Science.gov

Sample records for 25-1 fractional factorial

  1. Using Bayesian variable selection to analyze regular resolution IV two-level fractional factorial designs

    DOE PAGES

    Chipman, Hugh A.; Hamada, Michael S.

    2016-06-02

    Regular two-level fractional factorial designs have complete aliasing in which the associated columns of multiple effects are identical. Here, we show how Bayesian variable selection can be used to analyze experiments that use such designs. In addition to sparsity and hierarchy, Bayesian variable selection naturally incorporates heredity . This prior information is used to identify the most likely combinations of active terms. We also demonstrate the method on simulated and real experiments.

  2. Effect of clay minerals and nanoparticles on chromium fractionation in soil contaminated with leather factory waste.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Marzieh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-10-30

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of time, clay minerals and nanoparticles (NPs) on chromium (Cr) fractionation in a soil contaminated with leather factory waste (LFW). Soil was mixed with LFW, then, the contaminated soils were treated with clay minerals (bentonite and zeolite) and nanoparticles (MgO, TiO2 and ZnO) at 5% and 1%, respectively. The samples were incubated for 15-180 days at 25 °C and constant moisture. After incubation, Cr in control and treated soils was fractionated by the sequential extraction procedure. The distribution of various Cr fractions in control soil indicated that the greatest amounts of Cr were found in the residual fraction (RES) followed by the carbonate (CAR), organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXC) fractions. The addition of LFW in soils increased Cr concentration in all fractions. The higher proportion of EXC fraction in the soil treated with LFW indicates its higher potential of leaching and runoff transport. In all treated soils, the RES fraction was increased, while EXC and OM fractions were decreased during incubation. The results indicated that NPs are effective adsorbent for the removal of Cr ions from LFW treated soil, and they could be useful in reducing their environment risk.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of an accident prediction model by the fractional factorial method.

    PubMed

    Akgüngör, Ali P; Yildiz, Osman

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis of a model can help us determine relative effects of model parameters on model results. In this study, the sensitivity of the accident prediction model proposed by Zegeer et al. [Zegeer, C.V., Reinfurt, D., Hummer, J., Herf, L., Hunter, W., 1987. Safety Effect of Cross-section Design for Two-lane Roads, vols. 1-2. Report FHWA-RD-87/008 and 009 Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, USA] to its parameters was investigated by the fractional factorial analysis method. The reason for selecting this particular model is that it incorporates both traffic and road geometry parameters besides terrain characteristics. The evaluation of sensitivity analysis indicated that average daily traffic (ADT), lane width (W), width of paved shoulder (PA), median (H) and their interactions (i.e., ADT-W, ADT-PA and ADT-H) have significant effects on number of accidents. Based on the absolute value of parameter effects at the three- and two-standard deviation thresholds ADT was found to be of primary importance, while the remaining identified parameters seemed to be of secondary importance. This agrees with the fact that ADT is among the most effective parameters to determine road geometry and therefore, it is directly related to number of accidents. Overall, the fractional factorial method was found to be an efficient tool to examine the relative importance of the selected accident prediction model parameters.

  4. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide among cement factory workers: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tungu, Alexander Mtemi; Bråtveit, Magne; Mamuya, Simon D; Moen, Bente E

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that dust exposure causes airway inflammation among cement factory workers. However, there is limited information on the mechanisms of this effect. We explored any associations between total dust exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) as a marker of airway eosinophilic inflammation among cement production workers in Tanzania. We also examined possible differences in FENO concentration between workers in different parts of the production line. Methodology We examined 127 cement workers and 28 controls from a mineral water factory. An electrochemistry-based NIOX MINO device was used to examine FENO concentration. Personal total dust was collected from the breathing zone of the study participants using 37 mm cellulose acetate filters placed in three-piece plastic cassettes. Interviews on workers’ background information were conducted in the Swahili language. Results We found equal concentrations of FENO among exposed workers and controls (geometric mean (GM)=16 ppb). The GM for total dust among the exposed workers and controls was 5.0 and 0.6 mg/m3, respectively. The FENO concentrations did not differ between the exposed workers with high (GM≥5 mg/m3) and low (GM<5 mg/m3) total dust exposure. There was no significant difference in FENO concentration between workers in the two main stages of the cement production process. Conclusions We did not find any difference in FENO concentration between dust-exposed cement workers and controls, and there were similar FENO concentrations among workers in the two main stages of cement production. PMID:23243102

  5. The CORONIS Trial. International study of caesarean section surgical techniques: a randomised fractional, factorial trial

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed operations on women throughout the world. Rates have increased in recent years – about 20–25% in many developed countries. Rates in other parts of the world vary widely. A variety of surgical techniques for all elements of the caesarean section operation are in use. Many have not yet been rigorously evaluated in randomised controlled trials, and it is not known whether any are associated with better outcomes for women and babies. Because huge numbers of women undergo caesarean section, even small differences in post-operative morbidity rates between techniques could translate into improved health for substantial numbers of women, and significant cost savings. Design CORONIS is a multicentre, fractional, factorial randomised controlled trial and will be conducted in centres in Argentina, Ghana, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Sudan. Women are eligible if they are undergoing their first or second caesarean section through a transverse abdominal incision. Five comparisons will be carried out in one trial, using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 fractional factorial design. This design has rarely been used, but is appropriate for the evaluation of several procedures which will be used together in clinical practice. The interventions are: • Blunt versus sharp abdominal entry • Exteriorisation of the uterus for repair versus intra-abdominal repair • Single versus double layer closure of the uterus • Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum (pelvic and parietal) • Chromic catgut versus Polyglactin-910 for uterine repair The primary outcome is death or maternal infectious morbidity (one or more of the following: antibiotic use for maternal febrile morbidity during postnatal hospital stay, antibiotic use for endometritis, wound infection or peritonitis) or further operative procedures; or blood transfusion. The sample size required is 15,000 women in total; at least 7,586 women in each comparison

  6. Design of Experiments Study of Hydroxyapatite Synthesis for Orthopaedic Application Using Fractional Factorial Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, S.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stokes, J.

    2011-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite, (HAp), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is a naturally occurring mineral found in the inorganic component of enamel and human bone, consequently the present research focus is its ability to promote bone growth onto femoral implants when the HAp powder is sprayed using plasma thermal spraying. As the sprayed deposit requires certain mechanical and biological performances, the characteristics of the starting HAp powder will provide these properties. Hap powders were synthesized via a wet chemical precipitation technique using a Fractional Factorial, Resolution IV, two-level experimental design to evaluate the critical process parameters (reagent addition rate, reaction temperature, stirring speed, ripening time, initial calcium concentration, and the presence of an inert atmosphere) and their effect (main and interaction) on the final HAp powder characteristics, such as, phase composition, purity, crystallinity, crystallite size, lattice parameters, particle size, and particle size distribution. All six selected variables investigated, showed an influence (either as a minor or major significance) on one or more of the responses investigated, either as a main or interaction effect. However, both the ripening time and the stirring speed were found to significantly affect the majority of the five responses, with the reaction temperature also having a significant effect on the final phase composition, lattice parameters, and particle size.

  7. Understanding the Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanorods through a Fractional Factorial Design of Experiments.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Nathan D; Harvey, Samantha; Idesis, Fred A; Murphy, Catherine J

    2017-02-28

    Since the development of simple, aqueous protocols for the synthesis of anisotropic metal nanoparticles, research into many promising, valuable applications of gold nanorods has grown considerably, but a number of challenges remain, including gold-particle yield, robustness to minor impurities, and precise control of gold nanorod surface chemistry. Herein we present the results of a composite fractional factorial series of experiments designed to screen seven additional potential avenues of control and to understand the seed-mediated silver-assisted synthesis of gold nanorods. These synthesis variables are the amount of sodium borohydride used and the rate of stirring when producing seed nanoparticles, the age of and the amount of seeds added, the reaction temperature, the amounts of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid added, and the age of the reduced growth solution before seed nanoparticles are added to initiate rod formation. This statistical experimental design and analysis method, besides determining which experimental variables are important and which are not when synthesizing gold nanorods (and quantifying their effects), gives further insight into the mechanism of growth by measuring the degree to which variables interact with each other by mapping out their mechanistic connections. This work demonstrates that when forming gold nanorods by the reduction of auric ions by ascorbic acid onto seed nanoparticles, ascorbic acid determines how much gold is reduced, and the amount of seeds determine how it is divided, yet both influence the intrinsic growth rates, in both width and length, of the forming nanorods. Furthermore, this work shows that the reduction of gold proceeds via direct reduction on the surface of seeds and not through a disproportionation reaction. Further control over the length of gold nanorods can be achieved by tuning the amount of silver nitrate or the reaction temperature. This work shows that silver does not directly influence rod length or

  8. Enhanced diesel fuel fraction from waste high-density polyethylene and heavy gas oil pyrolysis using factorial design methodology.

    PubMed

    Joppert, Ney; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina

    2015-02-01

    Factorial Design Methodology (FDM) was developed to enhance diesel fuel fraction (C9-C23) from waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Heavy Gas Oil (HGO) through co-pyrolysis. FDM was used for optimization of the following reaction parameters: temperature, catalyst and HDPE amounts. The HGO amount was constant (2.00 g) in all experiments. The model optimum conditions were determined to be temperature of 550 °C, HDPE = 0.20 g and no FCC catalyst. Under such conditions, 94% of pyrolytic oil was recovered, of which diesel fuel fraction was 93% (87% diesel fuel fraction yield), no residue was produced and 6% of noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction was obtained. Seeking to reduce the cost due to high process temperatures, the impact of using higher catalyst content (25%) with a lower temperature (500 °C) was investigated. Under these conditions, 88% of pyrolytic oil was recovered (diesel fuel fraction yield was also 87%) as well as 12% of the noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction. No waste was produced in these conditions, being an environmentally friendly approach for recycling the waste plastic. This paper demonstrated the usefulness of using FDM to predict and to optimize diesel fuel fraction yield with a great reduction in the number of experiments.

  9. An approach to optimize sample preparation for MALDI imaging MS of FFPE sections using fractional factorial design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Oetjen, Janina; Lachmund, Delf; Palmer, Andrew; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Boskamp, Tobias; Maass, Peter

    2016-09-01

    A standardized workflow for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI imaging MS) is a prerequisite for the routine use of this promising technology in clinical applications. We present an approach to develop standard operating procedures for MALDI imaging MS sample preparation of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections based on a novel quantitative measure of dataset quality. To cover many parts of the complex workflow and simultaneously test several parameters, experiments were planned according to a fractional factorial design of experiments (DoE). The effect of ten different experiment parameters was investigated in two distinct DoE sets, each consisting of eight experiments. FFPE rat brain sections were used as standard material because of low biological variance. The mean peak intensity and a recently proposed spatial complexity measure were calculated for a list of 26 predefined peptides obtained by in silico digestion of five different proteins and served as quality criteria. A five-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied on the final scores to retrieve a ranking of experiment parameters with increasing impact on data variance. Graphical abstract MALDI imaging experiments were planned according to fractional factorial design of experiments for the parameters under study. Selected peptide images were evaluated by the chosen quality metric (structure and intensity for a given peak list), and the calculated values were used as an input for the ANOVA. The parameters with the highest impact on the quality were deduced and SOPs recommended.

  10. Optimization of thiamethoxam adsorption parameters using multi-walled carbon nanotubes by means of fractional factorial design.

    PubMed

    Panić, Sanja; Rakić, Dušan; Guzsvány, Valéria; Kiss, Erne; Boskovic, Goran; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate significant factors affecting the thiamethoxam adsorption efficiency using oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbents. Five factors (initial solution concentration of thiamethoxam in water, temperature, solution pH, MWCNTs weight and contact time) were investigated using 2V(5-1) fractional factorial design. The obtained linear model was statistically tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis of residuals was used to investigate the model validity. It was observed that the factors and their second-order interactions affecting the thiamethoxam removal can be divided into three groups: very important, moderately important and insignificant ones. The initial solution concentration was found to be the most influencing parameter on thiamethoxam adsorption from water. Optimization of the factors levels was carried out by minimizing those parameters which are usually critical in real life: the temperature (energy), contact time (money) and weight of MWCNTs (potential health hazard), in order to maximize the adsorbed amount of the pollutant. The results of maximal adsorbed thiamethoxam amount in both real and optimized experiments indicate that among minimized parameters the adsorption time is one that makes the largest difference. The results of this study indicate that fractional factorial design is very useful tool for screening the higher number of parameters and reducing the number of adsorption experiments.

  11. Evaluation of biomass production, carotenoid level and antioxidant capacity produced by Thermus filiformis Using fractional factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Mandelli, Fernanda; Yamashita, Fábio; Pereira, José L.; Mercadante, Adriana Z.

    2012-01-01

    A fractional factorial design 25–1 was used to evaluate the effect of temperature, pH, and concentrations of yeast extract, tryptone and Nitsch’s trace elements on the biomass, total carotenoids and protection against singlet oxygen by carotenoid extracts of the bacterium Thermus filiformis. In addition, the carotenoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The production of biomass ranged from 0.113 to 0.658 g/L, the total carotenoid from 137.6 to 1,517.4 µg/g and the protection against singlet oxygen from 4.3 to 85.1 %. Results of the fractional factorial design showed that temperature had a negative effect on biomass production and a positive effect on carotenoid content and protection against singlet oxygen, besides, high levels of pH value, concentrations of yeast extract and tryptone had a positive effect on biomass production only at lower temperatures. The main carotenoids of T. filiformis were thermozeaxanthins. In the tested conditions, changes in the levels of the variables influenced the biomass, carotenoid production, and protection against singlet oxygen, although they did not influence the carotenoid profile. The results of this study provide a better understanding on the interactions among certain nutritional and cultivation conditions of a thermophile bacterium, Thermus filiformis, on biomass and carotenoid amounts, as well as on the antioxidant capacity. PMID:24031811

  12. Yield improvement for lost mould rapid infiltration forming process by a multistage fractional factorial split plot design.

    PubMed

    Yuangyai, Chumpol; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Hayes, Gregory; Antolino, Nicholas; Adair, James H

    2009-07-01

    Statistical design of experiments is widely used among scientists and engineers to understand influential factors in a laboratory or manufacturing process. One of the underlying principles of using the statistical design of experiments method is randomisation, each run of experimental settings will be determined completely unsystematically. In practice, especially in a complicated process that consists of multiple stages, randomisation may pose too high a burden on time and cost.In this study, the multistage fraction factorial split plot design is proposed for green yield improvement in a lost mould rapid infiltration process that has been developed to fabricate zirconia ceramic parts. This design allows a relaxation of the randomisation principle so that certain experimental runs can be carried out in convenient groups. The results indicate that the type of immersion chemical and mould coating play a role in improving process yield. Additionally, the results suggest that a mould infiltration machine should be used to improve the reproducibility of the process.

  13. Multi-factorial in vivo stable isotope fractionation: causes, correlations, consequences and applications.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig; Robins, Richard J; Werner, Roland A

    2015-01-01

    Many physical and chemical processes in living systems are accompanied by isotope fractionation on H, C, N, O and S. Although kinetic or thermodynamic isotope effects are always the basis, their in vivo manifestation is often modulated by secondary influences. These include metabolic branching events or metabolite channeling, metabolite pool sizes, reaction mechanisms, anatomical properties and compartmentation of plants and animals, and climatological or environmental conditions. In the present contribution, the fundamentals of isotope effects and their manifestation under in vivo conditions are outlined. The knowledge about and the understanding of these interferences provide a potent tool for the reconstruction of physiological events in plants and animals, their geographical origin, the history of bulk biomass and the biosynthesis of defined representatives. It allows the use of isotope characteristics of biomass for the elucidation of biochemical pathways and reaction mechanisms and for the reconstruction of climatic, physiological, ecological and environmental conditions during biosynthesis. Thus, it can be used for the origin and authenticity control of food, the study of ecosystems and animal physiology, the reconstruction of present and prehistoric nutrition chains and paleaoclimatological conditions. This is demonstrated by the outline of fundamental and application-orientated examples for all bio-elements. The aim of the review is to inform (advanced) students from various disciplines about the whole potential and the scope of stable isotope characteristics and fractionations and to provide them with a comprehensive introduction to the literature on fundamental aspects and applications.

  14. Statistical optimization of the growth factors for Chaetoceros neogracile using fractional factorial design and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sung-Eun; Park, Jae-Kweon; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Chang, In-Jeong; Hong, Seong-Joo; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2008-12-01

    Statistical experimental designs; involving (i) a fractional factorial design (FFD) and (ii) a central composite design (CCD) were applied to optimize the culture medium constituents for production of a unique antifreeze protein by the Antartic microalgae Chaetoceros neogracile. The results of the FFD suggested that NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and Na2SiO3 were significant variables that highly influenced the growth rate and biomass production. The optimum culture medium for the production of an antifreeze protein from C. neogracile was found to be Kalleampersandrsquor;s artificial seawater, pH of 7.0ampersandplusmn;0.5, consisting of 28.566 g/l of NaCl, 3.887 g/l of MgCl2, 1.787 g/l of MgSO4, 1.308 g/l of CaSO4, 0.832 g/l of K2SO4, 0.124 g/l of CaCO3, 0.103 g/l of KBr, 0.0288 g/l of SrSO4, and 0.0282 g/l of H3BO3. The antifreeze activity significantly increased after cells were treated with cold shock (at -5oC) for 14 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating an antifreeze-like protein of C. neogracile.

  15. NR/EPDM elastomeric rubber blend miscibility evaluation by two-level fractional factorial design of experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Jeefferie Abd; Ahmad, Sahrim Haji; Ratnam, Chantara Thevy; Mahamood, Mazlin Aida; Yaakub, Juliana; Mohamad, Noraiham

    2014-09-01

    Fractional 25 two-level factorial design of experiment (DOE) was applied to systematically prepare the NR/EPDM blend using Haake internal mixer set-up. The process model of rubber blend preparation that correlates the relationships between the mixer process input parameters and the output response of blend compatibility was developed. Model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and model fitting through curve evaluation finalized the R2 of 99.60% with proposed parametric combination of A = 30/70 NR/EPDM blend ratio; B = 70°C mixing temperature; C = 70 rpm of rotor speed; D = 5 minutes of mixing period and E = 1.30 phr EPDM-g-MAH compatibilizer addition, with overall 0.966 desirability. Model validation with small deviation at +2.09% confirmed the repeatability of the mixing strategy with valid maximum tensile strength output representing the blend miscibility. Theoretical calculation of NR/EPDM blend compatibility is also included and compared. In short, this study provides a brief insight on the utilization of DOE for experimental simplification and parameter inter-correlation studies, especially when dealing with multiple variables during elastomeric rubber blend preparation.

  16. A Fractional Factorial Design Study of Reciprocating Wear Behavior of Al-Si-SiCp Composites at Lubricated Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, V. R.; Dwivedi, D. K.; Jain, S. C.

    2011-04-01

    The lubricated reciprocating wear behavior of two composites A319/15%SiCp and A390/15%SiCp produced by the liquid metallurgy route was investigated by means of an indigenously developed reciprocating friction wear test rig using a fractional factorial-design approach. The main purpose was to study the influence of wear and friction test parameters such as applied load, sliding distance, reciprocating velocity, counter surface temperature and silicon content in composites, as well as their interactions on the wear and friction characteristics of these composites. Two output responses (wear loss and coefficient of friction) were measured. The input parameter levels were fixed through pilot experiment conducted in the newly developed reciprocating friction and wear test rig. The counter surface material used for the wear study was cast iron having Vickers hardness of 244 HVN. It had been demonstrated through established equations that A390/15%SiCp composite is subjected to low wear compared to the A319/15%SiCp composite. The experimental results indicate that the proposed mathematical models suggested could adequately describe the performance indicators within the limits of the factors that are being investigated. The applied load, sliding distance, reciprocating velocity, counter surface temperature, and silicon content in composite are the five important factors controlling the friction and wear characteristics of the composite in lubricated condition. Moreover, the two factor interactions have a strong effect on the wear of composites. The results give a comprehensive insight into the wear of the composites.

  17. Custom fractional factorial designs to develop atorvastatin self-nanoemulsifying and nanosuspension delivery systems – enhancement of oral bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Fahima M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M; Nasr, Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama AA

    2015-01-01

    Poor water solubility of a drug is a major challenge in drug delivery research and a main cause for limited bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters. This work aims to utilize custom fractional factorial design to assess the development of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and solid nanosuspensions (NS) in order to enhance the oral delivery of atorvastatin (ATR). According to the design, 14 experimental runs of ATR SNEDDS were formulated utilizing the highly ATR solubilizing SNEDDS components: oleic acid, Tween 80, and propylene glycol. In addition, 12 runs of NS were formulated by the antisolvent precipitation–ultrasonication method. Optimized formulations of SNEDDS and solid NS, deduced from the design, were characterized. Optimized SNEDDS formula exhibited mean globule size of 73.5 nm, zeta potential magnitude of −24.1 mV, and 13.5 μs/cm of electrical conductivity. Optimized solid NS formula exhibited mean particle size of 260.3 nm, 7.4 mV of zeta potential, and 93.2% of yield percentage. Transmission electron microscopy showed SNEDDS droplets formula as discrete spheres. The solid NS morphology showed flaky nanoparticles with irregular shapes using scanning electron microscopy. The release behavior of the optimized SNEDDS formula showed 56.78% of cumulative ATR release after 10 minutes. Solid NS formula showed lower rate of release in the first 30 minutes. Bioavailability estimation in Wistar albino rats revealed an augmentation in ATR bioavailability, relative to ATR suspension and the commercial tablets, from optimized ATR SNEDDS and NS formulations by 193.81% and 155.31%, respectively. The findings of this work showed that the optimized nanocarriers enhance the oral delivery and pharmacokinetic profile of ATR. PMID:26150693

  18. The Use of a Fractional Factorial Design to Determine the Factors That Impact 1,3-Propanediol Production from Glycerol by Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Shivani; Trager, Jordan; Sitton, Oliver C.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, biodiesel, a substitute for fossil fuels, has led to the excessive production of crude glycerol. The resulting crude glycerol can possess a high concentration of salts and an alkaline pH. Moreover, current crude glycerol purification methods are expensive, rendering this former commodity a waste product. However, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, a haloalkaliphilic bacterium, possesses the metabolic capability to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, a valuable commodity compound, without the need for salt dilution or adjusting pH when grown on this waste. Experiments were performed with different combinations of 24 medium components to determine their impact on the production of 1,3-propanediol by using a fractional factorial design. Tested medium components were selected based on data from the organism’s genome. Analysis of HPLC data revealed enhanced production of 1,3-propanediol with additional glycerol, pH, vitamin B12, ammonium ions, sodium sulfide, cysteine, iron, and cobalt. However, other selected components; nitrate ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions, sodium:potassium ratio, chloride, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc, borate, nickel, molybdenum, tungstate, copper and aluminum, did not enhance 1,3-propanediol production. The use of a fractional factorial design enabled the quick and efficient assessment of the impact of 24 different medium components on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium. PMID:27556494

  19. The Use of a Fractional Factorial Design to Determine the Factors That Impact 1,3-Propanediol Production from Glycerol by Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Shivani; Trager, Jordan; Sitton, Oliver C; Mormile, Melanie R

    2016-08-20

    In recent years, biodiesel, a substitute for fossil fuels, has led to the excessive production of crude glycerol. The resulting crude glycerol can possess a high concentration of salts and an alkaline pH. Moreover, current crude glycerol purification methods are expensive, rendering this former commodity a waste product. However, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, a haloalkaliphilic bacterium, possesses the metabolic capability to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, a valuable commodity compound, without the need for salt dilution or adjusting pH when grown on this waste. Experiments were performed with different combinations of 24 medium components to determine their impact on the production of 1,3-propanediol by using a fractional factorial design. Tested medium components were selected based on data from the organism's genome. Analysis of HPLC data revealed enhanced production of 1,3-propanediol with additional glycerol, pH, vitamin B12, ammonium ions, sodium sulfide, cysteine, iron, and cobalt. However, other selected components; nitrate ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions, sodium:potassium ratio, chloride, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc, borate, nickel, molybdenum, tungstate, copper and aluminum, did not enhance 1,3-propanediol production. The use of a fractional factorial design enabled the quick and efficient assessment of the impact of 24 different medium components on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium.

  20. Optimization of BY-2 cell suspension culture medium for the production of a human antibody using a combination of fractional factorial designs and the response surface method.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Grömping, Ulrike; Lipperts, Anja; Raven, Nicole; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a strategy for the optimization of plant cell suspension culture media using a combination of fractional factorial designs (FFDs) and response surface methodology (RSM). This sequential approach was applied to transformed tobacco BY-2 cells secreting a human antibody (M12) into the culture medium, in an effort to maximize yields. We found that the nutrients KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and CaCl₂ and the hormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) had the most significant impact on antibody accumulation. The factorial screening revealed strong interactions within the nutrients group (KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and CaCl₂) and also individually between 2,4-D and three other components (KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and BAP). The RSM design resulted in a fivefold increase in the antibody concentration after 5 days and a twofold reduction in the packed cell volume (PCV). Longer cultivation in the optimized medium led to the further accumulation of antibody M12 in the culture medium (up to 107 μg/mL, day 10). Because the packed cell volume was reduced in the optimized medium, this enhanced the overall yield by 20-fold (day 7) and 31-fold (day 10) compared to the conventional MS medium.

  1. Developing a new simplified method to determine diffusive uptake rates of volatile organic compounds in workplaces based on a fractional factorial designs approach.

    PubMed

    Estève, Williams; Lhuillier, Francine; Ravera, Christel; Grzebyck, Michel; Langlois, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to organic vapors in the workplace is a source of occupational risk. Admissible exposure levels are tightly regulated and must be closely monitored. However, the complexity and slowness of the existing complete protocols to determine diffusive uptake rates through passive sampling have limited the use of this tool despite obvious advantages. In this study, we experimentally validate two simplified protocols to determine diffusive uptake rates with passive sampling. The proposed 2(6-3) and 2(6-2) fractional factorial designs were validated for toluene sampling using a (Gas Adsorbent Badge for Individual Exposure) GABIE-activated charcoal sampler in a controlled atmosphere. The uptake rate for this sampler had been determined previously using a full protocol. The uptake rates for all three protocols were similar, indicating that the proposed new designs can be substituted for classical full protocols. After validation of our protocols, uptake rates for new substances used as fuel additives (methyl and ethyl tert-butyl ethers, MTBE and ETBE) were determined on the same sampler using the 2(6-2) design. In these experiments, temperature appears to have a non-negligible influence on the uptake rates measured for these compounds. With some precautions of usage (ambient temperature below a determined limit temperature or at least exposure time ≥4 h) and storage (storage temperature = 4°C) of the sampler, the experimental diffusive uptake rates determined by this method can be used with good confidence. Field experiments confirmed the experimental results, showing good agreement between active and passive sampling using the experimentally determined uptake rates.

  2. Analysis of Factorial Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    The pro- bability that y 13 is bad is .37. Choosing Q greater than .37 ends the iteration. Choos - ing Q so that Y 13 is identified as a bad...ances as a Fraction of Their Total. Annals of Eugenics , 11, 47-52. Cochran, W. G. and Cox, G. M. (1957) Experimental Designs. New York: John Wiley...Experiments. London: Oliver and Boyd. Finney, D. J. (1945) The Fractional Replication of Factorial Arrangements. Annals of Eugenics , 12, 291-301

  3. Slime Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity using slime, a colloid: it behaves like both a solid and liquid. Explains how slime can be produced from guar gum. An activity where students work in teams and become a slime factory is presented. (PR)

  4. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  5. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  6. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; ...

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  7. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  8. 6 CFR 25.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 25.1 Section 25.1 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.1 Purpose. This part implements the Support Anti-terrorism by...

  9. 6 CFR 25.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose. 25.1 Section 25.1 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.1 Purpose. This part implements the Support Anti-terrorism by...

  10. 46 CFR 52.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 52.25-1 Section 52.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-1 General. Requirements for fired boilers of various sizes and uses are referenced in table 54.01-5(a)...

  11. 46 CFR 52.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 52.25-1 Section 52.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-1 General. Requirements for fired boilers of various sizes and uses are referenced in Table 54.01-5(a)...

  12. 46 CFR 52.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 52.25-1 Section 52.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-1 General. Requirements for fired boilers of various sizes and uses are referenced in table 54.01-5(a)...

  13. 46 CFR 52.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 52.25-1 Section 52.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-1 General. Requirements for fired boilers of various sizes and uses are referenced in Table 54.01-5(a)...

  14. 46 CFR 52.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 52.25-1 Section 52.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-1 General. Requirements for fired boilers of various sizes and uses are referenced in Table 54.01-5(a)...

  15. 46 CFR 54.25-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 54.25-1 Section 54.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-1 Scope. The carbon, alloy, and heat treated steels used...

  16. 46 CFR 54.25-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 54.25-1 Section 54.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-1 Scope. The carbon, alloy, and heat treated steels used...

  17. 46 CFR 54.25-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 54.25-1 Section 54.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-1 Scope. The carbon, alloy, and heat treated steels used...

  18. 46 CFR 54.25-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 54.25-1 Section 54.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-1 Scope. The carbon, alloy, and heat treated steels used...

  19. 46 CFR 54.25-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 54.25-1 Section 54.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-1 Scope. The carbon, alloy, and heat treated steels used...

  20. A fractional-factorial probabilistic-possibilistic optimization framework for planning water resources management systems with multi-level parametric interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Huang, G H; Zhou, Y

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a multi-level factorial-vertex fuzzy-stochastic programming (MFFP) approach is developed for optimization of water resources systems under probabilistic and possibilistic uncertainties. MFFP is capable of tackling fuzzy parameters at various combinations of α-cut levels, reflecting distinct attitudes of decision makers towards fuzzy parameters in the fuzzy discretization process based on the α-cut concept. The potential interactions among fuzzy parameters can be explored through a multi-level factorial analysis. A water resources management problem with fuzzy and random features is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology. The results indicate that useful solutions can be obtained for the optimal allocation of water resources under fuzziness and randomness. They can help decision makers to identify desired water allocation schemes with maximized total net benefits. A variety of decision alternatives can also be generated under different scenarios of water management policies. The findings from the factorial experiment reveal the interactions among design factors (fuzzy parameters) and their curvature effects on the total net benefit, which are helpful in uncovering the valuable information hidden beneath the parameter interactions affecting system performance. A comparison between MFFP and the vertex method is also conducted to demonstrate the merits of the proposed methodology.

  1. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  2. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  3. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  4. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  5. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  6. 46 CFR 98.25-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-1... ammonia on board as a cargo, cargo residue, or vapor and that is not regulated under part 154 of...

  7. 46 CFR 98.25-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-1... ammonia on board as a cargo, cargo residue, or vapor and that is not regulated under part 154 of...

  8. 46 CFR 98.25-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-1... ammonia on board as a cargo, cargo residue, or vapor and that is not regulated under part 154 of...

  9. 46 CFR 98.25-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-1... ammonia on board as a cargo, cargo residue, or vapor and that is not regulated under part 154 of...

  10. 46 CFR 98.25-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-1... ammonia on board as a cargo, cargo residue, or vapor and that is not regulated under part 154 of...

  11. Fractional factorial approach combining 4 Escherichia coli strains, 3 culture media, 3 expression temperatures and 5 N-terminal fusion tags for screening the soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Noguère, Christophe; Larsson, Anna M; Guyot, Jean-Christophe; Bignon, Christophe

    2012-08-01

    Producing recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is generally performed using a trial and error approach with the different expression variables being tested independently from each other. As a consequence, variable interactions are lost which makes the trial and error approach quite time-consuming. In this paper, we report how switching from a trial and error to a fractional factorial approach allows testing in less than 2 weeks four expression variables (E. coli strains, culture media, expression temperatures and N-terminal fusion tags) in a single experiment. The method, called "Fusion-InFFact", was validated using four test proteins. In all cases, Fusion-InFFact allowed finding conditions for expressing high yields of soluble proteins. The method was originally set-up for high throughput structural genomics programs, but can be used in any recombinant protein expression project.

  12. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    PubMed

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  13. 40 CFR 25.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.1... in activities under the Clean Water Act (Pub. L. 95-217), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Pub. L. 94-580), and the Safe Drinking Water Act (Pub. L. 93-523). The applicability of......

  14. 40 CFR 25.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.1... in activities under the Clean Water Act (Pub. L. 95-217), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Pub. L. 94-580), and the Safe Drinking Water Act (Pub. L. 93-523). The applicability of......

  15. 40 CFR 25.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.1... in activities under the Clean Water Act (Pub. L. 95-217), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Pub. L. 94-580), and the Safe Drinking Water Act (Pub. L. 93-523). The applicability of......

  16. 40 CFR 25.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.1... in activities under the Clean Water Act (Pub. L. 95-217), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Pub. L. 94-580), and the Safe Drinking Water Act (Pub. L. 93-523). The applicability of......

  17. 36 CFR 25.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.1 Scope. The regulations in this part are made prescribed and published for the regulation and maintenance of licensed guide service at all national...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 25.1 Applicability. (a) This part prescribes airworthiness... airplanes. (b) Each person who applies under Part 21 for such a certificate or change must show...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 25.1 Applicability. (a) This part prescribes airworthiness... airplanes. (b) Each person who applies under part 21 for such a certificate or change must show...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 25.1 Applicability. (a) This part prescribes airworthiness... airplanes. (b) Each person who applies under Part 21 for such a certificate or change must show...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 25.1 Applicability. (a) This part prescribes airworthiness... airplanes. (b) Each person who applies under Part 21 for such a certificate or change must show...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 25.1 Applicability. (a) This part prescribes airworthiness... airplanes. (b) Each person who applies under Part 21 for such a certificate or change must show...

  3. Fractional factorial design-based optimisation and application of an extraction and UPLC-MS/MS detection method for the quantification of phytosterols in food, feed and beverages low in phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Decloedt, Anneleen I; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Phytosterols are ubiquitous in plants, as they play an important role in cell membrane stability and as signal transducers. Over the last few decades, scientific interest in phytosterols has significantly increased. Most of the interest has focused on the cholesterol-lowering properties of phytosterols, but they may also interfere with endogenous steroid hormone synthesis. Despite this dual interest in phytosterols, accurate and fully validated methods for the quantification of phytosterols in food and feed samples are scarce. During this study an extraction and detection method for the main free phytosterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and brassicasterol) was optimised using a fractional factorial design. Detection was carried out on a UPLC-MS/MS triple stage quadrupole apparatus. The extraction and UPLC-MS/MS detection method was fully validated according to EU Council Decision 2002/657 guidelines and Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) MS criteria, reaching all evaluated performance parameter requirements. The individual recoveries ranged between 95 and 104 %. Good results for repeatability and intralaboratory reproducibility (RSD %) were observed (<10 %). Excellent linearity was proven on the basis of determination coefficient (R (2) > 0.99) and lack-of-fit test (F test, alpha = 0.05). The limits of detection (LODs) and lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) in grain matrices were as low as 0.01-0.03 mg per 100 g and 0.02-0.10 mg per 100 g. This method allowed quantification of all main, free phytosterols in different grains (oats, barley, corn, malt) and it was shown that the method can be used for other solid food and feed samples as well, including new matrices such as straw, hay, mustard seeds, grass and yellow peas. Additionally, the method was shown to perform well in liquid samples low in phytosterols such as concentrate-based juices, soft drinks and beers (<5 μg per 100 mL). Graphical Abstract An extraction and

  4. What's Up in Factories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A school-to-work curriculum (What's Up in Factories?) developed by a New York PBS station is giving some Ohio students a view of factory careers in the 1990s. Students are surprised at the level of job skills needed and are discovering the importance of teamwork, willingness to take responsibility, punctuality, effective communication, and…

  5. Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.

    In 1987, Midlands Technical College (MTC), in Columbia, South Carolina, initiated a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) project, the Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD, which integrated various college departments with the goal of manufacturing a high quality, saleable product. The faculty developed a teaching factory model which was designed to…

  6. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...

  7. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance with subchapter...

  8. 46 CFR 196.25-1 - Improper use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Improper use prohibited. 196.25-1 Section 196.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Searchlights § 196.25-1 Improper use prohibited. (a) No person shall flash or cause to be flashed the rays of...

  9. 46 CFR 97.25-1 - Improper use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Improper use prohibited. 97.25-1 Section 97.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Searchlights § 97.25-1 Improper use prohibited. (a) No person shall flash or cause to be...

  10. 46 CFR 97.25-1 - Improper use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Improper use prohibited. 97.25-1 Section 97.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Searchlights § 97.25-1 Improper use prohibited. (a) No person shall flash or cause to be...

  11. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...

  12. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...

  13. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...

  14. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical... (Electrical Engineering) of this chapter....

  15. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical... (Electrical Engineering) of this chapter....

  16. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical... (Electrical Engineering) of this chapter....

  17. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...

  18. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical... (Electrical Engineering) of this chapter....

  19. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  20. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  1. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  2. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  3. 46 CFR 111.25-1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements. 111.25-1 Section 111.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-1 General requirements. The requirements for generators contained in §...

  4. 46 CFR 111.25-1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements. 111.25-1 Section 111.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-1 General requirements. The requirements for generators contained in §...

  5. 46 CFR 111.25-1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements. 111.25-1 Section 111.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-1 General requirements. The requirements for generators contained in §...

  6. 46 CFR 111.25-1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements. 111.25-1 Section 111.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-1 General requirements. The requirements for generators contained in §...

  7. 46 CFR 111.25-1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements. 111.25-1 Section 111.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-1 General requirements. The requirements for generators contained in §...

  8. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  9. 46 CFR 196.25-1 - Improper use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Improper use prohibited. 196.25-1 Section 196.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Searchlights § 196.25-1 Improper use prohibited. (a) No person shall flash or cause to be flashed the rays of...

  10. 46 CFR 196.25-1 - Improper use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Improper use prohibited. 196.25-1 Section 196.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Searchlights § 196.25-1 Improper use prohibited. (a) No person shall flash or cause to be flashed the rays of...

  11. 46 CFR 196.25-1 - Improper use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Improper use prohibited. 196.25-1 Section 196.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Searchlights § 196.25-1 Improper use prohibited. (a) No person shall flash or cause to be flashed the rays of...

  12. 4 CFR 25.1 - Applicability and governing laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability and governing laws. 25.1 Section 25.1... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.1 Applicability and governing laws. These rules and regulations, and the laws of the United States and the District of Columbia, apply to the Government...

  13. 4 CFR 25.1 - Applicability and governing laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability and governing laws. 25.1 Section 25.1... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.1 Applicability and governing laws. These rules and regulations, and the laws of the United States and the District of Columbia, apply to the Government...

  14. 4 CFR 25.1 - Applicability and governing laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability and governing laws. 25.1 Section 25.1... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.1 Applicability and governing laws. These rules and regulations, and the laws of the United States and the District of Columbia, apply to the Government...

  15. 46 CFR 151.25-1 - Cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank. 151.25-1 Section 151.25-1 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-1 Cargo tank. When carrying certain..., within the main cargo tank, and in some cases, in the space between the primary and secondary...

  16. 46 CFR 34.25-1 - Application-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-T/ALL. 34.25-1 Section 34.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-1 Application—T/ALL. (a) Where a water spray extinguishing system...

  17. NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

  18. e+ e- Factory Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The impressive performance of current (KEKB) and recent (PEP-II) B-Factory colliders has increased interest in developing even higher luminosity B-factories. Two new designs are being developed (SuperKEKB and SuperB). Both designs plan to deliver a luminosity in the range of 1 x 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, nearly 100 times the present B-factory level. Achieving this high luminosity requires high-current beams and short bunch lengths and/or a new way of colliding the beams. The SuperB design employs a crabbed magnetic waist with a large crossing angle and the SuperKEKB design is looking at crab cavities with high-current beams and/or a travelling focus. I describe the designs being studied to achieve the high luminosity needed for the next generation of B-Factories.

  19. Exposure to airborne microorganisms in furniture factories.

    PubMed

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Skórska, Czesława; Cholewa, Grazyna; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Milanowski, Janusz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in 2 furniture factories located in eastern Poland. In one factory furniture were made from fibreboards and chipboards while in the other from beech wood. It was found that the concentration of total microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air of the facility using beech wood for furniture production (mean 10.7 x (3) cfu/m(3), range 3.3 27.5 x (3) cfu/m(3)) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared to microbial concentration in the facility using fibre- and chipboards (mean 3.6 x (3) cfu/m(3), range 1.9-6.2 x (3) cfu/m(3)). On average, the commonest microorganisms in the air of the furniture factories were corynebacteria (Corynebacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Brevibacterium spp.) which formed 18.1-50.0% of the total airborne microflora, and fungi (mostly Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Absidia spp. and yeasts) which formed 6.2-54.4% of the total count. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the furniture factories varied within fairly wide limits and were between 15.0-62.4%. Altogether, 28 species or genera of bacteria and 12 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of examined factories, of which respectively 8 and 7 species or genera were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. In conclusion, the workers of furniture factories are exposed to relatively low concentrations of airborne microorganisms which do not exceed the suggested occupational exposure limits. Nevertheless, the presence of allergenic and/or immunotoxic microbial species in the air of factories poses a potential risk of respiratory disease, in particular in sensitive workers.

  20. 46 CFR 188.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 188.25-1 Section 188.25... GENERAL PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 188.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) The electrical engineering details shall be in accordance with subchapter J...

  1. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fifth district. 3.25-1 Section 3.25-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast...

  2. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fifth district. 3.25-1 Section 3.25-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast...

  3. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fifth district. 3.25-1 Section 3.25-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast...

  4. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fifth district. 3.25-1 Section 3.25-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast...

  5. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  6. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  7. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  10. 46 CFR 188.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 188.25-1 Section 188.25... GENERAL PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 188.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) The electrical engineering details shall be in accordance with subchapter J...

  11. 46 CFR 188.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 188.25-1 Section 188.25... GENERAL PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 188.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) The electrical engineering details shall be in accordance with subchapter J...

  12. 46 CFR 188.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 188.25-1 Section 188.25... GENERAL PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 188.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) The electrical engineering details shall be in accordance with subchapter J...

  13. 46 CFR 188.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 188.25-1 Section 188.25... GENERAL PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 188.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) The electrical engineering details shall be in accordance with subchapter J...

  14. 7 CFR 25.1 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Secretary) (USDA). Provisions dealing with the nominations and designation of urban Empowerment... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability and scope. 25.1 Section 25.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES...

  15. 7 CFR 25.1 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Secretary) (USDA). Provisions dealing with the nominations and designation of urban Empowerment... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability and scope. 25.1 Section 25.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES...

  16. 7 CFR 25.1 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Secretary) (USDA). Provisions dealing with the nominations and designation of urban Empowerment... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability and scope. 25.1 Section 25.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES...

  17. 7 CFR 25.1 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Secretary) (USDA). Provisions dealing with the nominations and designation of urban Empowerment... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability and scope. 25.1 Section 25.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES...

  18. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St. (Duplicate Color view of HAER MI-334-1) - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  19. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  20. The Old Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Technology education is not just about things, systems, and processes. It can also be about history, people, technological change, and impacts on society. In this design challenge, one uses technology education principles and ideas to convert an old factory into a museum and learning center. The challenge with this historical resource is to think…

  1. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  2. Sequence Factorial and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties…

  3. Engineering the smart factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  4. The Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  5. SLAC B Factory computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics.

  6. 46 CFR 96.25-1 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Radar § 96.25-1 When required. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting radar readings must be provided on the bridge....

  7. 46 CFR 96.25-1 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Radar § 96.25-1 When required. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting radar readings must be provided on the bridge....

  8. 46 CFR 96.25-1 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Radar § 96.25-1 When required. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting radar readings must be provided on the bridge....

  9. 46 CFR 96.25-1 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Radar § 96.25-1 When required. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting radar readings must be provided on the bridge....

  10. 46 CFR 96.25-1 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Radar § 96.25-1 When required. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting radar readings must be provided on the bridge....

  11. 46 CFR 151.25-1 - Cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... within the cargo tanks are filled and maintained with a liquid, gas (other than air), or vapor which will... (natural). Vapor space above the liquid surface in the tank is continuously swept with atmospheric air... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-1 Cargo tank. When carrying...

  12. 29 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... advisory functions specified under section 11 of Executive Order 10988. Any arbitrators so nominated will... Secretary of Labor RULES FOR THE NOMINATION OF ARBITRATORS UNDER SECTION 11 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 § 25.1... nomination will be considered as contemplating the performance of functions within the above categories if...

  13. 29 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... advisory functions specified under section 11 of Executive Order 10988. Any arbitrators so nominated will... Secretary of Labor RULES FOR THE NOMINATION OF ARBITRATORS UNDER SECTION 11 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 § 25.1... nomination will be considered as contemplating the performance of functions within the above categories if...

  14. 29 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... advisory functions specified under section 11 of Executive Order 10988. Any arbitrators so nominated will... Secretary of Labor RULES FOR THE NOMINATION OF ARBITRATORS UNDER SECTION 11 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 § 25.1... nomination will be considered as contemplating the performance of functions within the above categories if...

  15. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  16. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  17. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  18. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  19. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  20. The Japanese Positron Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Takizawa, H.; Kawasuso, A.; Yotsumoto, K.; Tanaka, R.

    1999-06-01

    The Positron Factory has been planned at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The factory is expected to produce linac-based monoenergetic positron beams having world-highest intensities of more than 1010e+/sec, which will be applied for R&D of materials science, biotechnology and basic physics & chemistry. In this article, results of the design studies are demonstrated for the following essential components of the facilities: 1) Conceptual design of a high-power electron linac with 100 MeV in beam energy and 100 kW in averaged beam power, 2) Performance tests of the RF window in the high-power klystron and of the electron beam window, 3) Development of a self-driven rotating electron-to-positron converter and the performance tests, 4) Proposal of multi-channel beam generation system for monoenergetic positrons, with a series of moderator assemblies based on a newly developed Monte Carlo simulation and the demonstrative experiment, 5) Proposal of highly efficient moderator structures, 6) Conceptual design of a local shield to suppress the surrounding radiation and activation levels.

  1. A Classroom of Polymer Factories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

  2. The eldercare factory.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly.

  3. Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Quimby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) was designed to explicitly to chart the transient sky with a particular focus on events which lie in the nova-supernova gap. With its innovative two-telescope architecture it achieves both high cadence and large areal rate of coverage. PTF was commissioned during the summer of 2009. PTF is now finding an extragalactic transient every 20 minutes and a Galactic (strong) variable every 10 minutes. Spectroscopy undertaken at Keck and Palomar has allowed us: identify an emerging class of ultra-luminous supernovae, discover luminous red novae, undertake UV spectroscopy of Ia supernovae, discover supernovae powered by something other than Nickel-56, clarification of sub-classes of core collapse and thermo-nuclear explosions, map the systematics of core collapse supernovae, a trove of eclipsing binaries and many others.

  4. Caputo standard α-family of maps: fractional difference vs. fractional.

    PubMed

    Edelman, M

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the author compares behaviors of systems which can be described by fractional differential and fractional difference equations using the fractional and fractional difference Caputo standard α-Families of maps as examples. The author shows that properties of fractional difference maps (systems with falling factorial-law memory) are similar to the properties of fractional maps (systems with power-law memory). The similarities (types of attractors, power-law convergence of trajectories, existence of cascade of bifurcations and intermittent cascade of bifurcations type trajectories, and dependence of properties on the memory parameter α) and differences in properties of falling factorial- and power-law memory maps are investigated.

  5. General B factory design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences.

  6. Tau physics and tau factories

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial progress in tau lepton physics requires larger and cleaner samples of /tau/'s produced in e/sup +/e/sup minus/ ..-->.. /tau//sup +//tau//sup minus/. Single-tagging of the /tau/ pair is crucial. Possibilities for such progress at particle factories are discussed with emphasis on the Tau-Charm Factory concept. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Flavour physics at B factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Križan, Peter

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the impact of B factories in the era of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. It presents the advantages of experiments at a B factory and at a super B factory, and their complementarity to the studies at the LHC. As examples, some selected recent results from B factories are presented; precision measurements of the unitarity triangle, studies of rare B decays, full reconstruction of events in D meson decays and searches for lepton violating τ lepton decays. The paper also reviews the status of the preparation of the next step, a super B factory at KEK, with the SuperKEKB high luminosity asymmetric electron-positron collider and the detector Belle II. Finally a summary and an outlook are given.

  8. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  9. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  10. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  11. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  12. The Low Energy Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; Geer, Steve; Ellis, Malcolm; Fernandez Martinez, Enrique; Li, Tracey; Pascoli, Silvia; Mena, Olga

    2010-03-30

    We show that a low energy neutrino factory with a baseline of 1300 km and muon energy of 4.5 GeV has an excellent physics reach. The results of our optimisation studies demonstrate that such a setup can have remarkable sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -4}, and to the mass hierarchy for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -3}. We also illustrate the power of the unique combination of golden and platinum channels accessible to the low energy neutrino factory. We have considered both a 20 kton totally active scintillating detector and a 100 kton liquid argon detector as possible detector technologies, finding that a liquid argon detector with very good background rejection can produce sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta with that of the International Design Study neutrino factory.

  13. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  14. Inside the Subduction Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiler, John

    Subduction zones helped nucleate and grow the continents, they fertilize and lubricate the earth's interior, they are the site of most subaerial volcanism and many major earthquakes, and they yield a large fraction of the earth's precious metals. They are obvious targets for study—almost anything you learn is likely to impact important problems—yet arriving at a general understanding is notoriously difficult: Each subduction zone is distinct, differing in some important aspect from other subduction zones; fundamental aspects of their mechanics and igneous processes differ from those in other, relatively well-understood parts of the earth; and there are few direct samples of some of their most important metamorphic and metasomatic processes. As a result, even first-order features of subduction zones have generated conflict and apparent paradox. A central question about convergent margins, for instance—how vigorous magmatism can occur where plates sink and the mantle cools—has a host of mutually inconsistent answers: Early suggestions that magmatism resulted from melting subducted crust have been emphatically disproved and recently just as emphatically revived; the idea that melting is fluxed by fluid released from subducted crust is widely held but cannot explain the temperatures and volatile contents of many arc magmas; generations of kinematic and dynamic models have told us the mantle sinks at convergent margins, yet strong evidence suggests that melting there is often driven by upwelling. In contrast, our understanding ofwhy volcanoes appear at ocean ridges and "hotspots"—although still presenting their own chestnuts—are fundamentally solved problems.

  15. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  16. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  17. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  18. 46 CFR 110.25-1 - Plans and information required for new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plans and information required for new construction. 110.25-1 Section 110.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal § 110.25-1 Plans and information required for new...

  19. 46 CFR 189.25-1 - Prerequisite of reissuance of certificate of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prerequisite of reissuance of certificate of inspection. 189.25-1 Section 189.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-1...

  20. 46 CFR 189.25-1 - Prerequisite of reissuance of certificate of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prerequisite of reissuance of certificate of inspection. 189.25-1 Section 189.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-1...

  1. Exotic Hadrons from B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulsom, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    The first generation of B-Factories, BaBar and Belle, operated over the previous decade and produced many world-leading measurements related to flavor physics. One of the most important discoveries was that of an apparent four-quark particle, named X(3872). It was the first of a growing X, Y, Z alphabet of exotic hadrons, now numbering more than a dozen, found by the e + e - collider experiments. These multi-quark states represent an unusual departure from the standard description that hadronic matter consists of only two or three quarks. These discoveries have led to the emergence of a new category of physics within heavy meson spectroscopy. This talk will review some of these key experimental results, and highlight the potential of the next generation B-Factory, Belle II, as it begins operation in the coming year.

  2. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  3. Apiary B Factory Lattice Design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-05-03

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper presents the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent.

  4. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R. ); Garren, A.A. )

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab.

  5. Safety in Royal Filling Factories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-10-01

    factories and certain special trials were staged to ascertain effect of explosion on underground Magazines. (See C.S.A.R*s report, Glascoed trials). On...spacing were the result of long experience of the effects of explosions in filling, and incidentally resulted in a considerable economy in cost of...etc (9) Any ignition is quenched in its initial stages and/or an explosive effect kept to a minimum. (10) Operatives are made fully aware of the

  6. Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  7. A Survey of Small Factories*

    PubMed Central

    Jefferys, Margot; Wood, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    This survey was undertaken by a group of doctors, nurses, and lecturers in the Department of Public Health of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as part of the teaching programme for the Diploma in Public Health. Fifty small factories in an area of a metropolitan borough were invited to answer questions concerning their industrial processes, their labour force, their premises, their first-aid provision, and the visits they received from officials of local and central government. Forty-eight of these factories responded and observations were made by teams of three recording independently of each other in 45. A variety of industries was represented in these 48 firms, half of which employed less than 10 workers. The working environment, in respect of sanitary arrangements, cleanliness and tidiness, lighting on stairs and passage ways, was considered to be unsatisfactory in many firms. Some instances of inadequate safeguards of machines were seen. The accident rate was found to be rather less than the computed national rate for manufacturing industry in 1956. First-aid equipment and workers were also considered to be deficient in a number of instances. In case of accident and for the treatment of minor ailments most firms made use of a local casualty and out-patient department of a general hospital. This service was considered quite adequate. Many firms had not been visited by the Factory Inspector or his deputy during the previous year. Rather more had received visits from the local authority health inspectors. Many firms expressed confusion about the duties and functions of their various official visitors. The conclusions drawn from this limited enquiry were that the working conditions in small factories are often unsatisfactory; that in areas such as the one surveyed it is unrealistic to think in terms of development of an industrial health service similar to those operating in Slough and Harlow; and that the greatest impact on environmental

  8. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

  9. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  10. Fractional randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  11. Factorial Comparison of Working Memory Models

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Ronald; Awh, Edward; Ma, Wei Ji

    2014-01-01

    Three questions have been prominent in the study of visual working memory limitations: (a) What is the nature of mnemonic precision (e.g., quantized or continuous)? (b) How many items are remembered? (c) To what extent do spatial binding errors account for working memory failures? Modeling studies have typically focused on comparing possible answers to a single one of these questions, even though the result of such a comparison might depend on the assumed answers to both others. Here, we consider every possible combination of previously proposed answers to the individual questions. Each model is then a point in a 3-factor model space containing a total of 32 models, of which only 6 have been tested previously. We compare all models on data from 10 delayed-estimation experiments from 6 laboratories (for a total of 164 subjects and 131,452 trials). Consistently across experiments, we find that (a) mnemonic precision is not quantized but continuous and not equal but variable across items and trials; (b) the number of remembered items is likely to be variable across trials, with a mean of 6.4 in the best model (median across subjects); (c) spatial binding errors occur but explain only a small fraction of responses (16.5% at set size 8 in the best model). We find strong evidence against all 6 documented models. Our results demonstrate the value of factorial model comparison in working memory. PMID:24490791

  12. Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16: The Naval Aircraft Factory H-16 flying boat, seen here on a beaching dolly on the Langley seaplane ramp, was one of 150 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most H-16s built were made by Curtiss, so the type is more readily known under that name. The NACA performed hull pressure distribution tests at Langley during 1929.

  13. 33 CFR 67.25-1 - Class “B” structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class âBâ structures. 67.25-1 Section 67.25-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements §...

  14. 33 CFR 67.25-1 - Class “B” structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class âBâ structures. 67.25-1 Section 67.25-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements §...

  15. 33 CFR 67.25-1 - Class “B” structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Class âBâ structures. 67.25-1 Section 67.25-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements §...

  16. 33 CFR 67.25-1 - Class “B” structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class âBâ structures. 67.25-1 Section 67.25-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements §...

  17. 33 CFR 67.25-1 - Class “B” structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class âBâ structures. 67.25-1... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements § 67.25-1 Class “B” structures. Class “B” structures shall be the structures erected in an area where Class...

  18. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, K.K.

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  19. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  20. CDC-25.1 controls the rate of germline mitotic cell cycle by counteracting WEE-1.3 and by positively regulating CDK-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sunghee; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2012-04-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, cdc-25.1 loss-of-function mutants display a lack of germline proliferation. We found that the proliferation defect of cdc-25.1 mutants was suppressed by wee-1.3 RNAi. Further, among the seven cdk and seven cyclin homologs examined, cdk-1 and cyb-3 RNAi treatment caused the most severe germline proliferation defects in an rrf-1 mutant background, which were similar to those of the cdc-25.1 mutants. In addition, while RNAi of cyd-1 and cye-1 caused significant germline proliferation defects, RNAi of cdk-2 and cdk-4 did not. Compared with the number of germ nuclei in wee-1.3(RNAi) worms, the number in wee-1.3(RNAi);cdk-1(RNAi) and wee-1.3(RNAi);cyb-3(RNAi) worms further decreased to the level of cdk-1(RNAi) and cyb-3(RNAi) worms, respectively, indicating that cdk-1 and cyb-3 are epistatic and function downstream of cdc-25.1 and wee-1.3 in the control of the cell cycle. BrdU labeling of adult worms showed that, while 100% of the wild-type germ nuclei in the mitotic region incorporated BrdU when labeled for more than 12 h at 20°C, a small fraction of the cdc-25.1 mutant germ nuclei failed to incorporate BrdU even when labeled for 68 h. These results indicate that CDC-25.1 is required for maintaining proper rate of germline mitotic cell cycle. We propose that CDC-25.1 regulates the rate of germline mitotic cell cycle by counteracting WEE-1.3 and by positively controlling CDK-1, which forms a complex primarily with CYB-3, but also possibly with CYD-1 and CYE-1.

  1. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  2. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  3. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  4. Plant cells as pharmaceutical factories.

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Häkkinen, Suvi T; Ritala, Anneli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Miralpeix, Bruna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2013-01-01

    Molecules derived from plants make up a sizeable proportion of the drugs currently available on the market. These include a number of secondary metabolite compounds the monetary value of which is very high. New pharmaceuticals often originate in nature. Approximately 50% of new drug entities against cancer or microbial infections are derived from plants or micro-organisms. However, these compounds are structurally often too complex to be economically manufactured by chemical synthesis, and frequently isolation from naturally grown or cultivated plants is not a sustainable option. Therefore the biotechnological production of high-value plant secondary metabolites in cultivated cells is potentially an attractive alternative. Compared to microbial systems eukaryotic organisms such as plants are far more complex, and our understanding of the metabolic pathways in plants and their regulation at the systems level has been rather poor until recently. However, metabolic engineering including advanced multigene transformation techniques and state-of-art metabolomics platforms has given us entirely new tools to exploit plants as Green Factories. Single step engineering may be successful on occasion but in complex pathways, intermediate gene interventions most often do not affect the end product accumulation. In this review we discuss recent developments towards elucidation of complex plant biosynthetic pathways and the production of a number of highvalue pharmaceuticals including paclitaxel, tropane, morphine and terpenoid indole alkaloids in plants and cell cultures.

  5. Beneficiation of graphite fines from moulding factory wastes.

    PubMed

    Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin

    2005-08-01

    As the costs of waste disposal increase, more attention is being placed upon the re-use and recycling of valuable minerals contained within the waste streams. In this article, the waste streams from a moulding factory were treated by physical methods to obtain a re-usable graphite fraction. Multi-gravity separators (MGS) and shaking tables (ST) are being used in coal processing and heavy minerals beneficiation. In the present study, the possibility of using an MGS and ST to separate graphite from moulding sand was analysed as part of such investigations. The effects of changes in different process variables on the concentrate sand content and graphite recovery values were studied. Several parameters, thought to have an effect on the separation were tested. After the ST experiments, a graphite concentrate was obtained having 4.5% sand content with 60.8% recovery. After the investigations carried out by MGS, a graphite concentrate was obtained having 0.95% sand content with 68.0% recovery. The results demonstrated that recovered graphite fractions can be re-used in the factory, thus reducing the quantity of waste and costs.

  6. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  7. Understanding Multiplication of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetland, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Discussed the use of Cuisenaire rods in teaching the multiplication of fractions. Considers whole number times proper fraction, proper fraction multiplied by proper fraction, mixed number times proper fraction, and mixed fraction multiplied by mixed fractions. (JN)

  8. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  9. Visual evoked potentials in rubber factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tandon, O P; Kumar, V

    1997-01-01

    Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP) were studied in 39 male rubber factory workers in the age range of 18-55 years and 20 control subjects (aged 18-46 years) not exposed to the rubber factory environment. Results revealed that 20 (51%) rubber factory workers had abnormal latencies of wave P1 (dominant component of pVEP) as per accepted criteria of 99% tolerance limit set for the control group (i.e. any value above mean +3 SD of control was considered abnormal). The section-wise per cent distribution of abnormalities was vulcanization (83%), tubing (75%), calendering (60%), loading (38%) and mixing (14%). This study provides electrophysiological evidence that rubber factory environments affect the conduction processes in optical pathways from their origin in the retina to striate cortex. However, this study has its limitations in not identifying the specific chemical(s) causing these changes in VEP.

  10. The Physics of the B Factories

    DOE PAGES

    Bevan, A. J.

    2014-11-19

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  11. Where is the ooid factory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.; Pruss, S. B.; klepac-Ceraj, V.; Summons, R. E.; Newman, S. A.; Bosak, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ooids, concentrically laminated carbonate grains, are found in high-energy shallow water environments (the ooid factory). Consequently, ooid laminae are thought to precipitate around suspended grains. The role of microbes in this process is debated: abiotic models neither explain how ooids acquire a high organic content, nor do they account for the fast abrasion and loss of ooid carbonate in highly agitated areas. Here we probe the role of microbes and physical processes in ooid accretion on an oolitic beach in the leeward coast of Cat Island, the Bahamas. Grain size and petrography, microbial community composition and physical factors are compared along a cross-shore transect. A hydro-morphodynamic model is used to analyze sediment transport and sorting across the beach and shallow shelf. We find that the surf zone has a barren seafloor, and it is dominated by shiny and rounded ooids whose size decreases seaward, as predicted by physical grain sorting. Dull ooids and grapestones, irregular coated grains that are thought to form by microbially-mediated precipitation of carbonate around ooids and other grains, are present outside of the surf zone. The bulk size of these grains increases seaward, and they contain more abundant and diverse microbial communities than agitated ooids. The inverted sorting trend indicates that the time scale for grain accretion in this region is shorter than the decadal time scale for grain sorting. Modeling and field observations suggest that carbonate precipitation of both ooids and grapestones occurs in sediments that are colonized by diatom- and cyanobacteria-rich mats and reworked during storms. Periodic storms transport ooids to the surf zone, where they are rounded by abrasion and gain a shiny exterior in less than a day of reworking. Small ooids are periodically transported back to the microbially colonized areas, and the accretion cycle restarts. Grains too large to be frequently transported exit the accretion-erosion conveyor

  12. Mystery Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  13. Pitch Fractionation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-15

    13 3. Solvent Fractionation Experiments .................................... 15 4. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra for A240 Petrolem Pitch AG 12...34 and Mesophase Pitch AG 164B ............................... 21 5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra ................................... 23 6...compared by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis using a Digilab Model FTS 14 spectrophotometer (Rockwell International, Anaheim, California

  14. New generation electron-positron factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, Mikhail

    2011-09-01

    In 2010 we celebrate 50 years since commissioning of the first particle storage ring ADA in Frascati (Italy) that also became the first electron-positron collider in 1964. After that date the particle colliders have increased their intensity, luminosity and energy by several orders of magnitude. Namely, because of the high stored beam currents and high rate of useful physics events (luminosity) the modern electron-positron colliders are called "factories". However, the fundamental physics has required luminosities by 1-2 orders of magnitudes higher with respect to those presently achieved. This task can be accomplished by designing a new generation of factories exploiting the potential of a new collision scheme based on the Crab Waist (CW) collision concept recently proposed and successfully tested at Frascati. In this paper we discuss the performance and limitations of the present generation electron-positron factories and give a brief overview of new ideas and collision schemes proposed for further collider luminosity increase. In more detail we describe the CW collision concept and the results of the crab waist collision tests in DAϕNE, the Italian ϕ-factory. Finally, we briefly describe most advanced projects of the next generation factories based on the CW concept: SuperB in Italy, SuperKEKB in Japan and SuperC-Tau in Russia.

  15. Mass fainting in garment factories in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports an ethnographic study of mass fainting among garment factory workers in Cambodia. Research was undertaken in 2010-2015 in 48 factories in Phnom Penh and 8 provinces. Data were collected in Khmer using nonprobability sampling. In participant observation with monks, factory managers, health workers, and affected women, cultural understandings were explored. One or more episodes of mass fainting occurred at 34 factories, of which 9 were triggered by spirit possession. Informants viewed the causes in the domains of ill-health/toxins and supernatural activities. These included "haunting" ghosts at factory sites in the wake of Khmer Rouge atrocities or recent fatal accidents and retaliating guardian spirits at sites violated by foreign owners. Prefigurative dreams, industrial accidents, or possession of a coworker heralded the episodes. Workers witnessing a coworker fainting felt afraid and fainted. When taken to clinics, some showed signs of continued spirit influence. Afterwards, monks performed ritual ceremonies to appease spirits, extinguish bonds with ghosts, and prevent recurrence. Decoded through its cultural motifs of fear and protest, contagion, forebodings, the bloody Khmer Rouge legacy, and trespass, mass fainting in Cambodia becomes less enigmatic.

  16. The Factory Approach to Creating TSTT Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T

    2003-10-21

    The factory approach (a.k.a. virtual constructor) hides the details of the class implementing the TSTT from TSTT users. In version 0.5 of TSTT.sidl, the client hard codes the name of the implementing class into their code. The client is forced to choose from the small set of possible concrete classes defined in TSTT.sidl. This approach makes it impossible to support multiple implementations of the TSTT in a single process because each implementation has to implement the same class. The factory approach hides the details of mesh creation from the client. The client does not need to know the name of the implementing class, and the client can dynamically determine which interfaces are supported by the new mesh. A factory can support multiple TSTT implementation because each implementation defines its own concrete classes to implement. The factory approach does require the TSTT compliant mesh packages to implement a MeshFactory interface, and everyone needs to link against an implementation of the Registry. The Registry only has 7 methods that are fairly easy to implement, and everyone can share one implementation of the Registry.

  17. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  18. Isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A rash of new controversy has emerged around the subject of mass-independent isotope fractionation effects, particularly in the case of the oxygen isotopes. To be sure, the controversy has been around for awhile, but it has been given new impetus by the results of a recent study by Mark H. Thiemens and John E. Heidenreich III of the University of California, San Diego (Science, March 4, 1983).Gustav Arrhenius has been trying to convince the planetary science community that chemical effects in isotope fractionation processes could explain observations in meteorites that appear to be outside of the traditionally understood mass-dependent fractionations (G. Arrhenius, J . L. McCrumb, and N. F. Friedman, Astrophys. Space Sci, 65, 297, 1974). Robert Clayton had made the basic observations of oxygen in carbonaceous chondrites that the slope of the δ17 versus δ18 line was 1 instead of the slope of ½ characteristic of terrestrial rocks and lunar samples (Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 28, 501, 1978). The mass-independent effects were ascribed to the apparent contribution of an ancient presolar system component of O16.

  19. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  20. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Bogacz, S.A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

  1. The Physics of the B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, A. J.; Golob, B.; Mannel, Th.; Prell, S.; Yabsley, B. D.; Aihara, H.; Anulli, F.; Arnaud, N.; Aushev, T.; Beneke, M.; Beringer, J.; Bianchi, F.; Bigi, I. I.; Bona, M.; Brambilla, N.; Brodzicka, J.; Chang, P.; Charles, M. J.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, H.-Y.; Chistov, R.; Colangelo, P.; Coleman, J. P.; Drutskoy, A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Eidelman, S.; Eigen, G.; Eisner, A. M.; Faccini, R.; Flood, K. T.; Gambino, P.; Gaz, A.; Gradl, W.; Hayashii, H.; Higuchi, T.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, P. D.; Kass, R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kou, E.; Križan, P.; Kronfeld, A.; Kumano, S.; Kwon, Y. J.; Latham, T. E.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lüth, V.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Meadows, B. T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Ocariz, J.; Olsen, S. L.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Palano, A.; Pich, A.; Playfer, S.; Poluektov, A.; Porter, F. C.; Robertson, S. H.; Roney, J. M.; Roodman, A.; Sakai, Y.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seidl, R.; Sekula, S. J.; Steinhauser, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Swanson, E. S.; Tackmann, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; van de Water, R.; Vasseur, G.; Verkerke, W.; Waldi, R.; Wang, M. Z.; Wilson, F. F.; Zupan, J.; Zupanc, A.; Adachi, I.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bellis, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Biassoni, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cartaro, C.; Chauveau, J.; Chen, C.; Chiang, C. C.; Cowan, R.; Dalseno, J.; Davier, M.; Davies, C.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Echenard, B.; Epifanov, D.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gary, J. W.; Godang, R.; Graham, M. T.; Hafner, A.; Hamilton, B.; Hartmann, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hearty, C.; Iwasaki, Y.; Khodjamirian, A.; Kusaka, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lazzaro, A.; Li, J.; Lindemann, D.; Long, O.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinelli, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muller, D. R.; Nakazawa, H.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Pacetti, S.; Palombo, F.; Pedlar, T. K.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pilloni, A.; Poireau, V.; Prothmann, K.; Pulliam, T.; Rama, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roudeau, P.; Schrenk, S.; Schroeder, T.; Schubert, K. R.; Shen, C. P.; Shwartz, B.; Soffer, A.; Solodov, E. P.; Somov, A.; Starič, M.; Stracka, S.; Telnov, A. V.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uglov, T.; Vinokurova, A.; Walsh, J. J.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Wormser, G.; Wright, D. H.; Ye, S.; Zhang, C. C.; Abachi, S.; Abashian, A.; Abe, K.; Abe, N.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Abrams, G. S.; Adam, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Adametz, A.; Adye, T.; Agarwal, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ahn, B. S.; Ahn, H. S.; Aitchison, I. J. R.; Akai, K.; Akar, S.; Akatsu, M.; Akemoto, M.; Akhmetshin, R.; Akre, R.; Alam, M. S.; Albert, J. N.; Aleksan, R.; Alexander, J. P.; Alimonti, G.; Allen, M. T.; Allison, J.; Allmendinger, T.; Alsmiller, J. R. G.; Altenburg, D.; Alwyn, K. E.; An, Q.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Andress, J. C.; Angelini, C.; Anipko, D.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Anthony, P. L.; Antillon, E. A.; Antonioli, E.; Aoki, K.; Arguin, J. F.; Arinstein, K.; Arisaka, K.; Asai, K.; Asai, M.; Asano, Y.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Asner, D. M.; Aso, T.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Aston, D.; Atmacan, H.; Aubert, B.; Aulchenko, V.; Ayad, R.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Azzolini, V.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Baak, M. A.; Back, J. J.; Bagnasco, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Bailey, D. S.; Bailey, S.; Bailly, P.; van Bakel, N.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Banas, E.; Band, H. R.; Banerjee, S.; Baracchini, E.; Barate, R.; Barberio, E.; Barbero, M.; Bard, D. J.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Barrett, M.; Bartel, W.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batignani, G.; Battaglia, M.; Bauer, J. M.; Bay, A.; Beaulieu, M.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, T. W.; Becker, J.; Becla, J.; Bedny, I.; Behari, S.; Behera, P. K.; Behn, E.; Behr, L.; Beigbeder, C.; Beiline, D.; Bell, R.; Bellini, F.; Bellodi, G.; Belous, K.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, G.; Benitez, J. F.; Benkebil, M.; Berger, N.; Bernabeu, J.; Bernard, D.; Bernet, R.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berryhill, J. W.; Bertsche, K.; Besson, P.; Best, D. S.; Bettarini, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhimji, W.; Bhuyan, B.; Biagini, M. E.; Biasini, M.; van Bibber, K.; Biesiada, J.; Bingham, I.; Bionta, R. M.; Bischofberger, M.; Bitenc, U.; Bizjak, I.; Blanc, F.; Blaylock, G.; Blinov, V. E.; Bloom, E.; Bloom, P. C.; Blount, N. L.; Blouw, J.; Bly, M.; Blyth, S.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bomben, M.; Bondar, A.; Bondioli, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Bonvicini, G.; Booke, M.; Booth, J.; Borean, C.; Borgland, A. W.; Borsato, E.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Botov, A. A.; Bougher, J.; Bouldin, K.; Bourgeois, P.; Boutigny, D.; Bowerman, D. A.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Boyd, J. T.; Bozek, A.; Bozzi, C.; Bračko, M.; Brandenburg, G.; Brandt, T.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.; Breon, A. B.; Breton, D.; Brew, C.; Briand, H.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Brigljević, V.; Britton, D. I.; Brochard, F.; Broomer, B.; Brose, J.; Browder, T. E.; Brown, C. L.; Brown, C. M.; Brown, D. N.; Browne, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, C.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Bünger, C.; Bugg, W.; Bukin, A. D.; Bula, R.; Bulten, H.; Burchat, P. R.; Burgess, W.; Burke, J. P.; Button-Shafer, J.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Buzzo, A.; Cai, Y.; Calabrese, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Calderini, G.; Camanzi, B.; Campagna, E.; Campagnari, C.; Capra, R.; Carassiti, V.; Carpinelli, M.; Carroll, M.; Casarosa, G.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castelli, G.; Cavallo, N.; Cavoto, G.; Cecchi, A.; Cenci, R.; Cerizza, G.; Cervelli, A.; Ceseracciu, A.; Chai, X.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Chang, M. C.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, D. S.; Chao, M.; Chao, Y.; Charles, E.; Chavez, C. A.; Cheaib, R.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, E.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P.; Chen, S.; Chen, W. T.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. Q.; Cheng, B.; Cheon, B. G.; Chevalier, N.; Chia, Y. M.; Chidzik, S.; Chilikin, K.; Chistiakova, M. V.; Cizeron, R.; Cho, I. S.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, H. H. F.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, S. K.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Christ, S.; Chu, P. H.; Chun, S.; Chuvikov, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cinabro, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Claus, R.; Claxton, B.; Clifton, Z. C.; Cochran, J.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cohn, H.; Colberg, T.; Cole, S.; Colecchia, F.; Condurache, C.; Contri, R.; Convert, P.; Convery, M. R.; Cooke, P.; Copty, N.; Cormack, C. M.; Dal Corso, F.; Corwin, L. A.; Cossutti, F.; Cote, D.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Cottingham, W. N.; Couderc, F.; Coupal, D. P.; Covarelli, R.; Cowan, G.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Crawley, H. B.; Cremaldi, L.; Crescente, A.; Cristinziani, M.; Crnkovic, J.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Cunha, A.; Curry, S.; D'Orazio, A.; Dû, S.; Dahlinger, G.; Dahmes, B.; Dallapiccola, C.; Danielson, N.; Danilov, M.; Das, A.; Dash, M.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Daudo, F.; Dauncey, P. D.; David, P.; Davis, C. L.; Day, C. T.; De Mori, F.; De Domenico, G.; De Groot, N.; De la Vaissière, C.; de la Vaissière, Ch.; de Lesquen, A.; De Nardo, G.; de Sangro, R.; De Silva, A.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Del Buono, L.; Del Gamba, V.; del Re, D.; Della Ricca, G.; Denig, A. G.; Derkach, D.; Derrington, I. M.; DeStaebler, H.; Destree, J.; Devmal, S.; Dey, B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Marco, E. Di; Dickopp, M.; Dima, M. O.; Dittrich, S.; Dittongo, S.; Dixon, P.; Dneprovsky, L.; Dohou, F.; Doi, Y.; Doležal, Z.; Doll, D. A.; Donald, M.; Dong, L.; Dong, L. Y.; Dorfan, J.; Dorigo, A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dowd, R.; Dowdell, J.; Drásal, Z.; Dragic, J.; Drummond, B. W.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Duh, Y. C.; Duh, Y. T.; Dujmic, D.; Dungel, W.; Dunwoodie, W.; Dutta, D.; Dvoretskii, A.; Dyce, N.; Ebert, M.; Eckhart, E. A.; Ecklund, S.; Eckmann, R.; Eckstein, P.; Edgar, C. L.; Edwards, A. J.; Egede, U.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Elmer, P.; Emery, S.; Enari, Y.; Enomoto, R.; Erdos, E.; Erickson, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Erwin, R. J.; Escalier, M.; Eschenburg, V.; Eschrich, I.; Esen, S.; Esteve, L.; Evangelisti, F.; Everton, C. W.; Eyges, V.; Fabby, C.; Fabozzi, F.; Fahey, S.; Falbo, M.; Fan, S.; Fang, F.; Fanin, C.; Farbin, A.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Feindt, M.; Fella, A.; Feltresi, E.; Ferber, T.; Fernholz, R. E.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Field, R. C.; Filippi, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Fischer, P.-A.; Fisher, A. S.; Fisher, P. H.; Flacco, C. J.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; Flanagan, J.; Flanigan, J. M.; Ford, K. E.; Ford, W. T.; Forster, I. J.; Forti, A. C.; Forti, F.; Fortin, D.; Foster, B.; Foulkes, S. D.; Fouque, G.; Fox, J.; Franchini, P.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Franek, B.; Frank, E. D.; Fransham, K. B.; Fratina, S.; Fratini, K.; Frey, A.; Frey, R.; Friedl, M.; Fritsch, M.; Fry, J. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujikawa, M.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiyama, Y.; Fukunaga, C.; Fukushima, M.; Fullwood, J.; Funahashi, Y.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furano, F.; Furman, M.; Furukawa, K.; Futterschneider, H.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabriel, T. A.; Gabyshev, N.; Gaede, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaidot, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gaillard, J. R.; Galagedera, S.; Galeazzi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Gamet, R.; Gan, K. K.; Gandini, P.; Ganguly, S.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gaponenko, I.; Garmash, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Garzia, I.; Gaspero, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Gatto, C.; Gaur, V.; Geddes, N. I.; Geld, T. L.; Genat, J.-F.; George, K. A.; George, M.; George, S.; Georgette, Z.; Gershon, T. J.; Gill, M. S.; Gillard, R.; Gilman, J. D.; Giordano, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giraud, P.-F.; Gladney, L.; Glanzman, T.; Glattauer, R.; Go, A.; Goetzen, K.; Goh, Y. M.; Gokhroo, G.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golubev, V. B.; Gopal, G. P.; Gordon, A.; Gorišek, A.; Goriletsky, V. I.; Gorodeisky, R.; Gosset, L.; Gotow, K.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graffin, P.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Green, M. G.; Greene, M. G.; Grenier, G. J.; Grenier, P.; Griessinger, K.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinyov, B. V.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grosdidier, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grosso, P.; Grothe, M.; Groysman, Y.; Grünberg, O.; Guido, E.; Guler, H.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Guo, Q. H.; Guo, R. S.; Guo, Z. J.; Guttman, N.; Ha, H.; Ha, H. C.; Haas, T.; Haba, J.; Hachtel, J.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadig, T.; Hagner, C.; Haire, M.; Haitani, F.; Haji, T.; Haller, G.; Halyo, V.; Hamano, K.; Hamasaki, H.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hamilton, R.; Hamon, O.; Han, B. Y.; Han, Y. L.; Hanada, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Handa, F.; Hanson, J. E.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harada, Y.; Harrison, P. F.; Harrison, T. J.; Harrop, B.; Hart, A. J.; Hart, P. A.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Harton, J. L.; Haruyama, T.; Hasan, A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hast, C.; Hastings, N. C.; Hasuko, K.; Hauke, A.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hee, C.; Heenan, E. M.; Heffernan, D.; Held, T.; Henderson, R.; Henderson, S. W.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Hervé, S.; Heß, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Hicheur, A.; Higashi, Y.; Higasino, Y.; Higuchi, I.; Hikita, S.; Hill, E. J.; Himel, T.; Hinz, L.; Hirai, T.; Hirano, H.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Hitomi, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Höcker, A.; Hoi, C. T.; Hojo, T.; Hokuue, T.; Hollar, J. J.; Hong, T. M.; Honscheid, K.; Hooberman, B.; Hopkins, D. A.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hoshina, K.; Hou, S.; Hou, W. S.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hsu, C. L.; Hsu, S. C.; Hu, H.; Hu, T.; Huang, H. C.; Huang, T. J.; Huang, Y. C.; Huard, Z.; Huffer, M. E.; Hufnagel, D.; Hung, T.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Hyun, H. J.; Ichizawa, S.; Igaki, T.; Igarashi, A.; Igarashi, S.; Igarashi, Y.; Igonkina, O.; Ikado, K.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, K.; Ilic, J.; Inami, K.; Innes, W. R.; Inoue, Y.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itagaki, K.; Itami, S.; Itoh, K.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Iverson, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwai, G.; Iwai, M.; Iwaida, S.; Iwamoto, M.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwashita, T.; Izen, J. M.; Jackson, D. J.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Jackson, P. S.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Jacoby, C.; Jaegle, I.; Jain, V.; Jalocha, P.; Jang, H. K.; Jasper, H.; Jawahery, A.; Jayatilleke, S.; Jen, C. M.; Jensen, F.; Jessop, C. P.; Ji, X. B.; John, M. J. J.; Johnson, D. R.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolly, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, N.; Joshi, N. J.; Judd, D.; Julius, T.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, R.; Kah, D. H.; Kaiser, S.; Kaji, H.; Kajiwara, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kameshima, T.; Kaminski, J.; Kamitani, T.; Kaneko, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kani, T.; Kapusta, P.; Karbach, T. M.; Karolak, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kasami, K.; Katano, G.; Kataoka, S. U.; Katayama, N.; Kato, E.; Kato, Y.; Kawai, H.; Kawai, M.; Kawamura, N.; Kawasaki, T.; Kay, J.; Kay, M.; Kelly, M. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kent, N.; Kerth, L. T.; Khan, A.; Khan, H. R.; Kharakh, D.; Kibayashi, A.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kikuchi, M.; Kikutani, E.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, P.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, S. M.; Kim, T. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, Y. J.; King, G. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Kirk, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kitayama, I.; Klemetti, M.; Klose, V.; Klucar, J.; Knecht, N. S.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Knowles, D. J.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M. J.; Koblitz, S.; Koch, H.; Kocian, M. L.; Kodyš, P.; Koeneke, K.; Kofler, R.; Koike, S.; Koishi, S.; Koiso, H.; Kolb, J. A.; Kolya, S. D.; Kondo, Y.; Konishi, H.; Koppenburg, P.; Koptchev, V. B.; Kordich, T. M. B.; Korol, A. A.; Korotushenko, K.; Korpar, S.; Kouzes, R. T.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kowalewski, R.; Kozakai, Y.; Kozanecki, W.; Kral, J. F.; Krasnykh, A.; Krause, R.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Krebs, J.; Kreisel, A.; Kreps, M.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Kroeger, R.; Kroeger, W.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kroseberg, J.; Kubo, T.; Kuhr, T.; Kukartsev, G.; Kulasiri, R.; Kulikov, A.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumita, T.; Kuniya, T.; Kunze, M.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuo, T.-L.; Kurashiro, H.; Kurihara, E.; Kurita, N.; Kuroki, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kutter, P. E.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kvasnička, P.; Kyberd, P.; Kyeong, S. H.; Lacker, H. M.; Lae, C. K.; Lamanna, E.; Lamsa, J.; Lanceri, L.; Landi, L.; Lang, M. I.; Lange, D. J.; Lange, J. S.; Langenegger, U.; Langer, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Latour, E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lavin, D. R.; Layter, J.; Lebbolo, H.; LeClerc, C.; Leddig, T.; Leder, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lee, C. L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, M. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Lee, S. E.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Lees, J. P.; Legendre, M.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, R.; Leonardi, E.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Lepeltier, V.; Leruste, Ph.; Lesiak, T.; Levi, M. E.; Levy, S. L.; Lewandowski, B.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lewis, P.; Li, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Gioi, L. Li; Libby, J.; Lidbury, J.; Lillard, V.; Lim, C. L.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C. S.; Lin, J. Y.; Lin, S. W.; Lin, Y. S.; Lindquist, B.; Lindsay, C.; Lista, L.; Liu, C.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, R.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Liventsev, D.; Lo Vetere, M.; Locke, C. B.; Lockman, W. S.; Di Lodovico, F.; Lombardo, V.; London, G. W.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lopez, L.; Lopez-March, N.; Lory, J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Louvot, R.; Lu, A.; Lu, C.; Lu, M.; Lu, R. S.; Lueck, T.; Luitz, S.; Lukin, P.; Lund, P.; Luppi, E.; Lutz, A. M.; Lutz, O.; Lynch, G.; Lynch, H. L.; Lyon, A. J.; Lyubinsky, V. R.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Mackay, C.; MacNaughton, J.; Macri, M. M.; Madani, S.; Mader, W. F.; Majewski, S. A.; Majumder, G.; Makida, Y.; Malaescu, B.; Malaguti, R.; Malclés, J.; Mallik, U.; Maly, E.; Mamada, H.; Manabe, A.; Mancinelli, G.; Mandelkern, M.; Mandl, F.; Manfredi, P. F.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Manoni, E.; Mao, Z. P.; Margoni, M.; Marker, C. E.; Markey, G.; Marks, J.; Marlow, D.; Marques, V.; Marsiske, H.; Martellotti, S.; Martin, E. C.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, L.; Martinez, A. J.; Marzolla, M.; Mass, A.; Masuzawa, M.; Mathieu, A.; Matricon, P.; Matsubara, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuo, H.; Mattison, T. S.; Matvienko, D.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, B.; Mazur, M. A.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; McFall, J. D.; McGrath, P.; McKemey, A. K.; McKenna, J. A.; Mclachlin, S. E.; McMahon, S.; McMahon, T. R.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Melen, R.; Mellado, B.; Menges, W.; Menke, S.; Merchant, A. M.; Merkel, J.; Messner, R.; Metcalfe, S.; Metzler, S.; Meyer, N. T.; Meyer, T. I.; Meyer, W. T.; Michael, A. K.; Michelon, G.; Michizono, S.; Micout, P.; Miftakov, V.; Mihalyi, A.; Mikami, Y.; Milanes, D. A.; Milek, M.; Mimashi, T.; Minamora, J. S.; Mindas, C.; Minutoli, S.; Mir, L. M.; Mishra, K.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyake, H.; Miyashita, T. S.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Moffitt, L. C.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohapatra, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohapatra, D.; Moll, A.; Moloney, G. R.; Mols, J. P.; Mommsen, R. K.; Monge, M. R.; Monorchio, D.; Moore, T. B.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Morandin, M.; Morgan, N.; Morgan, S. E.; Morganti, M.; Morganti, S.; Mori, S.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morris, J. P.; Morsani, F.; Morton, G. W.; Moss, L. J.; Mouly, J. P.; Mount, R.; Mueller, J.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mugge, M.; Muheim, F.; Muir, A.; Mullin, E.; Munerato, M.; Murakami, A.; Murakami, T.; Muramatsu, N.; Musico, P.; Nagai, I.; Nagamine, T.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Nagayama, S.; Nagel, M.; Naisbit, M. T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakajima, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, I.; Nakamura, T.; Nakamura, T. T.; Nakano, E.; Nakayama, H.; Nam, J. W.; Narita, S.; Narsky, I.; Nash, J. A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nauenberg, U.; Nayak, M.; Neal, H.; Nedelkovska, E.; Negrini, M.; Neichi, K.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Neri, N.; Nesom, G.; Neubauer, S.; Newman-Coburn, D.; Ng, C.; Nguyen, X.; Nicholson, H.; Niebuhr, C.; Nief, J. Y.; Niiyama, M.; Nikolich, M. B.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishimura, K.; Nishio, Y.; Nitoh, O.; Nogowski, R.; Noguchi, S.; Nomura, T.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Nozaki, S.; Nozaki, T.; Nugent, I. M.; O'Grady, C. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, F. G.; Oberhof, B.; Oddone, P. J.; Ofte, I.; Ogawa, A.; Ogawa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Ohno, F.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshima, Y.; Ohuchi, N.; Oide, K.; Oishi, N.; Okabe, T.; Okazaki, N.; Okazaki, T.; Okuno, S.; Olaiya, E. O.; Olivas, A.; Olley, P.; Olsen, J.; Ono, S.; Onorato, G.; Onuchin, A. P.; Onuki, Y.; Ooba, T.; Orimoto, T. J.; Oshima, T.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ostrowicz, W.; Oswald, C.; Otto, S.; Oyang, J.; Oyanguren, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozcan, V. E.; Paar, H. P.; Padoan, C.; Paick, K.; Palka, H.; Pan, B.; Pan, Y.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Panetta, J.; Panova, A. I.; Panvini, R. S.; Panzenböck, E.; Paoloni, E.; Paolucci, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Park, C. S.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Park, K. S.; Park, W.; Parry, R. J.; Parslow, N.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patel, P. M.; Patrignani, C.; Patteri, P.; Pavel, T.; Pavlovich, J.; Payne, D. J.; Peak, L. S.; Peimer, D. R.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrini, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Peng, C. C.; Peng, J. C.; Peng, K. C.; Peng, T.; Penichot, Y.; Pennazzi, S.; Pennington, M. R.; Penny, R. C.; Penzkofer, A.; Perazzo, A.; Perez, A.; Perl, M.; Pernicka, M.; Perroud, J.-P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Pestotnik, R.; Peters, K.; Peters, M.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petigura, E.; Petrak, S.; Petrella, A.; Petrič, M.; Petzold, A.; Pia, M. G.; Piatenko, T.; Piccolo, D.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Piemontese, M.; Pierini, M.; Pierson, S.; Pioppi, M.; Piredda, G.; Pivk, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Polci, F.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Posocco, M.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, R. J. L.; Prasad, V.; Prebys, E.; Prencipe, E.; Prendki, J.; Prepost, R.; Prest, M.; Prim, M.; Pripstein, M.; Prudent, X.; Pruvot, S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Purohit, M. V.; Qi, N. D.; Quinn, H.; Raaf, J.; Rabberman, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Ragghianti, G.; Rahatlou, S.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahmat, R.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Randle-Conde, A.; Rankin, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ratkovsky, S.; Raven, G.; Re, V.; Reep, M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Reidy, J.; Reif, R.; Reisert, B.; Renard, C.; Renga, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Richman, J. D.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ritter, M.; Rivetta, C.; Rizzo, G.; Roat, C.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Robertson, A. I.; Robutti, E.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D. M.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Rodriguez, R.; Roe, N. A.; Röhrken, M.; Roethel, W.; Rolquin, J.; Romanov, L.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Rong, G.; Ronga, F. J.; Roos, L.; Root, N.; Rosen, M.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rossi, A.; Rostomyan, A.; Rotondo, M.; Roussot, E.; Roy, J.; Rozanska, M.; Rozen, Y.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, A. E.; Ruddick, W. O.; Ruland, A. M.; Rybicki, K.; Ryd, A.; Ryu, S.; Ryuko, J.; Sabik, S.; Sacco, R.; Saeed, M. A.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sagawa, H.; Sahoo, H.; Sahu, S.; Saigo, M.; Saito, T.; Saitoh, S.; Sakai, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakaue, H.; Saleem, M.; Salnikov, A. A.; Salvati, E.; Salvatore, F.; Samuel, A.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanders, P.; Sandilya, S.; Sandrelli, F.; Sands, W.; Sands, W. R.; Sanpei, M.; Santel, D.; Santelj, L.; Santoro, V.; Santroni, A.; Sanuki, T.; Sarangi, T. R.; Saremi, S.; Sarti, A.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satapathy, M.; Sato, Nobuhiko; Sato, Noriaki; Sato, Y.; Satoyama, N.; Satpathy, A.; Savinov, V.; Savvas, N.; Saxton, O. H.; Sayeed, K.; Schaffner, S. F.; Schalk, T.; Schenk, S.; Schieck, J. R.; Schietinger, T.; Schilling, C. J.; Schindler, R. H.; Schmid, S.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schmuecker, H.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schönmeier, P.; Schofield, K. C.; Schott, G.; Schröder, H.; Schram, M.; Schubert, J.; Schümann, J.; Schultz, J.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Schwierz, R.; Schwitters, R. F.; Sciacca, C.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, I. J.; Seeman, J.; Seiden, A.; Seitz, R.; Seki, T.; Sekiya, A. I.; Semenov, S.; Semmler, D.; Sen, S.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Serbo, V. V.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Serfass, B.; Serra, M.; Serrano, J.; Settai, Y.; Seuster, R.; Sevior, M. E.; Shakhova, K. V.; Shang, L.; Shapkin, M.; Sharma, V.; Shebalin, V.; Shelkov, V. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shen, D. Z.; Shen, Y. T.; Sherwood, D. J.; Shibata, T.; Shibata, T. A.; Shibuya, H.; Shidara, T.; Shimada, K.; Shimoyama, M.; Shinomiya, S.; Shiu, J. G.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Shpilinskaya, L. I.; Sibidanov, A.; Sicard, E.; Sidorov, A.; Sidorov, V.; Siegle, V.; Sigamani, M.; Simani, M. C.; Simard, M.; Simi, G.; Simon, F.; Simonetto, F.; Sinev, N. B.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sinha, R.; Sitt, S.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Sloane, R. J.; Smerkol, P.; Smith, A. J. S.; Smith, D.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, J. G.; Smol, A.; Snoek, H. L.; Snyder, A.; So, R. Y.; Sobie, R. J.; Soderstrom, E.; Soha, A.; Sohn, Y. S.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sokolov, A.; Solagna, P.; Solovieva, E.; Soni, N.; Sonnek, P.; Sordini, V.; Spaan, B.; Spanier, S. M.; Spencer, E.; Speziali, V.; Spitznagel, M.; Spradlin, P.; Staengle, H.; Stamen, R.; Stanek, M.; Stanič, S.; Stark, J.; Steder, M.; Steininger, H.; Steinke, M.; Stelzer, J.; Stevanato, E.; Stocchi, A.; Stock, R.; Stoeck, H.; Stoker, D. P.; Stroili, R.; Strom, D.; Strother, P.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stypula, J.; Su, D.; Suda, R.; Sugahara, R.; Sugi, A.; Sugimura, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Suitoh, S.; Sullivan, M. K.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Summers, D. J.; Sun, L.; Sun, S.; Sundermann, J. E.; Sung, H. F.; Susaki, Y.; Sutcliffe, P.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, J. I.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Swain, J. E.; Swain, S. K.; T'Jampens, S.; Tabata, M.; Tackmann, K.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Takayama, T.; Takita, M.; Tamai, K.; Tamponi, U.; Tamura, N.; Tan, N.; Tan, P.; Tanabe, K.; Tanabe, T.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Taras, P.; Tasneem, N.; Tatishvili, G.; Tatomi, T.; Tawada, M.; Taylor, F.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, G. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Teodorescu, L.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Teramoto, Y.; Teytelman, D.; Thérin, G.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Thiessen, D.; Thomas, E. W.; Thompson, J. M.; Thorne, F.; Tian, X. C.; Tibbetts, M.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tinslay, J. S.; Tiozzo, G.; Tisserand, V.; Tocut, V.; Toki, W. H.; Tomassini, E. W.; Tomoto, M.; Tomura, T.; Torassa, E.; Torrence, E.; Tosi, S.; Touramanis, C.; Toussaint, J. C.; Tovey, S. N.; Trapani, P. P.; Treadwell, E.; Triggiani, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trischuk, W.; Troost, D.; Trunov, A.; Tsai, K. L.; Tsai, Y. T.; Tsujita, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tumanov, A.; Tung, Y. W.; Turnbull, L.; Turner, J.; Turri, M.; Uchida, K.; Uchida, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueki, M.; Ueno, K.; Ujiie, N.; Ulmer, K. A.; Unno, Y.; Urquijo, P.; Ushiroda, Y.; Usov, Y.; Usseglio, M.; Usuki, Y.; Uwer, U.; Va'vra, J.; Vahsen, S. E.; Vaitsas, G.; Valassi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vallereau, A.; Vanhoefer, P.; van Hoek, W. C.; Van Hulse, C.; van Winkle, D.; Varner, G.; Varnes, E. W.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasileiadis, G.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Verderi, M.; Versillé, S.; Vervink, K.; Viaud, B.; Vidal, P. B.; Villa, S.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Vinograd, E. L.; Vitale, L.; Vitug, G. M.; Voß, C.; Voci, C.; Voena, C.; Volk, A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Vuagnin, G.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, A. P.; Wagner, D. L.; Wagner, G.; Wagner, M. N.; Wagner, S. R.; Wagoner, D. E.; Walker, D.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallom, D.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. G.; Wang, K.; Wang, L.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, P.; Wang, T. J.; Wang, W. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wappler, F. R.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, J. E.; Watson, N. K.; Watt, M.; Weatherall, J. H.; Weaver, M.; Weber, T.; Wedd, R.; Wei, J. T.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wenzel, W. A.; West, C. A.; West, C. G.; West, T. J.; White, E.; White, R. M.; Wicht, J.; Widhalm, L.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wienands, U.; Wilden, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, G.; Williams, J. C.; Williams, K. M.; Williams, M. I.; Willocq, S. Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Winstrom, L. O.; Winter, M. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittlin, J.; Wittmer, W.; Wixted, R.; Woch, A.; Wogsland, B. J.; Won, E.; Wong, Q. K.; Wray, B. C.; Wren, A. C.; Wright, D. M.; Wu, C. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Xella, S. M.; Xie, Q. L.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yéche, Ch.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaki, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamaoka, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yan, D. S.; Yan, Y.; Yanai, H.; Yanaka, S.; Yang, H.; Yang, R.; Yang, S.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yashchenko, S.; Yashima, J.; Yasin, Z.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, S. W.; Yeh, P.; Yi, J. I.; Yi, K.; Yi, M.; Yin, Z. W.; Ying, J.; Yocky, G.; Yokoyama, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Young, C. C.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, Z.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Yusa, Y.; Yushkov, A. N.; Yuta, H.; Zacek, V.; Zain, S. B.; Zallo, A.; Zambito, S.; Zander, D.; Zang, S. L.; Zanin, D.; Zaslavsky, B. G.; Zeng, Q. L.; Zghiche, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. M.; Zhulanov, V.; Ziegler, T.; Ziegler, V.; Zioulas, G.; Zisman, M.; Zito, M.; Zürcher, D.; Zwahlen, N.; Zyukova, O.; Živko, T.; Žontar, D.

    2014-11-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C. Please note that version 3 on the archive is the auxiliary version of the Physics of the B Factories book. This uses the notation alpha, beta, gamma for the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. The nominal version uses the notation phi_1, phi_2 and phi_3. Please cite this work as Eur. Phys. J. C74 (2014) 3026.

  2. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-01

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  3. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  4. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  5. 46 CFR 167.25-1 - Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-1 Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and... the following standards for boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances: (1)...

  6. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  7. 46 CFR 167.25-1 - Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-1 Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and... the following standards for boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances: (1)...

  8. 46 CFR 167.25-1 - Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-1 Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and... the following standards for boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances: (1)...

  9. 46 CFR 167.25-1 - Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-1 Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and... the following standards for boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances: (1)...

  10. 46 CFR 167.25-1 - Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-1 Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and... the following standards for boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances: (1)...

  11. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  12. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  13. Design of experiments with multiple independent variables: a resource management perspective on complete and reduced factorial designs.

    PubMed

    Collins, Linda M; Dziak, John J; Li, Runze

    2009-09-01

    An investigator who plans to conduct an experiment with multiple independent variables must decide whether to use a complete or reduced factorial design. This article advocates a resource management perspective on making this decision, in which the investigator seeks a strategic balance between service to scientific objectives and economy. Considerations in making design decisions include whether research questions are framed as main effects or simple effects; whether and which effects are aliased (confounded) in a particular design; the number of experimental conditions that must be implemented in a particular design and the number of experimental subjects the design requires to maintain the desired level of statistical power; and the costs associated with implementing experimental conditions and obtaining experimental subjects. In this article 4 design options are compared: complete factorial, individual experiments, single factor, and fractional factorial. Complete and fractional factorial designs and single-factor designs are generally more economical than conducting individual experiments on each factor. Although relatively unfamiliar to behavioral scientists, fractional factorial designs merit serious consideration because of their economy and versatility.

  14. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Koneke, Karsten; /MIT, LNS

    2007-11-16

    In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system. Finally, I will summarize the current status and future prospects of radiative penguin B physics at the B factories.

  15. From super beams to neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities ({beta}-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R&D program.

  16. Making Connections: After the Factories Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; Bergman, Edward M.

    This analysis of employment patterns in the American South extends a 1985 report, "After the Factories: Changing Employment Patterns in the Rural South," which was based on the years between 1977-1982. The 1985 report included Texas, but this analysis includes only the 12 Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB) member states. This new…

  17. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  18. A Factorial Analysis of BDI Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ian M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Undertook a factorial analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on a sample of male cardiac outpatients (N=214) to investigate whether the BDI factor structure is dependent on the range of BDI scores selected. Results indicated that, in general, the subgroups' factor structures provided no clear interpretation. (LLL)

  19. Monochromatic design for the Apiary B -factory

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovin, A.; Zholents, A. ); Garren, A. )

    1990-10-10

    There are several ways to design {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} circular colliders to maximize luminosity. Here we present a design that achieves two principal goals: high luminosity and very small center-of-mass energy spread. The design possesses several attractive features, especially for an asymmetric {ital B}-factory.

  20. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  1. Fine mapping of locus Xq25.1-27-2 for a low caries experience phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Küchler, Erika C.; Feng, Ping; Deeley, Kathleen; Fitzgerald, Carly A.; Meyer, Chelsea; Gorbunov, Anastasia; Bezamat, Mariana; Reis, Maria Fernanda; Noel, Jacqueline; Kouzbari, M. Zahir; Granjeiro, José M.; Antunes, Leonardo S.; Antunes, Livia A.; de Abreu, Fernanda Volpe; Costa, Marcelo C.; Tannure, Patricia N.; Seymen, Figen; Koruyucu, Mine; Patir, Asli; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to fine map the locus Xq25.1-27-2 in order to identify genetic contributors involved in low caries experience. Design Seventy-two families from the Philippines were studied. Caries experience was recorded and genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood was obtained from all subjects. One hundred and twenty-eight polymorphisms in the locus Xq25.1-27-2, a region that contains 24 genes, were genotyped. Association between caries experience and alleles was tested using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). This initial analysis was followed by experiments with DNA samples from 1,481 subjects from Pittsburgh, 918 children from Brazil, and 275 children from Turkey in order to follow up the results found in the Filipino families. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were used. Sequencing of the coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of MST4 and FGF13 were also performed on 91 women from Pittsburgh. Results Statistically significant association with low caries experience was found for 11 markers in Xq25.1-27-2 in the Filipino families. One marker was in MST4, another marker was in FGF13, and the remaining markers were in intergenic regions. Haplotype analysis also confirmed these results, but the follow up studies with DNA samples from Pittsburgh, Brazil, and Turkey showed associations for a subset of the 11 markers. No coding mutations were identified by sequencing. Conclusions Our study failed to conclusively demonstrate that genetic factors in Xq25.1-27-2 contribute to caries experience in multiple populations. PMID:24632093

  2. Testing Factorial Invariance in Multilevel Data: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Sook; Kwok, Oi-man; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2012-01-01

    Testing factorial invariance has recently gained more attention in different social science disciplines. Nevertheless, when examining factorial invariance, it is generally assumed that the observations are independent of each other, which might not be always true. In this study, we examined the impact of testing factorial invariance in multilevel…

  3. 3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWOSTORY SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWO-STORY SECTION WITH BRICK PARAPET BUILT WITH FACTORY EXPANSION CA. 1948. GABLE ROOF SECTION IS PART OF ORIGINAL 1892 FACTORY. TO THE RIGHT IS AN ABANDONED (COMMONWEALTH EDISON) ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  4. Pion Production for Neutrino Factory-challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, Florian; Le Couedic, Clement; Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    One of the key issues in the design of a Neutrino Factory target station is the determination of the optimum kinetic energy of the proton beam due to the large uncertainties in simulations of protons impinging on nuclear targets. In this paper we have developed a procedure to correct GEANT4 simulations for the HARP data, and we have determined the yield of muons expected at the front-end of a Neutrino Factory as a function of target material (Be, C, Al, Ta and Pb) and energy (3-12 GeV).The maximum muon yield is found between 5 and 8 GeV for high Z targets and 3 GeV for low Z targets.

  5. IONIZATION COOLING SCENARIO FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; PALMER, R.B.; LEBRUN, P.L.

    2001-06-18

    The neutrino factory program aims to produce well-characterized neutrino fluxes, orders of magnitude larger than those available from conventional beams. An important feature of the machine design is a cooling section for reducing the muon transverse emittance to a level that can be accepted by the downstream accelerators and be contained in the storage ring. We describe simulations of a high-performance ionization cooling channel for the front end of a neutrino factory. The design considered here consists of a solenoidal lattice with alternating polarity and 2.75 m and 1.65 m cell lengths. Simulations show that the cooling increases the phase space density into the acceptance of the following linac by a factor of 3.

  6. Hadronic Charm Decays From B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2007-11-09

    The B factories, KEKB and PEPII, provide enormous samples of charmed mesons and baryons as well as B{bar B} events. The BELLE and BaBar collaborations have discovered many new particles containing charm quarks in the last few years and have measured their properties with increasing precision. The current status and most recent studies of these charm particle properties is briefly reviewed.

  7. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  8. Physics opportunities at mu+ mu- Higgs factories

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blochinger et al.

    2004-01-12

    We update theoretical studies of the physics opportunities presented by {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factories. Interesting measurements of the Standard Model Higgs decays into {bar b}b, {tau}{sup +} {tau}{sup -} and WW* may be possible if the Higgs mass is less than about 160 GeV, as preferred by the precision electroweak data, the mass range being extended by varying appropriately the beam energy resolution. A suitable value of the beam energy resolution would also enable the uncertainty in the b-quark mass to be minimized, facilitating measurements of parameters in the MSSM at such a first {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factory. These measurements would be sensitive to radiative corrections to the Higgs-fermion-antifermion decay vertices, which may violate CP. Radiative corrections in the MSSM may also induce CP violation in Higgs-mass mixing, which can be probed via various asymmetries measurable using polarized {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} beams. In addition, Higgs-chargino couplings may be probed at a second {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factory.

  9. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  10. Survey and Alignment of SLAC's B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryka, Matthew J.; Gaydosh, Michael L.; /SLAC

    2011-09-08

    The survey and alignment of SLAC's B-factory injector and high energy ring will be complete in March 1997. Modern digital electronic surveying tools are contributing to new, efficient alignment procedures. A laser tracker was used to fiducialize almost 300 quadrupole magnets. Digital levels were used to pre-set base plate elevations. Theodolites with very accurate co-axial distance meters were used for everything from layout to 3D magnet positioning to network surveys, all in free stationing mode. A number of procedures and measurement results are outlined.

  11. Object Classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, Rollin C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2007-12-21

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of nonsupernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  12. The Personal Software Process: Downscaling the factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the next wave of software process improvement (SPI) activities will be based on a people-centered paradigm. The most promising such paradigm, Watts Humphrey's personal software process (PSP), is summarized and its advantages are listed. The concepts of the PSP are shown also to fit a down-scaled version of Basili's experience factory. The author's data and lessons learned while practicing the PSP are presented along with personal experience, observations, and advice from the perspective of a consultant and teacher for the personal software process.

  13. Apiary B-Factory separation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A. ); Sullivan, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B-Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak {beta}-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. APIARY B-Factory Separation Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.; Sullivan, M.

    1991-05-03

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak {beta}-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate.

  15. Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Hijacks RNA Polymerase II to Create a Viral Transcriptional Factory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christopher Phillip; Lyu, Yuanzhi; Chuang, Frank; Nakano, Kazushi; Izumiya, Chie; Jin, Di; Campbell, Mel; Izumiya, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-22

    Locally concentrated nuclear factors ensure efficient binding to the DNA templates, facilitating RNA polymerase II recruitment and frequent reutilization of stable pre-initiation complexes. Here we have uncovered a mechanism for effective viral transcription by focal assembly of RNA polymerase II around KSHV genomes in the host cell nucleus. Using immunofluorescent labeling of latent nuclear antigen (LANA) protein, together with fluorescence in situ RNA hybridization (RNA-FISH) of the intron region of immediate-early transcripts, we visualized active transcription of viral genomes in naturally infected cells. At single cell level, we found that not all episomes were uniformly transcribed following stimuli. However, those episomes that were being transcribed, would spontaneously aggregate to form transcriptional "factories", which recruited a significant fraction of cellular RNA polymerase II. Focal assembly of "viral transcriptional factories" decreased the pool of cellular RNA polymerase II available for cellular genes transcription, which consequently impaired cellular gene expression globally, with the exception of selected ones. The viral transcriptional factories localized with replicating viral genomic DNAs. The observed colocalization of viral transcriptional factories with replicating viral genomic DNA suggests that KSHV assembles an "all-in-one" factory for both gene transcription and DNA replication. We propose that the assembly of RNA polymerase II around viral episomes in the nucleus may be a previously unexplored aspect of KSHV gene regulation by confiscation of a limited supply of RNA polymerase II in infected cells.IMPORTANCE B-cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) harbor multiple copies of the KSHV genome in the form of episomes. 3D imaging of viral gene expression in the nucleus allows us to study interactions and changes in the physical distribution of these episomes following stimulation. The results showed

  16. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  17. A mutation of cdc-25.1 causes defects in germ cells but not in somatic tissues in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Ah-Reum; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Strome, Susan; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2009-07-31

    By screening C. elegans mutants for severe defects in germline proliferation, we isolated a new loss-of-function allele of cdc-25.1, bn115. bn115 and another previously identified loss-of-function allele nr2036 do not exhibit noticeable cell division defects in the somatic tissues but have reduced numbers of germ cells and are sterile, indicating that cdc-25.1 functions predominantly in the germ line during postembryonic development, and that cdc-25.1 activity is probably not required in somatic lineages during larval development. We analyzed cell division of germ cells and somatic tissues in bn115 homozygotes with germline-specific anti-PGL-1 immunofluorescence and GFP transgenes that express in intestinal cells, in distal tip cells, and in gonadal sheath cells, respectively. We also analyzed the expression pattern of cdc-25.1 with conventional and quantitative RT-PCR. In the presence of three other family members of cdc-25 in C. elegans defects are observed only in the germ line but not in the somatic tissues in cdc-25.1 single mutants, and cdc-25.1 is expressed predominantly, if not exclusively, in the germ line during postembryonic stages. Our findings indicate that the function of cdc-25.1 is unique in the germ line but likely redundant with other members in the soma.

  18. Quarkonium States at B-Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Robutti, Enrico; /INFN, Genoa

    2011-11-21

    An overview is given on recent progress in the study of quarkonium spectroscopy at the B-factories. In particular, an updated status report is presented of the long list of 'charmonium-like' resonances newly discovered, whose assignment as true charmonium states is in most cases at least controversial. Also, new measurements on the decay properties of bottomonium states above open-B production thresholds are shown. Much of the progress attained in recent years in the study of the quarkonium spectra is owed to the measurements performed at B-factories. The impressive amount of data recorded by the BABAR and Belle experiments has made it possible to study rare decay chains and to look for as yet undiscovered resonances in the charmonium and bottomonium mass regions. Results presented here are based on different subsamples of the full datasets recorded up to now by the two experiments, corresponding to integrated luminosities of about 430 fb{sup -1}(BABAR - final) and about 850 fb{sup -1}(Belle). Significant contributions also come from the analysis of the various data samples recorded by the CLEO detector.

  19. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  20. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, P.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Oddone, P.; Ratcliff, B.; Roe, N.; Va'vra, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1991-09-01

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqi; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Khraiwesh, Basel; Nelson, David R; Al-Khairy, Dina; Mystikou, Alexandra; Alzahmi, Amnah; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-12-13

    With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive "cell factories": the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO₂, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field.

  2. Carbonate factories: A conundrum in sedimentary geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, L.; Hallock, P.

    2008-03-01

    by the end-Permian extinctions, excess photosynthesis by phytoplankton and microbial assemblages in surface waters, induced by moderately high CO 2 and temperature during the Early Mesozoic, supported proliferation of non-tissular metazoans (e.g., sponges) and heterotrophic bacteria at the sea floor. Metabolic activity by those microbes, especially sulfate reduction, resulted in abundant biologically-induced geochemical carbonate precipitation on and within the sea floor. For example, with the opening of Tethyan seaways during the Triassic, massive sponge/microbe boundstones (the benthic automicrite factory) formed steep, massive and thick progradational slopes and, locally, mud-mounds. As tectonic processes created shallow epicontinental seas, photosynthesis drove lime-mud precipitation in the illuminated zone of the water column. The resulting neritic lime-mud component of the shallow-water carbonate factory became predominant during the Jurassic, paralleling the increase in atmospheric pCO 2, while the decreasing importance of the benthic automicrite factory parallels the diversification of calcifying metazoans, phytoplankton and zooplankton. With atmospheric pCO 2 declining through the Cretaceous, the potential habitats for neritic lime-mud precipitation declined. At the same time, peak oceanic Ca 2+ concentrations promoted biotically-controlled calcification by the skeletal factory. With changes produced by extinctions and turnovers at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, adaptations to decreasing Ca 2+ and pCO 2, coupled with increasing global temperature gradients (i.e., high-latitude and deep-water cooling), and strategies that efficiently linked photosynthesis and calcification, promoted successive changes of the dominant skeletal factory through the Cenozoic: larger benthic foraminifers (protist-protist symbiosis) during the Paleogene, red algae during the Miocene and modern coral reefs (metazoan-protist symbiosis) since Late Miocene.

  3. Factorial analysis of trihalomethanes formation in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-06-01

    Disinfection of drinking water reduces pathogenic infection, but may pose risks to human health through the formation of disinfection byproducts. The effects of different factors on the formation of trihalomethanes were investigated using a statistically designed experimental program, and a predictive model for trihalomethanes formation was developed. Synthetic water samples with different factor levels were produced, and trihalomethanes concentrations were measured. A replicated fractional factorial design with center points was performed, and significant factors were identified through statistical analysis. A second-order trihalomethanes formation model was developed from 92 experiments, and the statistical adequacy was assessed through appropriate diagnostics. This model was validated using additional data from the Drinking Water Surveillance Program database and was applied to the Smiths Falls water supply system in Ontario, Canada. The model predictions were correlated strongly to the measured trihalomethanes, with correlations of 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. The resulting model can assist in analyzing risk-cost tradeoffs in the design and operation of water supply systems.

  4. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  5. Definitive Measurements of the Mass-Metallicity-SFR Relation at z=0.25-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Chun

    2015-02-01

    The gas-phase metallicity of galaxies-and how it depends on stellar mass, star formation rate, and redshift-is the key test of galaxy evolution models based on accretion and star-formation 'feedback'. It is even possible that metallicity, M* and SFR all obey a single 'fundamental relation', which could be universal from z=0-3. However, there are hardly any metallicity measurements to test these relations beyond the local Universe, especially in low-mass galaxies with extreme star formation. We request one DEIMOS night to obtain gas metallicity measurements in the key unexplored parameter space. We will prioritize 300 low-mass, and/or high-EW emission-line galaxies at z=0.25-1 (the last half of cosmic history), in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The SDF is ideal for such a survey because of its unique narrowband imaging data, which allow us to identify a much higher surface density of known high-EW line-emitting galaxies, all of which have well-determined stellar masse! s. This sample is roughly 5 times larger than the existing data for similar galaxies.

  6. [Shoe factory workers, solvents and health].

    PubMed

    Foà, Vito; Martinotti, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents in footwear manufacturing industry came from the glues used adhering the shoe parts to each other. Benzene was the first solvent used in shoe factories until the evidence of its capacity to cause leukaemia. Then, the demonstration that exposure to n-hexane was related to distal polyneuropathy limited the use of this substance. After that, results of neurotoxicological studies conducted on workers exposed to different mixtures of organic solvents make necessary prevention measure directed to a progressive reduction of air dispersion of these chemicals. Today exposure to solvents in workplaces is regulated by health based exposure limit values that should warranty absence of central nervous system effects. One of the most important rules of occupational medicine is verify that these exposure levels are really health protective also for workers with increased susceptibility.

  7. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-10-05

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings ({mu}SR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included.

  8. Upgrade of the Photon Factory Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obina, T.; Pak, C. O.; Sato, Y.; Mishina, A.; Harada, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Myajima, T.; Nagahashi, S.; Nogami, T.; Sakanaka, S.; Shioya, T.; Tadano, M.; Takahashi, T.; Tanimoto, Y.; Umemori, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Photon Factory control system was originally developed more than 20 years ago and has been upgraded several times. As a part of the straight-sections upgrade, which started in March, 2005, we renewed the control system incorporating modern technologies in both low-level and high-level control layers. In the low-level layer, a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is now intensively used for title safety control system, for RF klystron control boards and for the vacuum control system. In the middle-level and high-level layers, the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) software toolkit was adopted. We also replaced VME-board computers with HP-RT operating system by Linux-based computers, which are now used as input/output controllers (IOCs) for the EPICS. The new system has been running without any serious problems since its commissioning in September, 2005.

  9. KEKB and PEP-II B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Two asymmetric B-Factories KEKB at KEK and PEP-II at SLAC are under construction, designed to study CP violation in the b-quark sector with a center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. These two new accelerators are high luminosity two-ring two-energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders with one interaction point. There are many challenging accelerator physics and engineering issues associated with the high beam currents and high luminosities of these rings. The chosen solutions to these issues and the general parameters of the two rings are described in detail side-by-side. KEKB and PEP-II are well into the installation phase and are both scheduled to be completed in 1998. The particle physics programs are scheduled to start in 1999.

  10. Cells as factories for humanized encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhengwei; Cartier, Regis; Hohl, Anja; Farinacci, Maura; Dorhoi, Anca; Nguyen, Tich-Lam; Mulvaney, Paul; Ralston, John; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Möhwald, Helmuth; Wang, Dayang

    2011-05-11

    Biocompatibility is of paramount importance for drug delivery, tumor labeling, and in vivo application of nanoscale bioprobes. Until now, biocompatible surface processing has typically relied on PEGylation and other surface coatings, which, however, cannot minimize clearance by macrophages or the renal system but may also increase the risk of chemical side effects. Cell membranes provide a generic and far more natural approach to the challenges of encapsulation and delivery in vivo. Here we harness for the first time living cells as "factories" to manufacture cell membrane capsules for encapsulation and delivery of drugs, nanoparticles, and other biolabels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the built-in protein channels of the new capsules can be utilized for controlled release of encapsulated reagents.

  11. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-11-15

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.

  12. Fractional Factorial Experiment Designs to Minimize Configuration Changes in Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard; Cler, Daniel L.; Graham, Albert B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper serves as a tutorial to introduce the wind tunnel research community to configuration experiment designs that can satisfy resource constraints in a configuration study involving several variables, without arbitrarily eliminating any of them from the experiment initially. The special case of a configuration study featuring variables at two levels is examined in detail. This is the type of study in which each configuration variable has two natural states - 'on or off', 'deployed or not deployed', 'low or high', and so forth. The basic principles are illustrated by results obtained in configuration studies conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility and in the ViGYAN Low Speed Tunnel in Hampton, Virginia. The crucial role of interactions among configuration variables is highlighted with an illustration of difficulties that can be encountered when they are not properly taken into account.

  13. Investigation of formulation variables affecting the properties of lamotrigine nanosuspension using fractional factorial design

    PubMed Central

    B., Mishra; N., Arya; S., Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Lamotrigine (LMG) undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism upon oral administration and its absorption is affected in the presence of food. This study was aimed to develop nanosuspension of LMG and investigate its formulation characteristics using L9 orthogonal array. Methods Nanosuspension was prepared using emulsification-solvent diffusion method. All the formulations were subjected to in-vitro evaluation and the statistically optimized one was used for stability, scanning electron microscopic and differential scanning calorimetric studies. Results Nanoparticles were spherical with little surface adsorbed drug. Formulation characteristics in terms of size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug content and in vitro drug release were consistent and within their acceptable range. All the batches provided a burst release profile during first 1 hr, followed by a controlled release extending up to 24 hrs. The values of n in Peppas model ranged between 0.2-0.4 for all the formulations indicative of Fickian release mechanism. The formulation remained reasonably stable up to 3 months. No interaction was observed among the drug and polymers. Major conclusion Results of in vitro drug release studies suggested that nanosuspension might be used as a sustained delivery vehicle for LMG. Statistical analysis revealed that size of the nanoparticles was most strongly affected by stabilizer type while EE was influenced by the drug-to-polymer ratio. PMID:22615586

  14. 46 CFR 162.050-13 - Factory production and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factory production and inspection. 162.050-13 Section 162.050-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION....050-13 Factory production and inspection. (a) Equipment manufactured under Coast Guard approval...

  15. 37. NORTH TO BINS ALONG NORTH WALL OF FACTORY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. NORTH TO BINS ALONG NORTH WALL OF FACTORY BUILDING WHICH REMAIN FILLED WITH NEW OLD STOCK AND USED PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. THE ROPE AT THE LOWER FOREGROUND WAS USED IN ERECTING WINDMILLS AND TOWERS FOR CUSTOMERS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  16. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

  17. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THIS SECTION OF THE FACTORY WAS USED FOR STORAGE; THE STAIRWAY LEADS DOWN TO THE SECOND FLOOR WHICH WAS THE LOCATION OF THE COMPANY OFFICE AND EMPLOYEE CHANGE ROOM. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  18. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THIS SECTION OF THE FACTORY WAS USED FOR STORAGE; CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING EXTENDS ALONG THE CENTER ROW OF COLUMNS. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  19. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THIS SECTION OF THE FACTORY WAS USED FOR STORAGE; TO THE LEFT IS AN ELECTRIC MOTOR SUSPENDED FROM A COLLAR BEAM. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  20. Students Tackle Academics in Practical Context at Skateboard Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    High school student Nick Robertson came to Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF) from a suburban Toronto district. He was surfing the web when he spotted a reference to Oasis Skateboard Factory, an alternative program in the Toronto District School Board. He says his first reaction was "Skateboards in school? It didn't seem possible." He…

  1. 2. Aerial photograph of the Quaker Oats Cereal Factory looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial photograph of the Quaker Oats Cereal Factory looking west to east. Structures included in this complex situated on the east side of Broadway Street between Bowery Street and Mill Street range in date of original use from 1886 to 1940. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  2. 1. Aerial photograph of the Quaker Oats Cereal Factory looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial photograph of the Quaker Oats Cereal Factory looking east to west. Structures included in this complex situated on the east side of Broadway Street between Bowery Street and Mill Street range in date of original use from 1886 to 1940. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  3. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other businesses within... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of...

  4. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other businesses within... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of...

  5. Factorial Invariance of a Pan-Hispanic Familism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Ricardo; Blozis, Shelley A.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the validity and factorial invariance of an attitudinal measure of familism. Using a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. Hispanics, the validity and factorial invariance of the measure was tested across country of origin (United States, Mexico, and Latin America) and the language in which the survey was conducted…

  6. 1. FACTORY BUILDING VIEWED FROM THE EAST, CURING AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FACTORY BUILDING VIEWED FROM THE EAST, CURING AND STORAGE WING TO THE LEFT, BOILING HOUSE IN THE CENTER, GRINDING PLATFORM TO THE FAR RIGHT, ST. THOMAS ISLAND VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND - Caneel Bay Plantation, Sugar Factory, Cruz Bay, St. John, VI

  7. Perspective view. Fivestory reinforced concrete factory building reveals the structural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. Five-story reinforced concrete factory building reveals the structural frame on the exterior of the facade. Twelve bay facade facing onto Clay Avenue (north facade) has first floor openings bricked up. Mix of typical factory windows and glass block windows fill the majority of the openings on the rest of building - Russell Industrial Center, 1600 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  8. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  9. Tempered fractional calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  10. Neutrino Factory Targets and the MICE Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Walaron, Kenneth Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The future of particle physics in the next 30 years must include detailed study of neutrinos. The first proof of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics is evident in results from recent neutrino experiments which imply that neutrinos have mass and flavour mixing. The Neutrino Factory is the leading contender to measure precisely the neutrino mixing parameters to probe beyond the Standard Model physics. Significantly, one must look to measure the mixing angle θ13 and investigate the possibility of leptonic CP violation. If found this may provide a key insight into the origins of the matter/anti- matter asymmetry seen in the universe, through the mechanism of leptogenesis. The Neutrino Factory will be a large international multi-billion dollar experiment combining novel new accelerator and long-baseline detector technology. Arguably the most important and costly features of this facility are the proton driver and cooling channel. This thesis will present simulation work focused on determining the optimal proton driver energy to maximise pion production and also simulation of the transport of this pion °ux through some candidate transport lattices. Bench-marking of pion cross- sections calculated by MARS and GEANT4 codes to measured data from the HARP experiment is also presented. The cooling channel aims to reduce the phase-space volume of the decayed muon beam to a level that can be e±ciently injected into the accelerator system. The Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) hosted by the Rutherford Appleton laboratory, UK is a proof-of-principle experiment aimed at measuring ionisation cooling. The experiment will run parasitically to the ISIS accelerator and will produce muons from pion decay. The MICE beamline provides muon beams of variable emittance and momentum to the MICE experiment to enable measurement of cooling over a wide range of beam conditions. Simulation work in the design of this beamline is presented in this thesis as

  11. The Experience Factory: Strategy and Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi

    1995-01-01

    The quality movement, that has had in recent years a dramatic impact on all industrial sectors, has recently reached the system and software industry. Although some concepts of quality management, originally developed for other product types, can be applied to software, its specificity as a product which is developed and not produced requires a special approach. This paper introduces a quality paradigm specifically tailored on the problem of the systems and software industry. Reuse of products, processes and experiences originating from the system life cycle is seen today as a feasible solution to the problem of developing higher quality systems at a lower cost. In fact, quality improvement is very often achieved by defining and developing an appropriate set of strategic capabilities and core competencies to support them. A strategic capability is, in this context, a corporate goal defined by the business position of the organization and implemented by key business processes. Strategic capabilities are supported by core competencies, which are aggregate technologies tailored to the specific needs of the organization in performing the needed business processes. Core competencies are non-transitional, have a consistent evolution, and are typically fueled by multiple technologies. Their selection and development requires commitment, investment and leadership. The paradigm introduced in this paper for developing core competencies is the Quality Improvement Paradigm which consists of six steps: (1) Characterize the environment, (2) Set the goals, (3) Choose the process, (4) Execute the process, (5) Analyze the process data, and (6) Package experience. The process must be supported by a goal oriented approach to measurement and control, and an organizational infrastructure, called Experience Factory. The Experience Factory is a logical and physical organization distinct from the project organizations it supports. Its goal is development and support of core competencies

  12. 77 FR 44593 - Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement... accepted Settlement Agreement with Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, containing a civil... Factory Warehouse Corporation CPSC Docket No. 12-C0008 Settlement Agreement 1. In accordance with...

  13. Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen

    2016-08-09

    The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude.

  14. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  15. Cell as a factory for humanized encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhengwei; Wang, Dayang

    2012-03-01

    Variety efforts are being made to develop colloidal based drug delivery systems (DDSs), which encapsulate cytotoxic drug in a vehicle and release them in a controlled manner. However, the synthetic carriers developed thus far are hampered by rapidly clearance in the body, for example by phagocytes, possibly due to the non-natural surface characteristics in terms of chemistry, morphology, and mechanics. To circumvent this important challenge, we have exploited living mammalian cells as factories to encapsulate drugs in "natural vesicles". These natural vesicles are termed cell membrane capsules (CMCs), because they maintain the major membrane structure and functions as well as cytosolic proteins of the parental cells. We demonstrate that CMCs act as unique delivery vehicles, in which encapsulated substances can be processed stepwise by cellular enzymes and then be selectively released through protein channels built-in the membrane, in a controlled and sustained manner. The preliminary study investigating the macrophage response to CMCs indicated the potential of CMCs to avoid attack by the immune system.

  16. Agile manufacturing: The factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loibl, Joseph M.; Bossieux, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The factory of the future will require an operating methodology which effectively utilizes all of the elements of product design, manufacturing and delivery. The process must respond rapidly to changes in product demand, product mix, design changes or changes in the raw materials. To achieve agility in a manufacturing operation, the design and development of the manufacturing processes must focus on customer satisfaction. Achieving greatest results requires that the manufacturing process be considered from product concept through sales. This provides the best opportunity to build a quality product for the customer at a reasonable rate. The primary elements of a manufacturing system include people, equipment, materials, methods and the environment. The most significant and most agile element in any process is the human resource. Only with a highly trained, knowledgeable work force can the proper methods be applied to efficiently process materials with machinery which is predictable, reliable and flexible. This paper discusses the affect of each element on the development of agile manufacturing systems.

  17. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Mirko; Goellner, Sarah; Acosta, Eliana Gisela; Neufeldt, Christopher John; Oleksiuk, Olga; Lampe, Marko; Haselmann, Uta; Funaya, Charlotta; Schieber, Nicole; Ronchi, Paolo; Schorb, Martin; Pruunsild, Priit; Schwab, Yannick; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Ruggieri, Alessia; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2017-02-28

    A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs). Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton.

  18. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weiqi; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Khraiwesh, Basel; Nelson, David R.; Al-Khairy, Dina; Mystikou, Alexandra; Alzahmi, Amnah; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive “cell factories”: the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO2, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field. PMID:27983586

  19. Sterile neutrinos at a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2010-03-30

    We study the potential of a Neutrino Factory (NF) to constrain the parameters of the (3+1)-scheme with a O(1)eV{sup 2} largest mass square difference, considering two set-ups: a NF with 50 GeV (20 GeV) stored muons, with two detectors of the Hybrid-MIND type located at L = 3000(4000), 7500 km. We show that the best sensitivity to sterile neutrinos can be achieved through the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub m}u and the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub t}au channels which can constrain theta{sub 34}<=12 deg. (14 deg.) and theta{sub 24}<=7.5 deg. (8 deg.) with the 50 GeV (20 GeV) NF. We also study the CP-violation in this new context showing that the CP-asymmetries in the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub t}au channel can give us the chance to see a clear new CP-violation signal associated with the sterile neutrinos.

  20. Future Accelerators, Muon Colliders, and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A Carrigan, Jr.

    2001-12-19

    Particle physics is driven by five great topics. Neutrino oscillations and masses are now at the fore. The standard model with extensions to supersymmetry and a Higgs to generate mass explains much of the field. The origins of CP violation are not understood. The possibility of extra dimensions has raised tantalizing new questions. A fifth topic lurking in the background is the possibility of something totally different. Many of the questions raised by these topics require powerful new accelerators. It is not an overstatement to say that for some of the issues, the accelerator is almost the experiment. Indeed some of the questions require machines beyond our present capability. As this volume attests, there are parts of the particle physics program that have been significantly advanced without the use of accelerators such as the subject of neutrino oscillations and many aspects of the particle-cosmology interface. At this stage in the development of physics, both approaches are needed and important. This chapter first reviews the status of the great accelerator facilities now in operation or coming on within the decade. Next, midrange possibilities are discussed including linear colliders with the adjunct possibility of gamma-gamma colliders, muon colliders, with precursor neutrino factories, and very large hadron colliders. Finally visionary possibilities are considered including plasma and laser accelerators.

  1. VLBA Reveals Dust-Enshrouded "Supernova Factory"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope, astronomers have discovered a newly-exploded star, or supernova, hidden deep in a dust-enshrouded "supernova factory" in a galaxy some 140 million light-years from Earth. "This supernova is likely to be part of a group of super star clusters that produce one such stellar explosion every two years," said James Ulvestad, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "We're extremely excited by the tremendous insights into star formation and the early Universe that we may gain by observing this 'supernova factory,'" he added. Ulvestad worked with Susan Neff of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, and Stacy Teng, a graduate student at the University of Maryland, on the project. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Nashville, TN. "These super star clusters likely are forming in much the same way that globular clusters formed in the early Universe, and thus provide us with a unique opportunity to learn about how some of the first stars formed billions of years ago," Neff said. The cluster is in an object called Arp 299, a pair of colliding galaxies, where regions of vigorous star formation have been found in past observations. Since 1990, four other supernova explosions have been seen optically in Arp 299. Observations with the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) earlier showed a region near the nucleus of one of the colliding galaxies which had all the earmarks of prolific star formation. The astronomers focused on this region, prosaically dubbed "Source A," with the VLBA and the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in 2002, and found four objects in this dusty cloud that are likely young supernova remnants. When they observed the region again in February 2003, there was a new, fifth, object located only 7 light-years from one of the previously detected objects. More observations on April 30-May

  2. Laser-cooled radioactive francium factory at CYRIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, T.; Sato, T.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A factory of laser-cooled francium (Fr) atoms is being developed to search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron. The factory has achieved the production of Fr ions of 9 × 105 particles/s and transport with a transmission efficiency of 2%. In pilot experiments, the magneto-optical trapping of rubidium (Rb) has been performed using a new ion-to-atom converter. To achieve the Fr trap, the development and design of each of the factory's components are in progress.

  3. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sochat, Vanessa V; Eisenberg, Ian W; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  4. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sochat, Vanessa V.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  5. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-07-29

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 {angstrom} for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the low-redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and follow-up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based follow-up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of follow-up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager.

  6. Make your company a talent factory.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A; Conger, Jay A

    2007-06-01

    Despite the great sums of money companies dedicate to talent management systems, many still struggle to fill key positions - limiting their potential for growth in the process. Virtually all the human resource executives in the authors' 2005 survey of 40 companies around the world said that their pipeline of high-potential employees was insufficient to fill strategic management roles. The survey revealed two primary reasons for this. First, the formal procedures for identifying and developing next-generation leaders have fallen out of sync with what companies need to grow or expand into new markets. To save money, for example, some firms have eliminated positions that would expose high-potential employees to a broad range of problems, thus sacrificing future development opportunities that would far outweigh any initial savings from the job cuts. Second, HR executives often have trouble keeping top leaders' attention on talent issues, despite those leaders' vigorous assertions that obtaining and keeping the best people is a major priority. If passion for that objective doesn't start at the top and infuse the culture, say the authors, talent management can easily deteriorate into the management of bureaucratic routines. Yet there are companies that can face the future with confidence. These firms don't just manage talent, they build talent factories. The authors describe the experiences of two such corporations - consumer products icon Procter & Gamble and financial services giant HSBC Group -that figured out how to develop and retain key employees and fill positions quickly to meet evolving business needs. Though each company approached talent management from a different direction, they both maintained a twin focus on functionality (rigorous talent processes that support strategic and cultural objectives) and vitality (management's emotional commitment, which is reflected in daily actions).

  7. First Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzo, R. A.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B. C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Bonnaud, C.; Capoani, L.; Dubet, D.; Henault, F.; Lantz, B.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Blanc, N.; Boudoul, G.; Bongard, S.; Castera, A.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Smadja, G.; Kessler, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Berrelet, E.; Garavini, G.; Gilles, S.; Guevara, L.-A.; Imbault, D.; Juramy, C.; Pain, R.; Taillet, R.; Vincent, D.; Baltay, C.; Rabinovitz, D.; Snyder, J.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2004-12-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is a project to discover, and study in detail, approximately 300 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.03 < z < 0.08. Supernova candidates are found by searching wide-field imaging data from the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) project at JPL, and from the Palomar Consortium (Yale/JPL/Caltech); this ultimately produces a sample of supernovae which is unbiased with respect to host galaxy type. Follow-up observations are performed with the Supernova Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS), a novel instrument installed on the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope on Mauna Kea and commissioned in April 2004. By providing time series of flux-calibrated optical spectra taken every two to three nights for each supernova, the SNfactory data set will dramatically improve our understanding of the physics of SNe Ia and reduce the uncertainties in their use as cosmological standard candles. SNIFS observations have been conducted remotely from the United States and France since June 2004, with increasing emphasis on scripting and automation for greater efficiency. This poster reviews the current status of SNIFS and of the SNfactory project and presents its first results after the commissioning of SNIFS. Support for SNfactory is provided in the United States by the DOE Office of Science, the National Science Foundation through the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN), the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics (KICP), and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and in France by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) through the Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3), the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU) and the Programme National de Cosmologie (PNC).

  8. DIY Fraction Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  9. 19. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, view of second floor's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, view of second floor's permutit room, view looking east showing water treatment tanks - North Star Woolen Mill, 109 Portland Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  10. Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Guidman, K.K.; Strait, J.B.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Optimization of pion and muon production/collection for neutrino factories and muon colliders is described along with recent developments of the MARS15 code event generators and effects influencing the choice of the optimal beam energy.

  11. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    PubMed Central

    Kitvatanachai, S; Apiwathnasorn, C; Leemingsawat, S; Wongwit, W; Overgaard, HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 µg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 µg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques. PMID:23569727

  12. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT PARTIAL EAST ELEVATION OF FACTORY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT PARTIAL EAST ELEVATION OF FACTORY, SHOWING FORMER OHIO & ERIE CANAL PRISM IN FOREGROUND THAT WAS USED AS WATER RESERVOIR (500,000 GALLON) - Jaite Paper Mill, 1200 West Highland Road, Sagamore Hills, Summit County, OH

  13. CHOICE OF PROTON DRIVER PARAMETERS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    KIRK, H.G.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; SIMOS, N.; WENG, W.

    2006-06-23

    We discuss criteria for designing an optimal ''green field'' proton driver for a neutrino factory. The driver parameters are determined by considerations of space charge, power capabilities of the target, beam loading and available RF peak power.

  14. Toroidal magnetized iron neutrino detector for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Burguet-Castell, J.

    2013-08-01

    A neutrino factory has unparalleled physics reach for the discovery and measurement of CP violation in the neutrino sector. A far detector for a neutrino factory must have good charge identification with excellent background rejection and a large mass. An elegant solution is to construct a magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) along the lines of MINOS, where iron plates provide a toroidal magnetic field and scintillator planes provide 3D space points. In this report, the current status of a simulation of a toroidal MIND for a neutrino factory is discussed in light of the recent measurements of large $\\theta_{13}$. The response and performance using the 10 GeV neutrino factory configuration are presented. It is shown that this setup has equivalent $\\delta_{CP}$ reach to a MIND with a dipole field and is sensitive to the discovery of CP violation over 85% of the values of $\\delta_{CP}$.

  15. Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Juan; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Tzeng, Wen-Ping; Frey, Teryl K.; Fernandez, Jose J.; Risco, Cristina

    2010-09-30

    Viral factories are complex structures in the infected cell where viruses compartmentalize their life cycle. Rubella virus (RUBV) assembles factories by recruitment of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), mitochondria and Golgi around modified lysosomes known as cytopathic vacuoles or CPVs. These organelles contain active replication complexes that transfer replicated RNA to assembly sites in Golgi membranes. We have studied the structure of RUBV factory in three dimensions by electron tomography and freeze-fracture. CPVs contain stacked membranes, rigid sheets, small vesicles and large vacuoles. These membranes are interconnected and in communication with the endocytic pathway since they incorporate endocytosed BSA-gold. RER and CPVs are coupled through protein bridges and closely apposed membranes. Golgi vesicles attach to the CPVs but no tight contacts with mitochondria were detected. Immunogold labelling confirmed that the mitochondrial protein p32 is an abundant component around and inside CPVs where it could play important roles in factory activities.

  16. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWOSTORY SECTION BUILT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWO-STORY SECTION BUILT IN 1892 AND PARTIALLY DESTROYED PARAPET SECTION BUILT CA. 1948. BRICK CHIMNEY ALSO BUILT CA. 1948. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  17. Application of fiber laser for a Higgs factory

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.

    2014-06-04

    This paper proposes a medium size(~6km) circular Higgs factory based on a photon collider. The recent breakthrough in fiber laser technology by means of a coherent amplifier network makes such a collider feasible and probably also affordable.

  18. 18. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, second floor, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, second floor, view looking northeast at opening in the floor for dropping warp rolls - North Star Woolen Mill, 109 Portland Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  19. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... to conduct an inspection of the manufacturing and quality control procedures and to...

  20. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... to conduct an inspection of the manufacturing and quality control procedures and to...

  1. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... to conduct an inspection of the manufacturing and quality control procedures and to...

  2. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... to conduct an inspection of the manufacturing and quality control procedures and to...

  3. Argonne Tau-charm factory collider design study

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.; Crosbie, E.A.; Norem, J.

    1995-12-01

    The design approach and design principles for a Tau-charm Factory at Argonne were studied. These studies led to a set of preliminary parameters and tentative component features as presented in this paper.

  4. 15. SOUTH TOWARD FRONT OF FACTORY FROM PUMP REPAIR WORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTH TOWARD FRONT OF FACTORY FROM PUMP REPAIR WORK BENCH, SHOWING HAND SHEAR MOUNTED ON A CASTER-FITTED TREE STUMP, WOOD-BURNING HEATING STOVE, CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS, AND PART OF CIRCA 1910 'THE RACINE' RECIPROCATING HACK SAW. THE WELDED STEEL PIPE RACK IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A MODERN INTRUSION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  5. Noncommunicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Jugal; Kohli, Charu; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming more prevalent in India. The data for presence of NCDs and its risk factors among factory workers is deficient in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among 37 factory workers and equal number of comparable subjects from general population. Screening for presence of diabetes along with its risk factors was made in both the groups using pretested predesigned World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS) questionnaire in rural area of Delhi. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. The estimation of risk in two groups was done with calculation of odds ratio (OR). P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: A total of 74 participants were included in the present study. Hypertension and diabetes was present in 13.5 and 5.4% of factory workers and four (10.8%) and three (8.8%) subjects in comparative group, respectively. Seven (18.9%) factory and eight (21.6%) non-factory subjects fell in the category of current smoker or smokeless tobacco users. High density lipoprotein levels were found abnormal among one (2.7%) factory worker and nine (24.3%) subjects in comparative group (P-value = 0.01). Behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption, and fruits and vegetable intake were significantly different among two groups. Conclusion: Factory workers were having better profile than non-factory subjects except for risk factors such as alcohol intake and inadequate fruits and vegetable intake. However, healthy worker effect phenomenon cannot be ruled out. PMID:23776324

  6. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  8. Pitch fractionation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, V.L.; White, J.L.

    1981-12-15

    Petroleum pitch (Ashland A240) has been subjected to thermal treatment and solvent fractionation to produce refined pitches to be evaluated as impregnants for carbon-carbon composites. The solvent fractions were obtained by sequential Soxhlet extraction with solvents such as hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, and pyridine. The most severe thermal treatment produced a mesophase pitch (approximately 50% mesophase); an appreciable portion of the mesophase was soluble in strong solvents. There were substantial differences in chemical composition and in pyrolysis behavior of the fractions. As the depth of fraction increased, the pyrolysis yield and bloating increased, and the microstructure of the coke became finer until glassy microconstituents were formed in the deepest fractions.

  9. Factorial designs: an overview with applications to orthodontic clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Walsh, Tanya; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, Theodore

    2014-06-01

    Factorial designs for clinical trials are often encountered in medical, dental, and orthodontic research. Factorial designs assess two or more interventions simultaneously and the main advantage of this design is its efficiency in terms of sample size as more than one intervention may be assessed on the same participants. However, the factorial design is efficient only under the assumption of no interaction (no effect modification) between the treatments under investigation and, therefore, this should be considered at the design stage. Conversely, the factorial study design may also be used for the purpose of detecting an interaction between two interventions if the study is powered accordingly. However, a factorial design powered to detect an interaction has no advantage in terms of the required sample size compared to a multi-arm parallel trial for assessing more than one intervention. It is the purpose of this article to highlight the methodological issues that should be considered when planning, analysing, and reporting the simplest form of this design, which is the 2 × 2 factorial design. An example from the field of orthodontics using two parameters (bracket type and wire type) on maxillary incisor torque loss will be utilized in order to explain the design requirements, the advantages and disadvantages of this design, and its application in orthodontic research.

  10. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Mu-In

    2015-12-01

    There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc / G) 1 / 2 ∼10-5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as "spacetime foam", due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG /c3) 1 / 2 ∼10-33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called "Black Wormhole", consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2 > 1 / 2), a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2 < 1 / 2), the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2 = 1 / 2). This solution suggests the "Generalized Cosmic Censorship" by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by "negative" energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the recent " ER

  11. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  12. A simple model for factory distribution: Historical effect in an industry city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Takashi; Sato, Kazunori; Morita, Satoru; Maeda, Yasunobu; Yoshimura, Jin; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2016-02-01

    The construction and discontinuance processes of factories are complicated problems in sociology. We focus on the spatial and temporal changes of factories at Hamamatsu city in Japan. Real data indicate that the clumping degree of factories decreases as the density of factory increases. To represent the spatial and temporal changes of factories, we apply "contact process" which is one of cellular automata. This model roughly explains the dynamics of factory distribution. We also find "historical effect" in spatial distribution. Namely, the recent factories have been dispersed due to the past distribution during the period of economic bubble. This effect may be related to heavy shock in Japanese stock market.

  13. A Simultaneous Measurement of the Branching Fractions of Ten B to Double Charm Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Lae, Chung Khim

    2008-01-16

    This dissertation presents a simultaneous measurement of the branching fractions of ten B → D (*)$\\bar{D}$(*) decays. The measurements are derived from a sample of 2.32 x 108 B$\\bar{B}$ pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory located at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  14. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS.

    PubMed

    Leonenko, Nikolai N; Meerschaert, Mark M; Sikorskii, Alla

    2013-07-15

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change.

  15. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  16. Microbially induced and microbially catalysed precipitation: two different carbonate factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The landmark paper by Schlager (2003) has revealed three types of benthic carbonate production referred to as "carbonate factories", operative at different locations at different times in Earth history. The tropical or T-factory comprises the classical platforms and fringing reefs and is dominated by carbonate precipitation by autotrophic calcifying metazoans ("biotically controlled" precipitation). The cool or C-factory is also biotically controlled but via heterotrophic, calcifying metazoans in cold and deep waters at the continental margins. A further type is the mud-mound or M-factory, where carbonate precipitation is supported by microorganisms but not controlled by a specific enzymatic pathway ("biotically induced" precipitation). How exactly the microbes influence precipitation is still poorly understood. Based on recent experimental and field studies, the microbial influence on modern mud mound and microbialite growth includes two fundamentally different processes: (1) Metabolic activity of microbes may increase the saturation state with respect to a particular mineral phase, thereby indirectly driving the precipitation of the mineral phase: microbially induced precipitation. (2) In a situation, where a solution is already supersaturated but precipitation of the mineral is inhibited by a kinetic barrier, microbes may act as a catalyser, i.e. they lower the kinetic barrier: microbially catalysed precipitation. Such a catalytic effect can occur e.g. via secreted polymeric substances or specific chemical groups on the cell surface, at which the minerals nucleate or which facilitate mechanistically the bonding of new ions to the mineral surface. Based on these latest developments in microbialite formation, I propose to extend the scheme of benthic carbonate factories of Schlager et al. (2003) by introducing an additional branch distinguishing microbially induced from microbially catalysed precipitation. Although both mechanisms could be operative in a M-factory

  17. Kinetic models in industrial biotechnology - Improving cell factory performance.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Joachim; Cvijovic, Marija; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Nielsen, Jens; Jirstrand, Mats

    2014-07-01

    An increasing number of industrial bioprocesses capitalize on living cells by using them as cell factories that convert sugars into chemicals. These processes range from the production of bulk chemicals in yeasts and bacteria to the synthesis of therapeutic proteins in mammalian cell lines. One of the tools in the continuous search for improved performance of such production systems is the development and application of mathematical models. To be of value for industrial biotechnology, mathematical models should be able to assist in the rational design of cell factory properties or in the production processes in which they are utilized. Kinetic models are particularly suitable towards this end because they are capable of representing the complex biochemistry of cells in a more complete way compared to most other types of models. They can, at least in principle, be used to in detail understand, predict, and evaluate the effects of adding, removing, or modifying molecular components of a cell factory and for supporting the design of the bioreactor or fermentation process. However, several challenges still remain before kinetic modeling will reach the degree of maturity required for routine application in industry. Here we review the current status of kinetic cell factory modeling. Emphasis is on modeling methodology concepts, including model network structure, kinetic rate expressions, parameter estimation, optimization methods, identifiability analysis, model reduction, and model validation, but several applications of kinetic models for the improvement of cell factories are also discussed.

  18. Systems biology and metabolic engineering of Arthrospira cell factories.

    PubMed

    Klanchui, Amornpan; Vorapreeda, Tayvich; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Khannapho, Chiraphan; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Meechai, Asawin

    2012-01-01

    Arthrospira are attractive candidates to serve as cell factories for production of many valuable compounds useful for food, feed, fuel and pharmaceutical industries. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocessing, it is a challenge to design and develop efficient Arthrospira cell factories which can certify effective conversion from the raw materials (i.e. CO2 and sun light) into desired products. With the current availability of the genome sequences and metabolic models of Arthrospira, the development of Arthrospira factories can now be accelerated by means of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach. Here, we review recent research involving the use of Arthrospira cell factories for industrial applications, as well as the exploitation of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach for studying Arthrospira. The current status of genomics and proteomics through the development of the genome-scale metabolic model of Arthrospira, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies are discussed. At the end, the perspective and future direction on Arthrospira cell factories for industrial biotechnology are presented.

  19. Systems biology and metabolic engineering of Arthrospira cell factories

    PubMed Central

    Klanchui, Amornpan; Vorapreeda, Tayvich; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Khannapho, Chiraphan; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Meechai, Asawin

    2012-01-01

    Arthrospira are attractive candidates to serve as cell factories for production of many valuable compounds useful for food, feed, fuel and pharmaceutical industries. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocessing, it is a challenge to design and develop efficient Arthrospira cell factories which can certify effective conversion from the raw materials (i.e. CO2 and sun light) into desired products. With the current availability of the genome sequences and metabolic models of Arthrospira, the development of Arthrospira factories can now be accelerated by means of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach. Here, we review recent research involving the use of Arthrospira cell factories for industrial applications, as well as the exploitation of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach for studying Arthrospira. The current status of genomics and proteomics through the development of the genome-scale metabolic model of Arthrospira, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies are discussed. At the end, the perspective and future direction on Arthrospira cell factories for industrial biotechnology are presented. PMID:24688675

  20. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Würthwein, F.; Andrews, W.; Dost, J. M.; MacNeill, I.; McCrea, A.; Sheripon, E.; Murphy, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  1. Recent Searches for Exotic Physics at the BaBar/PEP-II B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    Sekula, Stephen Jacob; /Ohio State U.

    2008-10-22

    I present three recent results from searches for exotic physics at the BABAR/PEP-II B-factory. These results span many of the samples produced at the B-factory, including B mesons, {tau} leptons, and {Upsilon}(3S) mesons. We have searched for CPT-violation in B{sup 0} mixing and find no significant deviation from the no-violation hypothesis. We have also searched for lepton-flavor-violating decays of the {tau} using {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup -} and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {ell}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and their charge conjugates. We find no evidence for these processes and set upper limits on their branching fractions. Finally, we have searched for a low-mass Higgs boson in the decay {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {gamma}A{sup 0}, where the Higgs decays invisibly. We find no evidence for such a decay and set upper limits across a range of possible Higgs masses.

  2. Simulation of scintillation light output in LYSO scintillators through a full factorial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loignon-Houle, Francis; Bergeron, Mélanie; Pepin, Catherine M.; Charlebois, Serge A.; Lecomte, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Individually coupled scintillation detectors used in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging suffer from important signal losses due to the suboptimal light collection from crystals. As only a fraction of the light is generally extracted from long and thin scintillators, it is important to identify and understand the predominant causes of signal loss in order to eventually recover it. This simulation study investigates the multiple factors affecting the light transport in high-aspect ratio LYSO scintillators wrapped in specular reflectors through a full factorial design. By exploring various combinations of crystal geometry, readout conditions and wrapping conditions, it was found that an optimum light output can only be achieved through a careful selection of highly reflective material along with high-transmittance optical adhesive used to bond the reflector. Decreasing the adhesive thickness was also found to have a positive outcome in most explored configurations, however to a much lesser extent. Suboptimal reflectivity and adhesive transmittance also lead to an asymmetric light output distribution dependent on the depth of interaction of the radiation, potentially degrading energy resolution. By identifying the factors causing the most significant scintillation light losses through a factorial design, the most promising detector configurations have been identified in the quest for optimal light collection from scintillators.

  3. Sorption of distillery spent wash onto fly ash: kinetics, mechanism, process design and factorial design.

    PubMed

    Krishna Prasad, R; Srivastava, S N

    2009-01-30

    Batch and continuous experiments were performed for the sorption of distillery spent wash onto fly ash particles. The Freundlich and pseudo-second order equation were found to fit the equilibrium data perfectly. The Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion isotherm equation was used to predict the sorption mechanism and the predicted equation for 10% dilution of spent wash sorption is q(t)=1.1344t(0.5)+33.304. The optimization using 2(3) factorial design of experiments provides optimal removal of color of 93% for dilution (5%), dosage of adsorbent (10g) and temperature (293K). The actual color removal at optimal conditions was 92.24%, confirms close to the factorial design results. The complete error analysis using six non-linear error functions: Chi-square (chi(2)); sum of square errors (SSE); composite fractional error function (HYBRD); derivative of Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD); average relative error (ARE); sum of absolute errors (EABS) were calculated. Free energy of adsorption at 293K (DeltaG(0)=-1574.67J), enthalpy change (DeltaH(0)=-32.5487KJ) and entropy change (DeltaS(0)=105J/K) were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption. Adsorption studies in a packed column were evaluated using Bed depth service time model, Thomas model and Adams-Bohart model.

  4. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  5. An Appetite for Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  6. On fractional programming

    SciTech Connect

    Bajona-Xandri, C.; Martinez-Legaz, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    This paper studies the minimax fractional programming problem, assuming quasiconvexity of the objective function, under the lower subdifferentiability viewpoint. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions and dual properties are found. We present applications of this theory to find the Pareto efficient solutions of a multiobjective fractional problem and to solve several economic models.

  7. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  8. Fractional dissipative standard map.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Vasily E; Edelman, M

    2010-06-01

    Using kicked differential equations of motion with derivatives of noninteger orders, we obtain generalizations of the dissipative standard map. The main property of these generalized maps, which are called fractional maps, is long-term memory. The memory effect in the fractional maps means that their present state of evolution depends on all past states with special forms of weights. Already a small deviation of the order of derivative from the integer value corresponding to the regular dissipative standard map (small memory effects) leads to the qualitatively new behavior of the corresponding attractors. The fractional dissipative standard maps are used to demonstrate a new type of fractional attractors in the wide range of the fractional orders of derivatives.

  9. Analysis of Interpersonal Communication Processes in Digital Factory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Jens; Baum, Heiko; Laue, Martin; Müller, Egon

    The paper outlines the scope of influence of digital factory on the interpersonal communication process and the exemplary description of them. On the basis of a brief description about the theoretical basic concepts of the digital factory occurs the illustration of communicative features in digital factory. Practical coherences of interpersonal communication from a human oriented view were analyzed in Volkswagen AG in Wolfsburg in a pilot project. A modeling method was developed within the process analysis. This method makes it possible to visualize interpersonal communication and its human oriented attribute in a technically focused workflow. Due to the results of a developed inquiry about communication analysis and process models of modeling methods it was possible to build the processes in a suitable way for humans and to obtain a positive implication on the communication processes.

  10. Longitudinal Beam Stability in the SUPER B-FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati

    2009-07-06

    We give an overview of wake fields and impedances in a proposed Super B project, which is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large angle with a crab waist transformation. Understanding the effects that wake fields have on the beam is critical for a successful machine operation. We use our combined experience from the operation of the SLAC B-factory and DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-factory to eliminate strong HOM sources and minimize the chamber impedance in the Super B design. Based on a detailed study of the wake fields in this design we have developed a quasi-Green's function for the entire ring that is used to study bunch lengthening and beam stability. In particular, we check the stability threshold using numerical solutions of the Fokker-Plank equation. We also make a comparison of numerical simulations with the bunch lengthening data in the B- factory.

  11. Running medical image analysis on GridFactory desktop grid.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Frederik; Niinimaki, Marko; Zhou, Xin; Rosendahl, Peter; Müller, Henning; Waananen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    At the Geneva University Hospitals work is in progress to establish a computing facility for medical image analysis, potentially using several hundreds of desktop computers. Typically, hospitals do not have a computer infrastructure dedicated to research, nor can the data leave the hospital network for the reasons of privacy. For this purpose, a novel batch system called GridFactory has been tested along-side with the well-known batch system Condor. GridFactory's main benefits, compared to other batch systems, lie in its virtualization support and firewall friendliness. The tests involved running visual feature extraction from 50,000 anonymized medical images on a small local grid of 20 desktop computers. A comparisons with a Condor based batch system in the same computers is then presented. The performance of GridFactory is found satisfactory.

  12. NEUTRINO FACTORY AND BETA BEAM EXPERIMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALBRIGHT, C.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.; GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; ET AL.

    2004-09-21

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here. There has been no corresponding activity in the U.S. on Beta Beam facility design and, given the very limited resources, there is little prospect of starting a significant U.S. Beta Beam R&D effort in the near future. However, the Beta Beam concept is interesting, and progress on its development in Europe should be followed. The Neutrino Factory R&D program has reached a critical stage in which support is required for two crucial international experiments and a third-generation international design study. If this support is forthcoming, a Neutrino Factory could be added to the Neutrino Community's road map in about a decade.

  13. Cost-effective design for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Bogacz

    2006-01-01

    There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a neutrino factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high-energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed feasibility study (FS2) for a neutrino factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling, and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  14. Linear collider approach to a B anti B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper we consider the basic design expression and principal design constraints for a linear collider suitable for a B anti-B factory: Energy approx. =10 GeV, luminosity 10/sup 33/-10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/, energy resolution approx. =10/sup -2/. The design of room temperature linear colliders for a B factory is discussed. In such colliders, the rf energy stored in the linac structure is thrown away after each linac pulse. Linear colliders using superconducting rf cavities are considered. Some brief conclusions are presented.

  15. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2011-03-20

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in R&D towards a neutrino factory and muon collider. The U.S. Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has been formed recently to expedite the R&D efforts. This paper will review the U.S. MAP R&D programs for a neutrino factory and muon collider. Muon ionization cooling research is the key element of the program. The first muon ionization cooling demonstration experiment, MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment), is under construction now at RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) in the UK. The current status of MICE will be described.

  16. Muon collider//neutrino factory: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Daniel M.; Neutrino Factory Collaboration; Muon Collider Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    During the 1990s an international collaboration has been studying the possibility of constructing and operating a high-energy high-luminosity μ +μ - collider. Such a machine could be the approach of choice to extend our discovery reach beyond that of the LHC. More recently, a growing collaboration is exploring the potential of a stored-muon-beam "neutrino factory" to elucidate neutrino oscillations. A neutrino factory could be an attractive stepping-stone to a muon collider. Its construction, possibly feasible within the coming decade, could have substantial impact on neutrino physics.

  17. Asymptotic Behavior of Gaps Between Roots of Weighted Factorials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-20

    ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR OF GAPS BETWEEN ROOTS OF WEIGHTED FACTORIALS COREY MARTINSEN AND PANTELIMON STĂNICĂ Abstract. Here, we find a general method...for computing the limit of differences of con- secutive terms of n-th roots of weighted factorials by a sequence xn (under some technical condition). As...a consequence, we show that lim n→∞ ( n+1 √ (n+ 1)!xn+1 − n √ n!xn ) = αe−1, where α ≥ 1 is the dominant root of the characteristic equation of an

  18. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  19. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2012-08-01

    In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. NAMER: A FORTRAN 4 program for use in optimizing designs of two-level factorial experiments given partial prior information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Under certain specified conditions, the Bayes procedure for designing two-level fractional factorial experiments is that which maximizes the expected utility over all possible choices of parameter-estimator matchings, physical-design variable matchings, defining parameter groups, and sequences of telescoping groups. NAMER computes the utility of all possible matchings of physical variables to design variables and parameters to estimators for a specified choice of defining parameter group or groups. The matching yielding the maximum expected utility is indicated, and detailed information is provided about the optimal matchings and utilities. Complete documentation is given; and an example illustrates input, output, and usage.

  1. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella spp. isolates from gulls, fish-meal factories, feed factories, animals and humans in Norway based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, L. L.; Refsum, T.; Heir, E.; Nordby, K.; Vardund, T.; Holstad, G.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of 98 isolates of Salmonella serovar Agona (n = 27), S. Montevideo (n = 42) and S. Senftenberg (n = 29) from wild-living gulls, fish-meal factories, feed factories, humans and domestic animals was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and computerized numerical analysis. Two of the S. Agona profiles were identified both in gulls and in two of the factories. In addition, one of these profiles was detected in two infected poultry farms. Two of the S. Montevideo profiles were also identified both in gulls and in two of the factories, and one of these profiles was observed in a human isolate. Four factories shared an identical S. Senftenberg profile. The S. Senftenberg profile found in gulls was not identified in any other source investigated. The presence of isolates with identical PFGE profiles indicates potential epidemiological links between different factories, as well as between gulls and factories. PMID:15724711

  3. Fractional market dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Nick

    2000-12-01

    A new extension of a fractality concept in financial mathematics has been developed. We have introduced a new fractional Langevin-type stochastic differential equation that differs from the standard Langevin equation: (i) by replacing the first-order derivative with respect to time by the fractional derivative of order μ; and (ii) by replacing “white noise” Gaussian stochastic force by the generalized “shot noise”, each pulse of which has a random amplitude with the α-stable Lévy distribution. As an application of the developed fractional non-Gaussian dynamical approach the expression for the probability distribution function (pdf) of the returns has been established. It is shown that the obtained fractional pdf fits well the central part and the tails of the empirical distribution of S&P 500 returns.

  4. Impact of carrier recombination on fill factor for large area heterojunction crystalline silicon solar cell with 25.1% efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Hernández, José Luis; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    We have achieved a certified 25.1% conversion efficiency in a large area (151.9 cm2) heterojunction (HJ) crystalline Si (c-Si) solar cell with amorphous Si (a-Si) passivation layer. This efficiency is a world record in a both-side-contacted c-Si solar cell. Our high efficiency HJ c-Si solar cells are investigated from the standpoint of the effective minority carrier lifetime (τe), and the impact of τe on fill factor (FF) is discussed. The τe measurements of our high efficiency HJ c-Si solar cells reveal that τe at an injection level corresponding to an operation point of maximum power is dominated by the carrier recombination at the a-Si/c-Si interface. By optimization of the process conditions, the carrier recombination at the a-Si/c-Si interface is reduced, which leads to an improvement of the FF by an absolute value of 2.7%, and a conversion efficiency of 25.1% has been achieved. These results indicate that the reduction of carrier recombination centers at the a-Si/c-Si interface should be one of the most crucial issues for further improvement of FF even in the HJ c-Si solar cells with efficiency over 25%.

  5. Catalytic reforming of naphtha fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, K.C.; Vorhis, F.H.

    1980-09-16

    Production of motor gasoline and a btx-enriched reformate by fractionating a naphtha feedstock into a mid-boiling btxprecursor fraction, a relatively high-boiling fraction and a relatively low-boiling fraction; catalytically reforming the btxprecursor fraction in a first reforming zone; combining the relatively high-boiling and low-boiling fractions and catalytically reforming the combined fractions in a second reforming zone.

  6. West Virginia's Byrd Institute: Teaching Factory for New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1993-01-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Institute for Advanced Flexible Manufacturing Systems at Marshall University (Huntington, West Virginia) is part of a nationwide network of teaching factories where manufacturers can learn new, more competitive production technologies. The institute has helped several local manufacturing companies develop computer programs to…

  7. Replicating systems concepts: Self-replicating lunar factory and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Automation of lunar mining and manufacturing facility maintenance and repair is addressed. Designing the factory as an automated, multiproduct, remotely controlled, reprogrammable Lunar Manufacturing Facility capable of constructing duplicates of itself which would themselves be capable of further replication is proposed.

  8. The Use of Factorial Forecasting to Predict Public Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Policies that call for members of the public to change their behavior fail if people don't change; predictions of whether the requisite changes will take place are needed prior to implementation. I propose to solve the prediction problem with Factorial Forecasting, a version of functional measurement methodology that employs group designs. Aspects…

  9. Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-12-17

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  10. Occupational cobalt and chromium dermatitis in an offset printing factory.

    PubMed

    Spruit, D; Malten, K E

    1975-01-01

    A case history of three offset printers and the atomic absorption analysis of their contact materials is described. Though the factory direction and personnel felt strongly about cooperating in order to combat the disease, it became apparent that the prescribed measures had not been effectively carried out. The chemical analysis of the materials proved to be a necessary supplement to the patch testing procedure.

  11. Training Factory Workers: Three Case Studies. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschhorn, Larry D.

    Case studies examined the context and impact of training in three factories: a bakery, a circuit assembly plant, and a plant that produces microchips. Cookie-Foods, Inc. used Statistical Process Control (SPC) and a course on problem solving to increase the operators' productivity. Impact of the SPC program was limited, because workers who…

  12. Providing a Meaningful Social Studies Experience: Champions' Chocolate Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presnell, Laurie L.; Shaw, Donna Gail

    1988-01-01

    Describes a student teacher's experiences using a classroom simulation to teach fifth graders about the world of work. Summarizes the economic concepts and principles that were illustrated through the simulation of a candy factory. Discusses student activities and reporting in the five-six day lesson and includes a list of resources for teaching…

  13. Impedance study for the PEP-II B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.; Daly, C.E.; Ko, K.

    1995-06-01

    The paper summarizes results of the impedance studies of the components of the B-factory. The prime goal of this activity was to support the design of the vacuum chamber and, at the same time, to get a reasonable model of the machine impedance, which can be used later for detail studies of collective effects.

  14. Neutrino Factory R&D in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.; for the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collabo

    2003-09-24

    We report here on the technical progress and R&D plans of the U.S. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration. Programs in targetry, cooling, acceleration, and simulations are covered. U.S. activities in support of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) are also described.

  15. Investigation on gait time series by means of factorial moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huijie; Zhao, Fangcui; Zhuo, Yizhong; Wu, Xizhen; Li, Zhuxia

    2002-09-01

    By means of factorial moments (FM), the fractal structures embedded in gait time series are investigated. Intermittency is found in records for healthy objects. And this kind of intermittency is much sensitive to disease or outside influences. It is found that FM is an effective tool to deal with this kind of time series.

  16. Improving the Welfare of Women Factory Workers: Lessons from Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Mary C.

    1990-01-01

    Attention to the quality of the working environment for women factory workers can make a real contribution to productivity. The example of an Indonesian project that introduced low-cost workplace improvements and provided health instruction shows the feasibility and effectiveness of such efforts, provided there is a clear commitment from…

  17. Learning Factory--Assembling Learning Content with a Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steininger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many of the challenges currently facing lectures are symptoms of problems with learning content creation, development and presentation. Learning Factory solves these problems by integrating critical innovations that have been proven over the last ten to twenty years in different industrial areas, but have not yet been brought or ported together in…

  18. Search for Light New Physics at B Factories

    DOE PAGES

    Echenard, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model include the possibility of light new particles, such as light Higgs bosons or dark matter candidates. These scenarios can be probed using the large datasets collected by B factories, complementing measurements performed at the LHC. This paper summarizes recent searches for light new physics conducted by the BABAR and Belle experiments.

  19. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  20. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  1. Factorial Design: An Eight Factor Experiment Using Paper Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozma, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the analysis of the multi-factor experiment (factorial design) conducted in EG490, Junior Design at Loyola College in Maryland. The discussion of this paper concludes the experimental analysis and ties the individual class papers together.

  2. Perspective view. Threestory steel and brick building with factory windows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. Three-story steel and brick building with factory windows punctuating facades. East and west facades have tall brick piers capped with evenly spaced stone capitals. North facade (facing Milwaukee Ave. E.) has parapet element decorated with stone accent lines and large flagpole. Piers on north facade have raised stone base - New Center Stamping, 950 East Milwaukee Avenue, Detroit, MI

  3. Child Protection Decision Making: A Factorial Analysis Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Glen

    2012-01-01

    This study explored decision making by child protection social workers in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A factorial survey method was used in which case vignettes were constructed by randomly assigning a number of key characteristics associated with decision making in child protection. Child protection social workers (n = 118) assessed…

  4. The Factory is Virtual...The Savings are Real

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    and flow simulation "* Innovative product designs and manufacturing processes "* Re-engineering the processes and flow for lean manufacturing "* The...factory operations for military, commercial and space programs has provided the capability to develop and prove out lean manufacturing operations

  5. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF FACTORY ADDITION, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF FACTORY ADDITION, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. AT THE CENTER IS THE BUFFING MACHINE, MANUFACTURED BY THE ACME CO. OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN. IT WAS HERE THAT ALUMINUM WARES WERE BROUGHT FOR FINAL GRINDING AND BUFFING. THE HOSES REMOVED DUST AND DEBRIS. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  6. 10. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, LOOKING SOUTH. AT CENTER IS A SHALLOW-DRAWN PRESS (#3-1/2) MANUFACTURED BY E. W. BLISS OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  7. 7. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AT CENTER IS A DEEP-BRAWN, HEAVY PRESS MANUFACTURED BY E. W. BLISS CO., BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. PRESS #3-1/2-C PATENTED BY E. W. BLISS CO., 1893. MANUFACTURER'S PLATE INDICATES PRESS DATES FROM 1922. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  8. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. AT CENTER IS THE SAME PRESS AS SHOWN ABOVE (IL-25-7). TO LEFT IS PART OF THE OVERHEAD BELT GUARD. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  9. Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

  10. Monochromatic design for the Apiary B-factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovin, A.; Zholents, A.; Garren, A.

    1990-10-01

    There are several ways to design e+e- circular colliders to maximize luminosity. Here we present a design that achieves two principal goals: high luminosity and very small center-of-mass energy spread. The design possesses several attractive features, especially for an asymmetric B-factory.

  11. Review of North American Neutrino Factory R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.; Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration

    2002-10-07

    We report here on the R and D program of the U.S. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration. Our effort includes work on targetry, muon ionization cooling, simulation work, and development of superconducting RF cavities. In addition, we are involved in the international effort toward a Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). Recent activities in all these areas will be described.

  12. Report of the B-factory group: II, Accelerator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; Cassel, D.G.; Feldman, G.J.; Alam, M.S.; Aleksan, R.; Atwood, W.B.; Bartelt, J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Boyce, J.R.; Cline, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on B-factory accelerators: Storage rings for the {Upsilon}(4S) and continuing Linear colliders for the {Upsilon}(4S) and continuum; and storage rings and linear colliders for the Z. 52 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Development in the Learning Factory: Training Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Harry; Delbridge, Rick

    2001-01-01

    A study of human resource practices in 18 automobile factories in the United States and Britain showed that manufacturing innovations are placing greater demands on line managers and workers. Training is being refocused to develop their interpersonal, team, and leadership skills. However, lack of time and suitable training facilities are barriers.…

  14. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world;…

  15. No Child Left Behind: Factory Models and Business Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    Because No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is not based on educational research or research-based theory, it offers no new innovations nor does anything to improve the fundamental quality of education. NCLB is built on a rigid, outdated factory model in which students step onto a thirteen-year conveyor belt in kindergarten and progress slowly forward,…

  16. Bioretention Systems: Partial Factorial Designs for Nitrate Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in nutrient loadings are monitored by introducing captured stormwater runoff into eight outdoor rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey scaled for residential and urban landscapes. The partial factorial design includes non-vegetated meso...

  17. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  18. Thermodynamics in Fractional Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilanov, R. P.; Magomedov, R. A.

    2014-11-01

    A generalization of thermodynamics in the formalism of fractional-order derivatives is given. Results of the traditional thermodynamics of Carnot, Clausius, and Helmholtz are obtained in the particular case where the exponent of a fractional-order derivative is equal to unity. A one-parametric "fractal" equation of state is obtained with account of the second virial coefficient. The application of the resulting equation of state in the case of the gas argon is considered.

  19. Symmetric continued fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Panprasitwech, Oranit; Laohakosol, Vichian; Chaichana, Tuangrat

    2010-11-11

    Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

  20. Chromatographic methods of fractionation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, A D

    1987-01-01

    Chromatography's functional versatility, separation efficiency, gentle non-denaturing separating process and ease of automation and scale-up make it attractive for industrial scale protein purification. The Winnipeg Rh Institute's new Plasma Fractionation facility is an example of the use of chromatography for the large scale purification of plasma protein fractions. The fractionation facility has a capacity to process 800 litres of plasma per batch into blood clotting factor VIII and IX, albumin and intravenous immune serum globulin (i.v. ISG). Albumin and i.v. ISG are purified using ion exchange columns of DEAE-Sepharose (230 litre size), DEAE-Biogel (150 litre size) and CM-Sepharose (150 litre size). The chromatographic process is automated using a Modicon 584 Programmable Logic Controller to regulate valves, pumps and sensors which control plasma flow during fractionation. The stainless steel tanks and piping are automatically cleaned-in-place. The high degree of automation and cleaning provides efficient operation and sanitary processing. Chromatographic methods (DEAE-Sepharose and metal chelation) are also being used at the pilot scale to purify the human blood products superoxide dismutase and hemoglobin from outdated red blood cells. Characterization of the protein fractions produced by chromatography has shown them to be of equal or higher quality than fractions produced by other techniques.

  1. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  2. A factorial assessment of the sensitivity of the BATS land-surface parameterization scheme. [BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson-Sellers, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Land-surface schemes developed for incorporation into global climate models include parameterizations that are not yet fully validated and depend upon the specification of a large (20-50) number of ecological and soil parameters, the values of which are not yet well known. There are two methods of investigating the sensitivity of a land-surface scheme to prescribed values: simple one-at-a-time changes or factorial experiments. Factorial experiments offer information about interactions between parameters and are thus a more powerful tool. Here the results of a suite of factorial experiments are reported. These are designed (i) to illustrate the usefulness of this methodology and (ii) to identify factors important to the performance of complex land-surface schemes. The Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) is used and its sensitivity is considered (a) to prescribed ecological and soil parameters and (b) to atmospheric forcing used in the off-line tests undertaken. Results indicate that the most important atmospheric forcings are mean monthly temperature and the interaction between mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation, although fractional cloudiness and other parameters are also important. The most important ecological parameters are vegetation roughness length, soil porosity, and a factor describing the sensitivity of the stomatal resistance of vegetation to the amount of photosynthetically active solar radiation and, to a lesser extent, soil and vegetation albedos. Two-factor interactions including vegetation roughness length are more important than many of the 23 specified single factors. The results of factorial sensitivity experiments such as these could form the basis for intercomparison of land-surface parameterization schemes and for field experiments and satellite-based observation programs aimed at improving evaluation of important parameters.

  3. 18. THIRD FLOOR COLUMN/BEAM CONNECTION DETAIL IN FACTORY. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. THIRD FLOOR COLUMN/BEAM CONNECTION DETAIL IN FACTORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, James Beach & Sons Company Factory & Warehouse, 57 South Locust Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  4. Identifying Fractions on Number Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, George W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the ways students represented fractions on number lines and the effects of instruction on those representations. The instruction primarily concerned representing fractions and ordering fractions on number lines. (Author/PK)

  5. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  6. Bulgar Factories (Trading Posts) in the Kama River Area as a Factor of Adjustment to Feudalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krylasova, Natalia B.; Belavin, Andrei M.; Podosenova, Yulia A.

    2016-01-01

    At the start of the 2nd ML AD a number of trading posts, or factories, emerged in the Cis-Ural region with participation of Bulgar handicraftsmen and merchants. They were townships populated by various ethnic groups. Several centuries later similar factories were set up by natives of the Cis-Ural region in Western Siberia. These factories have…

  7. Viability of an Enzymatic Mannitol Method to Predict Sugarcane Deterioration at Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...

  8. Factorial Structure of the New Ecological Paradigm Scale in Two French Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane; Marcouyeux, Aurore; Renard, Elise; Roussiau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to test the factorial structure of the New Ecological Paradigm scale on a population of men and women residing in France. The tested model is a second-order factorial model. This factorial structure is evaluated on two separate samples to test the stability of the solution (a first sample of 253…

  9. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  10. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  11. Inverse counting statistics based on generalized factorial cumulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Philipp; König, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    We propose a procedure to reconstruct characteristic features of an unknown stochastic system from the long-time full counting statistics of some of the system’s transitions that are monitored by a detector. The full counting statistics is conveniently parametrized by so-called generalized factorial cumulants. Taking only a few of them as input information is sufficient to reconstruct important features such as the lower bound of the system dimension and the full spectrum of relaxation rates. The use of generalized factorial cumulants reveals system dimensions and rates that are hidden for ordinary cumulants. We illustrate the inverse counting-statistics procedure for two model systems: a single-level quantum dot in a Zeeman field and a single-electron box subjected to sequential and Andreev tunneling.

  12. Kinetics of wet air oxidation (WAO) of alcaloide factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kunukcu, Y Kaçar

    2005-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) of Afyon alcaloide factory wastewater, a typical high strength industrial wastewater, was carried out. The process was performed in a specifically designed titanium bubble reactor at temperatures in the range of 140-160 degrees C. The kinetics of WAO of alcaloide factory wastewater was modeled by assuming two distinct steps. The rates of destruction were measured with respect to reduction in COD. The oxidation reaction was found to be first order with respect to COD concentration and also second order with respect to oxygen concentration in both steps. The values of activation energies were found to be in the range of 4.93 x 10(4)-7.85 x 10(4) kJ/kmol.

  13. Environmental history of a factory producing friction material.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, J W; Dufficy, B L

    1983-02-01

    The fibre concentrations generated during the production of friction materials, incorporating asbestos, over the past 60 years have been studied to provide cumulative dust exposure data for a mortality study of the work-force. Chrysotile has been used almost exclusively during this period. The measurements made routinely by the factory staff provided information from 1950 onwards; concentrations for earlier years were derived from simulation studies using original materials, machines, and methods. These have shown that while high concentrations prevailed in the earliest years dust suppression measures initiated in 1931, and other factors, reduced the time-weighted average concentrations to moderate levels. There were two four-year periods when the production of brake blocks incorporating crocidolite occupied a well-defined area of the factory. The simulation of this production was not permissible, but the employees concerned could be identified.

  14. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2009-04-29

    There is considerable interest in the use of muon beams to create either an intense source of decay neutrinos aimed at a detector located 3000-7500 km away (a Neutrino Factory), or a Muon Collider that produces high-luminosity collisions at the energy frontier. R&D aimed at producing these facilities has been under way for more than 10 years. This paper will review experimental results from MuCool, MERIT, and MICE and indicate the extent to which they will provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of the key technologies required for a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. Progress in constructing components for the MICE experiment will also be described.

  15. Plant factory: A new method for reducing carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Liu, Tong; Ma, Jianshe

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a focus issue all over the world. Many scientific studies have confirmed the relationship between the emission of greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide and global climate change. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gas is an effective way to solve the problem of climate change. This paper presents a new method for reducing carbon emissions: using the photosynthesis of plants to achieve carbon fixation in plant factory. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we built a closed artificial light plant factory adopting LED lighting to conduct the experiment of carbon dioxide enrichment. The results shows that the production of the plants increased by 20%-25% and the plants fixed a considerable amount of carbon dioxide by increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the environment to 1000 ppm.

  16. Evolutionary algorithm for the neutrino factory front end design

    SciTech Connect

    Poklonskiy, Alexey A.; Neuffer, David; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is an important tool in the long-term neutrino physics program. Substantial effort is put internationally into designing this facility in order to achieve desired performance within the allotted budget. This accelerator is a secondary beam machine: neutrinos are produced by means of the decay of muons. Muons, in turn, are produced by the decay of pions, produced by hitting the target by a beam of accelerated protons suitable for acceleration. Due to the physics of this process, extra conditioning of the pion beam coming from the target is needed in order to effectively perform subsequent acceleration. The subsystem of the Neutrino Factory that performs this conditioning is called Front End, its main performance characteristic is the number of the produced muons.

  17. SEARCH FOR NEW PHYSICS AT A SUPER-B FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWDER,T.E.; SONI,A.

    2004-01-05

    The importance of a Super-B Factory in the search for New Physics, in particular, due to CP-od phase(s) from physics beyond the Standard Model is surveyed. The first point to emphasize is that we know now how to directly measure all three angles of the unitarity triangle very cleanly, i. e. without theoretical assumptions with irreducible theory error {le} 1%; however this requires much more luminosity than is currently available at B-factories. Direct searches via penguin-dominated hadronic modes as well as radiative, pair-leptonic and semi-leptonic decays are also discussed. Null tests of the SM are stressed as these will play a crucial role especially if the effects of BSM phase(s) on B-physics are small.

  18. Environmental history of a factory producing friction material.

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, J W; Dufficy, B L

    1983-01-01

    The fibre concentrations generated during the production of friction materials, incorporating asbestos, over the past 60 years have been studied to provide cumulative dust exposure data for a mortality study of the work-force. Chrysotile has been used almost exclusively during this period. The measurements made routinely by the factory staff provided information from 1950 onwards; concentrations for earlier years were derived from simulation studies using original materials, machines, and methods. These have shown that while high concentrations prevailed in the earliest years dust suppression measures initiated in 1931, and other factors, reduced the time-weighted average concentrations to moderate levels. There were two four-year periods when the production of brake blocks incorporating crocidolite occupied a well-defined area of the factory. The simulation of this production was not permissible, but the employees concerned could be identified. PMID:6297534

  19. A factorial design for optimizing a flow injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Luna, J R; Ovalles, J F; León, A; Buchheister, M

    2000-05-01

    The use of a factorial design for the response exploration of a flow injection (FI) system is described and illustrated by FI spectrophotometric determination of paraquat. Variable response (absorbance) is explored as a function of the factors flow rate and length of the reaction coil. The present study was found to be useful to detect and estimate any interaction among the factors that may affect the optimal conditions for the maximal response in the optimization of the FI system, which is not possible with a univariate design. In addition, this study showed that factorial experiments enable economy of experimentation and yield results of high precision due to the use of the whole data for calculating the effects.

  20. Physics prospects for the SLAC B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    CP violation has been an enigma since its discovery in the decays of neutral kaons in 1964. The present version of the Standard Model can accommodate CP violation by means of a non-zero phase in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. However, CP violation in the kaon system occurs at the part per mille level and the Standard Model`s predictions for CP violation have not been conclusively tested. In contrast to the kaon system, B-mesons decay into a variety of final states, many of which could exhibit CP violation and therefore offer multiple tests of the Standard Model. Several large efforts currently are in progress to create dedicated experiments or factories which will provide large quantities of B-mesons which, in turn, should give large numbers of CP-violating decays. Here, a very brief presentation of the physics prospects for the SLAC B-Factory, now under construction, is presented.

  1. SuperB: a Linear High-Luminosity B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Bettarini, S.; Biagini, M.; Bonneaud, G.; Cai, Y.; Calderini, G.; Ciuchini, M.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Forti, F.; Gershon, T.J.; Giorgi, M.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Lusiani, A.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Neri, N.; Novokhatski, A.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; /Caltech /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Frascati /Ecole Polytechnique /SLAC /Rome III U. /INFN, Rome3 /Warwick U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Edinburgh U. /Orsay, LAL

    2006-02-08

    This paper is based on the outcome of the activity that has taken place during the recent workshop on ''SuperB in Italy'' held in Frascati on November 11-12, 2005. The workshop was opened by a theoretical introduction of Marco Ciuchini and was structured in two working groups. One focused on the machine and the other on the detector and experimental issues.. The present status on CP is mainly based on the results achieved by BABAR and Belle. Establishment of the indirect CP violation in B sector in 2001 and of the direct CP violation in 2004 thanks to the success of PEP-II and KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric B Factories operating at the center of mass energy corresponding to the mass of the {Upsilon}(4S ). With the two B Factories taking data, the Unitarity Triangle is now beginning to be over constrained by improving the measurements of the sides and now also of the angles {alpha}, and {gamma}. We are also in presence of the very intriguing results about the measurements of sin2{beta} in the time dependent analysis of decay channels via penguin loops, where b {yields} s{bar s}s and b {yields} s{bar d}d. {tau} physics, in particular LFV search, as well as charm and ISR physics are important parts of the scientific program of a SuperB Factory. The physics case together with possible scenarios for the high luminosity SuperB Factory based on the concepts of the Linear Collider and the related experimental issues are discussed.

  2. Physics of a high-luminosity Tau-Charm Factory

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper highlights the physics capabilities of a Tau-Charm Factory; i.e., high luminosity ({approximately}10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}) e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider operating in the center-of-mass energy range of 3-5 GeV, with a high-precision, general-purpose detector. Recent developments in {tau} and charm physics are emphasized.

  3. Synchrotron radiation leakage from the B-factory beam pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, T.M.; Nelson, W.R.; Ipe, N.

    1990-09-20

    The high-energy ring (HER) of the B-Factory, running at an energy of 9 GeV, generates the synchrotron spectrum when applied to a ring with the PEP bending radius. The B-Factory HER may also run at 12 GeV, producing the harder spectrum. Depending upon beam-pipe material and thickness, some of this radiation may escape and deposit energy in the surrounding material. This was originally pointed out in PEP-109 during the initial design of PEP, and subsequently verified by measurements at both PEP and PETRA at DESY. Of concern to the B Factory is magnet insulation, though other adjacent materials such as wire insulation and cooling water hoses are even more radiosensitive. Radiation damage to magnets is a function of the type of material used in the potting compound. The PEP magnets, which hopefully can be used for the high-energy ring of the B-Factory, are insulated with an epoxy composed of DER-332, DER-732, NMA and aluminum oxide. It is estimated that this epoxy compound should tolerate doses near the 10{sup 10} rad range. To summarize the results of these calculations, 0.87 cm of copper is needed at the point of maximum dose from 12-GeV operation in order to reach the dose criterion if a rectangular beam pipe is used. The copper needs to be only 0.7-cm thick for an octagonal beam pipe and the same energy. For 9-GeV operation, an octagonal copper pipe needs only to be 0.25-cm thick. An octagonal aluminum pipe that is 0.5-cm thick also needs 0.3 cm of lead on the outside to reach the same criterion for 12-GeV operation. For 9-GeV operation, the aluminum pipe still requires a lead liner.

  4. A first generation factory for typing DNA polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.L.; Klug, D.; David, D.

    1994-09-01

    Although linkage mapping of fully penetrant, single-gene disorders can readily be accomplished using {open_quotes}manual{close_quotes} polymorphism genotyping methods, mapping of genes responsible for genetically more complex disorders such as asthma and schizophrenia will likely require more highly automated approaches. Routine clinical application of linkage analysis will also require reliable automated methods. To meet these needs we have initiated a first generation factory for analysis of short tandem repeat polymorphisms. The factory includes an eight-pronged pipetting robot for efficient PCR setup, amplification within high density microtiter plates, and a scanning fluorescence detection system for automatic sizing of amplification products. Initial throughput for the factory will be several hundred thousand genotypes per year. The heart of the factory is a new scanning fluorescence detection system for gel electrophoresis. The system employs an argon laser for excitation and has the capability of simultaneously detecting four different fluorescent dyes. The detector scans across the bottom of short, wide denaturing polyacrylamide gels which routinely contain 144 lanes. Emitted fluorescent light is collected with a high numerical aperture microscope objective and transmitted through a fiber optic cable, dichroic mirrors and band pass filters to a series of photomultiplier tubes. Amplified output from the photomultiplier tubes is digitized and fed into computers for further analysis. Software has been written for viewing the gel images, for lane finding and for allele identification. Rhodamine-labeled {lambda} DNA standard fragments ranging in size from 70 to 300 bases are utilized for lane identification and allele sizing. Each gel run takes 3 hours, and each gel can be loaded at least three times. Multiple markers can be amplified simultaneously and detected without prior concentration.

  5. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME AND FLOOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE TEE-BEAMS, LOOKING NORTH. AT LEFT IS DEEP DRAW, HEAVY PRESS MANUFACTURED BY E. W. BLISS CO., BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. PRESS #3-1/2 B, PATENTED BY E. W. BLISS CO., 1893. MANUFACTURERS PLATE INDICATES PRESS DATES FROM 1920. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  6. An asymmetric B-meson factory at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chin, Y.; Oddone, P.; Zisman, M.S.; Donald, M.; Feldman, G.; Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.

    1989-03-01

    A preliminary design for a B-factory has been made using asymmetric collisions between positrons in the PEP storage ring and electrons in a new, log-energy ring. The design utilizes small-aperture, permanent-magnet quadrupoles close to the interaction point (IP). Optimization of optical and beam parameters at the IP will be discussed, as well as the lattice design of the interaction region and of the rings. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. An Asymmetric B-Meson Factory at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chin, Y.; Oddone, P.J.; Zisman, Michael S.; Donald, M.; Feldman, G.; Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for a B-factory has been made using asymmetric collisions between positrons in the PEP storage ring and electrons in a new, low-energy ring. The design utilizes small-aperture, permanent-magnet quadrupoles close to the interaction point (IP). Optimization of optical and beam parameters at the IP will be discussed, as well as the lattice design of the interaction region and of the rings.

  8. A VERY FAST RAMPING MUON SYNCHROTRON FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    SUMMERS,D.J.BERG,J.S.PALMER,R.B.GARREN,A.A.

    2003-05-12

    A 4600 Hz fast ramping synchrotron is studied as an economical way of accelerating muons from 4 to 20 GeV/c for a neutrino factory. Eddy current losses are minimized by the low machine duty cycle plus thin grain oriented silicon steel laminations and thin copper wires. Combined function magnets with high gradients alternating within single magnets form the lattice. Muon survival is 83%.

  9. Feedback implementation options and issues for B factory accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.; Briggs, D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Coiro, O.; Ghigo, A.; Serio, M.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.

    1992-09-01

    The proposed B factory accelerator facilities will require active feedback systems to control multibunch instabilities. These feedback systems must operate in machines with thousands of circulating bunches and with short (2--4 ns) interbunch intervals. The functional requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback systems are presented. Several possible implementation options are discussed and system requirements developed. Conceptual designs are presented for the PEP II transverse and longitudinal feedback systems.

  10. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    SciTech Connect

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-11

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in highdegree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Lastly, our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  11. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    DOE PAGES

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; ...

    2016-05-11

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in highdegree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifoldmore » singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Lastly, our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.« less

  12. Sweet Work with Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  13. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  14. Fraction collector for electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Rotating-tube electrophoresis apparatus employs rotating jet of eluting buffer to reduce effects of convection during separation. Designed for separation of microorganisms and biological species, system combines gravity/gradient compensating of lumen with buffer flush at fraction outlet to increase separation efficiency.

  15. Quality of Life Among Thai Workers in Textile Dyeing Factories

    PubMed Central

    Kittipichai, Wirin; Arsa, Rattanaporn; Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Singhakant, Chatchawal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of a cross-sectional study was to investigate factors influencing the quality of life among Thai workers in textile dyeing factories. Samples included 205 Thai workers from five textile dyeing factories located in the suburban area of Bangkok in Thailand. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.70–0.91. The results revealed that the overall quality of life among workers was most likely between good and moderate levels, and the percentage-mean score was 74.77. The seven factors associated with the overall quality of life were co-worker relationships, safety at work in the dimension of accident prevention, job characteristics, supervisory relationships, welfares, marital status, and physical environment. Furthermore, co-worker relationships, accident prevention, and marital status were three considerable predictors accounted for 23% of the variance in the overall quality of life among workers in textile dyeing factories. PMID:25948458

  16. Choice of Proton Driver Parameters for a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk,H.G.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R. C.; Gallardo, J. C.; Simos, N.; Weng, W.-T.; Brooks, S.

    2006-06-26

    We discuss criteria for designing an optimal 'green field' proton driver for a neutrino factory. The driver parameters are determined by considerations of space charge, power capabilities of the target, beam loading and available RF peak power. A neutrino factory may be the best experimental tool to unravel the physics involved in neutrino oscillation and CP violation phenomena [1]. To have sufficient neutrino flux for acceptable physics results within 5 years requires about 10{sup 22} protons on target per year, which corresponds to 1-4 MW of proton beam power from the proton driver depending on the beam energy. In the past, there were individual proposals from different laboratories of a particular design of proton driver capable of delivering beam power from 2 to 4 MW, without consistent attention paid to the needs or requirements from the downstream systems. In this study, we try to identify the requirements from those down stream systems first, then see whether it is possible to design a proton driver to meet those needs. Such a study will also assist site specific proposals to further improve on their designs to better serve the need of a proton driver for neutrino factory applications.

  17. A Low energy neutrino factory for large theta(13)

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; Mena, Olga; Pascoli, Silvia; /Durham U., IPPP

    2007-01-01

    If the value of {theta}{sub 13} is within the reach of the upcoming generation of long-baseline experiments, T2K and NOvA, they show that a low-energy neutrino factory, with peak energy in the few GeV range, would provide a sensitive tool to explore CP-violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy. They consider baselines with typical length 1000-1500 km. The unique performance of the low energy neutrino factory is due to the rich neutrino oscillation pattern at energies between 1 and 4 GeV at baselines {Omicron}(1000) km. They perform both a semi-analytical study of the sensitivities and a numerical analysis to explore how well this setup can measure {theta}{sub 13}, CP-violation, and determine the type of mass hierarchy and the {theta}{sub 23} quadrant. A low energy neutrino factory provides a powerful tool to resolve ambiguities and make precise parameter determinations, for both large and fairly small values of the mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}.

  18. The self consistent expansion applied to the factorial function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Alon; Bialy, Shmuel; Schwartz, Moshe

    2016-12-01

    Most of the interesting systems in statistical physics can be described as nonlinear stochastic field theories. A common feature in the theoretical study of such systems is that ordinary perturbation theory seldom works. On the other hand, there exists a useful tool for the study of systems of that generic nature. That tool, the Self Consistent Expansion (SCE) is technically similar to the ordinary perturbation expansion, in the sense that it is an expansion around a solvable problem. The key point which distinguishes the SCE from an ordinary perturbation expansion, is that the small parameter of the expansion is adjustable and determined inherently by optimization of the expansion. Therefore, it allows the adaptive SCE to remain accurate relative to the inflexible ordinary expansion. The goal of the present paper is to present the SCE by applying it to a well-known zero dimensional problem. We choose the evaluation of the factorial function, x!, as the test case for the SCE, because the Stirling approximation for that function is one of the best known asymptotic expansions, with a very wide use in statistical physics. We show that the SCE approximation holds for small and even negative arguments of the factorial function, where the Stirling expansion fails miserably. It does so without paying any penalty at high values of the argument, where the Stirling formula is excellent. We present numerical as well as analytic SCE approximations of the factorial function.

  19. Studies of the front end of a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William; Penn, Gregory; Sessler, Andrew; Wurtele, Jonathan

    2001-05-30

    A neutrino factory employs muons which are produced, collected, cooled, accelerated and then stored so that their eventual decay produces an intense neutrino beam. A general description may be found in the paper by Geer [S. Geer, Phys. Rev. D, 57, 1 (1998)], and two upcoming Comments on Nuclear and Particle Physics articles [S. Geer, ''Future prospects for muon facilities'', see http://www-mucool.fnal.gov/mcnotes/muc0154.ps; also A. M. Sessler, ''Neutrino Factories: The Facility'', http://www-mucool.fnal.gov/mcnotes/muc0155.pdf]. In this contribution, we use analytic and numerical tools to investigate the performance of the front end of a neutrino factory. This region starts just after the target and ends just prior to the recirculating accelerators. Extensive previous work has resulted in designs used in the Fermilab Study of 1999-2000 and the Brookhaven Study of 2000-2001. Here we explore variations away from these particular designs, seeking possible improvements in final muon output, risk reduction, and ultimate cost. Our studies include changes in the overall front end geometry through optimization of the induction linac design and variations of the rf frequency in the cooling channel acceleration, and initial exploration of the use of helical wiggler fields to increase the range of initial muon energies that are captured.

  20. Data Processing Factory for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Christopher; Adelman, Jennifer; Annis, James T.; Hendry, John; Inkmann, John; Jester, Sebastian; Kent, Steven M.; Kuropatkin, Nickolai; Lee, Brian; Lin, Huan; Peoples, John, Jr.; Sparks, Robert; Tucker, Douglas; Vanden Berk, Dan; Yanny, Brian; Yocum, Dan

    2002-12-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data handling presents two challenges: large data volume and timely production of spectroscopic plates from imaging data. A data processing factory, using technologies both old and new, handles this flow. Distribution to end users is via disk farms, to serve corrected images and calibrated spectra, and a database, to efficiently process catalog queries. For distribution of modest amounts of data from Apache Point Observatory to Fermilab, scripts use rsync to update files, while larger data transfers are accomplished by shipping magnetic tapes commercially. All data processing pipelines are wrapped in scripts to address consecutive phases: preparation, submission, checking, and quality control. We constructed the factory by chaining these pipelines together while using an operational database to hold processed imaging catalogs. The science database catalogs all imaging and spectroscopic object, with pointers to the various external files associated with them. Diverse computing systems address particular processing phases. UNIX computers handle tape reading and writing, as well as calibration steps that require access to a large amount of data with relatively modest computational demands. Commodity CPUs process steps that require access to a limited amount of data with more demanding computations requirements. Disk servers optimized for cost per Gbyte serve terabytes of processed data, while servers optimized for disk read speed run SQLServer software to process queries on the catalogs. This factory produced data for the SDSS Early Data Release in June 2001, and it is currently producing Data Release One, scheduled for January 2003.

  1. Young Children's Notations for Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the kinds of notations young children make for fractional numbers. The extant literature in the area of fractional numbers acknowledges children's difficulties in conceptualizing fractional numbers. Some of the research suggests possibly delaying an introduction to conventional notations for algorithms and fractions until…

  2. Creating, Naming, and Justifying Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Daniel; Gaskin, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    For students to develop meaningful conceptions of fractions and fraction operations, they need to think of fractions in terms other than as just whole-number combinations. In this article, we suggest two powerful images for thinking about fractions that move beyond whole-number reasoning. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies variation at 6q25.1 associated with survival in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David C.; Weinhold, Niels; Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Chen, Bowang; Kaiser, Martin; Begum, Dil B.; Hillengass, Jens; Bertsch, Uta; Gregory, Walter A.; Cairns, David; Jackson, Graham H.; Försti, Asta; Nickel, Jolanta; Hoffmann, Per; Nöethen, Markus M.; Stephens, Owen W.; Barlogie, Bart; Davis, Faith E.; Hemminki, Kari; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Houlston, Richard S.; Morgan, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    Survival following a diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) varies between patients and some of these differences may be a consequence of inherited genetic variation. In this study, to identify genetic markers associated with MM overall survival (MM-OS), we conduct a meta-analysis of four patient series of European ancestry, totalling 3,256 patients with 1,200 MM-associated deaths. Each series is genotyped for ∼600,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome; genotypes for six million common variants are imputed using 1000 Genomes Project and UK10K as the reference. The association between genotype and OS is assessed by Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, sex, International staging system and treatment. We identify a locus at 6q25.1 marked by rs12374648 associated with MM-OS (hazard ratio=1.34, 95% confidence interval=1.22–1.48, P=4.69 × 10–9). Our findings have potential clinical implications since they demonstrate that inherited genotypes can provide prognostic information in addition to conventional tumor acquired prognostic factors. PMID:26743840

  4. Arbitrage with fractional Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xili; Xiao, Weilin

    2017-04-01

    While the arbitrage opportunity in the Black-Scholes model driven by fractional Brownian motion has a long history, the arbitrage strategy in the Black-Scholes model driven by general fractional Gaussian processes is in its infancy. The development of stochastic calculus with respect to fractional Gaussian processes allowed us to study such models. In this paper, following the idea of Shiryaev (1998), an arbitrage strategy is constructed for the Black-Scholes model driven by fractional Gaussian processes, when the stochastic integral is interpreted in the Riemann-Stieltjes sense. Arbitrage opportunities in some fractional Gaussian processes, including fractional Brownian motion, sub-fractional Brownian motion, bi-fractional Brownian motion, weighted-fractional Brownian motion and tempered fractional Brownian motion, are also investigated.

  5. Testing fractional action cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchigolev, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  6. Fractional lattice charge transport

    PubMed Central

    Flach, Sergej; Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2017-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction. Generalizations and the possible probing of the effect with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and photonic networks are discussed. Zak phase of respective band associated with gap closing regime has been computed and it is found converging to π/2 value. PMID:28102302

  7. Floquet Fractional Chern Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grushin, Adolfo G.; Gómez-León, Álvaro; Neupert, Titus

    2014-04-01

    We show theoretically that periodically driven systems with short range Hubbard interactions offer a feasible platform to experimentally realize fractional Chern insulator states. We exemplify the procedure for both the driven honeycomb and the square lattice, where we derive the effective steady state band structure of the driven system by using the Floquet theory and subsequently study the interacting system with exact numerical diagonalization. The fractional Chern insulator state equivalent to the 1/3 Laughlin state appears at 7/12 total filling (1/6 filling of the upper band). The state also features spontaneous ferromagnetism and is thus an example of the spontaneous breaking of a continuous symmetry along with a topological phase transition. We discuss light-driven graphene and shaken optical lattices as possible experimental systems that can realize such a state.

  8. Fractional Trajectories: Decorrelation Versus Friction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-27

    from the integration of fractional differential equations in time. In Section 2 we provide a general demonstration of the new perspective on fractional ...section we demonstrate the equivalence between a fractional trajectory that is the solution of a Caputo fractional differential equation , and the... fractional differential equation dα dtα V(t) = OV(t), (1) where 0 < α < 1 and O is an operator, either linear or nonlinear, acting on the vector V(t

  9. Fractional Galilean symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseiny, Ali; Rouhani, Shahin

    2016-09-01

    We generalize the differential representation of the operators of the Galilean algebras to include fractional derivatives. As a result a whole new class of scale invariant Galilean algebras are obtained. The first member of this class has dynamical index z = 2 similar to the Schrödinger algebra. The second member of the class has dynamical index z = 3 / 2, which happens to be the dynamical index Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  10. New Dry Fractionation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

  11. Total Fume and Metal Concentrations during Welding in Selected Factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder’s health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers’ welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m3 (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m3 (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m3 (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m3 (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m3 (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m3 (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m3–0.477 mg/m3, 0.001 mg/m3–0.080 mg/m3 and 0.001 mg/m3–0.058 mg/m3 respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems. PMID:20717553

  12. Total fume and metal concentrations during welding in selected factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-07-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder's health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers' welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m(3) (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m(3) (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m(3) (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m(3)-0.477 mg/m(3), 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.080 mg/m(3) and 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.058 mg/m(3) respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems.

  13. Model Fractional Chern Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrmann, Jörg; Liu, Zhao; Bergholtz, Emil J.

    2016-05-01

    We devise local lattice models whose ground states are model fractional Chern insulators—Abelian and non-Abelian topologically ordered states characterized by exact ground state degeneracies at any finite size and infinite entanglement gaps. Most saliently, we construct exact parent Hamiltonians for two distinct families of bosonic lattice generalizations of the Zk parafermion quantum Hall states: (i) color-entangled fractional Chern insulators at band filling fractions ν =k /(C +1 ) and (ii) nematic states at ν =k /2 , where C is the Chern number of the lowest band. In spite of a fluctuating Berry curvature, our construction is partially frustration free: the ground states reside entirely within the lowest band and exactly minimize a local (k +1 ) body repulsion term by term. In addition to providing the first known models hosting intriguing states such as higher Chern number generalizations of the Fibonacci anyon quantum Hall states, the remarkable stability and finite-size properties make our models particularly well suited for the study of novel phenomena involving, e.g., twist defects and proximity induced superconductivity, as well as being a guide for designing experiments.

  14. A Measurement of the Exclusive Branching Fraction for B → π K at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Aspinwall, Marie Louise

    2002-02-01

    This thesis presents an exclusive measurement of the branching fraction B for the rare charmless hadronic B decays to πK final states. A sample of 22.57±0.36 million BB pairs was collected with the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's PEP-II B Factory, during the Run 1 data taking period (1999-2000).

  15. Neurologic abnormalities in workers of a 1-bromopropane factory.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Gaku; Li, Weihua; Shibata, Eiji; Ding, Xuncheng; Wang, Hailan; Liang, Yideng; Peng, Simeng; Itohara, Seiichiro; Kamijima, Michihiro; Fan, Qiyuan; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhong, Enhong; Wu, Xiaoyun; Valentine, William M; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2004-09-01

    We reported recently that 1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propylbromide, CAS Registry no. 106-94-5), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is neurotoxic and exhibits reproductive toxicity in rats. The four most recent case reports suggested possible neurotoxicity of 1-BP in workers. The aim of the present study was to establish the neurologic effects of 1-BP in workers and examine the relationship with exposure levels. We surveyed 27 female workers in a 1-BP production factory and compared 23 of them with 23 age-matched workers in a beer factory as controls. The workers were interviewed and examined by neurologic, electrophysiologic, hematologic, biochemical, neurobehavioral, and postural sway tests. 1-BP exposure levels were estimated with passive samplers. Tests with a tuning fork showed diminished vibration sensation of the foot in 15 workers exposed to 1-BP but in none of the controls. 1-BP factory workers showed significantly longer distal latency in the tibial nerve than did the controls but no significant changes in motor nerve conduction velocity. Workers also displayed lower values in sensory nerve conduction velocity in the sural nerve, backward recalled digits, Benton visual memory test scores, pursuit aiming test scores, and five items of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test (tension, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and confusion) compared with controls matched for age and education. Workers hired after May 1999, who were exposed to 1-BP only (workers hired before 1999 could have also been exposed to 2-BP), showed similar changes in vibration sense, distal latency, Benton test scores, and depression and fatigue in the POMS test. Time-weighted average exposure levels in the workers were 0.34-49.19 ppm. Exposure to 1-BP could adversely affect peripheral nerves or/and the central nervous system.

  16. Musculoskeletal problems among workers of an Iranian rubber factory.

    PubMed

    Choobineh, Alireza; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamidreza; Mokhtarzadeh, Abbas; Salehi, Maryam

    2007-09-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability among the work force. Assessment of exposure level to MSD risk factors can be an appropriate base for planning and implementing interventional ergonomic programs in the workplace. This study was conducted among workers of an Iranian rubber factory with the objectives of (a) determination of the prevalence of MSDs among production line workers, and (b) assessment of the level of exposure to MSD risks. In this study, all 16 production units of the factory were studied. In each unit, 50% of the workers were randomly selected and included in the study. A total of 454 workers participated. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to study the prevalence of MSDs and the Quick Exposure Check (QEC) technique was applied to assess physical exposure to the risks. The videotaping technique was used to collect the required data for each worker. The vast majority of the workers (73.6%) had suffered from some kind of musculoskeletal symptoms during the last 12 months. The highest prevalence was reported in the lower back (50.2%), knees (48.5%) and upper back (38.1%). In 85.5% of the workers studied, the QEC score was high or very high. Statistical analysis showed a significant association between the QEC level of risk and MSDs symptoms (p<0.001). The most common ergonomics problems were found to be awkward postures and manual material handling. MSDs had occurred with a high rate among workers of this rubber factory. Corrective measures for reducing risk level seemed essential. Elimination of awkward postures and manual material handling in the workplace were recommended.

  17. Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis using factorial design.

    PubMed

    Silveira, S T; Burkert, J F M; Costa, J A V; Burkert, C A V; Kalil, S J

    2007-05-01

    Phycocyanin extraction from cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis was optimized using factorial design and response surface techniques. The effects of temperature and biomass-solvent ratio on phycocyanin concentration and extract purity were evaluated to determine the optimum conditions for phycocyanin extraction. The optimum conditions for the extraction of phycocyanin from S. platensis were the highest biomass-solvent ratio, 0.08 gmL(-1), and 25 degrees C. Under these conditions it's possible to obtain an extract of phycocyanin with a concentration of 3.68 mgmL(-1) and purity ratio (A(615)/A(280)) of 0.46.

  18. Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed. PMID:21526386

  19. RF cavity development for the PEP-II B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.A.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the development of an RF cavity design for the proposed PEP-II asymmetric B factory. The high luminosity required of PEP-II provides challenges in the design of the RF cavities, most notably in the reduced higher-order mode (HOM) impedances that must be attained and in the power that must be dissipated in the cavity walls. This paper outlines the goals set in these regards, describes how the cavity has been developed to meet them, and presents the results of measurements on a low-power test model built to verify the HOM damping scheme.

  20. Characterization of undulator radiation at the photon factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Kitamura, Hideo; Sasaki, Taizo

    1986-05-01

    Spectra of undulator radiation of the Photon Factory undulator, model PMU-2, were measured in a scale of absolute brightness in the soft X-ray region for various values of the K-parameter from 0.72 to 1.66. A significant reduction of the peak brightness was observed, whereas we also observed a relatively sharp edge at the high energy side of the first harmonic. The results show that the peak brightness and the band width are highly dependent on the beam parameters and the geometry of spectral observation.

  1. Charmonium physics at a tau-charm factory

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T. |

    1993-11-01

    Since its discovery in 1974 the charmonium system has served hadron physics as an important arena for the investigation of many aspects of QCD and hadron spectroscopy. In this summary the author briefly reviews some of these and discusses several of the important outstanding issues in hadron spectroscopy and their relation to the spectrum and couplings of resonances in the charmonium system. The topics discussed are charmonium spectroscopy, electromagnetic couplings ({gamma}, {gamma}{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}), strong decays and unusual states (charm molecules and charmonium hybrids), and in each case the author notes areas in which experiments at a tau-charm factory could make valuable contributions.

  2. The Euler Function of Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers and Factorials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    the Fibonacci sequence given by F0 = 0, F1 = 1 and Fn+2 = Fn+1+Fn for all n ≥ 0. Let (Ln)n≥0 be the companion Lucas sequence satisfying the same...Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest., Sect. Comp. 40 (2013) nn–nnn THE EULER FUNCTION OF FIBONACCI AND LUCAS NUMBERS AND FACTORIALS Florian Luca (Morelia...Communicated by Bui Minh Phong (Received December 22, 2012; accepted July 18, 2013) Abstract. Here, we look at the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers whose Euler

  3. R AND D TOPICS FOR NEUTRINO FACTORY ACCELERATION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCOTT,J.S.

    2007-08-06

    The muons in a neutrino factory must be accelerated from the energy of the capture, phase rotation, and cooling systems (around 120 MeV kinetic energy) to the energy of the storage ring (around 25 GeV). This is done with a sequence of accelerators of different types: a linac, one or more recirculating linear accelerators, and finally one or more fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAGs). I discuss the R&D that is needed to arrive at a complete system which we can have confidence will accelerate the beam and for which we can obtain a cost estimate.

  4. Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-08-01

    Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed.

  5. Reassessing Escherichia coli as a cell factory for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Pfleger, Brian F; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-03-11

    Via metabolic engineering, industrial microorganisms have the potential to convert renewable substrates into a wide range of biofuels that can address energy security and environmental challenges associated with current fossil fuels. The user-friendly bacterium, Escherichia coli, remains one of the most frequently used hosts for demonstrating production of biofuel candidates including alcohol-, fatty acid- and terpenoid-based biofuels. In this review, we summarize the metabolic pathways for synthesis of these biofuels and assess enabling technologies that assist in regulating biofuel synthesis pathways and rapidly assembling novel E. coli strains. These advances maintain E. coli's position as a prominent host for developing cell factories for biofuel production.

  6. [Ablative and fractional lasers].

    PubMed

    Beylot, C; Grognard, C; Michaud, T

    2009-10-01

    The use of pulsed or scanning Carbon Dioxide, and pulsed Erbium-YAG lasers allows the programmable and reproducible photocoagulation of thin layers of the epidermis and superficial dermis. Thermal damage depends on the type of laser and is greater with CO(2) lasers. The degree of neocollagenesis is proportional to the thermal damage and is better with CO(2) lasers. Their main indication is the correction of photoaged facial skin but they can also be used for corrective dermatology, e.g. for scars and genodermatosis. Results are highly satisfactory but the technique is invasive and the patient experiences a social hindrance of around two weeks. Fractionated techniques treat 25% of the defective skin area at each session in noncontiguous microzones; four sessions are therefore necessary to treat the entire cutaneous surface. The treatment is given under topical anesthesia and is much less invasive, particularly with nonablative fractional laser treatment in which photothermolysis does not penetrate below the epidermis and/or the effects are slight, with no or very little social isolation. However, the results are much less satisfactory than the results of ablative laser and there is no firming effect. Other zones than the face can be treated. With the fractional CO(2) and Erbium ablative lasers, which have multiplied over the past 2 years, the much wider impacts cause perforation of the epidermis and there is a zone of ablation by laser photovaporization, with a zone of thermal damage below. The results are better in correcting photoaging of the face, without, however, achieving the efficacy of ablative lasers, which remain the reference technique. However, the effects are not insignificant, requiring at least 5 days of social isolation.

  7. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  8. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  9. Solvent Fractionation of Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

  10. Body Fractions: A Physical Approach to Fraction Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Many students experience great difficulty understanding the meaning of fractions. For many students who have spent their early mathematics lessons focusing on counting (whole) numbers, recognising that there are many numbers between those whole numbers called fractional numbers, is quite revolutionary. The foundation of understanding fractions is…

  11. A Fractional Factorial Design Approach to Examining the Relative Importance of Five Factors in the Definition of Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Elizabeth T.

    Programs which provide income maintenance to disabled persons of working age are experiencing rapidly growing enrollments and rising costs. Changes in the definition of disability are thought to be a contributing factor. A review of existing income programs for the work-disabled indicated that social and economic factors were used increasingly in…

  12. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Feb 15,2017 The ejection fraction (EF) is an important measurement in determining how well your heart is pumping ...

  13. Measurement of the branching fraction and polarization for the decay B--->D*0K*-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-04-09

    We present a study of the decay B--->D(*0)K(*-) based on a sample of 86 x 10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BBmacr; decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We measure the branching fraction B(B--->D(*0)K(*-))=(8.3+/-1.1(stat)+/-1.0(syst)) x 10(-4), and the fraction of longitudinal polarization in this decay to be Gamma(L)/Gamma=0.86+/-0.06(stat)+/-0.03(syst).

  14. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Polarization for the Decay B-→D*0K*-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Shen, B. C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Grenier, P.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biasini, M.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Pioppi, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljević, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Forti, A. C.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Brunet, S.; Cote-Ahern, D.; Hast, C.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; Cartaro, C.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Losecco, J. M.; Gabriel, T. A.; Brau, B.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Pulliam, T.; Wong, Q. K.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Potter, C. T.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Colecchia, F.; Dorigo, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Pivk, M.; Roos, L.; Stark, J.; T'jampens, S.; Therin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Behera, P. K.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Del Gamba, V.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Walsh, J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Paick, K.; Wagoner, D. E.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J.; Tanaka, H. A.; Varnes, E. W.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Voena, C.; Christ, S.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Schott, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yeche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Purohit, M. V.; Weidemann, A. W.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Berger, N.; Boyarski, A. M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Dong, D.; Dorfan, J.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Hryn'ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Jessop, C. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Robertson, S. H.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Simi, G.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, S. R.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wright, D. H.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Meyer, T. I.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Saleem, M.; Wappler, F. R.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Kim, H.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Panvini, R. S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kowalewski, R.; Roney, J. M.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Di Lodovico, F.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Sekula, S. J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.

    2004-04-01

    We present a study of the decay B-→D*0K*- based on a sample of 86×106 ϒ(4S)→BB¯ decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We measure the branching fraction B(B-→D*0K*-)=(8.3±1.1(stat)±1.0(syst))×10-4, and the fraction of longitudinal polarization in this decay to be ΓL/Γ=0.86±0.06(stat)±0.03(syst).

  15. Silanization of glass chips—A factorial approach for optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vistas, Cláudia R.; Águas, Ana C. P.; Ferreira, Guilherme N. M.

    2013-12-01

    Silanization of glass chips with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) was investigated and optimized to generate a high-quality layer with well-oriented thiol groups. A full factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of silane concentration and reaction time. The stabilization of the silane monolayer by thermal curing was also investigated, and a disulfide reduction step was included to fully regenerate the thiol-modified surface function. Fluorescence analysis and water contact angle measurements were used to quantitatively assess the chemical modifications, wettability and quality of modified chip surfaces throughout the silanization, curing and reduction steps. The factorial design enables a systematic approach for the optimization of glass chips silanization process. The optimal conditions for the silanization were incubation of the chips in a 2.5% MPTS solution for 2 h, followed by a curing process at 110 °C for 2 h and a reduction step with 10 mM dithiothreitol for 30 min at 37 °C. For these conditions the surface density of functional thiol groups was 4.9 × 1013 molecules/cm2, which is similar to the expected maximum coverage obtained from the theoretical estimations based on projected molecular area (∼5 × 1013 molecules/cm2).

  16. Contact dermatitis from methylisothiazolinone in a paint factory.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, J P; Sederberg-Olsen, N; Thomsen, J F; Menné, T

    2006-06-01

    Introduction of new potential contact-sensitizing chemicals have in the past led to epidemics of contact dermatitis. A new preservative containing only methylisothiazolinone (MI) and not methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) has recently been introduced in the European Union for use in products, such as paint, glue and cosmetics. The objective of this article is to describe a factory outbreak of contact allergy to MI and MCI preservatives. This factory outbreak describes allergic contact dermatitis towards MI in 4 patients of 14 persons working at a paint manufacturer. Patch test results from all patients showed positive reactions for MI and MCI/MI. The reactions were stronger for MI than MCI/MI indicating a primary sensitization to MI. The combination of MCI/MI remains widely used, and therefore various patterns of exposure and sensitization could be seen in the future. Our data show that MI holds a potential for eliciting and propably inducing contact allergy in humans. Whether this preservative is safe to use in cosmetics where billions of consumers are exposed needs a care full monitoring.

  17. A Market-Based Approach to Multi-factory Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Rogers, Alex; MacBeth, Douglas K.; Dutta, Partha; Stranjak, Armin; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    In this paper, we report on the design of a novel market-based approach for decentralised scheduling across multiple factories. Specifically, because of the limitations of scheduling in a centralised manner - which requires a center to have complete and perfect information for optimality and the truthful revelation of potentially commercially private preferences to that center - we advocate an informationally decentralised approach that is both agile and dynamic. In particular, this work adopts a market-based approach for decentralised scheduling by considering the different stakeholders representing different factories as self-interested, profit-motivated economic agents that trade resources for the scheduling of jobs. The overall schedule of these jobs is then an emergent behaviour of the strategic interaction of these trading agents bidding for resources in a market based on limited information and their own preferences. Using a simple (zero-intelligence) bidding strategy, we empirically demonstrate that our market-based approach achieves a lower bound efficiency of 84%. This represents a trade-off between a reasonable level of efficiency (compared to a centralised approach) and the desirable benefits of a decentralised solution.

  18. DKIST enclosure modeling and verification during factory assembly and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrakoetxea, Ibon; McBride, William; Marshall, Heather K.; Murga, Gaizka

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) is unique as, apart from protecting the telescope and its instrumentation from the weather, it holds the entrance aperture stop and is required to position it with millimeter-level accuracy. The compliance of the Enclosure design with the requirements, as of Final Design Review in January 2012, was supported by mathematical models and other analyses which included structural and mechanical analyses (FEA), control models, ventilation analysis (CFD), thermal models, reliability analysis, etc. During the Enclosure Factory Assembly and Testing the compliance with the requirements has been verified using the real hardware and the models created during the design phase have been revisited. The tests performed during shutter mechanism subsystem (crawler test stand) functional and endurance testing (completed summer 2013) and two comprehensive system-level factory acceptance testing campaigns (FAT#1 in December 2013 and FAT#2 in March 2014) included functional and performance tests on all mechanisms, off-normal mode tests, mechanism wobble tests, creation of the Enclosure pointing map, control system tests, and vibration tests. The comparison of the assumptions used during the design phase with the properties measured during the test campaign provides an interesting reference for future projects.

  19. An artificial reality environment for remote factory control and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    Work has begun on the merger of two well known systems, VEOS (HITLab) and CLIPS (NASA). In the recent past, the University of Massachusetts Lowell developed a parallel version of NASA CLIPS, called P-CLIPS. This modification allows users to create smaller expert systems which are able to communicate with each other to jointly solve problems. With the merger of a VEOS message system, PCLIPS-V can now act as a group of entities working within VEOS. To display the 3D virtual world we have been using a graphics package called HOOPS, from Ithaca Software. The artificial reality environment we have set up contains actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. The environment allows us to view and control the objects within the virtual world. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS. A graphical renderer generates camera views on X-Windows devices; Head Mounted Devices are not required. This allows more people to make use of this technology. We are experimenting with different types of virtual vehicles to give the user a sense that he or she is actually moving around inside the factory looking ahead through windows and virtual monitors.

  20. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  1. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  2. Approaching the socialist factory and its workforce: considerations from fieldwork in (former) Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Archer, Rory; Musić, Goran

    2017-01-01

    The socialist factory, as the 'incubator' of the new socialist (wo)man, is a productive entry point for the study of socialist modernization and its contradictions. By outlining some theoretical and methodological insights gathered through field-research in factories in former Yugoslavia, we seek to connect the state of labour history in the Balkans to recent breakthroughs made by labour historians of other socialist countries. The first part of this article sketches some of the specificities of the Yugoslav self-managed factory and its heterogeneous workforce. It presents the ambiguous relationship between workers and the factory and demonstrates the variety of life trajectories for workers in Yugoslav state-socialism (from model communists to alienated workers). The second part engages with the available sources for conducting research inside and outside the factory advocating an approach which combines factory and local archives, print media and oral history.

  3. Neurotoxic effects of rubber factory environment. An auditory evoked potential study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Tandon, O P

    1997-01-01

    The effects of rubber factory environment on functional integrity of auditory pathway have been studied in forty rubber factory workers using Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) technique to detect early subclinical impairments. Results indicate that 47 percent of the workers showed abnormalities in prolongations of either peak latencies or interpeak latencies when compared with age and sex matched control subjects not exposed to rubber factory environment. The percent distribution of abnormalities (ears affected) were in the order of extrusion and calendering (75%) > vulcanising (41.66%) > mixing (28.57%) > loading and dispatch (23.07%) > tubing (18.75%) sections of the factory. This incidence of abnormalities may be attributed to solvents being used in these units of rubber factory. These findings suggest that rubber factory environment does affect auditory pathway in the brainstem.

  4. Approaching the socialist factory and its workforce: considerations from fieldwork in (former) Yugoslavia

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Rory; Musić, Goran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The socialist factory, as the ‘incubator’ of the new socialist (wo)man, is a productive entry point for the study of socialist modernization and its contradictions. By outlining some theoretical and methodological insights gathered through field-research in factories in former Yugoslavia, we seek to connect the state of labour history in the Balkans to recent breakthroughs made by labour historians of other socialist countries. The first part of this article sketches some of the specificities of the Yugoslav self-managed factory and its heterogeneous workforce. It presents the ambiguous relationship between workers and the factory and demonstrates the variety of life trajectories for workers in Yugoslav state-socialism (from model communists to alienated workers). The second part engages with the available sources for conducting research inside and outside the factory advocating an approach which combines factory and local archives, print media and oral history. PMID:28190894

  5. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu

    2016-07-14

    This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.

  6. How Weird Are Weird Fractions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuffelbeam, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A positive rational is a weird fraction if its value is unchanged by an illegitimate, digit-based reduction. In this article, we prove that each weird fraction is uniquely weird and initiate a discussion of the prevalence of weird fractions.

  7. The random continued fraction transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalle, Charlene; Kempton, Tom; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a random dynamical system related to continued fraction expansions. It uses random combinations of the Gauss map and the Rényi (or backwards) continued fraction map. We explore the continued fraction expansions that this system produces, as well as the dynamical properties of the system.

  8. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE PAGES

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; ...

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  9. Numerical approaches to fractional calculus and fractional ordinary differential equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changpin; Chen, An; Ye, Junjie

    2011-05-01

    Nowadays, fractional calculus are used to model various different phenomena in nature, but due to the non-local property of the fractional derivative, it still remains a lot of improvements in the present numerical approaches. In this paper, some new numerical approaches based on piecewise interpolation for fractional calculus, and some new improved approaches based on the Simpson method for the fractional differential equations are proposed. We use higher order piecewise interpolation polynomial to approximate the fractional integral and fractional derivatives, and use the Simpson method to design a higher order algorithm for the fractional differential equations. Error analyses and stability analyses are also given, and the numerical results show that these constructed numerical approaches are efficient.

  10. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value <0.0001. It is suggested that this model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  11. Phytochelatin synthesis in response to Hg uptake in aquatic plants near a chlor-alkali factory.

    PubMed

    Turull, Marta; Grmanova, Gabriela; Dago, Àngela; Ariño, Cristina; Díez, Sergi; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2017-06-01

    The effects of mercury (Hg) released from a chlor-alkali factory in aquatic plants along the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) were analysed considering the phytochelatins (PCn) and their isoforms content in these plants. These compounds were analyzed using HPLC with amperometric detection, and the macrophytes species Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriopyllum spicatum were collected in two sampling campaigns, autumn and spring, respectively. To correlate the PCn content in macrophytes with the Hg contamination, analysis of total Hg (THg) content in plants and suspended particulate matter, as well as the dissolved-bioavailable fraction of Hg in water measured by the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique were done. The results confirm the presence of PC2-Ala in extracts of C. demersum and PC2-desGly in M. spicatum, and the concentration of these thiol compounds depends clearly on the distance between the hot spot and the downstream sites: the higher the levels are, the closer the hot spot is. Since most of the Hg is hypothesized to be associated with SPM and transported downstream, our results of the DGT suggest that trace amounts of Hg in water can be released as free metal ions yielding a certain accumulation in plants (reaching the ppb level) that are enough for activation of induction of PCs. A few PCs species have been determined, at different seasons, indicating that they can be used as good indicators of the presence of bioavailable Hg in aquatic media throughout the year.

  12. [The risk of inhalable wood dust: assessment of workers exposure wood working factories].

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, M; Tarzia, V; Iannò, A; Capone, P P; Campopiano, A; Giardino, R; Villella, E

    2007-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer RC) has classified wood dust as carcinogenic to humans based on demiological and experimental evidence. Exposure to wood dust may use respiratory and dermal symptoms and diseases. The aim of this work was to estimate occupational exposure to inhalable wood dust adopting the formal procedure described by UNI EN 689/97. The exposure of 23 workers in three different working day was measured. In total, 69 personal air samplings were carried out at five wood working factories. Inhalable fraction of airborne dust was collected on 5 microm pore size, 25 mm diameter PVC filters utilizing the IOM samplers. The quantity of the wood dust was determined with gravimetric method. The results show that about 13% of the exposure values exceed the limit of 5 mg/m3 specified by the Italian Law Decree 66/2000 and about 48% of personal exposures are lower then the limit value. Prevention measures, technological solutions and personal protection equipment should be adopted in order to reduce worker's exposure.

  13. Oil removal from water by fungal biomass: a factorial design analysis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari

    2010-03-15

    A fractional factorial design analysis was conducted to screen the significant factors influencing removal of three emulsified oils from water, namely, standard mineral oil (SMO), canola oil (CO) and Bright-Edge 80 cutting oil using non-viable biomass of fungus Mucor rouxii rich with chitosan in its cell wall. Factors investigated were pH of the solution (3-9), temperature (5-30 degrees C), adsorbent dose (0.05-0.5 g), concentration of oil (50-350 mg/L) and rotational speed of the shaker (100-200 rpm). It was observed that pH of the solution was the most influencing parameter on the removal of all the three oils studied. Higher oil removal efficiencies (80-99%) were obtained at a pH of 3.0 by M. rouxii biomass for all the three oils studied. Temperature had an effect on SMO and Bright-Edge 80 removal while adsorbent dose was found to influence the removal of SMO. Average removals of SMO and Bright-Edge 80 were higher by 13% at a solution temperature of 30 degrees C compared to removals at 5 degrees C. Oil concentration had an effect on the removal of CO. The average removal of CO was found to be higher by approximately 15% at an initial oil concentration of 50mg/L than at 350 mg/L.

  14. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.T.; Salter, M.A.; Harborne, A.R.; Crowley, S.F.; Jelks, H.L.; Wilson, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly <2 ??m) high Mg-calcite crystallites (i.e., >4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ???6.1 ?? 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 ??m fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ???14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  15. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ~14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  16. Preliminary Airworthiness Evaluation of the Rutan Aircraft Factory (RAF) , Inc. LONG-EZ Airplane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    If) USMAEFA PROJECT NO,. 82-18 PRELIMINARY AIRWORTHINESS EVALUATION OF THE RUTAN AIRCRAFT FACTORY (RAF), INC. LONG-EZ AIRPLANE VERNON L. DIEIOWIN...REPORT & PEIOO COVERED PRELIMINARY AIRWORTHINESS EVALUATION 14 JAN - 1 APR 1983 OF THE RUTAN AIRCRAFT FACTORY (RAF), FINAL INC. LONG-HZ AIRPLANE 6... Airworthiness Evaluation of the Rutan Aircraft Factory, Inc. designed * airplane ~ 4Jnmy-hog---pi -40 at Edwards Calif,~gn4&. During the test program 34

  17. Fractional chemotaxis diffusion equations.

    PubMed

    Langlands, T A M; Henry, B I

    2010-05-01

    We introduce mesoscopic and macroscopic model equations of chemotaxis with anomalous subdiffusion for modeling chemically directed transport of biological organisms in changing chemical environments with diffusion hindered by traps or macromolecular crowding. The mesoscopic models are formulated using continuous time random walk equations and the macroscopic models are formulated with fractional order differential equations. Different models are proposed depending on the timing of the chemotactic forcing. Generalizations of the models to include linear reaction dynamics are also derived. Finally a Monte Carlo method for simulating anomalous subdiffusion with chemotaxis is introduced and simulation results are compared with numerical solutions of the model equations. The model equations developed here could be used to replace Keller-Segel type equations in biological systems with transport hindered by traps, macromolecular crowding or other obstacles.

  18. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  19. Functional fractionation of platelets.

    PubMed

    Haver, V M; Gear, A R

    1981-02-01

    Studies of platelet populations suggest that they are heterogeneous in size, age, and metabolic parameters. In an attempt to correlate these parameters with efficiency of aggregation, a new technique, functional fractionation, was developed. Platelet populations are separated by their differential reactivity to aggregating agents. For example, low doses of ADP (0.1 to 0.7 microM) are added to stirred PRP, after which gentle centrifugation is used to remove aggregates from single unreacted platelets. The loose aggregates can be readily dispersed for comparison of the physical or biochemical properties of the reacted versus unreacted platelets. It was found that reactive platelets were larger (6.5 micrometer3) than unreacted platelets (5.51 micrometer3). No significant difference in density existed between the two populations, and no release of [14C]serotonin from prelabeled platelets occurred during functional fractionation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the size difference and revealed that in both populations platelets were structurally intact with a normal discoid shape and no significant difference in organelle content. Human platelets most reactive to ADP were also enriched in glycogen (3.6-fold), ATP (1.6-fold), and ADP (twofold), compared with less reactive cells. These "reactive" cells took up more 51[Cr] and contained 1.9 times more surface sialic acid. In an in vivo aging experiment, rats were injected with 75[Se]methionine. Shortly after labeling (1 day), the most reactive platelets possessed the highest amount of 75[Se]. These results reveal that functionally active platelets, which are also larger, are more active metabolically than less reactive platelets, possess a higher negative surface charge, and may be a younger population.

  20. Respiratory impairment in coffee factory workers in the Asaro Valley of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D; Brott, K; Koki, G

    1985-01-01

    In a coffee growing area of Papua New Guinea, a developing country in the western Pacific region, coffee factory workers were found to have more chronic symptomatic respiratory impairment than a carefully matched group of neighbouring villagers. This impairment was not related to their duration of employment. Coffee factory workers were found also to have a greater prevalence of reversible but asymptomatic airways obstruction on entering their factories after two days off duty than a group of soft drink factory workers. These findings are thought to be related to exposure to the dust produced in large quantities during coffee processing. Images PMID:4015998

  1. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction. PMID:24772037

  2. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash: sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Linee; Pratihar, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Mudoi, Pronab; Bora, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination from coal ashes (CAs) is widely recognized as a significant environmental concern. To learn more about metal detoxification and accumulation potential of earthworm species, metal-rich tea factory coal ashes (TFCA) were fed to Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii by employing a fluorescent tag detection method. Fascinatingly, on feeding fluorescence probed Zn and Cd along with cow dung to Eisenia fetida, the detection of the gut-proteins with a molecular mass higher than 100 kDa was a distinct evidence of metal binding. Significant increases were observed in the content of humified organic C [humic acid (HAC) and fulvic acid C (FAC)] and degree of humification during vermicomposting. Concurrently, considerably large amount of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) was transformed from exchangeable to recalcitrant (organic matter and mineral bound) fractions. Moreover, total metal concentrations were reduced with high removal efficiency upon vermicomposting. PMID:27456167

  3. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash: sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Linee; Pratihar, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Mudoi, Pronab; Bora, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Metal contamination from coal ashes (CAs) is widely recognized as a significant environmental concern. To learn more about metal detoxification and accumulation potential of earthworm species, metal-rich tea factory coal ashes (TFCA) were fed to Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii by employing a fluorescent tag detection method. Fascinatingly, on feeding fluorescence probed Zn and Cd along with cow dung to Eisenia fetida, the detection of the gut-proteins with a molecular mass higher than 100 kDa was a distinct evidence of metal binding. Significant increases were observed in the content of humified organic C [humic acid (HAC) and fulvic acid C (FAC)] and degree of humification during vermicomposting. Concurrently, considerably large amount of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) was transformed from exchangeable to recalcitrant (organic matter and mineral bound) fractions. Moreover, total metal concentrations were reduced with high removal efficiency upon vermicomposting.

  4. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash: sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Linee; Pratihar, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Mudoi, Pronab; Bora, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-07-26

    Metal contamination from coal ashes (CAs) is widely recognized as a significant environmental concern. To learn more about metal detoxification and accumulation potential of earthworm species, metal-rich tea factory coal ashes (TFCA) were fed to Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii by employing a fluorescent tag detection method. Fascinatingly, on feeding fluorescence probed Zn and Cd along with cow dung to Eisenia fetida, the detection of the gut-proteins with a molecular mass higher than 100 kDa was a distinct evidence of metal binding. Significant increases were observed in the content of humified organic C [humic acid (HAC) and fulvic acid C (FAC)] and degree of humification during vermicomposting. Concurrently, considerably large amount of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) was transformed from exchangeable to recalcitrant (organic matter and mineral bound) fractions. Moreover, total metal concentrations were reduced with high removal efficiency upon vermicomposting.

  5. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Balram, Ajit C; Wurstbauer, U; Wójs, A; Pinczuk, A; Jain, J K

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  6. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  7. 313 new asteroid rotation periods from Palomar Transient Factory observations

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Yang, Ting-Chang; Waszczak, Adam; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Prince, Thomas A.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2014-06-10

    A new asteroid rotation period survey has been carried out by using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Twelve consecutive PTF fields, which covered an area of 87 deg{sup 2} in the ecliptic plane, were observed in the R band with a cadence of ∼20 minutes during 2013 February 15-18. We detected 2500 known asteroids with a diameter range of 0.5 km ≤D ≤ 200 km. Of these, 313 objects had highly reliable rotation periods and exhibited the 'spin barrier' at ∼2 hr. In contrast to the flat spin-rate distribution of the asteroids with 3 km ≤D ≤ 15 km shown by Pravec et al., our results deviated somewhat from a Maxwellian distribution and showed a decrease at the spin rate greater than 5 rev day{sup –1}. One superfast rotator candidate and two possible binary asteroids were also found in this work.

  8. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  9. Probing nonunitary mixing and CP violation at a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2009-08-01

    A low-energy nonunitary leptonic mixing matrix is a generic feature of many extensions of the standard model. In such a case, the task of future precision neutrino oscillation experiments is more ambitious than measuring the three mixing angles and the leptonic (Dirac) CP phase, i.e., the accessible parameters of a unitary leptonic mixing matrix. A nonunitary mixing matrix has 13 parameters that affect neutrino oscillations, out of which four are CP violating. In the scheme of minimal unitarity violation we analyze the potential of a neutrino factory for determining or constraining the parameters of the nonunitary leptonic mixing matrix, thereby testing the origin of CP violation in the lepton sector.

  10. Factory acceptance test results for the DIRSP projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Matthew C.; Ward, Craig S.

    2000-07-01

    The Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) results for the projection optical subsystem (POS) of US Army STIRCOM's dynamic infrared scene projector (DIRSP) are presented in this paper. DIRSP is a low background (-35 degrees Celsius) hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL), long-wave infrared (LWIR) scene projector built by Mission Research Corporation (MRC) for use by the Redstone Technical Test Center (RTTC). It has an effective emitter array size of 1632 X 672 suspended-membrane micro-resistor elements. The POS is responsible for generating this effective array size from three smaller arrays using a mosaic image combiner, adding background light from an external blackbody, and collimating the combined radiation with a 5:1 vacuum enclosed -35 degree Celsius zoom lens. The FAT results reported demonstrate good POS performance compared to the design for focal length, F/#, MTF and apparent temperature.

  11. Feasibility Study for an Asymmetric B Factory Based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Chattapadhyay, A.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Chin, Y.H.; Dell'Orco, D.; Forest, E.; Furman, M.; Garren, A.A.; Hoyer, E.; Kennedy, K.; Lambertson, G.; Lo, C.C.; Nishimura, H.; Oddone, P.; Ronan, M.; Sessler, A.; Taylor, B.; Taylor, C.; Zisman, M.; Barletta, W.; Allen, M.; Bloom, E.; Burke, D.; Cornacchia, M.; Davies-White, D.; Destaebler, H.; Donald, M.H.; Dorfan, J.; Feldman, G.; Rees, J.; Schsarz, H.; Sullivan, M.; Autin, B.; Tennyson, J.; Barbson, B.; Oide, K.

    1989-10-26

    This report addresses the feasibility of designing and constructing an asymmetric B-factory based on the PEP storage ring at SLAC that can ultimately reach a luminosity of 1 X 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Such a facility, operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, could be used to study mixing, rate decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} system, and could also study tau and charm physics. The essential accelerator physics, engineering, and technology issues that must be addressed to successfully build this exciting and challenging facility are identified, and possible solutions, or R and D that will reasonable lead to such solutions, are described.

  12. Investigation of an Asymmetric B Factory in the PEP Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Chattapadhyay, A.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Chin, Y.H.; Dell'Orco, D.; Forest, E.; Furman, M.; Garren, A.A.; Hearty, C.; Jacob, A.; Kennedy, K.; Kim, K.; Lambertson, G.; Oddone, P.; Ronan, M.; Sessler, A.; Taylor, C.; Voelker, F.; Zisman, M.; Barletta, W.; Allen, M.; Bane, K.; Bloom, E.; Brenkus, F.; Brown, K.; Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Coupal, D.; Davies-White, W.; DeStaebler, H.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Hsu, I.; Hutton, A.; Jenkins, T.; Kozanecki, W.; Lisin, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.-L.; Raubenheimer, T.; Rees, J.; Ritson, D.; Ruth, R.; Saab, A.; Savage, W.; Schwarz, H.; Seeman, J.; Thompson, K.; Weidner, H.; Wilson, P.; Sullivan, M.; Jackson, G.; Hertzbach, S.; Tennyson, J.; Zholents, A.; Fitze, H.

    1990-03-01

    This report addresses the feasibility of designing and constructing an asymmetric B-factory based on the PEP storage ring at SLAC that can begin operation at a luminosity of 3 X 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and could ultimately reach even higher luminosity. Such a facility, operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, could be used to study mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} system, and could also study tau and charm physics. The essential accelerator physics, engineering and technology issues that must be addressed to successfully build this exciting and challenging facility are identified, and possible solutions, or R and D activities that will reasonable lead to such solutions, are described.

  13. Factorial optimization of a six-cellulase mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.; Irwin, D.C.; Walker, L.P.; Wilson, D.B.

    1998-06-05

    A factorial experimental design approach was used to optimize mixtures of six cellulases (five Thermomonospora fusca cellulases and plus/minus Trichoderma reesei CBHI along with {beta}-glucosidase) so as to maximize the glucose produced from filter paper. Optimized mixture A and mixture B produced glucose at 25 and 8.3 {micro}mol glucose/{micro}mol enzyme/min, respectively, which are 8 and 1.5 times higher than the sum of the activity of the individual cellulases. In both mixtures, the glucose yield depended on the ratio and the cellulases used. Most enzymes showed synergistic interactions that increased the glucose yield. The yield of glucose with the optimum mixtures depended on the total enzyme concentration.

  14. New control system for the KEK photon factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obina, Takashi; Pak, Cheol-On

    2007-07-01

    A new control system for the Photon Factory (PF) electron storage ring has been developed, incorporating modern technologies in both high-level and low-level control layers. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software toolkit was introduced as a major framework in the middle- and high-level control layers. In the low-level layer, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) was used for a safety control system, for RF klystron control boards and for the vacuum control system, etc. Old VME-board computers with the HP-RT operating system were replaced by Linux-based board computers, which were used as low-level input/output controllers. The new control system has been running without any serious problems since its commissioning in September 2005.

  15. Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory: Realtime Image Subtraction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2016-11-01

    A fast-turnaround pipeline for realtime data reduction plays an essential role in discovering and permitting follow-up observations to young supernovae and fast-evolving transients in modern time-domain surveys. In this paper, we present the realtime image subtraction pipeline in the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. By using high-performance computing, efficient databases, and machine-learning algorithms, this pipeline manages to reliably deliver transient candidates within 10 minutes of images being taken. Our experience in using high-performance computing resources to process big data in astronomy serves as a trailblazer to dealing with data from large-scale time-domain facilities in the near future.

  16. Characterizing imaging distortion for the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, David L.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank J.; Surace, Jason A.; Bellm, Eric Christopher; Miller, Adam; Ofek, Eran; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The advent of time-domain surveys has put a premium on accurate astrometry determined in near-real-time. The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) employs astrometric solvers from SCAMP in the Astromatic suite and from Astrometry.net. Distortion is computed by these solvers for each individual image and exposure. We present an analysis of the distortion solutions in iPTF data, and some approaches for improving astrometry for iPTF and the upcoming Zwicky Transient Facility. Additionally, Astrometry.net currently uses the SIP convention to represent distortion in FITS image headers, while the Astromatic suite uses the TPV convention. We describe a conversion between between these two conventions which has now been extended to 7th-order polynomials.

  17. Last Year of PEP-II B-Factory Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC (3.1 GeV e{sup +} x 9.0 GeV e{sup -}) operated from 1999 to 2008, delivering luminosity to the BaBar experiment. The design luminosity was reached after one and a half years of operation. In the end PEP-II surpassed by four times its design luminosity reaching 1.21 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. It also set stored beam current records of 2.1 A e{sup -} and 3.2 A e{sup +}. Continuous injection was implemented with BaBar taking data. The total delivered luminosity to the BaBar detector was 557.4 fb{sup -1} spanning five upsilon resonances. PEP-II was constructed by SLAC, LBNL, and LLNL with help from BINP, IHEP, the BaBar collaboration, and the US DOE OHEP.

  18. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Martin; Droser, Mary; Mayer, Lawrence M; Pevear, David; Mrofka, David

    2006-03-10

    An enigmatic stepwise increase in oxygen in the late Precambrian is widely considered a prerequisite for the expansion of animal life. Accumulation of oxygen requires organic matter burial in sediments, which is largely controlled by the sheltering or preservational effects of detrital clay minerals in modern marine continental margin depocenters. Here, we show mineralogical and geochemical evidence for an increase in clay mineral deposition in the Neoproterozoic that immediately predated the first metazoans. Today most clay minerals originate in biologically active soils, so initial expansion of a primitive land biota would greatly enhance production of pedogenic clay minerals (the "clay mineral factory"), leading to increased marine burial of organic carbon via mineral surface preservation.

  19. Cohesin organizes chromatin loops at DNA replication factories

    PubMed Central

    Guillou, Emmanuelle; Ibarra, Arkaitz; Coulon, Vincent; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rico, Daniel; Casal, Ignacio; Schwob, Etienne; Losada, Ana; Méndez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Genomic DNA is packed in chromatin fibers organized in higher-order structures within the interphase nucleus. One level of organization involves the formation of chromatin loops that may provide a favorable environment to processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. However, little is known about the mechanistic basis of this structuration. Here we demonstrate that cohesin participates in the spatial organization of DNA replication factories in human cells. Cohesin is enriched at replication origins and interacts with prereplication complex proteins. Down-regulation of cohesin slows down S-phase progression by limiting the number of active origins and increasing the length of chromatin loops that correspond with replicon units. These results give a new dimension to the role of cohesin in the architectural organization of interphase chromatin, by showing its participation in DNA replication. PMID:21159821

  20. Respiratory effects among rubberwood furniture factory workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sriproed, Salakjit; Osiri, Pramuk; Sujirarat, Dusit; Chantanakul, Suttinun; Harncharoen, Kitiphong; Ong-artborirak, Parichat; Woskie, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function were examined among 89 rubberwood furniture factory workers. Acute and chronic irritant symptoms were assessed, lung function was measured both pre- and post-shift and personal inhalable dust exposure determined. The only symptoms with a significant increase among high dust level-exposed workers (>1 mg/m(3)) were those related to nasal irritation. High dust level-exposed workers had a significant cross-shift decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) compared with low dust level-exposed workers and increases in inhalable dust concentration levels (mg/m(3)) were significantly associated with decreases in the peak expiratory flow (PEF) across the work shift. For percent predicted pulmonary function levels, a significant decrement in PEF was found for high versus low rubberwood dust level-exposed workers, after controlling for confounders. These findings suggest the need for an occupational standard for rubberwood dust in Thailand.