts as the prototype for the next generation survey archives to be hosted by the University of Edinburgh's Wide Field Astronomy Unit, such as the WFCAM Science Archive of infrared sky survey data, as well as being a scalability testbed for use by AstroGrid, the UK's Virtual Observatory project. As a result of these roles, it will display subsequently an expanding functionality, as web - and later, Grid - services are deployed on it.

  9. Performance of a newly designed continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS).

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kondo, Yutaka; Sahu, Lokesh K; Imaru, Junichi; Fukushima, Nobuhiko; Kano, Minoru

    2008-10-01

    We designed a continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS) for fully automated, high-sensitivity, continuous measurement of light absorption by black carbon (BC) aerosols. The instrument monitors changes in transmittance across an automatically advancing quartz fiber filter tape using an LED at a 565 nm wavelength. To achieve measurements with high sensitivity and a lower detectable light absorption coefficient, COSMOS uses a double-convex lens and optical bundle pipes to maintain high light intensity and signal data are obtained at 1000 Hz. In addition, sampling flow rate and optical unit temperature are actively controlled. The inlet line for COSMOS is heated to 400 degrees C to effectively volatilize non-refractory aerosol components that are internally mixed with BC. In its current form, COSMOS provides BC light absorption measurements with a detection limit of 0.45 Mm(-1) (0.045 microg m(-3) for soot) for 10 min. The unit-to-unit variability is estimated to be within +/- 1%, demonstrating its high reproducibility. The absorption coefficients determined by COSMOS agreed with those by a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) to within 1% (r2 = 0.97). The precision (+/- 0.60 Mm(-1)) for 10 min integrated data was better than that of PSAP and an aethalometer under our operating conditions. These results showed that COSMOS achieved both an improved detection limit and higher precision for the filter-based light absorption measurements of BC compared to the existing methods.

  10. Intrinsic galaxy shapes and alignments - I. Measuring and modelling COSMOS intrinsic galaxy ellipticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, B.; Semboloni, E.; Bett, P. E.; Hartlap, J.; Hilbert, S.; Hoekstra, H.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.

    2013-05-01

    The statistical properties of the ellipticities of galaxy images depend on how galaxies form and evolve, and therefore constrain models of galaxy morphology, which are key to the removal of the intrinsic alignment contamination of cosmological weak lensing surveys, as well as to the calibration of weak lensing shape measurements. We construct such models based on the halo properties of the Millennium Simulation and confront them with a sample of 90 000 galaxies from the COSMOS Survey, covering three decades in luminosity and redshifts out to z = 2. The ellipticity measurements are corrected for effects of point spread function smearing, spurious image distortions and measurement noise. Dividing galaxies into early, late and irregular types, we find that early-type galaxies have up to a factor of 2 lower intrinsic ellipticity dispersion than late-type galaxies. None of the samples shows evidence for redshift evolution, while the ellipticity dispersion for late-type galaxies scales strongly with absolute magnitude at the bright end. The simulation-based models reproduce the main characteristics of the intrinsic ellipticity distributions although which model fares best depends on the selection criteria of the galaxy sample. We observe fewer close-to-circular late-type galaxy images in COSMOS than expected for a sample of randomly oriented circular thick discs and discuss possible explanations for this deficit.

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF EXTREMELY RED OBJECTS IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Xu; Fang Guanwen; Wang Min; Arimoto, Nobuo

    2009-09-10

    We present a study of the classification of z {approx} 1 extremely red objects (EROs), using a combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and ground-based images of the COSMOS field. Our sample includes {approx}5300 EROs with i - K{sub s} {>=} 2.45 (AB, equivalently I - K{sub s} = 4 in Vega) and K{sub s} {<=} 21.1 (AB). For EROs in our sample, we compute, using the ACS F814W images, their concentration, asymmetry, as well as their Gini coefficient and the second moment of the brightest 20% of their light. Using those morphology parameters and the Spitzer IRAC [3.6] - [8.0] color, the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting method, we classify EROs into two classes: old galaxies (OGs) and young, dusty starburst galaxies (DGs). We found that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample is similar, about 48% of EROs in our sample are OGs, and 52% of them are DGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we performed a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that morphology parameters and SEDs are efficient in segregating OGs and DGs. The [3.6] - [8.0] color, which depends on reddening, redshift, and photometric accuracy, is difficult to separate EROs around the discriminating line between starburst and elliptical. We investigate the dependence of the fraction of EROs on their observational properties, and the results suggest that DGs become increasingly important at fainter magnitudes, redder colors, and higher redshifts. The clustering of the entire EROs, DGs, and OGs was estimated by calculating their correlation function, and we find that the clustering of EROs is much stronger than that of full K-limited samples of galaxies; the clustering amplitude of OGs is a factor of {approx}2 larger than that of DGs.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Flower Pigments in Chocolate Cosmos, Cosmos atrosanguineus, and its Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Amamiya, Kotarou; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Two major anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside, were isolated from the black flowers of Cosmos atrosanguineus cultivar 'Choco Mocha', together with three minor anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-malonylglucoside, pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside. A chalcone, butein 4'-O-glucoside and three minor flavanones were isolated from the red flowers of C. atrosanguineis x C. sulphureus cultivar 'Rouge Rouge'. The anthocyanins and chalcone accumulation of cultivar 'Choco Mocha' and its hybrid cultivars 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge', 'Rouge Rouge' and 'Noel Rouge' was surveyed by quantitative HPLC. Total anthocyanins of black flower cultivars 'Choco Mocha' and 'Brown Rouge' were 3-4-folds higher than that of the red flower cultivar 'Noel Rouge'. On the other hand, total chalcone of 'Noel Rouge' was 10-77-folds higher compared with those of other cultivars, 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge' and 'Rouge Rouge'. It was shown that the flower color variations from red to black of Chocolate Cosmos and its hybrids are due to the difference in the relative amounts of anthocyanins and chalcone.

  13. Inquiry-based Science Activities Using The Infrared Zoo and Infrared Yellowstone Resources at Cool Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.; Gauthier, A.

    2003-12-01

    Inquiry-based activities that utilize the Cool Cosmos image galleries have been designed and developed by K12 teachers enrolled in The Invisible Universe Online for Teachers course. The exploration activities integrate the Our Infrared World Gallery (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/image_galleries/our_ir_world_gallery.html) with either the Infrared Zoo gallery (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/image_galleries/ir_zoo/index.html) or the Infrared Yellowstone image http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/image_galleries/ir_yellowstone/index.html) and video (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/videos/ir_yellowstone/index.html) galleries. Complete instructor guides have been developed for the activities and will be presented by the authors in poster and CD form. Although the activities are written for middle and highschool learners, they can easily be adapted for college audiences. The Our Infrared World Gallery exploration helps learners think critically about visible light and infrared light as they compare sets of images (IR and visible light) of known objects. For example: by taking a regular photograph of a running faucet, can you tell if it is running hot or cold water? What new information does the IR image give you? The Infrared Zoo activities encourage learners to investigate the differences between warm and cold blooded animals by comparing sets of IR and visible images. In one activity, learners take on the role of a pit viper seeking prey in various desert and woodland settings. The main activities are extended into the real world by discussing and researching industrial, medical, and societal applications of infrared technologies. The Infrared Yellowstone lessons give learners a unique perspective on Yellowstone National Park and it's spectacular geologic and geothermal features. Infrared video technology is highlighted as learners make detailed observations about the visible and infrared views of the natural phenomena. The "Cool Cosmos" EPO activities are

  14. zCOSMOS: A Large VLT/VIMOS Redshift Survey Covering 0 < z < 3 in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, S. J.; Le Fèvre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Silverman, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Daddi, E.; Feldmann, R.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kovac, K.,; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marinoni, C.; Pello, R.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scarlata, C.; Vergani, D.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bardelli, S.; Brusa, M.; Cappi, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Foucaud, S.; Franceschini, A.; Halliday, C.; Impey, C.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Kurk, J.; Maccagni, D.; Maddox, S.; Marano, B.; Marconi, G.; Meneux, B.; Mobasher, B.; Moreau, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Porciani, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Schiminovich, D.; Shopbell, P.; Smail, I.; Thompson, D.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2007-09-01

    zCOSMOS is a large-redshift survey that is being undertaken in the COSMOS field using 600 hr of observation with the VIMOS spectrograph on the 8 m VLT. The survey is designed to characterize the environments of COSMOS galaxies from the 100 kpc scales of galaxy groups up to the 100 Mpc scale of the cosmic web and to produce diagnostic information on galaxies and active galactic nuclei. The zCOSMOS survey consists of two parts: (1) zCOSMOS-bright, a magnitude-limited I-band IAB<22.5 sample of about 20,000 galaxies with 0.1COSMOS ACS field, for which the survey parameters at z~0.7 are designed to be directly comparable to those of the 2dFGRS at z~0.1 and (2) zCOSMOS-deep, a survey of approximately 10,000 galaxies selected through color-selection criteria to have 1.4COSMOS-bright targets and 977 zCOSMOS-deep targets have been obtained. These are briefly analyzed to demonstrate the characteristics that may be expected from zCOSMOS, and particularly zCOSMOS-bright, when it is finally completed between 2008 and 2009. The power of combining spectroscopic and photometric redshifts is demonstrated, especially in correctly identifying the emission line in single-line spectra and in determining which of the less reliable spectroscopic redshifts are correct and which are incorrect. These techniques bring the overall success rate in the zCOSMOS-bright so far to almost 90% and to above 97% in the 0.5COSMOS-deep spectra demonstrate the power of our selection techniques to isolate high-redshift galaxies at 1.4

  15. 1.75 h {sup -1} kpc SEPARATION DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z = 0.36 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, Julia M.; Davis, Marc; Griffith, Roger L.; Stern, Daniel; Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2009-09-01

    We present strong evidence for dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the z = 0.36 galaxy COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the galaxy shows a tidal tail, indicating that the galaxy recently underwent a merger, as well as two bright point sources near the galaxy's center. The luminosities of these sources (derived from the HST image) and their emission line flux ratios (derived from Keck/DEIMOS slit spectroscopy) suggest that both are AGNs and not star-forming regions or supernovae. Observations from zCOSMOS, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and the Very Large Array fortify the evidence for AGN activity. With HST imaging we measure a projected spatial offset between the two AGNs of 1.75 {+-} 0.03 h {sup -1} kpc, and with DEIMOS we measure a 150 {+-} 40 km s{sup -1} line-of-sight velocity offset between the two AGNs. Combined, these observations provide substantial evidence that COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2 is a merger-remnant galaxy with dual AGNs.

  16. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  17. Fitness of the Cosmos for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Conway Morris, Simon; Freeland, Stephen J.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2012-08-01

    Foreword: The improbability of life George M. Whitesides; Part I. The Fitness of 'Fitness' - Henderson in Context: 1. Locating 'fitness' and Lawrence J. Henderson Everett Mendelsohn; 2. Revisiting The Fitness of the Environment Owen Gingerich; 3. Is fine-tuning remarkable? John F. Haught; 4. Complexity in context: the metaphysical implications of evolutionary theory Edward T. Oakes; 5. Tuning fine-tuning Ernan Mcmullin; Part II. The Fitness of the Cosmic Environment: 6. Fitness and the cosmic environment Paul C. W. Davies; 7. The interconnections between cosmology and life Mario Livio; 8. Chemistry and sensitivity John D. Barrow; 9. Fitness of the cosmos for the origin and evolution of life: from biochemical fine-tuning to the Anthropic Principle Julian Chela-Flores; Part III. The Fitness of the Terrestrial Environment: 10. How biofriendly is the universe? Christian de Duve; 11. Tuning into the frequencies of life: a roar of static or a precise signal? Simon Conway Morris; 12. Life on earth: the role of proteins Jayanth R. Banavar and Amos Maritan; 13. Protein-based life as an emergent property of matter: the nature and biological fitness of the protein folds Michael J. Denton; 14. Could an intelligent alien predict earth's biochemistry? Stephen J. Freeland; 15. Would Venus evolve on Mars? Bioenergetic constraints, allometric trends, and the evolution of life-history invariants Jeffrey P. Schloss; Part IV. The Fitness of the Chemical Environment: 16. Creating a perspective for comparing Albert Eschenmoser; 17. Fine-tuning and interstellar chemistry William Klemperer; 18. Framing the question of fine-tuning for intermediary metabolism Eric Smith and Harold J. Morowitz; 19. Coarse-tuning the origin of life? Guy Ourisson; 20. Plausible lipid-like peptides: prebiotic molecular self-assembly in water Shuguang Zhang; 21. Evolution revisited by inorganic chemists R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva; Index.

  18. Fitness of the Cosmos for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Conway Morris, Simon; Freeland, Stephen J.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Foreword: The improbability of life George M. Whitesides; Part I. The Fitness of 'Fitness' - Henderson in Context: 1. Locating 'fitness' and Lawrence J. Henderson Everett Mendelsohn; 2. Revisiting The Fitness of the Environment Owen Gingerich; 3. Is fine-tuning remarkable? John F. Haught; 4. Complexity in context: the metaphysical implications of evolutionary theory Edward T. Oakes; 5. Tuning fine-tuning Ernan Mcmullin; Part II. The Fitness of the Cosmic Environment: 6. Fitness and the cosmic environment Paul C. W. Davies; 7. The interconnections between cosmology and life Mario Livio; 8. Chemistry and sensitivity John D. Barrow; 9. Fitness of the cosmos for the origin and evolution of life: from biochemical fine-tuning to the Anthropic Principle Julian Chela-Flores; Part III. The Fitness of the Terrestrial Environment: 10. How biofriendly is the universe? Christian de Duve; 11. Tuning into the frequencies of life: a roar of static or a precise signal? Simon Conway Morris; 12. Life on earth: the role of proteins Jayanth R. Banavar and Amos Maritan; 13. Protein-based life as an emergent property of matter: the nature and biological fitness of the protein folds Michael J. Denton; 14. Could an intelligent alien predict earth's biochemistry? Stephen J. Freeland; 15. Would Venus evolve on Mars? Bioenergetic constraints, allometric trends, and the evolution of life-history invariants Jeffrey P. Schloss; Part IV. The Fitness of the Chemical Environment: 16. Creating a perspective for comparing Albert Eschenmoser; 17. Fine-tuning and interstellar chemistry William Klemperer; 18. Framing the question of fine-tuning for intermediary metabolism Eric Smith and Harold J. Morowitz; 19. Coarse-tuning the origin of life? Guy Ourisson; 20. Plausible lipid-like peptides: prebiotic molecular self-assembly in water Shuguang Zhang; 21. Evolution revisited by inorganic chemists R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva; Index.

  19. Compton Thick AGN in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Cosmos Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    I will present the results we published in a couple of recent papers (Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A&A 573A 137, Lanzuisi et al. 2015, arXiv 1505.01153) on the properties of X-ray selected Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^24 cm^-2) AGN, in the COSMOS survey. We exploited the rich multi-wavelength dataset available in this field, to show that CT AGN tend to harbor smaller, rapidly growing SMBH with respect to unobscured AGN, and have a higher chance of being hosted by star-forming, merging and post-merger systems.We also demonstrated the detectability of even more heavily obscured AGN (NH>10^25 cm^-2), thanks to a truly multi-wavelength approach in the same field. The extreme source detected in this way shows strong evidences of ongoing powerful AGN feedback, detected as blue-shifted wings of high ionization optical emission lines such as [NeV] and [FeVII], as well as of the [OIII] emission line.The results obtained from these works point toward a scenario in which highly obscured AGN occupy a peculiar place in the galaxy-AGN co-evolution process, in which both the host and the SMBH rapidly evolve toward the local relations.We will also present estimates on the detectability of such extreme sources up to redshift ~6-7 with Athena. Combining the most up to date models for the Luminosity Function of CT AGN at high z, aggressive data analysis techniques on faint sources, and the current Athena survey design, we demonstrate that we will detect, and recognize as such, a small (few to ten) but incredibly valuable sample of CT AGN at such high redshift.

  20. 10th Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC X)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the most important international meeting in the field of nuclear astrophysics. It brings together nuclear experimentalists, nuclear theorists, astronomers, theoretical astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others interested in the scientific questions at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions concern, for example, the origin of the elements in the cosmos and the nuclear reactions that occur in the big bang, in stars, and in stellar explosions. Past meetings have been held in Geneva - Switzerland 2006, Vancouver - Canada (2004), Fuji-Yoshida - Japan (2002), Aarhus - Denmark (2000), Volos - Greece (1998), Notre Dame - USA (1996), Gran Sasso - Italy (1994), Karlsruhe - Germany (1992), Baden bei Wien - Austria (1990).

  1. Merging Galaxies with Tidal Tails in COSMOS to z = 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhang Zheng; Zheng, Xian Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Tidal tails are created in major mergers involving disk galaxies. It remains to be explored how the tidal tails trace the assembly history of massive galaxies. We identify a sample of 461 merging galaxies with long tidal tails, from 35,076 galaxies mass-complete at {M}\\star ≥slant {10}9.5 {M}⊙ and 0.2≤slant z≤slant 1, based on Hubble Space Telescope/ACS F814W imaging data and public catalogs of the COSMOS field. The long tails refer to those with length equal to or greater than the diameter of their host galaxies. The mergers with tidal tails are selected using our novel {A}{{O}}-{D}{{O}} technique for strong asymmetric features, along with visual examination. Our results show that the fraction of tidal-tailed mergers evolves mildly with redshift, as ˜ {(1+z)}2.0+/- 0.4, and becomes relatively higher in less-massive galaxies, out to z = 1. With a timescale of 0.5 Gyr for the tidal-tailed mergers, we obtain that the occurrence rate of such mergers follows 0.01+/- 0.007{(1+z)}2.3+/- 1.4 Gyr-1, and corresponds to ˜0.3 events since z = 1, as well as roughly one-third of the total budget of major mergers from the literature. For disk-involved major mergers, nearly half of them have undergone a phase with long tidal tails.

  2. HR-COSMOS: Kinematics of star-forming galaxies at z 0.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccia, D.; Tresse, L.; Epinat, B.; Ilbert, O.; Scoville, N.; Amram, P.; Lemaux, B. C.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-02-01

    We present the kinematic analysis of a sub-sample of 82 galaxies at 0.75 < z < 1.2 from our new survey HR-COSMOS aimed to obtain the first statistical sample to study the kinematics of star-forming galaxies in the treasury COSMOS field at 0 < z < 1.2. We observed 766 emission line galaxies using the multi-slit spectrograph ESO-VLT/VIMOS in high-resolution mode (R = 2500). To better extract galaxy kinematics, VIMOS spectral slits have been carefully tilted along the major axis orientation of the galaxies, making use of the position angle measurements from the high spatial resolution HST/ACS COSMOS images. We constrained the kinematics of the sub-sample at 0.75 < z < 1.2 by creating high-resolution semi-analytical models. We established the stellar-mass Tully-Fisher relation at z ≃ 0.9 with high-quality stellar mass measurements derived using the latest COSMOS photometric catalog, which includes the latest data releases of UltraVISTA and Spitzer. In doubling the sample at these redshifts compared with the literature, we estimated the relation without setting its slope, and found it consistent with previous studies in other deep extragalactic fields assuming no significant evolution of the relation with redshift at z ≲ 1. We computed dynamical masses within the radius R2.2 and found a median stellar-to-dynamical mass fraction equal to 0.2 (assuming Chabrier IMF), which implies a contribution of gas and dark matter masses of 80% of the total mass within R2.2, in agreement with recent integral field spectroscopy surveys. We find no dependence of the stellar-mass Tully-Fisher relation with environment probing up to group scale masses. This study shows that multi-slit galaxy surveys remain a powerful tool to derive kinematics for large numbers of galaxies at both high and low redshift. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 083.A-0935.

  3. US experiments flown on the Soviet satellite COSMOS 936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, S. N.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of spaceborne experiments onboard the Cosmos 936 satellite are reported. Alterations in normal bone chemistry, muscle structure, and general physiology resulting from spaceflight are covered along with measurements of cosmic radiation and its potential hazard to man during prolonged spaceflights. Postflight activities involving the seven U.S. experiments are emphasized.

  4. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  5. [COSMOS motion design optimization in the CT table].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong; Huang, Jian; Ren, Chao

    2013-03-01

    Through the CT Table dynamic simulation by COSMOS Motion, analysis the hinge of table and the motor force, then optimize the position of the hinge of table, provide the evidence of selecting bearing and motor, meanwhile enhance the design quality of the CT table and reduce the product design cost.

  6. An Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for VLSI Built with COSMOS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Marios C.; Agius, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents Bigger Bits, an interactive multimedia learning environment that teaches students about VLSI within the context of computer electronics. The system was built with COSMOS (Content Oriented semantic Modelling Overlay Scheme), which is a modelling scheme that we developed for enabling the semantic content of multimedia to be used…

  7. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing…

  8. Emerging Adolescence: Finding One's Place in the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Discusses emerging characteristics of early adolescents from a Montessorian perspective. Considers adolescents' revelations related to cosmic education, their need to serve, their need to think and to feel, and their need to know the cosmos through finding one's place in it. Discusses samples from students' cosmic autobiographies. (KB)

  9. G10/COSMOS: 38 band (far-UV to far-IR) panchromatic photometry using LAMBDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, S. K.; Driver, S. P.; Davies, L. J. M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Wright, Angus H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a consistent total flux catalogue for a ˜1 deg2 subset of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) region (RA ∈ [149.55°, 150.65°], Dec. ∈ [1.80°, 2.73°]) with near-complete coverage in 38 bands from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. We produce aperture matched photometry for 128 304 objects with i < 24.5 in a manner that is equivalent to the Wright et al. catalogue from the low-redshift (z < 0.4) Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. This catalogue is based on publicly available imaging from GALEX, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Subaru, Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, Spitzer and Herschel, contains a robust total flux measurement or upper limit for every object in every waveband and complements our re-reduction of publicly available spectra in the same region. We perform a number of consistency checks, demonstrating that our catalogue is comparable to existing data sets, including the recent COSMOS2015 catalogue. We also release an updated Davies et al. spectroscopic catalogue that folds in new spectroscopic and photometric redshift data sets. The catalogues are available for download at http://cutout.icrar.org/G10/dataRelease.php. Our analysis is optimised for both panchromatic analysis over the full wavelength range and for direct comparison to GAMA, thus permitting measurements of galaxy evolution for 0 < z < 1 while minimizing the systematic error resulting from disparate data reduction methods.

  10. Weak lensing calibrated M-T scaling relation of galaxy groups in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J. E.; Spinelli, P. F.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Koekemoer, A.

    2013-11-20

    The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute{sup 2}, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48{sub −0.09}{sup +0.13}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV.

  11. THE CHANDRA COSMOS LEGACY SURVEY: OPTICAL/IR IDENTIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Urry, C. M.; Elvis, M.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.; Treister, E.; Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Cardamone, C.; Griffiths, R. E.; Karim, A.; and others

    2016-01-20

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra  COSMOS-Legacy  Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra  program on the 2.2 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2–10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  12. Ep8_Exploring the Cosmos with Styx

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-25

    >> HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST! WELCOME TO THE OFFICIAL PODCAST OF THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, EPISODE 8, “EXPLORING THE COSMOS.” I’M GARY JORDAN AND I’LL BE YOUR HOST TODAY. SO THIS IS THE PODCAST WHERE WE BRING IN NASA EXPERTS, AND IN THE CASE OF TODAY’S EPISODE, SOME SUPER COOL SPACE FANATICS TO TALK ABOUT EVERYTHING NASA. SO TODAY WE HAD QUITE A FEW SPECIAL GUESTS. WE’RE TALKING ABOUT HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION WITH GLENN LUTZ, JOHN CONNOLLY, AND THE BAND STYX. GLENN IS THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE EXPLORATION INTEGRATION AND SCIENCE DIRECTOR, OR EISD, HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. JOHN IS THE HEAD OF NASA’S MARS STUDY CAPABILITY TEAM UNDER EISD, AND STYX, WELL, STYX IS A ROCK BAND. WE TALKED TO TOMMY SHAW, WHO DOES GUITAR, VOCALS, AND A LOT OF THE WRITING, AND LAWRENCE GOWAN ON VOCALS AND KEYS AND ALSO DOES SOME OF THE WRITING, TOO. WHY IS A ROCK BAND HERE AT THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER? WELL, WE HAVE A LOT OF AMAZING THINGS TO SHOW OFF AND SOMETIMES PEOPLE COME OVER TO CHECK IT OUT. WE HAD A GREAT DISCUSSION ABOUT EXPLORING THE COSMOS, WHAT HUMAN EXPLORATION MISSIONS WILL LOOK LIKE IN THE FUTURE, AND WHY WE SEND HUMANS TO SPACE IN THE FIRST PLACE. SO, WITH NO FURTHER DELAY, LET’S GO LIGHTSPEED TO OUR TALK WITH MR. GLENN LUTZ AND MR. JOHN CONNOLLY, AS WELL AS MR. TOMMY SHAW AND MR. LAWRENCE GOWAN FROM STYX. ENJOY. [ MUSIC ] >> T MINUS FIVE SECONDS AND COUNTING! MARK! [ INDISTINCT RADIO CHATTER ] >> HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST. [ MUSIC ] >> OKAY, SO HOW ARE YOU GUYS LIKING THE TOUR SO FAR? >> DO WE HAVE TO LEAVE? >> YEAH! >> IT’S A MIND BLOWER, IS WHAT IT IS. >> YEAH. >> IT’S A MIND BLOWER AND GETTING TO MEET PEOPLE THAT DO THIS EVERY DAY IS-- THAT’S AN HONOR AND THAT ALONE, AND THEN SEEING THEM WITH THE MACHINERY IS-- I CAN BARELY FORM WORDS TO DESCRIBE HOW OVERWHELMING IT IS. >> WHAT MAKES IT SO OVERWHELMING, THOUGH? IS IT JUST THE HISTORY OR IS IT JUST THE AMOUNT OF STUFF, MAYBE? >> WELL, IT’S KIND OF EVERYTHING, YOU KNOW? >> OKAY

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS Multi-Wavelength Photometry Catalog (Capak+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Aussel, H.; Ajiki, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Tribiano, S.; Sasaki, S.; Blain, A. W.; Brusa, M.; Carilli, C.; Comastri, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Colbert, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Green, W.; Guzzo, L.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Impey, C.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koda, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Komiyama, Y.; Leauthaud, A.; Lefevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C.; Massey, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Murayama, T.; Nagao, T.; Peacock, J. A.; Pickles, A.; Porciani, C.; Renzini, A.; Rhodes, J.; Rich, M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scarlata, C.; Schiminovich, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Scodeggio, M.; Sheth, K.; Shioya, Y.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Taylor, J. E.; Yan, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-03-01

    The present COSMOS data were collected on a variety of telescopes and instruments, as well as from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) second data release (DR2) archive (u, g, r, i, z) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST, F814W). This paper covers the processing of the data obtained with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru 8.3m telescope (Bj, Vj, g+, r+, i+, z+, NB816), Megaprime on the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT, u*, i*), FLAMINGOS on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO, Ks) 4m telescope, and the Infrared Side Port Imager on the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO, Ks) 4m telescope during the 2004-2005 observing season. The COSMOS I band catalog is an I band selected multi-color catalog for 2 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field at 10:00:28.6, +02:12:21. The total magnitude (SExtractor mag_auto) for a source must have an AB magnitude of less than i+<25 to appear in the archival catalog. All photometry is in the AB magnitude system and measured in a 3 arc second aperture on PSF-matched images unless otherwise noted. A magnitude of -99 indicates a photometric measurement was not possible due to lack of data, a large number of bad pixels, or saturation. A magnitude of 99.0 indicates no detection. In the case of no detection the error given for the object is the 1 sigma limiting magnitude at the position of the souce. The photometry is as measured on the images with no corrections applied. We recommend applying the magnitude offsets in the paper to obtain the best possible photometry. More details on the photometry are available in the paper. The Photometric Redshifts included in this catalog are described in Mobasher et al. (2007ApJS..172..117M) and have an accuracy of dz/(1+z)<0.031 at z<1.2 and I<24. It is important to pay attention to the flag columns at the end of the catalog. The cleanest catalog will have all flags set to 0. The photometry flags indicate the area of the photometry aperture, in square arc seconds, which is in a masked

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS Multi-Wavelength Photometry Catalog (Capak+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Aussel, H.; Ajiki, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Tribiano, S.; Sasaki, S.; Blain, A. W.; Brusa, M.; Carilli, C.; Comastri, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Colbert, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Green, W.; Guzzo, L.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Impey, C.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koda, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Komiyama, Y.; Leauthaud, A.; Lefevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C.; Massey, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Murayama, T.; Nagao, T.; Peacock, J. A.; Pickles, A.; Porciani, C.; Renzini, A.; Rhodes, J.; Rich, M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scarlata, C.; Schiminovich, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Scodeggio, M.; Sheth, K.; Shioya, Y.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Taylor, J. E.; Yan, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-03-01

    The present COSMOS data were collected on a variety of telescopes and instruments, as well as from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) second data release (DR2) archive (u, g, r, i, z) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST, F814W). This paper covers the processing of the data obtained with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru 8.3m telescope (Bj, Vj, g+, r+, i+, z+, NB816), Megaprime on the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT, u*, i*), FLAMINGOS on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO, Ks) 4m telescope, and the Infrared Side Port Imager on the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO, Ks) 4m telescope during the 2004-2005 observing season. The COSMOS I band catalog is an I band selected multi-color catalog for 2 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field at 10:00:28.6, +02:12:21. The total magnitude (SExtractor mag_auto) for a source must have an AB magnitude of less than i+<25 to appear in the archival catalog. All photometry is in the AB magnitude system and measured in a 3" aperture on PSF-matched images unless otherwise noted. A magnitude of -99 indicates a photometric measurement was not possible due to lack of data, a large number of bad pixels, or saturation. A magnitude of 99.0 indicates no detection. In the case of no detection the error given for the object is the 1 sigma limiting magnitude at the position of the source. The photometry is as measured on the images with no corrections applied. We recommend applying the magnitude offsets in the paper to obtain the best possible photometry. More details on the photometry are available in the paper. The Photometric Redshifts included in this catalog are described in Mobasher et al. (2007ApJS..172..117M) and have an accuracy of dz/(1+z)<0.031 at z<1.2 and I<24. It is important to pay attention to the flag columns at the end of the catalog. The cleanest catalog will have all flags set to 0. The photometry flags indicate the area of the photometry aperture, in square arc seconds, which is in a masked region. A

  15. The Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool: Charting Galaxies over Cosmic Times in The Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogee, Shardha; Hemenway, M. K.; Miller, S.; Smith, A.; Augustine, A.; Worhatch, R.; Preston, S.; Lester, D.; Fricke, K.

    2007-12-01

    Recent large galaxy surveys conducted with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have provided unprecedented legacy datasets, which allow astronomers to charter the evolution of galaxies over a large fraction of the age of the Universe. The Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET; http://www.as.utexas.edu/gcet/) is an online web-based tool that allows the general public and students to actively participate in this exciting adventure through quantitative analyses of HST images from the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs (GEMS) survey, one of the widest-area galaxy surveys conducted in two filters with ACS to date. The tool allows users to surf the vast cosmos and access ACS images of over 8,000 galaxies over the last eight billion years. For galaxies of interest, users can measure the size, determine the lookback time for concordance cosmology, perform morphological classification on images at two rest-frame wavelengths, and gauge the different stellar populations present. Users can record their measurements, as well as reference information, such as coordinates and redshift, of each galaxy into Excel spreadsheets for further analysis. The celestial coordinates can be used to extract further multiwavelength data from existing archives and upcoming virtual observatories. For undergraduate classes, more advanced IDL or C-based analyses that employ the full samples, can be combined with the visualization capabilities of GCET in order to explore the nature of interesting objects, such as the most massive galaxies, starbursting systems, interacting and merging galaxies. GCET provides a powerful tool for discovery learning in undergraduate science and introductory classes, as well as high schools. We thank the GEMS collaboration, and acknowledge support from NASA grants NAG5-13063 and NASA NNG 06GB99G, NSF grant AST-0607748, and the Faculty And Student Teams for Technology (FAST Tex) award from the University of Texas Division of

  16. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  17. COSMOS: Carnegie Observatories System for MultiObject Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oemler, A.; Clardy, K.; Kelson, D.; Walth, G.; Villanueva, E.

    2017-05-01

    COSMOS (Carnegie Observatories System for MultiObject Spectroscopy) reduces multislit spectra obtained with the IMACS and LDSS3 spectrographs on the Magellan Telescopes. It can be used for the quick-look analysis of data at the telescope as well as for pipeline reduction of large data sets. COSMOS is based on a precise optical model of the spectrographs, which allows (after alignment and calibration) an accurate prediction of the location of spectra features. This eliminates the line search procedure which is fundamental to many spectral reduction programs, and allows a robust data pipeline to be run in an almost fully automatic mode, allowing large amounts of data to be reduced with minimal intervention.

  18. What we have learnt from the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca M.

    2017-08-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey covers 2.2 sq deg of the COSMOS field with a uniform depth of 180 ks of exposure and yields a total of 4000 X-ray detected sources. The main goal of the survey was to study the population of high redshift sources, their host properties and their clustering. The data provide very good quality X-ray detections which allowed us to study the obscuration properties as function of redshift and luminosity and to reveal a significant population of Compton Thick AGN. Moreover, beside the X-ray detections, we used the multiwavelength catalogs to study, via stacking analysis, undetected galaxies revealing a population of obscured AGN among elliptical galaxies and intermediate mass black holes in dwarf galaxies. In this talk, I will give an overall summary of the work done and in progress and how these works can inform future mission studies.

  19. Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; Herdman, Liv; Limber, Patrick W.; O'Neill, Andrea; Vitousek, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future SLR scenarios, as well as long-term shoreline change and cliff retreat. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California includes 100-year storm flood hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception. Flood projection data in the initial November release is limited to coastal areas within Los Angeles, San Diego, and Orange counties.

  20. 11th Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the most important international meeting in the field of nuclear astrophysics. It brings together nuclear experimentalists, nuclear theorists, astronomers, theoretical astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others interested in the scientific questions at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions concern, for example, the origin of the elements in the cosmos and the nuclear reactions that occur in the big bang, in stars, and in stellar explosions. Past meetings have been held in Mackinac Island - USA (2008), Geneva - Switzerland (2006), Vancouver - Canada (2004), Fuji-Yoshida - Japan (2002), Aarhus - Denmark (2000), Volos - Greece (1998), Notre Dame - USA (1996), Gran Sasso - Italy (1994), Karlsruhe - Germany (1992), Baden bei Wien - Austria (1990).

  1. XII International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzio, John; Karakas, Amanda; Lugaro, Maria; Dracoulis, George

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the most important international meeting in the field of nuclear astrophysics. It brings together nuclear experimentalists, nuclear theorists, astronomers, theoretical astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others interested in the scientific questions at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions concern, for example, the origin of the elements in the cosmos and the nuclear reactions that occur in the big bang, in stars, and in stellar explosions. Past meetings have been held in Heidelberg - Germany (2010), Mackinac Island - USA (2008), Geneva - Switzerland (2006), Vancouver - Canada (2004), Fuji-Yoshida - Japan (2002), Aarhus - Denmark (2000), Volos - Greece (1998), Notre Dame - USA (1996), Gran Sasso - Italy (1994), Karlsruhe - Germany (1992), Baden bei Wien - Austria (1990).

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project (Smolcic+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolcic, V.; Novak, M.; Bondi, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Mooley, K. P.; Schinnerer, E.; Zamorani, G.; Navarrete, F.; Bourke, S.; Karim, A.; Vardoulaki, E.; Leslie, S.; Delhaize, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Myers, S. T.; Baran, N.; Delvecchio, I.; Miettinen, O.; Banfield, J.; Balokovic, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Frail, D. A.; Hallinan, G.; Hao, H.; Herrera Ruiz, N.; Horesh, A.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H.; Jelic, V.; Klockner, H.-R.; Krpan, J.; Kulkarni, S. R.; McCracken, H.; Laigle, C.; Middleberg, E.; Murphy, E.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sheth, K.

    2016-10-01

    The catalog contains sources selected down to a 5σ(σ~2.3uJy/beam) threshold. This catalog can be used for statistical analyses, accompanied with the corrections given in the data & catalog release paper. All completeness & bias corrections and source counts presented in the paper were calculated using this sample. The total fraction of spurious sources in the COSMOS 2 sq.deg. is below 2.7% within this catalog. However, an increase of spurious sources up to 24% at 5.0=5.5 for single component sources (MULTI=0). The total fraction of spurious sources in the COSMOS 2 sq.deg. within such a selected sample is below 0.4%, and the fraction of spurious sources is below 3% even at the lowest S/N (=5.5). Catalog Notes: 1. Maximum ID is 10966 although there are 10830 sources. Some IDs were removed by joining them into multi-component sources. 2. Peak surface brightness of sources [uJy/beam] is not reported, but can be obtained by multiplying SNR with RMS. 3. High NPIX usually indicates extended or very bright sources. 4. Reported positional errors on resolved and extended sources should be considered lower limits. 5. Multicomponent sources have errors and S/N column values set to -99.0 Additional data information: Catalog date: 21-Mar-2016 Source extractor: BLOBCAT v1.2 (http://blobcat.sourceforge.net/) Observations: 384 hours, VLA, S-band (2-4GHz), A+C array, 192 pointings Imaging software: CASA v4.2.2 (https://casa.nrao.edu/) Imaging algorithm: Multiscale multifrequency synthesis on single pointings Mosaic size: 30000x30000 pixels (3.3 GB) Pixel size: 0.2x0.2 arcsec2 Median rms noise in the COSMOS 2 sq.deg.: 2.3uJy/beam Beam is circular with FWHM=0.75 arcsec Bandwidth-smearing peak correction: 0% (no corrections applied) Resolved criteria: Sint/Speak>1+6*snr^(-1.44) Total area covered

  3. Completing the Legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, Ivo; Caputi, Karina; McLeod, Derek; Cowley, Will; Dayal, Pratika; Behroozi, Peter; Ashby, Matt; Franx, Marijn; Dunlop, James; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Ilbert, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; de Barros, Stephane; Oesch, Pascal; Bouwens, Rychard; Muzzin, Adam; Illingworth, Garth; Stefanon, Mauro; Schreiber, Corentin; Hutter, Anne; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    We propose to complete the legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS by extending the deep coverage to the full 1.8 sq degree field, producing a nearly homogenous and contiguous map unparalleled in terms of area and depth. Ongoing and scheduled improvements in the supporting optical-to-NIR data down to ultradeep limits have reconfirmed COSMOS as a unique field for probing the bright end of the z=6-11 universe and the formation of large-scale structures. However, currently only one-third of the field has received sufficiently deep IRAC coverage to match the new optical/near-IR limits. Here we request deep matching IRAC data over the full 1.8 sq degree field to detect almost one million galaxies. The proposed observations will allow us to 1) constrain the galaxy stellar mass function during the epoch of reionization at z=6-8 with ~10,000 galaxies at these redshifts, 2) securely identify the brightest galaxies at 9 < z < 11, 3) trace the growth of stellar mass at 1 < z < 8 and the co-evolution of galaxies and their dark matter halos, 4) identify (proto)clusters and large scale structures, and 5) reveal dust enshrouded starbursts and the first quiescent galaxies at 3 < z < 6. The Spitzer Legacy over COSMOS will enable a wide range of discoveries beyond these science goals owing to the unique array of multiwavelength data from the X-ray to the radio. COSMOS is a key target for ongoing and future studies with ALMA and for spectroscopy from the ground, and with the timely addition of the Spitzer Legacy it will prove to be a crucial treasury for efficient planning and early follow-up with JWST.

  4. A Ly{alpha} GALAXY AT REDSHIFT z = 6.944 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Hibon, Pascale; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cooper, Michael; Weiner, Benjamin E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu E-mail: m.cooper@uci.edu

    2012-06-20

    Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies can be used to study cosmological reionization, because a neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) scatters Ly{alpha} photons into diffuse halos whose surface brightness falls below typical survey detection limits. Here, we present the Ly{alpha} emitting galaxy LAE J095950.99+021219.1, identified at redshift z = 6.944 in the COSMOS field using narrowband imaging and follow-up spectroscopy with the IMACS instrument on the Magellan I Baade telescope. With a single object spectroscopically confirmed so far, our survey remains consistent with a wide range of IGM neutral fraction at z Almost-Equal-To 7, but further observations are planned and will help clarify the situation. Meantime, the object we present here is only the third Ly{alpha}-selected galaxy to be spectroscopically confirmed at z {approx}> 7, and is {approx}2-3 times fainter than the previously confirmed z Almost-Equal-To 7 Ly{alpha} galaxies.

  5. The COSMOS Optics Inquiry: An Inquiry Activity for High School Students on Geometric Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, L.; Severson, S.; Seagroves, S.; Porter, J.

    2010-12-01

    Within the California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) program at UC Santa Cruz, an inquiry activity on geometric optics was designed and taught in a course led by Professional Development Program (PDP) participants. This inquiry was taught in five different years with class sizes from 15-18 students, ranging in age from recent 9th graders to graduated seniors. The optics inquiry was designed to teach specific content about geometric optics and image formation, as well as a number of inquiry process skills. Additionally, the inquiry was designed to accomplish larger programmatic goals related to developing community and intellectual curiosity among the students. Because the students spanned a broad range in grade levels, the diversity of prior knowledge and experience among the learners was one unique challenge we faced and addressed through the use of a tiered goal structure. This paper presents our goals, the basic activity design, and the assessments used to measure the student learning gains.

  6. Spectroscopic Properties of Selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies from the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Amy M.; Carroll, P.; Roberts, R.; Wong, N.; Liu, C.

    2007-12-01

    We present properties of seven blue narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs) in the redshift range 0.25 < z < 0.73, initially selected as QSO candidates in the COSMOS 2-degree survey field. These galaxies have been selected for the high signal-to-noise of their spectra, as indicated by the presence of the emission line [NeIII] 3869 Angstroms. Emission line diagnostics are used to measure metallicities and star formation rates, and to test the presence of AGN. Hubble ACS images are used to measure their surface brightness distributions and quantitative morphologies. Preliminary results indicate that these objects are forming stars at a rate of 4 to 20 solar masses per year; and their metallicity appears not to vary with the galaxy's concentration index which ranges 0.42 to 0.63.

  7. Analysis and Consequences of the Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 Collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anz-Meador, P. D.; Liou, Jer-Chi

    2010-01-01

    The collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251, on 10 February 2009, was the first known unintentional hypervelocity collision in space of intact satellites. Iridium 33 was an active commercial telecommunications satellite, while Cosmos 2251 was a derelict communication satellite of the Strela-2M class. The collision occurred at a relative velocity of 11.6 km/s at an altitude of approximately 790 km over the Great Siberian Plain and near the northern apex of Cosmos 2251 s orbit. This paper describes the physical and orbital characteristics of the relevant spacecraft classes and reports upon our analysis of the resulting debris clouds size, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and relative velocity/directionality distributions. We compare these distributions to those predicted by the NASA breakup model and notable recent fragmentation events; in particular, we compare the area-to-mass ratio distribution for each spacecraft to that exhibited by the FY-1C debris cloud for the purpose of assessing the relative contribution of modern aerospace materials to debris clouds resulting from energetic collisions. In addition, we examine the long-term consequences of this event for the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Finally, we discuss "lessons learned", which may be incorporated into NASA s environmental models.

  8. SPS 'Fabric of the Cosmos' Science Cafés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2011-12-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked off by more than 30 'Cosmic Cafes' around the country, as part of a Society of Physics Students, NOVA outreach effort funded by an NSF grant. A Cosmic Café is a science café based on the topics discussed in The Fabric of the Cosmos. Science cafes are open events for non-scientists, where they can have an informal discussion with a scientist in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick off, by reviewing science café and The Fabric of the Cosmos resources and suggesting revisions to make them more relevant for an SPS audience. I also organized and moderated the first Cosmic Café. The café that I organized was discussion based, with the speaker, Dr. James Gates, starting with a short talk and then opening up the floor for questions. Organizing a Cosmic Café gave me first-hand experience with the challenges an SPS chapter might face while organizing a café themselves. I will discuss lessons learned and the effectiveness of the first ever themed science café blitz.

  9. THE zCOSMOS 10k-BRIGHT SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, Simon J.; Maier, Christian; Carollo, Marcella; Caputi, Karina; Le Brun, Vincent; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fevre, Olivier; De la Torre, Sylvain; De Ravel, Loic; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Mignoli, Marco; Zamorani, Gianni; Bardelli, Sandro; Bolzonella, Micol; Coppa, Graziano; Scodeggio, Marco; Contini, Thierry; Bongiorno, Angela; Cucciati, Olga

    2009-10-01

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of a large sample of galaxies with I {sub AB} < 22.5 in the COSMOS field, measured from spectra of 10,644 objects that have been obtained in the first two years of observations in the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey. These include a statistically complete subset of 10,109 objects. The average accuracy of individual redshifts is 110 km s{sup -1}, independent of redshift. The reliability of individual redshifts is described by a Confidence Class that has been empirically calibrated through repeat spectroscopic observations of over 600 galaxies. There is very good agreement between spectroscopic and photometric redshifts for the most secure Confidence Classes. For the less secure Confidence Classes, there is a good correspondence between the fraction of objects with a consistent photometric redshift and the spectroscopic repeatability, suggesting that the photometric redshifts can be used to indicate which of the less secure spectroscopic redshifts are likely right and which are probably wrong, and to give an indication of the nature of objects for which we failed to determine a redshift. Using this approach, we can construct a spectroscopic sample that is 99% reliable and which is 88% complete in the sample as a whole, and 95% complete in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.8. The luminosity and mass completeness levels of the zCOSMOS-bright sample of galaxies is also discussed.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of the Usage of the COSMOS Science Education Portal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Bogner, Franz X.; Neofotistos, George

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative method of mapping the web usage of an innovative educational portal is applied to analyze the behaviour of users of the COSMOS Science Education Portal. The COSMOS Portal contains user-generated resources (that are uploaded by its users). It has been designed to support a science teacher's search, retrieval and access to both,…

  11. Quantitative Analysis of the Usage of the COSMOS Science Education Portal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Bogner, Franz X.; Neofotistos, George

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative method of mapping the web usage of an innovative educational portal is applied to analyze the behaviour of users of the COSMOS Science Education Portal. The COSMOS Portal contains user-generated resources (that are uploaded by its users). It has been designed to support a science teacher's search, retrieval and access to both,…

  12. The COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES): Probing HI Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ximena; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Chiles Team

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (HI) is the most abundant element in the Universe, and surprisingly, we know very little about the neutral hydrogen beyond z~0.08. The recently upgraded VLA makes it now possible to image the HI in galaxies beyond the local Universe. We are using the broad bandwidth of the VLA to instantaneously probe HI from z=0 to z=0.5 in one pointing of the COSMOS field. Once CHILES is complete, we will have HI images of 300 galaxies across cosmic time in different environments. These images will have a spatial resolution of 0.5 kpc for nearby galaxies and 30 kpc at z~0.5, and a velocity resolution of 7 km/s. In preparation for CHILES, we carried out a pilot study that observed the same pointing out to z~0.2, and detected HI in 33 galaxies in our volume. I will describe the science goals of CHILES, what we learned from the pilot study, and present preliminary results for the first 200 hours of observations of the full survey. After 1002 hours of integration time, we will have high-resolution HI images that will help us understand galaxy evolution across cosmic time and test predictions made by cosmological simulations.

  13. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Cho, Hye Sun; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  14. Experiment K-7-41: Radiation Experiments on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.; Kovalev, E. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 degrees and altitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq. cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10-4 and 3.05 x 10(exp -4) cm(exp -2).s(exp -1).sr(exp -4) of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(infinity).H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micro-m. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mremld in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra have been compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 degrees) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCR's, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  15. Islet in weightlessness: biological experiments on board COSMOS 1129 satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuk, Y.

    1980-09-01

    Biological experiments planned as an international venture for COSMOS 1129 satellite include tests of: (1) adaptation of rats to conditions of weightlessness, and readaption to Earth's gravity, (2) possibility of fertilization and embryonic development in weightlessness, (3) heat exchange processes, (4) amount of gravity force preferred by fruit flies for laying eggs (given a choice of three centrifugal zones), (5) growth of higher plants from seeds, (6) effects of weightlessness on cells in culture, and (7) radiation danger from heavy nuclei, and electrostatic protection from charged particles.

  16. The Concept of Fractal Cosmos: III. Present State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujic, P.

    2011-06-01

    This is the sequel to the previous accounts on the rise and development of the concept of fractal cosmos, up to year 2001 (Grujic 2001, 2002). Here we give an overview of the present-day state of art, with the emphasis on the latest developments and controversies concerning the model of hierarchical universe. We describe both the theoretical advances and the latest empirical evidence concerning the observation of the large-scale structure of the observable universe. Finally we address a number of epistemological points, putting the fractal paradigm into a broader cosmological frame.

  17. Islet in weightlessness: Biological experiments on board COSMOS 1129 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuk, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Biological experiments planned as an international venture for COSMOS 1129 satellite include tests of: (1) adaptation of rats to conditions of weightlessness, and readaption to Earth's gravity; (2) possibility of fertilization and embryonic development in weightlessness; (3) heat exchange processes; (4) amount of gravity force preferred by fruit flies for laying eggs (given a choice of three centrifugal zones); (5) growth of higher plants from seeds; (6) effects of weightlessness on cells in culture and (7) radiation danger from heavy nuclei, and electrostatic protection from charged particles.

  18. COSMOS 2044: Lung morphology study, experiment K-7-28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Mathieu-Costello, Odile; West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers examined the effect of microgravity during spaceflight on lung tissue. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wister rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hour Cosmos 2044 mission was examined and compared to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail suspension. Pulmonary hemorrage and alveolar adema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control animals, and in the dorsal regions of the lung when compared with the vivarium controls. The cause of these changes, which are possibly due to an increase in pulmonary vascular pressure, requires further investigation.

  19. Planets, Stars, and Orbs, The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Edward

    Medieval cosmology was a fusion of pagan Greek ideas and biblical descriptions of the world, especially the creation account in Genesis. Planets, Stars, and Orbs describes medieval conceptions of the cosmos as understood by scholastic theologians and natural philosophers in the universities of western Europe from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Not only are the major ideas and arguments of medieval cosmology described and analysed, but much attention is paid to the responses of scholastic natural philosophers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to the challenges posed by the new science and astronomy as represented by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Galileo and Kepler.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Merging galaxies with tidal tails in COSMOS to z=1 (Wen+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z. Z.; Zheng, X. Z.

    2017-02-01

    Our study utilizes the public data and catalogs from multi-band deep surveys of the COSMOS field. The UltraVISTA survey (McCracken+ 2012, J/A+A/544/A156) provides ultra-deep near-IR imaging observations of this field in the Y,J,H, and Ks-band, as well as a narrow band (NB118). The HST/ACS I-band imaging data are publicly available, allowing us to measure morphologies in the rest-frame optical for galaxies at z<=1. The HST/ACS I-band images reach a 5σ depth of 27.2 magnitude for point sources. (1 data file).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS/UltraVISTA Ks-selected catalogs v4.1 (Muzzin+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzin, A.; Marchesini, D.; Stefanon, M.; Franx, M.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J. S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Brammer, G.; Labbe, I.; van Dokkum, P.

    2016-07-01

    The current catalog release, v4.1 is a Ks-selected catalog of the COSMOS field based on the imaging from the DR1 UltraVISTA release (see McCracken+, 2012, J/A+A/544/A156). The catalog covers a total area of 1.62deg2, and has photometry in 30 bands including the GALEX, Subaru, CFHT, UltraVISTA, and Spitzer imaging. The 90% completeness limit of the survey is Ks,tot=23.4 AB. Photometry has been determined in a color aperture by PSF matching all bands, including additional source-fitting for the large-PSF space-based imaging such as GALEX and IRAC/MIPS. (6 data files).

  2. IRS Legacy Survey of the Green Valley in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, Nicholas; Aussel, Herve; Capak, Peter; Frayer, David; Ilbert, Olivier; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Floc'h, Emeric; McCracken, Henry; Salvato, Mara; Sanders, David; Schinnerer, Eva; Sheth, Kartik; Surace, Jason; Yan, Lin

    2008-03-01

    We propose IRS low resolution spectroscopy is obtained for a complete flux-limited sample of 55 MIPS 24micron selected galaxies in the HST/ACS-COSMOS survey field at z = 0.65-0.85. All of the galaxies have S(24) > 0.7 mJy and confirmed IRAC counterparts. The IRS observations yield the PAH and silicate features, the mid-IR continuum SED and the Ne emission lines (for the brighter sources). These tracers provide diagnostics for the nature of the energy sources (starburst and/or AGN) in these dust obscured galaxies. This COSMOS IRS Legacy survey samples the full range of optical (e.g. U-V) color and absolute optical magnitude exhibited by luminous infrared-selected galaxies at our selected redshifts. Our sample of 24 micron sources allow us to better understand the role played by IR-selected galaxies in galaxy evolution, and provide a critical test of evolutionary models which suggest that sources in the Green Valley represent a transition stage as dusty spirals in the Blue Cloud merge and evolve into massive gas-poor elipticals on the Red Sequence.

  3. OBSCURED STAR FORMATION AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Feruglio, C.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Fiore, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ideue, Y.

    2010-09-20

    We investigate the effects of the environment on star formation in a sample of massive luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) with S(24 {mu}m) >80 {mu}Jy and i {sup +} < 24 in the COSMOS field. We exploit the accurate photometric redshifts in COSMOS to characterize the galaxy environment and study the evolution of the fraction of LIRGs and ULIRGs in different environments in the redshift range z = 0.3-1.2 and in bins of stellar mass. We find that the environment plays a role in the star formation processes and evolution of LIRGs and ULIRGs. We find an overall increase of the ULIRG+LIRG fraction in an optically selected sample with increasing redshift, as expected from the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR) density. We find that the ULIRG+LIRG fraction decreases with increasing density up to z {approx} 1, and that the dependence on density flattens with increasing redshift. We do not observe the reversal of the SFR density relation up to z = 1 in massive LIRGs and ULIRGs, suggesting that such reversal might occur at higher redshift in this infrared luminosity range.

  4. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-05-05

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis.

  5. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  6. Late-stage galaxy mergers in cosmos to z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, C. N.; Silverman, J. D.; Salvato, M.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Sanders, D.; Lee, N.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Civano, F.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Le Fèvre, O.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, C. T.; Sheth, K.

    2014-12-01

    The role of major mergers in galaxy and black hole formation is not well-constrained. To help address this, we develop an automated method to identify late-stage galaxy mergers before coalescence of the galactic cores. The resulting sample of mergers is distinct from those obtained using pair-finding and morphological indicators. Our method relies on median-filtering of high-resolution images to distinguish two concentrated galaxy nuclei at small separations. This method does not rely on low surface brightness features to identify mergers, and is therefore reliable to high redshift. Using mock images, we derive statistical contamination and incompleteness corrections for the fraction of late-stage mergers. The mock images show that our method returns an uncontaminated (<10%) sample of mergers with projected separations between 2.2 and 8 kpc out to z∼1. We apply our new method to a magnitude-limited (m{sub FW} {sub 814}<23) sample of 44,164 galaxies from the COSMOS HST/ACS catalog. Using a mass-complete sample with logM{sub ∗}/M{sub ⊙}>10.6 and 0.25COSMOS, we find that the star formation rates and X-ray selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in likely late-stage mergers are higher by factors of ∼2 relative to those of a control sample. Combining our sample with more

  7. A RUNAWAY BLACK HOLE IN COSMOS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVE OR SLINGSHOT RECOIL?

    SciTech Connect

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Hao, H.; Aldcroft, T.; Jahnke, K.; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Bolzonella, M.; Blecha, L.; Loeb, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Leauthaud, A.; Mainieri, V.; Piconcelli, E.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Trump, J.; Vignali, C.

    2010-07-01

    We present a detailed study of a peculiar source detected in the COSMOS survey at z = 0.359. Source CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, has two compact optical sources embedded in the same galaxy. The distance between the two, measured in the HST/ACS image, is 0.''495 {+-} 0.''005 that, at the redshift of the source, corresponds to a projected separation of 2.46 {+-} 0.02 kpc. A large ({approx}1200 km s{sup -1}) velocity offset between the narrow and broad components of H{beta} has been measured in three different optical spectra from the VLT/VIMOS and Magellan/IMACS instruments. CID-42 is also the only X-ray source in COSMOS, having in its X-ray spectra a strong redshifted broad absorption iron line and an iron emission line, drawing an inverted P-Cygni profile. The Chandra and XMM-Newton data show that the absorption line is variable in energy by {Delta}E = 500 eV over four years and that the absorber has to be highly ionized in order not to leave a signature in the soft X-ray spectrum. That these features-the morphology, the velocity offset, and the inverted P-Cygni profile-occur in the same source is unlikely to be a coincidence. We envisage two possible explanations, both exceptional, for this system: (1) a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling black hole (BH), caught 1-10 Myr after merging; or (2) a Type 1/Type 2 system in the same galaxy where the Type 1 is recoiling due to the slingshot effect produced by a triple BH system. The first possibility gives us a candidate GW recoiling BH with both spectroscopic and imaging signatures. In the second case, the X-ray absorption line can be explained as a BAL-like outflow from the foreground nucleus (a Type 2 AGN) at the rearer one (a Type 1 AGN), which illuminates the otherwise undetectable wind, giving us the first opportunity to show that fast winds are present in obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and possibly universal in AGNs.

  8. The SuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J. A.; Hambly, N. C.; Bilicki, M.; MacGillivray, H. T.; Miller, L.; Read, M. A.; Tritton, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the construction of an all-sky galaxy catalogue, using SuperCOSMOS scans of Schmidt photographic plates from the UK Schmidt Telescope and Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. The photographic photometry is calibrated using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with results that are linear to 2 per cent or better. All-sky photometric uniformity is achieved by matching plate overlaps and also by requiring homogeneity in optical-to-2MASS colours, yielding zero-points that are uniform to 0.03 mag or better. The typical AB depths achieved are BJ < 21, RF < 19.5 and IN < 18.5, with little difference between hemispheres. In practice, the IN plates are shallower than the BJ and RF plates, so for most purposes we advocate the use of a catalogue selected in these two latter bands. At high Galactic latitudes, this catalogue is approximately 90 per cent complete with 5 per cent stellar contamination; we quantify how the quality degrades towards the Galactic plane. At low latitudes, there are many spurious galaxy candidates resulting from stellar blends: these approximately match the surface density of true galaxies at |b| = 30°. Above this latitude, the catalogue limited in BJ and RF contains in total about 20 million galaxy candidates, of which 75 per cent are real. This contamination can be removed, and the sky coverage extended, by matching with additional data sets. This SuperCOSMOS catalogue has been matched with 2MASS and with WISE, yielding quasi-all-sky samples of respectively 1.5 million and 18.5 million galaxies, to median redshifts of 0.08 and 0.20. This legacy data set thus continues to offer a valuable resource for large-angle cosmological investigations.

  9. The most obscured AGN in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pozzi, F.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-06-01

    Highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) are common in nearby galaxies, but are difficult to observe beyond the local Universe, where they are expected to significantly contribute to the black hole accretion rate density. Furthermore, Compton-thick (CT) absorbers (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) suppress even the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) AGN nuclear emission, and therefore the column density distribution above 1024 cm-2 is largely unknown. We present the identification and multi-wavelength properties of a heavily obscured (NH ≳ 1025 cm-2), intrinsically luminous (L2-10 > 1044 erg s-1) AGN at z = 0.353 in the COSMOS field. Several independent indicators, such as the shape of the X-ray spectrum, the decomposition of the spectral energy distribution and X-ray/[NeV] and X-ray/6 μm luminosity ratios, agree on the fact that the nuclear emission must be suppressed by a ≳1025 cm-2 column density. The host galaxy properties show that this highly obscured AGN is hosted in a massive star-forming galaxy, showing a barred morphology, which is known to correlate with the presence of CT absorbers. Finally, asymmetric and blueshifted components in several optical high-ionization emission lines indicate the presence of a galactic outflow, possibly driven by the intense AGN activity (LBol/LEdd = 0.3-0.5). Such highly obscured, highly accreting AGN are intrinsically very rare at low redshift, whereas they are expected to be much more common at the peak of the star formation and BH accretion history, at z ~ 2-3. We demonstrate that a fully multi-wavelength approach can recover a sizable sample of such peculiar sources in large and deep surveys such as COSMOS.

  10. Black hole accretion and host galaxies of obscured quasars in XMM-COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainieri, V.; Bongiorno, A.; Merloni, A.; Aller, M.; Carollo, M.; Iwasawa, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mignoli, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Bolzonella, M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Lusso, E.; Salvato, M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Nair, P.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Ricciardelli, E.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Elvis, M.; Fiore, F.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Trump, J.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: We explore the connection between black hole growth at the center of obscured quasars selected from the XMM-COSMOS survey and the physical properties of their host galaxies. We study a bolometric regime ( ⟨ Lbol ⟩ = 8 × 1045 erg s-1) where several theoretical models invoke major galaxy mergers as the main fueling channel for black hole accretion. Methods: To derive robust estimates of the host galaxy properties, we use an SED fitting technique to distinguish the AGN and host galaxy emission. We evaluate the effect on galaxy properties estimates of being unable to remove the nuclear emission from the SED. The superb multi-wavelength coverage of the COSMOS field allows us to obtain reliable estimates of the total stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of the hosts. We supplement this information with a morphological analysis of the ACS/HST images, optical spectroscopy, and an X-ray spectral analysis. Results: We confirm that obscured quasars mainly reside in massive galaxies (M ⋆ > 1010M⊙) and that the fraction of galaxies hosting such powerful quasars monotonically increases with the stellar mass. We stress the limitation of the use of rest-frame color - magnitude diagrams as a diagnostic tool for studying galaxy evolution and inferring the influence that AGN activity can have on such a process. We instead use the correlation between SFR and stellar mass found for star-forming galaxies to discuss the physical properties of the hosts. We find that at z ~ 1, ≈62% of Type-2 QSOs hosts are actively forming stars and that their rates are comparable to those measured for normal star-forming galaxies. The fraction of star-forming hosts increases with redshift: ≈ 71% at z ~ 2, and 100% at z ~ 3. We also find that the evolution from z ~ 1 to z ~ 3 of the specific SFR of the Type-2 QSO hosts is in excellent agreement with that measured for star-forming galaxies. From the morphological analysis, we conclude that most of the objects are bulge

  11. Multi-wavelength seds of Herschel-selected galaxies in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Hung, Chao-Ling; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, Peter; Bock, J.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Aussel, Hervé; Ilbert, Olivier; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Roseboom, Isaac; Oliver, S. J.; Salvato, Mara; Aravena, M.; Berta, S.; Riguccini, L.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    We combine Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver maps of the full 2 deg{sup 2} Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field with existing multi-wavelength data to obtain template and model-independent optical-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 4218 Herschel-selected sources with log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 9.4-13.6 and z = 0.02-3.54. Median SEDs are created by binning the optical to far-infrared (FIR) bands available in COSMOS as a function of infrared luminosity. Herschel probes rest-frame wavelengths where the bulk of the infrared radiation is emitted, allowing us to more accurately determine fundamental dust properties of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies. We find that the SED peak wavelength (λ{sub peak}) decreases and the dust mass (M {sub dust}) increases with increasing total infrared luminosity (L {sub IR}). In the lowest infrared luminosity galaxies (log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 10.0-11.5), we see evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features (λ ∼ 7-9 μm), while in the highest infrared luminosity galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) we see an increasing contribution of hot dust and/or power-law emission, consistent with the presence of heating from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We study the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies and find no evidence that Herschel-selected galaxies follow the SFR/M {sub *} 'main sequence' as previously determined from studies of optically selected, star-forming galaxies. Finally, we compare the mid-infrared to FIR properties of our infrared luminous galaxies using the previously defined diagnostic, IR8 ≡ L {sub IR}/L {sub 8}, and find that galaxies with L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.3} L {sub ☉} tend to systematically lie above (× 3-5) the IR8 'infrared main sequence', suggesting either suppressed PAH emission or an increasing contribution from

  12. Multi-wavelength SEDs of Herschel-selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Hung, Chao-Ling; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Ilbert, Olivier; Aussel, Hervé; Capak, Peter; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Roseboom, Isaac; Salvato, Mara; Aravena, M.; Berta, S.; Bock, J.; Oliver, S. J.; Riguccini, L.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    We combine Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver maps of the full 2 deg2 Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field with existing multi-wavelength data to obtain template and model-independent optical-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 4218 Herschel-selected sources with log(L IR/L ⊙) = 9.4-13.6 and z = 0.02-3.54. Median SEDs are created by binning the optical to far-infrared (FIR) bands available in COSMOS as a function of infrared luminosity. Herschel probes rest-frame wavelengths where the bulk of the infrared radiation is emitted, allowing us to more accurately determine fundamental dust properties of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies. We find that the SED peak wavelength (λpeak) decreases and the dust mass (M dust) increases with increasing total infrared luminosity (L IR). In the lowest infrared luminosity galaxies (log(L IR/L ⊙) = 10.0-11.5), we see evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features (λ ~ 7-9 μm), while in the highest infrared luminosity galaxies (L IR > 1012 L ⊙) we see an increasing contribution of hot dust and/or power-law emission, consistent with the presence of heating from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We study the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies and find no evidence that Herschel-selected galaxies follow the SFR/M * "main sequence" as previously determined from studies of optically selected, star-forming galaxies. Finally, we compare the mid-infrared to FIR properties of our infrared luminous galaxies using the previously defined diagnostic, IR8 ≡ L IR/L 8, and find that galaxies with L IR >~ 1011.3 L ⊙ tend to systematically lie above (× 3-5) the IR8 "infrared main sequence," suggesting either suppressed PAH emission or an increasing contribution from AGN heating.

  13. Weak Lensing Calibrated M-T Scaling Relation of Galaxy Groups in the COSMOS Fieldsstarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J. E.; Spinelli, P. F.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Koekemoer, A.

    2013-11-01

    The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute2, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48^{+0.13}_{-0.09}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which

  14. Identification of Two Bright z > 3 Submillimeter Galaxy Candidates in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, M.; Younger, J. D.; Fazio, G. G.; Gurwell, M.; Espada, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Wilner, D.

    2010-08-01

    We present high-resolution interferometric Submillimeter Array imaging at 890 μm (~2'' resolution) of two millimeter selected galaxies—MMJ100015+021549 and MMJ100047+021021—discovered with the Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer (MAMBO) on the IRAM 30 m telescope and also detected with Bolocam on the CSO, in the COSMOS field. The first source is significantly detected at the ~11σ level, while the second source is tentatively detected at the ~4σ level, leading to a positional accuracy of ~0farcs2-0farcs3. MM100015+021549 is identified with a faint radio and K-band source. MMJ100047+021021 shows no radio emission and is tentatively identified with a very faint K-band peak which lies at ~1farcs2 from a clumpy optical source. The submillimeter-to-radio flux ratio for MM100015+021549 yields a redshift of ~4.8, consistent with the redshift implied by the UV-to-submillimeter photometry, z ~ 3.0-5.0. We find evidence for warm dust in this source with an infrared luminosity in the range ~(0.9-2.5) × 1013 L sun, supporting the increasing evidence for a population of luminous submillimeter galaxies at z > 3. Finally, the lack of photometric data for MMJ100047+021021 does not allow us to investigate its properties in detail; however, its submillimeter-to-radio flux ratio implies z > 3.5. Based on observations obtained with the SMA, which is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. Also based on observations obtained, within the COSMOS Legacy Survey, with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30 m telescope, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), the APEX telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Subaru telescope, the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the

  15. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins Technology Development Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Pham, Thai

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices, established in 2011, reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The offices serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the programs' technology development activities and technology investment portfolio, funded by NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. We currently fund 19 technology advancements to enable future PCOS and COR missions to help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The programs' goal is to promote and support technology development needed to enable missions envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) Decadal Survey report [1] and the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2]. These include technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and a 4m-class UV/optical telescope to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies, as a post-Hubble observatory with significantly improved sensitivity and capability.

  16. Morphological Classification of High-redshift Massive Galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan-wen, Fang; Zhong-yang, Ma; Xu, Kong

    2016-04-01

    Utilizing the multi-band photometric data of the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey)/UltraVISTA (Ultra-deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) field and the high-resolution HST WFC3 (Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3) near-infrared images in the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) field, we have selected 362 galaxies with the redshifts of 1≤ z ≤3 and the stellar masses of M* ≥ 1010.5M⊙, and made the classification study on the morphologies of these massive galaxies. The results from the UVJ ((U-V) vs (V-J)) two-color diagram classification, visual classification, non-model based classification (Gini coefficient G and moment index M20), and model based classification (Sérsic index n) are in good agreement with each other. Compared with the star-forming galaxies (SFGs), the quiescent galaxies (QGs) defined by the UVJ two-color diagram exhibit the compact elliptical structures, and generally have larger n and G, but smaller M20 and galaxy's effective radius re. The evolution of galaxy size with the redshift is obvious for various QG and SFG samples defined by the different classification systems (two-color diagram classification system, model and non-model based classification systems), and this evolutionary tendency is stronger for QGs in comparison with SFGs, independent to the selection of galaxy classification methods.

  17. Morphological Classification of High-redshift Massive Galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, G. W.; Ma, Z. Y.; Kong, X.

    2015-09-01

    Utilizing the multi-band photometry catalog of the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey)/UltraVISTA (Ultra-deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) field and the high-resolution HST WFC3 (Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3) near-infrared imaging from the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) field, we present a quantitative study of the morphological classification of galaxy for a large mass-selected sample. Our sample includes 362 galaxies within photometric redshift 1leq zleq3 and stellar mass M_{*}geq 10^{10.5} M_{odot}. The results from the rest-frame (U-V) vs. (V-J) (UVJ) colors classification, visual inspection, nonparametric morphology analysis, and structural parameters study are in good agreement with each other. Quiescent galaxies (QGs) classified by UVJ colors generally have larger Sérsic index (n) and Gini coefficient (G), smaller size (r_mathrm{e}) and moment (M_{20}), and they are visually compact. While star-forming galaxies (SFGs) are reversed. In the meantime, we explore the size evolution with redshift for various divisions of QG and SFG samples, and confirm that both of size will enlarge with time, but QGs are rapider than SFGs. Moreover, we find that the choice of division between QGs and SFGs (i.e. colour, shape, morphology) is not particularly critical.

  18. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins technology development programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Pham, Thai

    2014-07-01

    NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices, established in 2011, reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The offices serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the programs' technology development activities and technology investment portfolio, funded by NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. We currently fund 19 technology advancements to enable future PCOS and COR missions to help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The programs' goal is to promote and support technology development needed to enable missions envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) Decadal Survey report [1] and the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2]. These include technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and a 4m-class UV/optical telescope to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies, as a post-Hubble observatory with significantly improved sensitivity and capability.

  19. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins Technology Development Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Pham, Thai

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices, established in 2011, reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The offices serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the programs' technology development activities and technology investment portfolio, funded by NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. We currently fund 19 technology advancements to enable future PCOS and COR missions to help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The programs' goal is to promote and support technology development needed to enable missions envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) Decadal Survey report [1] and the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2]. These include technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and a 4m-class UV/optical telescope to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies, as a post-Hubble observatory with significantly improved sensitivity and capability.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of the Usage of the COSMOS Science Education Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Bogner, Franz X.; Neofotistos, George

    2011-08-01

    A quantitative method of mapping the web usage of an innovative educational portal is applied to analyze the behaviour of users of the COSMOS Science Education Portal. The COSMOS Portal contains user-generated resources (that are uploaded by its users). It has been designed to support a science teacher's search, retrieval and access to both, scientific and educational resources. It also aims to introduce in and familiarize teachers with an innovative methodology for designing, expressing and representing educational practices in a commonly understandable way through the use of user-friendly authoring tools that are available through the portal. As a new science education portal that includes user-generated content, the COSMOS Portal encounters the well-known "new product/service challenge": to convince the users to use its tools, which facilitate quite fast lesson planning and lesson preparation activities. To respond to this challenge, the COSMOS Portal operators implemented a validation process by analyzing the usage data of the portal in a 10 month time-period. The data analyzed comprised: (a) the temporal evolution of the number of contributors and the amount of content uploaded to the COSMOS Portal; (b) the number of portal visitors (categorized as all-visitors, new-visitors, and returning-visitors) and (c) visitor loyalty parameters (such as page-views; pages/visit; average time on site; depth of visit; length of visit). The data is augmented with data associated with the usage context (e.g. the time of day when most of the activities in the portal take place). The quantitative results indicate that the exponential growth of the contributors to the COSMOS Portal is followed by an exponential growth of the uploaded content. Furthermore, the web usage statistics demonstrate significant changes in users' behaviour during the period under study, with returning visitors using the COSMOS Portal more frequently, mainly for lesson planning and preparation (in the

  1. X-ray Surveys of the Hot and Energetic Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, Andrea; Urry, C. Megan

    A science meeting is an opportunity to exchange ideas with colleagues, to hear of new results and to learn from comprehensive reviews of a topic. Much of it happens in the meeting room and much of it also happens in the corridors of the meeting venue and in restaurants and perhaps bars near the meeting location. Its a combination of people and of place that is a bit [hard to predict] but when it goes well, you know it. All these elements came together for IAU Focus Meeting 6, X-ray Surveys of the Hot and Energetic Cosmos, in Honolulu last August. There are not many places more pleasant for an astronomical meeting than Hawaii, and the speakers did an outstanding job of reviewing the field and relaying the latest results. X-ray surveys have been a staple of astrophysics for nearly 50 years. There are large surveys and small, deep surveys and shallow, soft X-ray energies and hard. The combination gives us invaluable information about the hottest and/or most relativistic environments known. Theory helps us interpret the data in terms of the underlying physics. The heady combination of all of the above shaken and mixed in Hawaiian paradise has given us all a deeper understanding of the Universe. Please read on to see why.

  2. Health impact of radioactive debris from the satellite Cosmos 954.

    PubMed

    Tracy, B L; Prantl, F A; Quinn, J M

    1984-08-01

    This paper describes a program of laboratory and field studies undertaken to assess the health impact of radioactive debris from the re-entry of the Soviety nuclear-powered satellite, Cosmos 954, on 24 January 1978. It was estimated that about one-quarter of the reactor core descended over Canada's Northwest Territories in the form of submillimetre particles. The other three-quarters apparently remained as fine dust in the upper atmosphere. Each particle contained megabecquerel quantities of the fission products 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce and 144Ce, as well as traces of other fission and activation products. Laboratory tests indicated that these radionuclides would not dissolve significantly in drinking water supplies or in dilute acids. Contamination of air, drinking water, soil and food supplies was not detected. The dose equivalent to the GI tract for an individual who might have inhaled or ingested a particle could have been as high as 140 mSv.

  3. Cosmos 2229 immunology study (Experiment K-8-07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to further validate use of the rhesus monkey as a model for humans in future space flight testing. The areas of immunological importance examined in the Cosmos 2229 flight were represented by two sets of studies. The first set of studies determined the effect of space flight on the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF is an important regulator in the differentiation of bone marrow cells of both monocyte/macrophage and granulocyte lineages and any change in the ability of these cells to respond to GM-CSF can result in altered immune function. A second set of studies determined space flight effects on the expression of cell surface markers on both spleen and bone marrow cells. Immune cell markers included in this study were those for T-cell, B-cell, natural killer cell, and interleukin-2 populations. Variations from a normal cell population percentage, as represented by these markers, can be correlated with alterations in immunological function. Cells were stained with fluorescein-labelled antibodies directed against the appropriate antigens, and then analyzed using a flow cytometer.

  4. THE NATURE OF OPTICALLY DULL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Gabor, Jared M.; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Brusa, Marcella; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Kelly, Brandon C.; Huchra, John P.; Jahnke, Knud; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Capak, Peter; Scoville, Nick Z.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Maineri, Vincenzo

    2009-11-20

    We present infrared, optical, and X-ray data of 48 X-ray bright, optically dull active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field. These objects exhibit the X-ray luminosity of an AGN but lack broad and narrow emission lines in their optical spectrum. We show that despite the lack of optical emission lines, most of these optically dull AGNs are not well described by a typical passive red galaxy spectrum: instead they exhibit weak but significant blue emission like an unobscured AGN. Photometric observations over several years additionally show significant variability in the blue emission of four optically dull AGNs. The nature of the blue and infrared emission suggest that the optically inactive appearance of these AGNs cannot be caused by obscuration intrinsic to the AGNs. Instead, up to approx70% of optically dull AGNs are diluted by their hosts, with bright or simply edge-on hosts lying preferentially within the spectroscopic aperture. The remaining approx30% of optically dull AGNs have anomalously high f{sub X} /f{sub O} ratios and are intrinsically weak, not obscured, in the optical. These optically dull AGNs are best described as a weakly accreting AGN with a truncated accretion disk from a radiatively inefficient accretion flow.

  5. Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Technology Development Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, B. Thai; Clampin, M.; Werneth, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Office was established in FY11 and resides at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The office serves as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters for PCOS Program related matters. We present an overview of the Program’s technology management activities and the Program’s technology development portfolio. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology needs and the Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations. This process improves the transparency and relevance of technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and leverages the technology investments of external organizations by defining a need and a customer. Goals for the PCOS Program envisioned by the National Research Council’s (NRC) “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” (NWNH) Decadal Survey report include science missions and technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray, and inflation probe science.

  6. THE CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE COSMOS FIELD. II. SOURCE DETECTION AND PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Puccetti, S.; Vignali, C.; Cappelluti, N.; Brunner, H.; Brusa, M.; Fruscione, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Miyaji, T.; Damiani, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that covers the central contiguous {approx}0.92 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field. C-COSMOS is the result of a complex tiling, with every position being observed in up to six overlapping pointings (four overlapping pointings in most of the central {approx}0.45 deg{sup 2} area with the best exposure, and two overlapping pointings in most of the surrounding area, covering an additional {approx}0.47 deg{sup 2}). Therefore, the full exploitation of the C-COSMOS data requires a dedicated and accurate analysis focused on three main issues: (1) maximizing the sensitivity when the point-spread function (PSF) changes strongly among different observations of the same source (from {approx}1 arcsec up to {approx}10 arcsec half-power radius); (2) resolving close pairs; and (3) obtaining the best source localization and count rate. We present here our treatment of four key analysis items: source detection, localization, photometry, and survey sensitivity. Our final procedure consists of a two step procedure: (1) a wavelet detection algorithm to find source candidates and (2) a maximum likelihood PSF fitting algorithm to evaluate the source count rates and the probability that each source candidate is a fluctuation of the background. We discuss the main characteristics of this procedure, which was the result of detailed comparisons between different detection algorithms and photometry tools, calibrated with extensive and dedicated simulations.

  7. The zCOSMOS redshift survey: evolution of the light in bulges and discs since z ~ 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasca, L. A. M.; Tresse, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Zamorani, G.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Ho, L. C.; Bardelli, S.; Cattaneo, A.; Cucciati, O.; Farrah, D.; Iovino, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, C. T.; Massey, R.; Renzini, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Welikala, N.; Zucca, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Mainieri, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Rich, R. M.; Tanaka, M.; Vergani, D.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Sanders, D.; Sheth, K.

    2014-04-01

    We studied the chronology of galactic bulge and disc formation by analysing the relative contributions of these components to the B-band rest-frame luminosity density at different epochs. We present the first estimate of the evolution of the fraction of rest-frame B-band light in galactic bulges and discs since redshift z ∼ 0.8. We performed a bulge-to-disc decomposition of HST/ACS images of 3266 galaxies in the zCOSMOS-bright survey with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 0.9. We find that the fraction of B-band light in bulges and discs is (26 ± 4)% and (74 ± 4)%, respectively. When compared with rest-frame B-band measurements of galaxies in the local Universe in the same mass range (109 M⊙ ⪉ M ⪉ 1011.5 M_{⊙}), we find that the B-band light in discs decreases by 30% from z ∼ 0.7-0.9 to z ∼ 0, while the light from the bulge increases by 30% over the same period of time. We interpret this evolution as the consequence of star formation and mass assembly processes, as well as morphological transformation, which gradually shift stars formed at half the age of the Universe from star-forming late-type/irregular galaxies to earlier types and ultimately into spheroids. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT), Paranal, Chile, as part of the Large Program 175.A-0839 (the zCOSMOS Spectroscopic Redshift Survey).

  8. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE COSMOS SURVEY. I. THE XMM-COSMOS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Civano, F.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Capak, P.; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Jahnke, K.; Lusso, E.; Cisternas, M.; Mainieri, V.; Trump, J. R.; Ho, L. C.; Aussel, H.; Frayer, D.; Hasinger, G. E-mail: hhao@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2012-11-01

    The 'Cosmic Evolution Survey' (COSMOS) enables the study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) because of the deep coverage and rich sampling of frequencies from X-ray to radio. Here we present an SED catalog of 413 X-ray (XMM-Newton)-selected type 1 (emission line FWHM > 2000 km s{sup -1}) AGNs with Magellan, SDSS, or VLT spectrum. The SEDs are corrected for Galactic extinction, broad emission line contributions, constrained variability, and host galaxy contribution. We present the mean SED and the dispersion SEDs after the above corrections in the rest-frame 1.4 GHz to 40 keV, and show examples of the variety of SEDs encountered. In the near-infrared to optical (rest frame {approx}8 {mu}m-4000 A), the photometry is complete for the whole sample and the mean SED is derived from detections only. Reddening and host galaxy contamination could account for a large fraction of the observed SED variety. The SEDs are all available online.

  9. Differences in glycogen, lipids, and enzymes in livers from rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Laroque, Regina; Mullins, Richard E.; Morgan, Edward T.; Hargrove, James L.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate (glycogen), and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in microsomal protein, liver glycogen content, tyrosine aminotransferase, and tryptophan oxygenase and reductions in sphingolipids and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. These results provide further evidence that spaceflight has pronounced and diverse effects on liver function; however, some of the results with samples from Cosmos 2044 differed notably from those from previous spaceflights. This may be due to conditions of spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period for Cosmos 2044.

  10. Differences in glycogen, lipids, and enzymes in livers from rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Laroque, Regina; Mullins, Richard E.; Morgan, Edward T.; Hargrove, James L.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate (glycogen), and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in microsomal protein, liver glycogen content, tyrosine aminotransferase, and tryptophan oxygenase and reductions in sphingolipids and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. These results provide further evidence that spaceflight has pronounced and diverse effects on liver function; however, some of the results with samples from Cosmos 2044 differed notably from those from previous spaceflights. This may be due to conditions of spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period for Cosmos 2044.

  11. The detection of 'intermediate' size magnetic anomalies in Cosmos 49 and OGO 2, 4, 6 data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, R. D.; Davis, W. M.; Cain, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Benkova, Dolginov and Simonenko have recently reported the presence of intermediate size magnetic anomalies from Cosmos 49 data and hypothesized a crustal and/or upper mantle origin for these. We have examined the spherical harmonic models of the internal potential function, based on the OGO 2, 4 and 6 data and verified the locations and amplitudes of those anomalies with wavelengths of approximately 4000 km. The patterns of delta-F so computed were then compared with the IZMIRAN maps and also were analyzed statistically, in both the spatial and frequency domains, using residuals computed from the raw Cosmos 49 data. The two sets of data were thus derived from completely independent sets of observations and field references. The two patterns are shown to agree very well over the whole earth surface up to the 50 deg latitude limit of Cosmos 49.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The COSMOS-Legacy Survey (CLS) catalog (Civano+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; Lamassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-05-01

    The half-a-field shift tiling strategy was designed to uniformly cover the COSMOS Hubble area in depth and point-spread function (PSF) size by combining the old C-COSMOS (Elvis+, 2009, J/ApJS/184/158) observations with the new Chandra ones (see Figure 1). We summarize the main properties of the new ACIS-I Chandra COSMOS-Legacy observations in Table 1. The observations took place in four blocks: 2012 November to 2013 January; 2013 March to July; 2013 October to 2014 January; and 2014 March. The mean net effective exposure time per field was 48.8ks after all the cleaning and reduction operations. (2 data files).

  13. Some results of radiobiological studies performed on Cosmos-110 biosatellite.

    PubMed

    Antipov, V V; Delone, N L; Nikitin, M D; Parfyonov, G P; Saxonov, P P

    1969-01-01

    The experiment carried out on the Cosmos 110 biosatellite is a step further in radiobiological investigations performed in outer space and differs appreciably from flight experiments conducted on board the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft. The difference lies, firstly, in the integral dose of cosmic radiation. According to the onboard dosimeter readings, it was 12 rad at an average dose rate of 500 mrad/day during the biosatellite flight, whereas in previous biological flight experiments, as is well known, the total dose was below 80 mrad (on a five-day flight of Vostok 5) at a dose rate of 80 to 20 mrad/day. Secondly, during the biosatellite mission, cosmic radiation originated not from the primary cosmic radiation as was the case in the Vostok and Voskhod flights but mainly from the Earth's radiation belts. Thirdly, the duration of the Cosmos 110 flight was far longer than that of any previous mission: the effect of weightlessness lasted for about 22 days. The paper presents results of investigations performed on E. coli K-12 lambda lysogenic bacteria, Tradescantia microspores, dry seeds of higher plants, different Chlorella strains and an intact plant of Tradescantia paludosa. The biological effect of space flight factors was evaluated by various physiological, cytogenetic, genetic and microbiological techniques. Similar to previous experiments carried out on board the Vostok 3-6 spacecraft, tests with lysogenic bacteria revealed a statistically significant induction of moderate bacteriophage. The induction value was shown to lag behind the mission duration dependence level. This seems to be related to a change of inducibility properties of lysogenic bacteria and a reduction of the yield range of phages per bacterial cell. Other tests (duration of the latent period, formation pattern of phage components) indicated no significant differences between test and control objects (N.N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov, N.I. Rybakov, V.A. Kozlov et al.). A study of protective properties

  14. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey: The z>3 Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Salvato, M.; Shankar, F.; Comastri, A.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the largest high-redshift (3 < z < 6.85) sample of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on a contiguous field, using sources detected in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey. The sample contains 174 sources, 87 with spectroscopic redshift and the other 87 with photometric redshift (z phot). In this work, we treat z phot as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with z phot < 3 but z phot probability distribution >0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5-2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of ˜20 from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 6. The observed decline is ˜80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s-1 < logL(2-10 keV) < 44.1 erg s-1) from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 4.5. We study the space density evolution dividing our sample into optically classified Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs. At logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z ˜ 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at logL (2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1 with respect to our data.

  15. Measuring Total Surface Moisture with the COSMOS Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrisman, B. B.; Zreda, M.; Franz, T. E.; Rosolem, R.

    2012-12-01

    The COSMOS rover is the mobile application of the cosmic-ray soil moisture probe. By quantifying the relative amount of the hydrogen molecules within the instrument's support volume (~335 m radius in air, 10-70 cm depth in soil) the instrument makes an area-average surface moisture measurement. We call this measurement "total surface moisture". Quantifying hydrogen in all major stocks (soils, infrastructure, vegetation, and water vapor) allows for an isolation of the volumetric fraction of the exchangeable surface moisture. By isolating the hydrogen molecule we can measure the exchangeable surface moisture over all land cover types including those with built-up infrastructure and dense vegetation; two environments which have been challenging to existing technologies. . The cosmic-ray rover has the capability to improve hydrologic, climate, and weather models by parameterizing the exchangeable surface moisture status over complex landscapes. It can also fill a gap in the verification and development processes of surface moisture satellite missions, such as SMOS and SMAP. In our current research program, 2D transects are produced twice a week and 3D maps are produced once a week during the 2012 monsoon season (July-September) within the Tucson Basin. The 40 km x 40 km area includes four land cover classes; developed, scrub (natural Sonoran Desert), crops, and evergreen forest. The different land cover types show significant differences in their surface moisture behavior with irrigation acting as the largest controlling factor in the developed and crop areas. In addition we investigated the use of the cosmic-ray rover data to verify/compare with satellite derived soil moisture. A Maximum Entropy model is being used to create soil moisture profiles from shallow surface measurements (SMOS data). With the cosmic-ray penetration depth and weighting function known, the satellite measurement can be interpolated, weighted and compared with the cosmic-ray measurement when the

  16. Ecos del Cosmos: A radio astroexperience at the Universitat de Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Ballesteros, F. J.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2017-03-01

    During the last three years Ecos del Cosmos has been a radio program dedicated to spreading astronomical hot news to the Universitat de València community and beyond, and also topics of general astronomical interest. To do this, this program by Ràdio Universitat has conducted live interviews with researchers, explored relationships of astronomy with humanities and society, performed contests and explained in a simple way the main monthly ephemerides. A version of Ecos del Cosmos was broadcasted in the Onda Cero’s summer program ''Jelo en verano''conducted by Arturo Tellez.

  17. Dissemination of metabolomics results: role of MetaboLights and COSMOS.

    PubMed

    Salek, Reza M; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-05-17

    With ever-increasing amounts of metabolomics data produced each year, there is an even greater need to disseminate data and knowledge produced in a standard and reproducible way. To assist with this a general purpose, open source metabolomics repository, MetaboLights, was launched in 2012. To promote a community standard, initially culminated as metabolomics standards initiative (MSI), COordination of Standards in MetabOlomicS (COSMOS) was introduced. COSMOS aims to link life science e-infrastructures within the worldwide metabolomics community as well as develop and maintain open source exchange formats for raw and processed data, ensuring better flow of metabolomics information.

  18. COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS): soil moisture and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zreda, Marek; Shuttleworth, William J.; Zeng, Xubin; Zweck, Chris; Franz, Trenton; Rosolem, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    COSMOS, a project funded by the US National Science Foundation, was designed to measure average soil moisture in the top 10-70 cm of soil over the horizontal footprint of approximately 700 m by measuring cosmic-ray neutrons in air above the ground surface. It is in its fourth, final, year of the feasibility phase in which 60 neutron probes have been installed in the USA to provide continental-scale soil moisture data. The cosmic-ray neutron probe responds to all sources of hydrogen present within the footprint. Therefore, in addition to soil moisture, other pools of hydrogen can be measured; these include atmospheric water vapor, organic matter in soil, water in soil minerals, biomass water (including hydrogen bound in cellulose), and snow on the ground and on the canopy. All these pools of hydrogen form the "total surface moisture" that is measured by COSMOS probes. The first four pools are measured independently (water vapor) or are implicitly included in the probe calibration (water in minerals and organic matter, biomass water). The other two can be separated from one another to produce time series of soil moisture and snow water equivalent. Work is in progress to assimilate neutron data into land-surface models, to produce soil moisture profiles, to validate satellite soil moisture products (the current SMOS mission and the future SMAP mission), to measure temporal variations in biomass, and to measure area-average unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils. Separately, mobile COSMOS probe, called COSMOS rover, is being developed. COSMOS rover can be used to map soil moisture over large areas or along long transects. Cosmic-ray sensing of moisture at the land surface has gained popularity outside of the USA. Approximately 60 probes have been purchased in addition to the 60 probes in the COSMOS project. Funds for additional 80 probes, most of them in Germany, have been secured, and large new proposals will be submitted in the USA and Australia in 2013. These

  19. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins programs manage Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thai; Thronson, Harley; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-07-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" and "Are we alone?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos2 (PCOS), Cosmic Origins3 (COR), and Exoplanet Exploration Program4 (ExEP) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the

  20. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins Technology Development Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Thai; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-01-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the Astrophysics Division's main investment method to mature technologies

  1. Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture and the Effects of Biomass as it Pertains to COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvin, S.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Patton, J.; Wang, C.; Logsdon, S. D.; Kaleita, A.; Van Arkel, Z.

    2011-12-01

    In November 2009, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA). This satellite orbits the earth every 2 or 3 days while taking measurements of soil moisture and ocean salinity. It has a spatial view of ~ 40 km, which is impressive considering the resolution of current weather and climate models, and measures soil moisture to a depth of a few centimeters. Soil moisture is important because of its affect on weather and climate in a manner similar to sea surface temperature. However, future weather and climate models will operate at smaller spatial scales and a deeper soil moisture measurement is more desirable. The Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) is beneficial in this regard because these sensors have a footprint of ~700 meters and are sensitive to a depth of 12-70 cm. COSMOS sensors also produce hourly data with a precision as good as or better than SMOS. There is a COSMOS sensor located at the Iowa Validation Site, maintained by Iowa State University, south of Ames, Iowa. This site was a field of maize during the 2011 growing season. A COSMOS sensor counts fast neutrons that are scattered by hydrogen contained in soil in order to determine soil moisture. There is a potential problem when significant vegetation is present -since COSMOS is sensitive to the hydrogen contained in the plants as well. The question becomes how to distinguish between the two pools of hydrogen in order to obtain an accurate reading of soil moisture. Not only is the presence of the biomass problematic in finding the soil moisture, but the rate at which the vegetation is growing needs to be taken into account. We will compare the soil moisture estimated by the COSMOS sensor with in-situ soil moisture measurements made with TDR, gravimetric samples, and a neutron probe over the course of the growing season. To characterize the amount of vegetation, a correlation was found between the stem diameter and canopy height of

  2. Cicero's Cosmos: Somnium Scipionis ("The Dream of Scipio")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N.

    2011-06-01

    The Dream of Scipio (b. 185 BCE) is the concluding excerpt of Cicero's dialogue in his De Republica ("On the Republic"), which has survived in the neo-Platonic commentaries on the text by Macrobius in the 4th century CE. A variation of its model Plato's Republic, the dialogue is set in 129 BCE. Parallels exist between Plato's closing with the myth of Er, recounting the structure of the cosmos and ordering of the planets and Cicero's cosmology updated by post-Hellenistic astronomical speculation. The Dream begins with his adoptive grandfather Cornelius Scipio Africanus appearing to his son Scipio in heaven as he looks down on Earth, a distant sphere amidst spheres of the universe. The deceased father presents the conditions of his legacy-to do upon Earth as his ancestors have done: "love justice and wisdom", and be devoted to your country, the highest form of virtue. Gazing on the stars-the Milky Way, home of the departed souls, Scipio realizes the relative insignificance of the Earth compared to the stars (analogy with the Roman Empire, a "pinpoint […] of this small Earth"). Africanus orders Scipio to look at the universe, the nine concentric spheres at the very center. Thus, fixed in place, the Earth does not move. Scipio then hears sounds-the music of the spheres in motion, its basis in mathematics and harmonic proportions. Comparisons between the works of Plato and Cicero are revealing. Both stress the relationship of city and state, and both share concern with justice and moral behavior. Whereas Plato focuses on the journey of the soul in the afterlife, Cicero's purpose is to show how public service, the importance of civic life, is a divinely sanctioned activity: "And remember that the most splendid deeds you can do are those which serve your country". The two major themes are the immortality of the soul and the relationship between human society and the divine order of the universe. Scipio must "contemplate the heavens in order to act rightly on Earth". The

  3. Analysis and Implications of the Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.

    On 2009 February 10, Iridium 33--an operational US communications satellite in low-Earth orbit--was struck and destroyed by Cosmos 2251--a long-defunct Russian communications satellite. This is the first time since the dawn of the Space Age that two satellites have collided in orbit. To better understand the circumstances of this event and the ramifications for avoiding similar events in the future, this paper provides a detailed analysis of the predictions leading up to the collision, using various data sources, and looks in detail at the collision, the evolution of the debris clouds, and the long-term implications for satellite operations. The only publicly available system available to satellite operators for screening for close approaches, SOCRATES, did predict this close approach, but it certainly wasn't the closest approach predicted for the week of February 10. In fact, at the time of the collision, SOCRATES ranked this close approach 152 of the 11,428 within 5 km of any payload. A detailed breakdown is provided to help understand the limitations of screening for close approaches using the two-line orbital element sets. Information is also provided specifically for the Iridium constellation to provide an understanding of how these limitations affect decision making for satellite operators. Post-event analysis using high-accuracy orbital data sources will be presented to show how that information might have been used to prevent this collision, had it been available and used. Analysis of the collision event, along with the distribution of the debris relative to the original orbits, will be presented to help develop an understanding of the geometry of the collision and the near-term evolution of the resulting debris clouds. Additional analysis will be presented to show the long-term evolution of the debris clouds, including orbital lifetimes, and estimate the increased risk for operations conducted by Iridium and other satellite operators in the low-Earth orbit

  4. [Experiments with cultures of mammalian cells aboard the biosatellite "Cosmos-782"].

    PubMed

    Sushkov, F V; Rudneva, S V; Nadtocheĭ, G A; Polikarpova, S I; Portugalov, V V

    1977-10-01

    A considerable contribution to the investigation on biological importance of weightlessness was made by the experiments with animals in the artificial Earth satelites (AES) of "Cosmos" type. Cell cultures can serve as an ideal model to get a direct cell response to the effect of external factors. For the experiment in the AES "Cosmos-782", two thoroughly examined cell strains (L and 237) were chosen, which differed in a number of parameters (for example, duration of their mitotic cycles). Density of cell seeding and temperature of their cultivation in the laboratory experiment were calculated in such a way that the whole cycle of the culture development should take place under the conditions of weightlessness: the beginning of lag-phase--before launching and the stationary phase--after landing. The weightlessness was not shown to result in any genetical shifts revealed at chromosomal level. When cultivated after the flight, the cells do not change their mitotic cycle parameters, mitotic course and structural organization. The data obtained in the experiments with AES "Cosmos-368" and "Cosmos-782" (increase of mitotic index, some forms of mitotic pathology during the first terms of cultivation after the flight and enlargement of cellular nuclei) demonstrate the changes in the cell population which have formed under the conditions of weightlessness. Similar changes are observed while the cells propagate in the laboratory conditions. Indirect data on an earlier cell culture aging during the flight do not exclued the possibility that under weightlessness the rate of cell propagation could differ from that under gravitation.

  5. Uses of wonder in popular science: Cosmos: A Personal Voyage and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsing, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyses the use of wonder in the TV-series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage (1980). Popular science has been studied extensively (e.g. Broks 2006; Leane 2007; Perrault 2013), and wonder has been studied moderately (e.g. Daston & Park 1998; Fuller 2006; Vasalou 2015). However, there are very few studies of wonder in popular science. This paper explores how and why wonder is used in Cosmos, with the wider aim of understanding uses of wonder in popular science. The studies that discuss wonder in popular science (Fahnestock 1986; Perrault 2013) argue that wonder is used to enthuse the audience about science, but they do not discuss why wonder has this ability, nor whether wonder has other functions. This paper argues that Fuller's (2006) psychological and evolutionary account of wonder can elucidate why wonder has the ability to enthuse; it discerns three senses of 'wonder' (related to objects, emotions and attitudes); and it discusses other functions of wonder (existential, aesthetic and ethical). Due to the centrality of astrobiological questions in Cosmos, this paper also highlights the relation of these questions to the senses and functions of wonder in Cosmos.

  6. 14th International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, Shigeru; Kajino, Toshitaka; Nishimura, Shunji; Isobe, TadaAki; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Shima, Tatsushi; Takeda, Yoichi

    2017-02-01

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the foremost bi-annual conference of nuclear physicists, astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others to survey the recent achievements in Nuclear Astrophysics. As an interdisciplinary meeting it promotes mutual understanding and collaboration over fields fundamental to solve a range of open questions, from the origin of the elements to stellar evolution.

  7. US monkey and rat experiments flown on the Soviet Satellite Cosmos 1514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mains, R. C. (Editor); Gomersall, E. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    On December 14, 1983, the U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos 1514, an unmanned spacecraft carrying biological and radiation physics experiments from nine countries, including five from the United States. This was the fourth flight with U.S. experiments aboard one of the Soviet unmanned spacecraft. The Cosmos 1514 flight was limited to five days duration because it was the first nonhuman primate flight. Cosmos 1514 marked a significant departure from earlier flights both in terms of Soviet goals and the degree of cooperation between the U.S.S.R. and the United States. This flight included more than 60 experiments on fish, crawfish eggs, plants and seeds, 10 Wistar pregnant rats, and 2 young adult rhesus monkeys as human surrogates. United States specialist participated in postflight data transfer and specimen transfer, and conducted rat neonatal behavioral studies. An overview of the mission is presented focusing on preflight, on-orbit, and postflight activites pertinent to the five U.S. experiments aboard Cosmos.

  8. The US/USSR Biological Satellite Program: COSMOS 936 Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    On August 3, 1977, the Soviet Union launched Cosmos 936, an unmanned spacecraft carrying biology and physics experiments from 9 countries, including both the Soviet Union and U.S. The launch marked the second time the Soviet Union has flown U.S. experiments aboard one of its spacecraft, the first being Cosmos 782 launched Nov. 25, 1975, which remained in orbit 19.5 days. Aboard Cosmos 936 were: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats, 20 of which was exposed to hypogravity during flight while the remainder were subjected to a l x g acceleration by continuous configuration; 2) experiments with plants and fruit flies; 3) radiation physics experiments; and 4) a heat convection experiment. After 18.5 days in orbit, the spacecraft landed in central Asia where a Soviet recovery team began experiment operations, including animal autopsies, within 4.5 hr of landing. Half of the animals were autopsied at the recovery site and the remainder returned to Moscow and allowed to readapt to terrestrial gravity for 25 days after which they, too, were autopsied. Specimens for U.S. were initially prepared at the recovery site or Soviet laboratories and transferred to U.S. laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on-orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the seven U.S. experiments aboard Cosmos 936 will be presented.

  9. Structure simulation with calculated NMR parameters - integrating COSMOS into the CCPN framework.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Olaf; Fogh, Rasmus H; Sternberg, Ulrich; Klenin, Konstantin; Kondov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The Collaborative Computing Project for NMR (CCPN) has build a software framework consisting of the CCPN data model (with APIs) for NMR related data, the CcpNmr Analysis program and additional tools like CcpNmr FormatConverter. The open architecture allows for the integration of external software to extend the abilities of the CCPN framework with additional calculation methods. Recently, we have carried out the first steps for integrating our software Computer Simulation of Molecular Structures (COSMOS) into the CCPN framework. The COSMOS-NMR force field unites quantum chemical routines for the calculation of molecular properties with a molecular mechanics force field yielding the relative molecular energies. COSMOS-NMR allows introducing NMR parameters as constraints into molecular mechanics calculations. The resulting infrastructure will be made available for the NMR community. As a first application we have tested the evaluation of calculated protein structures using COSMOS-derived 13C Cα and Cβ chemical shifts. In this paper we give an overview of the methodology and a roadmap for future developments and applications.

  10. Biosafe inertization of municipal solid waste incinerator residues by COSMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Guarienti, Michela; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Bontempi, Elza; Moscoso Cardozo, Sdenka; Borgese, Laura; Zizioli, Daniela; Mitola, Stefania; Depero, Laura E; Presta, Marco

    2014-08-30

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues can generate negative environmental impacts when improperly handled. The COlloidal Silica Medium to Obtain Safe inert (COSMOS) technology represents a new method to stabilize MSWI residues and to produce inert safe material. Here we report the results about aquatic biotoxicity of lixiviated MSWI fly ash and the corresponding inertized COSMOS material using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity test. Quantitative assessment of waste biotoxicity included evaluation of mortality rate and of different morphological and teratogenous endpoints in zebrafish embryos exposed to tested materials from 3 to 72h post-fertilization. The results demonstrate that lixiviated MSWI fly ash exerts a dose-dependent lethal effect paralleled by dramatic morphological/teratogenous alterations and apoptotic events in the whole embryo body. Similar effects were observed following MSWI fly ash stabilization in classical concrete matrices, demonstrating that the obtained materials are not biologically safe. On the contrary, no significant mortality and developmental defects were observed in zebrafish embryos exposed to COSMOS inert solution. Our results provide the first experimental in vivo evidence that, in contrast with concrete stabilization procedure, COSMOS technology provides a biologically safe inert.

  11. From Tripod to Cosmos: A New Metaphor for the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the contemporary language arts curriculum encompasses eight areas: literature, language, composition, speech and drama, critical thinking, technology, media literacy, and interdisciplinary studies. Offers a rationale for "cosmos" as a new metaphor for the language arts. Discusses the content of each of the eight curricular areas, and…

  12. COSMOS-rice technology abrogates the biotoxic effects of municipal solid waste incinerator residues.

    PubMed

    Guarienti, Michela; Cardozo, Sdenka Moscoso; Borgese, Laura; Lira, Gloria Rodrigo; Depero, Laura E; Bontempi, Elza; Presta, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Fly ashes generated by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) are classified as hazardous waste and usually landfilled. For the sustainable reuse of these materials is necessary to reduce the resulting impact on human health and environment. The COSMOS-rice technology has been recently proposed for the treatment of fly ashes mixed with rice husk ash, to obtain a low-cost composite material with significant performances. Here, aquatic biotoxicity assays, including daphnidae and zebrafish embryo-based tests, were used to assess the biosafety efficacy of this technology. Exposure to lixiviated MSWI fly ash caused dose-dependent biotoxic effects on daphnidae and zebrafish embryos with alterations of embryonic development, teratogenous defects and apoptotic events. On the contrary, no biotoxic effects were observed in daphnidae and zebrafish embryos exposed to lixiviated COSMOS-rice material. Accordingly, whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of the expression of various tissue-specific genes in zebrafish embryos provided genetic evidence about the ability of COSMOS-rice stabilization process to minimize the biotoxic effects of MSWI fly ash. These results demonstrate at the biological level that the newly developed COSMOS-rice technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to process MSWI fly ash, producing a biologically safe and reusable material.

  13. Calibration and validation of the COSMOS rover for surface soil moisture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mobile COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) rover may be useful for validating satellite-based estimates of near surface soil moisture, but the accuracy with which the rover can measure 0-5 cm soil moisture has not been previously determined. Our objectives were to calibrate and va...

  14. The US/USSR Biological Satellite Program: COSMOS 936 Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    On August 3, 1977, the Soviet Union launched Cosmos 936, an unmanned spacecraft carrying biology and physics experiments from 9 countries, including both the Soviet Union and U.S. The launch marked the second time the Soviet Union has flown U.S. experiments aboard one of its spacecraft, the first being Cosmos 782 launched Nov. 25, 1975, which remained in orbit 19.5 days. Aboard Cosmos 936 were: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats, 20 of which was exposed to hypogravity during flight while the remainder were subjected to a l x g acceleration by continuous configuration; 2) experiments with plants and fruit flies; 3) radiation physics experiments; and 4) a heat convection experiment. After 18.5 days in orbit, the spacecraft landed in central Asia where a Soviet recovery team began experiment operations, including animal autopsies, within 4.5 hr of landing. Half of the animals were autopsied at the recovery site and the remainder returned to Moscow and allowed to readapt to terrestrial gravity for 25 days after which they, too, were autopsied. Specimens for U.S. were initially prepared at the recovery site or Soviet laboratories and transferred to U.S. laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on-orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the seven U.S. experiments aboard Cosmos 936 will be presented.

  15. A GROUP-GALAXY CROSS-CORRELATION FUNCTION ANALYSIS IN zCOSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; and others

    2012-08-10

    We present a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis using a group catalog produced from the 16,500 spectra from the optical zCOSMOS galaxy survey. Our aim is to perform a consistency test in the redshift range 0.2 {<=} z {<=} 0.8 between the clustering strength of the groups and mass estimates that are based on the richness of the groups. We measure the linear bias of the groups by means of a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis and convert it into mass using the bias-mass relation for a given cosmology, checking the systematic errors using realistic group and galaxy mock catalogs. The measured bias for the zCOSMOS groups increases with group richness as expected by the theory of cosmic structure formation and yields masses that are reasonably consistent with the masses estimated from the richness directly, considering the scatter that is obtained from the 24 mock catalogs. Some exceptions are the richest groups at high redshift (estimated to be more massive than 10{sup 13.5} M{sub Sun }), for which the measured bias is significantly larger than for any of the 24 mock catalogs (corresponding to a 3{sigma} effect), which is attributed to the extremely large structure that is present in the COSMOS field at z {approx} 0.7. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that reported unusually strong clustering in the COSMOS field.

  16. Activity of certain enzymes in subcellular fractions of rat liver after flight on COSMOS 1129 biosatellite

    SciTech Connect

    Tigranyan, R.A.; Vetrova, Y.G.

    1980-12-01

    Studies of the effect of extreme space flight factors on the conditions of oxidizing metabolism in rat liver are described. The animals were flown on the biosatellite Cosmos 936, and compared to a synchronous ground experiment. The material and methods utilized in the study are presented.

  17. [Behavior of rats in the labyrinth after a flight on the Cosmos-690 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Livshits, N N; Apanasenko, Z I; Kuznetsova, M A; Meĭzerova, E S

    1978-01-01

    Rats irradiated aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-690 and in the synchronous mockup showed deteriorated retention and recovery of the skill of traversing the maze. The rats irradiated on the Earth displayed greater changes in the parameters. The rats irradiated inflight exhibited an increased fatigue during enhanced activity. All the exposed animals showed an insignificant change in the capacity to transfer their experience.

  18. Photometric Redshift and Classification for the XMM-COSMOS Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, M.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Rau, A.; Capak, P.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bolzonella, M.; Buongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Caputi, K.; Civano, F.; Cook, R.; Elvis, M.; Gilli, R.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Impey, C. D.; Lamareille, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; McCarthy, P.; McCracken, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Murayama, T.; Sasaki, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Schiminovich, D.; Shioya, Y.; Shopbell, P.; Silverman, J.; Smolčić, V.; Surace, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Trump, J. R.; Urry, M.; Zamojski, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present photometric redshifts and spectral energy distribution (SED) classifications for a sample of 1542 optically identified sources detected with XMM in the COSMOS field. Our template fitting classifies 46 sources as stars and 464 as nonactive galaxies, while the remaining 1032 require templates with an active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution. High accuracy in the derived photometric redshifts was accomplished as the result of (1) photometry in up to 30 bands with high-significance detections, (2) a new set of SED templates, including 18 hybrids covering the far-UV to mid-infrared, which have been constructed by the combination of AGNs and nonactive galaxies templates, and (3) multiepoch observations that have been used to correct for variability (most important for type 1 AGNs). The reliability of the photometric redshifts is evaluated using the subsample of 442 sources with measured spectroscopic redshifts. We achieved an accuracy of σ _{Δ z/(1+z_spec)} = 0.014 for i* AB < 22.5 (σ _{Δ z/(1+z_spec)} ˜ 0.015 for i* AB < 24.5). The high accuracies were accomplished for both type 2 (where the SED is often dominated by the host galaxy) and type 1 AGNs and QSOs out to z = 4.5. The number of outliers is a large improvement over previous photometric redshift estimates for X-ray-selected sources (4.0% and 4.8% outliers for i* AB < 22.5 and i* AB < 24.5, respectively). We show that the intermediate band photometry is vital to achieving accurate photometric redshifts for AGNs, whereas the broad SED coverage provided by mid-infrared (Spitzer/IRAC) bands is important to reduce the number of outliers for normal galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion

  19. Understanding the Electromagnetic Environment and Its Relationship to Life in the Cosmos and the Evolution of the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. C.

    2017-02-01

    The relationship of life to the electromagnetic spectrum is another part of the puzzle in our quest to find and support life in the cosmos. Correlative and experimental evidence suggest this relationship is a relevant one and demands further study.

  20. Canvas and cosmos: Visual art techniques applied to astronomy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Jayanne

    Bold color images from telescopes act as extraordinary ambassadors for research astronomers because they pique the public’s curiosity. But are they snapshots documenting physical reality? Or are we looking at artistic spacescapes created by digitally manipulating astronomy images? This paper provides a tour of how original black and white data, from all regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, are converted into the color images gracing popular magazines, numerous websites, and even clothing. The history and method of the technical construction of these images is outlined. However, the paper focuses on introducing the scientific reader to visual literacy (e.g. human perception) and techniques from art (e.g. composition, color theory) since these techniques can produce not only striking but politically powerful public outreach images. When created by research astronomers, the cultures of science and visual art can be balanced and the image can illuminate scientific results sufficiently strongly that the images are also used in research publications. Included are reflections on how they could feedback into astronomy research endeavors and future forms of visualization as well as on the relevance of outreach images to visual art. (See the color online PDF version at http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218271817300105; the figures can be enlarged in PDF viewers.)

  1. Fingerprints of the first black holes? Crosscorrelationg the Near-Infrared and X-ray background in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasinger, Guenther

    field with a total exposure of 5.6 Ms. XMM-Newton has covered the whole 2 deg2 COSMOS field with an exposure time of about 1.5 Ms . The technique for our cross-correlation analysis has been described in detail by C13. All the known instrumental and non-cosmic backgrounds are removed from the data and all discrete sources are excised using the same mask for both datasets. Then the exposure-corrected images are cross-correlated with each other. Compared to the AEGIS cross-correlation signal we expect a significantly better signal to noise ratio, which together with the larger area, will allow us to reach much larger angular scales, where different models can be constrained. The better photon statistics will also allow to separate the signal into at least four independent X-ray energy bands, thus yielding coarse spectral information allowing to discriminate between different models for the X-ray emitting sources. If the X-ray sources are High-Mass X-ray binaries with stellar-mass black holes descendent from massive Pop III stars at z>7, we would expect the X-ray emission to be only moderately absorbed. If on the other hand, the X-ray emission originates from direct collapse black holes with masses in the range 10^5-6 solar masses, we expect a significant Compton-thick absorption component, similar to the resolved X-ray background produced at lower redshifts. Finally, the new data on the CIB-CXB crosscorrelation will also strongly constrain the intrahalo light scenario proposed as an alternative interpretation. At any rate, these measurements allow diagnostics into the faintest discrete source populations right after they emerged from the dark ages or buried within halos. Until the next generation of telescopes, JWST, WFIRST, and EUCLID, the ground based 30m telescopes and later the ESA X-ray observatory Athena, this is one of the few avenues to constrain the formation and early evolution of stars and black holes in the Universe.

  2. A Quantitative Evaluation of the Galaxy Component of the COSMOS and APM Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, César A.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2000-02-01

    We have carried out an independent quantitative evaluation of the galaxy component of the COSMOS/UKST southern sky object catalog (SSC) and the APM/UKST J Catalogue (APM). Using CCD observations, our results corroborate the accuracy of the photometry of both catalogs, which have an overall dispersion of about 0.2 mag in the range 17<=bJ<=21.5. The SSC presents externally calibrated galaxy magnitudes that follow a linear relation, while the APM instrumental magnitudes of galaxies, calibrated only internally by the use of stellar profiles, require second-order corrections. The completeness of both catalogs in a general field falls rapidly fainter than bJ=20.0, being slightly better for APM. The 90% completeness level of the SSC is reached between bJ=19.5 and 20.0, while for APM this happens between bJ=20.5 and 21.0. Both SSC and APM are found to be less complete in a galaxy cluster field, where completeness reachs 90% in the ranges bJ=19.0-19.5 and bJ=19.5-20.0, respectively. Galaxies misclassified as stars in the SSC receive an incorrect magnitude because the stellar ones take saturation into account, besides using a different calibration curve. In both cases, the misclassified galaxies show a large diversity of colors, which range from typical colors of early types to those of blue star-forming galaxies. A possible explanation for this effect is that it results from the combination of low-sampling resolutions with properties of the image classifier for objects with characteristic sizes close to the instrumental resolution. We find that the overall contamination by stars misclassified as galaxies is <5% to bJ=20.5, as originally estimated for both catalogs. Although our results come from small areas of the sky, they are extracted from two different plates and are based on the comparison with two independent data sets. We conclude that both the SSC and APM can be a particularly valuable resource for extragalactic studies in the southern hemisphere once their

  3. Variability-selected active galactic nuclei in the VST-SUDARE/VOICE survey of the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, D.; Paolillo, M.; Covone, G.; Falocco, S.; Longo, G.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Botticella, M. T.; Pignata, G.; Cappellaro, E.; Vaccari, M.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Salvato, M.; Radovich, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Schipani, P.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Active galaxies are characterized by variability at every wavelength, with timescales from hours to years depending on the observing window. Optical variability has proven to be an effective way of detecting AGNs in imaging surveys, lasting from weeks to years. Aims: In the present work we test the use of optical variability as a tool to identify active galactic nuclei in the VST multiepoch survey of the COSMOS field, originally tailored to detect supernova events. Methods: We make use of the multiwavelength data provided by other COSMOS surveys to discuss the reliability of the method and the nature of our AGN candidates. Results: The selection on the basis of optical variability returns a sample of 83 AGN candidates; based on a number of diagnostics, we conclude that 67 of them are confirmed AGNs (81% purity), 12 are classified as supernovae, while the nature of the remaining 4 is unknown. For the subsample of AGNs with some spectroscopic classification, we find that Type 1 are prevalent (89%) compared to Type 2 AGNs (11%). Overall, our approach is able to retrieve on average 15% of all AGNs in the field identified by means of spectroscopic or X-ray classification, with a strong dependence on the source apparent magnitude (completeness ranging from 26% to 5%). In particular, the completeness for Type 1 AGNs is 25%, while it drops to 6% for Type 2 AGNs. The rest of the X-ray selected AGN population presents on average a larger rms variability than the bulk of non-variable sources, indicating that variability detection for at least some of these objects is prevented only by the photometric accuracy of the data. The low completeness is in part due to the short observing span: we show that increasing the temporal baseline results in larger samples as expected for sources with a red-noise power spectrum. Our results allow us to assess the usefulness of this AGN selection technique in view of future wide-field surveys. Observations were provided by the ESO

  4. The zCOSMOS-Bright survey: the clustering of early and late galaxy morphological types since z≃ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Porciani, C.; Guzzo, L.; Meneux, B.; Abbas, U.; Tasca, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Lilly, S. J.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Halliday, C.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pelló, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Oesch, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.

    2011-04-01

    We measure the spatial clustering of galaxies as a function of their morphological type at z≃ 0.8, for the first time in a deep redshift survey with full morphological information. This is obtained by combining high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging and Very Large Telescope spectroscopy for about 8500 galaxies to ? with accurate spectroscopic redshifts from the zCOSMOS-Bright redshift survey. At this epoch, early-type galaxies already show a significantly stronger clustering than late-type galaxies on all probed scales. A comparison to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data at z≃ 0.1 shows that the relative clustering strength between early and late morphological classes tends to increase with cosmic time at small separations, while on large scales it shows no significant evolution since z≃ 0.8. This suggests that most early-type galaxies had already formed in intermediate and dense environments at this epoch. Our results are consistent with a picture in which the relative clustering of different morphological types between z≃ 1 and 0 reflects the evolving role of environment in the morphological transformation of galaxies, on top of a global evolution driven by mass.

  5. Chandra's Cosmos: Dark Matter, Black Holes, and Other Wonders Revealed by NASA's Premier X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Wallace H.

    2017-03-01

    On July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built, was launched aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Since then, Chandra has given us a view of the universe that is largely hidden from telescopes sensitive only to visible light. In Chandra's Cosmos, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra science spokesperson Wallace H. Tucker uses a series of short, connected stories to describe the telescope's exploration of the hot, high-energy face of the universe. The book is organized in three parts: "The Big," covering the cosmic web, dark energy, dark matter, and massive clusters of galaxies; "The Bad," exploring neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes; and "The Beautiful," discussing stars, exoplanets, and life. Chandra has imaged the spectacular, glowing remains of exploded stars and taken spectra showing the dispersal of their elements. Chandra has observed the region around the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way and traced the separation of dark matter from normal matter in the collision of galaxies, contributing to both dark matter and dark energy studies. Tucker explores the implications of these observations in an entertaining, informative narrative aimed at space buffs and general readers alike.

  6. The impact of recent advances in laboratory astrophysics on our understanding of the cosmos.

    PubMed

    Savin, D W; Brickhouse, N S; Cowan, J J; Drake, R P; Federman, S R; Ferland, G J; Frank, A; Gudipati, M S; Haxton, W C; Herbst, E; Profumo, S; Salama, F; Ziurys, L M; Zweibel, E G

    2012-03-01

    An emerging theme in modern astrophysics is the connection between astronomical observations and the underlying physical phenomena that drive our cosmos. Both the mechanisms responsible for the observed astrophysical phenomena and the tools used to probe such phenomena-the radiation and particle spectra we observe-have their roots in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, plasma, nuclear and particle physics. Chemistry is implicitly included in both molecular and condensed matter physics. This connection is the theme of the present report, which provides a broad, though non-exhaustive, overview of progress in our understanding of the cosmos resulting from recent theoretical and experimental advances in what is commonly called laboratory astrophysics. This work, carried out by a diverse community of laboratory astrophysicists, is increasingly important as astrophysics transitions into an era of precise measurement and high fidelity modeling.

  7. Optically Elusive AGN in the 3XMM Catalog and the Chandra-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Estelle; Watson, Mike; Elvis, Martin; Civano, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    'Optically elusive AGN' are powerful X-ray sources (LHX > 1042 erg/s), but are not detected as AGN in the optical. Pons and Watson (2014) showed that in XMM these AGNs are a mix of Narrow Line Seyfert 1s, True Seyfert 2's and weak Seyfert 2s. The nature of these objects, coming from the cross-match of 3XMM with the SDSS-DR9 spectroscopic catalog, has been investigated through a detailed analysis of their IR/optical and X-ray properties. The fainter Chandra-COSMOS field should be rich in optically elusive AGNs as ¾ of the AGNs there are narrow-lined. There are ~850 Chandra-COSMOS galaxy spectra, mainly from five different telescopes (SDSS, Magellan, MMT, VLT and Keck). To find optically elusive objects, we investigate the optical classification using emission line diagnostic diagrams. For low redshift galaxies (z~<0.7) the standard BPT diagram ([OIII

  8. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  9. A Morphological Study of Compact Narrow Emission Line Galaxies In The COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassare, Vivienne; Feldman, D.; Greenbaum, A.; Hasan, I.; Mahalchick, S.; Liu, C.; COSMOS Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a morphological study of 139 spectroscopically selected compact narrow emission line galaxies (CNELGs) from the COSMOS HST Treasury Survey, using a comparison sample of field galaxies of similar magnitude obtained from the COSMOS field. The CNELGs range in magnitude from 18.13 < V < 21.95 and in redshift from 0 < z < 0.9. Preliminary results indicate that, whereas statistically the CNELGs are clearly morphologically distinct from our comparison sample, at HST resolution they are also clearly not all - or even predominantly - "compact." This work was supported by an NSF REU Site grant to The City University of New York and American Museum of Natural History; an NSF STEAM grant to the College of Staten Island; the NASA New York Space Grant program; Barnard College; and the CUNY Macaulay Honors College.

  10. An ear turned to ``The Cosmos'': 50 projects to discover the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puerto, Carmen

    2011-06-01

    In 1609, as Galileo pointed the sky with a telescope, he observed Jupiter's satellites and changed our vision of the universe. Four hundred years later, we celebrate this event all over the world, and also in the Canaries. 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, is a very special year for the Science and Cosmos Museum (Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos). This was the first museum in Spain supported by a public entity, The Local Government of Tenerife (Cabildo de Tenerife), through its Autonomous Council of Museums (Organismo Autónomo de Museos y Centros), and a research centre, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Fifteen years later, this museum, which receives 50,000 visitors a year, celebrates the International Year of Astronomy with fifty projects described in this paper.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGN vs. host galaxy properties in COSMOS field (Lanzuisi+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Marchesi, S.; Perna, M.; Pozzi, F.; Salvato, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Volonteri, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-03-01

    Multiwavelength properties of the 692 AGN-host systems detected both in the X-ray and in the FIR (the X-FIR sample). For each galaxy are given ID from Capak et al., 2007, Cat. II/284; right ascension and declination of the optical/IR counterpart; redshift; redshift flag (s for spectroscopic or p photometric); Log(LSFIR) with 1sigma errors; Log(M*) with 1sigma errors; SFR derived from LSF; Log(NH) with 1sigma errors or upper limits; Log(LX) with 1sigma errors; Log(LBol) computed from LX using Marconi et al. (2004MNRAS.351..169M); XMM-COSMOS and Chandra-COSMOS ID. (1 data file).

  12. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project. II. (Smolcic+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolcic, V.; Delvecchio, I.; Zamorani, G.; Baran, N.; Novak, M.; Delhaize, J.; Schinnerer, E.; Berta, S.; Bondi, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Capak, P.; Civano, F.; Karim, A.; Le Fevre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Tasca, L.; Salvato, M.; Vardoulaki, E.

    2017-04-01

    The catalog contains the full list of 9161 optical-MIR counterparts collected over the largest unmasked area accessible to each catalog, being 1.77, 1.73, and 2.35 square degrees for COSMOS2015, i-band, and IRAC catalogs, respectively. The catalog lists the counterpart IDs, properties, as well as the individual criteria used in this work to classify our radio sources. We note that complete, non-overlapping samples within a well defined, effective area of 1.77 square degrees (COSMOS2015 masked area flag_C15=0, can be formed by combining i) HLAGN, MLAGN, and clean SFG samples, or, alternatively, ii) the radio-excess and no-radio-excess samples. The full catalog is described in Section 7 of the paper. (1 data file).

  14. Cool White Dwarfs from the SuperCOSMOS and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambly, N. C.; Digby, A. P.; Oppenheimer, B. R.

    2005-07-01

    We have used datamining techniques in the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive (http://surveys.roe.ac.uk/ssa) to obtain a large, well defined proper motion and magnitude selected sample of cool white dwarfs. Using accurate 5-colour photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR1 and SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey photometry and astrometry, we demonstrate the power of reduced proper motion in obtaining a sample of >700 white dwarfs. We examine the characteristics of these objects in various two-colour diagrams in conjunction with new model atmosphere predictions recently computed in the SDSS photometric system. Ultimately, we intend to analyse these data with techniques similar to those already used to examine the subdwarf luminosity function (Digby et al. 2003). In this way, we aim to decompose the contribution of thin disk, thick disk and spheroid white dwarfs in the sample to enable computation of accurate luminosity functions for those respective populations.

  15. CXB and CIB joint fluctuations in COSMOS, EGS, UDS and HDFN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Cooper, Rachel Ann; Guo, Joyce; Urry, C. Megan; Hasinger, Guenther; Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    I will present new results on the joint CIB and CXB joint fluctuations in the COSMOS, EGS, UDS and HDFN surveys. We used the deepest wide Chandra, XMM and Spitzer data available so far and cross-correlate with known optical galaxies. We demonstrate that the these joint fluctuations are produced by extremely faint sources mAB>28. We tested the hypothesis that early supermassive black holes could produce the observed signal

  16. Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG) Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousek, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG) serves as a forum for soliciting and coordinating input and analysis from the scientific community in support of the PCOS program objectives. I will outline the activities of the PhysPAG over the past year, since the last meeting during the AAS meeting in National Harbor, and mention the activities of the PhysPAG related Scientific Interest Groups.

  17. THE zCOSMOS-SINFONI PROJECT. I. SAMPLE SELECTION AND NATURAL-SEEING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, C.; Renzini, A.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; Davies, R.; Cresci, G.; Peng, Y.; Lilly, S.; Carollo, M.; Oesch, P.; Vergani, D.; Pozzetti, L.; Zamorani, G.; Daddi, E.; McCracken, H. J.; Bouche, N.; Shapiro, K.; and others

    2011-12-10

    The zCOSMOS-SINFONI project is aimed at studying the physical and kinematical properties of a sample of massive z {approx} 1.4-2.5 star-forming galaxies, through SINFONI near-infrared integral field spectroscopy (IFS), combined with the multiwavelength information from the zCOSMOS (COSMOS) survey. The project is based on one hour of natural-seeing observations per target, and adaptive optics (AO) follow-up for a major part of the sample, which includes 30 galaxies selected from the zCOSMOS/VIMOS spectroscopic survey. This first paper presents the sample selection, and the global physical characterization of the target galaxies from multicolor photometry, i.e., star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, age, etc. The H{alpha} integrated properties, such as, flux, velocity dispersion, and size, are derived from the natural-seeing observations, while the follow-up AO observations will be presented in the next paper of this series. Our sample appears to be well representative of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2, covering a wide range in mass and SFR. The H{alpha} integrated properties of the 25 H{alpha} detected galaxies are similar to those of other IFS samples at the same redshifts. Good agreement is found among the SFRs derived from H{alpha} luminosity and other diagnostic methods, provided the extinction affecting the H{alpha} luminosity is about twice that affecting the continuum. A preliminary kinematic analysis, based on the maximum observed velocity difference across the source and on the integrated velocity dispersion, indicates that the sample splits nearly 50-50 into rotation-dominated and velocity-dispersion-dominated galaxies, in good agreement with previous surveys.

  18. Activity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system in rats after space flight on the COSMOS biosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, Š.; Macho, L.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    The indicators of adrenomedullary activity (catecholamine content (CA) and the activity of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)) were measured in the adrenal glands of rats living in a state of weightlessness for 18.5-19.5 days on board the biosatellites COSMOS 936 and COSMOS 1129. None of these indicators was significantly changed by space flight, neither in the group living in a state of weightlessness nor in the group living in a centrifuge on board the spacecraft and exposed to artificial gravity of 1 g (COSMOS 936). Animals exposed after space flight to repeated immobilization stress on Earth showed a significant decrease of adrenal adrenaline and an appreciable increase in adrenal TH activity compared to stressed animals which were not in space. These results suggest that a prolonged state of weightlessness during space flight does not by itself represent an intensive stressful stimulus for the adrenomedullary system but potentiates the response of cosmonauts to stress after return to Earth.

  19. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  20. CosmosDG: An hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Hyper-resolved Relativistic MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Peter; Bryant, Colton; Fragile, P. Chris; Holgado, A. Miguel; Lau, Cheuk; Nemergut, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We have extended Cosmos++, a multidimensional unstructured adaptive mesh code for solving the covariant Newtonian and general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, to accommodate both discrete finite volume and arbitrarily high-order finite element structures. The new finite element implementation, called CosmosDG, is based on a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation, using both entropy-based artificial viscosity and slope limiting procedures for the regularization of shocks. High-order multistage forward Euler and strong-stability preserving Runge-Kutta time integration options complement high-order spatial discretization. We have also added flexibility in the code infrastructure allowing for both adaptive mesh and adaptive basis order refinement to be performed separately or simultaneously in a local (cell-by-cell) manner. We discuss in this report the DG formulation and present tests demonstrating the robustness, accuracy, and convergence of our numerical methods applied to special and general relativistic MHD, although we note that an equivalent capability currently also exists in CosmosDG for Newtonian systems.

  1. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    PubMed

    Keil, L; Evans, J; Grindeland, R; Krasnov, I

    1992-08-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, we obtained pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on COSMOS 2044. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to stimulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27% (P less than 0.05) in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (micrograms hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33% (P less than 0.05) compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the COSMOS 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  2. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  3. Constraints on two active galactic nuclei in the merger remnant cosmos J100043.15+020637.2

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobel, J. M.; Comerford, J. M.; Middelberg, E. E-mail: julie.comerford@colorado.edu

    2014-02-20

    COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2 is a merger remnant at z = 0.36 with two optical nuclei, NW and SE, offset by 500 mas (2.5 kpc). Prior studies suggest two competing scenarios for these nuclei: (1) SE is an active galactic nucleus (AGN) lost from NW due to a gravitational-wave recoil. (2) NW and SE each contain an AGN, signaling a gravitational-slingshot recoil or inspiralling AGNs. We present new images from the Very Large Array (VLA) at a frequency ν = 9.0 GHz and a FWHM resolution θ = 320 mas (1.6 kpc), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at ν = 1.52 GHz and θ = 15 mas (75 pc). The VLA imaging is sensitive to emission driven by AGNs and/or star formation, while the VLBA imaging is sensitive only to AGN-driven emission. No radio emission is detected at these frequencies. Folding in prior results, we find: (a) The properties of SE and its adjacent X-ray feature resemble those of the Type 1 AGN in NGC 4151, albeit with a much higher narrow emission-line luminosity. (b) The properties of NW are consistent with it hosting a Compton-thick AGN that warms ambient dust, photoionizes narrow emission-line gas, and is free-free absorbed by that gas. Finding (a) is consistent with scenarios (a) and (b). Finding (b) weakens the case for scenario (a) and strengthens the case for scenario (b). Follow-up observations are suggested.

  4. A high definition view of the COSMOS Wall at z ~ 0.73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, A.; Petropoulou, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Cucciati, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Tasca, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Finoguenov, A.; Ilbert, O.; Tanaka, M.; Salvato, M.; Kovač, K.; Cassata, P.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We present a study of a large filamentary structure at z ~ 0.73 in the field of the COSMOS survey, the so-called COSMOS Wall. This structure encompasses a comprehensive range of environments from a dense cluster and a number of galaxy groups to filaments, less dense regions, and adjacent voids. It thus provides a valuable laboratory for the accurate mapping of environmental effects on galaxy evolution at a look-back time of ~6.5 Gyr, when the Universe was roughly half its present age. Methods: We performed deep spectroscopic observations with VIMOS at VLT of a K-band selected sample of galaxies in this complex structure, building a sample of galaxies complete in galaxy stellar mass down to a lower limit of log(ℳ∗/ℳ⊙) ~ 9.8, which is significantly deeper than previously available data. Thanks to its location within the COSMOS survey, each galaxy benefits from a wealth of ancillary information: HST-ACS data with I-band exposures down to IAB ~ 28 complemented by extensive multiwavelength ground- and space-based observations spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Results: In this paper we detail the survey strategy and weighting scheme adopted to account for the biases introduced by the photometric preselection of our targets. We present our galaxy stellar mass and rest-frame magnitudes estimates together with a group catalog obtained with our new data and their member galaxies color/mass distribution. Conclusions: Owing to our new sample we can perform a detailed, high definition mapping of the complex COSMOS Wall structure. The sharp environmental information, coupled with high quality spectroscopic information and rich ancillary data available in the COSMOS field, enables a detailed study of galaxy properties as a function of local environment in a redshift slice where environmental effects are important, and in a stellar mass range where mass and environment driven effects are both at work. Based on observations collected at the European

  5. An Analysis of the FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the year 2013 marks the sixth anniversary of the destruction of the Fengyun-1C (FY-1C) weather satellite as the result of an anti-satellite test conducted by China in January 2007 and the fourth anniversary of the accidental collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in February 2009. These two events represent the worst satellite breakups in history. A total of 5579 fragments have been cataloged by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN), and almost 5000 of them were still in orbit in January 2013. In addition to these cataloged objects, hundreds of thousands (or more) of fragments down to the millimeter size regime were also generated during the breakups. These fragments are too small to be tracked by the SSN, but are large enough to be a safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Like their cataloged siblings, many of them remain in orbit today. These two breakup events dramatically changed the landscape of the orbital debris environment in LEO. The spatial density of the cataloged population in January 2013 is shown as the top blue curve. The combined FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 fragments (black curve) account for about 50 percent of the cataloged population below an altitude of 1000 km. They are also responsible for the concentrations at 770 km and 850 km, altitudes at which the collisions occurred. The effects of the FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 fragments will continue to be felt for decades to come. For example, approximately half of the generated FY-1C fragments will remain in orbit 20 years from now. In general, the Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 fragments will decay faster than the FY-1C fragments because of their lower altitudes. Of the Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 fragments, the former have much shorter orbital lifetimes than the latter, because lightweight composite materials were heavily used in the construction of the Iridium

  6. A STRONGLY LENSED MASSIVE ULTRACOMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXY AT z {approx} 2.4 IN THE COSMOS/UltraVISTA FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Holt, J.; Szomoru, Daniel; Van de Sande, Jesse; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Buitrago, F.; Dunlop, James; Caputi, K. I.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Le Fevre, Olivier; McCracken, Henry J.

    2012-12-20

    We report the discovery of a massive ultracompact quiescent galaxy that has been strongly lensed into multiple images by a foreground galaxy at z 0.960. This system was serendipitously discovered as a set of extremely K{sub s} -bright high-redshift galaxies with red J - K{sub s} colors using new data from the UltraVISTA YJHK{sub s} near-infrared survey. The system was also previously identified as an optically faint lens/source system using the COSMOS Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging by Faure et al. Photometric redshifts for the three brightest images of the source galaxy determined from 27-band photometry place the source at z = 2.4 {+-} 0.1. We provide an updated lens model for the system that is a good fit to the positions and morphologies of the galaxies in the ACS image. The lens model implies that the magnification of the three brightest images is a factor of 4-5. We use the lens model, combined with the K{sub s} -band image, to constrain the size and Sersic profile of the galaxy. The best-fit model is an ultracompact galaxy (R{sub e} = 0.64{sup +0.08}{sub -0.18} kpc, lensing-corrected), with a Sersic profile that is intermediate between a disk and a bulge profile (n 2.2{sup +2.3}{sub -{sub 0.9}}), albeit with considerable uncertainties on the Sersic profile. We present aperture photometry for the source galaxy images that have been corrected for flux contamination from the central lens. The best-fit stellar population model is a massive galaxy (log(M{sub star}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.8{sup +0.1}{sub -0.1}, lensing-corrected) with an age of 1.0{sup +1.0}{sub -0.4} Gyr, moderate dust extinction (A{sub v} = 0.8{sup +0.5}{sub -0.6}), and a low specific star formation rate (log(SSFR) <-11.0 yr{sup -1}). This is typical of massive ''red-and-dead'' galaxies at this redshift and confirms that this source is the first bona fide strongly lensed massive ultracompact quiescent galaxy to be discovered. We conclude with a discussion of the prospects of finding a larger

  7. Popularization of Astronomy: From Models of the Cosmos to Stargazing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    "Raritäten-und Wunderkammern" of the Baroque period were a microscopic image of the macroscopic world, in which astronomical instruments, orreries and celestial globes played an important role. The Gottorf globe in the ducal castle in Schleswig (1664) and, much later, the Atwood sphere in Chicago (1913) allowed demonstration of star…

  8. A PUBLIC K{sub s} -SELECTED CATALOG IN THE COSMOS/ULTRAVISTA FIELD: PHOTOMETRY, PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Dunlop, James S.; Brammer, Gabriel; Van Dokkum, Pieter

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog covering 1.62 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field with point-spread function (PSF) matched photometry in 30 photometric bands. The catalog covers the wavelength range 0.15-24 {mu}m including the available GALEX, Subaru, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, VISTA, and Spitzer data. Catalog sources have been selected from the DR1 UltraVISTA K{sub s} band imaging that reaches a depth of K {sub s,tot} = 23.4 AB (90% completeness). The PSF-matched catalog is generated using position-dependent PSFs ensuring accurate colors across the entire field. Also included is a catalog of photometric redshifts (z {sub phot}) for all galaxies computed with the EAZY code. Comparison with spectroscopy from the zCOSMOS 10k bright sample shows that up to z {approx} 1.5 the z {sub phot} are accurate to {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.013, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of only 1.6%. The z {sub phot} also show good agreement with the z {sub phot} from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey out to z {approx} 3. A catalog of stellar masses and stellar population parameters for galaxies determined using the FAST spectral energy distribution fitting code is provided for all galaxies. Also included are rest-frame U - V and V - J colors, L {sub 2800} and L {sub IR}. The UVJ color-color diagram confirms that the galaxy bi-modality is well-established out to z {approx} 2. Star-forming galaxies also obey a star-forming 'main sequence' out to z {approx} 2.5, and this sequence evolves in a manner consistent with previous measurements. The COSMOS/UltraVISTA K{sub s} -selected catalog covers a unique parameter space in both depth, area, and multi-wavelength coverage and promises to be a useful tool for studying the growth of the galaxy population out to z {approx} 3-4.

  9. Hubble’s cross-section of the cosmos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    This new Hubble image showcases a remarkable variety of objects at different distances from us, extending back over halfway to the edge of the observable Universe. The galaxies in this image mostly lie about five billion light-years from Earth but the field also contains other objects, both significantly closer and far more distant. Studies of this region of the sky have shown that many of the objects that appear to lie close together may actually be billions of light-years apart. This is because several groups of galaxies lie along our line of sight, creating something of an optical illusion. Hubble’s cross-section of the Universe is completed by distorted images of galaxies in the very distant background. These objects are sometimes distorted due to a process called gravitational lensing, an extremely valuable technique in astronomy for studying very distant objects [1]. This lensing is caused by the bending of the space-time continuum by massive galaxies lying close to our line of sight to distant objects. One of the lens systems visible here is called CLASS B1608+656, which appears as a small loop in the centre of the image. It features two foreground galaxies distorting and amplifying the light of a distant quasar the known as QSO-160913+653228. The light from this bright disc of matter, which is currently falling into a black hole, has taken nine billion years to reach us — two thirds of the age of the Universe. As well as CLASS B1608+656, astronomers have identified two other gravitational lenses within this image. Two galaxies, dubbed Fred and Ginger by the researchers who studied them, contain enough mass to visibly distort the light from objects behind them. Fred, also known more prosaically as [FMK2006] ACS J160919+6532, lies near the lens galaxies in CLASS B1608+656, while Ginger ([FMK2006] ACS J160910+6532) is markedly closer to us. Despite their different distances from us, both can be seen near to CLASS B1608+656 in the central region of this

  10. The detection of intermediate size magnetic anomalies in Cosmos-49 and OGO-2, 4, and 6 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, R. D.; Davis, W. M.; Cain, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Benkova, Dolginov, and Simonenko have recently reported the presence of intermediate size magnetic anomalies in the data from COSMOS-49 and hypothesized a crustal and/or upper mantle origin. The spherical harmonic models of the internal potential function were examined, based on the OGO-2, 4, and 6 data (POGO (10/68) and later models), and verified the locations and amplitudes of those anomalies whose wavelengths approximate 4000 km. The comparison was made by subtracting a field model developed with a truncated series of n* = 9 from one computed with n* = 11 and generating a residual map equivalent to the COSMOS-49 data. The patterns of delta F so computed from POGO were then compared with the IZMIRAN maps and also were analyzed statistically, in both the spatial and frequency domains, using residuals computed from the raw COSMOS-49 data with the n* = 9 COSMOS-49 field model as reference. The two sets of data were thus derived from completely independent sets of observations and field references. The two patterns are shown to agree very well over the whole earth surface up to the 50 deg latitude limit of COSMOS-49.

  11. Galaxy Zoo: an independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C.; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Smith, Arfon M.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2014-03-01

    We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used both to identify the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of 2, from 22 ± 5 per cent at z = 0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11 ± 2 per cent at z = 1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log (M⋆/M⊙) ≥ 10.0], cannot be due to redshift-dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a sample of 98 red disc galaxies. These galaxies have a high bar fraction (45 ± 5 per cent), and are missing from other COSMOS samples which used SED fitting or colours to identify high-redshift discs. Our results are consistent with a picture in which the evolution of massive disc galaxies begins to be affected by slow (secular) internal process at z ˜ 1. We discuss possible connections of the decrease in bar fraction to the redshift, including the growth of stable disc galaxies, mass evolution of the gas content in disc galaxies, as well as the mass-dependent effects of tidal interactions.

  12. Evolution of the Frequency of Luminous (>=L*V) Close Galaxy Pairs at z < 1.2 in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, J. S.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Calzetti, D.; Capak, P.; Koekemoer, A.; Mobasher, B.; Murayama, T.; Salvato, M.; Sasaki, S. S.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2007-09-01

    We measure the fraction of luminous galaxies in pairs at projected separations of 5-20 kpc out to z=1.2 in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field using ACS images and photometric redshifts derived from an extensive multiwavelength data set. Analysis of a complete sample of 106,188 galaxies more luminous than MV=-19.8 (~L*V) in the redshift range 0.1COSMOS pair sample for chance line-of-sight superpositions, the evolution in the pair fraction is fit by a power law ~(1+z)n=3.1+/-0.1. If this strongly evolving pair fraction continues out to higher redshift, ~50% of all luminous galaxies at z~2 are in close pairs. This clearly signifies that galaxy mergers are a very significant and possibly dominant mechanism for galaxy evolution during the epoch of galaxy formation at z=1-3. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by AURA, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii.

  13. HUBBLE SENDS SEASON'S GREETINGS FROM THE COSMOS TO EARTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, this image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth, where nature seems to have put on the traditional colors of the season. These colors, produced by the light emitted by oxygen and hydrogen, help astronomers investigate the star-forming processes in nebulas such as NGC 2080. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that have attracted special attention. These regions have been studied in detail with Hubble and have long been identified as unique star-forming sites. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the whole local group of galaxies. The light from the nebula captured in this image is emitted by two elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The red and the blue light are from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind (a stream of high-speed particles) coming from a massive star just outside the image. The white region in the center is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. The intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in the surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) - are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from a single massive star. A2 has a more complex appearance due to the presence of more dust, and it contains several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newly born stars. The research team noted that Hubble

  14. Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    The COSMOS -PEER Lifelines Project 2L02 completed a Pilot Geotechnical Virtual Data Center (GVDC) system capable of both archiving geotechnical data and of disseminating data from multiple linked geotechnical databases. The Pilot GVDC system links geotechnical databases of four organizations: the California Geological Survey, Caltrans, PG&E, and the U. S. Geological Survey The System was presented and reviewed in the COSMOS-PEER Lifelines workshop on June 21 - 23, 2004, which was co-sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and included participation by the United Kingdom Highways Agency (UKHA) , the Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists in the United Kingdom (AGS), the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACOE), Caltrans, United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Geological Survey (CGS), a number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), county building code officials, and representatives of academic institutions and private sector geotechnical companies. As of February 2005 COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 is currently funded to accomplish the following tasks: 1) expand the Pilot GVDC Geotechnical Data Dictionary and XML Schema to include data definitions and structures to describe in-situ measurements such as shear wave velocity profiles, and additional laboratory geotechnical test types; 2) participate in an international cooperative working group developing a single geotechnical data exchange standard that has broad international acceptance; and 3) upgrade the GVDC system to support corresponding exchange standard data dictionary and schema improvements. The new geophysical data structures being developed will include PS-logs, downhole geophysical logs, cross-hole velocity data, and velocity profiles derived using surface waves. A COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Geophysical Data Dictionary Working Committee constituted of experts in the development of data dictionary standards and experts in the specific data to be

  15. Experimental and calculated LET distributions in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Dudkin, V. E.; Karpov, O. N.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Moiseenko, A. A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    During the flight of the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite, joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. investigations of different characteristics of cosmic radiation (CR) in the near-Earth environment were carried out. The U.S. dielectric track detectors CR-39 and Soviet BYa- and BR-type nuclear photo-emulsions were used as detectors. The present work shows some results of experimental measurements of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of CR particles obtained with the use of these detectors, which were placed both inside and outside the satellite. The LET spectra measurements with plastic detectors is composed of two parts: the measurement of galactic cosmos rays (GCR) particles, and of short-range particles. The contributions of these components to the total LET distribution at various thicknesses of the shielding were analyzed and the results of these studies are presented. Calculated LET spectra in the Cosmos-2044 orbit were compared with experimental data. On the basis of experimental and calculated values of the LET spectra, absorbed and equivalent CR doses were calculated. In the shielding range of 1-1.5 g cm(exp -2), outside the spacecraft, the photo-emulsions yielded 10.3 mrad d(exp -1) and 13.4 mrem d(exp -1) (LET greater than or equal to 40 MeV cm(exp -1)). Inside the spacecraft (greater than or equal to 10 g cm(exp -2) the photo-emulsions yielded 8.9 mrad d(exp -1) and 14.5 mrem d(exp -1).

  16. The Self-Evolving Cosmos: A Phenomenological Approach to Nature's Unity-in-Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    ch. 1. Introduction: individuation and the quest for unity -- ch. 2. The obstacle to unification in modern physics. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Does contemporary mathematical physics actually depart from the classical formulation? -- ch. 3. The phenomenological challenge to the classical formula -- ch. 4. Topological phenomenology. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Phenomenological intuition, topology, and the Klein bottle. 4.3. The physical significance of the Klein bottle -- ch. 5. The dimensional family of topological spinors. 5.1. Generalization of intuitive topology. 5.2. Topodimensional spin matrix -- ch. 6. Basic principles of dimensional transformation. 6.1. Synsymmetry and the self-transformation of space. 6.2. From symmetry breaking to dimensional generation. 6.3. The three basic stages of dimensional generation. 6.4. Kleinian topogeny -- ch. 7. Waves carrying waves: the co-evolution of lifeworlds -- ch. 8. The forces of nature. 8.1. The phenomenon of light. 8.2. Phenomenological Kaluza-Klein theory. 8.3. Summary comparison of conventional and topo-phenomenological approaches to Kaluza-Klein theory -- ch. 9. Cosmogony, symmetry, and phenomenological intuition. 9.1. Conventional view of the evolving cosmos. 9.2. The problem of symmetry. 9.3. A new kind of clarity -- ch. 10. The self-evolving cosmos. 10.1. Introduction to the cosmogonic matrix. 10.2. Overview of cosmic evolution. 10.3. The role of the fermions in dimensional generation. 10.4. Projective stages of cosmogony: dimensional divergence. 10.5. Proprioceptive stages of cosmogony: dimensional convergence. 10.6. Conclusion: wider horizons of cosmic evolution -- ch. 11. The psychophysics of cosmogony. 11.1. Psychical aspects of the fundamental particles. 11.2. Toward a reflexive physics. 11.3. Concretization of the self-evolving cosmos.

  17. Catecholamines and their enzymes in discrete brain areas of rats after space flight on biosatellites Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvetǹanskỳ, R.; Čulman, J.; Serova, L. V.; Tigranjan, R. A.; Torda, T.; Macho, L.

    The activity of the catecholaminergic system was measured in the hypothalamus of rats which had experienced an 18.5-19.5-day-long stay in the state of weightlessness during space flights on board Soviet biosatellites of the type Cosmos. In the first two experiments, Cosmos 782 and 936, the concentration of norepinephrine and the activities of synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase and of the degrading enzyme monoamine oxidase were measured in the total hypothalamus. None of the given parameters was changed after space flight. In the light of the changes of these parameters recorded after exposure to acute stress on Earth, this finding indicates that long-term state of weightlessness does not represent an intensive stressogenic stimulus for the system studied. In the space experiment Cosmos 1129, the concentration of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine was studied in isolated nuclei of the hypothalamus of rats within 6-10 hr following return from space. Norepinephrine was found to be significantly reduced in the arcuate nucleus, median eminence and periventricular nucleus, epinephrine in the median eminence, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, whereas dopamine was not significantly changed after space flight. The decreased catecholamine levels found in some hypothalamic nuclei of rats which had undergone space flight indicate that no chronic intensive stressor could have acted during the flight, otherwise the catecholamine concentration would have been increased in the nuclei. The decreased levels must have been induced by the effect of a stressogenic factor acting for a short time only, and that either during the landing maneuver or immediately after landing. Thus long-term exposure of the organism to the state of weightlessness does not represent a stressogenic stimulus for the catecholaminergic system in the hypothalamus, which is one of the regulators of the activation of neuroendocrine reactions under stress.

  18. Current twin studies in Germany: report on CoSMoS, SOEP, and ChronoS.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Elisabeth; Gottschling, Juliana; Spinath, Frank M

    2013-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of three recent German twin studies: CoSMoS, SOEP, and ChronoS. The German twin study on Cognitive Ability, Self-Reported Motivation, and School Achievement (CoSMoS) is a three-wave longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together, and aims to investigate predictors of and influences on school performance. In the first wave of the data collection in 2005, 408 pairs of twins aged between 7 and 11 as well as their parents participated in CoSMoS. The SOEP twin study is an extended twin study, which has combined data from monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together with additional data from full sibling pairs, mother-child, and grandparent-child dyads who participated in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study. The SOEP twin project comprises about 350 twin and 950 non-twin pairs aged between 17 and 70. Data were collected between 2009 and 2010, with a focus on personality traits, wellbeing, education, employment, income, living situation, life-satisfaction, and several attitudes. The aim of the Chronotype twin study (ChronoS) was to examine genetic and environmental influences on chronotype (morningness and eveningness), coping strategies, and several aspects of the previous SOEP twin project in a sample of 301 twin pairs aged between 19 and 76 years, recruited in 2010 and 2011. Part of the ChronoS twin sample also participated in the earlier SOEP twin study, representing a second wave of assessments. We briefly describe the design and contents of these three studies as well as selected recent findings.

  19. A spectral energy distribution analysis of AGN host galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Civano, Francesca M.; Hasinger, Guenther; Elvis, Martin; Marchesi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We present the host galaxy properties of a large sample of ~ 4000 X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey to investigate the connection between BH accretion and host galaxy. The COSMOS Legacy survey reaching X-ray fluxes of 2x10-16 (cgs) in the 0.5-2 keV band, bridges the gap between large area shallow surveys and pencil beamed one. Making use of the existing multi-wavelength photometric data available for 96.6% of the sources, COSMOS Legacy survey provides a uniquely large sample to derive host galaxy properties for both obscured and unobscured sources. We perform a multi-component modeling from far-infrared (500 μm) when available to UV (1500 Å) using a 3-component fitting (nuclear hot dust, galaxy and starburst components) for obscured AGN and a 4-component fitting (nuclear hot dust, AGN big blue bump, galaxy, and starburst components) for unobscured AGN. Galaxy templates are from the stellar population synthesis models of Bruzual & Charlot (2003), nuclear hot dust templates are taken from Silva et al. (2004), and AGN big blue bump templates are from Richards et al. (2006). We use the column density information measured in the X-ray to constrain the AGN in the infrared band when available. Through detailed analysis of the broad-band spectral energy distribution, we derive the stellar masses and the star formation rates of the host galaxy as well as the nuclear and galaxy contribution at each frequency. We study the dependence of host galaxy properties on redshifts, luminosities, and black hole masses to infer the growth history of galaxies and black holes and we compare with a sample of inactive galaxies.

  20. Popularization of Astronomy: From Models of the Cosmos to Stargazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    2007-06-01

    "Raritäten- und Wunderkammern" of the Baroque period were a microscopic image of the macroscopic world, in which astronomical instruments, orreries and celestial globes played an important role. The Gottorf globe in the ducal castle in Schleswig (1664) and, much later, the Atwood sphere in Chicago (1913) allowed demonstration of star rising and setting for several people sitting inside. An improved version of this idea, a more sophisticated device, was the projection planetarium, invented by Zeiss of Jena and inaugurated in 1925 in Munich. The "Urania" had already opened in Berlin in 1888, showing the real sky from a public observatory, as well as giving theatrical performances about the origin and evolution of the universe. And, since 1909, visitors to Berlin's Archenhold Observatory have enjoyed stargazing with its impressive "20-m-long" refractor. All these models and instruments were successfully used for the public understanding of science and astronomy, and always created a strong attraction.

  1. Gargantuan Super Spiral Galaxies Loom Large in the Cosmos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-17

    In archived NASA data, researchers have discovered "super spiral" galaxies that dwarf our own spiral galaxy, the Milky Way, and compete in size and brightness with the largest galaxies in the universe. The unprecedented galaxies have long hidden in plain sight by mimicking the appearance of typical spirals. Three examples of super spirals are presented here in images taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The super spiral on the left (Figure 1), catalogued as 2MASX J08542169+0449308, contains two galactic nuclei, instead of just the usual one, and thus looks like two eggs frying in a pan. The central image (Figure 2) shows a super spiral designated 2MASX J16014061+2718161, and it also contains the double nuclei. On the right (Figure 3), a huge galaxy with the moniker SDSS J094700.08+254045.7 stands as one of the biggest and brightest super spirals. The mega-galaxy's starry disk and spiral arms stretch about 320,000 light-years across, or more than three times the breadth of the Milky Way. These double nuclei, which are known to result from the recent merger of two galaxies, could offer a vital hint about the potential origin of super spirals. Researchers speculate that a special merger involving two, gas-rich spiral galaxies could see their pooled gases settle down into a new, larger stellar disk -- presto, a super spiral. The super spirals were discovered using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, or NED, an online repository containing information on over 100 million galaxies. NED brings together a wealth of data from many different projects, including ultraviolet light observations from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, visible light from Sloan Digital Sky Survey, infrared light from the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey, and links to data from other missions such as NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20064

  2. Gamma-ray burst afterglows as probes of their host galaxies and the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiara, Antonino

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) represent the sole class of catastrophic phenomena seen over almost the entire history of the Universe. Their extreme luminosities in high energy gamma-ray radiation make them readily detectable, even with relatively small satellite-based detectors, out to the earliest cosmic epochs. Moreover, the brilliance of their fading afterglow light, routinely observed in X-ray, optical, near-infrared, and radio wavelengths, allows them to be exploited -- for hours, days, or weeks -- as cosmic lighthouses, probing the conditions of gas and dust along the line of sight, through their host galaxies and the cosmos at large. Since the November 2004 launch of Swift, this GRB-focused NASA mission has discovered more than 500 GRBs, in almost all cases reporting the burst coordinates to ground-based observers within seconds of the event. The availability of prompt burst positions from Swift, combined with promptly-reported flux measurements from instruments on Swift and an array of ground-based robotic telescopes, have enabled targeted spectroscopic campaigns that have gathered detailed observations of the young, bright afterglows of hundreds of these events. This thesis reports the results of my own efforts over the past 5 years, analyzing imaging and spectroscopic observations of Swift-detected GRBs as triggered according to my own requests, or as gathered from public data archives. In Chapter 2, I discuss our follow-up campaign for GRB090429B, one of our best "extreme redshift" (z > 8) candidates. This burst followed closely on the spectroscopicallyconfirmed z = 8.2 GRB090423, and our multiwavelength observations and SED modeling demonstrate the value and limitation of such studies, in cases where a spectroscopic redshift cannot be gathered in a timely fashion. I also address the importance of such extreme-redshift events from a cosmological perspective. In Chapter 3, I use high-resolution GRB afterglow spectra to study the properties of intervening

  3. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the Soviet satellite Cosmos 1129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, M. R. (Editor); Souza, K. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies; experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  4. Effects of the Cosmos 1129 Soviet paste diet on body composition in the growing rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Six Simonsen albino rats (45 days of age) were placed on a regimen of 40 g/day the semipurified Soviet paste diet used in the 18.5 day Cosmos 1129 spacecraft was to support the rats for various experiments on the physiological effects of weightlessness. The animals were maintained on the Soviet paste diet for 35 days, metabolic rate was measured and body composition was determined by direct analysis. The results were compared with a control group of rates of the same age, which had been kept on a standard commercial grain diet during the same period of time.

  5. Gamma-Ray Detectors: From Homeland Security to the Cosmos (443rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey

    2008-12-03

    Many radiation detectors are first developed for homeland security or industrial applications. Scientists, however, are continuously realizing new roles that these detectors can play in high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments. On Wednesday, December 3, join presenter Aleksey Bolotnikov, a physicist in the Nonproliferation and National Security Department (NNSD) and a co-inventor of the cadmium-zinc-telluride Frisch-ring (CdZnTe) detector, for the 443rd Brookhaven Lecture, entitled Gamma-Ray Detectors: From Homeland Security to the Cosmos. In his lecture, Bolotnikov will highlight two primary radiation-detector technologies: CdZnTe detectors and fluid-Xeon (Xe) detectors.

  6. Cosmos 1887 mission overview - Effects of microgravity on rat body and adrenal weights and plasma constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Vasques, M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Popova, I. A.

    1990-01-01

    Tissues of male, specific pathogen-free Wistar rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite are studied. First the mission is described, and then analytical methods are outlined. It is noted that flight rats grew more slowly and had larger adrenal glands than earth gravity controls. Analysis of plasma reveals increased concentrations of hepatic alkaline phosphatase, glucose, urea nitrogen, and creatinine in flight rats. In contrast, electrolytes, total protein, albumin, corticosteron, prolactin, and immunoreactive growth hormone levels are unchanged. However, testosterone concentration is marginally decreased after flight and thyroid hormone levels are suggestive of reduced thyroid function.

  7. Analyses of plasma for metabolic and hormonal changes in rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Mullins, Richard E.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas samples from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for the levels of key metabolites, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in glucose, cholesterol, phosphate, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased levels of thyroxine. Most of these differences were not mimicked by tail suspension of ground-based rats; however, both flight and suspended rats exhibited inhibited testosterone secretion. Corticosterone, immunoreactive growth hormone, and prolactin showed inconsistent differences from the various control groups, suggesting that the levels of these hormones were not due to actual or simulated microgravity.

  8. The Collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251: The Shape of Things to Come

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, Johnson

    2009-01-01

    The collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 was the most severe accidental fragmentation on record. More than 1800 debris approx. 10 cm and larger were produced. If solar activity returns to normal, half of the tracked debris will reenter within five years. Less than 60 cataloged debris had reentered by 1 October 2009. Some debris from both satellites will remain in orbit through the end of the century. The collision rate of one every five years will increase without future removal of large derelict spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages.

  9. [Principal results of physiological experiments with mammals aboard biosatellite "Cosmos-936"].

    PubMed

    Gazenko, O G; Il'in, E A; Genin, A M; Kotovskaia, A R; Korol'kov, V I

    1980-01-01

    The program of the 18.5-day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-936 included studies of physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness (20 rats) and artificial gravity (10 rats). The latter produced a normalizing effect on the function of the myocardium, musculo-skeletal system and excretory system. Simultaneously, artificial gravity exerted an adverse effect on the functions dependent on several sensors, primarily optic, vestibular and motor sensors. It is postulated that the adverse effects are associated with a relatively high rate of rotation and a short arm of the centrifuge.

  10. Variability-Selected AGNs In The 3 Yr Survey Of The Cosmos Field By The VST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, Demetra; Paolillo, M.; Covone, G.; Longo, G.; Poulain, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Vagnetti, F.; Falocco, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Pignata, G.; Cappellaro, E.; Vaccari, M.; Salvato, M.; Radovich, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Capaccioli, M.

    2016-10-01

    The present work is aimed at detecting AGNs in the COSMOS field on the basis of their optical variability, using data from the SUDARE survey by the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The effectiveness of the method against other traditional photometric approaches was already explored in De Cicco+ 2015. Here we take advantage of the long (> 3yr) observing baseline to achieve great improvement in the completeness of our sample and to make use of the structure function of our confirmed AGNs to characterize the sample.

  11. Starburst galaxies in the COSMOS field: clumpy star-formation at redshift 0 < z < 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa-Goñi, R.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. At high redshift, starburst galaxies present irregular morphologies with 10-20% of their star formation occurring in giant clumps. These clumpy galaxies are considered the progenitors of local disk galaxies. To understand the properties of starbursts at intermediate and low redshift, it is fundamental to track their evolution and the possible link with the systems at higher z. Aims: We present an extensive, systematic, and multiband search and analysis of the starburst galaxies at redshift (0 < z < 0.5) in the COSMOS field, as well as detailed characteristics of their star-forming clumps by using Hubble Space Telescope/Advance Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) images. Methods: The starburst galaxies are identified using a tailor-made intermediate-band color excess selection, tracing the simultaneous presence of Hα and [OIII] emission lines in the galaxies. Our methodology uses previous information from the zCOSMOS spectral database to calibrate the color excess as a function of the equivalent width of both spectral lines. This technique allows us to identify 220 starburst galaxies at redshift 0 < z < 0.5 using the SUBARU intermediate-band filters. Combining the high spatial resolution images from the HST/ACS with ground-based multi-wavelength photometry, we identify and parametrize the star-forming clumps in every galaxy. Their principal properties, sizes, masses, and star formation rates are provided. Results: The mass distribution of the starburst galaxies is remarkably similar to that of the whole galaxy sample with a peak around M/M⊙ ~ 2 × 108 and only a few galaxies with M/M⊙ > 1010. We classify galaxies into three main types, depending on their HST morphology: single knot (Sknot), single star-forming knot plus diffuse light (Sknot+diffuse), and multiple star-forming knots (Mknots/clumpy) galaxy. We found a fraction of Mknots/clumpy galaxy fclumpy = 0.24 considering out total sample of starburst galaxies up to z ~ 0.5. The individual star

  12. High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology from Space: NASA's Physics of the Cosmos Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautz, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    We summarize currently-funded NASA activities in high energy astrophysics and cosmology embodied in the NASA Physics of the Cosmos program, including updates on technology development and mission studies. The portfolio includes participation in a space mission to measure gravitational waves from a variety of astrophysical sources, including binary black holes, throughout most of cosmic history, and in another to map the evolution of black hole accretion by means of the accompanying X-ray emission. These missions are envisioned as collaborations with the European Space Agency's Large 3 (L3) and Athena programs, respectively. It also features definition of a large, NASA-led X-ray Observatory capable of tracing the surprisingly rapid growth of supermassive black holes during the first billion years of cosmic history. The program also includes the study of cosmic rays and high-energy gamma-ray photons resulting from range of physical processes, and efforts to characterize both the physics of inflation associated with the birth of the universe and the nature of the dark energy that dominates its mass-energy content today. Finally, we describe the activities of the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group, which serves as a forum for community analysis and input to NASA.

  13. Cosmic ray LET spectra and doses on board Cosmos-2044 biosatellite

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.W. Jr.; Parnell, T.A.; Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Potapov, Yu.V.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Benton, E.R.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C. |||

    1995-03-01

    Results of the experiments on board Cosmos-2044 (Biosatellite 9) are presented. Various nuclear track detectors (NTD) (dielectric, AgCl-based, nuclear emulsions) were used to obtain the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra inside and outside the satellite. The spectra from the different NTDs have proved to be in general agreement. The results of LET spectra calculations using two different models are also presented. The resultant LET distributions are used to calculate the absorbed and equivalent doses and the orbit-averaged quality factors (QF) of the cosmic rays (CR). Absorbed dose rates inside (approximately 20 g cm {sup {minus}2} shielding) and outside (1 g cm{sup {minus}2}) the spacecraft, omitting electrons, were found to be 4.8 and 8.6 mrad d{sup {minus}1}, respectively, while the corresponding equivalent doses were 8.8 and 19.7 mrem d{sup {minus}1}. The effects of the flight parameters on the total fluence of, and on the dose from the CR particles are analyzed. Integral dose distributions of the detected particles are also determined. The LET values which separate absorbed and equivalent doses into 50% intervals are estimated. The CR-39 dielectric NTD is shown to detect 20-30% of the absorbed dose and 60-70% of the equivalent dose in the Cosmos-2044 orbit. The influence of solar activity phase on the magnitude of CR flux is discussed.

  14. Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2014-09-01

    We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.

  15. Final Science Reports of the US Experiments Flown on the Russian Biosatellite Cosmos 2229

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor); Helwig, Denice A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Cosmos 2229 was launched on December 29, 1992, containing a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, insects, amphibians, and cell cultures. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia for a mission duration of 11.5 days. The major research objectives were: (1) Study of adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; and (2) Study of physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases. American scientists and their Russian collaborators conducted 11 experiments on this mission which included extensive preflight and postflight studies with rhesus monkeys. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included the development of experiment protocols, the fabrication of some flight instrumentation and experiment-specific ground-based hardware, the conducting of preflight and postflight testing and the analysis of biospecimens and data for the U.S. experiments. A description of the Cosmos 2229 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and postflight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and Russia is also described, along with the associated preflight testing ot the U.S. hardware. Final Science Reports for the experiments are also included.

  16. OBSERVATIONAL LIMITS ON TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACCRETION RATE IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Gabor, Jared; Kelly, Brandon C.; Elvis, Martin; Hao Heng; Huchra, John P.; Merloni, Andrea; Bongiorno, Angela; Brusa, Marcella; Cappelluti, Nico; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Koekemoer, Anton; Nagao, Tohru; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2009-07-20

    We present black hole masses and accretion rates for 182 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in COSMOS. We estimate masses using the scaling relations for the broad H {beta}, Mg II, and C IV emission lines in the redshift ranges 0.16 < z < 0.88, 1 < z < 2.4, and 2.7 < z < 4.9. We estimate the accretion rate using an Eddington ratio L{sub I}/L{sub Edd} estimated from optical and X-ray data. We find that very few Type 1 AGNs accrete below L{sub I} /L{sub Edd} {approx} 0.01, despite simulations of synthetic spectra which show that the survey is sensitive to such Type 1 AGNs. At lower accretion rates the broad-line region may become obscured, diluted, or nonexistent. We find evidence that Type 1 AGNs at higher accretion rates have higher optical luminosities, as more of their emission comes from the cool (optical) accretion disk with respect to shorter wavelengths. We measure a larger range in accretion rate than previous works, suggesting that COSMOS is more efficient at finding low accretion rate Type 1 AGNs. However, the measured range in accretion rate is still comparable to the intrinsic scatter from the scaling relations, suggesting that Type 1 AGNs accrete at a narrow range of Eddington ratio, with L{sub I} /L{sub Edd} {approx} 0.1.

  17. The effects of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) supplementation on bone biochemical parameters in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Norazlina; Yin, Chai Mei; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza; Babji, Abdul Salam; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2013-09-01

    Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja) contains high mineral content and possesses high antioxidant activity which may be beneficial in bone disorder such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. The effects of C. caudatus on bone metabolism biomarkers in ovariectomized rats were studied. 48 Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months were divided into 6 groups. One group of rats was sham-operated while the remaining rats were ovariectomized. The ovariectomized rats were further divided into 5 groups: the control, three groups force-fed with C. caudatus at the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg or 300mg/kg and another group supplemented with calcium 1% ad libitum. Treatments were given 6 days per week for a period of eight weeks. Blood samples were collected twice; before and after treatment. Parameters measured were bone resorbing cytokine; interleukin-1 and the bone biomarkers; osteocalcin and pyridinoline. Serum IL-1 and pyridinoline levels were significantly increased in ovariectomized rats. Supplementation of C. caudatus was able to prevent the increase of IL-1 and pyridinoline in ovariectomized rats. Besides that, C. caudatus showed the same effect as calcium 1% on biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. In conclusion, Cosmos caudatus was as effective as calcium in preventing the increase in bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

  18. The Effects of Cosmos caudatus on Structural Bone Histomorphometry in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Norazlina; Gwee Sian Khee, Sharon; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza; Suhaimi, Farihah; Othman, Faizah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is considered a serious debilitating disease. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja), a plant containing antioxidant compounds and minerals, may be used to treat and prevent osteoporosis. This study determines the effectiveness of C. caudatus as bone protective agent in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-two female rats, aged 3 months old, were divided into 4 groups. Group one was sham operated (sham) while group two was ovariectomized. These two groups were given ionized water by forced feeding. Groups three and four were ovariectomized and given calcium 1% ad libitum and force-fed with C. caudatus at the dose of 500 mg/kg, respectively. Treatments were given six days per week for a period of eight weeks. Body weight was monitored every week and structural bone histomorphometry analyses of the femur bones were performed. Ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), decreased trabecular number (Tb.N), and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Both calcium 1% and 500 mg/kg C. caudatus reversed the above structural bone histomorphometric parameters to normal level. C. caudatus shows better effect compared to calcium 1% on trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Therefore, Cosmos caudatus 500 mg/kg has the potential to act as the therapeutic agent to restore bone damage in postmenopausal women.

  19. Flying U.S. science on the U.S.S.R. Cosmos biosatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. W.; Rossberg Walker, K.

    1992-01-01

    The USSR Cosmos Biosatellites are unmanned missions with durations of approximately 14 days. They are capable of carrying a wide variety of biological specimens such as cells, tissues, plants, and animals, including rodents and rhesus monkeys. The absence of a crew is an advantage with respect to the use of radioisotopes or other toxic materials and contaminants, but a disadvantage with respect to the performance of inflight procedures or repair of hardware failures. Thus, experiments hardware and procedures must be either completely automated or remotely controlled from the ground. A serious limiting factor for experiments is the amount of electrical powers available, so when possible experiments should be self-contained with their own batteries and data recording devices. Late loading is restricted to approximately 48 hours before launch and access time upon recovery is not precise since there is a ballistic reentry and the capsule must first be located and recovery vehicles dispatched to the site. Launches are quite reliable and there is a proven track record of nine previous Biosatellite flights. This paper will present data and experience from the seven previous Cosmos flights in which the US has participated as well as the key areas of consideration in planning a flight investigation aboard this Biosatellite platform.

  20. Cosmic ray LET spectra and doses on board Cosmos-2044 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Results of the experiments on board Cosmos-2044 (Biosatellite 9) are presented. Various nuclear track detectors (NTD) (dielectric, AgCl-based, nuclear emulsions) were used to obtain the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra inside and outside the satellite. The spectra from the different NTDs have proved to be in general agreement. The results of LET spectra calculations using two different models are also presented. The resultant LET distributions are used to calculate the absorbed and equivalent doses and the orbit-averaged quality factors (QF) of the cosmic rays (CR). Absorbed dose rates inside (approximately 20 g cm (exp -2) shielding) and outside (1 g cm(exp -2) the spacecraft, omitting electrons, were found to be 4.8 and 8.6 mrad d (exp -1), respectively, while the corresponding equivalent doses were 8.8 and 19.7 mrem d(exp -1). The effects of the flight parameters on the total fluence of, and on the dose from the CR particles are analyzed. Integral dose distributions of the detected particles are also determined. The LET values which separate absorbed and equivalent doses into 50% intervals are estimated. The CR-39 dielectric NTD is shown to detect 20-30% of the absorbed dose and 60-70% of the equivalent dose in the Cosmos-2044 orbit. The influence of solar activity phase on the magnitude of CR flux is discussed.

  1. COSMOS: COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System planned for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweck, C.; Zreda, M.; Shuttleworth, J.; Zeng, X.

    2008-12-01

    Because soil water exerts a critical control on weather, climate, ecosystem, and water cycle, understanding soil moisture changes in time and space is crucial for many fields within natural sciences. A serious handicap in soil moisture measurements is the mismatch between limited point measurements using contact methods and remote sensing estimates over large areas. We present a novel method to measure soil moisture non- invasively at an intermediate spatial scale that will alleviate this problem. The method takes advantage of the dependence of cosmic-ray neutron intensity on the hydrogen content of soils (Zreda et al., Geophysical Research Letters, accepted). Low-energy cosmic-ray neutrons are produced and moderated in the soil, transported from the soil into the atmosphere where they are measured with a cosmic-ray neutron probe to provide integrated soil moisture content over a footprint of several hundred meters and a depth of a few decimeters. The method and the instrument are intended for deployment in the continental-scale COSMOS network that is designed to cover the contiguous region of the USA. Fully deployed, the COSMOS network will consist of up to 500 probes, and will provide continuous soil moisture content (together with atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity) measured and reported hourly. These data will be used for initialization and assimilation of soil moisture conditions in weather and short-term (seasonal) climate forecasting, and for other land-surface applications.

  2. Destiny or chance : our solar system and its place in the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross

    Written by a leading planetary scientist, this book tells the remarkable story of how our solar system came into existence. It provides a fast-paced and expert tour of our new understanding of the Earth, its planetary neighbours and other planetary systems. In a whirlwind adventure, we are shown how the formation of mighty Jupiter dominated the solar system, why Mars is so small, where comets come from, how rings form around planets, why asteroids exist and why Pluto isn't a planet at all. En route we discover that chance events have shaped the course of the history of our solar system. Dramatic collisions, for example, have caused the tilts and spins of the planets, the extinction of the dinosaurs and the rise of man. Finally, we look at how suitable Earth is for harbouring life, what other planetary systems look like and whether we are alone in the cosmos. For all those interested in understanding our solar system and its plac e in the cosmos, this is a lucid and compelling read.

  3. CANDELS Multi-wavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS COSMOS Survey Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyeri, H.; Hemmati, S.; Mobasher, B.; Ferguson, H. C.; Cooray, A.; Barro, G.; Faber, S. M.; Dickinson, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Peth, M.; Salvato, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Darvish, B.; Donley, J.; Durbin, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Fontana, A.; Grogin, N. A.; Gruetzbauch, R.; Huang, K.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kocevski, D.; Kodra, D.; Lee, B.; Newman, J.; Pacifici, C.; Pforr, J.; Stefanon, M.; Wiklind, T.; Willner, S. P.; Wuyts, S.; Castellano, M.; Conselice, C.; Dolch, T.; Dunlop, J. S.; Galametz, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Lucas, R. A.; Yan, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric catalog in the COSMOS field as part of the observations by the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The catalog is based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of the COSMOS field (centered at R.A.: {10}{{h}}{00}{{m}}{28}{{s}}, Decl.: +02^\\circ 12\\prime {21}\\prime\\prime ). The final catalog has 38671 sources with photometric data in 42 bands from UV to the infrared (∼ 0.3{--}8 μ {{m}}). This includes broadband photometry from HST, CFHT, Subaru, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, and Spitzer Space Telescope in the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands along with intermediate- and narrowband photometry from Subaru and medium-band data from Mayall NEWFIRM. Source detection was conducted in the WFC3 F160W band (at 1.6 μm) and photometry is generated using the Template FITting algorithm. We further present a catalog of the physical properties of sources as identified in the HST F160W band and measured from the multi-band photometry by fitting the observed spectral energy distributions of sources against templates.

  4. High-Performance Computer Modeling of the Cosmos-Iridium Collision

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S; Cook, K; Fasenfest, B; Jefferson, D; Jiang, M; Leek, J; Levatin, J; Nikolaev, S; Pertica, A; Phillion, D; Springer, K; De Vries, W

    2009-08-28

    This paper describes the application of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness (SSA) enterprise, to the recent Cosmos-Iridium collision. This framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel, high-performance computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We will describe the application of this framework to the recent collision of the Cosmos and Iridium satellites, including (1) detailed hydrodynamic modeling of the satellite collision and resulting debris generation, (2) orbital propagation of the simulated debris and analysis of the increased risk to other satellites (3) calculation of the radar and optical signatures of the simulated debris and modeling of debris detection with space surveillance radar and optical systems (4) determination of simulated debris orbits from modeled space surveillance observations and analysis of the resulting orbital accuracy, (5) comparison of these modeling and simulation results with Space Surveillance Network observations. We will also discuss the use of this integrated modeling and simulation framework to analyze the risks and consequences of future satellite collisions and to assess strategies for mitigating or avoiding future incidents, including the addition of new sensor systems, used in conjunction with the Space Surveillance Network, for improving space situational awareness.

  5. Retreat to Eden: Time and the Cosmos in Monet's Images of Giverny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to explain Claude Monet's obsession with water lilies in the last 25 years of his life through an interdisciplinary approach combining ideas from the history of landscape design, social history, and anthropology. Offers Monet's gardens at Giverny (France), his series paintings, and the railroad as some possible influences on his painting.…

  6. Retreat to Eden: Time and the Cosmos in Monet's Images of Giverny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to explain Claude Monet's obsession with water lilies in the last 25 years of his life through an interdisciplinary approach combining ideas from the history of landscape design, social history, and anthropology. Offers Monet's gardens at Giverny (France), his series paintings, and the railroad as some possible influences on his painting.…

  7. Field-scale moisture estimates using COSMOS sensors: a validation study with temporary networks and leaf-area-indices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) is a new and innovative method for estimating surface and near surface soil moisture at large (~700 m) scales. This system accounts for liquid water within its measurement volume. Many of the sites used in the early validation of the system had...

  8. CoSMoS and TwinPaW: initial report on two new German twin studies.

    PubMed

    Spinath, Frank M; Wolf, Heike

    2006-12-01

    After briefly recapitulating two earlier German twin studies (BiLSAT and GOSAT), we present two new German twin studies with a longitudinal perspective: CoSMoS and TwinPaW. The twin study on Cognitive ability, Self-reported Motivation and School performance (CoSMoS) aims to investigate predictors and influences of school performance in a genetically sensitive design, beginning with children in late elementary school. The Twin study on Personality And Wellbeing (TwinPaW) focuses on adult personality and its relation to physical health as well as health-related behavior in an adult sample of twins. Both studies are characterized by an effort to recruit new large twin samples through a novel recruitment procedure aimed at reducing self-selective sampling. In two German federal states, contact information on persons born on the same day and with the same name was retrieved from record sections. From the resulting pool of more than 36,000 addresses we contacted approximately 2000 parents of twins aged 9 and 10 for CoSMoS, as well as 2000 adult twin pairs for TwinPaW by telephone and mail. Personal contact by telephone proved to be more efficient with agreement rates of 63% in the children sample and 65% in the adult sample. In this article we briefly describe the rationale and the study aims of CoSMoS and TwinPaW as well as the characteristics of the sample we have recruited so far.

  9. Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Oliver H.; Krasnov, Igor; Kakueva, E. Ilyina; Nemeth, Patti M.; Mcdougal, David B., Jr.; Choksi, Rati; Carter, Joyce G.; Chi, Maggie M. Y.; Manchester, Jill K.; Pusateri, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The effects of microgravity and hind limb suspension on the enzyme patterns are assessed within a slow twitch muscle (soleus) and a fast twitch muscle (tibialis anterior). Studies were made on 95 soleus fibers and about 300 tibialis anterior (TA) fibers. Over 2200 individual enzyme measurements were made. Six key metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinease, citrate kinase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate, and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight, and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution of each enzyme and amine acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

  10. Kepler's cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Martin

    1998-05-01

    Copernicus's system of the Universe was revolutionary but his method of representing it on paper was anything but. It was left to Kepler to apply Renaissance techniques of spatial visualization to make the theory come alive.

  11. Retinal changes in rats flown on Cosmos 936 - A cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R.; Turnbill, C.; Black, S.; Dayhoff, D.; Mcgourty, J.; Lee, R.; Harrison, G.; Savik, L.

    1980-01-01

    Ten rats, five centrifuged during flight to simulate gravity and five stationary in flight and experiencing hypogravity, orbited the Earth. No differences were noted between flight-stationary and flight-centrifuged animals, but changes were seen between these two groups and ground controls. Morphological alterations were observed comparable to those in the experiment flown on Cosmos 782 and to the retinal cells exposed to high-energy particles at Berkeley. Affected cells in the outer nuclear layer showed swelling, clearing of cytoplasm, and disruption of the membranes. Tissue channels were again found, similar to those seen on 782. After space flight, preliminary data indicated an increase in cell size in montages of the nuclear layer of both groups of flight animals. This experiment shows that weightlessness and environmental conditions other than cosmic radiation do not contribute to the observed damage of retinal cells.

  12. The UCI COSMOS Astronomy and Astrophysics Cluster: A Summer Program for Talented High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smecker-Hane, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    COSMOS is a month-long, summer residential program in science and engineering for high school students held each year at four University of California (UC) campuses. Its goals are to expand the scientific horizons of our most talented students by exposing them to exciting fields of research and encouraging them to pursue STEM careers. Students live on campus and choose to study one of seven or eight different subject areas called “clusters.” We run the extremely successful Astronomy & Astrophysics Cluster at UC Irvine (UCI). Over four weeks, students take lecture courses in astrophysics, perform computer lab experiments, and complete a research project conducted in a small group under the supervision of a faculty member or teaching assistant (TA). Here we discuss our curriculum, lessons learned, and quantify student outcomes. We find that putting on a summer program for high school students is highly rewarding for the students as well as the faculty and graduate students.

  13. Type-II AGN population from the zCOSMOS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, A.; Mignoli, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zcosmos Team

    2008-10-01

    I'll present the first results on the type-II AGN population isolated from the zCOSMOS bright sample which consists of 10k sources, purely magnitude selected at I=22.5. The selected type-II AGN sample consists of about 200 AGN, selected using the diagnostic diagrams up to redshift ~1.0. I'll present the properties of this sample (i.e. SED and morphology) and some preliminary results on the evolution of type-II AGN, as well as on the evolution of their fraction with respect to the total AGN population (Type-I + Type-II), as a function of both luminosity and redshift.

  14. A comparative study of seminiferous tubular epithelium from rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and SL3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, Walter J.; Williams, Carol S.; Kato, K.; Philpott, Delbert E.; Stevenson, J.; Serova, L. V.

    1989-01-01

    Space flight, with its unique environmental constraints such as immobilization, decreased and increased pressures, and radiation, is known to affect testicular morphology and spermatogenesis. Among the several biological experiments and animals on board COSMOS 1887 Biosputnik flight were 10 rats, from which were collected testicular tissue. Average weights of flight tests were 6.4 pct. below that of the vivarium control when normalized for weight loss/100 grams body weight. Counts of surviving spermatogonia per tubule cross section indicated an average of 39 spermatogonia for flight animals, 40 for synchronous controls and 44 for the vivarium controls. Serum testosterone was significantly decreased when compared to basal controls but the decrease was not significant when compared in vivarium and synchronous control groups. The significant decrease in spermatogonia and the decrease in serum testosterone are similar to that in animals flown on Space Lab 3 (Challenger Shuttle).

  15. Cosmic ray effects on the eyes of rats flown on Cosmos no. 782, Experiment K-007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R.; Turnbill, C.; Harrison, G.; Leaffer, D.; Black, S.; Sapp, W.; Klein, G.; Savik, L. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if, and to what extent, pathological damage results from high-energy particles (HZE) transversing the eye. Light flashes experienced by space travellers indicate that HZE do indeed pass through and activate the retina, but whether actual biological damage occurs has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, autopsies were performed on the eyes of rats which has been flown in Cosmos 782 satellite for 19.5 days. Comparisons with a control sample subjected to 1000 rads of Ar and Ne radiation show that pathological damage, when it occurs, affects the nucleus of the retina; simple light flashes are not thought to indicate a pathology, and result from activation of (but not damage to) the retina's outer segments.

  16. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.W. Jr.; Parnell, T.A.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L. |

    1995-03-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp {minus}1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD`s) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  17. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  18. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  19. Process development of beam-lead silicon-gate COS/MOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baptiste, B.; Boesenberg, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two processes for the fabrication of beam-leaded COS/MOS integrated circuits are described. The first process utilizes a composite gate dielectric of 800 A of silicon dioxide and 450 A of pyrolytically deposited A12O3 as an impurity barrier. The second process utilizes polysilicon gate metallization over which a sealing layer of 1000 A of pyrolytic Si3N4 is deposited. Three beam-lead integrated circuits have been implemented with the first process: (1) CD4000BL - three-input NOR gate; (2) CD4007BL - triple inverter; and (3) CD4013BL - dual D flip flop. An arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) integrated circuit was designed and implemented with the second process. The ALU chip allows addition with four bit accuracy. Processing details, device design and device characterization, circuit performance and life data are presented.

  20. The effect of artificial gravity on plasma and tissue lipids in rats: The Cosmos 936 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, I.; Praslička, M.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    Plasma and tissue lipids in male SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 days aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite were analyzed. One group of rats was subjected to artificial gravity by use of a centrifuge during the flight. An experiment simulating known space flight factors other than weightlessness was done on Earth. An increase of total cholesterol in plasma, of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma and brown adipose tissue, of triacylglycerols in plasma, liver, thymus and bone marrow was noted several hours after biosatellite landing. Smaller changes were observed in the terrestrial control experiment. With the exception of triacylglycerol accumulation in bone marrow, these increases disappeared 25 days after biosatellite landing. Exposing the rats aboard the biosatellite to artificial gravity was beneficial in the sense that such exposure inhibited the phospholipid and triacylglycerol increase in plasma and inhibited the increase of triacylglycerol in liver and especially in bone marrow.

  1. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-08

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  2. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  3. Retinal changes in rats flown on Cosmos 936 - A cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R.; Turnbill, C.; Black, S.; Dayhoff, D.; Mcgourty, J.; Lee, R.; Harrison, G.; Savik, L.

    1980-01-01

    Ten rats, five centrifuged during flight to simulate gravity and five stationary in flight and experiencing hypogravity, orbited the Earth. No differences were noted between flight-stationary and flight-centrifuged animals, but changes were seen between these two groups and ground controls. Morphological alterations were observed comparable to those in the experiment flown on Cosmos 782 and to the retinal cells exposed to high-energy particles at Berkeley. Affected cells in the outer nuclear layer showed swelling, clearing of cytoplasm, and disruption of the membranes. Tissue channels were again found, similar to those seen on 782. After space flight, preliminary data indicated an increase in cell size in montages of the nuclear layer of both groups of flight animals. This experiment shows that weightlessness and environmental conditions other than cosmic radiation do not contribute to the observed damage of retinal cells.

  4. Alterations in erythrocyte survival parameters in rats after 19.5 days aboard Cosmos 782

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Cummins, J.; Landaw, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were subjected to 19.5 days of weightless space flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite, Cosmos 782. Based on the output of CO-14, survival parameters of a cohort of erythrocytes labeled 15.5 days preflight were evaluated upon return from orbit. These were compared to vivarium control rats injected at the same time. Statistical evaluation indicates that all survival factors were altered by the space flight. The mean potential lifespan, which was 63.0 days in the control rats, was decreased to 59.0 days in the flight rats, and random hemolysis was increased three-fold in the flight rats. The measured size of the cohort was decreased, lending further support to the idea that hemolysis was accelerated during some portion of the flight. A number of factors that might be contributory to these changes are discussed, including forces associated with launch and reentry, atmospheric and environmental parameters, dietary factors, radiation, and weightlessness.

  5. Cosmos in the Classroom 2004: A Hands-on Conference on Teaching Astro 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokter, E. F. C.; Fraknoi, A.; Waller, W.

    2004-12-01

    In July, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the New England Space Science Initiative in Education hosted "Cosmos in the Classroom", a 3-day conference at Tufts University devoted to the teaching of introductory astronomy for non-science majors. About 200 instructors from around the country attended from a broad range of institutions (including many community colleges), with a significant fraction indicating that this was their first ever astronomy meeting. This poster describes the conference and reports the results of two surveys completed by participants that can be used to inform future such symposia and discussions. A thick volume of teaching materials and papers from the conference is available through the ASP.

  6. DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. F; Inan, U. S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V. S.; Helliwell, R. A.; Sobolev, Ya. P.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Gonzalez, S.

    1994-01-01

    Past work demostrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength lambda. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which lambda less than or equal to 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the local lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of approximately 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H(+) ions with energy less than or equal to 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells.

  7. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp -1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  8. Fate of the grafted ovaries from female salamander Pleurodeles waltl embarked on the cosmos 2229 flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautz, A.; Houillon, Ch.; Aimar, C.; Mitashov, V.; Dournon, C.

    The flight procedure of ``Experience Triton'' on Cosmos 2229 made necessary to sacrifice the embarked females just after landing. In order to detect genetic abnormalities in the progeny of these adult females, we have performed a surgical procedure based on the transplantation of an ovarian piece on a recipient animal. One year later, as observed after laparotomy, the grafted ovaries exhibit oogonies and some growing oocytes. In present time, out of 10 castrated and grafted adult females only one is still alive bearing a large grafted ovary. Out of 5 castred and grafted juvenile males, three are still alive, two of them exhibit a developping grafted ovary. The grafted animals will be ready for mating within a few months. Therefore, it will soon be possible to study the progeny of animals that have been submitted to space conditions.

  9. Alterations in erythrocyte survival parameters in rats after 19.5 days aboard Cosmos 782

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Cummins, J.; Landaw, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were subjected to 19.5 days of weightless space flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite, Cosmos 782. Based on the output of CO-14, survival parameters of a cohort of erythrocytes labeled 15.5 days preflight were evaluated upon return from orbit. These were compared to vivarium control rats injected at the same time. Statistical evaluation indicates that all survival factors were altered by the space flight. The mean potential lifespan, which was 63.0 days in the control rats, was decreased to 59.0 days in the flight rats, and random hemolysis was increased three-fold in the flight rats. The measured size of the cohort was decreased, lending further support to the idea that hemolysis was accelerated during some portion of the flight. A number of factors that might be contributory to these changes are discussed, including forces associated with launch and reentry, atmospheric and environmental parameters, dietary factors, radiation, and weightlessness.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The VLA-COSMOS Survey. V. 324MHz (Smolcic+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolcic, V.; Ciliegi, P.; Jelic, V.; Bondi, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Carilli, C. L.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Brkovic, A.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Karim, A.; McCracken, H.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2015-04-01

    Observations were performed in 2008 November with the VLA in its A configuration. The receivers were tuned to 324MHz (90cm, P band). A single pointing towards the COSMOS field (centred at 10:00:28.6, +02:12:21) was targeted, resulting in a primary beam diameter full width at half-maximum of 2.3°, and a resolution of 8.0"x6.0" in the final map. A total of 24h of observations were scheduled during three nights. Due to the upgrade of some VLA antennas, and the incompatibility of the P-band receivers with the upgrade, about half of the data were lost, implying a total integration time of ~12h for a 27-antenna array. (1 data file).

  11. DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, T.F.; Inan, U.S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V.S.; Helliwell, R.A.; Sobolev, Ya.P.; Chmyrev, V.M.; Gonzalez, S.

    1994-04-15

    Past work demonstrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength {lambda}. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which {lambda} {le} 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of {approximately} 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H{sup +} ions with energy {le} 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-08

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  13. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-07

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  14. Variability-Selected AGNs in the VST-SUDARE Survey of the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, D.; Falocco, S.; Paolillo, M.; Covone, G.; Longo, G.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Botticella, M. T.; Pignata, G.; Cappellaro, E.; Vaccari, M.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Salvato, M.; Radovich, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Schipani, P.

    Variability is characteristic of active galaxies; luminosity variations generally occur at all wavelengths, affecting both continuum and line emission, with timescales and amplitudes depending on the wavelength. We made use of optical variability to select AGNs in the VST-SUDARE survey of the COSMOS field, and confirmed 95 % of them by means of multiwavelength data from overlapping surveys. The analysis returns a sample of AGN candidates with 81 % purity and 15 % completeness with respect to the X-ray confirmed AGNs in the field with an optical counterpart. This study provides an estimate of the reliability of the AGN selection techniques based on variability, which will be used by future wide-field surveys, such as those by LSST.

  15. Serching for AGNs with VST: optical variability in the COSMOS and CDFS regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolillo, M.; de Cicco, Demetra; Falocco, S.; Poulain, M.; Vst-Sudare/Voice Team

    2016-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are characterised by strong variability at all wavelengths. We exploited 3 years of VST monitoring observations of the COSMOS and CDFS regions, performed within the SUDARE/VOICE surveys, to assemble a sample of AGN candidates based on variability. Variability selection does not make strong a-priori assumptions about the properties of the sources and can thus integrate and complete samples selected by other techniques. We investigate the effectiveness and reliability of this selection method by comparing it with spectroscopic, X-ray and IR selected samples, showing that variability-selection can yield extremely pure samples, with completeness >50% with respect of X-ray and IR selections. We explore the dependence of variability from obscuration, mass and accretion rate, and predict the performance that can be expected by future monitoring surveys such as LSST.

  16. [The state of bone tissue in monkeys in experiments in the Cosmos-1887 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, A S; Bakulin, A V; Dubonos, S L; Novikov, V E; Cann, C; Nogues, C

    1991-01-01

    Using invasive and noninvasive techniques, we studied bone changes in primates flown for 13 days on Cosmos-1887 and compared them with the data obtained from vivarium control animals and from the flown primates that were after flight exposed to a ground-based synchronous experiment in the biosatellite mockup. It was found that bone density in the diaphysis of the tibia decreased while its growth rate remained unchanged or diminished. Contact X-raying indicated a higher rate of endosteal resorption in the flown primates when compared with the controls. Histomorphometric measurements of iliac bioptates displayed signs of inhibited bone formation after flight. The above observations are discussed and compared with the results obtained in previous biosatellite flights and ground-based studies.

  17. Cluster candidates around low-power radio galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 in cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Castignani, G.; Celotti, A.; De Zotti, G.; Chiaberge, M.; Norman, C.

    2014-09-10

    We search for high-redshift (z ∼1-2) galaxy clusters using low power radio galaxies (FR I) as beacons and our newly developed Poisson probability method based on photometric redshift information and galaxy number counts. We use a sample of 32 FR Is within the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field from the Chiaberge et al. catalog. We derive a reliable subsample of 21 bona fide low luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs) and a subsample of 11 high luminosity radio galaxies (HLRGs), on the basis of photometric redshift information and NRAO VLA Sky Survey radio fluxes. The LLRGs are selected to have 1.4 GHz rest frame luminosities lower than the fiducial FR I/FR II divide. This also allows us to estimate the comoving space density of sources with L {sub 1.4} ≅ 10{sup 32.3} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} at z ≅ 1.1, which strengthens the case for a strong cosmological evolution of these sources. In the fields of the LLRGs and HLRGs we find evidence that 14 and 8 of them reside in rich groups or galaxy clusters, respectively. Thus, overdensities are found around ∼70% of the FR Is, independently of the considered subsample. This rate is in agreement with the fraction found for low redshift FR Is and it is significantly higher than that for FR IIs at all redshifts. Although our method is primarily introduced for the COSMOS survey, it may be applied to both present and future wide field surveys such as Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, LSST, and Euclid. Furthermore, cluster candidates found with our method are excellent targets for next generation space telescopes such as James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Cluster Candidates around Low-power Radio Galaxies at z ~ 1-2 in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castignani, G.; Chiaberge, M.; Celotti, A.; Norman, C.; De Zotti, G.

    2014-09-01

    We search for high-redshift (z ~1-2) galaxy clusters using low power radio galaxies (FR I) as beacons and our newly developed Poisson probability method based on photometric redshift information and galaxy number counts. We use a sample of 32 FR Is within the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field from the Chiaberge et al. catalog. We derive a reliable subsample of 21 bona fide low luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs) and a subsample of 11 high luminosity radio galaxies (HLRGs), on the basis of photometric redshift information and NRAO VLA Sky Survey radio fluxes. The LLRGs are selected to have 1.4 GHz rest frame luminosities lower than the fiducial FR I/FR II divide. This also allows us to estimate the comoving space density of sources with L 1.4 ~= 1032.3 erg s-1 Hz-1 at z ~= 1.1, which strengthens the case for a strong cosmological evolution of these sources. In the fields of the LLRGs and HLRGs we find evidence that 14 and 8 of them reside in rich groups or galaxy clusters, respectively. Thus, overdensities are found around ~70% of the FR Is, independently of the considered subsample. This rate is in agreement with the fraction found for low redshift FR Is and it is significantly higher than that for FR IIs at all redshifts. Although our method is primarily introduced for the COSMOS survey, it may be applied to both present and future wide field surveys such as Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, LSST, and Euclid. Furthermore, cluster candidates found with our method are excellent targets for next generation space telescopes such as James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS AT z = 0.1-3 IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, N.; Benson, A.; Fu, Hai; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bongiorno, A.; Bundy, K.; Calvo, M. A. A.; Capak, P.; Carollo, M.; Faisst, A.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Dunlop, J.; Finoguenov, A.; Guo, Q.; Giavalisco, M.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Kajisawa, M.; and others

    2013-05-01

    Large-scale structures (LSSs) out to z < 3.0 are measured in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) using extremely accurate photometric redshifts (photoz). The K{sub s} -band-selected sample (from Ultra-Vista) is comprised of 155,954 galaxies. Two techniques-adaptive smoothing and Voronoi tessellation-are used to estimate the environmental densities within 127 redshift slices. Approximately 250 statistically significant overdense structures are identified out to z = 3.0 with shapes varying from elongated filamentary structures to more circularly symmetric concentrations. We also compare the densities derived for COSMOS with those based on semi-analytic predictions for a {Lambda}CDM simulation and find excellent overall agreement between the mean densities as a function of redshift and the range of densities. The galaxy properties (stellar mass, spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and star formation rates (SFRs)) are strongly correlated with environmental density and redshift, particularly at z < 1.0-1.2. Classifying the spectral type of each galaxy using the rest-frame b - i color (from the photoz SED fitting), we find a strong correlation of early-type galaxies (E-Sa) with high-density environments, while the degree of environmental segregation varies systematically with redshift out to z {approx} 1.3. In the highest density regions, 80% of the galaxies are early types at z = 0.2 compared to only 20% at z = 1.5. The SFRs and the star formation timescales exhibit clear environmental correlations. At z > 0.8, the SFR density is uniformly distributed over all environmental density percentiles, while at lower redshifts the dominant contribution is shifted to galaxies in lower density environments.

  20. Serotonin in individual hypothalamic nuclei of rats after space flight on biosatellite cosmos 1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čulman, J.; Kvetňansky, T.; Serova, L. V.; Tigranjan, R. A.; Macho, L.

    The experiment on Cosmos 1129 was based on our results obtained in rats exposed to single or repeated restrain stress in the laboratory. These results have convincingly demonstrated a significant increase of serotonin concentration (5-HT) in the hypothalamus in acutely stressed rats. This response, which was found also in the isolated hypothalamic nuclei, was diminished in repeatedly (40 times) immobilized rats. While the concentration of 5-HT was unchanged in the majority of the hypothalamic nuclei of animals subjected to cosmic flight, an increase was recorded only in the supraoptic nucleus (NSO) and a decrease in the periventricular nucleus. These findings demonstrate that only few areas of the hypothalamus respond to cosmic flight with changes of 5-HT concentration and suggest either that long-term cosmic flight cannot be an intensive stressor or that during the flight the rats became already adapted to its long-term effect. However, the exposure of flight rats to repeated immobilization stress resulted in a significant increase of 5-HT in the NSO, paraventricular and dorsomedial (NDM) nuclei. It should be noted that we have never seen any changes of 5-HT concentration, tryptophan hydroxylase and monoamineoxidase activities in repeatedly (40 times) immobilized rats. On the other hand, the increase of 5-HT concentration in the NDM is a typical finding after seven exposures of rats to immobilization on Earth, daily for 150 min. In the experiment COSMOS 1129 such an increase of 5-HT concentration in the NDM was found not only in the flight group but also in the control group of rats subjected to five daily exposures of immobilization stress. With respect to these findings, the increased 5-HT concentrations observed in some isolated hypothalamic nuclei in the flight group of rats exposed after landing to repeated immobilization stress suggest that long-term space flight and the state of weightlessness do not represent a stressogenic factor with respect to the

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS photometric redshift catalog (Ilbert+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; McCracken, H. J.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Kartaltepe, J.; Arnouts, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mobasher, B.; Taniguchi, Y.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Sasaki, S.; Thompson, D.; Zamojski, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Cook, R.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Le Brun, V.; Fevre, O. L.; Lilly, S.; Looper, D.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mellier, Y.; Mignoli, M.; Murayama, T.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Schiminovich, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Shioya, Y.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2017-03-01

    Compared with the previous optical/NIR catalog (Capak et al., 2007ApJS..172...99C, Cat. II/284), the new photometry implements 14 new medium/narrowband data from the Subaru Telescope, deep ground-based NIR data (J and K bands), and Spitzer-IRAC data. The spectroscopic sample used to calibrate/test the photo-z is 10 times larger at i+AB<22.5 than that of Mobasher et al. (2007ApJS..172..117M). The spectroscopic sample is supplemented with faint IR selected sources and a deep, faint spectroscopic sample at z>1.5. Hereafter, we detail the photometric and spectroscopic data used to measure the photo-z. Fluxes are measured in 30 bands from data taken on the Subaru (4200-9000Åg), CFHT (3900-21500Å), UKIRT (12500Å), Spitzer (3.6-8um), and GALEX (1500.2300Å) telescopes. We refer to P. Capak et al. (2008, in preparation) for a complete description of the observations, data reduction, and the photometry catalog. Photometric catalogue from P. Capak Photo-z catalogue from O. Ilbert PIs of the photometric data: D.B. Sanders, N. Scoville, Y. Tanigushi Data reducers: H. Aussel, P. Capak, H. McCracken, M. Salvato, S. Sasaki,D. Thompson, O. Ilbert, J. Kartaltepe, E. Le Floc'h, D. Looper, D.B. Sanders, N. Scoville Spectroscopic redshifts for validation from the zCOSMOS team (PI S. Lilly), from J. Kartaltepe and from P. Capak Identification of the Xray sources in the optical catalogue M. Brusa, G. Hasinger and the COSMOS/XMM team. (1 data file).

  2. Structure, metamorphism, and geochronology of the Cosmos Hills and Ruby Ridge, Brooks Range schist belt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Peter B.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    The boundary of the internal zones of the Brooks Range orogenic belt (the schist belt) is a fault contact that dips toward the hinterland (the Yukon-Koyukuk province). This fault, here referred to as the Cosmos Hills fault zone, juxtaposes oceanic rocks and unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks structurally above blueschist-to-greenschist facies metamorphic rocks of the schist belt. Near the fault contact, schist belt rocks are increasingly affected by a prominent, subhorizontal transposition foliation that is locally mylonitic in the fault zone. Structural and petrologic observations combined with 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release geochronology give evidence for a polyphase metamorphic and deformational history beginning in the Middle Jurassic and continuing until the Late Cretaceous. Our 40Ar/39Ar cooling age for Jurassic metamorphism is consistent with stratigraphic and other evidence for the onset of Brooks Range orogenesis. Jurassic metamorphism is nearly everywhere overprinted by a regional greenschist-facies event dated at 130–125 Ma. Near the contact with the Cosmos Hills fault zone, the schist belt is increasingly affected by a younger greenschist metamorphism that is texturally related to a prominent foliation that folds and transposes an older fabric. The 40Ar/39Ar results on phengite and fuchsite that define this younger fabric give recrystallization ages ranging from 103 to less than 90 Ma. We conclude that metamorphism that formed the transposition fabric peaked around 100 Ma and may have continued until well after 90 Ma. This age for greenschist metamorphism is broadly synchronous with the depositional age of locally derived, shallow-marine clastic sedimentary strata in the hanging wall of the fault zone and thus substantiates the interpretation that the fault zone accommodated extension in the Late Cretaceous. This extension unroofed and exhumed the schist belt during relative subsidence of the Yukon-Koyukuk province.

  3. Experimental and calculated LET distributions in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. E.; Karpov, O. N.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Moiseenko, A. A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr

    1992-01-01

    During the flight of the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite, joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. investigations of different characteristics of cosmic radiation (CR) in the near-Earth environment were carried out. The U.S. dielectric track detectors CR-39 and Soviet BYa- and BR-type nuclear photo-emulsions were used as detectors. The present work shows some results of experimental measurements of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of CR particles obtained with the use of these detectors, which were placed both inside and outside the satellite. The LET spectra measurement with plastic detectors is composed of two parts: the measurement of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) particles, and of short-range particles. The contributions of these components to the total LET distribution at various thicknesses of the shielding were analyzed and the results of these studies are presented. Calculated LET spectra in the Cosmos-2044 orbit were compared with experimental data. On the basis of experimental and calculated values of the LET spectra, absorbed and equivalent CR doses were calculated. In the shielding range of 1-1.5 g cm-2, outside the spacecraft, the photo-emulsions yielded 10.3 mrad d-1 and 27.5 mrem d-1 (LET > or = 2 MeV cm-1) while the CR-39 yielded averages of 1.43 mrad d-1 and 13.4 mrem d-1 (LET > or = 40 MeV cm-1). Inside the spacecraft (> or = 10 g cm-2) the photo-emulsions yielded 8.9 mrad d-1 and 14.5 mrem d-1.

  4. Cosmos Education: Under African Skies and other Youth Initiatives for hands-on Education using Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.; Hand, K.; Delegates, Sgs

    2002-01-01

    'Under African Skies', a project of the charity organization Cosmos Education, undertook an excursion to sub-Saharan Africa to teach science and technology to children in primary and secondary schools. The role of science and technology for the purpose of development was emphasized, and the project directly addresses one of the recommendations of UNISPACE-III Vienna Declaration. Teaching primarily focused on astronomy and space science. Over 3500 primary and secondary school students in 5 different countries were reached. Although it is hard to quantify the impact of the teaching, the students' enthusiasm and questions demonstrated that they acquired knowledge and interest in science. In this talk we will summarize the objectives and achievements of the trip and future planned trips by Cosmos Education. We will also show coverage of the trip by the BBC program 'Final Frontier'. The youth perspective on education is outlined in the Global Space Education Curriculum, a project initiated at the UNISPACE III Space Generation Forum (SGF). This initiative is being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) that will unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11-13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the results of these discussions.

  5. Machine-learning identification of galaxies in the WISE × SuperCOSMOS all-sky catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakowski, T.; Małek, K.; Bilicki, M.; Pollo, A.; Kurcz, A.; Krupa, M.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The two currently largest all-sky photometric datasets, WISE and SuperCOSMOS, have been recently cross-matched to construct a novel photometric redshift catalogue on 70% of the sky. Galaxies were separated from stars and quasars through colour cuts, which may leave imperfections because different source types may overlap in colour space. Aims: The aim of the present work is to identify galaxies in the WISE × SuperCOSMOS catalogue through an alternative approach of machine learning. This allows us to define more complex separations in the multi-colour space than is possible with simple colour cuts, and should provide a more reliable source classification. Methods: For the automatised classification we used the support vector machines (SVM) learning algorithm and employed SDSS spectroscopic sources that we cross-matched with WISE × SuperCOSMOS to construct the training and verification set. We performed a number of tests to examine the behaviour of the classifier (completeness, purity, and accuracy) as a function of source apparent magnitude and Galactic latitude. We then applied the classifier to the full-sky data and analysed the resulting catalogue of candidate galaxies. We also compared the resulting dataset with the one obtained through colour cuts. Results: The tests indicate very high accuracy, completeness, and purity (>95%) of the classifier at the bright end; this deteriorates for the faintest sources, but still retains acceptable levels of 85%. No significant variation in the classification quality with Galactic latitude is observed. When we applied the classifier to all-sky WISE × SuperCOSMOS data, we found 15 million galaxies after masking problematic areas. The resulting sample is purer than the one produced by applying colour cuts, at the price of a lower completeness across the sky. Conclusions: The automatic classification is a successful alternative approach to colour cuts for defining a reliable galaxy sample. The identifications we

  6. Stellar Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is one of NASA's "Vision Missions" - concepts for future, space-based, strategic missions that could enormously increase our capabilities for observing the Cosmos. SI is designed as a UV/Optical Interferometer which will enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI, with a characteristic angular resolution of 0.1 milli-arcseconds at 2000 Angstroms, represents an advance in image detail of several hundred times over that provided by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Stellar Imager will zoom in on what today-with few exceptions - we only know as point sources, revealing processes never before seen, thus providing a tool as fundamental to astrophysics as the microscope is to the study of life on Earth. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. It's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. Stellar Imager is included as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005) and as such is a candidate mission for the 2025-2030 timeframe. An artist's drawing of the current "baseline" concept for SI is presented.

  7. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  8. Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2015-09-01

    We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the early 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplified relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 storm-hazard projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Foxgrover, Amy; Herdman, Liv

    2017-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future SLR scenarios, as well as long-term shoreline change and cliff retreat.  Resulting projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Several versions of CoSMoS have been implemented for areas of the California coast, including Southern California, Central California, and San Francisco Bay, and further versions will be incorporated as additional regions and improvements are developed.

  10. CoSMoS v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: San Diego County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Foxgrover, Amy; Herdman, Liv

    2016-01-01

    CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) v3.0 for Southern California. Phase 2 data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for a variety of storm conditions and sea-level rise scenarios. Several changes from Phase 1 projections are reflected in many areas. Data will be disseminated by county, with San Diego County being the first of Phase 2 data releases.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Type-2 AGN from XMM-COSMOS bolometric output (Lusso+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusso, E.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Treister, E.; Sanders, D.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Civano, F.; Gilli, R.; Mainieri, V.; Nair, P.; Aller, M.; Carollo, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Merloni, A.; Trump, J. R.

    2011-09-01

    Study of the multi-wavelength properties of a sample of 255 spectroscopically identified X-ray selected Type-2 AGN from the XMM-COSMOS survey. For each source, X-ray ID, spectroscopic redshift, logarithm of the 2-10keV luminosity, logarithm of the bolometric luminosity, bolometric correction, logarithm of the stellar mass, star formation rate, absolute magnitude MU, absolute magnitude MV, absolute magnitude MJ (Johnson-Kron-Cousin system), morphological class. (1 data file).

  12. Image

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Amber; Harsch, Tim; Pitt, Julie; Firpo, Mike; Lekin, April; Pardes, Elizabeth

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  13. Dissecting Photometric Redshift for Active Galactic Nucleus Using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, M.; Ilbert, O.; Hasinger, G.; Rau, A.; Civano, F.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Elvis, M.; Vignali, C.; Aussel, H.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Ideue, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Impey, C. D.; Le Fevre, O.; Lamareille, F.; Lanzuisi, G.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Lilly, S.; Maier, C.; Manohar, S.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H.; Messias, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Nagao, T.; Pello, R.; Puccetti, S.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Silvermann, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Trump, J. R.; Zucca, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redshifts comparable to the highest quality results presently available for normal galaxies. We demonstrate that morphologically extended, faint X-ray sources without optical variability are more accurately described by a library of normal galaxies (corrected for emission lines) than by active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominated templates, even if these sources have AGN-like X-ray luminosities. Preselecting the library on the bases of the source properties allowed us to reach an accuracy \\sigma _{\\Delta z/(1+z_{spec})}\\sim 0.015 with a fraction of outliers of 5.8% for the entire Chandra-COSMOS sample. In addition, we release revised photometric redshifts for the 1735 optical counterparts of the XMM-detected sources over the entire 2 deg2 of COSMOS. For 248 sources, our updated photometric redshift differs from the previous release by Δz > 0.2. These changes are predominantly due to the inclusion of newly available deep H-band photometry (H AB = 24 mag). We illustrate once again the importance of a spectroscopic training sample and how an assumption about the nature of a source together, with the number and the depth of the available bands, influences the accuracy of the photometric redshifts determined for AGN. These considerations should be kept in mind when defining the observational strategies of upcoming large surveys targeting AGNs, such as eROSITA at X-ray energies and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder Evolutionary Map of the Universe in the radio band. Based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under

  14. Proto-groups at 1.8 < z < 3 in the zCOSMOS-deep Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Knobel, C.; Zamorani, G.; Lemson, G.; Kampczyk, P.; Scoville, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; López-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Welikala, N.

    2013-03-01

    We identify 42 "candidate groups" lying between 1.8 < z < 3.0 from a sample of 3502 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the zCOSMOS-deep redshift survey within this same redshift interval. These systems contain three to five spectroscopic galaxies that lie within 500 kpc in projected distance (in physical space) and within 700 km s-1 in velocity. Based on extensive analysis of mock catalogs that have been generated from the Millennium simulation, we examine the likely nature of these systems at the time of observation, and what they will evolve into down to the present epoch. Although few of the "member" galaxies are likely to reside in the same halo at the epoch we observe them, 50% of the systems will have, by the present epoch, all of the member galaxies in the same halo, and almost all (93%) will have at least some of the potential members in the same halo. Most of the candidate groups can therefore be described as "proto-groups." A crude estimate of the overdensities of these structures is also consistent with the idea that these systems are being seen as they assemble. We also examine present-day halos and ask whether their progenitors would have been seen among our candidate groups. For present-day halos between 1014 and 1015 M ⊙ h -1, 35% should have appeared among our candidate groups, and this would have risen to 70% if our survey had been fully sampled, so we can conclude that our sample can be taken as representative of a large fraction of such systems. There is a clear excess of massive galaxies above 1010 M ⊙ around the locations of the candidate groups in a large independent COSMOS photo-z sample, but we see no evidence in this latter data for any color differentiation with respect to the field. This is, however, consistent with the idea that such differentiation arises in satellite galaxies, as indicated at z < 1, if the candidate groups are indeed only starting to be assembled.

  15. Environmental Effects in the Interaction and Merging of Galaxies in zCOSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampczyk, P.; Lilly, S. J.; de Ravel, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Bolzonella, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Diener, C.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Maier, C.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M. T.; Vergani, D.; Abbas, U.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Bordoloi, R.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Leauthaud, A.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scodeggio, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Fumana, M.; Guzzo, L.; Kartaltepe, J.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the environments and galactic properties (morphologies and star formation histories) of a sample of 153 close kinematic pairs in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1 identified in the zCOSMOS-bright 10 k spectroscopic sample of galaxies. Correcting for projection effects, the fraction of close kinematic pairs is three times higher in the top density quartile than in the lowest one. This translates to a three times higher merger rate because the merger timescales are shown, from mock catalogs based on the Millennium simulation, to be largely independent of environment once the same corrections for projection are applied. We then examine the morphologies and stellar populations of galaxies in the pairs, comparing them to control samples that are carefully matched in environment so as to remove as much of the well-known effects of environment on the properties of the parent population of galaxies as possible. Once the environment is properly taken into account in this way, we find that the early-late morphology mix is the same as for the parent population, but that the fraction of irregular galaxies is boosted by 50%-75%, with a disproportionate increase in the number of irregular-irregular pairs (factor of 4-8 times), due to the disturbance of disk galaxies. Future dry mergers, involving elliptical galaxies comprise less than 5% of all close kinematic pairs. In the closest pairs, there is a boost in the specific star formation rates of star-forming galaxies of a factor of 2-4, and there is also evidence for an increased incidence of post-starburst galaxies. Although significant for the galaxies involved, the "excess" star formation associated with pairs represents only about 5% of the integrated star formation activity in the parent sample. Although most pair galaxies are in dense environments, the effects of interaction appear to be largest in the lower density environments. By preferentially bringing more pairs into the sample in lower density environments

  16. PROTO-GROUPS AT 1.8 < z < 3 IN THE zCOSMOS-DEEP SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Knobel, C.; Kampczyk, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Caputi, K.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Lemson, G.; Scoville, N.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; De la Torre, S.; and others

    2013-03-10

    We identify 42 ''candidate groups'' lying between 1.8 < z < 3.0 from a sample of 3502 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the zCOSMOS-deep redshift survey within this same redshift interval. These systems contain three to five spectroscopic galaxies that lie within 500 kpc in projected distance (in physical space) and within 700 km s{sup -1} in velocity. Based on extensive analysis of mock catalogs that have been generated from the Millennium simulation, we examine the likely nature of these systems at the time of observation, and what they will evolve into down to the present epoch. Although few of the ''member'' galaxies are likely to reside in the same halo at the epoch we observe them, 50% of the systems will have, by the present epoch, all of the member galaxies in the same halo, and almost all (93%) will have at least some of the potential members in the same halo. Most of the candidate groups can therefore be described as ''proto-groups''. A crude estimate of the overdensities of these structures is also consistent with the idea that these systems are being seen as they assemble. We also examine present-day halos and ask whether their progenitors would have been seen among our candidate groups. For present-day halos between 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} h {sup -1}, 35% should have appeared among our candidate groups, and this would have risen to 70% if our survey had been fully sampled, so we can conclude that our sample can be taken as representative of a large fraction of such systems. There is a clear excess of massive galaxies above 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} around the locations of the candidate groups in a large independent COSMOS photo-z sample, but we see no evidence in this latter data for any color differentiation with respect to the field. This is, however, consistent with the idea that such differentiation arises in satellite galaxies, as indicated at z < 1, if the candidate groups are indeed only starting to be assembled.

  17. [Imaging].

    PubMed

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J L; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A M; Pessis, E; Sarazin, L; Minoui, A

    1997-01-01

    The panoply of imaging techniques useful in podology is essentially limited to X-rays. Standard "standing" and "lying" X-rays furnish most of the required information. Arthrography is sometimes performed, in particular for trauma or tumour of the ankle. CT scan and MRI make a decisive contribution in difficult cases, notably in fractures and in small fractures without displacement. The two latter techniques are useful in tendon, ligament and muscular disorders, where echography is also informative. Rigorous analysis of radiographies and a good knowledge of foot disorders make these imaging techniques efficacious.

  18. Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Catherine, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "Images"--from early paintings and statuary to computer-generated design. Resources on the theme include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and others. A page of reproducible activities is also provided. Features include photojournalism, inspirational Web sites, art history, pop art, and myths. (AEF)

  19. Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja): A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Anthony, Joseph; Ismail, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted. PMID:26929767

  20. How Does The Universe Work? The Physics Of The Cosmos Program (PCOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.

    2011-09-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) program incorporates cosmology, high-energy astrophysics, and fundamental physics projects aimed at addressing central questions about the nature of complex astrophysical phenomena such as black holes, neutron stars, dark energy, and gravitational waves. Its overarching theme is, How does the Universe work? PCOS includes a suite of operating (Chandra, Fermi, Planck, XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL) and future missions across the electromagnetic spectrum and beyond, which are in concept development and/or formulation. The PCOS program directly supports development of intermediate TRL (4-6) technology relevant to future missions through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, as well as data analysis, theory, and experimental astrophysics via other R&A avenues (e.g., ADAP, ATP). The Einstein Fellowship is a vital and vibrant PCOS component funded by the program. PCOS receives community input via its Program Analysis Group, the PhysPAG (www.pcos.gsfc.nasa.gov/physpag.php), whose membership and meetings are open to the community at large. In this poster, we describe the detailed science questions addressed within PCOS, with special emphasis on future opportunities. Details about the PhysPAG operations and functions will be provided, as well as an update on future meetings.

  1. The effects of Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja) on dynamic and cellular bone histomorphometry in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cosmos caudatus is a local plant which has antioxidant properties and contains high calcium. It is also reported to be able to strengthen the bone. This report is an extension to previously published article in Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (doi:10.1155/2012/817814). In this study, we determined the effectiveness of C. caudatus as an alternative treatment for osteoporosis due to post-menopause by looking at the dynamic and cellular paramaters of bone histomorphometry. Methods Forty female Wistar rats were divided into four groups i.e. sham operated, ovariectomized, ovariectomized treated with calcium 1% ad libitum and ovariectomized force-fed with 500 mg/kg C. caudatus extract. Treatment was given six days a week for eight weeks. Results Dynamic and cellular histomorphometry parameters were measured. C. caudatus increased double-labeled surface (dLS/BS), mineral appositional rate (MAR), osteoid volume (OV/BV) and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS). C. caudatus also gave better results compared to calcium 1% in the osteoid volume (OV/BV) parameter. Conclusions C. caudatus at the 500 mg/kg dose may be an alternative treatment in restoring bone damage that may occur in post-menopausal women. PMID:23800238

  2. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa. PMID:25587332

  3. Accreting SMBH in the COSMOS field: the connection to their host galaxies .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.

    Using the rich multi-band photometry in the COSMOS field we explore the host galaxy properties of a large, complete, sample of X-ray and spectroscopically selected AGN. Based on a two-components fit to their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) we derive rest-frame magnitudes, colours, stellar masses and star formation rates up to z˜ 3. The probability for a galaxy to host a black hole growing at any given specific accretion rate (the ratio of X-ray luminosity to the host stellar mass) is independent of the galaxy mass and follows a power-law distribution in L_X/M. By looking at the normalisation of such a probability distribution, we show how the incidence of AGN increases with redshift as rapidly as (1+z)4.2, in close resemblance with the overall evolution of the specific star formation rate. Although AGN activity and star formation appear to have a common triggering mechanism, we do not find any 'smoking gun' signalling powerful AGN influence on the global properties of their host galaxies.

  4. MetaboLights: towards a new COSMOS of metabolomics data management.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Christoph; Conesa, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Mahendraker, Tejasvi; Williams, Mark; Maguire, Eamonn; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Salek, Reza M; Griffin, Julian L

    2012-10-01

    Exciting funding initiatives are emerging in Europe and the US for metabolomics data production, storage, dissemination and analysis. This is based on a rich ecosystem of resources around the world, which has been build during the past ten years, including but not limited to resources such as MassBank in Japan and the Human Metabolome Database in Canada. Now, the European Bioinformatics Institute has launched MetaboLights, a database for metabolomics experiments and the associated metadata (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/metabolights). It is the first comprehensive, cross-species, cross-platform metabolomics database maintained by one of the major open access data providers in molecular biology. In October, the European COSMOS consortium will start its work on Metabolomics data standardization, publication and dissemination workflows. The NIH in the US is establishing 6-8 metabolomics services cores as well as a national metabolomics repository. This communication reports about MetaboLights as a new resource for Metabolomics research, summarises the related developments and outlines how they may consolidate the knowledge management in this third large omics field next to proteomics and genomics.

  5. COordination of Standards in MetabOlomicS (COSMOS): facilitating integrated metabolomics data access.

    PubMed

    Salek, Reza M; Neumann, Steffen; Schober, Daniel; Hummel, Jan; Billiau, Kenny; Kopka, Joachim; Correa, Elon; Reijmers, Theo; Rosato, Antonio; Tenori, Leonardo; Turano, Paola; Marin, Silvia; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Rolin, Dominique; Dartigues, Benjamin; Conesa, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; O'Hagan, Steve; Hao, Jie; van Vliet, Michael; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Ludwig, Christian; Bouwman, Jildau; Cascante, Marta; Ebbels, Timothy; Griffin, Julian L; Moing, Annick; Nikolski, Macha; Oresic, Matej; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Viant, Mark R; Goodacre, Royston; Günther, Ulrich L; Hankemeier, Thomas; Luchinat, Claudio; Walther, Dirk; Steinbeck, Christoph

    Metabolomics has become a crucial phenotyping technique in a range of research fields including medicine, the life sciences, biotechnology and the environmental sciences. This necessitates the transfer of experimental information between research groups, as well as potentially to publishers and funders. After the initial efforts of the metabolomics standards initiative, minimum reporting standards were proposed which included the concepts for metabolomics databases. Built by the community, standards and infrastructure for metabolomics are still needed to allow storage, exchange, comparison and re-utilization of metabolomics data. The Framework Programme 7 EU Initiative 'coordination of standards in metabolomics' (COSMOS) is developing a robust data infrastructure and exchange standards for metabolomics data and metadata. This is to support workflows for a broad range of metabolomics applications within the European metabolomics community and the wider metabolomics and biomedical communities' participation. Here we announce our concepts and efforts asking for re-engagement of the metabolomics community, academics and industry, journal publishers, software and hardware vendors, as well as those interested in standardisation worldwide (addressing missing metabolomics ontologies, complex-metadata capturing and XML based open source data exchange format), to join and work towards updating and implementing metabolomics standards.

  6. High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology from Space: NASA's Physics of the Cosmos Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2016-03-01

    We summarize currently-funded NASA activities in high energy astrophysics and cosmology, embodied in the NASA Physics of the Cosmos program, including updates on technology development and mission studies. The portfolio includes development of a space mission for measuring gravitational waves from merging supermassive black holes, currently envisioned as a collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) on its L3 mission and development of an X-ray observatory that will measure X-ray emission from the final stages of accretion onto black holes, currently envisioned as a NASA collaboration on ESA's Athena observatory. The portfolio also includes the study of cosmic rays and gamma ray photons resulting from a range of processes, of the physical process of inflation associated with the birth of the universe and of the nature of the dark energy that dominates the mass-energy of the modern universe. The program is supported by an analysis group called the PhysPAG that serves as a forum for community input and analysis and the talk will include a description of activities of this group.

  7. The Accelerating Universe: Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario

    2000-12-01

    Advance Praise for The Accelerating Universe "The Accelerating Universe is not only an informative book about modern cosmology. It is rich storytelling and, above all, a celebration of the human mind in its quest for beauty in all things." -Alan Lightman, author of Einstein's Dreams "This is a wonderfully lucid account of the extraordinary discoveries that have made the last years a golden period for observational cosmology. But Mario Livio has not only given the reader one clear explanation after another of what astronomers are up to, he has used them to construct a provocative argument for the importance of aesthetics in the development of science and for the inseparability of science, art, and culture." -Lee Smolin, author of The Life of the Cosmos "What a pleasure to read! An exciting, simple account of the universe revealed by modern astronomy. Beautifully written, clearly presented, informed by scientific and philosophical insights." -John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study "A book with charm, beauty, elegance, and importance. As authoritative a journey as can be taken through modern cosmology." -Allan Sandage, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington

  8. Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

  9. Discover the Cosmos - Bringing Cutting Edge Science to Schools across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The fast growing number of science data repositories is opening enormous possibilities to scientists all over the world. The emergence of citizen science projects is engaging in science discovery a large number of citizens globally. Astronomical research is now a possibility to anyone having a computer and some form of data access. This opens a very interesting and strategic possibility to engage large audiences in the making and understanding of science. On another perspective it would be only natural to imagine that soon enough data mining will be an active part of the academic path of university or even secondary schools students. The possibility is very exciting but the road not very promising. Even in the most developed nations, where all schools are equipped with modern ICT facilities the use of such possibilities is still a very rare episode. The Galileo Teacher Training Program GTTP, a legacy of IYA2009, is participating in some of the most emblematic projects funded by the European Commission and targeting modern tools, resources and methodologies for science teaching. One of this projects is Discover the Cosmos which is aiming to target this issue by empowering educators with the necessary skills to embark on this innovative path: teaching science while doing science.

  10. The SuperCosmos South Galactic Cap multi-colour/epoch digitised survey - Online!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambly, N.; Read, M.

    We describe the first release of data from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey programme, the South Galactic Cap survey. This consists of a 3 colour (BRI), one colour (R) at 2 epochs, digital sky survey based on high Galactic latitude (|b|>60o) Schmidt survey plates covering ~5000 square degrees - it is the first digitised sky survey to include both colours and proper motions. Positions are tied to the International Co-ordinate Reference Frame via the Tycho-ACT catalogue and are externally accurate to ~0.3 arcsec; proper motions (also zero-pointed on the extragalactic frame) are typically accurate to ~10 mas yr-1. Photometry in BRI is accurate to ~0.2m and is tied to external CCD zeropoints with field-to-field zeropoint errors minimised using field overlap regions. We describe a simple database interrogation example and show the results. Finally, we describe the future plans for expanding the survey to cover the full southern sky. For full details access the survey homepage on http://www-wfau.roe.ac.uk/sss/.

  11. HOT-DUST-POOR TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE COSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Heng; Elvis, Martin; Civano, Francesca; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Brusa, Marcella; Bongiorno, Angela; Lusso, Elisabeta; Zamorani, Gianni; Comastri, Andrea; Impey, Chris D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Sanders, David; Salvato, Mara; Vignali, Cristian E-mail: elvis@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-11-20

    We report a sizable class of type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with unusually weak near-infrared (1-3 {mu}m) emission in the XMM-COSMOS type 1 AGN sample. The fraction of these 'hot-dust-poor' AGNs increases with redshift from 6% at low redshift (z < 2) to 20% at moderate high redshift (2 < z < 3.5). There is no clear trend of the fraction with other parameters: bolometric luminosity, Eddington ratio, black hole mass, and X-ray luminosity. The 3 {mu}m emission relative to the 1 {mu}m emission is a factor of 2-4 smaller than the typical Elvis et al. AGN spectral energy distribution (SED), which indicates a 'torus' covering factor of 2%-29%, a factor of 3-40 smaller than required by unified models. The weak hot dust emission seems to expose an extension of the accretion disk continuum in some of the source SEDs. We estimate the outer edge of their accretion disks to lie at (0.3-2.0) x 10{sup 4} Schwarzschild radii, {approx}10-23 times the gravitational stability radii. Formation scenarios for these sources are discussed.

  12. Isotopes of uranium and plutonium in the atmosphere. [Cosmos-954 fall in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuragi, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The activities of /sup 234/U, /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U were measured in 24 individual rain samples and two composite rains collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, during the months of March 1979 and March 1980 through May 1981. Uranium-234 and -235 were found to be highly enriched in several rain samples collected during the months of April and May 1980. Uranium-238 concentrations, on the other hand, were unusually high during the months of July, August and early September 1980. The concentrations of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 238/ /sup 240/Pu were measured in 76 individual rain samples and two composite rains which were collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, during the period from February 1979 through December 1980. Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239,240 concentrations were found to be extremely high during the months of July, August and early September 1980. The anomalous uranium highly enriched in the light isotopes of uranium appears to have originated from the Soviet satellite Cosmos-954 which fell over Canada on 24 January 1978. The uranium fallout occurred just about the time Mount St. Helens erupted on 18 May 1980 and began to inject a large amount of natural uranium into the atmosphere. The pattern of variations of the concentrations of /sup 238/U in rain after the eruption of Mount St. Helens was found to be similar to that of plutonium isotopes.

  13. Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

  14. Neutron influences and energy spectra in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.; Rshtuni, Sh. B.; Benton, E, V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Joint Soviet-American measurements of the neutron component of space radiation (SR) were carried out during the flight of the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos-2044. Neutron flux densities and differential energy spectra were measured inside and on the external surface of the spacecraft. Three energy intervals were employed: thermal (E(sub n) less than or equal to 0.2 eV), resonance (0.2 eV less than E(sub n) less than 1.0 MeV) and fast (E(sub n) greater than or equal to 1.0 MeV) neutrons. The first two groups were measured with U.S. (6)LiF detectors, while fast neutrons were recorded both by U.S. fission foils and Soviet nuclear emulsions. Estimations were made of the contributions to absorbed and equivalent doses from each neutron energy interval and a correlation was presented between fast neutron fluxes, measured outside the satellite, and the phase of solar activity (SA). Average dose equivalent rates of 0.018 and 0.14 mrem d(exp -1) were measured for thermal and resonance neutrons, respectively, outside the spacecraft. The corresponding values for fast neutrons were 3.3 (U.S.) and 1.8 (U.S.S.R.) mrem d(exp -1). Inside the spacecraft, a value of 3.5 mrem d(exp -1) was found.

  15. Neutron fluences and energy spectra in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. E.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    Joint Soviet-American measurements of the neutron component of space radiation (SR) were carried out during the flight of the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos-2044. Neutron flux densities and differential energy spectra were measured inside and on the external surface of the spacecraft. Three energy intervals were employed: thermal (En < or = 0.2 eV), resonance (0.2 eV < En < 1.0 MeV) and fast (En > or = 1.0 MeV) neutrons. The first two groups were measured with U.S. 6LiF detectors, while fast neutrons were recorded both by U.S. fission foils and Soviet nuclear emulsions. Estimations were made of the contributions to absorbed and equivalent doses from each neutron energy interval and a correlation was presented between fast neutron fluxes, measured outside the satellite, and the phase of solar activity (SA). Average dose equivalent rates of 0.018 and 0.14 mrem d-1 were measured for thermal and resonance neutrons, respectively, outside the spacecraft. The corresponding values for fast neutrons were 3.3 (U.S.) and 1.8 (U.S.S.R.) mrem d-1. Inside the spacecraft, a value of 3.5 mrem d-1 was found.

  16. Experiment K-7-20: Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R. (Editor); Krasnov, I.

    1994-01-01

    Pituitary levels of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in rats exposed to 14 days of spaceflight (FLT) as well as in ground-based controls; one group synchronously maintained in flight-type cages with similar feeding schedules (SYN), one group in vivarium cages (VIV), and a group of tail suspended (SUS) animals. Flight rats had significantly less (p less than 0.05) pituitary OT and VP (4.48 +/- 0.31 and 7.48 +/- 0.53 mg hormone / mg protein, n = 5) than either the SYN (6.66 +/- 0..59 and 10.98 + 1.00, n = 5), VIV (6.14 +/- 0.40 and 10.98 +/- 0..81, n = 5) or SUS (5.73 +/- 0.24, n = 4) control groups, respectively. The reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP are similar to measurements made on rats from the previous 12.5 day Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to be a direct result of exposure to spaceflight.

  17. Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja): A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Anthony, Joseph; Ismail, Amin

    2015-10-01

    Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted.

  18. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa.

  19. Frozen storage stability of beef patties incorporated with extracts from ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus).

    PubMed

    Reihani, S F S; Tan, Thuan-Chew; Huda, Nurul; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-07-15

    In Malaysia, fresh ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus) are eaten raw with rice. In this study, beef patties incorporated with extracts of ulam raja (UREX) and commercial green tea extract (GTE) added individually at 200 and 500 mg/kg were stored at -18°C for up to 10 weeks. Lipid oxidation, cooking yield, physicochemical properties, textural properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of the beef patties were compared between those incorporated with UREX, GTE and the control (pure beef patty). Incorporation of UREX or GTE at 500 mg/kg into beef patties reduced the extent of lipid oxidation significantly (P<0.05). UREX showed a strong lipid oxidation inhibitory effect, comparable with GTE. In addition, a significant improvement (P<0.05) in cooking yield and textural properties was also recorded. However, incorporation of UREX and GTE into beef patties showed no significant influence (P>0.05) on the colour, pH, proximate composition and overall sensory acceptability of the patties.

  20. Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of a chalcone 3-hydroxylase from Cosmos sulphureus.

    PubMed

    Schlangen, Karin; Miosic, Silvija; Thill, Jana; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2010-07-01

    A chalcone 3-hydroxylase (CH3H) cDNA clone was isolated and characterized from Cosmos sulphureus petals accumulating butein (2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxychalcone) derivatives as yellow flower pigments. The recombinant protein catalyses the introduction of an additional hydroxyl group in the B-ring of chalcones, a reaction with high similarity to the hydroxylation of flavonoids catalysed by the well-studied flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). CH3H shows high specificity for chalcones, but a low F3'H activity was also detected. By contrast, the common F3'H from C. sulphureus does not accept chalcones as substrates and is therefore unlikely to be involved in the creation of the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of the yellow flower pigments. CH3H was primarily expressed in young buds, the main tissue for chalcone pigment formation. Expression levels in open flowers and 3-d-old seedlings were lower and almost no CH3H expression was observed in leaves. F3'H, in contrast, showed the highest expression also in buds, but comparable expression rates in all other tissues tested. Recombinant hybrid proteins constructed from CH3H and F3'H fragments demonstrated that amino acid residues at a substrate recognition site and an insertion of four amino acid residues in a putative loop region have an impact on chalcone acceptance. This is the first identification of a CH3H cDNA from any plant species.

  1. Filimonas endophytica sp. nov., isolated from surface-sterilized root of Cosmos bipinnatus.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Hye; Kim, Tae-Su; Joung, Yochan; Kim, Seung Bum

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, yellow, motile by gliding, filamentous bacterium, designated SR 2-06T, was isolated from surface-sterilized root of garden cosmos. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that SR 2-06T was related most closely to Filimonas lacunae YT21T of the family Chitinophagaceae at a sequence similarity of 96.90 %, while levels of similarity to other related taxa were less than 93.08 %. Strain SR 2-06T exhibited similar features to F. lacunae in that it contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, and iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and a summed feature consisting of C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acids. However, strain SR 2-06T was distinguished from F. lacunae using a combination of physiological and biochemical properties. The cellular polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, unknown aminolipids, an unknown phospholipid and unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 46.0 mol%. The phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence clearly indicates that strain SR 2-06T represents a novel species of the genus Filimonas, for which the name Filimonas endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR 2-06T ( = KCTC 42060T = JCM 19844T).

  2. Influence of growth stage and season on the antioxidant constituents of Cosmos caudatus.

    PubMed

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Ping, Tan Chin; Khatib, Alfi; Lajis, Nordin H

    2012-12-01

    The impact of tropical seasons (dry and wet) and growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) of Cosmos caudatus on the antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the level of bioactive compounds were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plant morphology (plant height) also showed variation between the two seasons. Samples planted from June to August (during the dry season) exhibited a remarkably higher bioactivity and height than those planted from October to December (during the wet season). The samples that were harvested at eight weeks of age during the dry season showed the highest bioactivity with values of 26.04 g GAE/100 g and 22.1 μg/ml for TPC and IC₅₀, respectively. Identification of phytochemical constituents in the C. caudatus extract was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass (LC-DAD-ESIMS/MS) technique and the confirmation of constituents was achieved by comparison with literature data and/or co-chromatography with authentic standards. Six compounds were indentified including quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid. Their concentrations showed significant variance among the 8, 10 and 12-week-old herbs during both seasons.

  3. Experiment K-7-20: Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R. (Editor); Krasnov, I.

    1994-01-01

    Pituitary levels of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in rats exposed to 14 days of spaceflight (FLT) as well as in ground-based controls; one group synchronously maintained in flight-type cages with similar feeding schedules (SYN), one group in vivarium cages (VIV), and a group of tail suspended (SUS) animals. Flight rats had significantly less (p less than 0.05) pituitary OT and VP (4.48 +/- 0.31 and 7.48 +/- 0.53 mg hormone / mg protein, n = 5) than either the SYN (6.66 +/- 0..59 and 10.98 + 1.00, n = 5), VIV (6.14 +/- 0.40 and 10.98 +/- 0..81, n = 5) or SUS (5.73 +/- 0.24, n = 4) control groups, respectively. The reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP are similar to measurements made on rats from the previous 12.5 day Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to be a direct result of exposure to spaceflight.

  4. Histomorphometric and electron microscopic analyses of tibial epiphyseal plates from Cosmos 1887 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Durnova, G.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the changes seen in the bones of growing rats exposed to microgravity are due in part to changes that occur in the growth plate during spaceflight. In this study, growth plates of rats flown aboard Cosmos 1887 (12.5-day flight plus 53.5-h recovery at 1 g) were analyzed using light and electron microscopy and computerized planimetry. The proliferative zone of flight animals was found to be significantly (P less than or equal to 0.01) larger than that of controls, while the reserve and hypertrophic/calcification zones were significantly reduced. Flight animals also had more cells per column in the proliferative zone than did controls and less in the hypertrophic/calcification region. The total number of cells, however, was significantly greater in flight animals. No difference was found in perimeter or in shape factor, but area was significantly less in flight animals. Electron microscopy showed that collagen fibrils in flight animals were wider than in controls. Since the time required for a cell to cycle through the growth plate is 2-3 days at 1 g, the results reported here represent both the effects of exposure to microgravity and the initial stages of recovery from that exposure.

  5. Histomorphometric and electron microscopic analyses of tibial epiphyseal plates from Cosmos 1887 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Durnova, G.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the changes seen in the bones of growing rats exposed to microgravity are due in part to changes that occur in the growth plate during spaceflight. In this study, growth plates of rats flown aboard Cosmos 1887 (12.5-day flight plus 53.5-h recovery at 1 g) were analyzed using light and electron microscopy and computerized planimetry. The proliferative zone of flight animals was found to be significantly (P less than or equal to 0.01) larger than that of controls, while the reserve and hypertrophic/calcification zones were significantly reduced. Flight animals also had more cells per column in the proliferative zone than did controls and less in the hypertrophic/calcification region. The total number of cells, however, was significantly greater in flight animals. No difference was found in perimeter or in shape factor, but area was significantly less in flight animals. Electron microscopy showed that collagen fibrils in flight animals were wider than in controls. Since the time required for a cell to cycle through the growth plate is 2-3 days at 1 g, the results reported here represent both the effects of exposure to microgravity and the initial stages of recovery from that exposure.

  6. Z-FIRE: ISM Properties of the z = 2.095 COSMOS Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewley, Lisa J.; Yuan, Tiantian; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Glazebrook, Karl; Spitler, Lee; Cowley, Michael; Dopita, Michael; Straatman, Caroline; Labbé, Ivo; Tomczak, Adam

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the ISM properties of 13 star-forming galaxies within the z∼ 2 COSMOS cluster. We show that the cluster members have [N ii]/Hα and [O iii]/Hβ emission-line ratios similar to z∼ 2 field galaxies, yet systematically different emission-line ratios (by ∼0.17 dex) from the majority of local star-forming galaxies. We find no statistically significant difference in the [N ii]/Hα and [O iii]/Hβ line ratios or ISM pressures among the z∼ 2 cluster galaxies and field galaxies at the same redshift. We show that our cluster galaxies have significantly larger ionization parameters (by up to an order of magnitude) than local star-forming galaxies. We hypothesize that these high ionization parameters may be associated with large specific star formation rates (SFRs; i.e., a large SFR per unit stellar mass). If this hypothesis is correct, then this relationship would have important implications for the geometry and/or the mass of stars contained within individual star clusters as a function of redshift.

  7. Maturation of bone and dentin matrices in rats flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Grynpas, M. D.; Rosenberg, G. D.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the chemistry, hydroxyapatite crystal size, and maturational changes in bone and dentin from rats exposed to microgravity for 12 days in a Soviet biosatellite (Cosmos 1887). Bone ash was reduced in vertebrae (L5) but not in the non-weight-bearing calvaria or mandibles. All tissues had a relatively normal percentage composition of Ca, P, and Mg. Nevertheless, flight rat calvaria and vertebral tissues tended to exhibit lower Ca/P and higher Ca/Mg ratios that any of their weight-matched controls groups, and gradient density analysis (calvaria) indicated a strong shift to the fractions lower specific gravity that was commensurate with impaired rates of matrix-mineral maturation. X-ray diffraction data were confirmatory. Bone hydroxyapatite crystal growth in the mandibles of flight rats was preferentially altered in such a way as to reduce their size (C-axis dimension). But in the mandibular diastemal region devoid of muscle attachments, flight rat bone and dentin were normal with respect to the Ca, P, Mg, and Zn concentrations and Ca/P and Ca/Mg ratios of age-matched controls. These observations affirm the concept that while microgravity most adversely affects the maturation of newly formed matrix and mineral moieties in weight-bearing bone, such effects occur throughout the skeleton.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF Lyα EMITTERS AT REDSHIFT 4.86 IN THE COSMOS FIELD: CLUMPY STAR FORMATION OR MERGER?

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Murata, Katsuhiro L.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Murayama, Takashi; Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate morphological properties of 61 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 4.86 identified in the COSMOS field, based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data in the F814W band. Out of the 61 LAEs, we find the ACS counterparts for 54 LAEs. Eight LAEs show double-component structures with a mean projected separation of 0.″63 (∼4.0 kpc at z = 4.86). Considering the faintness of these ACS sources, we carefully evaluate their morphological properties, that is, size and ellipticity. While some of them are compact and indistinguishable from the point-spread function (PSF) half-light radius of 0.″07 (∼0.45 kpc), the others are clearly larger than the PSF size and spatially extended up to 0.″3 (∼1.9 kpc). We find that the ACS sources show a positive correlation between ellipticity and size and that the ACS sources with large size and round shape are absent. Our Monte Carlo simulation suggests that the correlation can be explained by (1) the deformation effects via PSF broadening and shot noise or (2) the source blending in which two or more sources with small separation are blended in our ACS image and detected as a single elongated source. Therefore, the 46 single-component LAEs could contain the sources that consist of double (or multiple) components with small spatial separation (i.e., ≲0.″3 or 1.9 kpc). Further observation with high angular resolution at longer wavelengths (e.g., rest-frame wavelengths of ≳4000 Å) is inevitable to decipher which interpretation is adequate for our LAE sample.

  9. The Lyman continuum escape fraction of galaxies at z = 3.3 in the VUDS-LBC/COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Gerbasi, R.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassarà, L. P.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Lemaux, B. C.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Bonchi, A.; Boutsia, K.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; de la Torre, S.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Guaita, L.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Merlin, E.; Paris, D.; Pforr, J.; Pilo, S.; Santini, P.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The ionizing Lyman continuum flux escaping from high-redshift galaxies into the intergalactic medium is a fundamental quantity to understand the physical processes involved in the reionization epoch. However, from an observational point of view, direct detections of HI ionizing photons at high redshifts are feasible for galaxies mainly in the interval z ~ 3-4. Aims: We have investigated a sample of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 3.3 to search for possible detections of Lyman continuum ionizing photons escaping from galaxy halos. Methods: We used deep ultraviolet (UV) imaging in the COSMOS field, obtained with the prime focus camera LBC at the LBT telescope, along with a catalogue of spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) to build a sample of 45 galaxies at z ~ 3.3 with L> 0.5 L∗. We obtained deep LBC images of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the interval 3.27 28%, but a detailed analysis of their properties reveals that, with the exception of two marginal detections (S/N ~ 2) in the U-band, all the other eight galaxies are most likely contaminated by the UV flux of low-redshift interlopers located close (in angular position) to the high-z targets. The average escape fraction derived from the stacking of the cleaned sample was constrained to fescrel < 2%. The implied hydrogen photoionization rate is a factor two lower than that needed to keep the intergalactic medium ionized at z ~ 3, as observed in the Lyman-α forest of high

  10. Improvement of mineral and bone metabolism markers is associated with better survival in haemodialysis patients: the COSMOS study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martín, José Luis; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Dionisi, María Paula; Floege, Jürgen; Ketteler, Markus; London, Gérard; Locatelli, Francesco; Gorriz, José Luis; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Ferreira, Aníbal; Bos, Willem-Jan; Covic, Adrian; Rodríguez-García, Minerva; Sánchez, José Emilio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B

    2015-09-01

    Abnormalities in serum phosphorus, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) have been associated with poor survival in haemodialysis patients. This COSMOS (Current management Of Secondary hyperparathyroidism: a Multicentre Observational Study) analysis assesses the association of high and low serum phosphorus, calcium and PTH with a relative risk of mortality. Furthermore, the impact of changes in these parameters on the relative risk of mortality throughout the 3-year follow-up has been investigated. COSMOS is a 3-year, multicentre, open-cohort, prospective study carried out in 6797 adult chronic haemodialysis patients randomly selected from 20 European countries. Using Cox proportional hazard regression models and penalized splines analysis, it was found that both high and low serum phosphorus, calcium and PTH were associated with a higher risk of mortality. The serum values associated with the minimum relative risk of mortality were 4.4 mg/dL for serum phosphorus, 8.8 mg/dL for serum calcium and 398 pg/mL for serum PTH. The lowest mortality risk ranges obtained using as base the previous values were 3.6-5.2 mg/dL for serum phosphorus, 7.9-9.5 mg/dL for serum calcium and 168-674 pg/mL for serum PTH. Decreases in serum phosphorus and calcium and increases in serum PTH in patients with baseline values of >5.2 mg/dL (phosphorus), >9.5 mg/dL (calcium) and <168 pg/mL (PTH), respectively, were associated with improved survival. COSMOS provides evidence of the association of serum phosphorus, calcium and PTH and mortality, and suggests survival benefits of controlling chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder biochemical parameters in CKD5D patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. The Redshift and Nature of AzTEC/COSMOS 1: A Starburst Galaxy at z = 4.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Blain, A. W.; Salvato, M.; Aretxaga, I.; Schinnerer, E.; Masters, D.; Morić, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Aravena, M.; Aussel, H.; Aguirre, J.; Berta, S.; Carilli, C. L.; Civano, F.; Fazio, G.; Huang, J.; Hughes, D.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; LeFloc'h, E.; Lutz, D.; McCracken, H.; Mobasher, B.; Murphy, E.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Sanders, D. B.; Sargent, M.; Scott, K. S.; Scoville, N. Z.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Willott, C.; Wilson, G.; Yun, M.

    2011-04-01

    Based on broadband/narrowband photometry and Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy, we report a redshift of z = 4.64+0.06 -0.08 for AzTEC/COSMOS 1, the brightest submillimeter galaxy (SMG) in the AzTEC/COSMOS field. In addition to the COSMOS-survey X-ray to radio data, we report observations of the source with Herschel/PACS (100, 160 μm), CSO/SHARC II (350 μm), and CARMA and PdBI (3 mm). We do not detect CO(5 → 4) line emission in the covered redshift ranges, 4.56-4.76 (PdBI/CARMA) and 4.94-5.02 (CARMA). If the line is within this bandwidth, this sets 3σ upper limits on the gas mass to lsim8 × 109 M sun and lsim5 × 1010 M sun, respectively (assuming similar conditions as observed in z ~ 2 SMGs). This could be explained by a low CO-excitation in the source. Our analysis of the UV-IR spectral energy distribution of AzTEC 1 shows that it is an extremely young (lsim50 Myr), massive (M * ~ 1011 M sun), but compact (lsim2 kpc) galaxy, forming stars at a rate of ~1300 M sun yr-1. Our results imply that AzTEC 1 is forming stars in a "gravitationally bound" regime in which gravity prohibits the formation of a superwind, leading to matter accumulation within the galaxy and further generations of star formation. Based on observations with the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, the Subaru Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, the NASA Spitzer Telescope, the Caltech Sub-mm Observatory, the Smithsonian Millimeter Array, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. Astrobiology Education and Outreach: A ``Life In the Cosmos" Seminar Course and an Astrobiology Society at UCLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, G.

    2000-12-01

    This presentation will outline two unique, related activities in astrobiology education and outreach: a seminar course on "Life In the Cosmos" and an Astrobiology Society, each of which sprung up at UCLA in 1999. The "Life In the Cosmos" seminar, for first-year general education students, looked at a variety of issues surrounding the questions of "what are the prospects for life elsewhere in the universe?" and "how do we search for evidence of such life?" The extraterrestrial life debate was studied from different angles, including historical and cultural perspectives as well as the current scientific approaches within the emerging interdisciplinary field of astrobiology. The seminar course was very student-centered, with lecturing minimized and active learning a key objective. The conference poster will include detailed course materials/resources developed for the seminar (and sharable with interested individuals), including (a) the two-page syllabus outlining major subjects, course objectives, grading, books, etc., (b) two lists of available materials for student research, including 45 books put on library reserve (many after getting them added to the UCLA collection) and 74 articles from periodicals or conference proceedings, (c) a survey/assignment given the first week, to assess student backgrounds, interests, etc., (d) a table of course activities and assignments, and (e) two detailed sets of guidelines, for group presentations on major subjects, and for (individual) papers and presentations on special topics. Largely inspired by the above seminar course and UCLA's role in the NASA Astrobiology Institute, a student-oriented Astrobiology Society has been founded and continued to be led at UCLA by two "Life in the Cosmos" students, Laurel Methot and Jason Finley, with ongoing mentorship from the present author. The UCLA Astrobiology Society website (URL below) has additional, up-to-date information. Encouraging and developing similar efforts elsewhere provides

  13. THE REDSHIFT AND NATURE OF AzTEC/COSMOS 1: A STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 4.6

    SciTech Connect

    Smolcic, V.; Capak, P.; Blain, A. W.; Salvato, M.; Masters, D.; Moric, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Ilbert, O.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.; Aravena, M.; Aussel, H.; Aguirre, J.; Berta, S.; Carilli, C. L.; Civano, F.; Fazio, G.; Huang, J.

    2011-04-20

    Based on broadband/narrowband photometry and Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy, we report a redshift of z = 4.64{sup +0.06}{sub -0.08} for AzTEC/COSMOS 1, the brightest submillimeter galaxy (SMG) in the AzTEC/COSMOS field. In addition to the COSMOS-survey X-ray to radio data, we report observations of the source with Herschel/PACS (100, 160 {mu}m), CSO/SHARC II (350 {mu}m), and CARMA and PdBI (3 mm). We do not detect CO(5 {yields} 4) line emission in the covered redshift ranges, 4.56-4.76 (PdBI/CARMA) and 4.94-5.02 (CARMA). If the line is within this bandwidth, this sets 3{sigma} upper limits on the gas mass to {approx}<8 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} and {approx}<5 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, respectively (assuming similar conditions as observed in z {approx} 2 SMGs). This could be explained by a low CO-excitation in the source. Our analysis of the UV-IR spectral energy distribution of AzTEC 1 shows that it is an extremely young ({approx}<50 Myr), massive (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), but compact ({approx}<2 kpc) galaxy, forming stars at a rate of {approx}1300 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Our results imply that AzTEC 1 is forming stars in a 'gravitationally bound' regime in which gravity prohibits the formation of a superwind, leading to matter accumulation within the galaxy and further generations of star formation.

  14. The Evolution of the Number Density of Large Disk Galaxies in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, M. T.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Scarlata, C.; Feldmann, R.; Kampczyk, P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Scoville, N.; Kneib, J.-P.; Leauthaud, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Porciani, C.; Renzini, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Sheth, K.

    2007-09-01

    We study a sample of approximately 16,500 galaxies with IACS,AB<=22.5 in the central 38% of the COSMOS field, which are extracted from a catalog constructed from the Cycle 12 ACS F814W COSMOS data set. Structural information on the galaxies is derived by fitting single Sérsic models to their two-dimensional surface brightness distributions. In this paper we focus on the disk galaxy population (as classified by the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types), and investigate the evolution of the number density of disk galaxies larger than approximately 5 kpc between redshift z~1 and the present epoch. Specifically, we use the measurements of the half-light radii derived from the Sérsic fits to construct, as a function of redshift, the size function Φ(r1/2, z) of both the total disk galaxy population and of disk galaxies split in four bins of bulge-to-disk ratio. In each redshift bin, the size function specifies the number of galaxies per unit comoving volume and per unit half-light radius r1/2. Furthermore, we use a selected sample of roughly 1800 SDSS galaxies to calibrate our results with respect to the local universe. We find the following: (1) The number density of disk galaxies with intermediate sizes (r1/2~5-7 kpc) remains nearly constant from z~1 to today. Unless the growth and destruction of such systems exactly balanced in the last eight billion years, they must have neither grown nor been destroyed over this period. (2) The number density of the largest disks (r1/2>7 kpc) decreases by a factor of about 2 out to z~1. (3) There is a constancy-or even slight increase-in the number density of large bulgeless disks out to z~1 the deficit of large disks at early epochs seems to arise from a smaller number of bulged disks. Our results indicate that the bulk of the large disk galaxy population has completed its growth by z~1 and support the theory that secular evolution processes produce-or at least add stellar mass to-the bulge components of disk galaxies. Based on

  15. Physical properties of z > 4 submillimeter galaxies in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Karim, A.; Miettinen, O.; Novak, M.; Magnelli, B.; Riechers, D. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Capak, P.; Bondi, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Aravena, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Bourke, S.; Banfield, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Civano, F.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Le Fèvre, O.; Finoguenov, A.; Hallinan, G.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Koekemoer, A.; Laigle, C.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mooley, K.; Murphy, E.; Navarette, F.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Sheth, K.; Toft, S.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the physical properties of a sample of six submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the COSMOS field, spectroscopically confirmed to lie at redshifts z> 4. While the redshifts for four of these SMGs were previously known, we present here two newly discovered zspec> 4 SMGs. For our analysis we employ the rich (X-ray to radio) COSMOS multi-wavelength datasets. In particular, we use new data from the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 325 MHz and 3 GHz Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to probe the rest-frame 1.4 GHz emission at z = 4, and to estimate the sizes of the star formation regions of these sources, respectively. We find that only oneSMG is clearly resolved at a resolution of 0''&dotbelow;6 × 0''&dotbelow;7 at 3 GHz, two may be marginally resolved, while the remaining three SMGs are unresolved at this resolution. Combining this with sizes from high-resolution (sub-)mm observations available in the literature for AzTEC 1 and AzTEC 3 we infer a median radio-emitting size for our z> 4 SMGs of (0''&dotbelow;63 ± 0''&dotbelow;12) × (0''&dotbelow;35 ± 0''&dotbelow;05) or 4.1 × 2.3 kpc2 (major × minor axis; assuming z = 4.5) or lower if we take the two marginally resolved SMGs as unresolved. This is consistent with the sizes of star formation regions in lower-redshift SMGs, and local normal galaxies, yet higher than the sizes of star formation regions of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). Our SMG sample consists of a fair mix of compact and more clumpy systems with multiple, perhaps merging, components. With an average formation time of ~280 Myr, as derived through modeling of the UV IR spectral energy distributions, the studied SMGs are young systems. The average stellar mass, dust temperature, and IR luminosity we derive are M⋆ ~ 1.4 × 1011 M⊙, Tdust ~ 43 K, and LIR ~ 1.3 × 1013L⊙, respectively. The average LIR is up to an order of magnitude higher than for SMGs at lower redshifts. Our SMGs follow the correlation between dust

  16. Studies of the Cosmos Using Spiderweb Absorber Transition Edge Sensor Bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Benjamin G.

    Transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer technology has been at the core of advancements in experimental cosmic microwave background (CMB) science for the past few decades. Theoretical and experimental work has built a robust model of the universe. Despite tremendous progress, there are several key pieces of experimental evidence missing to complete our understanding of the universe. This dissertation covers the work done by Benjamin Grey Westbrook at the University of California Berkeley between 2007 and 2014. It is centered around the use of spider-web absorber transition edge sensor (SWATES) bolometers to study the cosmos by the Atcama Pathnder Experiment - Sunyaev Zel'dolvich (APEX-SZ) and the E and B Experiment (EBEX). Both of which help complete our model of the universe in complimentary ways. APEX-SZ is a ground-based experiment that made observations of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Eect from the Chajnantor Plateau in Northern Chile from 2005 to 2010. It observed galaxy clusters at 150 GHz with 300 SWATES detectors with a resolution of 10. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the present day universe and are excellent for studying the properties of the universe. The primary goal of APEX-SZ was to understand the complex physics of galaxy clusters. By understanding their composition, number density, and evolution we can better our understanding of the evolution of the universe into its present state. EBEX is a balloon-borne experiment that made observations of the CMB and cosmic foreground during a science ight from the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) facility outside of McMurdo Station, Antarctica over the 2012-2013 austral summer. It made observations of 6000 square degrees of sky using 872, 436, and 256 SWATES bolometers at 150, 250, and 410 GHz detectors (respectively) with 80 resolution.

  17. The multiplicity of 250-μm Herschel sources in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Oliver, Seb; Hurley, Peter D.; Griffin, Matt; Sargent, Mark T.; Scott, Douglas; Wang, Lingyu; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the multiplicity of extragalactic sources detected by the Herschel Space Observatory in the COSMOS field. Using 3.6- and 24-μm catalogues, in conjunction with 250-μm data from Herschel, we seek to determine if a significant fraction of Herschel sources are composed of multiple components emitting at 250 μm. We use the XID+ code, using Bayesian inference methods to produce probability distributions of the possible contributions to the observed 250-μm flux for each potential component. The fraction of Herschel flux assigned to the brightest component is highest for sources with total 250-μm fluxes <45 mJy; however, the flux in the brightest component is still highest in the brightest Herschel sources. The faintest 250-μm sources (30-45 mJy) have the majority of their flux assigned to a single bright component; the second brightest component is typically significantly weaker, and contains the remainder of the 250-μm source flux. At the highest 250-μm fluxes (45-110 mJy), the brightest and second brightest components are assigned roughly equal fluxes, and together are insufficient to reach 100 per cent of the 250-μm source flux. This indicates that additional components are required, beyond the brightest two components, to reproduce the observed flux. 95 per cent of the sources in our sample have a second component that contains more than 10 per cent of the total source flux. Particularly for the brightest Herschel sources, assigning the total flux to a single source may overestimate the flux contributed by around 150 per cent.

  18. Plausible Boosting of Millimeter-Galaxies in the COSMOS Field by Intervening Large-Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxaga, I.; Wilson, G. W.; Aguilar, E.; Alberts, S.; Scott, K. S.; Scoville, N.; Yun, M. S.; Austermann, J.; Downes, T. D.; Ezawa, H.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Tamura, Y.; Zeballos, M.

    2011-10-01

    The 0.72 sq. deg. contiguous 1.1mm survey in the central area of the COSMOS field, carried out to a 1σ≍1.26 mJy beam-1 depth with the AzTEC camera mounted on the 10m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), shows number counts with a significant excess of sources when compared to the number counts derived from the ˜0.5 sq. deg. area sampled at similar depths in the Scuba HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES, Austermann et al. 2010). They are, however, consistent with those derived from fields that were considered too small to characterize the overall blank-field population. We identify differences to be more significant in the S1.1mm ˜> 5 mJy regime, and demonstrate that these excesses in number counts are related to the areas where galaxies at redshifts ˜< 1.1 are more densely clustered. The positions of optical-IR galaxies in the redshift interval 0.6 ˜< z ˜< 0.75 are the ones that show the strongest correlation with the positions of the 1.1mm bright population (S1.mm ˜>5 mJy), a result which does not depend exclusively on the presence of rich clusters within the survey sampled area. The most likely explanation for the observed excess in number counts at 1.1mm is galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-group lensing at moderate amplification levels, that increases in amplitude as one samples larger and larger flux densities.

  19. Wax Layers on Cosmos bipinnatus Petals Contribute Unequally to Total Petal Water Resistance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C22 and C24 fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 104 and 1.5 × 104 s m−1 for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. PMID:25413359

  20. The Evolution of Star Formation of Galaxies in the COSMOS Field1,2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guan-Wen; Ma, Zhong-Yang; Chen, Yang; Kong, Xu

    2015-07-01

    Based on the multi-band photometric data of the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey)/Ultra VISTA (Ultra-deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) field, we have selected a mass-limited sample of galaxies with the redshifts of 0 < z < 3.5. And according to the rest-frame UVJ twocolor (U-V vs. V-J) criteria, we classify the sample galaxies into the star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and the quiescent galaxies (QGs) in different redshift bins. In the redshift range of 0 < z < 1.5, the fraction of QGs with a mass of M* > 1011Mʘ is greater than 70%. In the range of 0 < z < 3.5, the star formation rates (SFRs) of SFGs exhibit a strong main sequence (MS) relation with the stellar mass M*. For a fixed stellar mass M*, the galaxy SFR and specific SFR (sSFR) increase with the redshift, indicating that the SFGs at high redshifts are more active in star formation. Relative to the low-mass galaxies, the large-mass SFGs have a lower sSFR, implying that the growth of a low-mass galaxy is more relying on the star formation activity of itself. In combination with the data given by the other literature, it is found that for the galaxies at higher redshifts (2 < z < 8), the evolution of sSFR with the redshift becomes weak, and the evolutionary relation is sSFR∝ (1 + z)0.94±0.17.

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT Z {approx} 3 IN THE CANDELS-COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Lulu; Chen Yang; Pan Zhizheng; Lv Xuanyi; Li Jinrong; Lin Lin; Kong Xu; Fang Guanwen

    2013-07-10

    In this Letter, we use a two-color (J - L) versus (V - J) selection criterion to search massive quiescent galaxy (QG) candidates at 2.5 {<=} z {<=} 4.0 in the CANDELS-COSMOS field. We construct an H{sub F160W}-selected catalog and complement it with public auxiliary data. We finally obtain 19 passive VJL-selected (hereafter pVJL) galaxies as the possible massive QG candidates at z {approx} 3 by several constrains. We find the sizes of our pVJL galaxies are on average three to four times smaller than those of local early-type galaxies (ETGs) with analogous stellar mass. The compact size of these z {approx} 3 galaxies can be modeled by assuming their formation at z{sub form} {approx} 4-6 according to the dissipative collapse of baryons. Up to z < 4, the mass-normalized size evolution can be described by r{sub e} {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup -1.0}. Low Sersic index and axis ratio, with median values n {approx}1.5 and b/a {approx} 0.65, respectively, indicate that most of the pVJL galaxies are disk-dominated. Despite large uncertainty, the inner region of the median mass profile of our pVJL galaxies is similar to those of QGs at 0.5 < z < 2.5 and local ETGs. It indicates that local massive ETGs have been formed according to an inside-out scenario: the compact galaxies at high redshift make up the cores of local massive ETGs and then build up the outskirts according to dissipationless minor mergers.

  2. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF RADIO SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Smolcic, V.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Schinnerer, E.; Bondi, M.; BIrzan, L.; Carilli, C. L.; Elvis, M.; Impey, C. D.; Trump, J. R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Merloni, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Paglione, T

    2009-05-01

    We explore the cosmic evolution of radio luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low radio powers (L {sub 1.4GHz} {approx}< 5 x 10{sup 25} W Hz{sup -1}) out to z = 1.3 using to date the largest sample of {approx}600 low-luminosity radio AGN at intermediate redshift drawn from the VLA-COSMOS survey. We derive the radio-luminosity function for these AGNs, and its evolution with cosmic time assuming two extreme cases: (1) pure luminosity and (2) pure density evolution. The former and latter yield L {sub *} {proportional_to} (1 + z){sup 0.8} {sup {+-}} {sup 0.1}, and {phi}{sub *} {proportional_to} (1 + z){sup 1.1} {sup {+-}} {sup 0.1}, respectively, both implying a fairly modest change in properties of low-radio-power AGNs since z = 1.3. We show that this is in stark contrast with the evolution of powerful (L {sub 1.4GHz} > 5 x 10{sup 25} W Hz{sup -1}) radio AGN over the same cosmic time interval, constrained using the 3CRR, 6CE, and 7CRS radio surveys by Willot et al. We demonstrate that this can be explained through differences in black hole fueling and triggering mechanisms, and a dichotomy in host galaxy properties of weak and powerful AGNs. Our findings suggest that high- and low-radio-power AGN activities are triggered in different stages during the formation of massive red galaxies. We show that weak radio AGN occur in the most massive galaxies already at z {approx} 1, and they may significantly contribute to the heating of their surrounding medium and thus inhibit gas accretion onto their host galaxies, as recently suggested for the 'radio mode' in cosmological models.

  3. The VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project: Cosmic star formation history since z 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, M.; Smolčić, V.; Delhaize, J.; Delvecchio, I.; Zamorani, G.; Baran, N.; Bondi, M.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C. L.; Ciliegi, P.; Civano, F.; Ilbert, O.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H.; Miettinen, O.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Tasca, L.

    2017-06-01

    We make use of the deep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) COSMOS radio observations at 3 GHz to infer radio luminosity functions of star-forming galaxies up to redshifts of z 5 based on approximately 6000 detections with reliable optical counterparts. This is currently the largest radio-selected sample available out to z 5 across an area of 2 square degrees with a sensitivity of rms ≈ 2.3 μJy beam-1. By fixing the faint and bright end shape of the radio luminosity function to the local values, we find a strong redshift trend that can be fitted with a pure luminosity evolution L1.4 GHz ∝ (1 + z)(3.16 ± 0.2)-(0.32 ± 0.07)z. We estimate star formation rates (SFRs) from our radio luminosities using an infrared (IR)-radio correlation that is redshift dependent. By integrating the parametric fits of the evolved luminosity function we calculate the cosmic SFR density (SFRD) history since z 5. Our data suggest that the SFRD history peaks between 2 < z < 3 and that the ultraluminous infrared galaxies (100 M⊙ yr-1 < SFR < 1000 M⊙ yr-1) contribute up to 25% to the total SFRD in the same redshift range. Hyperluminous infrared galaxies (SFR > 1000 M⊙ yr-1) contribute an additional ≲2% in the entire observed redshift range. We find evidence of a potential underestimation of SFRD based on ultraviolet (UV) rest-frame observations of Lyman break galaxies at high redshifts (z ≳ 4) on the order of 15-20%, owing to appreciable star formation in highly dust-obscured galaxies, which might remain undetected in such UV observations.

  4. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs.

  5. WISE × SuperCOSMOS Photometric Redshift Catalog: 20 Million Galaxies over 3/pi Steradians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Peacock, John A.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Maddox, Natasha; Brown, Michael J. I.; Taylor, Edward N.; Hambly, Nigel C.; Solarz, Aleksandra; Holwerda, Benne W.; Baldry, Ivan; Loveday, Jon; Moffett, Amanda; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Driver, Simon P.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2016-07-01

    We cross-match the two currently largest all-sky photometric catalogs—mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and SuperCOSMOS scans of UKST/POSS-II photographic plates—to obtain a new galaxy sample that covers 3π steradians. In order to characterize and purify the extragalactic data set, we use external GAMA and Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic information to define quasar and star loci in multicolor space, aiding the removal of contamination from our extended source catalog. After appropriate data cleaning, we obtain a deep wide-angle galaxy sample that is approximately 95% pure and 90% complete at high Galactic latitudes. The catalog contains close to 20 million galaxies over almost 70% of the sky, outside the Zone of Avoidance and other confused regions, with a mean surface density of more than 650 sources per square degree. Using multiwavelength information from two optical and two mid-IR photometric bands, we derive photometric redshifts for all the galaxies in the catalog, using the ANNz framework trained on the final GAMA-II spectroscopic data. Our sample has a median redshift of {z}{med}=0.2, with a broad {dN}/{dz} reaching up to z > 0.4. The photometric redshifts have a mean bias of | δ z| ˜ {10}-3, a normalized scatter of σ z = 0.033, and less than 3% outliers beyond 3σ z . Comparison with external data sets shows no significant variation of photo-z quality with sky position. Together with the overall statistics, we also provide a more detailed analysis of photometric redshift accuracy as a function of magnitudes and colors. The final catalog is appropriate for “all-sky” three-dimensional (3D) cosmology to unprecedented depths, in particular through cross-correlations with other large-area surveys. It should also be useful for source preselection and identification in forthcoming surveys, such as TAIPAN or WALLABY.

  6. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey: Source X-Ray Spectral Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Iwasawa, K.; Suh, H.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Griffiths, R.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Schawinski, K.; Silverman, J.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C.

    2016-10-01

    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 1855 extragalactic sources in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey catalog having more than 30 net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band. A total of 38% of the sources are optically classified type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 60% are type 2 AGNs, and 2% are passive, low-redshift galaxies. We study the distribution of AGN photon index Γ and of the intrinsic absorption {N}{{H},{{z}}} based on the sources’ optical classification: type 1 AGNs have a slightly steeper mean photon index Γ than type 2 AGNs, which, on the other hand, have average {N}{{H},{{z}}} ˜ 3 times higher than type 1 AGNs. We find that ˜15% of type 1 AGNs have {N}{{H},{{z}}}\\gt {10}22 cm-2, i.e., are obscured according to the X-ray spectral fitting; the vast majority of these sources have {L}2{--10{keV}} \\gt 1044 erg s-1. The existence of these objects suggests that optical and X-ray obscuration can be caused by different phenomena, the X-ray obscuration being, for example, caused by dust-free material surrounding the inner part of the nuclei. Approximately 18% of type 2 AGNs have {N}{{H},{{z}}}\\lt {10}22 cm-2, and most of these sources have low X-ray luminosities (L {}2{--10{keV}} \\lt 1043 erg s-1). We expect a part of these sources to be low-accretion, unobscured AGNs lacking broad emission lines. Finally, we also find a direct proportional trend between {N}{{H},{{z}}} and host-galaxy mass and star formation rate, although part of this trend is due to a redshift selection effect.

  7. ERRATUM: "Cosmic Evolution of Radio Selected Active Galactic Nuclei in the COSMOS Field" (2009, ApJ, 696, 24)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bondi, M.; Bîrzan, L.; Carilli, C. L.; Ciliegi, P.; Elvis, M.; Impey, C. D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Merloni, A.; Paglione, T.; Salvato, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Trump, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The scale of the volume-averaged heating rate for the VLA-COSMOS AGN, presented in Figure 14 of the paper, requires a systematic (positive) correction due to a bug in the code used to produce this plot. The modified figure is shown below. We would like to note that the applied correction does not alter any results presented in the paper, but only strengthens the agreement between the observations and the Croton et al. (2006) cosmological model in terms of the relevance of radio mode AGN feedback in the process of massive galaxy formation.

  8. RADIO GALAXY FEEDBACK IN X-RAY-SELECTED GROUPS FROM COSMOS: THE EFFECT ON THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Giodini, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Boehringer, H.; Pierini, D.; Smolcic, V.; Massey, R.; BIrzan, L.; Zamorani, G.; Oklopcic, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Thompson, D.

    2010-05-01

    We quantify the importance of the mechanical energy released by radio galaxies inside galaxy groups. We use scaling relations to estimate the mechanical energy released by 16 radio-active galactic nuclei located inside X-ray-detected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field. By comparing this energy output to the host groups' gravitational binding energy, we find that radio galaxies produce sufficient energy to unbind a significant fraction of the intragroup medium. This unbinding effect is negligible in massive galaxy clusters with deeper potential wells. Our results correctly reproduce the breaking of self-similarity observed in the scaling relation between entropy and temperature for galaxy groups.

  9. How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century - Lessons from UK COSMOS

    PubMed Central

    Toledano, Mireille B.; Smith, Rachel B.; Brook, James P.; Douglass, Margaret; Elliott, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame necessitated new approaches to consent and recruitment between 2009-2012. Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. Commercial providers of register and marketing data, smartphones, apps, email, social media, and the internet offer innovative possibilities for identifying, recruiting and following up cohorts. Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don’ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. Thus a more streamlined experience to the benefit of both research participants and researchers becomes achievable. PMID:26147611

  10. Understanding the shape of the galaxy two-point correlation function at z ~= 1 in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, S.; Guzzo, L.; Kovač, K.; Porciani, C.; Abbas, U.; Meneux, B.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Sanders, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pelló, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Welikala, N.; Zucca, E.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Fumana, M.; Ilbert, O.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Nair, P.; Oesch, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Presotto, V.; Scaramella, R.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate how the shape of the galaxy two-point correlation function as measured in the zCOSMOS survey depends on local environment, quantified in terms of the density contrast on scales of 5h-1Mpc. We show that the flat shape previously observed at redshifts between z = 0.6 and 1 can be explained by this volume being simply 10 per cent overabundant in high-density environments, with respect to a universal density probability distribution function. When galaxies corresponding to the top 10 per cent tail of the distribution are excluded, the measured wp(rp) steepens and becomes indistinguishable from Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) predictions on all scales. This is the same effect recognized by Abbas & Sheth in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data at z ~= 0 and explained as a natural consequence of halo-environment correlations in a hierarchical scenario. Galaxies living in high-density regions trace dark matter haloes with typically higher masses, which are more correlated. If the density probability distribution function of the sample is particularly rich in high-density regions because of the variance introduced by its finite size, this produces a distorted two-point correlation function. We argue that this is the dominant effect responsible for the observed `peculiar' clustering in the COSMOS field.

  11. Recently Quenched Galaxies at z = 0.2-4.8 in the COSMOS UltraVISTA Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Akie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki

    2017-07-01

    We present a new analysis of the stellar mass function and morphology of recently quenched galaxies (RQGs), whose star formation has been recently quenched for some reason. The COSMOS2015 catalog was exploited to select those galaxies at 0.2 < z < 4.8, over 1.5 deg2 of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) UltraVISTA field. This is the first time that RQGs are consistently selected and studied in such a wide range of redshift. We find increasing number density of RQGs with time in a broad mass range at z > 1, while low-mass RQGs start to grow very rapidly at z < 1. We also demonstrate that the migration of RQGs may largely drive the evolution of the stellar mass function of passive galaxies. Moreover, we find that the morphological type distribution of RQGs are intermediate between those of star-forming and passive galaxies. These results indicate that RQGs represent a major transitional phase of galaxy evolution, in which star-forming galaxies turn into passive galaxies, accompanied by the build up of spheroidal component.

  12. CoSMoS Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) storm hazard projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; O'Neill, Andrea; Herdman, Liv

    2016-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception for a 100-year storm scenario and sea-level rise 0 - 2 m. Changes from previous data releases may be reflected in some areas. Data are complete for the information presented but are considered preliminary; changes may be reflected in the full data release (Phase II) in summer 2016.

  13. Constraint-based strain design using continuous modifications (CosMos) of flux bounds finds new strategies for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Cameron; Reed, Jennifer L

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, a growing number of metabolic engineering strain design techniques have employed constraint-based modeling to determine metabolic and regulatory network changes which are needed to improve chemical production. These methods use systems-level analysis of metabolism to help guide experimental efforts by identifying deletions, additions, downregulations, and upregulations of metabolic genes that will increase biological production of a desired metabolic product. In this work, we propose a new strain design method with continuous modifications (CosMos) that provides strategies for deletions, downregulations, and upregulations of fluxes that will lead to the production of the desired products. The method is conceptually simple and easy to implement, and can provide additional strategies over current approaches. We found that the method was able to find strain design strategies that required fewer modifications and had larger predicted yields than strategies from previous methods in example and genome-scale networks. Using CosMos, we identified modification strategies for producing a variety of metabolic products, compared strategies derived from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic models, and examined how imperfect implementation may affect experimental outcomes. This study gives a powerful and flexible technique for strain engineering and examines some of the unexpected outcomes that may arise when strategies are implemented experimentally.

  14. Cosmos caudatus as a potential source of polyphenolic compounds: optimisation of oven drying conditions and characterisation of its functional properties.

    PubMed

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Khatib, Alfi; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-08-29

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.055 mg/mL, respectively. The predicted values for TPC under the optimised conditions for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 16.5 and 15.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that Cosmos caudatus can be used as a potential source of antioxidants for food and medicinal applications.

  15. Effects of spaceflight on rat pituitary cell function: Preflight and flight experiment for pituitary gland study on COSMOS, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1990-01-01

    The secretory capacity of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) cells prepared from rats flown in space on the 12.5 day mission of Cosmos 1887 and the 14 day mission of Cosmos 2044 was evaluated in several post-flight tests on Earth. The results showed statistically significant and repeatable decrements in hormone release, especially when biological assays (rather than immunological assays) were used in the tests. Significant and repeatable intracellular changes in GH cells from the flight animals were also found; most important were increases in the GH-specific cytoplasmic staining intensities and cytoplasmic areas occupied by hormore. Tail suspension of rats for 14 days, an established model for mimicking musculo-skeletal changes seen in spaceflown rats, results in some changes in GH and PRL cell function that were similar to those from spaceflown animals. Our results add to a growing body of data that described deconditioning of physiological systems in spaceflight and provide insights into the time frame that might be required for readaptation of the GH/PRL cell system upon return to Earth.

  16. COLDz: KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH GALAXY IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lentati, L.; Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Riechers, D.; Sharon, C.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Decarli, R.; Aravena, M.; Hodge, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Sargent, M.; Smolčć, V.

    2015-02-10

    The broad spectral bandwidth at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48 through the detection of CO J = 1-0 line emission in the COLDz survey and through a sensitive, Ka-band (31-39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 arcmin{sup 2} region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ∼ 570 ± 80 km s{sup –1}) is most likely to be CO J = 1-0 at z = 2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z {sub phot} = 3.2 ± 0.4. The CO J = 1-0 line luminosity is L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(2.2±0.3)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M {sub gas} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio α{sub CO}. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L {sub IR} = 2.5 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and the star formation rate is ∼250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ∼114 ± 19 L {sub ☉}/(K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS IN THE INTERACTION AND MERGING OF GALAXIES IN zCOSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Kampczyk, P.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Diener, C.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Maier, C.; Bordoloi, R.; De Ravel, L.; Le Fevre, O.; Bolzonella, M.; Vergani, D.; Bardelli, S.; Coppa, G.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M. T.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; and others

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the environments and galactic properties (morphologies and star formation histories) of a sample of 153 close kinematic pairs in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1 identified in the zCOSMOS-bright 10 k spectroscopic sample of galaxies. Correcting for projection effects, the fraction of close kinematic pairs is three times higher in the top density quartile than in the lowest one. This translates to a three times higher merger rate because the merger timescales are shown, from mock catalogs based on the Millennium simulation, to be largely independent of environment once the same corrections for projection are applied. We then examine the morphologies and stellar populations of galaxies in the pairs, comparing them to control samples that are carefully matched in environment so as to remove as much of the well-known effects of environment on the properties of the parent population of galaxies as possible. Once the environment is properly taken into account in this way, we find that the early-late morphology mix is the same as for the parent population, but that the fraction of irregular galaxies is boosted by 50%-75%, with a disproportionate increase in the number of irregular-irregular pairs (factor of 4-8 times), due to the disturbance of disk galaxies. Future dry mergers, involving elliptical galaxies comprise less than 5% of all close kinematic pairs. In the closest pairs, there is a boost in the specific star formation rates of star-forming galaxies of a factor of 2-4, and there is also evidence for an increased incidence of post-starburst galaxies. Although significant for the galaxies involved, the 'excess' star formation associated with pairs represents only about 5% of the integrated star formation activity in the parent sample. Although most pair galaxies are in dense environments, the effects of interaction appear to be largest in the lower density environments. By preferentially bringing more pairs into the sample in lower density environments

  18. Active galactic nucleus X-ray variability in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzuisi, G.; Ponti, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Nandra, P. K.; Merloni, A.; Rosario, D.; Hasinger, G.; Sanders, D.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Bongiorno, A.; Lusso, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Silverman, J.; Schramm, M.; Trump, J.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We used the observations carried out by XMM in the COSMOS field over 3.5 yr to study the long term variability of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (638 sources) in a wide range of redshifts (0.1 < z < 3.5) and X-ray luminosities (10{sup 41} < L {sub 0.5-10} <10{sup 45.5}). Both a simple statistical method to assess the significance of variability and the Normalized Excess Variance (σ{sub rms}{sup 2}) parameter were used to obtain a quantitative measurement of the variability. Variability is found to be prevalent in most AGNs, whenever we have good statistics to measure it, and no significant differences between type 1 and type 2 AGNs were found. A flat (slope –0.23 ± 0.03) anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity is found when all significantly variable sources are considered together. When divided into three redshift bins, the anti-correlation becomes stronger and evolving with z, with higher redshift AGNs being more variable. We prove, however, that this effect is due to the pre-selection of variable sources: when considering all of the sources with an available σ{sub rms}{sup 2} measurement, the evolution in redshift disappears. For the first time, we were also able to study long term X-ray variability as a function of M {sub BH} and Eddington ratio for a large sample of AGNs spanning a wide range of redshifts. An anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and M {sub BH} is found, with the same slope of anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity, suggesting that the latter may be a by-product of the former. No clear correlation is found between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and the Eddington ratio in our sample. Finally, no correlation is found between the X-ray σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and optical variability.

  19. GALAXY STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY BETWEEN 0.2 < z < 2 FROM THE S-COSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Sanders, D. B.; Salvato, M.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Aussel, H.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Arnouts, S.; Bundy, K.; Tasca, L.; Cassata, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Koekemoer, A.; Lilly, S.; Surace, J.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2010-02-01

    We follow the galaxy stellar mass assembly by morphological and spectral type in the COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. We derive the stellar mass functions and stellar mass densities from z = 2 to z = 0.2 using 196,000 galaxies selected at F{sub 3.6{mu}m} > 1 muJy with accurate photometric redshifts ({sigma}{sub (z{sub phot}-z{sub spec})/(1+z{sub spec})}=0.008 at i {sup +} < 22.5). Using a spectral classification, we find that z {approx} 1 is an epoch of transition in the stellar mass assembly of quiescent galaxies. Their stellar mass density increases by 1.1 dex between z = 1.5-2 and z = 0.8-1 ({Delta}t {approx} 2.5 Gyr), but only by 0.3 dex between z = 0.8-1 and z {approx} 0.1 ({Delta}t {approx} 6 Gyr). Then, we add the morphological information and find that 80%-90% of the massive quiescent galaxies (log M {approx} 11) have an elliptical morphology at z < 0.8. Therefore, a dominant mechanism links the shutdown of star formation and the acquisition of an elliptical morphology in massive galaxies. Still, a significant fraction of quiescent galaxies present a Spi/Irr morphology at low mass (40%-60% at log M approx 9.5), but this fraction is smaller than predicted by semi-analytical models using a 'halo quenching' recipe. We also analyze the evolution of star-forming galaxies and split them into 'intermediate activity' and 'high activity' galaxies. We find that the most massive 'high activity' galaxies end their high star formation rate phase first. Finally, the space density of massive star-forming galaxies becomes lower than the space density of massive elliptical galaxies at z < 1. As a consequence, the rate of 'wet mergers' involved in the formation of the most massive ellipticals must decline very rapidly at z < 1, which could explain the observed slow down in the assembly of these quiescent and massive sources.

  20. The Nustar Extragalactic Surveys: Overview and Catalog from the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, F.; Hickox, R. C.; Puccetti, S.; Comastri, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Zappacosta, L.; LaMassa, S. M.; Aird, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Del-Moro, A.; Elvis, M.; Forster, K.; Gandhi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Luo, B.; Madsen, K.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.; Urry, M. C.; Wik, D. R.; Zhang, W.

    2015-08-01

    To provide the census of the sources contributing to the X-ray background peak above 10 keV, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is performing extragalactic surveys using a three-tier “wedding cake” approach. We present the NuSTAR survey of the COSMOS field, the medium sensitivity, and medium area tier, covering 1.7 deg2 and overlapping with both Chandra and XMM-Newton data. This survey consists of 121 observations for a total exposure of ˜3 Ms. To fully exploit these data, we developed a new detection strategy, carefully tested through extensive simulations. The survey sensitivity at 20% completeness is 5.9, 2.9, and 6.4 × 10-14 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 3-24, 3-8, and 8-24 keV bands, respectively. By combining detections in 3 bands, we have a sample of 91 NuSTAR sources with 1042-1045.5 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 luminosities and redshift z = 0.04-2.5. Thirty-two sources are detected in the 8-24 keV band with fluxes ˜100 times fainter than sources detected by Swift-BAT. Of the 91 detections, all but 4 are associated with a Chandra and/or XMM-Newton point-like counterpart. One source is associated with an extended lower energy X-ray source. We present the X-ray (hardness ratio and luminosity) and optical-to-X-ray properties. The observed fraction of candidate Compton-thick active galactic nuclei measured from the hardness ratio is between 13%-20%. We discuss the spectral properties of NuSTAR J100259+0220.6 (ID 330) at z = 0.044, with the highest hardness ratio in the entire sample. The measured column density exceeds 1024 cm-2, implying the source is Compton-thick. This source was not previously recognized as such without the >10 keV data.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SCUBA observations of COSMOS galaxies (Casey+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, C. M.; Chen, C.-C.; Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Koss, M.; Lee, N.; Le Floc'h, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P.

    2014-10-01

    We present deep 450μm and 850μm observations of a large, uniformly covered 394arcmin2 area in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field obtained with the Scuba-2 instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). We achieve root-mean-square noise values of σ450=4.13mJy and σ850=0.80mJy. The differential and cumulative number counts are presented and compared to similar previous works. Individual point sources are identified at >3.6σ significance, a threshold corresponding to a 3-5% sample contamination rate. We identify 78 sources at 450μm and 99 at 850μm, with flux densities S450=13-37mJy and S850=2-16mJy. Only 62-76% of 450μm sources are 850μm detected and 61-81% of 850μm sources are 450μm detected. The positional uncertainties at 450μm are small (1-2.5 arcsec) and therefore allow a precise identification of multiwavelength counterparts without reliance on detection at 24μm or radio wavelengths; we find that only 44% of 450μm sources and 60% of 850μm sources have 24μm or radio counterparts. 450μm selected galaxies peak at =1.95+/-0.19 and 850μm selected galaxies peak at =2.16+/-0.11. The two samples occupy similar parameter space in redshift and luminosity, while their median SED peak wavelengths differ by ~20-50μm (translating to ΔTdust=8-12K, where 450μm selected galaxies are warmer). The similarities of the 450μm and 850μm populations, yet lack of direct overlap between them, suggests that submillimetre surveys conducted at any single far-infrared wavelength will be significantly incomplete (>~30%) at censusing infrared-luminous star formation at high z. (8 data files).

  2. From Genomes to Life to the Planet and the Cosmos: In Appreciation of Carl Sagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Earth and life have evolved in tandem; It is impossible to separate the two over most of geologic time. Geological and geochemical processes create and define the conditions necessary for life. In turn, life has shaped geological processes in ways that are understood, and ways that are not yet understood. The reciprocal interaction between the planet and its inhabitants has driven changes in the molecules, metabolisms, and morphologies of terrean organisms. Today, with the emergence of complete genome sequences and tools from molecular biology, we are now better able, more than ever before, to tell stories of how we came to be, on a planet and in a cosmos that has both nourished us and (from time to time) threatened to extinguish us. The stories to be told in this talk combine information from the geological and paleontological records, analysis of genome sequence data, and experiments that resurrect ancient, extinct life forms for study in the laboratory. The talk will emphasize the non-recurring, progressive feature of the dance between Earth and Life. We will show how the emergence of humans was influenced by the environment, and how humans placed their irreversible mark on the genes of organisms that they touched. We will show how the global environmental crisis that began in the Oligocene irreversibly transformed the plant and animal kingdoms. We will proceed back to the Cretaceous, to explore how plants and dinosaurs influenced each other, and the genomes of surviving fungus and flies. From there we will go to the Jurassic, as the first placental mammals reconstructed their reproductive systems in response to the planetary changes. We will ask how cosmic events, from asteroids to supernova, may have influenced life on Earth. We will ask what consequential features of life that we see around us might be unique to Earth, and what features might be found universally in life elsewhere. The talk will also review some of the methodological issues associated

  3. The Faint-End Slopes of Galaxy Luminosity Functions in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Charles T.; Capak, Peter; Mobasher, Bahram; Paglione, Timothy A. D.; Rich, R. Michael; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Tribiano, Shana M.; Tyson, Neil D.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the faint-end slope of the rest-frame V-band luminosity function (LF), with respect to galaxy spectral type, of field galaxies with redshift z < 0.5, using a sample of 80,820 galaxies with photometric redshifts in the 2 deg2 Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. For all galaxy spectral types combined, the LF slope ranges from -1.24 to -1.12, from the lowest redshift bin to the highest. In the lowest redshift bin (0.02 < z < 0.1), where the magnitude limit is MVlesssim - 13, the slope ranges from α ~ - 1.1 for galaxies with early-type spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to α ~ - 1.9 for galaxies with low-extinction starburst SEDs. In each galaxy SED category (early-type, Sbc, Scd+Irr, and starburst), the faint-end slopes grow shallower with increasing redshift; in the highest redshift bin (0.4 < z < 0.5), α ~ - 0.5 and -1.3 for early types and starbursts, respectively. The steepness of α at lower redshifts could be qualitatively explained by LF evolution, or by large numbers of faint dwarf galaxies, perhaps of low surface brightness, that are not detected at higher redshifts. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555; also based on data collected at Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by AURA, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; at the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with MegaPrime/MegaCam, operated as a joint project by the CFHT

  4. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    PubMed

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  5. Efficient Mosaicking of Spitzer Space Telescope Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Makovoz, David; Eisenhardt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A parallel version of the MOPEX software, which generates mosaics of infrared astronomical images acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope, extends the capabilities of the prior serial version. In the parallel version, both the input image space and the output mosaic space are divided among the available parallel processors. This is the only software that performs the point-source detection and the rejection of spurious imaging effects of cosmic rays required by Spitzer scientists. This software includes components that implement outlier-detection algorithms that can be fine-tuned for a particular set of image data by use of a number of adjustable parameters. This software has been used to construct a mosaic of the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Shallow Survey, which comprises more than 17,000 exposures in four wavelength bands from 3.6 to 8 m and spans a solid angle of about 9 square degrees. When this software was executed on 32 nodes of the 1,024-processor Cosmos cluster computer at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a speedup of 8.3 was achieved over the serial version of MOPEX. The performance is expected to improve dramatically once a true parallel file system is installed on Cosmos.

  6. The Nonlinear Biasing of the zCOSMOS Galaxies up to z ~ 1 from the 10k Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač, K.; Porciani, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Marinoni, C.; Guzzo, L.; Cucciati, O.; Zamorani, G.; Iovino, A.; Oesch, P.; Bolzonella, M.; Peng, Y.; Meneux, B.; Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Finoguenov, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Fumana, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Scaramella, R.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2011-04-01

    We use the zCOSMOS galaxy overdensity field to study the biasing of galaxies in the COSMOS field. By comparing the probability distribution function of the galaxy density contrast δ g to the lognormal approximation of the mass density contrast δ, we obtain the mean biasing function b(δ, z, R) between the galaxy and matter overdensity fields and its second moments \\hat{b} and \\tilde{b}. Over the redshift interval 0.4 < z < 1 the conditional mean function langδ g |δrang = b(δ, z, R)δ is of a characteristic shape, requiring nonlinear biasing in the most overdense and underdense regions. Taking into account the uncertainties due to cosmic variance, we do not detect any significant evolution in the langδ g |δrang function, but we do detect a significant redshift evolution in the linear biasing parameter \\hat{b} from 1.23 ± 0.11 at z ~ 0.55 to 1.62 ± 0.14 at z ~ 0.75, for a luminosity-complete sample of MB < -20 - z galaxies. The \\hat{b} parameter does not change significantly with smoothing scale between 8 and 12 h -1 Mpc, but increases systematically with luminosity (at 2σ-3σ significance between the MB < -20.5 - z and MB < -20 - z samples). The nonlinearity parameter \\tilde{b}/ \\hat{b} is offset from unity by at most 2%, with an uncertainty of the same order. The \\tilde{b}/\\hat{b} parameter does not show any significant redshift evolution, dependence on the smoothing scale or on the luminosity. By matching the linear bias of galaxies to the halo bias, we infer that the MB < -20 - z galaxies reside in dark matter halos with a characteristic mass of about (2.6 - 5.6) × 1012 M sun with a small dependence on the adopted bias-mass relation. Our detailed error analysis and comparison with previous studies lead us to conclude that cosmic variance is the main contributor to the differences in the linear bias measured from different surveys. While our results support the general picture of biased galaxy formation up to z ~ 1, the fine-tuning of the galaxy

  7. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the COSMOS field at z ˜ 0.37

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jonghwan; Lah, Philip; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Briggs, Frank H.; Colless, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of H I spectral stacking analysis of Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations targeting the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The GMRT data cube contains 474 field galaxies with redshifts known from the zCOSMOS-bright 10 k catalogue. Spectra for the galaxies are co-added and the stacked spectrum allows us to make a ˜3σ measurement of the average H I mass. Using this average H I mass, along with the integral optical B-band luminosity of the galaxies and the luminosity density of the COSMOS field, a volume normalization is applied to obtain the cosmic H I mass density (ΩH I). We find a cosmic H I mass density of ΩH I = (0.42 ± 0.16) × 10-3 at z ˜ 0.37, which is the highest redshift measurement of ΩH I ever made using H I spectral stacking. The value we obtained for ΩH I at z ˜ 0.37 is consistent with that measured from large blind 21-cm surveys at z = 0, as well as measurements from other H I stacking experiments at lower redshifts. Our measurement, in conjunction with earlier measurements, indicates that there has been no significant evolution of H I gas abundance over the last 4 Gyr. A weighted mean of ΩH I from all 21-cm measurements at redshifts z ≲ 0.4 gives ΩH I = (0.35 ± 0.01) × 10-3. The ΩH I measured (from H I 21-cm emission measurements) at z ≲ 0.4 is, however, approximately half that measured from damped Lyman-α absorption (DLA) systems at z ≳ 2. Deeper surveys with existing and upcoming instruments will be critical to understand the evolution of ΩH I in the redshift range intermediate between z ˜ 0.4 and the range probed by DLA observations.

  8. Morphological Properties of Lyα Emitters at Redshift 4.86 in the Cosmos Field: Clumpy Star Formation or Merger?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Murata, Katsuhiro L.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Murayama, Takashi; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Scoville, Nick Z.; Nagao, Tohru; Capak, Peter L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate morphological properties of 61 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 4.86 identified in the COSMOS field, based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data in the F814W band. Out of the 61 LAEs, we find the ACS counterparts for 54 LAEs. Eight LAEs show double-component structures with a mean projected separation of 0.″63 (˜4.0 kpc at z = 4.86). Considering the faintness of these ACS sources, we carefully evaluate their morphological properties, that is, size and ellipticity. While some of them are compact and indistinguishable from the point-spread function (PSF) half-light radius of 0.″07 (˜0.45 kpc), the others are clearly larger than the PSF size and spatially extended up to 0.″3 (˜1.9 kpc). We find that the ACS sources show a positive correlation between ellipticity and size and that the ACS sources with large size and round shape are absent. Our Monte Carlo simulation suggests that the correlation can be explained by (1) the deformation effects via PSF broadening and shot noise or (2) the source blending in which two or more sources with small separation are blended in our ACS image and detected as a single elongated source. Therefore, the 46 single-component LAEs could contain the sources that consist of double (or multiple) components with small spatial separation (i.e., ≲0.″3 or 1.9 kpc). Further observation with high angular resolution at longer wavelengths (e.g., rest-frame wavelengths of ≳4000 Å) is inevitable to decipher which interpretation is adequate for our LAE sample. Based on observations with NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, and also based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  9. Lyman continuum escape fraction of faint galaxies at z 3.3 in the CANDELS/GOODS-North, EGS, and COSMOS fields with LBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Paris, D.; Boutsia, K.; Dickinson, M.; Santini, P.; Windhorst, R. A.; Jansen, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Ashcraft, T. A.; Scarlata, C.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Vanzella, E.; Cusano, F.; Cristiani, S.; Giavalisco, M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Koekemoer, A.; Grogin, N. A.; Castellano, M.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Marchi, F.; Pedichini, F.; Pentericci, L.; Amorín, R.; Barro, G.; Bonchi, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Faber, S. M.; Fumana, M.; Galametz, A.; Guaita, L.; Kocevski, D. D.; Merlin, E.; Nonino, M.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pilo, S.; Ryan, R. E.; Sani, E.; Speziali, R.; Testa, V.; Weiner, B.; Yan, H.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The reionization of the Universe is one of the most important topics of present-day astrophysical research. The most plausible candidates for the reionization process are star-forming galaxies, which according to the predictions of the majority of the theoretical and semi-analytical models should dominate the H i ionizing background at z ≳ 3. Aims: We measure the Lyman continuum escape fraction, which is one of the key parameters used to compute the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the UV background. It provides the ratio between the photons produced at λ ≤ 912 Å rest-frame and those that are able to reach the inter-galactic medium, i.e. that are not absorbed by the neutral hydrogen or by the dust of the galaxy's inter-stellar medium. Methods: We used ultra-deep U-band imaging (U = 30.2 mag at 1σ) from Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBC/LBT) in the CANDELS/GOODS-North field and deep imaging in the COSMOS and EGS fields in order to estimate the Lyman continuum escape fraction of 69 star-forming galaxies with secure spectroscopic redshifts at 3.27 ≤ z ≤ 3.40 to faint magnitude limits (L = 0.2L∗, or equivalently M1500 - 19). The narrow redshift range implies that the LBC U-band filter exclusively samples the λ ≤ 912 Å rest-frame wavelengths. Results: We measured through stacks a stringent upper limit (<1.7% at 1σ) for the relative escape fraction of H i ionizing photons from bright galaxies (L>L∗), while for the faint population (L = 0.2L∗) the limit to the escape fraction is ≲ 10%. We computed the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the observed UV background at z 3 and find that it is not sufficient to keep the Universe ionized at these redshifts unless their escape fraction increases significantly (≥ 10%) at low luminosities (M1500 ≥ - 19). Conclusions: We compare our results on the Lyman continuum escape fraction of high-z galaxies with recent estimates in the literature, and discuss

  10. Active galactic nuclei vs. host galaxy properties in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Marchesi, S.; Perna, M.; Pozzi, F.; Salvato, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Volonteri, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The coeval active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy evolution, and the observed local relations between super massive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxy properties suggest some sort of connection or feedback between SMBH growth (i.e., AGN activity) and galaxy build-up (i.e., star formation history). Aims: We looked for correlations between average properties of X-ray detected AGN and their far-IR (FIR) detected, star forming host galaxies in order to find quantitative evidence for this connection, which has been highly debated in recent years. Methods: We exploited the rich multiwavelength data set (from X-ray to FIR) available in the COSMOS field for a large sample (692 sources) of AGN and their hosts in the redshift range 0.1

  11. Pan-STARRS1 variability of XMM-COSMOS AGN. I. Impact on photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simm, T.; Saglia, R.; Salvato, M.; Bender, R.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: Upcoming large area sky surveys like Euclid and eROSITA, which are dedicated to studying the role of dark energy in the expansion history of the Universe and the three-dimensional mass distribution of matter, crucially depend on accurate photometric redshifts. The identification of variable sources, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the achievable redshift accuracy for varying objects are important in view of the science goals of the Euclid and eROSITA missions. Methods: We probe AGN optical variability for a large sample of X-ray-selected AGNs in the XMM-COSMOS field, using the multi-epoch light curves provided by the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π and Medium Deep Field surveys. To quantify variability we employed a simple statistic to estimate the probability of variability and the normalized excess variance to measure the variability amplitude. Utilizing these two variability parameters, we defined a sample of varying AGNs for every PS1 band. We investigated the influence of variability on the calculation of photometric redshifts by applying three different input photometry sets for our fitting procedure. For each of the five PS1 bands gP1, rP1, iP1, zP1, and yP1, we chose either the epochs minimizing the interval in observing time, the median magnitude values, or randomly drawn light curve points to compute the redshift. In addition, we derived photometric redshifts using PS1 photometry extended by GALEX/IRAC bands. Results: We find that the photometry produced by the 3π survey is sufficient to reliably detect variable sources provided that the fractional variability amplitude is at least ~3%. Considering the photometric redshifts of variable AGNs, we observe that minimizing the time spacing of the chosen points yields superior photometric redshifts in terms of the percentage of outliers (33%) and accuracy (0.07), outperforming the other two approaches. Drawing random points from the light curve gives rise to typically 57% of outliers and an accuracy of

  12. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos caudatus

    PubMed Central

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained. PMID:26784876

  13. Results on Artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.; Delpoux, M.; Clegg, J.; Kovalev, E. E.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.; Miller, A. T.

    Artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds were flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 for 19 days. A correlative method was used in order to determine the passage of cosmic heavy ions (HZE particles) through the biological test objects. This space flight resulted in a decrease on hatchability, nucleic acid and protein synthesis in hydrated Artemia cysts. HZE particle effects on plant cellular chromosomes are confirmed. In tobacco seeds, a stimulating effect on germination rate and a higher frequency of abnormalities were observed. Dormant biological objects are a very suitable material to study cosmic ray effects: these objects can be arranged in monolayers and sandwiched between visual track detectors in order to determine the passage of the cosmic heavy ions (HZE particles). On the other hand this method allows us to study effects of microgravity and those of the protonic component of cosmic rays in the objects not hit by the HZE particles.

  14. Nitrate, ascorbic acid, mineral and antioxidant activities of Cosmos caudatus in response to organic and mineral-based fertilizer rates.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Siti Aishah; Mijin, Salumiah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Ding, Phebe; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat

    2012-06-28

    The source and quantity of nutrients available to plants can affect the quality of leafy herbs. A study was conducted to compare quality of Cosmos caudatus in response to rates of organic and mineral-based fertilizers. Organic based fertilizer GOBI (8% N:8% P₂O₅:8% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O) were evaluated based on N element rates at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg h⁻¹. Application of organic based fertilizer reduced nitrate, improved vitamin C, antioxidant activity as well as nitrogen and calcium nutrients content. Antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher with increased fertilizer application. Fertilization appeared to enhance vitamin C content, however for the maximum ascorbic acid content, regardless of fertilizer sources, plants did not require high amounts of fertilizer.

  15. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus.

    PubMed

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-05-07

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  16. Meeting new challenges: The 2014 HUPO-PSI/COSMOS Workshop: 13-15 April 2014, Frankfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Sandra; Albar, Juan Pablo; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Kettner, Carsten; Jones, Andrew R; Salek, Reza M; Vizcaino, Juan Antonio; Deutsch, Eric W; Hermjakob, Henning

    2014-11-01

    The Annual 2014 Spring Workshop of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) of the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) was held this year jointly with the metabolomics COordination of Standards in MetabOlomicS (COSMOS) group. The range of existing MS standards (mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, mzTab, TraML) was reviewed and updated in the light of new methodologies and advances in technologies. Adaptations to meet the needs of the metabolomics community were incorporated and a new data format for NMR, nmrML, was presented. The molecular interactions workgroup began work on a new version of the existing XML data interchange format. PSI-MI XML3.0 will enable the capture of more abstract data types such as protein complex topology derived from experimental data, allosteric binding, and dynamic interactions. Further information about the work of the HUPO-PSI can be found at http://www.psidev.info.

  17. Influence of Cosmos 368 space flight conditions on radiation effects in yeasts, hydrogen bacteria and seeds of lettuce and pea.

    PubMed

    Grigoryev, Y G; Benevolensky, V P; Druzhinin, Y P; Shidarov, Y I; Korogodin, V I; Nevzgodina, L V; Miller, A T; Tsarapkin, L S

    1972-01-01

    Radiobiological studies have been carried out on board the Cosmos 368 satellite, launched on 8 October 1970 and returning to earth on 14 October 1970. Yeast diploid cells Saccharomyces ellipsoides, Megri strain 139-B, haploid cells Zygosaccharomyces Baili, hydrogen bacteria Hydrogenomonas eutropha, strain Z-1, Berlin variety lettuce seeds and Capital variety pea seeds were used in these experiments. The biological specimens were irradiated with gamma-rays at dose rates of 71.8 and 6.7 rad d-1 suring the packaging of containers and after returning the samples to the laboratory. It was found that both on pre-radiation and post-radiation exposure space flight factors did not greatly influence radiobiological effects.

  18. Results on artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors, in particular the heavy ion component of cosmic rays, on dormant stages of life forms were investigated as part of the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 biosatellite. Artemia cysts and seeds of tobacco and lettuce plants were placed in tubes and in monolayers sandwiched between layers of visual particle track detectors. Although Artemia cysts exposed in the dry state did not differ from ground controls, hydrated cysts exhibited a slight decrease in hatchability and reduced (C-14)O2 incorporation and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. For cysts held in the monolayers, hits by HZE particles were observed to stimulate emergence, hatching and survival. Higher proportions of chromosomal aberrations were found in lettuce seeds hit by HZE particles, while space flight produced a stimulatory effect on both germination rate and abnormality frequency in both hit and nonhit tobacco seeds. 9 references.

  19. CONSTRAINTS ON THE FAINT END OF THE QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z {approx} 5 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Kajisawa, M.; Nagao, T.; Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Enoki, M.; Capak, P.; Masters, D.; Scoville, N. Z.; Civano, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Morokuma, T.; Salvato, M.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-09-10

    We present the result of our low-luminosity quasar survey in the redshift range of 4.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 5.5 in the COSMOS field. Using the COSMOS photometric catalog, we selected 15 quasar candidates with 22 < i' < 24 at z {approx} 5 that are {approx}3 mag fainter than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars in the same redshift range. We obtained optical spectra for 14 of the 15 candidates using FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope and did not identify any low-luminosity type-1 quasars at z {approx} 5, while a low-luminosity type-2 quasar at z {approx} 5.07 was discovered. In order to constrain the faint end of the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 5, we calculated the 1{sigma} confidence upper limits of the space density of type-1 quasars. As a result, the 1{sigma} confidence upper limits on the quasar space density are {Phi} < 1.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1} for -24.52 < M{sub 1450} < -23.52 and {Phi} < 2.88 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1} for -23.52 < M{sub 1450} < -22.52. The inferred 1{sigma} confidence upper limits of the space density are then used to provide constraints on the faint-end slope and the break absolute magnitude of the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 5. We find that the quasar space density decreases gradually as a function of redshift at low luminosity (M{sub 1450} {approx} -23), being similar to the trend found for quasars with high luminosity (M{sub 1450} < -26). This result is consistent with the so-called downsizing evolution of quasars seen at lower redshifts.

  20. THE OBSCURED FRACTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE XMM-COSMOS SURVEY: A SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION PERSPECTIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Lusso, E.; Hennawi, J. F.; Richards, G. T.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Salvato, M.

    2013-11-10

    The fraction of active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity obscured by dust and re-emitted in the mid-IR is critical for understanding AGN evolution, unification, and parsec-scale AGN physics. For unobscured (Type 1) AGNs, where we have a direct view of the accretion disk, the dust covering factor can be measured by computing the ratio of re-processed mid-IR emission to intrinsic nuclear bolometric luminosity. We use this technique to estimate the obscured AGN fraction as a function of luminosity and redshift for 513 Type 1 AGNs from the XMM-COSMOS survey. The re-processed and intrinsic luminosities are computed by fitting the 18 band COSMOS photometry with a custom spectral energy distribution fitting code, which jointly models emission from hot dust in the AGN torus, from the accretion disk, and from the host galaxy. We find a relatively shallow decrease of the luminosity ratio as a function of L{sub bol}, which we interpret as a corresponding decrease in the obscured fraction. In the context of the receding torus model, where dust sublimation reduces the covering factor of more luminous AGNs, our measurements require a torus height that increases with luminosity as h ∝ L{sub bol}{sup 0.3-0.4}. Our obscured-fraction-luminosity relation agrees with determinations from Sloan Digital Sky Survey censuses of Type 1 and Type 2 quasars and favors a torus optically thin to mid-IR radiation. We find a much weaker dependence of the obscured fraction on 2-10 keV luminosity than previous determinations from X-ray surveys and argue that X-ray surveys miss a significant population of highly obscured Compton-thick AGNs. Our analysis shows no clear evidence for evolution of the obscured fraction with redshift.

  1. Highest redshift neutral hydrogen image in emission: A CHILES detection of a starbursting spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ximena; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min Su; Momjian, Emmanuel; CHILES Team

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of galaxy evolution still has many uncertainties associated with the details of gas accretion, processing, and removal across cosmic time. The next generation of radio telescopes will image the neutral hydrogen in galaxies over large volumes at high redshifts, which will provide key insights into these processes. We are conducting the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) with the VLA, which is the first survey to simultaneously observe HI from z=0 to z=0.5. The full survey consists of 1002 hours of observing time, giving us the sensitivity to image HI in 300 galaxies in the COSMOS field. Here, we report the highest redshift HI detection to date, the LIRG COSMOS J100054.83+023126.2 at z=0.376 with the first 178 hours of CHILES data. While the optical image shows it to be a large undisturbed spiral, the HI distribution is very extended and offset from the optical center. This could be evidence for interactions with companions or accretion fueling the starburst. In addition, we present follow-up LMT CO observations that reveal it to be gas-rich in molecular hydrogen. This is the first study of the HI and CO for a galaxy beyond the local Universe, which will enable us to start exploring the ISM of LIRGs at higher redshift.

  2. Comparison Stripmap Cosmos SkyMed X-Band and TOPS Sentinel-1C Band in Estimating Ground Subsidence Using Irstea TomoSAR Platform: Ho Chi Minh City Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho Tong Minh, Dinh; Vuong, Quoc Viet; Le, Van Trung; Ngo, Yen-Nhi

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) capabilities in subsidence estimations of TOPSAR Sentinel-1 data. This work has presented an advanced PSI analysis, to provide unprecedented spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage of the subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City by using 49 stripmap Cosmos SkyMED (CSK) X-band and TOPS Sentinel-1 C- band 23 images acquired from 2014 to 2016. The analysis was carried out by using the Irstea TomoSAR platform, which supports the entire processing from SAR, Interferometry, Polarimetry, to Tomography (so called TomoSAR). The study shows that the performance of stripmap CSK and TOPS Sentinel-1 is quite similar and effective to detect the subsidence phenomena. Subsidence is most severe in the Holocene silt loam areas along Sai Gon river and in the Southwest of the city, with the maximum value up to -30 mm/yr, similar with the previous study using ALOS PALSAR.

  3. CoSMoS Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) flood hazard projections: Los Angeles, San Diego and Orange counties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; O'Neill, Andrea; Herdman, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception for a 100-year storm scenario. Data are complete for the information presented but are considered preliminary; changes may be reflected in the full data release (Phase II) in summer 2016.

  4. Narrow-line X-Ray-selected Galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Field. II. Optically Elusive X-Ray AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, E.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Watson, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    In the Chandra-COSMOS (C-COSMOS) survey, we have looked for X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which are not detected as such in the optical, the so-called elusive AGNs. A previous study based on XMM-Newton and Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations has found a sample of 31 X-ray AGNs optically misclassified as star-forming (SF) galaxies at z\\lt 0.4, including 17 elusive Sy2s. Using Chandra observations provides a sample of fainter X-ray sources and so, for a given X-ray luminosity, extends to higher redshifts. To study the elusive Sy2s in the C-COSMOS field, we have removed the NLS1s that contaminate the narrow-line sample. Surprisingly, the contribution of NLS1s is much lower in the C-COSMOS sample (less than 10% of the optically misclassified X-ray AGNs) than in Pons & Watson. The optical misclassification of the X-ray AGNs ({L}{{X}}\\gt {10}42 {erg} {{{s}}}-1) can be explained by the intrinsic weakness of these AGNs, in addition to, in some cases, optical dilution by the host galaxies. Interestingly, we found the fraction of elusive Sy2s (narrow emission-line objects) optically misclassified as SF galaxies up to z˜ 1.4 to be 10% ± 3% to 17% ± 4%, compared to the 6% ± 1.5% of the Pons & Watson work (up to z˜ 0.4). This result seems to indicate an evolution with redshift of the number of elusive Sy2s.

  5. Cosmic ray particles with different LET values under various thicknesses of shielding in low altitude orbits: Calculations and Cosmos-2044 measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Benton, E.R.; Marenny, A.M.; Nymmik, R.A.; Suslov, A.A. |

    1995-03-01

    Fluxes of cosmic ray particles with different LET values were measured on board the COSMOS-2044 biosatellite under various thicknesses of shielding by stacks of CR-39 and nitrocellulose plastic nuclear track detectors (mounted outside the satellite). The component composition of the particles detected under shieldings of 0.1-2.5 g cm{sup {minus}2} is verified by comparing experimental data with the results of model simulations of the fluxes of galactic cosmic ray particles and of radiation belt protons.

  6. COSMOS--improving the quality of life in nursing home patients: protocol for an effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized clinical hybrid trial.

    PubMed

    Husebo, Bettina S; Flo, Elisabeth; Aarsland, Dag; Selbaek, Geir; Testad, Ingelin; Gulla, Christine; Aasmul, Irene; Ballard, Clive

    2015-09-15

    Nursing home patients have complex mental and physical health problems, disabilities and social needs, combined with widespread prescription of psychotropic drugs. Preservation of their quality of life is an important goal. This can only be achieved within nursing homes that offer competent clinical conditions of treatment and care. COmmunication, Systematic assessment and treatment of pain, Medication review, Occupational therapy, Safety (COSMOS) is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial that combines and implements organization of activities evidence-based interventions to improve staff competence and thereby the patients' quality of life, mental health and safety. The aim of this paper is to describe the development, content and implementation process of the COSMOS trial. COSMOS includes a 2-month pilot study with 128 participants distributed among nine Norwegian nursing homes, and a 4-month multicenter, cluster randomized effectiveness-implementation clinical hybrid trial with follow-up at month 9, including 571 patients from 67 nursing home units (one unit defined as one cluster). Clusters are randomized to COSMOS intervention or current best practice (control group). The intervention group will receive a 2-day education program including written guidelines, repeated theoretical and practical training (credited education of caregivers, physicians and nursing home managers), case discussions and role play. The 1-day midway evaluation, information and interviews of nursing staff and a telephone hotline all support the implementation process. Outcome measures include quality of life in late-stage dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, activities of daily living, pain, depression, sleep, medication, cost-utility analysis, hospital admission and mortality. Despite complex medical and psychosocial challenges, nursing home patients are often treated by staff possessing low level skills, lacking education and in facilities with a high staff turnover

  7. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: Clustering of X-Ray-selected AGNs at 2.9 ≤ z ≤ 5.5 Using Photometric Redshift Probability Distribution Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, V.; Civano, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Marchesi, S.; Shankar, F.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Miyaji, T.; Gilli, R.; Cappelluti, N.; Brusa, M.; Suh, H.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Griffiths, R.; Vignali, C.; Schawinski, K.; Karim, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the measurement of the projected and redshift-space two-point correlation function (2pcf) of the new catalog of Chandra COSMOS-Legacy active galactic nucleus (AGN) at 2.9 ≤ z ≤ 5.5 (< {L}{bol}> ˜ 1046 erg s-1) using the generalized clustering estimator based on phot-z probability distribution functions in addition to any available spec-z. We model the projected 2pcf, estimated using π max = 200 h-1 Mpc with the two-halo term and we derive a bias at z ˜ 3.4 equal to b = {6.6}-0.55+0.60, which corresponds to a typical mass of the hosting halos of log M h = {12.83}-0.11+0.12 h-1 M ⊙. A similar bias is derived using the redshift-space 2pcf, modeled including the typical phot-z error σ z = 0.052 of our sample at z ≥ 2.9. Once we integrate the projected 2pcf up to π max = 200 h-1 Mpc, the bias of XMM and Chandra COSMOS at z = 2.8 used in Allevato et al. is consistent with our results at higher redshifts. The results suggest only a slight increase of the bias factor of COSMOS AGNs at z ≳ 3 with the typical hosting halo mass of moderate-luminosity AGNs almost constant with redshift and equal to log M h = {12.92}-0.18+0.13 at z = 2.8 and log M h = {12.83}-0.11+0.12 at z ˜ 3.4, respectively. The observed redshift evolution of the bias of COSMOS AGNs implies that moderate-luminosity AGNs still inhabit group-sized halos at z ≳ 3, but slightly less massive than observed in different independent studies using X-ray AGNs at z ≤ 2.

  8. Cosmic ray particles with different LET values under various thicknesses of shielding in low altitude orbits: calculations and Cosmos-2044 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marenny, A. M.; Nymmik, R. A.; Suslov, A. A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    Fluxes of cosmic ray particles with different LET values were measured on board the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite under various thicknesses of shielding by stacks of CR-39 and nitrocellulose plastic nuclear track detectors (mounted outside the satellite). The component composition of the particles detected under shieldings of 0.1-2.5 g cm-2 is verified by comparing experimental data with the results of model simulations of the fluxes of galactic cosmic ray particles and of radiation belt protons.

  9. Cosmic ray particles with different LET values under various thicknesses of shielding in low altitude orbits: Calculations and Cosmos-2044 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Marenny, A. M.; Nymmik, R. A.; Suslov, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    Fluxes of cosmic ray particles with different LET values were measured on board the COSMOS-2044 biosatellite under various thicknesses of shielding by stacks of CR-39 and nitrocellulose plastic nuclear track detectors (mounted outside the satellite). The component composition of the particles detected under shieldings of 0.1-2.5 g cm(exp -2) is verified by comparing experimental data with the results of model simulations of the fluxes of galactic cosmic ray particles and of radiation belt protons.

  10. Prediction of the Statistical Robustness of the Measurement of Neutral Hydrogen Mass Functions in the COSMOS H i Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Barrantes, Monica; Henning, Patricia A.; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Maddox, Natasha; Hess, Kelley M.; CHILES Team

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen is the fuel for star formation, but relatively little is known about the role of cold gas in galaxy evolution. The COSMOS H I Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) is an on-going deep H I survey being conducted with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, probing a 0.5 degree region within the COSMOS field in the 21cm line of neutral hydrogen. CHILES is the first survey to observe H I in emission from z=0 to z~0.5, which corresponds to a look-back time of ~ 5 Gyr. This allows us to observe the content, morphology and kinematics of H I in relation to stellar disks, and how it may have evolved over this period. Here, we present a simulation of the galaxy detections that could be made by the survey, based on multi-wavelength data from the COSMOS dataset in the VLA field of view.We use the simulated data to calculate the Neutral Hydrogen Mass Function (HIMF), which describes the space density of galaxies as a function of their H I mass. The HIMF has been studied in the local universe, but seeing how it changes in redshift and environment can constrain current models of galaxy formation. We show the robustness of the HIMF we are capable of deriving for the entire survey and as a function of redshift and environment.

  11. The VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project: Multiwavelength counterparts and the composition of the faint radio population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Delvecchio, I.; Zamorani, G.; Baran, N.; Novak, M.; Delhaize, J.; Schinnerer, E.; Berta, S.; Bondi, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Capak, P.; Civano, F.; Karim, A.; Le Fevre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Tasca, L.; Salvato, M.; Vardoulaki, E.

    2017-06-01

    We study the composition of the faint radio population selected from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array Cosmic Evolution Survey (VLA-COSMOS) 3 GHz Large Project, which is a radio continuum survey performed at 10 cm wavelength. The survey covers a 2.6 square degree area with a mean rms of 2.3 μJy/beam, cataloging 10 830 sources above 5σ, and enclosing the full 2 square degree COSMOS field. By combining these radio data with optical, near-infrared (UltraVISTA), and mid-infrared (Spitzer/IRAC) data, as well as X-ray data (Chandra), we find counterparts to radio sources for 93% of the total radio sample reaching out to z ≲ 6; these sources are found in the unmasked areas of the COSMOS field, i.e., those not affected by saturated or bright sources in the optical to near-infrared (NIR) bands. We further classify the sources as star-forming galaxies or AGN based on various criteria, such as X-ray luminosity; observed mid-infrared color; UV-far-infrared spectral energy distribution; rest-frame, near-UV optical color that is corrected for dust extinction; and radio excess relative to that expected from the star formation rate of the hosts. We separate the AGN into subsamples dominated by low-to-moderate and moderate-to-high radiative luminosity AGN, i.e., candidates for high-redshift analogs to local low- and high-excitation emission line AGN, respectively. We study the fractional contributions of these subpopulations down to radio flux levels of 11 μJy at 3 GHz (or 20 μJy at 1.4 GHz assuming a spectral index of -0.7). We find that the dominant fraction at 1.4 GHz flux densities above 200 μJy is constituted of low-to-moderate radiative luminosity AGN. Below densities of 100 μJy the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases to 60%, followed by the moderate-to-high radiative luminosity AGN ( 20%) and low-to-moderate radiative luminosity AGN ( 20%). Based on this observational evidence, we extrapolate the fractions down to sensitivities of the Square Kilometer Array

  12. Determining the fraction of reddened quasars in COSMOS with multiple selection techniques from X-ray to radio wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, K. E.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Møller, P.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Zabl, J.; Maddox, N.; Krogager, J.-K.; Geier, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.

    2016-10-01

    The sub-population of quasars reddened by intrinsic or intervening clouds of dust are known to be underrepresented in optical quasar surveys. By defining a complete parent sample of the brightest and spatially unresolved quasars in the COSMOS field, we quantify to which extent this sub-population is fundamental to our understanding of the true population of quasars. By using the available multiwavelength data of various surveys in the COSMOS field, we built a parent sample of 33 quasars brighter than J = 20 mag, identified by reliable X-ray to radio wavelength selection techniques. Spectroscopic follow-up with the NOT/ALFOSC was carried out for four candidate quasars that had not been targeted previously to obtain a 100% redshift completeness of the sample. The population of high AV quasars (HAQs), a specific sub-population of quasars selected from optical/near-infrared photometry, some of which were shown to be missed in large optical surveys such as SDSS, is found to contribute 21%+9-5 of the parent sample. The full population of bright spatially unresolved quasars represented by our parent sample consists of 39%+9-8 reddened quasars defined by having AV > 0.1, and 21%+9-5 of the sample having E(B-V) > 0.1 assuming the extinction curve of the Small Magellanic Cloud. We show that the HAQ selection works well for selecting reddened quasars, but some are missed because their optical spectra are too blue to pass the g-r color cut in the HAQ selection. This is either due to a low degree of dust reddening or anomalous spectra. We find that the fraction of quasars with contributing light from the host galaxy, causing observed extended spatial morphology, is most dominant at z ≲ 1. At higher redshifts the population of spatially unresolved quasars selected by our parent sample is found to be representative of the full population of bright active galactic nuclei at J< 20 mag. This work quantifies the bias against reddened quasars in studies that are based solely on

  13. Cosmic infrared background fluctuations of the COSMOS field in the SPLASH survey: new measurements and the cosmological explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) is the integrated emission of all sources through cosmic time and carries an abundance of information about the star formation and galaxy growth in the Universe. Due to significant and complex foregrounds from our Galaxy, the optimal way to study the unresolved background is to actually study its fluctuations, especially at large angular scales where they reflect the clustering of unresolved galaxies. Our new measurements of the CIB fluctuations reach the largest angular scale to date for such a study, thanks to new observations of the COSMOS field from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH). We analyzed Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 um data of the whole field, with an average depth of 1.33 hour/pixel over 4 epochs spanning 2 years. We found that the auto-power spectra are consistent among various epochs and are correlated at the two channels. We confirmed the previously detected excess flux at large scales of the power spectra.The cross-correlation of the CIB fluctuations with backgrounds at other wavelengths is an extremely useful technique to understand the excess flux. The previously seen CIB and X-ray background (CXB) cross-correlation suggests significant contribution to the CIB fluctuations from accreting black holes that is much higher than among any known populations, and such a cross-correlation is also used as an evidence for the existence of direct collapse black holes in the early Universe.In this talk, we will present the first CIB fluctuation measurements of the COSMOS field using the new SPLASH data and we will also revisit the CIB and CXB cross-correlation in this field, which is about 20 times larger than the previous study and therefore with much improved significance levels. Measuring CIB fluctuations is a powerful tool to study the large-scale structure of the Universe. The CIB and CXB cross-correlation can not only provide observational constrains on the theoretical modeling of the CIB

  14. From Earth to the Universe: Image Exhibitions in the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watzke, M.; Arcand, K. K.; Christensen, L. L.

    2008-02-01

    The fantastic images of the Universe are largely responsible for the magical appeal that astronomy has for lay people. Indeed, popular images of the cosmos can engage the general public not only in the aesthetics of the visual realm, but also in the science of the knowledge and understanding behind them. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is an unprecedented opportunity to present astronomy to the global community. From Earth to the Universe (www.fromearthtotheuniverse.org) endeavours to bring these images to a wider audience in non-traditional venues, such as art museums, public galleries, shopping malls and public gardens.

  15. Experiment K-6-05. The maturaton of bone and dentin matrices in rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D.; Grynpas, M.; Rosenberg, G.; Durnova, G.

    1990-01-01

    The chemistry, hydroxyapatite crystal size, and maturation of the bone and dentin is characterized in rats exposed to microgravity for 12.5d in a Soviet Biosatellite (Cosmos-1887). Calvarial and vertebral bone ash was subnormal, but contained a normal percent composition of Ca, P, and Mg. These tissues varied from the norm by having lower Ca/P and higher Ca/Mg ratios than any of their age-matched controls (Vivarium and Synchronous Groups). Gradient density analyses (calvaria) indicated a strong shift to the lower sp.gr. fractions which was commensurate with impaired rates of matrix-mineral maturation. X-ray diffraction data were confirmatory. Bone hydroxyapatite crystal growth in Flight rats was preferentially altered in a way to reduce the dimension of their C-axis. Flight rat dentin was normal with respect to age-matched control Ca, P, Mg, and Zn concentrations and their Ca/P and Ca/Mg ratios. These observations affirm the concept that microgravity adversely affects the maturation of newly formed matrix and mineral moieties in bone.

  16. An observation planning algorithm applied to multi-objective astronomical observations and its simulation in COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic sky surveys are now booming, such as LAMOST already built by China, BIGBOSS project put forward by the U.S. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) telescope developed by the United States, Mexico and Spain. They all use or will use this approach and each fiber can be moved within a certain area for one astrology target, so observation planning is particularly important for this Sky Surveys. One observation planning algorithm used in multi-objective astronomical observations is developed. It can avoid the collision and interference between the fiber positioning units in the focal plane during the observation in one field of view, and the interested objects can be ovserved in a limited round with the maximize efficiency. Also, the observation simulation can be made for wide field of view through multi-FOV observation. After the observation planning is built ,the simulation is made in COSMOS field using GTC telescope. Interested galaxies, stars and high-redshift LBG galaxies are selected after the removal of the mask area, which may be bright stars. Then 9 FOV simulation is completed and observation efficiency and fiber utilization ratio for every round are given. Otherwise,allocating a certain number of fibers for background sky, giving different weights for different objects and how to move the FOV to improve the overall observation efficiency are discussed.

  17. Ionospheric precursors of the intensification of isolated tropical cyclones according to the IKB-1300 and Cosmos-1809 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostin, V. M.; Belyaev, G. G.; Boichev, B.; Trushkina, E. P.; Ovcharenko, O. Ya.

    2015-03-01

    The ionospheric parameters were analyzed, which made it possible to distinguish several successive stages in the development of isolated tropical cyclones (TCs). Data were taken from the Cosmos-1809 and Intercosmos Bulgaria-1300 satellites, which passed over several dozen TCs. The first stage of TC development consists of a sharp increase in altitudinal substorm activity caused by a tropical disturbance and depression. During this stage, plasma density caverns extending over several hundreds of kilometers are observed in the nighttime upper ionosphere a day before the formation of a tropical storm or even a category-I hurricane. The second stage, typical of TCs with intensities reaching categories I and II, is the displacement of a wide plasma density maximum in the upper ionosphere from the geomagnetic equator into the region, the center of which along the geomagnetic field line is projected to 200-230 km altitudes at a TC latitude. The third stage, which is typical of TC categories III-V, consists of the formation of an additional Ne peak (with a width reaching 1000 km) near the TC zenith. This peak includes Δ Ne disturbances and is accompanied by electrostatic oscillations at the H+ and He+ cyclotron frequencies and at the lower hybrid resonance frequency and by electric fields that are projected into the magnetically conjugate region. The crossing of New Caledonia by the category-IV TC Harry was considered in detail. It was shown that the neutral particle ascending jet probably deviated along the meridian in this case.

  18. [Effects of weightlessness on osseous tissue of the rat after a space flight of 5 days (Cosmos 1514)].

    PubMed

    Vico, L; Chappard, D; Alexandre, C; Palle, S; Minaire, P; Riffat, G; Novikov, V E; Bakulin, A V

    1987-01-01

    Five pregnant female growing rats have been orbited for five days aboard the Cosmos 1514 soviet biological satellite. They were compared to five female rats kept in vivarium and five female conditioned rats in synchronised way. Histomorphometric studies were performed in order to investigate: 1. The early effects of weightlessness on the bone mass in loading (tibiae and femur) and unloading bones (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae). 2. The changes of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities. A short exposure does not induce changes in the bone mass and the inner structure of loading and unloading bones. These results fit in well with human data available in the literature: they show that weightlessness doesn't change bone mass in the early phase of a spaceflight. However extrapolation of animal results to men is discussed. In unloading bones (vertebrae) osteoblastic activity was not measurable. Osteoclasts detected by histoenzymologic method don't change as far as their number per mm3 of trabecular bone is concerned. However the number per mm2 of trabecular area increases. It seems likely that an increase of the osteoclastic population occurs in trabecular bone. In loading bones, formation activity (appreciated by the measurement of osteoid seam thickness) and total osteoclastic resorption surfaces were not modified. These results are different from those of longer flights.

  19. Star Formation and AGN activity of X-ray selected AGN host galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon

    2017-01-01

    One of the ongoing issues for understanding the galaxy formation and evolution is how active galactic nuclei (AGNs) affect the growth of their host galaxies. We investigate the correlations between AGN activity and star formation properties of a large sample of ~3700 X-ray selected AGNs over a wide range of luminosities (42 < log Lx < 45) up to z~5 in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey. We perform a multi-component modeling from the far-infrared, when available, to the near-UV using AGN emission from the big-blue-bump (for Type 1 AGNs), a nuclear dust torus model, a galaxy model and a starburst component for the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Through detailed analysis of SEDs, we derive AGN host galaxy properties, such as stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and AGN luminosities. We find that AGN host galaxies have, on average, similar SFRs compared to the normal star-forming main sequence galaxies, suggesting no significant enhancement or quenching of star formation. The average SFR of AGN host galaxies shows a flat distribution in bins of AGN luminosity, consistent with recent ideas that the shorter variability timescale of AGN compared to star formation can lead to a flat relationship between the SFR and black hole accretion rates. Our results suggest that both star formation and nuclear activity in the majority of AGN host galaxies might be driven more by internal secular processes at z<3, implying that they have substantially grown at much earlier epoch.

  20. Effect of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam raja) supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Ismail, Amin; Anthony, Joseph; Ng, Ooi Chuan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd

    2016-02-27

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health threat worldwide. Cosmos caudatus is one of the medicinal plants used to treat type 2 diabetes. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effectiveness and safety of C. caudatus in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolomic approach will be carried out to compare the metabolite profiles between C. Caudatus treated diabetic patients and diabetic controls. This is a single-center, randomized, controlled, two-arm parallel design clinical trial that will be carried out in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. In this study, 100 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes will be enrolled. Diabetic patients who meet the eligibility criteria will be randomly allocated to two groups, which are diabetic C. caudatus treated(U) group and diabetic control (C) group. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The serum and urine metabolome of both groups will be examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The study will be the first randomized controlled trial to assess whether C. caudatus can confer beneficial effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of this trial will provide clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of C. caudatus in patients with type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02322268.

  1. Experiment K-6-06. Morphometric and EM analyses of tibial epiphyseal plates from Cosmos 1887 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Montufar-Solis, D.; Durnova, G.

    1990-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy studies were carried out on decalcified tibial epiphyseal plates of rats flown aboard Cosmos 1887 (12.5d flight plus 53.5h recovery). Analysis of variance showed that the proliferative zone of flight animals was significantly higher than that of synchronous controls, while the hypertrophic/calcification zone was significantly reduced. Flight animals had more cells than synchronous controls in the proliferative zone, and less in the hypertrophic/calcification region. The total number of cells, however, was significantly higher in flight animals. No differences were found for perimeter or shape factor of growth plates, but area was significantly lower in flight animals in comparison to synchronous controls. Collagen fibrils in flight animals were shorter and wider than in synchronous controls. The time required for a cell to cycle through the growth plate is 2 to 3 days, so most of the cells and matrix present were formed after the animals had returned to 1 g, and probably represent stages of recovery from microgravity exposure, which in itself is an interesting question.

  2. PROBING THE FAINT END OF THE QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z{approx} 4 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Nagao, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Ideue, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Trump, J. R.; Comastri, A.; Enoki, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Morokuma, T.; Murayama, T.; Saito, T.; Silverman, J. D.; Salvato, M.; Schinnerer, E.

    2011-02-20

    We searched for quasars that are {approx}3 mag fainter than the SDSS quasars in the redshift range 3.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.7 in the COSMOS field to constrain the faint end of the quasar luminosity function (QLF). Using optical photometric data, we selected 31 quasar candidates with 22 < i' < 24 at z {approx} 4. We obtained optical spectra for most of these candidates using FOCAS on the Subaru telescope and identified eight low-luminosity quasars at z {approx} 4. In order to derive the QLF based on our spectroscopic follow-up campaign, we estimated the photometric completeness of our quasar survey through detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Our QLF at z {approx} 4 has a much shallower faint-end slope ({beta} = -1.67{sup +0.11}{sub -0.17}) than that obtained by other recent surveys in the same redshift. Our result is consistent with the scenario of downsizing evolution of active galactic nuclei inferred by recent optical and X-ray quasar surveys at lower redshifts.

  3. The Cosmos on a Shoestring. Small Spacecraft for Space and Earth Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Corporation). III. Title. TL795.4.S27 1998 387.8 ’ 0973—dc21 97-46735 CIP Satellite images on cover are, from top to bottom: Mars Global Surveyor...Spacecraft 7 The Imperative to Reduce Total Mission Cost 9 Responding to the Needs of Science 9 Taking Advantage of New Technology 12 NASA’s...DESIGN 147 F. SMALL SPACECRAFT WORLD WIDE WEB LINKS 157 Bibliography I69 FIGURES 2.1. NASA Budget Projection Through 2000 13 2.2. Satellite

  4. Star-forming galaxies versus low- and high-excitation radio AGN in the VLA-COSMOS 3GHz Large Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Nikola; Smolcic, Vernesa; Delvecchio, Ivan; Novak, Mladen; Delhaize, Jacinta; Laigle, Clotilde; Ilbert, Olivier; (Vla-)Cosmos Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We study the composition of the faint radio population selected from the VLA-COSMOS 3GHz Large Project, a radio continuum survey performed at 10 cm wavelength. The survey covers the full 2 square degree COSMOS field with mean rms ˜ 2.3 μJy/beam, cataloging 10,899 source components above 5× rms. By combining these radio data with UltraVISTA, optical, nearinfrared, and Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data, as well as X-ray data from the Chandra Legacy, Chandra COSMOS surveys, we gain insight into the emission mechanisms within our radio sources out to redshifts of z ˜ 5. From these emission characteristics we classify our sources as star forming galaxies or AGN. Using their multi-wavelength properties we further separate the AGN into sub-samples dominated by radiatively efficient and inefficient AGN, often referred to as high- and low-excitation emission line AGN.We compare our method with other results based on fitting of the sources' spectral energy distributions using both galaxy and AGN spectral models, and those based on the infrared-radio correlation. We study the fractional contributions of these sub-populations down to radio flux levels of ˜10 μJy. We find that at 3 GHz flux densities above ˜400 μJy quiescent, red galaxies, consistent with the low-excitation radio AGN class constitute the dominant fraction. Below densities of ˜200 μJy star-forming galaxies begin to constitute the largest fraction, followed by the low-excitation, and X-ray- and IR-identified high-excitation radio AGN.

  5. Development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) for predicting the impact of storms on high-energy, active-margin coasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Maarten van Ormondt,; Erikson, Li H.; Jodi Eshleman,; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Peter Ruggiero,; Peter Adams,; Foxgrover, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) applies a predominantly deterministic framework to make detailed predictions (meter scale) of storm-induced coastal flooding, erosion, and cliff failures over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers). CoSMoS was developed for hindcast studies, operational applications (i.e., nowcasts and multiday forecasts), and future climate scenarios (i.e., sea-level rise + storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm hazards information that may be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. The prototype system, developed for the California coast, uses the global WAVEWATCH III wave model, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry-based global tide model, and atmospheric-forcing data from either the US National Weather Service (operational mode) or Global Climate Models (future climate mode), to determine regional wave and water-level boundary conditions. These physical processes are dynamically downscaled using a series of nested Delft3D-WAVE (SWAN) and Delft3D-FLOW (FLOW) models and linked at the coast to tightly spaced XBeach (eXtreme Beach) cross-shore profile models and a Bayesian probabilistic cliff failure model. Hindcast testing demonstrates that, despite uncertainties in preexisting beach morphology over the ~500 km alongshore extent of the pilot study area, CoSMoS effectively identifies discrete sections of the coast (100s of meters) that are vulnerable to coastal hazards under a range of current and future oceanographic forcing conditions, and is therefore an effective tool for operational and future climate scenario planning.

  6. The Nature of Hard X-Ray (3–24 keV) Detected Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Kenta; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the nature of far-infrared (70 μm) and hard X-ray (3–24 keV) selected galaxies in the COSMOS field detected with both Spitzer and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). By matching the Spitzer-COSMOS catalog with the NuSTAR-COSMOS catalog, we obtain a sample consisting of a hyperluminous infrared galaxy with {log}({L}{IR}/{L}ȯ )≥slant 13, 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxies with 12≤slant {log} ({L}{IR}/{L}ȯ )≤slant 13, and 10 luminous infrared galaxies with 11≤slant {log} ({L}{IR}/{L}ȯ )≤slant 12, i.e., 23 Hy/U/LIRGs in total. Using their X-ray hardness ratios, we find that 12 sources are obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with absorption column densities of {N}{{H}}> {10}22 cm‑2, including several Compton-thick ({N}{{H}}∼ {10}24 cm‑2) AGN candidates. On the basis of the infrared (60 μm) and intrinsic X-ray luminosities, we examine the relation between star formation (SF) and AGN luminosities of the 23 Hy/U/LIRGs. We find that the correlation is similar to that of the optically selected AGNs reported by Netzer, whereas local, far-infrared selected U/LIRGs show higher SF-to-AGN luminosity ratios than the average of our sample. This result suggests that our Hy/U/LIRGs detected both with Spitzer and NuSTAR are likely situated in a transition epoch between AGN-rising and cold-gas diminishing phases in SF-AGN evolutional sequences. The nature of a Compton-thick AGN candidate newly detected above 8 keV with NuSTAR (ID 245 in Civano et al.) is briefly discussed.

  7. COSMOS Sensors in Agricultural Ecosystems: Accounting for Rapid Changes in Biomass in Order to Monitor Root Zone Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, B. K.; Irvin, S.; Franz, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Cosmic rays from outer space produce neutrons in the atmosphere which are scattered and absorbed by hydrogen in the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. The intensity of neutrons just above Earth's surface is inversely related to the hydrogen (and therefore water content) of the soil. Neutron detectors situated 2 m above the ground are sensitive to the soil water content of the top 30 cm. Daily estimates of soil water with an uncertainty of < 1% are possible. An individual neutron detector observes an area nearly 700 m in diameter. This spatial scale closely matches the scale of agricultural fields in the Midwest United States. We claim that future weather and climate models will need to resolve soil moisture at this field scale in order to best represent land-atmosphere interactions and subsequently improve forecasts of the soil moisture reservoir in this region. Using neutron detectors to observe soil moisture circumvents the problem of 'scaling up' point observations of soil moisture made with in-situ sensors like TDR or simple gravimetric sampling. The COSMOS (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System) is a network of nearly 60 neutron detectors deployed in a variety of ecosystems across the United States. Each detector is connected to the network through a satellite communication link and data is available in real-time via the web. The goal of the network is to eventually deploy 500 detectors and provide continental-scale observations of plant-available water. Recently it has been recognized that all hydrogen sources must be considered when interpreting neutron measurements. These sources include static pools of hydrogen (soil chemical composition, bound soil water, and soil organic matter), quasi-static pools (the water stored in vegetation, as well as vegetation dry matter), and transient pools (soil pore water, water vapor in the atmosphere, ponded water, snow, and possibly dew and intercepted precipitation). In the agricultural ecosystems of the Midwest, both

  8. Regional distribution of mineral and matrix in the femurs of rats flown on Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechanic, Gerald L.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Boyde, Alan; Bromage, Timothy G.; Buckendahl, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    The location and nature of the defect in mineralization known to occur in growing animals after spaceflight are studied. The distribution of bone mineral density in situ is mapped, and these images are correlated with the chemical composition of the diaphyseal bone. Concentrations of mineral and osteocalcin are found to be low in the distal half of the diaphysis and concentrations of collagen to be low with evidence of increased synthesis in the proximal half of the diaphysis of the flight bones. X-ray microtomography indicates a longitudinal gradient of decreasing mineralization toward the distal diaphysis. Analysis of embedded sections by backscattered electrons reveals patterns of mineral distribution in the proximal, central, and distal regions of the diaphysis and also shows a net reduction in mineral levels toward the distal shaft. Increases in mineral density to higher fractions in controls are less in the flight bones at all three levels.

  9. Our warped universe: the power of gravitational lensing for probing the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing epitomizes a maxim of Einstein's General Relativity: space tells energy how to move and energy tells space how to curve. Through lensing, massive objects magnify and distort the shapes of distant objects, likes galaxies and quasars. The connection between the lens's mass distribution and the degree of distortion in the images allows us to observe faint, distant objects, and to infer the matter distribution and cosmic expansion in the nearby universe. Current and future surveys, both ground- and space-based, will provide data sets unprecedented in size and precision with which to probe dark energy, dark matter and the early universe through gravitational lensing. I will discuss recent advances in observations and analysis techniques in both weak and strong lensing, and the burgeoning potential of these techniques to derive important and competitive cosmological constraints from surveys of large-scale structure.

  10. The Role Played by Space-based Probes in our Understanding of the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchetto, Ferdinando Duccio

    Over the last fifteen years a growing fleet of modern space-based astronomical telescopes has changed drastically our view of the universe. Most of these accomplishments build upon the work of ground-based astronomers over many decades, or even centuries. The combination of telescopes observing the universe at many different wavelengths has converted many prior hypotheses, for which supporting empirical data were scant, ambiguous and painfully difficult to obtain, into clearly and decisively demonstrated truth. But space observatories have gone well beyond that. In particular the Hubble Space Telescope with its combination of sharp images and deep dynamic range, has provided a detailed view of the unimagined complexity and diversity of the universe, as well as its startling beauty. It has yielded numerous surprises and raised new fundamental questions on the basic structure and laws that govern the universe. To answer these questions will require the efforts of ground-based and new space-based observatories working in combined programs over many years. In my talk I will illustrate some of the key discoveries that these space-based observatories have made such as: the deep imaging the distant universe; the calibration of the distance scale and the determination of the age of the universe; the discovery of the acceleration of the expansion rate of the universe, which requires a "dark energy" or new physics to explain it; the detection and measurement of supermassive black holes and the solution to the long standing problem of the nature of Quasars; the solution to the problem of whether Gamma Ray sources originated in our galaxy or at cosmological distances; the renewed interest in the problem of the birth of Stars and the formation of Planetary Systems; the death of Stars and the formation of supernovae, black holes and neutron stars and last but not least the exciting studies of the planets and satellites in our own dynamic solar system

  11. AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS. Is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, A.; Schulze, A.; Merloni, A.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; La Franca, F.; Peng, Y.; Piconcelli, E.; Mainieri, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate, that is, λSAR, the distribution function (SARDF), up to z ~ 2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best-fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass-dependent but redshift-independent break, whose low λSAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that for a given stellar mass, higher λSAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch than the lower λSAR objects, following and mimicking the well-known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schechter function with an almost constant M∗⋆ and a low-mass slope α that flattens with redshift. Compared to the stellar mass function, we find that the HGMF has a similar shape and that up to log (M⋆/M⊙) ~ 11.5, the ratio of AGN host galaxies to star-forming galaxies is basically constant (~10%). Finally, the comparison of the AGN HGMF for different luminosity and specific accretion rate subclasses with a previously published phenomenological model prediction for the "transient" population, which are galaxies in the process of being mass-quenched, reveals that low-luminosity AGN do not appear to be able to contribute significantly to the quenching and that at least at high masses, that is, M⋆ > 1010.7 M⊙, feedback from luminous AGN (log Lbol ≳ 46 [erg/s]) may be responsible for the quenching of star formation in the host galaxy.

  12. The dependence of galactic outflows on the properties and orientation of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Hardmeier, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Fevre, O. Le; Garilli, B.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; Iovino, A.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present an analysis of cool outflowing gas around galaxies, traced by Mg II absorption lines in the coadded spectra of a sample of 486 zCOSMOS galaxies at 1 ≤ z ≤ 1.5. These galaxies span a range of stellar masses (9.45 ≤ log{sub 10}[M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}] ≤ 10.7) and star formation rates (0.14 ≤ log{sub 10}[SFR/M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}] ≤ 2.35). We identify the cool outflowing component in the Mg II absorption and find that the equivalent width of the outflowing component increases with stellar mass. The outflow equivalent width also increases steadily with the increasing star formation rate of the galaxies. At similar stellar masses, the blue galaxies exhibit a significantly higher outflow equivalent width as compared to red galaxies. The outflow equivalent width shows strong correlation with the star formation surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) of the sample. For the disk galaxies, the outflow equivalent width is higher for the face-on systems as compared to the edge-on ones, indicating that for the disk galaxies, the outflowing gas is primarily bipolar in geometry. Galaxies typically exhibit outflow velocities ranging from –150 km s{sup –1} ∼–200 km s{sup –1} and, on average, the face-on galaxies exhibit higher outflow velocity as compared to the edge-on ones. Galaxies with irregular morphologies exhibit outflow equivalent width as well as outflow velocities comparable to face on disk galaxies. These galaxies exhibit mass outflow rates >5-7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and a mass loading factor (η = M-dot {sub out}/SFR) comparable to the star formation rates of the galaxies.

  13. Quest for COSMOS Submillimeter Galaxy Counterparts using CARMA and VLA: Identifying Three High-redshift Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Aravena, M.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Sheth, K.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Finoguenov, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Hughes, D.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.; Scoville, N. Z.; Wilson, G.

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1 mm > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ~10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (~2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z >~ 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9+0.9 - 0.5, and ~4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of >~ 1000 M ⊙ yr-1and IR luminosities of ~1013 L ⊙ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ~ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  14. MEASURING THE GEOMETRY OF THE UNIVERSE FROM WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING BEHIND GALAXY GROUPS IN THE HST COSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, James E.; Massey, Richard J.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tanaka, Masayuki; George, Matthew R.; Rhodes, Jason; Ellis, Richard; Scoville, Nick; Kitching, Thomas D.; Capak, Peter; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ilbert, Olivier; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Jullo, Eric; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2012-04-20

    Gravitational lensing can provide pure geometric tests of the structure of spacetime, for instance by determining empirically the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. This geometric test has been demonstrated several times using massive clusters which produce a large lensing signal. In this case, matter at a single redshift dominates the lensing signal, so the analysis is straightforward. It is less clear how weaker signals from multiple sources at different redshifts can be stacked to demonstrate the geometric dependence. We introduce a simple measure of relative shear which for flat cosmologies separates the effect of lens and source positions into multiplicative terms, allowing signals from many different source-lens pairs to be combined. Applying this technique to a sample of groups and low-mass clusters in the COSMOS survey, we detect a clear variation of shear with distance behind the lens. This represents the first detection of the geometric effect using weak lensing by multiple, low-mass groups. The variation of distance with redshift is measured with sufficient precision to constrain the equation of state of the universe under the assumption of flatness, equivalent to a detection of a dark energy component {Omega}{sub X} at greater than 99% confidence for an equation-of-state parameter -2.5 {<=} w {<=} -0.1. For the case w = -1, we find a value for the cosmological constant density parameter {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.85{sup +0.044}{sub -}0{sub .19} (68% CL) and detect cosmic acceleration (q{sub 0} < 0) at the 98% CL. We consider the systematic uncertainties associated with this technique and discuss the prospects for applying it in forthcoming weak-lensing surveys.

  15. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Smolcic, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F{sub 1m} > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, {approx}10''-30'', resolution. All three sources-AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8-are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution ({approx}2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z {approx}> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 {+-} 1.2, 1.9{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5}, and {approx}4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of {approx}> 1000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}and IR luminosities of {approx}10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z {approx} 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  16. Einsteinian Revolution's Wrong Turn: Lumpy Interacting Cosmos Assumed as Smooth Perfect Fluid, no Dark Energy, Eternal Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2014-03-01

    Newtonian Cosmology involving a smooth fluid was plagued with the problem of indefiniteness, and General Relativity gave the novel concept of a finite yet unbounded Einstein's Static Universe (ESU). Later, Big Bang model (BBM) essentially incorporated non-static versions of ESU. Also, the concept of a Cosmological Constant (Λ) got reinstated through "Inflation" and "Dark Energy". We dismantle this edifice by presenting several exact proofs showing that Λ = 0 and both ESU & deSitter metrics are just the Minkowski vacuum. More importantly, by using the Schwarzschild form of the FRW metric (Mitra, Grav. Cosmology 2013), we show that FRW metric too is actually the Minkowski vacuum! It is suggested that physical universe is quasi-Newtonian where for any given galaxy, finite gravitational potential is due to interaction of nearest neighbors while the infinite background forces cancel due to symmetry (Chandrasekhar, ApJ 1941). Such an universe is likely to have a fractal structure as suggested by observations. The cosmic redshift might arise due to asymmetric spread of wave packets associated with line emissions from distant galaxies. The cosmic background radiation might be due to thermalization of star lights in an eternal universe as suggested by Hoyle. The compact objects in quasars are ultracompact radiation pressure supported stars which may synthesize light elements and whose explosions & flares infuse fresh plasma for a recycled eternal universe. While these are possibilities, there is indeed no robust alternative cosmology. Though BBM appears to be the best bet, it turns out to be vacuous. In the absence of the BBM singularity, the rationale for "Quantum Gravity" vanishes. It is predicted that there are no primordial Gravitational Waves contrary to BBM suggestion. The fact that the farthest galaxy (z = 7.5) is rich in metals (Finkelstein et al., Nature, 502, 524, 2013) contradicts BBM, and suggests cosmos might be eternal and static.

  17. The Effects of Environment on Morphological Evolution at 0COSMOS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter; Abraham, Roberto G.; Ellis, Richard S.; Mobasher, Bahram; Scoville, Nick; Sheth, Kartik; Koekemoer, Anton

    2007-09-01

    We explore the evolution of the morphology-density relation using the COSMOS Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and previous cluster studies. The Gini parameter measured in a Petrosian aperture is found to be an effective way of selecting early-type galaxies free from systematic effects with redshift. We find that galaxies are transformed from late- (spiral and irregular) to early-type (E+S0) galaxies more rapidly in dense than in sparse regions. At a given density, the early-type fraction grows constantly with cosmic time, but the growth rate increases with density as a power law of index 0.29+/-0.02. However, at densities below 100 galaxies Mpc-2, no evolution is found at z>0.4. In contrast, the star formation-density relation shows strong evolution at all densities and redshifts, suggesting that different physical mechanisms are responsible for the morphological and star formation transformation. We show that photometric redshifts can measure local galaxy environment, but that the present results are limited by photometric redshift error to densities above Σ=3 galaxies Mpc-2. Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche, and the University of Hawaii; and Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by AURA under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  18. Cosmic Web of Galaxies in the COSMOS Field: Public Catalog and Different Quenching for Centrals and Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Martin, D. Christopher; Sobral, David; Scoville, Nick; Stroe, Andra; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2017-03-01

    We use a mass complete (log(M/{M}ȯ ) ≥slant 9.6) sample of galaxies with accurate photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field to construct the density field and the cosmic web to z = 1.2. The comic web extraction relies on the density field Hessian matrix and breaks the density field into clusters, filaments, and the field. We provide the density field and cosmic web measures to the community. We show that at z ≲ 0.8, the median star formation rate (SFR) in the cosmic web gradually declines from the field to clusters and this decline is especially sharp for satellites (∼1 dex versus ∼0.5 dex for centrals). However, at z ≳ 0.8, the trend flattens out for the overall galaxy population and satellites. For star-forming (SF) galaxies only, the median SFR is constant at z ≳ 0.5 but declines by ∼0.3–0.4 dex from the field to clusters for satellites and centrals at z ≲ 0.5. We argue that for satellites, the main role of the cosmic web environment is to control their SF fraction, whereas for centrals, it is mainly to control their overall SFR at z ≲ 0.5 and to set their fraction at z ≳ 0.5. We suggest that most satellites experience a rapid quenching mechanism as they fall from the field into clusters through filaments, whereas centrals mostly undergo a slow environmental quenching at z ≲ 0.5 and a fast mechanism at higher redshifts. Our preliminary results highlight the importance of the large-scale cosmic web on galaxy evolution.

  19. Lung cancer risk prediction to select smokers for screening CT--a model based on the Italian COSMOS trial.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bellomi, Massimo; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Rotmensz, Nicole; Field, John K; Decensi, Andrea; Veronesi, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    Screening with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) has been shown to significantly reduce lung cancer mortality but the optimal target population and time interval to subsequent screening are yet to be defined. We developed two models to stratify individual smokers according to risk of developing lung cancer. We first used the number of lung cancers detected at baseline screening CT in the 5,203 asymptomatic participants of the COSMOS trial to recalibrate the Bach model, which we propose using to select smokers for screening. Next, we incorporated lung nodule characteristics and presence of emphysema identified at baseline CT into the Bach model and proposed the resulting multivariable model to predict lung cancer risk in screened smokers after baseline CT. Age and smoking exposure were the main determinants of lung cancer risk. The recalibrated Bach model accurately predicted lung cancers detected during the first year of screening. Presence of nonsolid nodules (RR = 10.1, 95% CI = 5.57-18.5), nodule size more than 8 mm (RR = 9.89, 95% CI = 5.84-16.8), and emphysema (RR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.59-3.49) at baseline CT were all significant predictors of subsequent lung cancers. Incorporation of these variables into the Bach model increased the predictive value of the multivariable model (c-index = 0.759, internal validation). The recalibrated Bach model seems suitable for selecting the higher risk population for recruitment for large-scale CT screening. The Bach model incorporating CT findings at baseline screening could help defining the time interval to subsequent screening in individual participants. Further studies are necessary to validate these models.

  20. The cosmic growth of the active black hole population at 1 COSMOS, VVDS and SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Gavignaud, I.; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J.; Merloni, A.; Zamorani, G.; Hirschmann, M.; Mainieri, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Shankar, F.; Fiore, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Temporin, G.

    2015-03-01

    We present a census of the active black hole population at 1 < z < 2, by constructing the bivariate distribution function of black hole mass and Eddington ratio, employing a maximum likelihood fitting technique. The study of the active black hole mass function (BHMF) and the Eddington ratio distribution function (ERDF) allows us to clearly disentangle the active galactic nuclei (AGN) downsizing phenomenon, present in the AGN luminosity function, into its physical processes of black hole mass downsizing and accretion rate evolution. We are utilizing type-1 AGN samples from three optical surveys (VVDS, zCOSMOS and SDSS), that cover a wide range of 3 dex in luminosity over our redshift interval of interest. We investigate the cosmic evolution of the AGN population as a function of AGN luminosity, black hole mass and accretion rate. Compared to z = 0, we find a distinct change in the shape of the BHMF and the ERDF, consistent with downsizing in black hole mass. The active fraction or duty cycle of type-1 AGN at z ˜ 1.5 is almost flat as a function of black hole mass, while it shows a strong decrease with increasing mass at z = 0. We are witnessing a phase of intense black hole growth, which is largely driven by the onset of AGN activity in massive SMBHs (supermassive black holes) towards z = 2. We finally compare our results to numerical simulations and semi-empirical models and while we find reasonable agreement over certain parameter ranges, we highlight the need to refine these models in order to match our observations.

  1. [Structural and functional organization of the vestibular apparatus in rats maintained under weightless conditions for 19.5 days aboard the satellite "Cosmos-782"].

    PubMed

    Vinnikov, Ia A; Gazenko, O G; Titova, L K; Bronshteĭn, A A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    1978-01-01

    Vestibular apparatus was investigated in rats subjected to weightlessness for 19.5 days in the satelite "Cosmos-782" and experienced acceleration on launching and landing. Some structural and functional changes were noted. They were seen in otolith clinging to the utricular receptor surface and in the peripheral arrangement of the nucleolus in the nuclei of the receptor cells. It is also possible that increased edema of the vestibular tissue resulted in destruction of some receptor cells, and within the otolith--changes in the form and structure of otoconia. In the horizontal crista the cupula was separated.

  2. IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1980-07-01

    The role of images of information (charts, diagrams, maps, and symbols) for effective presentation of facts and concepts is expanding dramatically because of advances in computer graphics technology, increasingly hetero-lingual, hetero-cultural world target populations of information providers, the urgent need to convey more efficiently vast amounts of information, the broadening population of (non-expert) computer users, the decrease of available time for reading texts and for decision making, and the general level of literacy. A coalition of visual performance experts, human engineering specialists, computer scientists, and graphic designers/artists is required to resolve human factors aspects of images of information. The need for, nature of, and benefits of interdisciplinary effort are discussed. The results of an interdisciplinary collaboration are demonstrated in a product for visualizing complex information about global energy interdependence. An invited panel will respond to the presentation.

  3. A Painter's View of the Cosmos In the Twenty-first Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cro-Ken, K.

    2016-01-01

    I am an ecosystem artist who uses paint to bring nature's “invisible forces” into view. My eco-sensitive palette recreates the push-pull forces that shape and mold all things. As a result, I create microscopic and telescopic views of earth and places scattered throughout our universe. Self-similarity led me to realize that if I want my mind to wonder into the far reaches of the universe, I must draw closer to nature. I show how space looks and appears and, more importantly, how it moves. My speed element palette is a portal through which I peer into the universe at scales great and small using paint as my lens. Microscopes, telescopes, the Internet, and even eyeglasses are portals through which technology affords us the ability to see that which is unseen to the unaided eye. Rather than see the world and then paint, the opposite is true for me. My work is revelatory, not representational and, as such, seeks similar occurrences in nature. Just as a planet's surface is a visual record of past events, so too do speed element experiments reveal traces of the past. It would be more accurate to call a painting that comes to rest a “painted.” It is video that captures images that eluded capture by the canvas and could more accurately be called a “painting. ” Simply put, I manipulate space, time, and matter—and the matter is never just paint.

  4. How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century--Lessons from UK COSMOS.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Mireille B; Smith, Rachel B; Brook, James P; Douglass, Margaret; Elliott, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame necessitated new approaches to consent and recruitment between 2009-2012. Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. Commercial providers of register and marketing data, smartphones, apps, email, social media, and the internet offer innovative possibilities for identifying, recruiting and following up cohorts. Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don'ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. Thus a more streamlined experience to the benefit of both research participants and researchers becomes achievable.

  5. Particle trajectories in seeds of Lactuca sativa and chromosome aberrations after exposure to cosmic heavy ions on cosmos biosatellites 8 and 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facius, R.; Scherer, K.; Reitz, G.; Bücker, H.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.

    1994-10-01

    The potentially specific importance of the heavy ions of the galactic cosmic radiation for radiation protection in manned spaceflight continues to stimulate in situ, i.e., spaceflight experiments to investigate their radiobiological properties. Chromosome aberrations as an expression of a direct assault on the genome are of particular interest in view of cancerogenesis being the primary radiation risk for man in space. In such investigations the establishment of the geometrical correlation between heavy ions' trajectories and the location of radiation sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved for the identification of particle trajectories in the order of 2~10 μm as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed. We describe how this was achieved for seeds of Lactuca sativa as biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographies displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The incidence of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed during the COSMOS 1887 (Biosatellite 8) and the COSMOS 2044 (Biosatellite 9) mission was determined for seeds hit by cosmic heavy ions. In those seeds the incidence of both single and multiple chromosome aberrations was enhanced. The results of the Biosatellite 9 experiment, however, are confounded by spaceflight effects unrelated to the passage of heavy ions.

  6. Changes of deoxyribonucleoprotein in the spleen, thymus and liver of rats exposed to weightlessness and artificial gravity aboard the Cosmos biosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mišúrová, E.; Tigranyan, R. A.; Praslička, M.

    Changes of deoxyribonucleoprotein in the spleen, thymus and liver of rats exposed to wegithlessness or artifical gravity on board biosatellites Cosmos 782 and Cosmos 936 after 20 days of flight were investigated. The level of polydeoxyribonucleotides in the spleen and thymus of rats exposed during the flight to weightlessness increased 4 - 11 hours after landing, suggesting breakdown of a part of the deoxyribonucleoprotein present. The use of artifical gravity prevented this breakdown in the thymus but not in the spleen. The breakdown was accompanied in the majority of cases by a decrease in teh deoxyribonucleoprotein content. We believe the breakdown of deoxyribonucleoprotein is due to a nonspecific stress reaction to the change from the weightless state to that of terrestrial gravity during landing. The polydeoxyribonucleotide level and amount of deoxyribonucleoprotein in the majority of cases returned to normal values during the 25 days of readaptation. No substantial change of deoxyribonucleoprotein was found in the liver. The different findings in the three organs are due to the fact that breakdown of deoxyribonucleoprotein takes place in sensitive cells underlying pycnosis. These cells are found in the spleen and thymus, but not in the liver.

  7. Oxygen abundances of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ~ 1.4 based on five lines and implications for the fundamental metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Christian; Lilly, Simon J.; Ziegler, Bodo L.

    2015-02-01

    A relation between the stellar mass M and the gas-phase metallicity Z of galaxies, the MZR, is observed up to higher redshifts. It is a matter of debate, however, if the SFR is a second parameter in the MZR. To explore this issue at z > 1, we used VLT-SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of eight zCOSMOS galaxies at 1.3 < z < 1.4 to measure the strengths of four emission lines: Hβ, [OIII]λ5007, Hα, and [NII]λ6584, additional to [OII]λ3727 measured from VIMOS. We derive reliable O/H metallicities based on five lines, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the MZR of these star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.4 is lower than the local SDSS MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than reported in the literature using [NII]/Hα-based metallicities from individual and stacked spectra. Correcting N2-based O/Hs using recent results by Newman et al. (2014), also the larger FMOS sample at z ~ 1.4 of Zahid et al. (2014) shows a similar evolution of the MZR like the zCOSMOS objects. These observations seem also in agreement with a non-evolving FMR using the physically motivated formulation of the FMR from Lilly et al. (2013).

  8. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: Energy Spectrum of the Cosmic X-Ray Background and Constraints on Undetected Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Ricarte, Angelo; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Allevato, Viola; Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Ajello, Marco; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Finoguenov, Alexis; Gilli, Roberto; Hasinger, Günther; Marchesi, Stefano; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Pacucci, Fabio; Treister, E.; Urry, C. Megan

    2017-03-01

    Using Chandra observations in the 2.15 deg2 COSMOS-legacy field, we present one of the most accurate measurements of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) spectrum to date in the [0.3-7] keV energy band. The CXB has three distinct components: contributions from two Galactic collisional thermal plasmas at kT ˜ 0.27 and 0.07 keV and an extragalactic power law with a photon spectral index Γ = 1.45 ± 0.02. The 1 keV normalization of the extragalactic component is 10.91 ± 0.16 keV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 keV-1. Removing all X-ray-detected sources, the remaining unresolved CXB is best fit by a power law with normalization 4.18 ± 0.26 keV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 keV-1 and photon spectral index Γ = 1.57 ± 0.10. Removing faint galaxies down to {i}{AB}˜ 27{--}28 leaves a hard spectrum with {{Γ }}˜ 1.25 and a 1 keV normalization of ˜1.37 keV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 keV-1. This means that ˜91% of the observed CXB is resolved into detected X-ray sources and undetected galaxies. Unresolved sources that contribute ˜8%-9% of the total CXB show marginal evidence of being harder and possibly more obscured than resolved sources. Another ˜1% of the CXB can be attributed to still undetected star-forming galaxies and absorbed active galactic nuclei. According to these limits, we investigate a scenario where early black holes totally account for non-source CXB fraction and constrain some of their properties. In order to not exceed the remaining CXB and the z˜ 6 accreted mass density, such a population of black holes must grow in Compton-thick envelopes with {N}H > 1.6 × 1025 cm-2 and form in extremely low-metallicity environments ({Z}⊙ )˜ {10}-3.

  9. Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf in lean rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hafeedza Abdul; Sahib, Najla Gooda; Saari, Nazamid; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-02-22

    Obesity is a major health concern both in developed and developing countries. The use of herbal medicines became the subject of interest for the management of obesity due to its natural origin, cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study aimed at investigating anti-obesity potential of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf (EECCL). In this study, the rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (ND); (2) Normal Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 175 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 350 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 175 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 350 mg/kgBW). The anti-obesity potential was evaluated through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight, and blood biochemicals including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leptin, insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin and fecal fat content. In addition, metabolite profiling of EECCL was carried out using NMR spectroscopy. Rats receiving EECCL together with HFD showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in body weight gain compared to rats receiving HFD only. At the end of study, the body weight gain of EECCL treated rats was not significantly (p > 0.05) different with those of ND rats. Other related obesity biomarkers including plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels also showed significant improvement (p < 0.05). Administration of EECCL caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in fecal fat excretion, which validates the hypothesis of lipase inhibition, an anti-obesity mechanism similar to standard drug of Orlistat. The (1)H-NMR spectra of EECCL ascertained the presence of catechin, quercetin, rutin, kaempherol and chlorogenic acid in the extract. Conclusively, EECCL showed anti-obesity properties by

  10. Pan-STARRS1 variability of XMM-COSMOS AGN. II. Physical correlations and power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simm, T.; Salvato, M.; Saglia, R.; Ponti, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Nandra, K.; Bender, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to better understand the correlations between the rest-frame UV/optical variability amplitude of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and physical quantities such as redshift, luminosity, black hole mass, and Eddington ratio. Previous analyses of the same type found evidence for correlations between the variability amplitude and these active galactic nucleus (AGN) parameters. However, most of the relations exhibit considerable scatter, and the trends obtained by various authors are often contradictory. Moreover, the shape of the optical power spectral density (PSD) is currently available for only a handful of objects. Methods: We searched for scaling relations between the fundamental AGN parameters and rest-frame UV/optical variability properties for a sample of ~90 X-ray selected AGNs covering a wide redshift range from the XMM-COSMOS survey, with optical light curves in four bands (gP1, rP1, iP1, zP1) provided by the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field 04 survey. To estimate the variability amplitude, we used the normalized excess variance (σ2rms) and probed variability on rest-frame timescales of several months and years by calculating σ2rms from different parts of our light curves. In addition, we derived the rest-frame optical PSD for our sources using continuous-time autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models. Results: We observe that the excess variance and the PSD amplitude are strongly anticorrelated with wavelength, bolometric luminosity, and Eddington ratio. There is no evidence for a dependency of the variability amplitude on black hole mass and redshift. These results suggest that the accretion rate is the fundamental physical quantity determining the rest-frame UV/optical variability amplitude of quasars on timescales of months and years. The optical PSD of all of our sources is consistent with a broken power law showing a characteristic bend at rest-frame timescales ranging between ~100 and ~300 days. The break timescale

  11. The 2-10 keV unabsorbed luminosity function of AGN from the LSS, CDFS, and COSMOS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranalli, P.; Koulouridis, E.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Fotopoulou, S.; Hsu, L.-T.; Salvato, M.; Comastri, A.; Pierre, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Carrera, F. J.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Gilli, R.; Iwasawa, K.; Pacaud, F.; Paltani, S.; Plionis, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-05-01

    The XMM-Large scale structure (XMM-LSS), XMM-Cosmological evolution survey (XMM-COSMOS), and XMM-Chandra deep field south (XMM-CDFS) surveys are complementary in terms of sky coverage and depth. Together, they form a clean sample with the least possible variance in instrument effective areas and point spread function. Therefore this is one of the best samples available to determine the 2-10 keV luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their evolution. The samples and the relevant corrections for incompleteness are described. A total of 2887 AGN is used to build the LF in the luminosity interval 1042-1046 erg s-1 and in the redshift interval 0.001-4. A new method to correct for absorption by considering the probability distribution for the column density conditioned on the hardness ratio is presented. The binned luminosity function and its evolution is determined with a variant of the Page-Carrera method, which is improved to include corrections for absorption and to account for the full probability distribution of photometric redshifts. Parametric models, namely a double power law with luminosity and density evolution (LADE) or luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE), are explored using Bayesian inference. We introduce the Watanabe-Akaike information criterion (WAIC) to compare the models and estimate their predictive power. Our data are best described by the LADE model, as hinted by the WAIC indicator. We also explore the recently proposed 15-parameter extended LDDE model and find that this extension is not supported by our data. The strength of our method is that it provides unabsorbed, non-parametric estimates, credible intervals for luminosity function parameters, and a model choice based on predictive power for future data. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and NASA.Tables with the samples of the posterior probability distributions

  12. Coastal hazards in a changing world: projecting and communicating future coastal flood risk at the local-scale using the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Andrea; Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; Limber, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Fitzgibbon, Michael; Wood, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    The risk of coastal flooding will increase for many low-lying coastal regions as predominant contributions to flooding, including sea level, storm surge, wave setup, and storm-related fluvial discharge, are altered with climate change. Community leaders and local governments therefore look to science to provide insight into how climate change may affect their areas. Many studies of future coastal flooding vulnerability consider sea level and tides, but ignore other important factors that elevate flood levels during storm events, such as waves, surge, and discharge. Here we present a modelling approach that considers a broad range of relevant processes contributing to elevated storm water levels for open coast and embayment settings along the U.S. West Coast. Additionally, we present online tools for communicating community-relevant projected vulnerabilities. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) is a numerical modeling system developed to predict coastal flooding due to both sea-level rise (SLR) and plausible 21st century storms for active-margin settings like the U.S. West Coast. CoSMoS applies a predominantly deterministic framework of multi-scale models encompassing large geographic scales (100s to 1000s of kilometers) to small-scale features (10s to 1000s of meters), resulting in flood extents that can be projected at a local resolution (2 meters). In the latest iteration of CoSMoS applied to Southern California, U.S., efforts were made to incorporate water level fluctuations in response to regional storm impacts, locally wind-generated waves, coastal river discharge, and decadal-scale shoreline and cliff changes. Coastal hazard projections are available in a user-friendly web-based tool (www.prbo.org/ocof), where users can view variations in flood extent, maximum flood depth, current speeds, and wave heights in response to a range of potential SLR and storm combinations, providing direct support to adaptation and management decisions. In order to capture

  13. COSMOS Morphological Classification with the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types (ZEST) and the Evolution Since z = 1 of the Luminosity Function of Early, Disk, and Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlata, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S.; Sargent, M. T.; Feldmann, R.; Kampczyk, P.; Porciani, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Scoville, N.; Kneib, J.-P.; Leauthaud, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Tasca, L.; Capak, P.; Maier, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Renzini, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Sheth, K.; Ajiki, M.; Aussel, H.; Murayama, T.; Sanders, D. B.; Sasaki, S.; Shioya, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by the desire to reliably and automatically classify structure of thousands of COSMOS galaxies, we present ZEST, the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. To classify galaxy structure, ZEST uses (1) five nonparametric diagnostics: asymmetry, concentration, Gini coefficient, second-order moment of the brightest 20% of galaxy pixels, and ellipticity; and (2) the exponent n of single-Sérsic fits to the two-dimensional surface brightness distributions. To fully exploit the wealth of information while reducing the redundancy present in these diagnostics, ZEST performs a principal component (PC) analysis. We use a sample of ~56,000 IAB<=24 COSMOS galaxies to show that the first three PCs fully describe the key aspects of the galaxy structure, i.e., to calibrate a three-dimensional classification grid of axes PC1, PC2, and PC3. We demonstrate the robustness of the ZEST grid on the z=0 sample of Frei et al. The ZEST classification breaks most of the degeneracy between different galaxy populations that affects morphological classifications based on only some of the diagnostics included in ZEST. As a first application, we present the evolution since z~1 of the luminosity functions (LFs) of COSMOS galaxies of early, disk, and irregular galaxies and, for disk galaxies, of different bulge-to-disk ratios. Overall, we find that the LF up to a redshift z=1 is consistent with a pure luminosity evolution (of about 0.95 mag at z~0.7). We highlight, however, two trends that are in general agreement with a downsizing scenario for galaxy formation, i.e., (1) a deficit of a factor of about 2 at z~0.7 of MB>-20.5 structurally classified early-type galaxies and (2) an excess of a factor of about 3, at a similar redshift, of irregular galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope , obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5

  14. Experiment K-6-13. Morphological and biochemical examination of heart tissue. Part 1: Effects of microgravity on the myocardial fine structure of rats flown on Cosmos 1887. Ultrastructure studies. Part 2: Cellular distribution of cyclic ampdependent protein kinase regulatory subunits in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, Jaime; Mednieks, M. I.; Sapp, W.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    The left ventricle of hearts from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days was compared to the same tissue of synchronous and vivarium control animals maintained in a ground based laboratory. The volume density of the mitochondria in the myocardium of the space-flown animals was statistically less (p equal less than 0.01) than that of the synchronous or vivarium control rats. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a certain degree of myocardial degeneration manifested in mitochondrial changes and accumulation of myeloid bodies. Generalized myofibrillar edema was also observed.

  15. Life in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Discoveries by NASA & ESA Spacecraft provide additional evidence for present day liquid water on Mars and water/ice jets on Comets & Enceladus. Stardust mineralogical data support the Hypothesis that water-rich Comets represent parent bodies for the CI1 Carbonaceous Meteorites. Undetectable Nitrogen & low O/C ratios in Filaments found in CI1 Orgueil meteorite rule out Modern Biological Contamination Hypothesis.

  16. The New Cosmos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCray, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses areas of modern astronomy that owe their development largely to nonoptical radiation: radio, infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray radiation. Indicates new observations favor the big-bang" model of the universe, for it is now established that the earth is expanding at a measurable rate. Annotated bibliography. (LS)

  17. Discovering the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, R. C.

    Based on the very popular liberal arts course Bob Bless has taught at University of Wisconsin for over twenty years, this book provides a rich, historical approach to introductory astronomy. It is ideal for use in an introductory astronomy course for nonmajors. An Instructor's Manual, test questions and transparencies are also available for adopting professors.

  18. Unveiling the radio cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlinde, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Using a radio telescope with no moving parts, the dark energy speeding up the expansion of the Universe can be probed in unprecedented detail, says Keith Vanderlinde, on behalf of the CHIME collaboration.

  19. Quarks and the cosmos.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael S

    2007-01-05

    Cosmology is in the midst of a period of revolutionary discovery, propelled by bold ideas from particle physics and by technological advances from gigapixel charge-coupled device cameras to peta-scale computing. The basic features of the universe have now been determined: It is 13.7 billion years old, spatially flat, and expanding at an accelerating rate; it is composed of atoms (4%), exotic dark matter (20%), and dark energy (76%); and there is evidence that galaxies and other structures were seeded by quantum fluctuations. Although we know much about the universe, we understand far less. Poised to dramatically advance our understanding of both the universe and the laws that govern it, cosmology is on the verge of a golden age.

  20. Educar en el cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita Fontecha, M. C.

    Cosmoeduca is an educational project set up by the Canaries Astrophysics Institute (IAC), with the support of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology, for teachers of all subjects at secondary school level. During this talk we shall discuss (a) How it all started, (b) What we hope to achieve and (c) The past, the present and the future.

  1. The New Cosmos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCray, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses areas of modern astronomy that owe their development largely to nonoptical radiation: radio, infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray radiation. Indicates new observations favor the big-bang" model of the universe, for it is now established that the earth is expanding at a measurable rate. Annotated bibliography. (LS)

  2. Evolution of the Fraction of Clumpy Galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, K. L.; Kajisawa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, M. A. R.; Shioya, Y.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2014-05-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys data in the COSMOS field, we systematically searched clumpy galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 and investigated the fraction of clumpy galaxies and its evolution as a function of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and specific SFR (SSFR). The fraction of clumpy galaxies in star-forming galaxies with M star > 109.5 M ⊙ decreases with time from ~0.35 at 0.8 < z < 1.0 to ~0.05 at 0.2 < z < 0.4, irrespective of the stellar mass, although the fraction tends to be slightly lower for massive galaxies with M star > 1010.5 M ⊙ at each redshift. On the other hand, the fraction of clumpy galaxies increases with increasing both SFR and SSFR in all the redshift ranges we investigated. In particular, we found that the SSFR dependences of the fractions are similar among galaxies with different stellar masses, and the fraction at a given SSFR does not depend on the stellar mass in each redshift bin. The evolution of the fraction of clumpy galaxies from z ~ 0.9 to z ~ 0.3 seems to be explained by such SSFR dependence of the fraction and the evolution of SSFRs of star-forming galaxies. The fraction at a given SSFR also appears to decrease with time, but this can be due to the effect of the morphological k correction. We suggest that these results are understood by the gravitational fragmentation model for the formation of giant clumps in disk galaxies, where the gas mass fraction is a crucial parameter. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407. Also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with

  3. Suitability of Cryopreservation for the Long‐term Storage of Rare and Endangered Plant Species: a Case History for Cosmos atrosanguineus

    PubMed Central

    WILKINSON, TIM; WETTEN, ANDREW; PRYCHID, CHRISSIE; FAY, MICHAEL F.

    2003-01-01

    The suitability of cryopreservation for the secure, long‐term storage of the rare and endangered species Cosmos atrosanguineus was investigated. Using encapsulation/dehydration of shoot tips in alginate strips, survival rates of up to 100 % and shoot regeneration of up to 35 % were achieved. Light and electron microscopy studies indicated that cellular damage to some regions of the shoot tip during the freeze/thaw procedure was high, although cell survival in and around the meristematic region allowed shoot tip regeneration. The genetic fingerprinting technique, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), showed that no detectable genetic variation was present between material of C. atrosanguineus at the time of initiation into tissue culture and that which had been cryopreserved, stored in liquid nitrogen for 12 months and regenerated. Weaned plantlets that were grown under glasshouse conditions exhibited no morphological variation from non‐frozen controls. PMID:12495921

  4. Suitability of cryopreservation for the long-term storage of rare and endangered plant species: a case history for Cosmos atrosanguineus.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tom; Wetten, Andrew; Prychid, Chrissie; Fay, Michael F

    2003-01-01

    The suitability of cryopreservation for the secure, long-term storage of the rare and endangered species Cosmos atrosanguineus was investigated. Using encapsulation/dehydration of shoot tips in alginate strips, survival rates of up to 100 % and shoot regeneration of up to 35 % were achieved. Light and electron microscopy studies indicated that cellular damage to some regions of the shoot tip during the freeze/thaw procedure was high, although cell survival in and around the meristematic region allowed shoot tip regeneration. The genetic fingerprinting technique, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), showed that no detectable genetic variation was present between material of C. atrosanguineus at the time of initiation into tissue culture and that which had been cryopreserved, stored in liquid nitrogen for 12 months and regenerated. Weaned plantlets that were grown under glasshouse conditions exhibited no morphological variation from non-frozen controls. Copyright 2003 Annals of Botany Company

  5. Examining the clinical course of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients treated with the cosmos regimen: including patients with advanced liver disease and East Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Roytman, Marina; Ramkissoon, Resham; Wu, Christina; Hong, Leena; Trujillo, Ruby; Huddleston, Leslie; Poerzgen, Peter; Seto, Todd; Wong, Linda; Tsai, Naoky

    2016-07-01

    The COSMOS study was a phase 2a clinical trial that showed high cure rates of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and a favorable side effect profile using a 12-week regimen of simeprevir + sofosbuvir (SIM + SOF). Given the small number of patients treated with the SIM + SOF regimen in the COSMOS trial, there is uncertainty regarding the efficacy and safety of this combination therapy. We now report our experience with the COSMOS regimen in the multiethnic population of Hawaii, including patients of East Asian ancestry and with decompensated cirrhosis. This study is a retrospective review of 138 patients treated with a fixed dose regimen of SIM 150 mg and SOF 400 mg daily at a single referral center. We collected data on demographics, side effects, laboratory studies and sustained virological response (SVR). Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v8.2 software. Baseline characteristics of the 138 patients initiated with SIM + SOF therapy were: 68.8 % cirrhotic (22.1 % of those Child-Pugh Class B), 37 % Asian, 11.6 % Pacific Islander, 63 % male, mean age 61.3 ± 7.8 years, mean BMI 27.8 ± 6.1 kg/m(2), 26.8 % diabetic, 63.8 % genotype 1a, 44.9 % previously treatment experienced. A total of 100 % of patients that completed therapy (n = 137) had undetectable viral loads at end of treatment (EOT). Twelve patients relapsed post-treatment resulting in an overall 12 week SVR (SVR12) rate of 89.1 %. 95 % of decompensated cirrhotic patients achieved SVR12, compared to 85.3 % of compensated cirrhotic patients and 93 % of non-cirrhotic patients. 92 % of Asian patients achieved SVR12 compared to 87.5 % in non-Asian patients. There were no statistically significant differences in SVR12 between treatment naive and treatment experienced patients (86.8 vs 91.9 %). 87.5 % of post-transplant patients achieved SVR12. The main side effects were headache 16.2 %, fatigue 24.2 %, pruritis 14.1 %; none were >grade 2 in severity. There were no

  6. Experiment K-6-16. Morphological examination of rat testes. The effect of Cosmos 1887 flight on spermatogonial population and testosterone level in rat testes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Vasques, M.; Sapp, W.; Williams, C.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    Testes from rats flown on Cosmos 1887 for twelve and a half days were compared to basal control, synchronous control and vivarium maintained rats. When the mean weights of flight testes, normalized for weight/100 gms, were compared to the vivarium controls they were 6.7 percent lighter. Although the flight testes were lighter than the synchronous, the difference is not significant. Counts of spermatogonial cells from 5 animals in each group revealed a 4 percent decrease in flight compared to vivarium controls. In both cases the t-Test significance was less than 0.02. The serum testosterone levels of all animals (flight, synchronous and vivarium) were significantly below the basal controls.

  7. How "Discover the COSMOS", "PATHWAY", "Go-Lab" and "Inspiring Science Education" are changing the science education in European high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoumelis, Christine

    2014-04-01

    It has been noted by various reports that during recent years, there has been an alarming decline in young people's interest for science studies and mathematics. Since it is believed that the traditional teaching methods often fail to foster positive attitudes towards learning science, the European Commission has made intensive efforts to promote science education in schools though new methods based on the inquiry methodology of learning: questions, search and answers. This should be coupled to laboratories and hands-on experience which should be structured and scaffolded in a pedagogically meaningful way. "PATHWAY", "Discover the COSMOS" and "ISE" have been providing the lesson plans and the best practices for teachers and students and "Go-lab" is working towards an integrated set up of on-line labs for large scale use in science education. In the next sections some concrete examples which aim to bring the High Energy Physics (HEP) frontier research to schools will be given.

  8. US experiments flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Volume 1: Mission description, experiments K-7-01 - K-7-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Cosmos 2044 was launched on September 15, 1989, containing radiation dosimetry experiments and a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, ten adult male Wistar rats, insects, amphibians, protozoa, cell cultures, worms, plants and fish. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the Soviet Union for a mission duration of 14 days, as planned. The major research objectives were: (1) Study adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; (2) Study physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases; (3) Study the tissue regeneration processes of mammals; (4) Study the development of single-celled organisms, cell cultures and embryos in microgravity; (5) Study radiation characteristics during the mission and investigate doses, fluxes and spectra of cosmic radiation for various types of shielding. American and Soviet specialists jointly conducted 29 experiments on this mission including extensive preflight and post flight studies with rhesus monkeys, and tissue processing and cell culturing post flight. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included development of flight and ground-based hardware, the preparation of rat tissue sample procedures, the verification testing of hardware and experiment procedures, and the post flight analysis of biospecimens and data for the joint experiments. The U.S. investigations included four primate experiments, 24 rat experiments, and one radiation dosimetry experiment. Three scientists investigated tissue repair during flight for a subgroup of rats injured preflight by surgical intervention. A description of the Cosmos 2044 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and post flight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. is also described, along with

  9. Parcel-scale urban coastal flood mapping: Leveraging the multi-scale CoSMoS model for coastal flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallien, T.; Barnard, P. L.; Sanders, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    California coastal sea levels are projected to rise 1-1.4 meters in the next century and evidence suggests mean tidal range, and consequently, mean high water (MHW) is increasing along portions of Southern California Bight. Furthermore, emerging research indicates wind stress patterns associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) have suppressed sea level rise rates along the West Coast since 1980, and a reversal in this pattern would result in the resumption of regional sea level rise rates equivalent to or exceeding global mean sea level rise rates, thereby enhancing coastal flooding. Newport Beach is a highly developed, densely populated lowland along the Southern California coast currently subject to episodic flooding from coincident high tides and waves, and the frequency and intensity of flooding is expected to increase with projected future sea levels. Adaptation to elevated sea levels will require flood mapping and forecasting tools that are sensitive to the dominant factors affecting flooding including extreme high tides, waves and flood control infrastructure. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of nowcast and forecast systems including Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) and the USGS Multi-hazard model, the Southern California Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS). However, fine scale local embayment dynamics and overtopping flows are needed to map unsteady flooding effects in coastal lowlands protected by dunes, levees and seawalls. Here, a recently developed two dimensional Godunov non-linear shallow water solver is coupled to water level and wave forecasts from the CoSMoS model to investigate the roles of tides, waves, sea level changes and flood control infrastructure in accurate flood mapping and forecasting. The results of this study highlight the important roles of topographic data, embayment hydrodynamics, water level uncertainties and critical flood processes required for

  10. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the COSMOS field: Physical properties derived from energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Delvecchio, I.; Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Brisbin, D.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Novak, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Albrecht, M.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P. L.; Casey, C. M.; Hayward, C. C.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Jiang, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F.; Padilla, N. D.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Scott, K. S.; Sheth, K.; Tasca, L. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) represent an important source population in the origin and cosmic evolution of the most massive galaxies. Hence, it is imperative to place firm constraints on the fundamental physical properties of large samples of SMGs. Aims: We determine the physical properties of a sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field that were pre-selected at the observed-frame wavelength of λobs = 1.1 mm, and followed up at λobs = 1.3 mm with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA). Methods: We used the MAGPHYS model package to fit the panchromatic (ultraviolet to radio) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 124 of the target SMGs, which lie at a median redshift of z = 2.30 (19.4% are spectroscopically confirmed). The SED analysis was complemented by estimating the gas masses of the SMGs by using the λobs = 1.3 mm dust emission as a tracer of the molecular gas component. Results: The sample median and 16th-84th percentile ranges of the stellar masses, obscured star formation rates, dust temperatures, and dust and gas masses were derived to be log(M⋆/M⊙) = 11.09+0.41-0.53, SFR = 402+661-233 M⊙ yr-1, Tdust = 39.7+9.7-7.4 K, log(Mdust/M⊙) = 9.01+0.20-0.31, and log(Mgas/M⊙ = 11.34+0.20-0.23, respectively. The Mdust/M⋆ ratio was found to decrease as a function of redshift, while the Mgas/Mdust ratio shows the opposite, positive correlation with redshift. The derived median gas-to-dust ratio of 120+73-30 agrees well with the canonical expectation. The gas fraction (Mgas/ (Mgas + M⋆)) was found to range from 0.10 to 0.98 with a median of 0.62+0.27-0.23. We found that 57.3% of our SMGs populate the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies, while 41.9% of the sources lie above the MS by a factor of greater than three (one source lies below the MS). These super-MS objects, or starbursts, are preferentially found at z ≳ 3, which likely reflects the sensitivity limit of our source selection. We estimated that the median gas

  11. Anomaly of the composition of the F-2 equatorial region of the ionosphere during the hours after sunset according to data from the mass-spectrometer experiment on the Cosmos-274

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydukov, V. Y.; Istomin, V. G.; Romanovskiy, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    A mass spectrometer on board Cosmos-274 measured concentrations of light atoms and ions. While traversing the geomagnetic equator during the evening hours it recorded on anomalous drop in ionized molecular oxygen and ionized atomic oxygen and nitrogen. A similar, less dramatic, decline was observed in the concentration of neutral atomic oxygen. A possible explanation for this and previously observed behavior is an ascent in altitude of the F layer in the hours after sunset, a possibility which is supported by calculations.

  12. Spot the difference. Impact of different selection criteria on observed properties of passive galaxies in zCOSMOS-20k sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Cimatti, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Lamareille, F.; Mignoli, M.; Zucca, E.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pelló, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Barnes, L.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Diener, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Floc'h, E.; López-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Nair, P.; Oesch, P.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Welikala, N.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: We present the analysis of photometric, spectroscopic, and morphological properties for differently selected samples of passive galaxies up to z = 1 extracted from the zCOSMOS-20k spectroscopic survey. This analysis intends toexplore the dependence of galaxy properties on the selection criterion adopted, study the degree of contamination due to star-forming outliers, and provide a comparison between different commonly used selection criteria. This work is a first step to fully investigating the selection effects of passive galaxies for future massive surveys such as Euclid. Methods: We extracted from the zCOSMOS-20k catalog six different samples of passive galaxies, based on morphology (3336 "morphological" early-type galaxies), optical colors (4889 "red-sequence" galaxies and 4882 "red UVJ" galaxies), specific star-formation rate (2937 "quiescent" galaxies), a best fit to the observed spectral energy distribution (2603 "red SED" galaxies), and a criterion that combines morphological, spectroscopic, and photometric information (1530 "red & passive early-type galaxies"). For all the samples, we studied optical and infrared colors, morphological properties, specific star-formation rates (SFRs), and the equivalent widths of the residual emission lines; this analysis was performed as a function of redshift and stellar mass to inspect further possible dependencies. Results: We find that each passive galaxy sample displays a certain level of contamination due to blue/star-forming/nonpassive outliers. The morphological sample is the one that presents the higher percentage of contamination, with ~12-65% (depending on the mass range) of galaxies not located in the red sequence, ~25-80% of galaxies with a specific SFR up to ~25 times higher than the adopted definition of passive, and significant emission lines found in the median stacked spectra, at least for log (M/M⊙) < 10.25. The red & passive ETGs sample is the purest, with a percentage of contamination in color

  13. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z > 2 using very large telescope and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, C.; Ziegler, B. L.; Lilly, S. J.; Peng, Y.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called 'fundamental metallicity relation' (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al.

  14. Figures of merit and constraints from testing general relativity using the latest cosmological data sets including refined COSMOS 3D weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossett, Jason N.; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Ishak, Mustapha

    2011-07-01

    We use cosmological constraints from current data sets and a figure of merit approach in order to probe any deviations from general relativity at cosmological scales. The figure of merit approach is used to study and compare the constraining power of various combinations of data sets on the modified gravity (MG) parameters. We use the recently refined HST-COSMOS weak-lensing tomography data, the ISW-galaxy cross correlations from 2MASS and SDSS luminous red galaxy surveys, the matter power spectrum from SDSS-DR7 (MPK), the WMAP7 temperature and polarization spectra, the baryon acoustic oscillations from Two-Degree Field and SDSS-DR7, and the Union2 compilation of type Ia supernovae, in addition to other bounds from Hubble parameter measurements and big bang nucleosynthesis. We use three parametrizations of MG parameters that enter the perturbed field equations. In order to allow for variations of the parameters with the redshift and scale, the first two parametrizations use recently suggested functional forms while the third is based on binning methods. Using the first parametrization, we find that the CMB+ISW+WL combination provides the strongest constraints on the MG parameters followed by CMB+WL or CMB+MPK+ISW. Using the second parametrization or the binning methods, we find that the combination CMB+MPK+ISW consistently provides some of the strongest constraints. This shows that the constraints are parametrization dependent. We find that adding up current data sets does not improve consistently the uncertainties on MG parameters due to tensions between the best-fit MG parameters preferred by different data sets. Furthermore, some functional forms imposed by the parametrizations can lead to an exacerbation of these tensions. Next, unlike some studies that used the CFHTLS lensing data, we do not find any deviation from general relativity using the refined HST-COSMOS data, confirming previous claims in those studies that their result may have been due to some

  15. THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF SPITZER 24 mum GALAXIES IN THE COSMIC EVOLUTION SURVEY FIELD. II. FAINT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE zCOSMOS-BRIGHT 10k CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Aussel, H.; Floc'h, E. Le; Frayer, D.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Coppa, G.; Bongiorno, A.

    2009-12-20

    We have used the zCOSMOS-bright 10k sample to identify 3244 Spitzer/MIPS 24 mum-selected galaxies with 0.06 mJy < S{sub 24{sub m}}u{sub m} approx< 0.50 mJy and I{sub AB} < 22.5, over 1.5 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, and studied different spectral properties, depending on redshift. At 0.2 < z < 0.3, we found that different reddening laws of common use in the literature explain the dust extinction properties of approx80% of our infrared (IR) sources, within the error bars. For up to 16% of objects, instead, the Halpha lambda6563/Hbeta lambda4861 ratios are too high for their IR/UV attenuations, which is probably a consequence of inhomogeneous dust distributions. In only a few of our galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.3, the IR emission could be mainly produced by dust heated by old rather than young stars. Besides, the line ratios of approx22% of our galaxies suggest that they might be star-formation/nuclear-activity composite systems. At 0.5 < z < 0.7, we estimated galaxy metallicities for 301 galaxies: at least 12% of them are securely below the upper-branch mass-metallicity trend, which is consistent with the local relation. Finally, we performed a combined analysis of the H{sub d}elta equivalent width versus D{sub n} (4000) diagram for 1722 faint and bright 24 mum galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.0, spanning two decades in mid-IR luminosity. We found that, while secondary bursts of star formation are necessary to explain the position of the most luminous IR galaxies in that diagram, quiescent, exponentially declining star formation histories can well reproduce the spectral properties of approx40% of the less luminous sources. Our results suggest a transition in the possible modes of star formation at total IR luminosities L{sub TIR} approx (3 +- 2) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}.

  16. ON THE COSMIC EVOLUTION OF THE SCALING RELATIONS BETWEEN BLACK HOLES AND THEIR HOST GALAXIES: BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE zCOSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Lusso, E.; Mignoli, M.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Fiore, F.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.; Miyaji, T.; Renzini, A.; Salvato, M.; Silverman, J.; Trump, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the physical properties (rest-frame K-band luminosity and total stellar mass) of the hosts of 89 broad-line (type-1) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the zCOSMOS survey in the redshift range 1 < z < 2.2. The unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage of the survey field allows us to disentangle the emission of the host galaxy from that of the nuclear black hole in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We derive an estimate of black hole masses through the analysis of the broad Mg II emission lines observed in the medium-resolution spectra taken with VIMOS/VLT as part of the zCOSMOS project. We found that, as compared to the local value, the average black hole to host-galaxy mass ratio appears to evolve positively with redshift, with a best-fit evolution of the form (1+z){sup 0.68+}-{sup 0.12+0.6{sub -0.3}}, where the large asymmetric systematic errors stem from the uncertainties in the choice of initial mass function, in the calibration of the virial relation used to estimate BH masses and in the mean QSO SED adopted. On the other hand, if we consider the observed rest-frame K-band luminosity, objects tend to be brighter, for a given black hole mass, than those on the local M{sub BH}-M{sub K} relation. This fact, together with more indirect evidence from the SED fitting itself, suggests that the AGN hosts are likely actively star-forming galaxies. A thorough analysis of observational biases induced by intrinsic scatter in the scaling relations reinforces the conclusion that an evolution of the M{sub BH}-M{sub *} relation must ensue for actively growing black holes at early times: either its overall normalization, or its intrinsic scatter (or both) appear to increase with redshift. This can be interpreted as signature of either a more rapid growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift, a change of structural properties of AGN hosts at earlier times, or a significant mismatch between the typical growth times of

  17. The Mass-Metallicity and Fundamental Metallicity Relations at z > 2 Using Very Large Telescope and Subaru Near-infrared Spectroscopy of zCOSMOS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Ziegler, B. L.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Peng, Y.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called "fundamental metallicity relation" (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al. AND SUBARU

  18. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  19. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  20. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in the sea-ice response to volcanic forcing simulated by MPI-ESM (COSMOS-Mill)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Timmreck, C.; Bader, J.; Beitsch, A.; Graf, H.-F.; Notz, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.

    2014-06-01

    The decadal evolution of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice following strong volcanic eruptions is investigated in four climate simulation ensembles performed with the COSMOS-Mill version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. The ensembles differ in the magnitude of the imposed volcanic perturbations, with sizes representative of historical tropical eruptions (1991 Pinatubo and 1815 Tambora) and of tropical and extra-tropical "supervolcano" eruptions. A post-eruption Arctic sea-ice expansion is robustly detected in all ensembles, while Antarctic sea ice responds only to supervolcano eruptions, undergoing an initial short-lived expansion and a subsequent prolonged contraction phase. Strong volcanic forcing therefore emerges as a potential source of inter-hemispheric interannual-to-decadal climate variability, although the inter-hemispheric signature is weak in the case of eruptions comparable to historical eruptions. The post-eruption inter-hemispheric decadal asymmetry in sea ice is interpreted as a consequence mainly of the different exposure of Arctic and Antarctic regional climates to induced meridional heat transport changes and of dominating local feedbacks that set in within the Antarctic region. Supervolcano experiments help to clarify differences in simulated hemispheric internal dynamics related to imposed negative net radiative imbalances, including the relative importance of the thermal and dynamical components of the sea-ice response. Supervolcano experiments could therefore serve the assessment of climate models' behavior under strong external forcing conditions and, consequently, favor advancements in our understanding of simulated sea-ice dynamics.

  1. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in the sea-ice response to volcanic forcing simulated by MPI-ESM (COSMOS-Mill)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Timmreck, C.; Bader, J.; Beitsch, A.; Graf, H.-F.; Notz, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.

    2014-02-01

    The decadal evolution of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice following strong volcanic eruptions is investigated in four climate simulation ensembles performed with the COSMOS-Mill version of the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model. The ensembles differ in the magnitude of the imposed volcanic perturbations, with sizes representative of historical tropical eruptions (1991 Pinatubo and 1815 Tambora) and of tropical and extra-tropical "supervolcano" eruptions. A post-eruption Arctic sea-ice expansion is robustly detected in all ensembles, while Antarctic sea ice responds only to "supervolcano" eruptions, undergoing an initial short-lived expansion and a subsequent prolonged contraction phase. Strong volcanic forcing therefore emerges as a potential source of inter-hemispheric interannual-to-decadal climate variability, although the inter-hemispheric signature is weak in the case of historical-size eruptions. The post-eruption inter-hemispheric decadal asymmetry in sea ice is interpreted as a consequence mainly of different exposure of Arctic and Antarctic regional climates to induced meridional heat transport changes and of dominating local feedbacks that set in within the Antarctic region. "Supervolcano" experiments help clarifying differences in simulated hemispheric internal dynamics related to imposed negative net radiative imbalances, including the relative importance of the thermal and dynamical components of the sea-ice response. "Supervolcano" experiments could therefore serve the assessment of climate models' behavior under strong external forcing conditions and, consequently, favor advancements in our understanding of simulated sea-ice dynamics.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of the active components from the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Bong-Sik; Kim, So-Young; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Sik; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a sesquiterpene lactone from the methanol extract of the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus, namely, MDI (a mixture of dihydrocallitrisin and isohelenin). The anti-inflammatory activity of MDI was evaluated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. MDI significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Consistent with these results, the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was suggested to be suppressed by MDI in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value was 0.94 and 2.88 µg mL(-1) for NO and PGE2, respectively). In addition, MDI significantly inhibited the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, MDI attenuated DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκB. These results indicate that MDI isolated from the roots of C. bipinnatus shows anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by modulating the NF-κB pathway.

  3. Eight Weeks of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) Supplementation Improves Glycemic Status in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Ismail, Amin; Anthony, Joseph; Ng, Ooi Chuan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Optimizing glycemic control is crucial to prevent type 2 diabetes related complications. Cosmos caudatus is reported to have promising effect in improving plasma blood glucose in an animal model. However, its impact on human remains ambiguous. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of C. caudatus on glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. In this randomized controlled trial with two-arm parallel-group design, a total of 101 subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to diabetic-ulam or diabetic controls for eight weeks. Subjects in diabetic-ulam group consumed 15 g of C. caudatus daily for eight weeks while diabetic controls abstained from taking C. caudatus. Both groups received the standard lifestyle advice. Results. After 8 weeks of supplementation, C. caudatus significantly reduced serum insulin (-1.16 versus +3.91), reduced HOMA-IR (-1.09 versus +1.34), and increased QUICKI (+0.05 versus -0.03) in diabetic-ulam group compared with the diabetic controls. HbA1C level was improved although it is not statistically significant (-0.76% versus -0.37%). C. caudatus was safe to consume. Conclusions. C. caudatus supplementation significantly improves insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Very-long-chain 1,2- and 1,3-bifunctional compounds from the cuticular wax of Cosmos bipinnatus petals.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Peng, Chen; Jetter, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Four uncommon classes of very-long-chain compounds were identified and quantified in the petal wax of Cosmos bipinnatus (Asteraceae). The first two were homologous series of alkane 1,2-diols and 1,3-diols, both ranging from C20 to C26. The upper and lower petal surfaces contained 0.11 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) of 1,2-diols, respectively. 1,3-Diols were present at quantities one order of magnitude less than the 1,2-diols. Both series had similar chain length distributions, with 6-20%, 59-73% and 20-31% of the C20, C22 and C24 diols, respectively. The other two compound classes were primary and secondary monoacetates of C20-C24 1,2-diols. The monoacetates had chain length profiles similar to the free 1,2-diols, and amounted to 0.04 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) on the adaxial and abaxial sides, respectively. Methods were developed to minimize acyl migration during monoacetate isomer analyses. The ratios of diol 1-acetates to diol 2-acetates averaged close to 3:5, and thus opposite to the chemical equilibrium ratio of 7:3.

  5. Mass and Environment as Drivers of Galaxy Evolution in SDSS and zCOSMOS and the Origin of the Schechter Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ying-jie; Lilly, Simon J.; Kovač, Katarina; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Renzini, Alvio; Zamorani, Gianni; Ilbert, Olivier; Knobel, Christian; Iovino, Angela; Maier, Christian; Cucciati, Olga; Tasca, Lidia; Carollo, C. Marcella; Silverman, John; Kampczyk, Pawel; de Ravel, Loic; Sanders, David; Scoville, Nicholas; Contini, Thierry; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Scodeggio, Marco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Bardelli, Sandro; Bongiorno, Angela; Caputi, Karina; Coppa, Graziano; de la Torre, Sylvain; Franzetti, Paolo; Garilli, Bianca; Lamareille, Fabrice; Le Borgne, Jean-Francois; Le Brun, Vincent; Mignoli, Marco; Perez Montero, Enrique; Pello, Roser; Ricciardelli, Elena; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tresse, Laurence; Vergani, Daniela; Welikala, Niraj; Zucca, Elena; Oesch, Pascal; Abbas, Ummi; Barnes, Luke; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Bottini, Dario; Cappi, Alberto; Cassata, Paolo; Cimatti, Andrea; Fumana, Marco; Hasinger, Gunther; Koekemoer, Anton; Leauthaud, Alexei; Maccagni, Dario; Marinoni, Christian; McCracken, Henry; Memeo, Pierdomenico; Meneux, Baptiste; Nair, Preethi; Porciani, Cristiano; Presotto, Valentina; Scaramella, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    We explore the simple inter-relationships between mass, star formation rate, and environment in the SDSS, zCOSMOS, and other deep surveys. We take a purely empirical approach in identifying those features of galaxy evolution that are demanded by the data and then explore the analytic consequences of these. We show that the differential effects of mass and environment are completely separable to z ~ 1, leading to the idea of two distinct processes of "mass quenching" and "environment quenching." The effect of environment quenching, at fixed over-density, evidently does not change with epoch to z ~ 1 in zCOSMOS, suggesting that the environment quenching occurs as large-scale structure develops in the universe, probably through the cessation of star formation in 30%-70% of satellite galaxies. In contrast, mass quenching appears to be a more dynamic process, governed by a quenching rate. We show that the observed constancy of the Schechter M* and αs for star-forming galaxies demands that the quenching of galaxies around and above M* must follow a rate that is statistically proportional to their star formation rates (or closely mimic such a dependence). We then postulate that this simple mass-quenching law in fact holds over a much broader range of stellar mass (2 dex) and cosmic time. We show that the combination of these two quenching processes, plus some additional quenching due to merging naturally produces (1) a quasi-static single Schechter mass function for star-forming galaxies with an exponential cutoff at a value M* that is set uniquely by the constant of proportionality between the star formation and mass quenching rates and (2) a double Schechter function for passive galaxies with two components. The dominant component (at high masses) is produced by mass quenching and has exactly the same M* as the star-forming galaxies but a faint end slope that differs by Δαs ~ 1. The other component is produced by environment effects and has the same M* and αs as the

  6. Satellite Collision Modeling with Physics-Based Hydrocodes: Debris Generation Predictions of the I