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Sample records for 25-34 35-44 45-54

  1. 43 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty...

  2. 22 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become...

  3. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  4. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  5. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  6. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence... of Evidence where appropriate, e.g., to exclude unreliable evidence. (c) The ALJ shall...

  7. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  8. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  9. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  10. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  11. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  12. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transmission facilities, may not purchase or receive non-power goods and services from a market-regulated power... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  13. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affiliate cross-subsidization. (a) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy. No wholesale sale of electric energy may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and a market... affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  14. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  15. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  16. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  17. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  18. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  19. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  20. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  1. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  2. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  3. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  4. Temporal sequence of the bidirectional relationship between hyperglycemia and periodontal disease: a community-based study of 5,885 Taiwanese aged 35-44 years (KCIS No. 32).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lai, Hongmin; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Li-Sheng; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between hyperglycemia (including diabetes) and periodontal disease (PD) has been noted previously, but its temporal sequence in the same study based on a population-based study has been barely addressed. Our study sought to clarify temporal bidirectional relationships between both diseases among Taiwanese aged 35-44 years. A prospective follow-up cohort study was designed by following over time the two normal cohorts (PD-free or hyperglycemia-free) derived from 5,885 subjects aged 35-44 years who were periodically attending a screening program. We ascertained both incident cases of PD (defined by Community Periodontal Index score ≧ 3) and hyperglycemia [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≧100 mg/dL] or type 2 diabetes (FPG ≧ 126 mg/dL) with 5-year follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the effect of PD on hyperglycemia and vice versa with adjustment for other confounding factors. Participants with PD presented a 33 % increase in their risk of incident hyperglycemia (including diabetes) [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.33 (95 % CI 1.09-1.63)] after controlling for potential confounding factors. Conversely, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus led to a significant elevated risk for PD [aHR = 1.25 (95 % CI 1.00-1.57) and aHR = 1.95 (95 % CI 1.22-3.13)] after adjustment for other confounding factors. In conclusion, a significant bidirectional relationships was found between hyperglycemia and PD, suggesting that both diseases may share common latent traits and pathways that are worthy of being further elucidated by continuing a long-term follow-up of this cohort.

  5. Radiographic Evaluation of Mandible to Predict the Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothi Shiv; Mohan, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is been conducted using digital panoramic radiographs for predicting age in various age groups and the accuracy of the parameters were accessed as age advances. Materials and Methods: The selected 300 panoramic images were divided into 3 age group of Group A (25-34 years), Group B (35-44 years), and Group C (45 -54 years). Each group comprised of 100 subjects in which 50 were males & 50 females. The age changes were evaluated using five parameters collectively, which were: Gonial angle, Antegonial angle, Mental foramen, Mandibular canal, Mandibular foramen. These parameters were evaluated on panoramic radiographs for age prediction and changes in their position as age advances. Results: Among all the parameters changes in Mandibular canal and mandibular foramen was found to be highly significant (p value ≤0.05) as age advances. Conclusion: These parameters can be used to predict the age of the individual as there were significant changes in Mandibular canal and Mandibular foramen as age advances. For Further studies large sample size, and recent modalities in radiography like CBCT or CT scan are required. PMID:25478451

  6. Prevalence of High Non-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Associated Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Jilin Province, China: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Zhen, Qing; Li, Yong; Kou, Chang Gui; Tao, Yu Chun; Wang, Chang; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Lu, Yu Ping; Yu, Ming Xi; Zhang, Hui Ping; Yu, Ya Qin; Li, Bo; Liu, Ya Wen

    2016-07-01

    Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in patients with diabetes, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is a better predictor of CVDs than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the distribution of non-HDL-C and the prevalence of high non-HDL-C level in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus and identify the associated risk factors. Non-HDL-C concentration positively correlated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-C concentrations. Although both non-HDL-C and LDL-C concentration both related positively with TC concentration, the magnitude of correlation was relatively higher for non-HDL-C. The prevalence of high non-HDL-C (⋝4.14 mmol/L) was higher in two age groups (55-64 years: 46.7%; 65-79 years: 47.3%) than other age groups (18-24 years: 4.2%; 25-34 years: 43.6%; 35-44 years: 38.1%; 45-54 years: 41.0%). It was also higher among overweight (45.1%), generally obese (50.9%), or abdominally obese (47.3%) subjects, compared with normal weight subjects (34.5%). The risk of high non-HDL-C increased with advancing age. Both general obesity [odds ratio (OR)=1.488, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.003-2.209] and abdominal obesity (OR=1.561, 95% CI: 1.101-2.214) were significantly associated with high non-HDL-C levels. PMID:27554125

  7. Development of a capitation scale for IDF career soldiers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Weiss, Yossi; Cohen, Yossi; Shmueli, Amir

    2007-03-01

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law allocates a national healthcare budget to the sickness funds, which provide medical care to civilian population. Medical care for members of the IDF is financed through the budget of the Ministry of Defense and is not included in the national healthcare budget. Benefits provided to soldiers serving in the permanent forces are far more extensive than those provided to civilians. Because of no co-payments, poor management, and the cost-based budget, military healthcare costs in Israel are expected to exceed civilian healthcare costs, adjusting for age and sex. The present paper derives age- and sex-based capitation rates for military personnel, and compares military and civilian age-based expenditure and capitation rates. The study population comprised career soldiers and civilians aged 21-54 years. Expenses of career soldiers were calculated to provide information on the financial costs of medical services for each age group in 2003. Overall expenses for women were higher than for men in all age groups. As anticipated, the older the group, the higher the total expenditure for both men and women. In-patient care represented a higher percentage of the total costs for men (28.3%) than for women (22.1%). Emergency room care was higher for women in the 22-24 age group but comparable to that of men in higher age groups. Specialist visits represented a significantly higher percentage of the total costs for women than for men in the 22-24 and 25-34 age groups (by 6% and 15%, respectively). The difference decreased to 13% in the 35-44 age groups and, in the 45-54 age group, the difference for men was 14% higher than for women. Military costs were similar to civilian costs in the 22-24 age groups, higher in the following two groups, and lower in the 45-54 age group. Like in other organizations, military healthcare services might benefit from outsourcing. The inequality in medical services to soldiers and civilians, the over-use of the

  8. Development of a capitation scale for IDF career soldiers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Weiss, Yossi; Cohen, Yossi; Shmueli, Amir

    2007-03-01

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law allocates a national healthcare budget to the sickness funds, which provide medical care to civilian population. Medical care for members of the IDF is financed through the budget of the Ministry of Defense and is not included in the national healthcare budget. Benefits provided to soldiers serving in the permanent forces are far more extensive than those provided to civilians. Because of no co-payments, poor management, and the cost-based budget, military healthcare costs in Israel are expected to exceed civilian healthcare costs, adjusting for age and sex. The present paper derives age- and sex-based capitation rates for military personnel, and compares military and civilian age-based expenditure and capitation rates. The study population comprised career soldiers and civilians aged 21-54 years. Expenses of career soldiers were calculated to provide information on the financial costs of medical services for each age group in 2003. Overall expenses for women were higher than for men in all age groups. As anticipated, the older the group, the higher the total expenditure for both men and women. In-patient care represented a higher percentage of the total costs for men (28.3%) than for women (22.1%). Emergency room care was higher for women in the 22-24 age group but comparable to that of men in higher age groups. Specialist visits represented a significantly higher percentage of the total costs for women than for men in the 22-24 and 25-34 age groups (by 6% and 15%, respectively). The difference decreased to 13% in the 35-44 age groups and, in the 45-54 age group, the difference for men was 14% higher than for women. Military costs were similar to civilian costs in the 22-24 age groups, higher in the following two groups, and lower in the 45-54 age group. Like in other organizations, military healthcare services might benefit from outsourcing. The inequality in medical services to soldiers and civilians, the over-use of the

  9. The EEG and Incidence of Epilepsy in Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangye, Sheila R.

    1979-01-01

    It was found, among other things, that neither the presence of congenital heart disease, nor diabetes, nor intercurrent illness appeared to have any effect on the development of seizures. The age groups with the lowest proportion of EEG abnormalities were 25-34 years (48.7 percent abnormal) and 35-44 years (54.1 percent abnormal). (Author/DLS)

  10. Evaluation of the masticatory system condition with respect to the need for prosthetic treatment in the population of 35-44-year-olds from the Lublin Region.

    PubMed

    Mielnik-Błaszczak, Maria; Stodółkiewicz, Małgorzata; Krawczyk, Dorota; Borowska, Małgorzata; Kleinrok, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out on the population of 59 subjects aged 35-4 (30 women, 29 men) living in Lublin. An evaluation of dentition status and degree of provision for prosthetic needs was done. We observed a remarkable frequency of dental caries, a large percentage of subjects with missing or damaged teeth (76.27%), and inadequate advancement of prosthetic treatment in 62.71% of subjects. Greater care for prosthetic treatment was observed among women than among men. Gaps within the maxilla were more often protected than those within the mandible.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Nauru

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No comprehensive assessment of diabetes prevalence in Nauru has been conducted since an extreme prevalence was documented more than two decades ago. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Methods A nationwide survey in 2004 of people aged 15- 64 years (n = 1592). Fasting plasma glucose levels were used to defined diabetes (≥7.0 mmol/l or 126 mg/dl) and prediabetes (6.1-6.9 mmol/l or 110-125 mg/dl). Results The sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 13.0% (95% CI: 10.6, 15.4) in men, 14.4% (11.9, 16.9) in women, and 13.7% (12.0, 15.4) combined. The sex-standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 6.4% (4.6, 8.2) for men, 5.5% (3.9, 7.2) for women, and 6.0% (4.8, 7.3) combined. The prevalence of diabetes for individuals 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years was 4.5%, 7.6%, 24.1%, 32.9%, and 42.7%, respectively. The prevalence of prediabetes for the same age categories was 4.2%, 8.8%, 5.9%, 6.6%, 7.1%, respectively. Multivariable, multinomial logit modeling found risk factors for prediabetes were high cholesterol levels (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.66, 2.47) and elevated waist circumference (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.08), and for diabetes were age in years (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.07), cholesterol levels (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.58, 2.14) and waist circumference (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07). Conclusions Diabetes remains a major public health problem in Nauru, affecting one out of every ten people. While the prevalence of diabetes has declined, its burden has persisted among the old but also extended towards the younger age groups. PMID:21943388

  12. Estimating Intergenerational Persistence of Lifetime Earnings with Life Course Matching: Evidence from PSID.

    PubMed

    Gouskova, Elena; Chiteji, Ngina; Stafford, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Why do estimates of the intergenerational persistence in earnings vary so much for the United States? Recent research suggests that life-cycle bias may be a major factor (Haider and Solon 2006; Grawe 2006). In this paper we estimate the intergenerational correlation in lifetime earnings by using sons' and fathers' earnings at similar ages in order to account for lifecycle bias. Our estimate based on earnings measured at 35-44 for both fathers and sons is similar to that for the age range 45-54.

  13. An economic-demographic model of the United States labor market.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J M

    1982-01-01

    An econometric model that has been developed to investigate the effects of demographic change on the US economy is described. The specific demographic features examined are the sizes of age sex groups in the US working age population. The size of these groups from now through the end of the 20th century will be determined primarily by past and current levels of fertility so they can be forecast with some degree of confidence. The model expands both the domain and accuracy of longterm economic forecasting by making use of the considerable quantity of demographic information that can be forecast, at least through this century, with a fairly great degree of confidence. In addition to economic forecasting, this study of the impact of demographic changes on the US labor market contributes to the investigation of the interrelationships among economic and demographic changes. The task of the model is as follows: given an exogenous projection of fertility and mortality rates and net immigration and given exogenous forecasts of variables such as rates of technical change, government demand for goods and services, and tax rates, the model forecasts variables characterizing the labor market and the macroeconomy. The model uses the fundamental principles of supply and demand, the economic theory of production, and the theory of household allocation of time and income to draw the implications of changes in demographic variables for the labor market and the economy. The crux of the model is a set of relationships depicting the behavior of the US labor market. In the labor market submodel, the input of labor of each of 16 age sex groups and its piece in each period is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. The 16 demographic groups are males and females, respectively, of ages 14-15, 16-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65 and over. Equations depicting the supply of and demand for labor of various demographic groups are estimated and provide the behavioral

  14. Fatal Firearm Injuries in Tennessee: A Comparison Study of Tennessee's Two Most Populous Counties 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Amy McMaster; Chancellor, Karen E; Rogers, William R; Ledford, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Firearm injuries are a leading cause of violent death in Tennessee. This study was designed to compare the demographic and epidemiologic features of fatal firearm injuries in Shelby County and Davidson County, Tennessee between 2009 and 2012. We identified 1081 gunshot fatalities for the study period in these two counties. Shelby County had a higher overall, age-adjusted gunshot mortality rate, a higher male age-adjusted gunshot mortality rate, and a higher age-adjusted gunshot homicide rate than Davidson. Age groups 25-34 years and 35-44 years had higher crude mortality rates for gunshot deaths in Shelby County than Davidson County. Both counties had higher age-adjusted gunshot mortality rates for black males than white males, higher homicide rate for black race than white, and higher suicide rate for white race than black. Homicide was the most common manner of death, and handguns were the most common type of firearm used in both counties. PMID:27113699

  15. Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

  16. Trends in inequalities in induced abortion according to educational level among urban women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Gloria; García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women's socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20-44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-1.47) between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20-24 and 25-34 and changed little among women aged 35-44. Among women aged 20-24 and 25-34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35-44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe.

  17. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16-64 years old) for the period 2001-2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16-34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16-24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25-34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35-44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16-34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35-44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45-64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16-34 years, may have begun before the 2008

  18. Work-energy level, personal characteristics, and fatal heart attack: a birth-cohort effect.

    PubMed

    Paffenbarger, R S; Hale, W E; Brand, R J; Hyde, R T

    1977-03-01

    In a 22-year followup of 3686 San Francisco longshoremen, a cohort analysis assessed job activity and six personal characteristics in relation to 395 fatal heart attacks. Four cohorts aged 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 in 1951 were studied annually for job shifts affecting energy output and for sudden or delayed death from heart attack by age 75. All subjects underwent multiphasic screening for heavy cigarette smoking, higher blood pressure, history of prior heart disease, obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, and higher blood cholesterol. The first three of these characteristics added risk of fatal heart attack. The amount of risk varied in the four cohorts. Higher energy output on the job reduced risk of fatal heart attack, especially sudden death, in the two younger cohorts, where less active workers were at threefold increased risk. Lack of this effect in the two older cohorts could imply real differences in their work habits, such as being less energetic in heavy jobs or more energetic in light jobs than the younger cohorts. Or, before the study began, early deaths may have winnowed susceptibles from the two older cohorts. Combined low-energy output, heavy smoking, and higher blood pressure increased risk by as much as 20-fold. By elimination of these adverse influences, this population might have had an 88% reduction in its rate of fatal heart attack during the 22 years.

  19. Trends and future projections of the prevalence of adult obesity in Saudi Arabia, 1992-2022.

    PubMed

    Al-Quwaidhi, A J; Pearce, M S; Critchley, J A; Sobngwi, E; O'Flaherty, M

    2014-10-20

    The prevalence of obesity among adults in Saudi Arabia increased from 22% in 1990-1993 to 36% in 2005, and future projections of the prevalence of adult obesity are needed by health policy-makers. In a secondary analysis of published data, a number of assumptions were applied to estimate the trends and projections in the age-and sex-specific prevalence of adult obesity in Saudi Arabia over the period 1992-2022. Five studies conducted between 1989 and 2005 were eligible for inclusion, using body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) to define obesity. The overall prevalence of obesity was projected to increase from around 12% in 1992 to 41% by 2022 in men, and from 21% to 78% in women. Women had much higher projected prevalence than men, particularly in the age groups 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years. Effective national strategies are needed to reduce or halt the projected rise in obesity prevalence.

  20. Survey of urinary nickel in residents of areas with a high density of electroplating factories.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Hsiang; Wang, Hsiu-Jen; Wang, Shu-Li; Wang, Yueh-Ching; Hsieh, Dennis P H; Chang, Louis W; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2006-12-01

    The soil metal contamination arising from the discharge of the high density of electroplating factories in the geographic center of Taiwan has prompted concern about human exposure to harmful metals. This study aimed to determine the levels of nickel (Ni) in urine of residents living in the high vs. low factory-density areas, and to examine how these levels relate to gender and age. A total of 660 subjects, resident in the area for the last five years, were sampled according to the stratified random sampling approach, at ages 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64years for both genders. Metals in urine samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) of urinary Ni was 6.30 (5.99-6.62)mug/l. The 0.95 parametric reference interval (90% CI) of urinary Ni was estimated to be 1.74 (1.62-1.88) to 22.73 (21.14-24.44)mug/l. Subjects in the areas with a high density of electroplating factories had significantly higher urinary Ni levels than those in the low-density areas, but both types of areas had obviously higher urinary Ni levels when compared to the non-occupationally exposed population from western countries. The health significance of elevated urinary Ni and its causative factors remain to be determined.

  1. Road crash injuries and fatalities in Isfahan, Iran from March 2006 to March 2009.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    With rapid development of social economies, road traffic accidents have continued to increase, and have become the primary public hazard to humans. The main goal of the present study was to investigate road traffic crash (RTC) fatalities and injuries in the city of Isfahan, Iran. A sample of 150,940 accident cases was considered from Isfahan Police Safety Driving Department, involving drivers and passengers of all ages, and covering a 3-year period. The record linkage identified 24,608 drivers and passengers injured or died as a result of RTC in the city of Isfahan over the 3-year period. The finding of this study shows that the highest rate of RTC fatality was 40% and 58%, which comprises the male drivers and female passengers within the age classes 25-34 and 35-44, respectively. On average, there were one death every 3 days and every hour, someone was injured and taken to an emergency department for RTCs in the city of Isfahan. The highest men to women death and injured ratios were 4:1 and 2:1, respectively. The use of seat belt devices in our population was worrisome. The article ends with a number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety.

  2. Relative risks of oral contraceptive usage.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, C; Reid, R L

    1987-04-01

    Women seeking safe, reliable contraception must weigh the risks associated with such methods with their benefits. To make this assessment process more meaningful, the authors have prepared a chart that sets forth the risks of oral contraceptive (OC) use by different user factors (e.g., age, cigarette smoking) in proportion to the risks inherent in a variety of sporting activities and types of accidents. Mortality rates reported for OC use include those due to the method and those due to pregnancies resulting from method failure. Scrutiny of this chart reveals that the risk of death associated with swimming, boating, and automobile use exceeds the risk of death for nonsmokers who use OCs up to 34 years of age (1.6 deaths/100,000 population). OC use by women 15-24 years of age who smoke carries a lower mortality risk (3.0/1000) than scuba diving or falling, while OC users 25-34 years old who smoke are more likely to die as a result of homicide, suicide, or automobile accidents than they are as a result of their use of OCs (mortality rate, 10.2/1000). On the other hand, OC use by smokers 35-44 years of age is associated with a mortality rate of 84.5/1000, which is a higher risk than that associated with the sport of hang-gliding.

  3. Trends in cigarette consumption cannot fully explain trends in British lung cancer rates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P. N.; Forey, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether British lung cancer (LC) trends are adequately explained by cigarette smoking trends, and whether modelling using aggregated smoking prevalence estimates can validly replace modelling using individual smoking histories. METHODS: Observed LC trends for 1955-1985 for both sexes and three age groups were compared with multistage model predictions using smoking history data from two surveys (HALS, AHIP). The modelling used the individual smoking data directly or aggregated prevalence estimates. It allowed for variation in age of starting and stopping smoking, amount smoked, tar levels, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. RESULTS: Observed male LC rates fell faster than predicted by a model (with the first and penultimate stages assumed affected by smoking) that allowed for variation in amount smoked and in tar level (with some provision for "compensation"), and was based on aggregated smoking data from HALS. The discrepancy equated to an annual change unexplained by smoking of -2.4%, -2.8%, and -1.9% for ages 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64. The annual unexplained changes were less in women, and reversed at age 55-64; -1.7%, -0.8%, and +0.8% for the three ages. They were similar using individual smoking histories (-2.6%, -1.8%, and -1.6%; women, - 0.9%, -0.5%, and +0.2%). The discrepancies were unexplained by plausible alternative multistage parameters, full allowance for tar reduction, alternative estimates of amount smoked, or ETS. CONCLUSIONS: British LC trends cannot be fully explained by cigarette consumption trends, implying factors other than cigarette smoking contribute importantly to overall risk. Predictions using aggregated prevalence estimates provide useful information.   PMID:9578854

  4. Increased anxiety and impaired spatial memory in young adult rats following adolescent exposure to methylone.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jollee J; Hughes, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that treatment of adolescent rats with the substituted cathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), might result in heightened anxiety and/or impaired memory during early adulthood, as has been shown for other designer drugs. For 10 consecutive days from 35days after birth (PND35-44, early adolescence) or 45days after birth (PND45-54, late adolescence), male and female PVG/c rats were administered saline or 8.0mg/kg methylone via intraperitoneal injection. When 90days old (early adulthood), their anxiety-related behavior was recorded in an open field and a light/dark box. Acoustic startle amplitude was also measured as well as their spatial memory which was determined by their ability to detect which arm of a Y maze had changed in brightness between an acquisition and a retention trial. Previously methylone-treated rats showed increased anxiety-related behavior only in the open field as reflected in decreased ambulation, and increased corner occupancy and defecation. In the latter two cases, the increases depended on the age of treatment. Also, for defecation, only male rats were affected. In addition, methylone-treated rats displayed signs of impaired spatial memory, independent of anxiety, through their reduced ability to detect a novel changed Y-maze arm. The results of the study suggested some possible consequences in adulthood of methylone use during adolescence. There were also several examples of female rats exhibiting higher overall frequencies of activity and anxiety-related responding than males that were consistent with them being the more active and less anxious of the two sexes. PMID:27178814

  5. Quality-of-Life Research on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Soetikno, Roy M.; Mrad, Ramzi; Pao, Victoria; Lenert, Leslie A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The World Wide Web (WWW) is a new communications medium that permits investigators to contact patients in nonmedical settings and study the effects of disease on quality of life through self-administered questionnaires. However, little is known about the feasibility and, what is more important, the validity of this approach. An on-line survey for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients whose UC had been treated with surgical procedures was developed. To understand how patients on the WWW might differ from those in practice and the potential biases in conducting epidemiological research in volunteers recruited on the Internet, post-surgery patients who responded to the WWW survey were compared with those in a surgical practice. Setting: The Internet and private practice surgical clinic. Main outcomes: Scores from the Short form 36 (SF-36) Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Self-Administered Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ). Results: Over a 5-month period, 53 post-surgery patients enrolled in the Internet study; 47 patients from a surgical clinic completed the same computer-based questionnaire. Surgically treated patients on the WWW were younger than their clinic counterparts (median age category 35-44 years vs. 45-54 years, p = 0.01) but more ill with a lower summary IBDQ score (168 vs. 186, p = 0.019) and lower health status across almost all dimensions of the SF-36 (p = 0.016). Conclusions: It is feasible to conduct epidemiological research on the effects of UC on quality of life on the Web; however, systematic differences in disease activity between volunteer patients on the WWW and “in the clinic” may limit the applicability of results. PMID:9391930

  6. High death rates in health care workers and teachers in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Hargreaves, N J; Gausi, F; Kwanjana, J H; Salaniponi, F M

    2002-01-01

    High death rates are reported in health care workers (HCWs) and teachers in urban areas of Malawi. The present study was carried out to determine the annual death rate in HCWs and primary school teachers working in semi-urban and rural areas of Malawi, and to try to ascertain the main causes of death. Forty district and mission hospitals in Malawi were visited. A record was made of the number of clinical and nursing-based HCWs in each hospital in 1999, the number of deaths in that calendar year and reported causes of death. A record was also made of the number of teachers working in 4 primary schools nearest to each hospital in 1999, the number of deaths in that calendar year and reported causes of death. There were 2979 HCWs, of whom 60 (2.0%) died. There were 4367 teachers of whom 101 (2.3%) died. Annual death rates, calculated per 100,000 people, were significantly higher in male HCWs compared with female HCWs (2495 versus 1770, RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.20, P < 0.001), and significantly higher in female teachers compared with male teachers (2521 versus 1934, RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11-1.17, P < 0.001). In male HCWs and teachers the highest death rates were in those aged 35-44 years. In female HCWs and teachers, the highest death rates were in those aged 25-34 years and 35-44 years, respectively. Reported causes of death in HCWs were tuberculosis (TB) in 47%, chronic illness in 45% and acute illness in the remainder, while in teachers the causes were TB in 27%, chronic illness in 49% and acute illness in 25%. Chronic illness, thought to be due to AIDS, and TB were the common causes of death. The current high death rates from AIDS and TB will have a crippling toll on the health and education sectors, and effective ways of reducing these death rates must be found.

  7. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  8. Hispanic ethnicity, race and blood donation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gillum, F; Eder, A F; McLaurin-Jones, T L

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the hypothesis that blood donation rates vary with Hispanic ethnicity (family origin in Spanish-speaking countries) in addition to race in the United States. Lower blood donation rates have been reported among African Americans (AAs) compared with non-Hispanic European Americans (EAs). Adequate published reports on donation rates are not available for Hispanic Americans (HAs). Using data from a 2002 national survey, which included 4923 men and 7600 women aged 15-44 years with complete data, we tested the hypothesis using weighted bivariate and multivariate statistics. Among men aged 25-44 years, the percentage [95% confidence limits (95% CL)] with a history of blood donation since 1985 was similar at ages 25-34 years (46%, 42-49) and 35-44 years (41%, 37-45). It was highest in non-Hispanic EA (49%, 45-52%), intermediate in AA (35%, 30-40%) and lowest in HA (30%, 25-36%) (P < 0.001). Other variables significantly (P < 0.01) associated with history of blood donation in bivariate analyses were nativity (United States/other), education (<12/>or=12 years), poverty (<200%/>or=200% poverty limit) and married (yes/no). Variables that are not significantly associated were age, metropolitan residence (yes/no), receipt of public assistance (yes/no), current labour-force participation (yes/no) and religion raised. Compared with non-Hispanic EA, the adjusted odds ratios were essentially the same for Hispanics 0.66 (95% CL 0.47-0.92) and AAs 0.64 (95% CL 0.49-0.84). Only 34% of women had donated blood, but the association with race/ethnicity was similar. Similar patterns were also seen at ages 15-24 years. HAs and AAs have similar low blood donation rates compared with non-Hispanic EAs. The difference is not explained by sociodemographic variables.

  9. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs, including distress, adjustment disorders, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, according to age, in male and female employees in the Netherlands. Methods Data on sickness absence episodes due to CMDs were obtained for 137,172 employees working in the Dutch Post and Telecommunication companies between 2001 and 2007. The incidence density (ID) and recurrence density (RD) of sickness absence due to CMDs was calculated per 1000 person-years in men and women in the age-groups of < 35 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years, and ≥ 55 years. Results The ID of one episode of CMDs sickness absence was 25.0 per 1000 person-years, and the RD was 76.7 per 1000 person-years. Sickness absence due to psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression) does not have a higher recurrence density of sickness absence due to any CMDs as compared to stress-related disorders (distress and adjustment disorders): 81.6 versus 76.0 per 1000 person-years. The ID of sickness absence due to CMDs was higher in women than in men, but the RD was similar. Recurrences were more frequent in women < 35 years and in women between 35 and 44 years of age. We observed no differences between age groups in men. Recurrences among employees with recurrent episodes occurred within 3 years in 90% of cases and the median time-to-onset of recurrence was 11 (10-13) months in men and 10 (9-12) months in women. Conclusions Employees who have been absent from work due to CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence due to CMDs and should be monitored after they return to work. The RD was similar in men and in women. In women < 45 years the RD was higher than in women ≥ 45 years. In

  10. 21 CFR 558.363 - Narasin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....366. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 558.363, see the List of CFR Sections... this section are as follows: (1) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section. (2) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, with 10, 20, 50, and...

  11. Demographic, socio-economic and geographic determinants of seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in rural western Kenya, 2011.

    PubMed

    Otieno, Nancy A; Nyawanda, Bryan O; Audi, Allan; Emukule, Gideon; Lebo, Emmaculate; Bigogo, Godfrey; Ochola, Rachel; Muthoka, Phillip; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Shay, David K; Burton, Deron C; Breiman, Robert F; Katz, Mark A; Mott, Joshua A

    2014-11-20

    Influenza-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause a considerable burden of disease in rural and urban sub-Saharan Africa communities with the greatest burden among children. Currently, vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza infection and accompanying morbidities. We examined geographic, socio-economic and demographic factors that contributed to acceptance of childhood seasonal influenza vaccination among children living in a population-based morbidity surveillance system in rural western Kenya, where influenza vaccine was offered free-of-charge to children 6 months-10 years old from April to June, 2011. We evaluated associations between maternal and household demographic variables, socio-economic status, and distance from home to vaccination clinics with family vaccination status. 7249 children from 3735 households were eligible for vaccination. Of these, 2675 (36.9%) were fully vaccinated, 506 (7.0%) were partially vaccinated and 4068 (56.1%) were not vaccinated. Children living in households located >5km radius from the vaccination facilities were significantly less likely to be vaccinated (aOR=0.70; 95% CI 0.54-0.91; p=0.007). Children with mothers aged 25-34 and 35-44 years were more likely to be vaccinated than children with mothers less than 25 years of age (aOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.15-1.62; p<0.001; and aOR=1.35; 95% CI 1.10-1.64; p=0.003, respectively). Finally, children aged 2-5 years and >5 years of age (aOR=1.38; 95% CI 1.20-1.59; p<0.001; and aOR=1.41; 95% CI 1.23-1.63; p<0.001, respectively) and who had a sibling hospitalized within the past year (aOR=1.73; 95% CI 1.40-2.14; p<0.001) were more likely to be vaccinated. Shorter distance from the vaccination center, older maternal and child age, household administrator's occupation that did not require them to be away from the home, and having a sibling hospitalized during the past year were associated with increased likelihood of vaccination against influenza in western Kenya. These

  12. What It Means to be a Carrier

    MedlinePlus

    ... those with a premutation. Intermediate or “Grey Area” Alleles An allele is a term to describe one’s gene, like ... is called an “intermediate” or “grey area” sized allele. These are alleles with 45-54 CGG repeats. ...

  13. A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the National Labor Relations Board relating to representation election procedures.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Enzi, Michael B. [R-WY

    2012-02-16

    04/24/2012 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 45 - 54. Record Vote Number: 68. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. No latest title...

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Enzi, Michael B. [R-WY

    2012-02-16

    04/24/2012 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 45 - 54. Record Vote Number: 68. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. A joint resolution relating to the disapproval of the President's exercise of authority to suspend the debt limit, as submitted under section 1002(b) of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 on October 17, 2013.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2013-10-28

    10/29/2013 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 45 - 54. Record Vote Number: 220. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Unemployment and suicide in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Snyder, M L

    1992-06-01

    For Northern Ireland, yearly mean percentages of unemployment and suicide rates (per 100,000 population) for specific age groups and by sex were compared over a 19-year period. Significant results were obtained for only two age groups of males (15-24 yr. and 45-54 yr.) and none for females. PMID:1496080

  17. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  18. Changes in vigorous physical activity and incident diabetes inmale runners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2007-04-30

    We examined the dose-response relationship between changes in reported vigorous exercise (running distance, {Delta}km/wk) and self-reported physician diagnosed diabetes in 25,988 men followed prospectively for (mean {+-} SD) 7.8 {+-} 1.8 years. Logistic regression analyses showed that the log odds for diabetes declined significantly in relation to men's {Delta}km/wk (coefficient {+-} SE: -0.012 {+-} 0.004, P < 0.01), which remained significant when adjusted for BMI (-0.018 {+-} 0.003, P < 0.0001). The decline in the log odds for diabetes was related to the distance run at the end of follow-up when adjusted for baseline distance, with (-0.024 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) or without (-0.027 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) adjustment for BMI. Baseline distance was unrelated to diabetes incidence when adjusted for the distance at the end of follow-up. Compared to men who ran <8 km/wk at the end of follow-up, incidence rates in those who ran {ge} 8 km/wk were 95% lower between 35-44 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 92% lower between 45-54 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 87% lower between 55 and 64 years old (P < 0.0001), and 46% lower between 65-75 yrs old (P = 0.30). For the subset of 6,208 men who maintained the same running distance during follow-up ({+-}5 km/wk), the log odds for diabetes declined with weekly distance run (-0.024 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.02) but not when adjusted for BMI (-0.005 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.65). Conclusion: Vigorous exercise significantly reduces diabetes incidence, due in part to the prevention of age-related weight gain and in part to other exercise effects. Physical activity decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes [1-10]. Moderate and vigorous exercise are purported to produce comparable reductions in diabetes risk if the energy expenditure is the same [3,10]. The optimal physical activity dose remains unclear, however, with some [4-7] but not all studies [1,8,9] showing continued reduction in diabetes for high versus intermediate energy expenditures. The National Runners Health

  19. Spectral classification of SN2016emk as a normal SN Ia at maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.

    2016-08-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of the supernova candidate ATSN2016emk (ra 06:03:42.90, dec -35:44:07.20). The spectrum (390-990nm) was obtained on UT 2016 Aug. 1 with the LDSS3 mounted to the Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.

  20. Childlessness among Older Women in the United States: Trends and Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abma, Joyce C.; Martinez, Gladys M.

    2006-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, the United States has seen an increase in childlessness and first births at older ages. Using the National Survey of Family Growth, we focus on women aged 35-44 who are voluntarily childless (expect no children and are fecund or contraceptively sterile). We compare these women to those who are involuntarily childless…

  1. INTEGRAL follow-up of IceCube HESE 128340 58537957

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Mereghetti, S.; Laurent, P.; Kuulkers, E.

    2016-08-01

    On 2016-08-14 21:45:54 the IceCube detector has observed a high-energy neutrino likely of astrophysical origin, HESE 128340 58537957. The location of the event is contained in a circle of 1.5 degree radius (systematic and statistical uncertainty, 90% confidence) centered at RA=199.3100 Dec=-32.0165, assuming that the interaction in the IceCube detector was track-like.

  2. A time series analysis of Swedish illegitimacy rates, 1911-1974.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W R; Cutright, P

    1983-04-01

    Using a sociodemographic model of the determinants of illegitimacy rates, a multivariate regression analysis of annual change in age-specific Swedish illegitimacy rates is applied to the 1911-74 period. The proxy measure of change in sexual activity was significant for all age groups. Legitimation rates for out-of-wedlock conceived births were significant for all ages except teenagers, and the final predictor, women's status, was significant for all ages except women 35-44. Explained variance for annual change was highest among ages 20-24 (66%), 25-29 (66%), and 30-34 (63%) and lower among teens (34%) and women 35-44 (47%). These results support earlier research that used a sociodemographic model to explain post-World War II change in cross-national illegitimacy rates among 23 developed countries. PMID:12340179

  3. Decision Processes Among the Elderly: Do They Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchilds, Jacqueline D.; Bikson, Tora K.

    Decision making processes among older adults were investigated within the context of grocery selection, using a stimulus array involving two product classes (bread and cheese) with 10 items per class. The sample (N=580) was stratified by sex, household status (living alone or with spouse), and age, employing three age groupings: 25-34 (young),…

  4. Latinas and HIV/AIDS: Implications for the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Miguelina

    1991-01-01

    Among Latinas, the number of cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is increasing relentlessly. From August 1989 to August 1990, there was a 53 percent increase nationally in cumulative AIDS cases among Latinas. In New York City, AIDS is the leading cause of death among Latinas aged 25-34. The conditions and circumstances that place…

  5. Commuting Patterns of Nonmetro Household Heads, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Data from the Annual Housing Survey indicated that 22% of all employed United States household heads commuted to a county different from that in which they lived in 1975. Commuting was more prevalent among men than among women and slightly higher for whites than for Blacks. Commuting tended to increase until age 25-34 and then to decline after age…

  6. American Higher Education: "First in the World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, 42 percent of Americans in the 25-34 age range hold a degree from a two- or four-year institution of higher education. At one time, that proportion was high enough to make the United States the best-educated country in the world. But in one generation, America's educational attainment has held steady while in other countries it has…

  7. Skill (Mis-)Matches and Over-Education of Younger Workers. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Chris; Sinning, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Younger workers, particularly those entering the workforce at ages 25-34 years, are more educated than ever before. The potential for these workers to be over-educated in their jobs might therefore be high. But does it follow that they are mismatched to the skill requirements of their jobs? This study examines the link between over-education and…

  8. Knowledge Management as a Mechanism for Technological and Organizational Change Management in Israeli Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Snunith; Perry, Milly

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, the higher education sector has experienced many pressures and changes (Hanna, "Educause Review, 38"(4), 25-34, 2003; Scott, "Educause Review, 38", 64-80, 2003; Waterhouse, "The power of e-learning: The essential guide for teaching in the digital age", 2005). Universities around the world are facing the need to adapt to a…

  9. Reaching the Non-Traditional Stopout Population: A Segmentation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatzel, Kim; Callahan, Thomas; Scott, Crystal J.; Davis, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 21% of 25-34-year-olds in the United States, about eight million individuals, have attended college and quit before completing a degree. These non-traditional students may or may not return to college. Those who return to college are referred to as stopouts, whereas those who do not return are referred to as stayouts. In the face of…

  10. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  11. Physicochemically and pharmacokinetically stable nonapeptide KISS1 receptor agonists with highly potent testosterone-suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Asami, Taiji; Nishizawa, Naoki; Matsui, Hisanori; Takatsu, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Atsuko; Kiba, Atsushi; Terada, Michiko; Nishibori, Kimiko; Nakayama, Masaharu; Ban, Junko; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Tarui, Naoki; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kusaka, Masami; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Chieko

    2014-07-24

    Modifications of metastin(45-54) produced peptide analogues with higher metabolic stability than metastin(45-54). N-terminally truncated nonapeptide 4 ([D-Tyr46,D-Pya(4)47,azaGly51,Arg(Me)53]metastin(46-54)) is a representative compound with both potent agonistic activity and metabolic stability. Although 4 had more potent testosterone-suppressant activity than metastin, it possessed physicochemical instability at pH 7 and insufficient in vivo activity. Instability at pH 7 was dependent upon Asn48 and Ser49; substitution of Ser49 with Thr49 reduced this instability and maintained KISS1 receptor agonistic activity. Furthermore, [D-Tyr46,D-Trp47,Thr49,azaGly51,Arg(Me)53,Trp54]metastin(46-54) (14) showed 2-fold greater [Ca2+]i-mobilizing activity than metastin(45-54) and an apparent increase in physicochemical stability. N-terminal acetylation of 14 resulted in the most potent analogue, 22 (Ac-[D-Tyr46,D-Trp47,Thr49,azaGly51,Arg(Me)53,Trp54]metastin(46-54)). With continuous administration, 22 possessed 10-50-fold more potent testosterone-suppressive activity in rats than 4. These results suggested that a controlled release of short-length KISS1 receptor agonists can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and reduce testosterone levels. Compound 22 was selected for further preclinical evaluation for hormone-dependent diseases.

  12. The individual and contextual pathways between oral health and income inequality in Brazilian adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Fritzell, Johan

    2009-11-01

    We evaluate the association between income inequality (Gini index) and oral health and in particular the role of alternative models in explaining this association. We also studied whether or not income at the individual level modifies the Gini effect. We used data from an oral health survey in Brazil in 2002-2003. Our analysis included 23,568 15-19 and 22,839 35-44 year-olds nested in 330 municipalities. Different models were fitted using multilevel analysis. The outcomes analysed were the number of untreated dental caries (count), having at least one missing tooth (dichotomous) and being edentulous (dichotomous). To assess interaction as a departure from additivity we used the Synergy Index. For this, we dichotomized the Gini coefficient (high vs low inequality) by the median value across municipalities and the individual income in the point beyond which it showed roughly no association with oral health. Adjusted rate ratio of mean untreated dental caries, respectively for the 15-19 and 35-44 age groups, was 1.12 and 1.16 for each 10 points increase in Gini scale. Adjusted odds ratio of a 15-19 year-old having at least one missing tooth or a 35-44 year-old being edentulous was, respectively, 1.19 and 1.01. High income inequality had no statistically significant synergistic effect with being poor or living in a poor municipality. Higher levels of income inequality at the municipal level were associated with worse oral health and there was an unexplained residual effect after controlling for potential confoundings and mediators. Municipal level income inequality had a similar, detrimental effect, among individuals with lower or higher income.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 is located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 214 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as ''Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas,'' and is comprised of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters {sm_bullet} CAS 11-22-03, Drum {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-18, Storage Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 11-22-03, 25-34-03, 25-34-04, 25-34-05, 25-99-12, and 25-99-18 is No Further Action. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of the fly ash and surrounding wooden structure at CAS 25-99-12 as a best management practice The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 05-99-01 in CAU 214 is Clean Closure. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with the pesticide dieldrin The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 is Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with chromium and soil impacted with the pesticides chlordane and heptachlor {sm_bullet} Implementing use restrictions (UR) at both CASs as detailed in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2005) {sm_bullet} Posting UR warning signs around CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 on the existing chain link fence

  14. SV40 lymphomagenesis in Syrian golden hamsters

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Adrienne L.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Heard, Tiffany C.; Sroller, Vojtech; Wong, Connie; Herron, Alan J.; Hamilton, Mary J.; Davis, William C.; Butel, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) isolates differ in oncogenic potential in Syrian golden hamsters following intraperitoneal inoculation. Here we describe the effect of intravenous exposure on tumor induction by SV40. Strains SVCPC (simple regulatory region) and VA45-54(2E) (complex regulatory region) were highly oncogenic following intravenous inoculation, producing a spectrum of tumor types. Three lymphoma cell lines were established; all expressed SV40 T-antigen, were immortalized for growth in culture, and were tumorigenic following transplantation in vivo. New monoclonal antibodies directed against hamster lymphocyte surface antigens are described. The cell lines expressed MHC class II and macrophage markers and were highly phagocytic, indicating a histiocytic origin. Many hamsters that remained tumor-free developed SV40 T-antigen antibodies, suggesting that viral replication occurred. This study shows that route of exposure influences the pathogenesis of SV40-mediated carcinogenesis, that SV40 strain VA45-54(2E) is lymphomagenic in hamsters, that hamster lymphoid cells of histiocytic origin can be transformed in vivo and established in culture, and that reagents to hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules are now available. PMID:19038412

  15. Age and gender-related differences in a spatial memory task in humans.

    PubMed

    León, Irene; Tascón, Laura; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive skills decline with age. Our ability to keep oriented in our surrounding environment was demonstrated to be influenced by factors like age and gender. Introduction of virtual reality based tasks improved assessment of spatial memory in humans. In this study, spatial orientation was assessed in a virtual memory task in order to determine the effect of aging and gender on navigational skills. Subjects from 45 to 74 years of age were organized in three groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years old). Two levels of difficulty were considered. Results showed that males outperformed females in 65-74 years-old group. In addition to this, females showed a more noticeable poor performance in spatial memory than males, since memory differences appeared between all age groups. On the other hand, 65-74 year-old males showed an impaired performance in comparison with 45-54 year-old group. These results support that spatial memory becomes less accurate as we age and gender is an important factor influencing spatial orientation skills.

  16. Use of private psychiatric services in Australia: an analysis of Medicare data.

    PubMed

    Jorm, A F; Henderson, A S

    1989-12-01

    An analysis of Medicare data for the 1985-86 financial year showed that the distribution of private psychiatric services varied greatly by age and sex. Females were greater users than males, except in childhood where the opposite was true. Service use was lowest for children and for the elderly and highest for the 35-44 year old group. Amongst patients receiving psychiatric services, elderly people were more likely to receive short consultations and ECT. These findings carry considerable implications for health service policy and for medical education.

  17. Use of private psychiatric services in Australia: an analysis of Medicare data.

    PubMed

    Jorm, A F; Henderson, A S

    1989-12-01

    An analysis of Medicare data for the 1985-86 financial year showed that the distribution of private psychiatric services varied greatly by age and sex. Females were greater users than males, except in childhood where the opposite was true. Service use was lowest for children and for the elderly and highest for the 35-44 year old group. Amongst patients receiving psychiatric services, elderly people were more likely to receive short consultations and ECT. These findings carry considerable implications for health service policy and for medical education. PMID:2610647

  18. Rapid searches for counterparts of GRB 930131

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Palmer, David M.; Cline, Thomas L.; Hurley, Kevin C.; Sommer, Michael; Boer, Michel; Niel, Michel; Fishman, Gerald J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    1994-01-01

    A fading counterpart to a gamma-ray burst (GRB) would appear as a point source inside a GRB error region soon after the burst which dims on a timescale from minutes to days. The favorable circumstances of the burst GRB 930131 allowed for an international campaign to search for fading counterparts starting 6.8 hr after the burst. We report observations from many optical sites, two radio telescopes, and archival ROSAT data, including deep Schmidt exposures 35, 44, and 64 hr after the burst. No fading counterparts were detected with our observations.

  19. Prevalence of Osteosclerosis Among Patients Visiting Dental Institute in Rural Area of Western India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahul; Singh, Ravinder; Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Ashtha; Tomar, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) is a benign lesion of unknown aetiology and is not attributed to any dysplastic, inflammatory, neoplasia, or systemic disorder. Aims and Objectives To assess the prevalence and distribution of IO according to its location and to patients’ age and gender, among rural population of western India. Materials and Methods Seven hundred and fifty patients were examined for the presence of IO in the jaw bone. After a thorough clinical examination, radiographic examination was done using OPG. Age specified by WHO were used 5, 12, 15, 35-44 and 65-74. The data collected was than tabulated and subjected to descriptive statistics and chi square test. Results Among the total study population 89 (11.8%) were found to be suffering from IO out of which 27 (7.2%) were males and 62 (16.53%) were females. The maximum number of IO cases cases was seen among the age group of 35-44 y, 33 (22.0%) and minimum in 5 y 9 (6%) Conclusion IO is higher among the females as compared to males and mostly seen among the 3rd and 4th decade individuals. PMID:26436044

  20. A comparative assessment of the curative potential of reduced intensity allografts in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Russell, N H; Kjeldsen, L; Craddock, C; Pagliuca, A; Yin, J A; Clark, R E; Howman, A; Hills, R K; Burnett, A K

    2015-07-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) provides the best mechanism of preventing relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However non-relapse mortality (NRM) negates this benefit in older patients. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) permits SCT with reduced NRM, but its contribution to cure is uncertain. In the MRC AML15 Trial, patients in remission without favourable risk disease could receive SCT from a matched sibling or unrelated donor (MUD). If aged >45 years, a RIC was recommended and in patients aged 35-44 years, either RIC or myeloablative conditioning was permitted. The aim was to determine which approach improved survival and within which prespecified cytogenetic groups. RIC transplants significantly reduced relapse (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66 (0.50-0.85), P=0.002) compared to chemotherapy The 5-year overall survival from a sibling RIC (61%) was superior to a MUD RIC (37%; adjusted HR 1.50 (1.01-2.21), P=0.04) due to lower NRM (34 vs 14%, P=0.002) In adjusted analyses, there was a survival benefit for sibling RIC over chemotherapy (59 vs 49%, HR 0.75 (0.57-0.97), P=0.03), with consistent results in intermediate and adverse-risk patients. In patients aged 35-44 years, best outcomes were seen with a sibling RIC transplant, although a comparison with chemotherapy and myeloablative transplant was not significant in adjusted analyses (P=0.3).

  1. Prescribing for older people in nursing homes: strategies to improve prescribing and medicines use in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Carole; Alldred, David; Daiello, Lori; Hughes, Carmel

    2011-03-01

    Interventions to improve prescribing in the nursing home environment are many and varied. The critical literature review presented in Paper 1 (Parsons et al., 2011, International Journal of Older People Nursing 6, 45-54) in this series discussed the main issues repeatedly identified as problematic, and this paper summarises the main approaches which have been used to attempt to improve prescribing. These include national legislation which demands documented justification for the prescribing of medicines, medication review, approaches to reducing medication errors, improving communication across care boundaries and assessment teams and alternative service models. It is difficult to make global recommendations as some of these approaches are country specific or have been delivered in different ways, involving different professionals. However, a series of prompt questions have been provided which may assist nursing home staff in deciding whether prescribing is optimal in a resident or if an intervention is required which may lead to an overall improvement in outcomes.

  2. Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0). PMID:25292030

  3. FORENSIC Autopsy of People Having Committed Suicide in 2002 and in 2012: Comparison of Epidemiological and Sociological Data.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Angélique; Bagur, Jacques; Lemoine, Patrick; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Malicier, Daniel; Maujean, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    This work compares epidemiological and sociological data on persons having committed suicide in 2002 and in 2012 through a retrospective study of every suicide case having led to an autopsy at the Institute for Forensic Medicine of Lyon in 2002 and in 2012. The study included sociodemographic data, medical data, and toxicological data. A total of 486 cases were included (242 cases in 2002 and 244 cases in 2012). People committing suicide were on average older in 2012 than in 2002 with a larger proportion of over 55. There was also an increase in the proportion of psychiatric antecedents (p < 0.001). Whatever the date of death by suicide, the most affected age range is the 45-54. The results highlight the necessity of bolstering the prevention plans, in particular for people over 45.

  4. [Atherosclerosis and its complications as a cause of hospital mortality in the Tashkent population in 1982-1986].

    PubMed

    Abdullakhodzhaeva, M S; Utepov, Iu Ia; Kharisov, A I; Daurekhanov, A M

    1988-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and coronary disease incidence rate specific for age, sex and nationality has been estimated at 7108 autopsies performed at city hospital in 1982-1986. The analysis suggested this rate to be on the increase, being 2.4% for 1920s, 29.3% for 1977-1981 and 39.5% for 1982-1986. Localization of arterial lesions responsible for a primary disease varies. Coronary heart disease ranks first occurring in 67.9% of cases. CVD follows occurring in 22%. Atherosclerosis death rate for the inpatients when adjusted for sex is age-specific. Though atherosclerosis is more frequently detected in native males aged 45-54 and females aged 45-49 compared to newcomers, the latter outnumber the natives by cases of atherosclerosis in the rest groups.

  5. Comparing epidemiologically estimated treatment need with treatment provided in two dental schemes in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Valid estimation of dental treatment needed at population level is important for service planning. In many instances, planning is informed by survey data, which provide epidemiologically estimated need from the dental fieldworkers’ perspective. The aim of this paper is to determine the validity of this type of information for planning. A comparison of normative (epidemiologically estimated) need for selected treatments, as measured on a randomly-selected representative sample, is compared with treatment actually provided in the population from which the sample was drawn. Methods This paper compares dental treatment need-estimates, from a national survey, with treatment provided within two choice-of-dentist schemes: Scheme 1, a co-payment scheme for employed adults, and Scheme 2, a ‘free’ service for less-well-off adults. Epidemiologically estimated need for extractions, restorations, advanced restorations and denture treatments was recorded for a nationally representative sample in 2000/02. Treatments provided to employed and less-well-off adults were retrieved from the claims databases for both schemes. We used the chi-square test to compare proportions, and the student’s t-test to compare means between the survey and claims databases. Results Among employed adults, the proportion of 35-44-year-olds whose teeth had restorations was greater than estimated as needed in the survey (55.7% vs. 36.7%;p <0.0001). Mean number of teeth extracted was less than estimated as needed among 35-44 and 65+ year-olds. Among less-well-off adults, the proportion of 16-24-year-olds who had teeth extracted was greater than estimated as needed in the survey (27.4% vs. 7.9%;p <0.0001). Mean number of restorations provided was greater than estimated as needed in the survey for 16-24-year-olds (3.0 vs. 0.9; p <0.0001) and 35-44-year-olds (2.7 vs. 1.4;p <0.01). Conclusions Significant differences were found between epidemiologically estimated need and treatment provided

  6. Violent death and mental illness. A study of a single catchment area over eight years.

    PubMed

    King, E; Barraclough, B

    1990-05-01

    The names of 412 residents of the catchment population of a district general hospital unit who died potentially self-inflicted deaths in the eight years 1974-81 were identified. They were classified as suicide (245), accidental death (126), and undetermined (41). In each group, over half had a lifetime history of psychiatric treatment and over a third were psychiatric patients at the time of their death. The relative risk of a violent death for those who died within a year of their last psychiatric contact was 27 times greater than that of residents with no recent psychiatric contact. The relative risk was highest for those aged 35-44 and lowest for those of 75 years and over.

  7. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly. PMID:26840821

  8. Brain sources of EEG gamma frequency during volitionally meditation-induced, altered states of consciousness, and experience of the self.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, D; Faber, P L; Achermann, P; Jeanmonod, D; Gianotti, L R; Pizzagalli, D

    2001-11-30

    Multichannel EEG of an advanced meditator was recorded during four different, repeated meditations. Locations of intracerebral source gravity centers as well as Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) functional images of the EEG 'gamma' (35-44 Hz) frequency band activity differed significantly between meditations. Thus, during volitionally self-initiated, altered states of consciousness that were associated with different subjective meditation states, different brain neuronal populations were active. The brain areas predominantly involved during the self-induced meditation states aiming at visualization (right posterior) and verbalization (left central) agreed with known brain functional neuroanatomy. The brain areas involved in the self-induced, meditational dissolution and reconstitution of the experience of the self (right fronto-temporal) are discussed in the context of neural substrates implicated in normal self-representation and reality testing, as well as in depersonalization disorders and detachment from self after brain lesions.

  9. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly.

  10. Brain sources of EEG gamma frequency during volitionally meditation-induced, altered states of consciousness, and experience of the self.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, D; Faber, P L; Achermann, P; Jeanmonod, D; Gianotti, L R; Pizzagalli, D

    2001-11-30

    Multichannel EEG of an advanced meditator was recorded during four different, repeated meditations. Locations of intracerebral source gravity centers as well as Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) functional images of the EEG 'gamma' (35-44 Hz) frequency band activity differed significantly between meditations. Thus, during volitionally self-initiated, altered states of consciousness that were associated with different subjective meditation states, different brain neuronal populations were active. The brain areas predominantly involved during the self-induced meditation states aiming at visualization (right posterior) and verbalization (left central) agreed with known brain functional neuroanatomy. The brain areas involved in the self-induced, meditational dissolution and reconstitution of the experience of the self (right fronto-temporal) are discussed in the context of neural substrates implicated in normal self-representation and reality testing, as well as in depersonalization disorders and detachment from self after brain lesions. PMID:11738545

  11. [Renal histology in 44 patients with specific antibodies of soluble nuclear antigens].

    PubMed

    Meyer, O; Gaudreau, A; Peltier, A P

    1980-10-01

    The authors studied the correlations between renal histology and specific antinuclear antibodies of soluble nuclear antigens (anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-protein) in 44 patients with such auto-antibodies. They were mostly patients with lupus erythematosus (35/44), more rarely mixed collagen disease or Sjögren's disease. The presence of any one of the specific antibodies of nuclear antigens is not associated with any special renal prognosis; thus the presence of anti-RNP does not mean that there are no histological renal lesions. The renal prognosis depends in fact on the presence of anti-ADN native antibodies. Among the other laboratory parameters (rheumatoid factors, complement levels, cryoglobulinemia) only hypocomplementemia seems to be associated with a poor renal prognosis, the presence of rheumatoid factor has perhaps a protective role.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  13. Nefro-urological mortality causes in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Peral, D; Suárez-Guzmán, F J

    2014-11-01

    The causes of mortality from nefro-urologic diseases in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the nineteenth century will be our object of study. We have analyzed the death registry books of the parishes in Jerez. The percentage of deaths from nefro-urologic diseases compared to other pathologies is 0.8%, being most affected males in age ranges from 25-34 and 65-75 years of age. The months with the highest mortality were July, December and January. Due to the deficient death registrations in the first decades of the century, the results should be taken with caution. PMID:25407147

  14. Anomie and United States Suicide rates, 1973--1976.

    PubMed

    Boor, M

    1979-10-01

    Related annual variations in United States suicide rates between 1973 and 1976 to concomitant annual variations in expressions of anomie obtained on the 5-item Srole anomie scale by a representative sample of the United States population. Expressions of anomie increased significantly for persons in the age groups (15--24 and 25--34 year) that displayed increases in suicide rates, annual variations in endorsement of anomie statements were correlated significantly with the concomitant annual variations in the suicide rates of the 15--24 year age group, and there was a nonsignificant tendency toward this relationship in the other (25--34 year) age group with increasing suicide rates. However, expressions of anomie also increased significantly for persons in the older age groups that showed no increases in suicide rates. Thus, Durkheim's hypothesis was not supported among older persons as it was among younger persons. Previous studies suggest that measures of anomie that focus explicitly on perceptions of internal-external control may be related more closely to suicidal behavior (especially for older persons) than measures that focus on other components of anomie.

  15. Depot medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, C.; Skegg, D. C.; Spears, G. F.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) affects the risk of breast cancer in women. DESIGN--A population based case-control study. SETTING--Nationwide community study. SUBJECTS--891 Women aged 25-54 with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with 1864 women selected at random from the electoral rolls. INTERVENTION--Women were interviewed by telephone about past use of contraceptives and about possible risk factors for breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Relative risk of breast cancer in women who had used medroxyprogesterone. RESULTS--Medroxyprogesterone had been used by 110 patients and 252 controls. Overall, the relative risk of breast cancer associated with any duration of use was 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.3). In women aged 25-34 the relative risk was 2.0 (1.0 to 3.8). The relative risk was highest in women aged 25-34 who had used the drug for six years or longer, although there were few women in this category. Women who had used it for two years or longer before age 25 had an increased risk of breast cancer (relative risk 4.6; 1.4 to 15.1). CONCLUSION--Despite the lack of an overall association these findings suggest that medroxyprogesterone may increase the risk of breast cancer in young women. PMID:2529939

  16. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research on how young adults or young adult subgroups utilize and engage with Web-based cessation interventions when trying to quit smoking. Addressing this knowledge gap is important to identify opportunities to optimize the effectiveness of online cessation programs across diverse young adult users. Objective This study examines utilization of the BecomeAnEX.org smoking cessation website among young adults and young adult subgroups compared with older adults to identify patterns of use by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Methods Study participants were 5983 new registered users on a free smoking cessation website who were aged 18 to 70 years. Website utilization was tracked for 6 months; metrics of use included website visits, pages per visit, length of visit, and interaction with specific website features. Differences in website use by age were examined via bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Interactions were examined to determine differences by gender and race/ethnicity within young (18- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds) and older (35 years and older) adult segments. Results A greater percentage of young adults aged 18 to 34 years visited the site only once compared with older adults aged 35 years and older (72.05% vs 56.59%, respectively; P<.001). Young adults also spent less time on the site and viewed fewer pages than older adults. In adjusted analyses, young adults were significantly less likely than older adults to visit the site more than once (18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.68, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64, P<.001), spend more than 3 minutes on the site (18-24 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, P<.001), view 12 or more pages (18-24 years: AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83; P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76, P<.001), utilize the BecomeAnEX.org community

  17. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV. PMID:23438082

  18. The rise and fall of smoking in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hay, D

    1993-07-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking in New Zealand has fallen over the past 20 years to 27% in both men and women. Rates remain high in women aged 15-24 years (33%) and in the Maori population (52% of men and women over 15 years). Tobacco consumption has fallen by 46% since 1975 and New Zealand now has the second lowest consumption of all OECD countries. Coincident with the reduction in smoking, there has been a 37% decline in age-standardised coronary heart disease mortality rates in men and 34% in women between 1968 and 1989. Since 1976 the incidence of lung cancer in men has fallen by 25% but increased by 38% in women. The decline was highest in non-Maori men aged 45-54 years (46%). Life expectancy has increased by four years in both men and women since 1970. New Zealand legislation against smoking was introduced in 1903 and culminated in the 1990 Smoke-free Environments Act. This provides for smoke-free environments, prohibition of tobacco advertising, restrictions on tobacco sponsorship, and the establishment of a Health Sponsorship Council.

  19. Prevalence of CGG expansions of the FMR1 gene in a US population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Baker, Mei Wang; Hong, Jinkuk; Maenner, Matthew; Greenberg, Jan; Mandel, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The primary goal of this study was to calculate the prevalence of the premutation of the FMR1 gene and of the "gray zone" using a population-based sample of older adults in Wisconsin (n = 6,747 samples screened). Compared with past research, prevalence was relatively high (1 in 151 females and 1 in 468 males for the premutation and 1 in 35 females and 1 in 42 males for the gray zone as defined by 45-54 CGG repeats). A secondary study goal was to describe characteristics of individuals found to have the premutation (n = 30, 7 males and 23 females). We found that premutation carriers had a significantly higher rate of divorce than controls, as well as higher rates of symptoms that might be indicative of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS; numbness, dizziness/faintness) and fragile X primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI; age at last menstrual period). Although not statistically significant, premutation carriers were twice as likely to have a child with disability. PMID:22619118

  20. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE. PMID:21780972

  1. Serum stability of selected decapeptide agonists of KISS1R using pseudopeptides.

    PubMed

    Asami, Taiji; Nishizawa, Naoki; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Nishibori, Kimiko; Nakayama, Masaharu; Horikoshi, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Tarui, Naoki; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Chieko

    2012-10-15

    Metastin/kisspeptin, a 54-amino acid peptide, is the ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor KISS1R which plays a key role in pathways that regulate reproduction and cell migration in many endocrine and gonadal tissues. The N-terminally truncated decapeptide, metastin(45-54), has 3-10 times higher receptor affinity and intracellular calcium ion-mobilizing activity but is rapidly inactivated in serum. In this study we designed and synthesized stable KISS1R agonistic decapeptide analogs with selected substitutions at positions 47, 50, and 51. Replacement of glycine with azaglycine (azaGly) in which the α-carbon is replaced with a nitrogen atom at position 51 improved the stability of amide bonds between Phe(50)-Gly(51) and Gly(51)-Leu(52) as determined by in vitro mouse serum stability studies. Substitution for tryptophan at position 47 with other amino acids such as serine, threonine, β-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and D-tryptophan (D-Trp), produced analogs that were highly stable in mouse serum. D-Trp(47) analog 13 showed not only high metabolic stability but also excellent KISS1R agonistic activity. Other labile peptides may have increased serum stability using amino acid substitution. PMID:22975302

  2. Localisation of luminal epithelium edge in digital histopathology images of IHC stained slides of endometrial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Sanchez, Victor; Patel, Gnyaneshwari; Quenby, Siobhan; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to abnormally high number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells has recently been made possible by a protocol devised by Quenby et al. Hum Reprod 2009;24(1):45-54. The diagnosis involves detection and counting of stromal and uNK cell nuclei in endometrial biopsy slides immunohistochemically stained with haematoxylin for staining cell nuclei and CD56 as a marker for the uNK cells. However, manual diagnosis is a laborious process, fraught with subjective errors. In this paper, we present a novel method for detection of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the human female uterus lining and localisation of the luminal epithelium edge in endometrial biopsies. Specifically, we employ a local phase symmetry based method to detect stromal cell nuclei and propose an adaptive background removal method that significantly eases the segmentation of uNK cell nuclei regions. We also propose a novel method using alpha shapes for the identification of epithelial cell nuclei and B-Spline curve fitting on identified cell nuclei to localise the luminal epithelium edge. The objective of edge localisation is to avoid cell nuclei near the luminal epithelium edge being counted in the diagnosis process due to their non-relevance to the calculation of stromal to uNK cell ratio that determines the diagnosis of recurrent miscarriages in the end. The resulting algorithm offers a promising potential for computer-assisted diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to its high accuracy.

  3. Kisspeptin prevention of amyloid-β peptide neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Milton, Nathaniel G N; Chilumuri, Amrutha; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Nercessian, Amanda N; Ashioti, Maria

    2012-09-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset is associated with changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function. The 54 amino acid kisspeptin (KP) peptide regulates the HPG axis and alters antioxidant enzyme expression. The Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) is neurotoxic, and this action can be prevented by the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Here, we examined the effects of KP peptides on the neurotoxicity of Aβ, prion protein (PrP), and amylin (IAPP) peptides. The Aβ, PrP, and IAPP peptides stimulated the release of KP and KP 45-54. The KP peptides inhibited the neurotoxicity of Aβ, PrP, and IAPP peptides, via an action that could not be blocked by kisspeptin-receptor (GPR-54) or neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor antagonists. Knockdown of KiSS-1 gene, which encodes the KP peptides, in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells with siRNA enhanced the toxicity of amyloid peptides, while KiSS-1 overexpression was neuroprotective. A comparison of the catalase and KP sequences identified a similarity between KP residues 42-51 and the region of catalase that binds Aβ. The KP peptides containing residues 45-50 bound Aβ, PrP, and IAPP, inhibited Congo red binding, and were neuroprotective. These results suggest that KP peptides are neuroprotective against Aβ, IAPP, and PrP peptides via a receptor independent action involving direct binding to the amyloid peptides.

  4. Ingestion and sublethal effects of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil on marine planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Baca, Sarah; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Planktonic copepods play a key function in marine ecosystems, however, little is known about the effects of dispersants and chemically dispersed crude oil on these important planktonic organisms. We examined the potential for the copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Parvocalanus crassirostris to ingest crude oil droplets and determined the acute toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed crude oil to these copepods. We detected ingestion of crude oil droplets by adults and nauplii of the three copepod species. Exposure to crude oil alone (1 µL L(-1), 48 h) caused a reduction of egg production rates (EPRs) by 26-39 %, fecal pellet production rates (PPRs) by 11-27 %, and egg hatching (EH) by 1-38 % compared to the controls, depending on the species. Dispersant alone (0.05 µL L(-1), 48 h) produced a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 20-35, 12-23 and 2-11 %, respectively. Dispersant-treated crude oil was the most toxic treatment, ~1.6 times more toxic than crude oil alone, causing a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 45-54, 28-41 and 11-31 %, respectively. Our results indicate that low concentrations of dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil are toxic to marine zooplankton, and that the ingestion of crude oil droplets by copepods may be an important route by which crude oil pollution can enter marine food webs.

  5. Relationship between psychosocial factors and health behaviours for women experiencing menopause.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Debra; Posner, Natasha

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors related to the health behaviours of women at menopause. These health behaviours included choice of intervention by women for menopause, particularly consultation of health professionals, use of hormone replacement therapy and preferred information sources. A postal questionnaire was distributed to a structured random population-based sample of 400 women in the 45-54 years age group living in south-east Queensland, Australia. Explanatory variables were: attitudes to menopause, social functioning, mental health, vitality, preventive health practices and lifestyle factors. This study found that information, preventive health practices, attitudes towards menopause, exercise, number of children living at home, years of formal education and working in paid employment, were related to the health behaviours of women at menopause. The study concludes that a number of related psychosocial factors not associated with hormonal changes may influence the health behaviours of menopausal women. It will be important for nurses, other health professionals and counsellors to decide how best to respond to these findings in consultation with the women affected by their decisions. PMID:12225353

  6. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  7. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    PubMed

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible.

  8. The Best Modern Analog for Eocene Arctic Forests is within Today's Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Eberle, J.; Sternberg, L. O.; Ellsworth, P.; Eberth, D.; Sweet, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the 25 years that have passed since the first extensive descriptions of the Fossil Forests that persisted above the Arctic Circle during the Eocene (~45-54 Ma), no less than four locations have been suggested as modern analogs. These locations represent a diverse collection of biomes and temperature/precipitation environments, and include the southeastern Unites States and southeastern Asia (based on flora and fauna assemblages), southern Chile and the U.S. Pacific Northwest (based on biomass and productivity estimates), and Pacific Northwestern U.S. and Canada (based on mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation). Here we report on new isotope datasets that allow for a prediction of best modern analog based on a quantitative characterization of paleoseasonality. First, we report high-resolution carbon isotope data from fossil tree rings that record the ratio of summer to winter precipitation. Second, we report analyses of the oxygen isotope composition of phenylglucosazone, a compound isolated from fossil cellulose that straightforwardly records the oxygen isotope composition of meteoric water available to the tree. Together, our analyses indicate that the fossil forests of the Eocene Arctic thrived under a summer-dominated, high-intensity, seasonal precipitation regime, with at least 279 mm of rainfall during the wettest month. A quantitative comparison of mean-annual temperature and precipitation, fossil and modern plant communities, and the seasonality indices, highlights the Korean peninsula as the most appropriate modern analog for the Arctic Eocene forests, in preference to the North and South American analogs previously proposed.

  9. Phthalate metabolite levels and menopausal hot flashes in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Gallicchio, Lisa; Chiang, Catheryne; Ther, Sara N; Miller, Susan R; Zacur, Howard A; Dills, Russell L; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-04-01

    During the menopausal transition, a woman's reproductive capacity declines, her hormone milieu changes, and her risk of hot flashes increases. Exposure to phthalates, which can be found in personal care products, can also result in altered reproductive function. Here, we investigated the associations between phthalate metabolite levels and midlife hot flashes. Eligible women (45-54 years of age) provided detailed information on hot flashes history and donated urine samples (n=195). Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. A higher total sum of phthalate metabolites commonly found in personal care products was associated with an increased risk of ever experiencing hot flashes (odds ratio (OR)=1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-1.96), hot flashes in the past 30days (OR=1.43; 95%CI=1.04-1.96), and more frequent hot flashes (OR=1.47; 95%CI=1.06-2.05). These data suggest that some phthalate exposures from personal care products are associated with menopausal hot flashes in women.

  10. Loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking and its relation to disability and mortality in South African gold miners.

    PubMed Central

    Hnizdo, E

    1992-01-01

    The data from a lung function study on 2209 white 45-54 year old South African gold miners in 1968-71 and at a five year follow up examination, were analysed to establish the actual loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking. Ex-smokers were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 1625 subjects, 1249 had the five year follow up test of lung function. The estimated excess loss of lung function for a 50 year old gold miner, associated with 24 years of underground dust exposure of an average respirable dust concentration of 0.30 mg m-3 (14.4 ghm-3) was 236 ml of FEV1 (95% confidence interval (95% CI 134-337) and 217 ml of FVC (95% CI 110-324). By comparison, the effect of smoking one packet of cigarettes a day over 30 years was associated with an estimated loss of 552 ml of FEV1 (95% CI 461-644) and 335 ml of FVC (95% CI 170-500). The cumulative dust exposure was not associated with the longitudinal loss of FEV1 or FVC when the initial FEV1 and FVC were adjusted in the models. According to the predicted values, however, gold miners appear to have a greater loss of lung function from 50 to 55 years of age than that predicted for a general population. PMID:1322158

  11. Quantitative aspects of the epidemiology of Schistosoma japonicum infection in a rural community of Luzon, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    In a rural community on the island of Luzon, Philippines, the overall prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection, based on stool examination performed by both a new modified quantitative thick smear and the merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC) technique, was 49.5% in a total study population of 755 persons. Peak prevalence was observed in the 15-19-year age group, then decreased gradually. Although the total egg output was highest in the 15-19-year age group, individuals with high egg counts were found among all age groups. The prevalence and intensity of infection were higher in men than in women except in the 45-54-year age group. A small proportion (4.1%) of the study population (age range 6-53 years) excreted 50% of the eggs counted in this study. Liver and spleen enlargement were significantly associated with S. japonicum infection in all age groups. The frequency of a past history of dysentery and marked liver enlargement (≥ 5 cm) increased in parallel with increasing egg counts. Clustering of individuals with high egg counts in households was observed, but there was no correlation between geographical proximity of residence to potential transmission sites and household infection rates. An effective control strategy would be based on treatment of all infected persons in this endemic area rather than only a selected age group. PMID:6969135

  12. Malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis "Podhrastovi" in ten-year period (from 1998 to 2007).

    PubMed

    Cukić, Vesna; Ustamujić, Aida; Lovre, Vladimir; Zutić, Hasan; Genjac, Sadika; Masić-Zecević, Mina

    2008-11-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common primary malign tumour of pleura. The aim of this study was to evaluate cases of MPM diagnosed and treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis "Podhrastovi" during ten-year period (1998-2007). Study is retrospective. The patients were analysed according to age, sex, histopathologic type of the tumour, cantonal distribution in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and regimen of treatment. MPM presented 0,72% (0-1,56% per year) of all hospitalised malignant patients, and the greatest number of registered cases was in the year of 2007. The series included 16 male (57,14%) and 12 female (42,86%). Cases over 64 years old were the most frequent (14-50%) than 45-54 years (7- not 25%). Histopathology types of hospitalised cases of MPM: epitheloid form (8- 28,57%); sarcomatoid form (2- 7,14 %); other forms (18-64,29%). The most patients came from Canton Sarajevo (12-42,86%); ZE-DO canton (8-28,57%) and the UNA-SANA canton (5-17,86%). The therapy applied: chemotherapy (11-39,29%); radiotherapy (3-10,71%); chemotherapy + radiotherapy (4-14,29%); symptomatic therapy (10-35,71 %).

  13. The proliferation marker Ki67, but not neuroendocrine expression, is an independent factor in the prediction of prognosis of primary prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Pascale, Mariarosa; Aversa, Cinzia; Barbazza, Renzo; Marongiu, Barbara; Siracusano, Salvatore; Stoffel, Flavio; Sulfaro, Sando; Roggero, Enrico; Stanta, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuroendocrine markers, which could indicate for aggressive variants of prostate cancer and Ki67 (a well-known marker in oncology for defining tumor proliferation), have already been associated with clinical outcome in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of those markers in primary prostate cancer patients. Patients and methods NSE (neuron specific enolase), ChrA (chromogranin A), Syp (Synaptophysin) and Ki67 staining were performed by immunohistochemistry. Then, the prognostic impact of their expression on overall survival was investigated in 166 primary prostate cancer patients by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results NSE, ChrA, Syp and Ki67 were positive in 50, 45, 54 and 146 out of 166 patients, respectively. In Kaplan-Meier analysis only diffuse NSE staining (negative vs diffuse, p = 0.004) and Ki67 (≤ 10% vs > 10%, p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with overall survival. Ki67 expression, but not NSE, resulted as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusions A prognostic model incorporating Ki67 expression with clinical-pathological covariates could provide additional prognostic information. Ki67 may thus improve prediction of prostate cancer outcome based on standard clinical-pathological parameters improving prognosis and management of prostate cancer patients.

  14. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J

    2015-03-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects some but not all carriers of small, noncoding CGG-repeat expansions (55-200 repeats; premutation) within the fragile X gene (FMR1). Principal features of FXTAS include intention tremor, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, memory and executive function deficits, autonomic dysfunction, brain atrophy with white matter disease, and cognitive decline. Although FXTAS was originally considered to be confined to the premutation range, rare individuals with a gray zone (45-54 repeats) or an unmethylated full mutation (>200 repeats) allele have now been described, the constant feature of the disorder remaining the requirement for FMR1 expression, in contradistinction to the gene silencing mechanism of fragile X syndrome. Although transcriptional activity is required for FXTAS pathogenesis, the specific trigger(s) for FXTAS pathogenesis remains elusive, highlighting the need for more research in this area. This need is underscored by recent neuroimaging findings of changes in the central nervous system that consistently appear well before the onset of clinical symptoms, thus creating an opportunity to delay or prevent the appearance of FXTAS.

  15. Developing and assessing the utility of a You-Tube based clinical genetics video channel for families affected by inherited tumours.

    PubMed

    Jones, G E; Singletary, J H; Cashmore, A; Jain, V; Abhulimhen, J; Chauhan, J; Musson, H V; Barwell, J G

    2016-04-01

    We have designed and implemented the first worldwide You Tube channel with 22 videos covering common questions asked in familial cancer susceptibility clinics. We discuss the use of the videos including demographics of registered You Tube users, and what lessons have been learnt about how the general public uses medical information online. The most popular video on inheritance patterns has been watched on average 84 times per month. The mostly highly viewed videos include inheritance patterns, breast cancer screening and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Registered viewers were more commonly male and the average age of the registered user was 45-54 years; similar to that seen in Genetics Clinics suggesting that age may not be a major barrier to access to this type of information for patients. The videos have been viewed in more than 140 countries confirming that there is clearly an audience for this type of information. Patient feedback questionnaires indicate that these videos provide a useful aide memoir for the clinic appointment, and most people would recommend them to others. In summary, You Tube videos are easy and cost effective to make. They have the ability to disseminate genetics education to a worldwide audience and may be a useful adjunct to clinical appointments.

  16. Pork loin color relative to sensory and instrumental tenderness and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Norman, J L; Berg, E P; Heymann, H; Lorenzen, C L

    2003-10-01

    Pork loin color categories were established with the intent of demonstrating differences in eating quality between them. Center-cut boneless pork loins (n=64) were divided into three color classifications. Category A included National Pork Producers Council color standards 1 and 2; category B, 3 and 4; and category C, 5 and 6. L* means for categories A, B, and C were 57.00, 50.24, and 45.54, respectively. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not affected by category (P>0.05), but were negatively correlated with a* and b* values (P<0.05). The "in-home" portion of this study consisted of 47 households that prepared and evaluated chops randomly distributed by category. Consumers reported differences in liking of juiciness and liking of tenderness (P<0.05) due to color category. Eighty-nine percent of the households participated in a simulated retail display where, 20.8% chose chops from category A, 26.4% from category B, and 52.8% from category C. A trained panel evaluated the cooked chops and perceived category C to be more tender, more juicy, and less dry than both A and B (P<0.05). Consumers responded similarly to the trained panel in their perceptions of tenderness and juiciness.

  17. The proliferation marker Ki67, but not neuroendocrine expression, is an independent factor in the prediction of prognosis of primary prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Pascale, Mariarosa; Aversa, Cinzia; Barbazza, Renzo; Marongiu, Barbara; Siracusano, Salvatore; Stoffel, Flavio; Sulfaro, Sando; Roggero, Enrico; Stanta, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuroendocrine markers, which could indicate for aggressive variants of prostate cancer and Ki67 (a well-known marker in oncology for defining tumor proliferation), have already been associated with clinical outcome in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of those markers in primary prostate cancer patients. Patients and methods NSE (neuron specific enolase), ChrA (chromogranin A), Syp (Synaptophysin) and Ki67 staining were performed by immunohistochemistry. Then, the prognostic impact of their expression on overall survival was investigated in 166 primary prostate cancer patients by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results NSE, ChrA, Syp and Ki67 were positive in 50, 45, 54 and 146 out of 166 patients, respectively. In Kaplan-Meier analysis only diffuse NSE staining (negative vs diffuse, p = 0.004) and Ki67 (≤ 10% vs > 10%, p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with overall survival. Ki67 expression, but not NSE, resulted as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusions A prognostic model incorporating Ki67 expression with clinical-pathological covariates could provide additional prognostic information. Ki67 may thus improve prediction of prostate cancer outcome based on standard clinical-pathological parameters improving prognosis and management of prostate cancer patients. PMID:27679548

  18. [Enclosure experiments about the hydrodynamics effects on the plankton].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Li, Fei-Peng; Chen, Ling

    2010-01-01

    To explore the effects of hydrodynamics on plankton, four kinds of surface flow enclosure experiments were done from August, 2007 to July, 2008. The flow velocity were 0.002, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.30 m x s(-1) respectively. Under 0.15 and 0.30 m x s(-1) surface velocity conditions, it was revealed that Spirogyra biomasses were 2.3 times and 31.3 times of the ones under static state respectively. Under 0.10, 0.15 and 0.30 m x s(-1) conditions, Chl-a concentrations were 45%, 54% and 26% of the ones under statistic state while zooplankton biomasses were 38%, 27% and 6% respectively. The mechanism is that a certain flow velocity stimulates Spirogyra growth may be for the shear stress generated by the surface flow can help the vegetative reproduction. Shear stress and turbulence may also bring the phytoplankton to the light limited area by force. Besides, as Spirogyra grows well, it can inhibit the phytoplankton growth by excretion or some symbiotic microorganism. When shear stress or water turbulence exceeds a certain value, crustacean zooplankton successful grazing rate may also be depressed.

  19. O’Leary-Sant Symptom Index Predicts the Treatment Outcome for Onabotulinumtoxin A Injections for Refractory Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-01-01

    Although intravesical injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) has been proved promising in treating patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), what kind of patients that may benefit from this treatment remains unclear. This study investigated the predictors for a successful treatment outcome. Patients with IC/BPS who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive intravesical injection of 100 U of BoNT-A immediately followed by hydrodistention. Variables such as O’Leary-Sant symptom and problem indexes (ICSI and ICPI), pain visual analogue scale (VAS), functional bladder capacity (FBC), voiding diary, and urodynamic parameters were measured at baseline and six months after treatment. A global response assessment (GRA) ≥ 2 at six months was defined as successful. There were101 patients enrolled. Significant improvements were observed in mean ICSI, ICPI, OSS (ICSI + ICPI), pain VAS, FBC, frequency, nocturia and GRA at six months after BoNT-A injections (all p < 0.05). The successful rate at six months was 46/101 (45.54%). Multivariate logistic regression revealed the baseline ICSI (odds ratio = 0.770, 95% confidence interval = 0.601–0.989) was the only predictor for a treatment outcome. ICSI ≥ 12 was the most predictive cutoff value for a treatment failure, with a ROC area of 0.70 (sensitivity = 69.1%, specificity = 60.9%). PMID:26264022

  20. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared to the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.

  1. Companion animal knowledge, attachment and pet cat care and their associations with household demographics for residents of a rural Texas town.

    PubMed

    Ramón, Melanie E; Slater, Margaret R; Ward, Michael P

    2010-05-01

    This cross-sectional telephone survey explored companion animal attachment and knowledge as well as cat care of residents in a small Texas town. The survey included 441 residents of randomly selected households (55% response rate). Dogs were owned by 48% of households and cats by 29%. Companion animal ownership was associated with being 25-44 years old, being Anglo, having an income over $85,000/year, and feeding unowned cats. More knowledge about animals was associated with being any age except 45-54 years old and with completing college or an advanced degree. Higher attachment was associated with being a woman and having no children in the household. Attachment and knowledge were not related to ethnicity. Cats were likely to be sterilized if they had been owned more than 2 years and had been rabies vaccinated. Outside-only cats were used to control vermin ("mousers") and were less likely to have visited a veterinarian. Cats with identification were likely to be from a shelter, frequently have visited the veterinarian, and been vaccinated against rabies. There are many companion animal owners who still do not have basic knowledge to prevent accidental litters or provide basic health care. Attachment scores for companion animal owners were similar to those previously reported and similar for cat and dog owners. A pattern of better care emerges for owners who view their cats as companions.

  2. Generation of Lactococcus lactis capable of coexpressing epidermal growth factor and trefoil factor to enhance in vitro wound healing.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Evanna; Li, Julang

    2015-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) are peptides that actively support the restitution and repair of mucosal epithelial barriers. Previous studies have shown that TFF3 enhanced EGF effect in wound healing, suggesting that the combined application of the two factors may be advantageous in clinical tissue repair. Expression of multiple proteins in a single host is a desirable approach in a biotechnological process, allowing to reduce cost and increase production efficiency. The aim of the present study was to study the feasibility of coexpressing EGF and TFF3 in food grade bacteria, Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis). Using an expression construct allowing simultaneous translation of two separate recombinant peptides, we generated a L. lactis that coexpressed and secreted EGF and TFF3 dually (LL-ET). Western blot analysis revealed that LL-ET secreted 45-54 % more total recombinant peptides (EGF+TFF3) per flask fermentation and 21-37 % more total recombinant proteins in bioreactor fermentation compared to their single factor expressing L. lactis counterparts (LL-EGF and LL-TFF3, respectively). The resulted recombinant EGF and TFF3 showed enhancement in wound healing activity in vitro. Our data suggest that the dual expression and secretion of EGF and TFF3 by L. lactis effectively accelerated cell migration, demonstrating potential future oral application of L. lactis fermentation product containing dual factors or a cocktail of factors to potentially treat intestinal damage and inflammation.

  3. The effect of vitamin B sub 12 on selenium metabolism in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Whanger, P.D. )

    1991-03-11

    Since animal methylate selenium (Se) and vitamin B{sub 12} is involved in methylation reactions, weaning rats were fed diets with or without vitamin B{sub 12} to evaluate its effect on Se metabolism. Plasma vitamin B{sub 12} of vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats were below detection while vitamin B{sub 12} levels in plasma of control rats ranged from 3-6 ng/ml after 4 weeks feeding. After {sup 75}Se-selenite injection, vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats exhaled 16% of the dose and excreted 22-28% as trimethylselenonium in urine as compared to 45% and 45-54% respectively in control rats. Se methylation experiments with rat liver supernatants from vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats volatilized only 45% as the control rat liver preparation. When rats were fed various levels of Se as selenite, blood and heart Se levels were higher in vitamin B{sub 12} supplemented rats, but lower in liver, kidney, spleen and testis than the deficient rats. This difference in liver between supplemented and deficient rats became greater with higher dietary levels of Se. It is concluded that vitamin B{sub 12} affects Se metabolism through the methylation of this element.

  4. Plasma BGP: an indicator of spontaneous bone loss and of the effect of oestrogen treatment in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J S; Riis, B J; Delmas, P D; Christiansen, C

    1988-04-01

    One hundred and ninety-one healthy early postmenopausal women, aged 45-54 years, were randomized to 2 years of treatment with (a) percutaneous 17 beta-oestradiol combined with progesterone (n = 29) or placebo (n = 28); (b) oral oestradiol valerate combined with cyproterone acetate (n = 37) or placebo (n = 39); (c) 24R, 25 (OH)2D3 (n = 29) or placebo (n = 29). We measured the plasma bone Gla-protein (BGP), bone mineral content of the proximal forearms (BMC), bone mineral density in the spine (BMDspine) and total body bone mineral (TBBM) in all the women before, and during, the study. In the groups of women receiving the oestrogen preparations, the plasma BGP decreased highly significantly (P less than 0.001) to a premenopausal level. The initial plasma BGP concentration was significantly related to the loss of BMC (P less than 0.001) in the placebo groups. The changes in plasma BGP were an indicator of the oestrogen response on BMC. We conclude that serial determinations of plasma BGP are useful for determination of the effect of oestrogen therapy in groups of patients, and that plasma BGP measured at the time of the menopause indicates what the rate of bone loss will be.

  5. Austerity, precariousness, and the health status of Greek labour market participants: Retrospective cohort analysis of employed and unemployed persons in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-11-01

    Greece implemented the deepest austerity package in Europe during the Great Recession (from 2008), including reductions in severance pay and redundancy notice periods. To evaluate whether these measures worsened labour market participants' health status, we compared changes in self-reported health using two cohorts of employed individuals in Greece from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. During the initial recession (2008-2009) we found that self-reported health worsened both for those remaining in employment and those who lost jobs. Similarly, during the austerity programme (2010-2011) people who lost jobs experienced greater health declines. Importantly, individuals who remained employed in 2011 were also 25 per cent more likely to experience a health decline than in 2009. These harms appeared concentrated in people aged 45-54 who lost jobs. Our study moves beyond existing findings by demonstrating that austerity both exacerbates the negative health consequences of job loss and worsens the health of those still employed.

  6. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    PubMed

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. PMID:25382477

  7. The effect of including a monetary motive item on the gambling motives questionnaire in a sample of moderate gamblers.

    PubMed

    Dechant, Kristianne; Ellery, Michael

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) with a large stratified sample of 839 moderate gamblers (49% female; median age category = 45-54 years) and examined the effect of including a monetary motive item on GMQ factor structure. Participants responded to a telephone survey in which they were asked how often they gamble for each of 16 reasons, including the 15 GMQ motives and an additional motive: "to win money". Exploratory principal components analysis of the 15 GMQ items revealed three factors, together accounting for 49.04% of the total variance in GMQ scores. The factors tapped enhancement, coping and social motives, although only the coping subscale displayed strong internal consistency. A second exploratory principal components analysis of the 15 GMQ items and the monetary motive item continued to reveal three factors tapping enhancement, coping and social motives. The addition of the monetary motive item strengthened the independence of the components and dramatically improved the internal consistency of the enhancement factor. The results suggest that the psychometric properties of the GMQ, when used with a population of moderate gamblers, may be considerably strengthened with only minor modifications. PMID:20496161

  8. Predicting reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts among Hebrew-speaking readers with and without a reading disability.

    PubMed

    Primor, Liron; Pierce, Margaret E; Katzir, Tami

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which cognitive and reading-related linguistic skills contribute to reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts. The study examined an Israeli national database of Hebrew-speaking readers in fourth grade, from which a subsample of 190 readers with a reading disability (RD) and 190 readers with no reading disability (NRD) was selected. IQ, text reading, reading comprehension, and various linguistic and cognitive skills were assessed. Structural equation modeling results suggested that both groups rely on lower level processes such as text reading accuracy and orthographic knowledge for reading comprehension of both genres. However, RD readers depend more heavily upon these lower level processes compared with NRD for whom higher level processes contribute more to reading comprehension. The various variables accounted for only 25-34% of reading comprehension variance, and possible explanations are discussed. Taken together, these findings highlight the variety of factors influencing reading comprehension and its multidimensional nature.

  9. The epidemiology of suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    A database containing details of every incident of suicidal behaviour on the London Underground railway system between 1940 and 1990 was assembled from the records of London Underground Ltd and the British Transport Police. The total number of cases was 3240. The mean annual number of suicidal acts on the London Underground system increased from 36.1 (1940-1949) to 94.1 (1980-1989). There were significantly fewer incidents on Sundays than on the other days of the week and the daily rate was highest in the spring. 64% of incidents involved males and the peak age group for both sexes was 25-34 yr. Suicide verdicts were returned for a greater proportion of women than men. Overall case fatality was 55%. However, case fatality rates differed between stations, environmental factors appearing to influence survival. Possible strategies to prevent railway suicides and reduce the lethality of this method are discussed. PMID:8153744

  10. [Access, use and preferences of Information and Communication Technologies by physicians in a general hospital in Peru].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Silva, Luis; Ticse, Ray; Alfaro-Carballido, Luz; Guerra-Castañon, Felix

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the access, use and preferences of information and communication technology (ICT) by physicians who practice at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital. The questionnaire explored the availability and skills of ICT, time, educational activities, search engines and technological applications most used as well as ICT preferences in education.211 physicians were surveyed; laptop use was 93%, tablet and smartphone use was 66% and 88%.68% have mobile Internet. Differences were evident in the frequency of use of ICT in 25-34 year old age group as well as a higher level of skills (p<0.05). 86% use PubMed, Facebook and WhatsApp as a means of exchanging images and data related to health, 50% participated in medical blogs, online courses or videoconferences. The use and access of ICT is common among doctors in this hospital and there is positive interest in its use in education. PMID:26338389

  11. New HIV plaque titration; application to the assay of neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Y; Ohshima, M; Naito, A; Chermann, J C; Shih, J; Yoshikura, H

    1993-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate plaque assay was developed using HPB-Ma, a variant of the human T-cell line HPB-ALL, which becomes adherent to the substratum after infection with an amphotropic murine sarcoma virus (MSVa). The simplicity of this novel plaque assay allowed us to examine a large number of serum samples from patients with HIV infection for neutralizing antibody activity against two human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) strains. During the progression of clinical disease, the neutralizing activity in the sera from two individual patients remained unchanged or increased. A patient with a known time of HIV infection produced cross-neutralizing antibody at 25-34 weeks. The neutralizing activity in the sera from 17 asymptomatic carriers, four patients with AIDS-related complex and four AIDS patients was also examined and was found to be unrelated to the clinical stage.

  12. Target tissue distribution of the proenkephalin peptides F, E, and B

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenstein, G.E.; Lund, D.; Schultz, P.; Lewis, R.V.

    1987-08-14

    The adrenal medulla is a rich source of endogenous opioid peptides. These peptides exist predominantly in the form of larger (25-34 amino acid long) enkephalin containing peptides, whose biological roles have yet to be elucidated. We report here the tissue binding distribution of three iodinated enkephalin containing peptides, Peptides F, E, and B, in rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs following intravenous injection. Each (/sup 125/I)peptide has a unique distribution profile but all three are found to bind to the pituitary in each species of animal examined. A number of lines of evidence point toward the enkephalin containing peptides, Peptides F, E, and B, having physiological roles distinct from the enkephalins. The distribution profile of these (/sup 125/I)peptides reported here gives insight into their potential effector sites.

  13. [Access, use and preferences of Information and Communication Technologies by physicians in a general hospital in Peru].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Silva, Luis; Ticse, Ray; Alfaro-Carballido, Luz; Guerra-Castañon, Felix

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the access, use and preferences of information and communication technology (ICT) by physicians who practice at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital. The questionnaire explored the availability and skills of ICT, time, educational activities, search engines and technological applications most used as well as ICT preferences in education.211 physicians were surveyed; laptop use was 93%, tablet and smartphone use was 66% and 88%.68% have mobile Internet. Differences were evident in the frequency of use of ICT in 25-34 year old age group as well as a higher level of skills (p<0.05). 86% use PubMed, Facebook and WhatsApp as a means of exchanging images and data related to health, 50% participated in medical blogs, online courses or videoconferences. The use and access of ICT is common among doctors in this hospital and there is positive interest in its use in education.

  14. Unveiling New Aspects of Meningococcal Carriage and Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Recently, two protein-based vaccines have been approved for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB). It is therefore important to study carefully if and how these pathogens respond to widespread vaccination. Traditionally, meningococci have been classified on the basis of capsular phenotypes, but variable levels of capsule expression can influence the results, mainly among MenB strains. In this issue, Jones and colleagues (J Clin Microbiol 54:25-34, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01447-15) compare whole-genome sequencing to traditional phenotypic methods of classifying meningococci. They demonstrate that for MenB in particular, sequencing-based methods are far superior to traditional methods, especially when it comes to characterizing carriage isolates. This has important implications for future surveillance. PMID:26582827

  15. Epidemiology of chronic non specific respiratory disease and the smoking-control program in young people.

    PubMed

    Kubík, A

    1979-01-01

    In an epidemiological study in the Kolin-District, Czechoslovakia, the percentage of cigarette-smokers was 57% of the male inhabitants aged 15 years and over, and 14% of the females of the same age group. The greatest proportion of cigarette smokers was in the age-group 25-34 years. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 13% of all males aged 15 years and over, and 4% of all females. An association of chronic bronchitis with age and smoking habits was found, in both sexes. In another study in the Prague-District No. 7 the smoking habits of male adolescents were related to their socio-economic status. Conclusions of epidemiological studies are important for the formulation and accomplishment of smoking-control program in young people. Health education should encourage school-children and adolescents by methods corresponding to their age to participate actively in the formation of a healthy style of their life.

  16. Analysis of particle size reduction on overall surface area and enzymatic hydrolysis yield of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Hanjie; Ye, Chenlin; Liu, Ke; Gu, Hanqi; Du, Weitao; Bao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Particle size of lignocellulose materials is an important factor for enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In this study, corn stover was milled and sieved into different size fractions from 1.42, 0.69, 0.34, to 0.21 mm, and the corresponding enzymatic hydrolysis yields were 24.69, 23.96, 25.34, and 26.97 %, respectively. The results indicate that the hydrolysis yield is approximately constant with changing corn stover particle sizes in the experimental range. The overall surface area and the inner pore size measurement show that the overall specific surface area was less than 2 % with the half reduction of particle size due to the greater inner pore surface area. The scanning electron microscope photographs gave direct evidence of the much greater inner pore surface area of corn stover particles. This result provided a reference when a proper size reduction of lignocellulose materials is considered in biorefining operations.

  17. Fertility and contraceptive adoption and discontinuation in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A G

    1992-01-01

    After a long period of slow progress, the recent uptake of contraceptive use in Kenya has been dramatic. This report describes adoption of a method and method switching and discontinuation among a cohort of married women aged 25-34 in two contrasting rural areas. A retrospective "fertility diary" completed by each woman provided information on spousal separation, reproductive status, and contraceptive use over a period of 46-48 months. Contraceptive prevalence rose rapidly over the period in both areas, with significant net adoption of injectables in both areas and of IUDs in one only. Method discontinuation was concentrated among users of pills, barrier methods, and "natural" methods, and only one-third of all discontinuations were voluntary. The wide differences between the two rural areas in contraceptive prevalence were not totally reflected in recent fertility levels, and the contribution of other proximate determinants of fertility, particularly postpartum amenorrhea and spousal separation, are discussed.

  18. Mortality risk factors for pandemic influenza on New Zealand troop ship, 1918.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jennifer A; Wilson, Nick; Baker, Michael G; Shanks, G Dennis

    2010-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology and risk factors for death in an outbreak of pandemic influenza on a troop ship. Mortality and descriptive data for military personnel on His Majesty's New Zealand Transport troop ship Tahiti in July 1918 were analyzed, along with archival information. Mortality risk was increased among persons 25-34 years of age. Accommodations in cabins rather than sleeping in hammocks in other areas were also associated with increased mortality risk (rate ratio 4.28, 95% confidence interval 2.69-6.81). Assignment to a particular military unit, the field artillery (probably housed in cabins), also made a significant difference (adjusted odds ratio in logistic regression 3.04, 95% confidence interval 1.59-5.82). There were no significant differences by assigned rurality (rural residence) or socioeconomic status. Results suggest that the virulent nature of the 1918 influenza strain, a crowded environment, and inadequate isolation measures contributed to the high influenza mortality rate onboard this ship.

  19. Breast carcinomas occurring in young women (< 35 years) are different.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, R. A.; Lees, E.; Webb, M. B.; Dearing, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-three breast carcinomas occurring in women aged between 26 and 44 years were examined for pathological features, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, proliferation as determined by Ki-67 labelling and the presence of c-erbB-2 and p53 protein, and were compared with a control group of carcinomas from women in the 50-67 years age group. Carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years had a significantly high incidence of being poorly differentiated and of having high proliferation rates. This group also had a significantly high incidence of p53 protein staining. Carcinomas in the under 30 years age group had a lower incidence of oestrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. No differences were found in c-erbB-2-positive staining between the groups. Infiltrating lobular carcinomas were only identified in women aged 40 years and over. There was a higher incidence of a family history in the 35-44 years age group (18%) than in the under 35 years age group (11%). Breast carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years are more aggressive. An important finding is the high incidence of p53 positivity, which may indicate genetic instability. Images Figure 1 PMID:8956795

  20. Verbal memory decline is less frequent at 10 years than at 2 years after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Andersson-Roswall, Lena; Malmgren, Kristina; Engman, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Hans

    2012-08-01

    We investigated individual short- and long-term verbal memory changes after temporal lobe resection for epilepsy. Fifty-one patients (23 operated on the speech-dominant temporal lobe, DTL and 28 on the non-dominant temporal lobe, NDTL) were tested on learning/immediate recall and delayed recall of word-list and word-pairs preoperatively, 2 years postoperatively and 10years postoperatively. Changes were defined using reliable change indices of 23 healthy controls assessed at corresponding intervals. Fewer patients had reliable declines at 10 years than at 2 years (DTL: 13-35% vs 35-44%; NDTL: 0-4% vs 7-21%). Four DTL patients (17%) had reliable declines in ≥2 tests at 10-year follow-up. More NDTL patients had improvement at 10 years than at 2 years (18-30% vs 4-22%). The only risk factor for decline both short and long term was DTL resection. In conclusion, most patients had stable verbal memory postoperatively. A few DTL patients had a lasting decline at long-term follow-up, but more patients showed partial recovery, especially in the NDTL group.

  1. Changed oral conditions, between 1963 and 1999, in the population of the Tokelau atolls of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2001-12-01

    In 1999, an oral health survey was included in an assessment of the community oral health programme of the Tokelau Islands population. This provided a comparison with a similar survey in 1963. In a convenience sample of 386 children and adults, approximately 30 percent of the total population, the deciduous (number of df teeth) and permanent (number of DMF teeth) tooth scores across all age groupings were higher in 1999 compared with 1963. For 15- to 19-year-olds, the mean DMF scores were 8 and 1; and for 35- to 44-year-olds, the scores were 18 and 4 in 1999 and 1963 respectively. The prominent feature of the DMF scores for those over age 25 years was the numbers of missing (M) teeth. The mean number of M teeth at 20-24 years was 5 and 0, and at 35-44 years, 13 and 2 respectively in 1999 and 1963. Periodontal disease was endemic in adults in both surveys. A serious decline in oral health has occurred over the past 35 years. PMID:11887663

  2. Plasma isoflavones in Malaysian men according to vegetarianism and by age.

    PubMed

    Hod, Rafidah; Kouidhi, Wided; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Husain, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate lower prevalences of breast and prostate cancers and cardiovascular disease in Southeast Asia where vegetarianism is popular and diets are traditionally high in phytoestrogens. This study assessed plasma isoflavones in vegetarian and non-vegetarian Malaysian men according to age. Daidzein, genistein, equol (a daidzein metabolite), formononetin, biochanin A, estrone, estradiol and testosterone were measured by validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Plasma isoflavone and sex hormone concentrations were measured in 225 subjects according to age (18-34, 35-44 and 45-67 years old). In all age groups, vegetarians had a higher concentration of circulating isoflavones compared with non-vegetarians especially in the 45-67 year age group where all isoflavones except equol, were significantly higher in vegetarians compared with omnivores. By contrast, the 18-34 year group had a significantly higher concentration of daidzein in vegetarians and significantly higher testosterone and estrone concentrations compared with non-vegetarians. In this age group there were weak correlations between estrone, estradiol and testosterone with some of the isoflavones. This human study provides the first Malaysian data for the phytoestrogen status of vegetarian and nonvegetarian men.

  3. Deaths from injuries and induced abortion among rural Bangladeshi women.

    PubMed

    Fauveau, V; Blanchet, T

    1989-01-01

    Information about injuries and violence as causes of death of women is scarce and often incomplete, and particularly so regarding women in the rural areas of South Asia. This report provides detailed specific information collected in Matlab, a sub-district of rural Bangladesh. Of 1139 women (aged 15-44 yr) who died there during the 11-yr period from 1976 to 1986, 207 (18%) were victims of unintentional injuries or violence. In this study, unintentional injuries include domestic and traffic accidents, drowning and snake-bites, while violent deaths are defined as due to intentional injury and include homicide, suicide and lethal complications of induced abortion. Injuries and violence accounted for 31% of all deaths among women aged 15-19 yr. This proportion dropped significantly with age to 10% among women aged 35-44 yr. Unmarried women suffered a higher proportion of such deaths (36%) than married women (15%). Violent deaths during pregnancy and complications of induced abortion among young unmarried women deserve special attention. In the male-dominated society under study, suicide and homicide are observed to be two frequent consequences of illegitimate pregnancy. Although this study suffers from the absence of data on non-fatal injuries and attempted violence, it may serve as a basis for recommending preventive measures.

  4. Selected epidemiologic observations of cell-specific leukemia mortality in the United States, 1969-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Levin, L.I.; Merrill, D.W.; Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Utilizing a newly available data set which includes for the first time cell-specific leukemia mortality rates for the United States during 1969-1977, age and sex distributions, time trends and geographic patterns were analyzed. Four major cell types of leukemia were considered. Acute lymphatic leukemia had a bimodal distribution with the first peak in the 5-9-year age group and lowest rates in age group 35-44, after which rates rose geometrically. Acute myeloid leukemia had only a very small childhood peak with a low in the age group 5-9, after which the rates also rose geometrically. For both chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemia the rates rose geometrically after age 15. Rates among females were consistently lower for each age group. The highest sex ratio was found for chronic lymphatic leukemia and is proposed to be the result of a lag period between male and female rates. During the period under study acute lymphatic leukemia mortality in adults declined by almost 10% while acute myeloid leukemia mortality increased by almost 20%. Analysis of the geographic variation of the four major cell types revealed a geographic association between acute lymphatic and acute myeloid leukemia in children, a lack of association between childhood and adult cell types, and an association of acute and chronic cell types in adults.

  5. Determinants of dental care utilization for diverse ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Dental services utilization in the past 12 months was compared across population-based samples of African-American, Navajo, Lakota, Hispanic, and White adults participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) at USA research locations. Bivariate results revealed that ethnic minority groups in both age cohorts reported significantly fewer dental visits in the past 12 months compared with White adults. When dentate status was controlled for, age cohort differences were not significant in Baltimore (African-American and White) and San Antonio (Hispanic and White) research locations. In contrast, older Native Americans (65-74 years) reported visiting the dentist significantly less often compared with their middle-aged (35-44 years) counterparts. Multivariate results indicated that generalizable variables were associated with dental contact in every ICS-II USA ethnic group (i.e., dentate, usual source of dental care, oral pain). Among the diverse ethnic groups, other determinants presented a varied pattern of risk factors for underutilizing dental care. Information on ethnic-specific risk factors can be used to design culturally appropriate and acceptable oral health promotion programs. Generalizable risk factors across ethnic groups inform oral health policy-makers about changing national priorities for promoting oral health. PMID:9549991

  6. Changed oral conditions, between 1963 and 1999, in the population of the Tokelau atolls of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2001-12-01

    In 1999, an oral health survey was included in an assessment of the community oral health programme of the Tokelau Islands population. This provided a comparison with a similar survey in 1963. In a convenience sample of 386 children and adults, approximately 30 percent of the total population, the deciduous (number of df teeth) and permanent (number of DMF teeth) tooth scores across all age groupings were higher in 1999 compared with 1963. For 15- to 19-year-olds, the mean DMF scores were 8 and 1; and for 35- to 44-year-olds, the scores were 18 and 4 in 1999 and 1963 respectively. The prominent feature of the DMF scores for those over age 25 years was the numbers of missing (M) teeth. The mean number of M teeth at 20-24 years was 5 and 0, and at 35-44 years, 13 and 2 respectively in 1999 and 1963. Periodontal disease was endemic in adults in both surveys. A serious decline in oral health has occurred over the past 35 years.

  7. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked.

  8. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex.

  9. Prevalence of cervical cancer and associated mortality in Grenada, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Bahadoor-Yetman, A; Riley, L; Gibbons, A; Fields, P J; Mapp-Alexander, V; Hage, R; Baldwin, A

    2016-04-01

    Objective To assess cervical cancer prevalence and associated mortality in Grenada, West Indies during 2000-2010. Methods Records of visits to hospital and clinical facilities were obtained from the histopathology laboratory of the Grenada General Hospital. Records were de-identified and electronically compiled. Cervical cancer prevalence was assessed via cross-sectional analysis of this secondary data. Of a total 12 012 records, 2 527 were selected for analysis using sampling without replacement. Cases were matched to corresponding patient data from death registries, where possible, and used to calculate associated mortality rates. Results The observed prevalence of cervical cancer was 52.4 per 100 000 women (ages 15 and above). The highest rates of cervical cancer occurred in the 35-44 age group, with the second highest among 45-64-year-olds. A total of 65 deaths were attributable to cervical cancer during 2000-2010, more than 50% of which were among women > 65 years old. The observed mortality rate was 16.7 per 100 000, almost twice the rate estimated by WHO for the region. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need for a comprehensive cervical cancer-screening program in Grenada. Results should contribute to informing future studies on how to appropriately generate and execute public health policy for education, screening, prevention, and control of cervical cancer in Grenada. PMID:27657184

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-06-29

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves.

  11. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  12. The epidemiology of malignant neoplasms of the stomach in Canada during the period 1931-1984.

    PubMed

    Ayiomamitis, A

    1988-01-01

    Morbidity patterns in Canada for malignant neoplasms of the stomach were examined for the period 1970-1980 and mortality patterns for the period 1931-1984. Age-standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) have declined significantly in males (p = 0.011) and females (p = 0.0011) during the period studied by, on average, 0.20 fewer new cases per 100,000 population per yr. The significant declines in ASMRs are attributable to significant declines in age-specific rates for males aged 35-44 (p = 0.013) and 55-64 (p = 0.046) and females aged 55-64, 65-74, and 75-84 yr (p less than 0.015). Significant declines in age-standardized death rates (ASDR) have also occurred in both males and females (p = 0.0001), with 15 of the 16 age-sex groups studied showing significant rates of decline (p less than 0.0005). The greatest rates of decline were noted for males and females aged 75-84, where age-specific rates have declined by more than 4.2 deaths per 100,000 population per yr since 1931. PMID:3337057

  13. The Kilkenny Health Project: food and nutrient intakes in randomly selected healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gibney, M J; Moloney, M; Shelley, E

    1989-03-01

    1. Sixty healthy subjects aged 35-44 years (thirty men and thirty women) were randomly selected from electoral registers to participate in a dietary survey using the 7 d weighed-intake method during June-August 1985. 2. Energy intake (MJ/d) was 12.5 for men and 8.4 for women. Fat contributed 36.0 and 39.1% of the total energy intake of men and women respectively. When this was adjusted to exclude energy derived from alcoholic beverages, the corresponding values were 38.8 and 39.7% respectively. The major sources of dietary fat (%) were spreadable fats (28), meat (23), milk (12) and biscuits and cakes (11). 3. The subjects were divided into low- and high-fat groups both on the relative intake of fat (less than 35% or greater than 40% dietary energy from fat) and on the absolute intake of fat (greater than or less than 120 g fat/d). By either criterion, high-fat consumers had lower than average intakes of low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods such as potatoes, bread, fruit and table sugar, and higher intakes of milk, butter and confectionery products. Meat intake was higher among high-fat eaters only when a high-fat diet was defined as a percentage of energy. PMID:2706219

  14. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) within the European marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, M.; Cunningham, C.O.; Melvin, W.T.; Kurath, G.

    1999-01-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay (RPA) has been used to detect nucleotide sequence variation within the nucleoprotein gene of 39 viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of European marine origin. The classification of VHSV isolates based on RPA cleavage patterns permitted the identification of ten distinct groups of viruses based on differences at the molecular level. The nucleotide sequence of representatives of each of these groupings was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This revealed grouping of the European marine isolates of VHSV into three genotypes circulating within distinct geographic areas. A fourth genotype was identified comprising isolates originating from North America. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that VHSV isolates recovered from wild caught fish around the British Isles were genetically related to isolates responsible for losses in farmed turbot. Furthermore, a relationship between naturally occurring marine isolates and VHSV isolates causing mortality among rainbow trout in continental Europe was demonstrated. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus within the European marine environment. Virus Res. 63, 35-44. Available from: 

  15. Assessment of changes in community level physiological profile and molecular diversity of bacterial communities in different stages of jute retting.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswapriya; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Ghosh, Sagarmoy; Chakraborty, Ashis; Saha, Manabendra Nath

    2013-12-01

    Retting of jute is essentially microbiological and biochemical in nature. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) as well as genomic diversity of bacterial communities were assessed in water samples collected during pre-retting, after 1st and 2nd charges of retting. The water samples were collected from two widely cultivated jute growing locations, Sonatikari (22 degrees 41'27"N; 88 degrees 35'44"E) and Baduria (22 degrees 44'24"N; 88 degrees 47'24"E), West Bengal, India. The CLPP, expressed as net area under substrate utilization curve, was studied by carbon source utilization patterns in BIOLOG Ecoplates. Molecular diversity was studied by polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of total DNA from water samples. Both between locations and stages of retting, substrate utilizations pattern were carbohydrates > carboxylic acids > polymers > amino acids > amines/amides > phenolic compounds. Differential substrate utilization pattern as well as variation in banding pattern in DGGE profiles was observed between the two locations and at different stages of retting. The variations in CLPP in different stages of retting were due to the change in bacterial communities.

  16. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: transformations in British oral health 1968-2009.

    PubMed

    Steele, J G; Treasure, E T; O'Sullivan, I; Morris, J; Murray, J J

    2012-11-01

    This series of four papers reports and interprets the findings of the Adult Dental Health Survey (ADHS), 2009, published in early 2011. This is the fifth in a series of surveys repeated every decade since 1968. The evolution of the surveys and the way the supporting methodology has changed to meet the changing needs and circumstances over the last 40 years is described. In 1968, 37% of adults in England and Wales were edentate. By 2009, only 6% of the combined population of England, Wales and Northern Ireland were edentate. Among the dentate in 1968, there were a mean of 21.9 teeth. By 2009, not only had the dentate increased by 30 percentage points as a fraction of the population, but the number of teeth in this group had also increased by nearly four teeth on average to 25.7. There were significant variations in oral health according to geography and social variables and smaller differences according to sex. The retention of 21 or more teeth is widely used as a way of defining a minimum functional dentition. The proportion of adults with 21+ teeth increased from 73% in 1978 to 86% in 2009. Further huge improvements are projected as younger generations age, assuming future tooth loss continues at current low rates. We might expect that over 90% of those aged 35-44 in 2009 have a realistic prospect of retaining a functional natural dentition of 21 or more teeth by age 80. PMID:23175081

  17. Genetic diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in coyotes from the south-central United States.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Panciera, Roger J; Paras, Kelsey; Allen, Kelly E; Reiskind, Michael H; Reichard, Mason V; Johnson, Eileen M; Little, Susan E

    2013-04-01

    To better define the strains and species of Hepatozoon that infect coyotes in the south-central United States, whole blood and muscle samples were collected from 44 coyotes from 6 locations in Oklahoma and Texas. Samples were evaluated by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers amplifying a variable region of the apicomplexan 18S rRNA gene as well as histopathology (muscle only) for presence of tissue cysts. Hepatozoon spp. infections were identified in 79.5% (35/44) of coyotes tested including 27 of 44 (61.4%) whole blood samples and 17 of 44 (38.6%) muscle samples tested by PCR and 23 of 44 (52.3%) muscle samples evaluated by histological examination. Analysis revealed 19 distinct sequences comprising 3 major clusters of Hepatozoon spp., i.e., 1 most closely related to Hepatozoon americanum, another most closely related to Hepatozoon canis , and the third an intermediate between the 2 groups. The diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids appears greater than previously recognized and warrants further investigation.

  18. The relationship between levels of income inequality and dental caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Fritzell, Johan; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between income inequality at a lagged time of 2 and 11 years with two short latency outcomes (untreated dental caries and gingivitis) and two long latency outcomes (edentulism and periodontal attachment loss > 8mm). We used data from the Brazilian oral health survey in 2002-2003. Our analysis included 13,405 subjects aged 35-44 years. Different lagged Gini at municipal level were fitted using logistic and negative binomial multilevel analyses. Covariates included municipal per capita income, equivalized income, age, sex, time since last dental visit and place of residence (rural versus urban). Crude estimates showed that only untreated dental caries was associated with current and lagged Gini, but in adjusted models only current Gini remained significant with a ratio of 1.19 (95%CI: 1.09-1.30) for every ten-point increase in the Gini coefficient. We conclude that lagged Gini showed no association with oral health; and current income Gini was associated with current dental caries but not with periodontal disease.

  19. Prevalence of periodontal diseases among rural population of Mustabad, Krishna District

    PubMed Central

    Ramoji Rao, Mulpuri V.; Katari, Pavan Kumar; Vegi, Lokesh; Bypureddy, Tarun Teja; Prabhakara Rao, Koneru Samyuktha; Tejaswi, Kanikanti Siva

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: People in rural areas neglect oral health as they lack awareness on dental diseases and also due to inadequate availability of dental services. The prevalence of illiteracy is also a reason which can be attributed to a poor oral health. This epidemiological study is undertaken to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the rural population of Mustabad – in Krishna, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study based on randomized sampling method was carried out using the WHO assessment form (1997) on a population of 470. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. Results: The subjects were 220 males and 250 females. Maximum numbers of subjects were in the age group of 35-44 years (21.91%). Prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be 73.62%. The periodontal status deteriorated with aging. Prevalence of periodontitis was higher in females (56.35%) compared to males (43.65%). Males had a higher prevalence of deep pockets (3.18%), whereas females had a higher prevalence of shallow pockets (3.20%). Females had twice the bleeding tendency (18.80%) compared to males (8.64%). Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of periodontal diseases is an impending problem which needs immediate intervention, if not it would have a serious negative impact on the future oral health. The need of the hour is more epidemiological studies with a bigger sample are required. PMID:27195229

  20. Resolution of pulmonary hypertension complication during venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia application.

    PubMed

    Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Wang, Jingkun; Pollock, Robert; Jubak, Bob; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    We are developing a venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia (vv-PISH) system for advanced cancer treatment. The vv-PISH system consistently delivered hyperthermia to adult healthy swine, but significant pulmonary hypertension developed during the heating phase. The goal of this study was to develop a method to prevent pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension results from decreased priming solution air solubility, which causes pulmonary gas embolism. Healthy adult sheep (n = 3) were used to establish a standard vv-PISH sheep model without priming solution preheating. In subsequent sheep (n = 7), the priming solution was preheated (42-46°C) and the hyperthermia circuit flushed with CO2. All sheep survived the experiment and achieved 2 hours of 42°C hyperthermia. In the group lacking priming solution preheating, significant pulmonary hypertension (35-44 mm Hg) developed. In the sheep with priming solution preheating, pulmonary artery pressure was very stable without pulmonary hypertension. Blood electrolytes were in physiologic range, and complete blood counts were unaffected by hyperthermia. Blood chemistries revealed no significant liver or kidney damage. Our simple strategy of priming solution preheating completely resolved the problem of pulmonary hypertension as a milestone toward developing a safe and easy-to-use vv-PISH system for cancer treatment.

  1. EVALUATION OF EDENTULISM, PROSTHETIC STATUS AND PROSTHODONTICS TREATMENT NEEDS AMONG THE ADULT POPULATION OF GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the level of edentulism among the adult population of Georgia, to assess the prosthodontics status and normative needs for prosthetic treatment. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I - 20-34, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65-74 in nine regions of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. The loss of teeth due to caries or periodontitis was observed to differing extents throughout the population. One (8.3%) or more bridges (7.6%) and removable dentures (3.2-4.7%) were more frequently observed than implants (0.1%). Metal-ceramic (12.4%) and metal crowns (6.3%) were more commonly detected than zirconia ceramic crowns (0.1%). Statistical analysis of the data demonstrates a rather high normative prosthetic need of implants and bridges and less needs for removable dentures among the population due to less severity of periodontitis and not too high values of missing teeth due to caries (despite the high caries prevalence (99%) throughout the Georgian population). Edentulism is a public problem in Georgia and needs serious attention from government or healthcare centers to prevent the complications . PMID:27249431

  2. [Relevant methodological issues from the SBBrasil 2010 Project for national health surveys].

    PubMed

    Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Silva, Nilza Nunes da; Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Freitas, Cláudia Helena Soares de Morais; Casotti, Elisete; Peres, Karen Glazer; Moura, Lenildo de; Peres, Marco A; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Cortes, Maria Ilma de Souza; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Paludetto Júnior, Moacir; Figueiredo, Nilcema; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de; Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimarães Bahia; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2012-01-01

    The SBBrasil 2010 Project (SBB10) was designed as a nationwide oral health epidemiological survey within a health surveillance strategy. This article discusses methodological aspects of the SBB10 Project that can potentially help expand and develop knowledge in the health field. This was a nationwide survey with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. The sample domains were 27 State capitals and 150 rural municipalities (counties) from the country's five major geographic regions. The sampling units were census tracts and households for the State capitals and municipalities, census tracts, and households for the rural areas. Thirty census tracts were selected in the State capitals and 30 municipalities in the countryside. The precision considered the demographic domains grouped by density of the overall population and the internal variability of oral health indices. The study evaluated dental caries, periodontal disease, malocclusion, fluorosis, tooth loss, and dental trauma in five age groups (5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years). PMID:22714967

  3. Flavonoids in vegetable foods commonly consumed in Brazil and estimated ingestion by the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Arabbi, Paola R; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco M

    2004-03-10

    The objective of this work was to quantify the flavonoids present in foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population. The predominant flavonoids found in largest abundance in all of the analyzed vegetables were glycosides of quercetin. In lettuce, a small amount of luteolin was also detected. In sweet pepper, quercetin and luteolin were both present. White onion [48-56 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW), expressed as aglycon], red onion (40-100 mg/100 g of FW), red lettuce (67-67.2 mg/100 g of FW), arugula (41-118 mg/100 g of FW), and chicory (18-38 mg/100 g of FW) were highest in total flavonoids. In fruits, the highest concentrations of flavonoids were found in the peel (125-170 mg/100 g of FW) and pulp (35-44 mg/100 g of FW) of oranges and in some apple varieties (14-36 mg/100 g of FW). Variability in flavonoid content due to time of harvesting was high for leafy vegetables and red onions. The estimated ingestion by Brazilian population ranged from 60 to 106 mg/day. PMID:14995109

  4. [Optimization of dental caries prevention].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Polyakova, M A; Avdeenko, O E; Paramonov, Yu O; Kondrat'ev, S A; Pilyagina, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste «Apadent Total Care» containing nanocalciumhydroxyapatite and its influence on caries resistance of tooth enamel and teeth sensitivity. The study involved 30 people: 15 patients aged 17-25 years and 15 aged 35-44 years. Study participants used «Apadent Total Care» toothpaste with nanocalciumhydroxyapatite. To evaluate the effectiveness of toothpastes clinical assessment of enamel remineralization rate was carried out, as well as the dynamics of enamel acid resistance and teeth sensitivity (Shiff index). Clinical evaluation of tooth enamel before the procedure and after 3 months of use of toothpaste with nanohydroxyapatite showed the improvement of all indices. Time for complete remineralisation of enamel in both groups did not exceed 3 days. Acid resistance of tooth enamel increased by 1.65 in group I and 1,75 in group II. The Schiff index after 3 months of using «Apadent» toothpaste also decreased in both groups.

  5. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    Every teacher in England is a member of the General Teaching Council (GTC). Membership is compulsory. The GTC is an independent professional body with a governing council of 64 members. Forty-four council members are practising teachers, including 25 elected teachers. There are representatives from the teacher unions and associations, equality bodies, local government, governors and parents. The GTC regularly produce 25 leaflets about professional issues and the spring issue of 2003 began with the title 'Keeping teachers in teaching'. A number of key aspects were highlighted: 'Placing learning at the centre', 'Teachers as leaders of learning', 'Retention--what teachers want', 'Research of the month', 'GTC seeks new ways to recognise teachers' professionalism' and 'GTC response to workload reform'. An interesting section entitled 'Some key findings' revealed data that should disturb even the most optimistic politician. Fifty per cent of teachers nationally are aged over 45 years, 22% of teachers are aged 35-44 years, and 73% of teachers are women. The significance of the last point was not discussed. Also, retention data were not included.

  6. The Kilkenny Health Project: food and nutrient intakes in randomly selected healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gibney, M J; Moloney, M; Shelley, E

    1989-03-01

    1. Sixty healthy subjects aged 35-44 years (thirty men and thirty women) were randomly selected from electoral registers to participate in a dietary survey using the 7 d weighed-intake method during June-August 1985. 2. Energy intake (MJ/d) was 12.5 for men and 8.4 for women. Fat contributed 36.0 and 39.1% of the total energy intake of men and women respectively. When this was adjusted to exclude energy derived from alcoholic beverages, the corresponding values were 38.8 and 39.7% respectively. The major sources of dietary fat (%) were spreadable fats (28), meat (23), milk (12) and biscuits and cakes (11). 3. The subjects were divided into low- and high-fat groups both on the relative intake of fat (less than 35% or greater than 40% dietary energy from fat) and on the absolute intake of fat (greater than or less than 120 g fat/d). By either criterion, high-fat consumers had lower than average intakes of low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods such as potatoes, bread, fruit and table sugar, and higher intakes of milk, butter and confectionery products. Meat intake was higher among high-fat eaters only when a high-fat diet was defined as a percentage of energy.

  7. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite. PMID:26568991

  8. Assessment of changes in community level physiological profile and molecular diversity of bacterial communities in different stages of jute retting.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswapriya; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Ghosh, Sagarmoy; Chakraborty, Ashis; Saha, Manabendra Nath

    2013-12-01

    Retting of jute is essentially microbiological and biochemical in nature. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) as well as genomic diversity of bacterial communities were assessed in water samples collected during pre-retting, after 1st and 2nd charges of retting. The water samples were collected from two widely cultivated jute growing locations, Sonatikari (22 degrees 41'27"N; 88 degrees 35'44"E) and Baduria (22 degrees 44'24"N; 88 degrees 47'24"E), West Bengal, India. The CLPP, expressed as net area under substrate utilization curve, was studied by carbon source utilization patterns in BIOLOG Ecoplates. Molecular diversity was studied by polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of total DNA from water samples. Both between locations and stages of retting, substrate utilizations pattern were carbohydrates > carboxylic acids > polymers > amino acids > amines/amides > phenolic compounds. Differential substrate utilization pattern as well as variation in banding pattern in DGGE profiles was observed between the two locations and at different stages of retting. The variations in CLPP in different stages of retting were due to the change in bacterial communities. PMID:24506039

  9. Injuries among solid waste collectors in the private versus public sectors.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla; Tang, Minao

    2011-10-01

    Solid waste collection is among the occupations with the highest risk for injuries and illnesses. Solid waste collector injuries were characterized in terms of injury risk and employment industry sector (public versus private) using Kentucky workers' compensation first reports of injury and claims data. When compared to 35-44-year-old workers, solid waste collectors who were under 35 years of age were less likely to have a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim that resulted in awarded benefits. The probability that a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim would result in an awarded benefit was higher if the worker was employed as a solid waste collector in the private sector compared to the public sector, or was injured due to a motor vehicle-related injury or a push-or-pull type of injury. A better understanding of the differences in the contributing factors for an injury that results in a first report of injury or claim with awarded benefits (e.g., job activities, new and refresher worker safety training, type of equipment used, differences in collection vehicle automation, and differential reporting of injuries on the job) between the public and private sectors is necessary to target injury prevention strategies in this high-risk occupation.

  10. Practices of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Ahmed, Javed; Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Sonekhi, Gomand Beekho; Fayyaz, Nargis; Zainulabdin, Zeeshan; Jindani, Rahim

    2016-02-01

    Self-medication practice among nursing students is of growing concern. Access to drugs and handling them in their future practices make nursing students susceptible to self-prescription and self-medication. This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and pattern of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. A random sample of convenience of 160 nursing students underwent a predesigned questionnaire. More than half of nursing students 79 (52.7%) experienced self-medication with antibiotics. It was more prevalent among males 49 (62%) . Knowledge about the drug 59 (74.7%) and convenience 13 (16.5%) were the key reasons to self-medicate. Fever 37 (46.8%) and sore throat 27 (34.2%) were the common symptoms predisposing to self-medication. Beta-lactam group of antibiotics 35 (44.3%) was most frequent used. Only 26 (32.9%) respondents completed the entire antibiotic course. Efforts must be directed towards educating nursing students about responsible and informed self-medication practices.

  11. Hardy personality and burnout syndrome among nursing students in three Brazilian universities—an analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing students may exhibit the characteristics of resistance to stress, such as hardiness, which can reduce the risk of burnout. However, we found only one published study about these phenomena among nursing students. Thus, we investigated the association between hardiness and burnout in such students. Methods An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted among 570 nursing students from three Brazilian universities. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic characteristics, hardiness, and burnout, which we analyzed using inferential statistics. Results We observed that 64.04% of nursing students in the sample had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 35.79% had a high level of cynicism, and 87.72% had a low level of professional efficacy: these are dimensions of burnout. We also found that 48.77% had a high level of control, 61.40% a high level of commitment, and 35.44% a high level of challenge: these are dimensions of hardiness. Only 24.74% of the students experienced burnout, and 21.93% met the criteria for a hardy personality. There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of hardiness and burnout (p = 0.033), with 68.00% of hardy students not exhibiting burnout. Conclusions Although nursing students live with educational stressors, burnout was not preponderant in our sample students; this may be linked to hardiness. Thus, given its benefits to student life and health, we recommend the development of strategies to promote hardiness among nursing students. PMID:24678676

  12. Resolution of pulmonary hypertension complication during venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia application.

    PubMed

    Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Wang, Jingkun; Pollock, Robert; Jubak, Bob; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    We are developing a venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia (vv-PISH) system for advanced cancer treatment. The vv-PISH system consistently delivered hyperthermia to adult healthy swine, but significant pulmonary hypertension developed during the heating phase. The goal of this study was to develop a method to prevent pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension results from decreased priming solution air solubility, which causes pulmonary gas embolism. Healthy adult sheep (n = 3) were used to establish a standard vv-PISH sheep model without priming solution preheating. In subsequent sheep (n = 7), the priming solution was preheated (42-46°C) and the hyperthermia circuit flushed with CO2. All sheep survived the experiment and achieved 2 hours of 42°C hyperthermia. In the group lacking priming solution preheating, significant pulmonary hypertension (35-44 mm Hg) developed. In the sheep with priming solution preheating, pulmonary artery pressure was very stable without pulmonary hypertension. Blood electrolytes were in physiologic range, and complete blood counts were unaffected by hyperthermia. Blood chemistries revealed no significant liver or kidney damage. Our simple strategy of priming solution preheating completely resolved the problem of pulmonary hypertension as a milestone toward developing a safe and easy-to-use vv-PISH system for cancer treatment. PMID:23820278

  13. [Optimization of dental caries prevention].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Polyakova, M A; Avdeenko, O E; Paramonov, Yu O; Kondrat'ev, S A; Pilyagina, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste «Apadent Total Care» containing nanocalciumhydroxyapatite and its influence on caries resistance of tooth enamel and teeth sensitivity. The study involved 30 people: 15 patients aged 17-25 years and 15 aged 35-44 years. Study participants used «Apadent Total Care» toothpaste with nanocalciumhydroxyapatite. To evaluate the effectiveness of toothpastes clinical assessment of enamel remineralization rate was carried out, as well as the dynamics of enamel acid resistance and teeth sensitivity (Shiff index). Clinical evaluation of tooth enamel before the procedure and after 3 months of use of toothpaste with nanohydroxyapatite showed the improvement of all indices. Time for complete remineralisation of enamel in both groups did not exceed 3 days. Acid resistance of tooth enamel increased by 1.65 in group I and 1,75 in group II. The Schiff index after 3 months of using «Apadent» toothpaste also decreased in both groups. PMID:27636759

  14. Plasma isoflavones in Malaysian men according to vegetarianism and by age.

    PubMed

    Hod, Rafidah; Kouidhi, Wided; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Husain, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate lower prevalences of breast and prostate cancers and cardiovascular disease in Southeast Asia where vegetarianism is popular and diets are traditionally high in phytoestrogens. This study assessed plasma isoflavones in vegetarian and non-vegetarian Malaysian men according to age. Daidzein, genistein, equol (a daidzein metabolite), formononetin, biochanin A, estrone, estradiol and testosterone were measured by validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Plasma isoflavone and sex hormone concentrations were measured in 225 subjects according to age (18-34, 35-44 and 45-67 years old). In all age groups, vegetarians had a higher concentration of circulating isoflavones compared with non-vegetarians especially in the 45-67 year age group where all isoflavones except equol, were significantly higher in vegetarians compared with omnivores. By contrast, the 18-34 year group had a significantly higher concentration of daidzein in vegetarians and significantly higher testosterone and estrone concentrations compared with non-vegetarians. In this age group there were weak correlations between estrone, estradiol and testosterone with some of the isoflavones. This human study provides the first Malaysian data for the phytoestrogen status of vegetarian and nonvegetarian men. PMID:26965767

  15. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  16. A massive new posttranslational modification occurs on axonemal tubulin at the final step of spermatogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bressac, C; Bré, M H; Darmanaden-Delorme, J; Laurent, M; Levilliers, N; Fleury, A

    1995-08-01

    Using two antibodies raised against Paramecium axonemal tubulin, a monoclonal antibody, AXO 49 (Callen et al., Biol. Cell 81, 95-119 (1994)), and a polyclonal antibody, PAT (Cohen et al., Biol. Cell 44, 35-44 (1982)), which have been shown elsewhere to detect a new posttranslational modification of tubulin presumably corresponding to polyglycylation, we have analyzed the occurrence of this modification during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. Results obtained by immunofluorescence on cysts isolated by laceration of testes showed that the antibodies reacted on axonemal microtubules of several species within the genus. Observation of different stages of differentiation of D. obscura sperm cells indicated, first, that the epitopes reactive with both antibodies appeared at late stages, and secondly, that they were detected simultaneously along all axonemes within a cyst. Immunofluorescence on semithin sections and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry on ultrathin sections confirmed that the appearance of the epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody occurred at the time of the individualization process of spermatids in D. melanogaster. These results indicate that the posttranslational modification occurs as a very late event, after complete assembly of axonemal microtubules, and that the axonemal tubulin becomes modified when axonemal microtubules become coupled with the membrane, suggesting that the modification may in some way be induced by the microtubule-membrane interaction. PMID:8521874

  17. Psorinum therapy in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic, and liver cancers: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment "Psorinum Therapy" in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment.

  18. Psorinum Therapy in Treating Stomach, Gall Bladder, Pancreatic, and Liver Cancers: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment “Psorinum Therapy” in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment. PMID:21197093

  19. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  20. Incidence, Prevalence and Clinical Manifestations of Systemic Sclerosis in Dukagjini Plain

    PubMed Central

    Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Berisha, Idriz; Berisha, Merita; Saiti, Valton; Bajraktari, Halit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is an inflammatory disease of connective tissue, with onset as edema that continues with fibrosis, induration, and skin atrophy, followed by attacks on the joints, internal organs, and secondary proliferation of connective tissue. Purpose: To research in which residence locations and among which group age is the most frequent incidence, prevalence and clinical manifestations of systemic sclerosis in Dukagjini Plain which is inhabited by 698450 resident citizens. Material and methods: 51 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis were studied, out them 44 were females (86.3%) and 7 males (13.7%) respectively, during the period from 2005 to 2010. Their illness was active from 18 to 60 months in accordance with EUSTAR criteria. They are of different age, median age is 44.2 ±10.1. Their diagnose is determined based on revised ACR criteria. Prevalence of patients with PSS was 14.61/100.000, while the incidence was 2.8/100.000, whereas CI (Confidence interval) or limit of accuracy was 95%. Results: Largest number of patients per 100.000 citizens has Istog municipality which has the largest number of patients with PSS. It is followed by Mamusha and Rahovec municipalities. The largest examined group age is 35-44 year old, 41.2% respectively. Conclusion: Additional studies are necessary to carry out in order to find the reasons of asymmetrical distribution of patients with systemic sclerosis in the municipalities of Dukagjini Plain. PMID:23678335

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  2. The epidemiology of malignant neoplasms of the stomach in Canada during the period 1931-1984.

    PubMed

    Ayiomamitis, A

    1988-01-01

    Morbidity patterns in Canada for malignant neoplasms of the stomach were examined for the period 1970-1980 and mortality patterns for the period 1931-1984. Age-standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) have declined significantly in males (p = 0.011) and females (p = 0.0011) during the period studied by, on average, 0.20 fewer new cases per 100,000 population per yr. The significant declines in ASMRs are attributable to significant declines in age-specific rates for males aged 35-44 (p = 0.013) and 55-64 (p = 0.046) and females aged 55-64, 65-74, and 75-84 yr (p less than 0.015). Significant declines in age-standardized death rates (ASDR) have also occurred in both males and females (p = 0.0001), with 15 of the 16 age-sex groups studied showing significant rates of decline (p less than 0.0005). The greatest rates of decline were noted for males and females aged 75-84, where age-specific rates have declined by more than 4.2 deaths per 100,000 population per yr since 1931.

  3. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI) widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total) were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36). At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged). Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:26496435

  4. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity of fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio-; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Ronquillo de Jesús, Elba

    2015-05-01

    Produced worldwide at 1.2m tons per year, fibrous clays are used in the production of pet litter, animal feed stuff to roof parcels, construction and rheological additives, and other applications needing to replace long-fiber length asbestos. To the authors' knowledge, however, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity by sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejon El Rubio, Spain). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) methods. Histological cuts were obtained for quantifying leukocytes found in the epidermis. Palygorkite and sepiolite caused edema inhibition and migration of neutrophils ca. 68.64 and 45.54%, and 80 and 65%, respectively. Fibrous clays yielded high rates of infiltration, explained by cleavage of polysomes and exposure of silanol groups. Also, fibrous clays showed high inhibition of myeloperoxidase contents shortly after exposure, but decreased sharply afterwards. In contrast, tubular clays caused an increasing inhibition of myeloperoxidase with time. Thus, clay structure restricted the kinetics and mechanism of myeloperoxidase inhibition. Fibrous clays were screened in vitro against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the protein-binding dye sulforhodamine B (SRB). Exposing cancer human cells to sepiolite or palygorskite showed growth inhibition varying with cell line. This study shows that fibrous clays served as an effective anti-inflammatory, limited by chemical transfer and cellular-level signals responding exclusively to an early exposure to clay, and cell viability decreasing significantly only after exposure to high concentrations of sepiolite.

  5. Revised magnetostratigraphy and characteristics of the fluviolacustrine sedimentation of the Kashmir basin, India, during Pliocene-Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavaiah, N.; Appel, E.; Lakshmi, B. V.; Deenadayalan, K.; Satyanarayana, K. V. V.; Misra, Saumitra; Juyal, N.; Malik, M. A.

    2010-08-01

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene Karewa Group sediments of the Kashmir basin, India, provide an important continental archive for past climatic reconstruction. The present study reevaluates the magnetic polarity stratigraphy and the nature of the depositional environment at a 440-m-thick section along Romushi river near Pakharpur (33°48'50″N, 74°45'54″E). Magnetic remanences are predominantly carried by Ti-rich titanomagnetite and magnetite. We identified eight normal and eight reversed-polarity magnetozones in this succession, ranging between 4.40 and 0.77 Ma. The polarity sequence includes the new identification of the Cochiti and the Mammoth and their preceding and succeeding reversed/normal as well as the Jaramillo subchrons. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data suggest the existence of northeast- and northwest-flowing fluvial system before 4.18 Ma, indicating the Pir Panjal range at the southwest as the sediment source area. Following this, the valley was under the influence of fluviolacustrine environment between 4.18 and 0.77 Ma. Our results suggest relatively strong flow velocity toward the northeast during the upper Gilbert, Gauss, and lower and middle Matuyama chrons (4.18-1.07 Ma). In the upper Matuyama chron (<1.07 Ma), the prevailing paleocurrent direction in the basin changed toward the northwest with a reduced flow velocity, indicating the emergence of the ancestral Jhelum river. On the basis of the magnetic polarity chronology, the sediment accumulation rate indicates a very low value of ˜4.6 cm kyr-1 before 1.95 Ma to ˜33 cm kyr-1 between 1.95 and 1.77 Ma and 23 cm kyr-1 after 1.77 Ma. We attribute temporal changes in sedimentation rate to the interplay between climate (predominantly westerlies) and tectonics (pulsating Pir Panjal uplift).

  6. Diagnostic outcomes of magnetocardiography in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingmei; Che, Zaiqian; Quan, Weiwei; Yuan, Rong; Shen, Yue; Liu, Zongjun; Wang, Weiqing; Jin, Huigen; Lu, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic outcomes of magnetocardiography (MCG) on the patients with coronary artery disease and compared the outcomes between MCG, ECG and Echocardiography. Methods: MCG measurements were performed on 101 patients with coronary artery disease and 116 healthy volunteers with a seven-channel magnetocardiographic system (MCG7, SQUID AG, Germany) installed in an unshielded room. CAD was diagnosed when stenosis ≥ 70% in ≥ 1 vessel. Three quantitative indicators were analyzed, R-max/T-max ratio, R value and á average angle. Results: R-max/T-max ratio of CAD group (6.30 ± 4.07) was much higher than that of healthy group (3.73 ± 1.41) (P < 0.001), R value of CAD group (69.16 ± 27.87)% was significantly higher than that of healthy group (34.96 ± 19.09)% (P < 0.001), á average angle of CAD group (221.46° ± 64.53°) was higher than that of healthy group (24.32° ± 20.70°) (P < 0.01). In 75 of 101 CAD patients (74.26%), MCG had abnormal mapping patterns. The resting ECG examination showed ischemic changes, such as abnormal Q waves and ST-T change in 49 patients (48.51%). Echocardiography revealed abnormal left ventricular wall motion and asynergy in 46 patients (45.54%). Thus, the diagnostic outcomes of MCG for the patients with CAD were much significant than those of ECG and echocardiography (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our result showed that resting MCG under condition of an advanced data analysis has higher diagnostic outcomes and is superior to ECG or echocardiography for patients with CAD. MCG can detect ST-segment displacement caused by ischemic myocardium, thus helpful in diagnosing coronary artery disease early. PMID:25932186

  7. Systematic use of universal 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for processing pleural effusions improves conventional culture techniques.

    PubMed

    Insa, Rosario; Marín, Mercedes; Martín, Adoración; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Alcalá, Luís; Cercenado, Emilia; Calatayud, Laura; Liñares, Josefina; Bouza, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Conventional culture of pleural fluid samples frequently provides false-negative results. Universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene (16S PCR) has proven useful in the diagnosis of various bacterial infections. We conducted a prospective study to assess the value of 16S PCR in the etiologic diagnosis of pleural effusion. All pleural fluid samples received for culture were also studied using 16S PCR. Positive samples were sequenced for identification. Clinical records and conventional culture results were analyzed to classify pleural fluid samples as infected or not infected. We studied 723 samples. We excluded 188 samples because they were obtained from a long-term chest tube, there was a diagnosis of mycobacterial infection, or there were insufficient data to classify the episode. Finally, 535 pleural fluid samples were analyzed. According to our criteria, 82 (15.3%) were infected and 453 (84.7%) were not infected. In the infected samples, 16S PCR was positive in 67 samples (81.7%) while conventional culture was positive in 45 (54.9%). There were 4 false positives with 16S PCR (0.9%) and 12 with culture (2.6%). The values for the etiologic diagnosis of bacterial pleural effusion of conventional culture compared with 16S PCR were as follows: sensitivity, 54.9%/81.7%; specificity, 97.4%/99.1%; positive predictive value, 76.3%/94.4%; negative predictive value, 92.6%/96.8%; and accuracy, 90.8%/96.5%.When compared with conventional culture, 16S PCR plus sequencing substantially improves the etiologic diagnosis of infectious pleural effusion. In our opinion, this technique should be added to the routine diagnostic armamentarium of clinical microbiology laboratories.

  8. Built-up land mapping capabilities of the ASTER and Landsat ETM+ sensors in coastal areas of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hanqiu; Huang, Shaolin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide urbanization has accelerated expansion of urban built-up lands and resulted in substantial negative impacts on the global environments. Precisely measuring the urban sprawl is becoming an increasing need. Among the satellite-based earth observation systems, the Landsat and ASTER data are most suitable for mesoscale measurements of urban changes. Nevertheless, to date the difference in the capability of mapping built-up land between the two sensors is not clear. Therefore, this study compared the performances of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER sensors for built-up land mapping in the coastal areas of southeastern China. The comparison was implemented on three date-coincident image pairs and achieved by using three approaches, including per-band-based, index-based, and classification-based comparisons. The index used is the Index-based Built-up Index (IBI), while the classification algorithm employed is the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results show that in the study areas, ETM+ and ASTER have an overall similar performance in built-up land mapping but also differ in several aspects. The IBI values determined from ASTER were consistently higher than from ETM+ by up to 45.54% according to percentage difference. The ASTER also estimates more built-up land area than ETM+ by 5.9-6.3% estimated with the IBI-based approach or 3.9-6.1% with the SVM classification. The differences in the spectral response functions and spatial resolution between relative spectral bands of the two sensors are attributed to these different performances.

  9. The Pattern of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Single Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hemairi, Mohammad H.; Albokhari, Shatha M.; Muzaffer, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic arthritis in children. Our aim is to describe demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment of JIA patients followed up in Pediatric Rheumatology clinic in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Medical records of all patients who are followed up between January 2007 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected about demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment. Results. Total patients were 82, males were 31 (37.8%), and mean age of JIA onset was 7.1 ± 3.6 yr. Mean follow-up duration was 2.67±1.6 yr. Systemic onset JIA (SoJIA) was the commonest (36.5%), followed by polyarticular in 29.2% and oligoarticular in 28%. Large and small joints are involved in 76 (92%) and 30 (36.6%), respectively. Main extra-articular feature was fever in 34 (41.4%). Uveitis was diagnosed in 7 (8.5%) and in 5 (21.7%) of oligoarticular JIA. Anemia was found in 49 (59.7%), high ESR in 45 (54.8%), and leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in 33 (40.2%). Positive ANA was found in 30 (36.5%) mainly in oligoarticular subtype as 12 (52%) patients (out of 23) had this positive test. 9 patients (10.9%) required NSAIDs only, 6 patients (7.3%) required NSAIDs and intra-articular steroids only, and 19 (23%) required NSAIDs, methotrexate, steroids, and biologics. Conclusion. SoJIA is the most common JIA subtype in our study. A population based rather than a single center study will give more details about JIA characteristics in Saudi Arabia PMID:26966610

  10. Does lumbar spinal degeneration begin with the anterior structures? A study of the observed epidemiology in a community-based population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background- Prior studies that have concluded that disk degeneration uniformly precedes facet degeneration have been based on convenience samples of individuals with low back pain. We conducted a study to examine whether the view that spinal degeneration begins with the anterior spinal structures is supported by epidemiologic observations of degeneration in a community-based population. Methods- 361 participants from the Framingham Heart Study were included in this study. The prevalences of anterior vertebral structure degeneration (disk height loss) and posterior vertebral structure degeneration (facet joint osteoarthritis) were characterized by CT imaging. The cohort was divided into the structural subgroups of participants with 1) no degeneration, 2) isolated anterior degeneration (without posterior degeneration), 3) combined anterior and posterior degeneration, and 4) isolated posterior degeneration (without anterior structure degeneration). We determined the prevalence of each degeneration pattern by age group < 45, 45-54, 55-64, ≥65. In multivariate analyses we examined the association between disk height loss and the response variable of facet joint osteoarthritis, while adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Results- As the prevalence of the no degeneration and isolated anterior degeneration patterns decreased with increasing age group, the prevalence of the combined anterior/posterior degeneration pattern increased. 22% of individuals demonstrated isolated posterior degeneration, without an increase in prevalence by age group. Isolated posterior degeneration was most common at the L5-S1 and L4-L5 spinal levels. In multivariate analyses, disk height loss was independently associated with facet joint osteoarthritis, as were increased age (years), female sex, and increased BMI (kg/m2), but not smoking. Conclusions- The observed epidemiology of lumbar spinal degeneration in the community-based population is consistent with an ordered progression beginning

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Cerebrolysin in Infants with Communication Defects due to Severe Perinatal Brain Insult: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Deifalla, Shaymaa M.; El-Houssinie, Moustafa; Mokbel, Somaia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The neuroregenerative drug Cerebrolysin has demonstrated efficacy in improving cognition in adults with stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin in the treatment of communication defects in infants with severe perinatal brain insult. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which 158 infants (age 6-21 months) with communication defects due to severe perinatal brain insult were enrolled; 120 infants completed the study. The Cerebrolysin group (n=60) received twice-weekly Cerebrolysin injections of 0.1 mL/kg body weight for 5 weeks (total of ten injections). The placebo group (n=60) received the same amount and number of normal saline injections. Results The baseline Communication and Symbolic-Behavior-Scale-Developmental Profile scores were comparable between the two groups. After 3 months, the placebo group exhibited improvements in the social (p<0.01) and speech composite (p=0.02) scores, with 10% and 1.5% increases from baseline, respectively. The scores of the Cerebrolysin group changed from concern to no concern, with increases of 65.44%, 45.54%, 358.06%, and 96.00% from baseline in the social (p<0.001), speech (p<0.001), symbolic (p<0.001), and total (p<0.001) scores. Conclusions Cerebrolysin dramatically improved infants' communication especially symbolic behavior which positively affected social interaction. These findings suggest that cerebrolysin may be an effective and feasible way equivalent to stem cell therapy. PMID:26365023

  12. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity of fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio-; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Ronquillo de Jesús, Elba

    2015-05-01

    Produced worldwide at 1.2m tons per year, fibrous clays are used in the production of pet litter, animal feed stuff to roof parcels, construction and rheological additives, and other applications needing to replace long-fiber length asbestos. To the authors' knowledge, however, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity by sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejon El Rubio, Spain). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) methods. Histological cuts were obtained for quantifying leukocytes found in the epidermis. Palygorkite and sepiolite caused edema inhibition and migration of neutrophils ca. 68.64 and 45.54%, and 80 and 65%, respectively. Fibrous clays yielded high rates of infiltration, explained by cleavage of polysomes and exposure of silanol groups. Also, fibrous clays showed high inhibition of myeloperoxidase contents shortly after exposure, but decreased sharply afterwards. In contrast, tubular clays caused an increasing inhibition of myeloperoxidase with time. Thus, clay structure restricted the kinetics and mechanism of myeloperoxidase inhibition. Fibrous clays were screened in vitro against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the protein-binding dye sulforhodamine B (SRB). Exposing cancer human cells to sepiolite or palygorskite showed growth inhibition varying with cell line. This study shows that fibrous clays served as an effective anti-inflammatory, limited by chemical transfer and cellular-level signals responding exclusively to an early exposure to clay, and cell viability decreasing significantly only after exposure to high concentrations of sepiolite. PMID:25819359

  13. Molecular biology of adenovirus type 2 semipermissive infections. I. Viral growth and expression of viral replicative functions during restricted adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Eggerding, F A; Pierce, W C

    1986-01-15

    As an initial step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying host cell restriction of adenovirus 2 (Ad2) replication, we have studied various cell lines derived from hamster (CHO-K1), rat (CREF, NRK-49F, C-3, C-9), and mouse (3T3-Swiss) tissues to determine their degree of permissivity to Ad2 replication. For each cell line tested, the time course of Ad2 growth was determined; the yield of infectious virus, as measured by titration on HeLa cell monolayers, was reduced 3 to 5 logs. This result is independent of the multiplicity of infection at multiplicities between 4 and 100 plaque-forming units (PFU) per cell. The Western immunoblotting technique was used to quantitate the amounts of early proteins (E1A 45-54K proteins, E1B 21 and 58K proteins, E2A 72K DNA binding protein) and late structural proteins (hexon, fiber) produced during restricted infections. All cell lines expressed 72K DNA binding protein and variable levels of other early proteins. C-3, C-9, and NRK-49F cells expressed hexon as well as low, but detectable levels of fiber protein. Mouse 3T3-Swiss cells failed to synthesize any detectable levels of late structural proteins. DNA synthesis analysis indicated all rodent cell lines were capable of replicating viral DNA. A decreased rate of viral DNA synthesis was observed in CREF cells. Evidence is presented which suggests newly synthesized viral DNA is unstable in 3T3-Swiss cells.

  14. Basalt of Summit Creek: Eocene Magmatism Associated with Farallon Slab Break Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, L. B.; Tepper, J. H.; Eddy, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest the Early-Middle Eocene was a time of widespread magmatism and tectonic reorganization that included accretion of the Siletzia terrane, Challis volcanism, and establishment of the modern Cascade arc. Although individual events are well documented our knowledge of the underlying tectonic framework is incomplete. To better understand the tectonic changes that occurred during this interval we studied the ~48 Ma Basalt of Summit Creek (BSC), a 1500m section of lavas located south of Mt. Rainier that erupted during the critical time period between the docking of Siletzia and the initiation of the modern Cascade arc. The BSC consists mainly of tholeiitic basalts (wt. % SiO2 = 45.54-63.45, Mg# = 0.68-0.30) with EMORB traits (La/YbN = 1.2-5.9; 206Pb/204Pb = 19.005-19.102; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.538-15.593; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.560-38.714). These lavas lack arc signatures (e.g., HFSE depletions) but overlap in elemental and isotopic composition with oceanic basalts of the Crescent Formation (part of Siletzia) located ~100 km to the west. We suggest that emplacement of lavas that lack arc traits in what was the forearc was a response to break off of the Farallon slab, which occurred as a result of the accretion of Siletzia at ~49 Ma (Wells et al., 2014). Break off opened a gap in the subducted slab, allowing upwelling and subsequent decompression melting. BSC lavas are consistent in age, location and composition with this model. After break off subduction resumed outboard of Siletzia, initiating the Cascade arc. Thus, BSC provides evidence of Farallon slab break off and furthers our understanding of the tectonic transition from widespread magmatism of the Early-Middle Eocene to the Cascade arc.

  15. Combine-ARMS: a rapid and cost-effective protocol for molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L; Tan, J A; Wong, Y C; Wee, Y C; Thong, M K; Yap, S F

    2001-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia major patients have chronic anemia and are dependent on blood transfusions to sustain life. Molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis of beta3-thalassemia is essential in Malaysia because about 4.5% of the population are heterozygous carriers for beta-thalassemia. The high percentage of compound heterozygosity (47.62%) found in beta-thalassemia major patients in the Thalassaemia Registry, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, also supports a need for rapid, economical, and sensitive protocols for the detection of beta-thalassemia mutations. Molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in Malaysia is currently carried out using ARMS, which detects a single beta-thalassemia mutation per PCR reaction. We developed and evaluated Combine amplification refractory mutation system (C-ARMS) techniques for efficient molecular detection of two to three beta-thalassemia mutations in a single PCR reaction. Three C-ARMS protocols were evaluated and established for molecular characterization of common beta-thalassemia mutations in the Malay and Chinese ethnic groups in Malaysia. Two C-ARMS protocols (cd 41-42/IVSII #654 and -29/cd 71-72) detected the beta-thalassemia mutations in 74.98% of the Chinese patients studied. The CARMS for cd 41-42/IVSII #654 detected beta-thalassemia mutations in 72% of the Chinese families. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 allowed detection of beta-thalassemia mutations in 36.53% of beta-thalassemia in the Malay patients. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 detected beta-thalassemia in 45.54% of the Chinese patients. We conclude that C-ARMS with the ability to detect two to three mutations in a single reaction provides more rapid and cost-effective protocols for beta-thalassemia prenatal diagnosis and molecular analysis programs in Malaysia. PMID:11336396

  16. [Development and clinical testing of the Russian version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS].

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J F; Abdufattaev, U A; Makhmudov, D Kh; Mirkhamidov, D Kh; Khadzhikhanov, F A; Azgamov, A V; Pilatz, A; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F M; Akilov, F A

    2014-01-01

    The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS was originally developed in the Uzbek language and has demonstrated high reliability and validity. The study was aimed to develop a Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire and evaluate its psychometric properties. Translation and adaptation of the ACSS questionnaire containing 18 questions, 6 of them - for the typical symptoms of acute cystitis (AC), 4 - for the differential diagnosis; 3 - for the quality of life, and 5 - for the conditions that may affect the choice of treatment, were performed according to the recommendations developed by the Mapi Research Institute. Study involved 83 Russian-speaking women (mean age, 35.6 ±13.7 years); 38 (45.8%) patients were in the main group (patients with AC), and 45 (54.2%) - in the control group (without AC). Medical examination and appropriate treatment of the respondents were conducted in accordance with approved standards. After completing the course of therapy, 19 (50%) patients of the main group came for the control examination. There was statistically significant difference in the scores obtained in the two groups. Score profiles positively correlated with the results of laboratory tests (rho = 0.26-0.48). Cronbach's alpha for the Russian version of the questionnaire was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91), area under the curve in the ROC analysis was 0.96. The results of testing the Russian version correspond to those of the original version. The Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire has high. reliability and validity, and can be recommended for clinical research and diagnosis of primary AC, and dynamic monitoring of the effectiveness of the treatment of the Russian-speaking population of patients.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Two Different n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylates for the Embolization of Varicoceles: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vanlangenhove, Peter Keukeleire, Katrien De; Everaert, Karel; Maele, Georges Van; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This was a prospective, randomized, blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates (NBCAs) for embolization of varicoceles. Methods: A total of 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left-sided, n = 84; right-sided, n = 28) that were diagnosed in 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with NBCA (n = 54; Histoacryl, Braun, Germany) or NBCA-MS (n = 58; Glubran2, General Enterprise Marketing, Viareggio, Lucca, Italy). Handling, embolic efficacy, and safety of both NBCAs were compared according the fulfillment of a standardized embolization plan, the occlusive effect on the spermatic vein, and the sticking to the microcatheter. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Patients of both study arms were comparable for age and clinical indication. Spermatic vein characteristics were comparable for varicocele classification and embolization side. Both NBCAs were equally efficient in occluding the spermatic vein and blocking reflux (NBCA, n = 54/54, 100% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 54/57, 94.7%; P = 0.244). The embolization plan could be accomplished in an equal number of veins for both groups (NBCA, n = 45/54, 83.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 41/58, 70.7%; P = 0.124). Adhesiveness of the glue to the microcatheter was the same in both NBCA groups (NBCA, n = 25/54, 46.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 29/58, 50%; P = 0.71). No glue-related complications were noted. Conclusions: NBCA and NBCA-MS are equally efficient and safe glues for embolization of varicoceles.

  18. Accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Determining the Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Molars

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Niknami, Mahdi; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Sohrabi, Aydin; Ghasemi, Negin; Akbari Golzar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in determining root canal morphology of mandibular first molars in comparison with staining and clearing technique. Methods and Materials: CBCT images were taken from 96 extracted human mandibular first molars and the teeth were then evaluated based on Vertucci’s classification to determine the root canal morphology. Afterwards, access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the canals with an insulin syringe. The teeth were demineralized with 5% nitric acid. Finally, the cleared teeth were evaluated under a magnifying glass at 5× magnification to determine the root canal morphology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The Fisher’s exact test assessed the differences between the mesial and distal canals and the Cohen’s kappa test was used to assess the level of agreement between the methods. Statistical significance was defined at 0.05. Results: The Kappa coefficient for agreement between the two methods evaluating canal types was 0.346 (95% CI: 0.247-0.445), which is considered a fair level of agreement based on classification of Koch and Landis. The agreement between CBCT and Vertucci’s classification was 52.6% (95% CI: 45.54-59.66%), with a significantly higher agreement rate in the mesial canals (28.1%) compared to the distal canals (77.1%) (P<0.001). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, clearing technique was more accurate than CBCT in providing accurate picture of the root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars. PMID:27141216

  19. Management of Pediatric Myxopapillary Ependymoma: The Role of Adjuvant Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Agbahiwe, Harold C.; Wharam, Moody; Batra, Sachin; Cohen, Kenneth; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2013-02-01

    Introduction: Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare tumor in children. The primary treatment is gross total resection (GTR), with no clearly defined role for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Published reports, however, suggest that children with MPE present with a more aggressive disease course. The goal of this study was to assess the role of adjuvant RT in pediatric patients with MPE. Methods: Sixteen patients with MPE seen at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) between November 1984 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen of the patients were evaluable with a mean age of 16.8 years (range, 12-21 years). Kaplan-Meier curves and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Results: All patients received surgery as the initial treatment modality. Surgery consisted of either a GTR or a subtotal resection (STR). The median dose of adjuvant RT was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-54 Gy). All patients receiving RT were treated at the involved site. After a median follow-up of 7.2 years (range, 0.75-26.4 years), all patients were alive with stable disease. Local control at 5 and 10 years was 62.5% and 30%, respectively, for surgery alone versus 100% at both time points for surgery and adjuvant RT. Fifty percent of the patients receiving surgery alone had local failure. All patients receiving STR alone had local failure compared to 33% of patients receiving GTR alone. One patient in the surgery and adjuvant RT group developed a distant site of recurrence 1 year from diagnosis. No late toxicity was reported at last follow-up, and neurologic symptoms either improved or remained stable following surgery with or without RT. Conclusions: Adjuvant RT improved local control compared to surgery alone and should be considered after surgical resection in pediatric patients with MPE.

  20. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition.

  1. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  2. Effects of humic acid on phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Kim, Ki Seob; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kang, Daeseok; Sung, Kijune

    2011-01-01

    The use of humic acid (HA) to enhance the efficiency of phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel was evaluated in this study. A sample of soil was artificially contaminated with commercially available diesel fuel to an initial total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 2300 mg/kg and four heavy metals with concentrations of 400 mg/kg for Pb, 200 mg/kg for Cu, 12 mg/kg for Cd, and 160 mg/kg for Ni. Three plant species, Brassica campestris, Festuca arundinacea, and Helianthus annuus, were selected for the phytodegradation experiment. Percentage degradation of TPH in the soil in a control pot supplemented with HA increased to 45% from 30% without HA. The addition of HA resulted in an increases in the removal of TPH from the soil in pots planted with B. campestris, E arundinacea, and H. annuus, enhancing percentage degradation to 86%, 64%, and 85% from 45%, 54%, and 66%, respectively. The effect of HA was also observed in the degradation of n-alkanes within 30 days. The rates of removal of n-alkanes in soil planted with B. campestris and H. annuus were high for n-alkanes in the range of C11-C28. A dynamic increase in dehydrogenase activity was observed during the last 15 days of a 30-day experimental period in all the pots amended with HA. The enhanced biodegradation performance for TPHs observed might be due to an increase in microbial activities and bioavailable TPH in soils caused by combined effects of plants and HA. The results suggested that HA could act as an enhancing agent for phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel and heavy metals. PMID:22432335

  3. Processes accompanying of mantle plume emplacement into continental lithosphere: Evidence from NW Arabian plate, Western Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths occurred in the Middle Cretaceous lamprophyre diatremes in Jabel Ansaria (Western Syria) (Sharkov et al., 1992). They are represented mainly garnet granulites and eclogite-like rocks, which underwent by deformations and retrograde metamorphism, and younger fresh pegmatoid garnet-kaersutite-clinopyroxene (Al-Ti augite) rocks; mantle peridotites are absent in these populations. According to mineralogical geothermobarometers, forming of garnet-granulite suite rocks occurred under pressure 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths 45-54 kn) and temperature 965-1115oC. At the same time, among populations of mantle xenoliths in the Late Cenozoic platobasalts of the region, quite the contrary, lower crustal xenoliths are absent, however, predominated spinel lherzolites (fragments of upper cooled rim of a plume head), derived from the close depths (30-40 km: Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2015). From this follows that ancient continental crust was existed here even in the Middle Cretaceous, but in the Late Cenozoic was removed by extended mantle plume head; at that upper sialic crust was not involved in geomechanic processes, because Precambrian metamorphic rocks survived as a basement for Cambrian to Cenozoic sedimentary cover of Arabian platform. In other words, though cardinal rebuilding of deep-seated structure of the region occurred in the Late Cenozoic but it did not affect on the upper shell of the ancient lithosphere. Because composition of mantle xenolithis in basalts is practically similar worldwide, we suggest that deep-seated processes are analogous also. As emplacement of the mantle plume heads accompanied by powerful basaltic magmatism, very likely that range of lower (mafic) continental crust existence is very convenient for extension of plume heads and their adiabatic melting. If such level, because of whatever reasons, was not reached, melting was limited but appeared excess of volatile matters which led to forming of lamprophyre or even kimberlite.

  4. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  5. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition. PMID:25407617

  6. [Mortality of tuberculosis in Romania, a marker for severity of the endemic].

    PubMed

    Didilescu, Cristian; Popescu, Gilda; Cioran, Nicoleta; Cocei, Horia

    2012-01-01

    After reaching the lowest level of tuberculosis mortality rate in 1980, 3.7% hundred thousand (830 deaths), followed by a few years with low levels of mortality, the period following the year 1985 was marked by a gradual increase in the mortality rate and in 1995 it reached 11.3% hundred thousand (2560 deaths). The implementation since 1997 of TB control programmes on medium-term (under technical assistance of WHO experts) has led to a decrease in tuberculosis mortality rate to 1482 deaths, 6.9% hundred thousand, in 2010. Compared to standardized TB mortality rate in Europe, Romania is far from the countries of Western and Central Europe, with a rate 6.6 times greater than in the EU. Standardized mortality rate by sex reveals that the rate for males in Romania, in 2009, was 6.5 times higher than in women. Similar to 2009, in 2010, the deaths have reached a maximum per age group at 45-54 years old. In 2010 the tuberculosis fatality was 4.7% and the lethality was 0.6%. Consistency of tuberculosis control strategy, regarding both measures for early detection of tuberculosis and establishing TB treatment under the direct observation, represent the safety elements in the reduction of tuberculosis mortality rate. It should be reminded that one of the goals of Stop TB Partnership is reducing mortality rate in 2012 at half compared to 1990, Romania being one of the 18 countries included in this plan initiated by the WHO Europe Region Office.

  7. [Tuberculosis continues to be a concern].

    PubMed

    Ibraim, Elmira; Cioran, Nicoleta; Cocei, Horia

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has not been eliminated from none of the world's regions up to now. Trends of TB endemic were constantly favorable in Romania in the recent years: number of new cases and relapses decreased with 13 235, incidence rate with 42%, incidence rate in children with 51% and mortality rate with 44%, from 2002 to 2011. The highest TB risk is being observed in men living in rural area and in those of 45-54 age group. The counties with the highest TB incidence rates are those in the South-West part of the country. The favorable trend of TB endemic in Romania has been achieved through a constant case detection rate over 70% and a treatment success rate over 80% in the recent years. The current major concerns in TB control in the country, as well as all over the world, are TB-HIV co-infection and micobacterial drug-resistance. Also, a negative aspect of TB endemic in Romania is that a number of severe forms of TB, TB-HIV, MDR-TB or deaths are still reported in children under 15 years old, each year. The response of health system to the TB problem consists in the development of the National TB Programme, which achieved many successes in the recent years, but in the same time is confronted with many challenges. However, the programatic control of the disease can be obtained by health services only in partnership with other services, institutions and organizations, which may offer economic and social support to the patients and their families.

  8. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    PubMed

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis.

  9. Diabetes among Mexican Americans in Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Hanis, C L; Ferrell, R E; Barton, S A; Aguilar, L; Garza-Ibarra, A; Tulloch, B R; Garcia, C A; Schull, W J

    1983-11-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus constitutes a major health burden among the Mexican-American population. For example, county-wide death rates in Texas attributable to diabetes from 1970-1981 range from 2.5-52.0 diabetes deaths per 1000 total deaths with the highest rates generally occurring in counties whose populations are more than 75% Spanish ancestry. To assess the prevalence and morbidity of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among Mexican Americans, 14% of the Starr County, Texas, population (97% Mexican-American) was randomly sampled. The reference population, sampling strategy, and screening results are described. Age-specific prevalences of diabetes for males ranged from 0% in males aged 15-24 years to 17.6% in those above 75 years of age. Rates for females ranged from 0.4% in those aged 15-24 years to a high of 19.0% in the 55- to 64-year age group. In both sexes, the rates are relatively low for persons under age 45 with a sharp increase in those aged 45-54 years and high rates prevailing in the older age groups. Comparisons of the rates in Starr County to those of the general US population indicate a two- to fivefold greater risk in Starr County. In terms of impact on this community, these results imply that over 50% of individuals older than 35 years are directly affected by diabetes by virtue of their having the disease or by being a first-degree relative of a diabetic. PMID:6637993

  10. Detection of HPV and co-infecting pathogens in healthy Italian women by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Camporiondo, Maria Pia; Farchi, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Denaro, Aurelia; Gallone, Domenica; Maracchioni, Fabio; Favalli, Cartesio; Ciotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogens can be transmitted sexually and are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in a group of 309 healthy women enrolled at the San Camillo - Forlanini hospital of Rome by using two multiplex real-time PCR assays based on TOCE® technology. The women's ages ranged from 34 to 60 years, median 49 [IQR 45-54]. Of the 309 women tested, HPV DNA was detected in 77/309 (24.9%) patients. Of these, 44 (14.2%) harboured a single infection while 33 (10.7%) were infected by multiple genotypes. Prevalence of HPV infection was highest among females aged 40-50 years (15.2%). Of the other pathogens sought, CT, MG and NG were not detected while positive results were found for MH (12/309, 3.9%), TV (4/309, 1.3%), UP (89/309, 28.8%) and UU (14/309, 4.5%). Co-infections were as follows: 5 MH/HPV, 4 TV/HPV, 34 UP/HPV and 9 UU/HPV. In HPV-positive women, the probability of being infected by UP and UU was 2.5 (p=0.00045) and 6 fold higher (p=0.0016) than in HPV-negative women. The study supports the use of multiplex real-time PCR assays in a routine diagnostic setting. The high sensitivity and specificity of these assays along with the simultaneous detection of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens confers an advantage with respect to more obsolete methods reducing costs and time to diagnosis.

  11. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension.

  12. Associations of Monitor-Assessed Activity with Performance-Based Physical Function.

    PubMed

    Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Gardiner, Paul A; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Healy, Genevieve N

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [<3 METs] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA; ≥3 METs]), and number of sit-stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (<45; 45-54; 55-64; ≥65 years) were tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (p<0.05) associated with stepping and MVPA stepping only; none of the activity measures were associated with TUG-8. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in older adults (≥65 years), TUG-8 was associated with stepping and MVPA stepping (both p<0.05). All associations with sitting time, standing, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36-80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888

  13. Genotypic diversity, antimicrobial resistance and screening of Vibrio cholerae molecular virulence markers in Vibrio alginolyticus strains recovered from a Tunisian Ruditapes decussatus hatchery.

    PubMed

    Mechri, Badreddine; Medhioub, Amel; Medhioub, Mohamed Nejib; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a total of 54 Vibrio alginolyticus strains were analyzed. The isolates were recovered from different compartments of the Ruditapes decussatus hatchery in the National Institute of Marine Sciences and Technologies, Monastir, Tunisia. All isolates were biochemically identified (API 20E and API ZYM strips), characterized by amplification of the Hsp-40 gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based genotyping to evaluate genetic relationship between the isolated strains. We also looked for the presence of ten V cholera virulence genes (toxRS, toxR, toxT toxS, tcpP, tcpA, ace, vpi, zot and ctxA) in the genomes of Vibrio isolates. The antibiotics susceptibility, exoenzymes production and in vitro cytotoxic activitiy against HeLa cell line were also carried out for all tested bacteria. Most of V alginolyticus isolates showed significant antimicrobial resistance rates to at least ten antibacterial agents. For most isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data showed that tetracydclin and streptomycin were the most effective antibiotics. Construction of the phylogenetic dendogram showed that studied isolates were in general genetically heterogeneous; however some Vibrio strains were present in different structures of the R. decussatus hatchery. The V cholerae virulence genes investigation showed a wild distribution of toxS (49/54), toxaR (45/54) and toxT (22/54) genes among V alginolyticus strains isolated from the R. decussatus rearing system. Cytotoxic effects of several Vibrio extracellular products (28154) were also observed on HeLa cells.

  14. Permeability characteristics of erythrocyte ghosts prepared under isoionic conditions by a glycol-induced osmotic lysis.

    PubMed

    Billah, M M; Finean, J B; Coleman, R; Michell, R H

    1977-03-17

    A detailed study has been made of the permeability characteristics of human erythrocyte ghosts prepared under isoionic conditions by a glycol-induced lysis (Billah, M.M., Finean, J.B., Coleman, R. and Michell, R.H. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 433, 45-54). Impermeability to large molecules such as dextran (average molecular weight 70 000) was restored immediately and spontaneously after each of the 5-7 lyses that were required to remove all of the haemoglobin. Permeabilities to smaller molecules such as MgATP2-, [3H]inositol and [14C]choline were initially high but could be greatly reduced by incubation at 37 degrees C for an hour. The extent of such resealing decreased as the number of lyses to which the ghosts had been subjected increased. Both removal of haemoglobin and permeabilities to small molecules were affected significantly by pH, CA3+ concentrations and divalent cation chelators. Maximum resealing was achieved in ghosts prepared in the basic ionic medium (130 mM KCl, 10 nM NaCl, 2 mM MgCl2, 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulphonic acid (HEPES)) at pH 7.0 (0 degrees C) and with a calcium level around 10(-5) M. Acidic pH facilitated the removal of haemoglobin whilst the presence of divalent cation chelators showed down its release. Retention of K+ by ghosts leaded with K+ during the first lysis and subsequently incubated at 37 degrees C was substantial but lation chelators slowed down its released. Retention of K+ by ghosts loaded with K+ during the first lysis and subsequently incubated at 37 degrees C was substantial but little K+ could be retained within the haemoglobin-free ghosts. Permeability of the ghosts to K+ after one lysis was affected by temperature, pH, Ca2+ concentrations and by the presence of divalent cation chelators.

  15. Detection of HPV and co-infecting pathogens in healthy Italian women by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Camporiondo, Maria Pia; Farchi, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Denaro, Aurelia; Gallone, Domenica; Maracchioni, Fabio; Favalli, Cartesio; Ciotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogens can be transmitted sexually and are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in a group of 309 healthy women enrolled at the San Camillo - Forlanini hospital of Rome by using two multiplex real-time PCR assays based on TOCE® technology. The women's ages ranged from 34 to 60 years, median 49 [IQR 45-54]. Of the 309 women tested, HPV DNA was detected in 77/309 (24.9%) patients. Of these, 44 (14.2%) harboured a single infection while 33 (10.7%) were infected by multiple genotypes. Prevalence of HPV infection was highest among females aged 40-50 years (15.2%). Of the other pathogens sought, CT, MG and NG were not detected while positive results were found for MH (12/309, 3.9%), TV (4/309, 1.3%), UP (89/309, 28.8%) and UU (14/309, 4.5%). Co-infections were as follows: 5 MH/HPV, 4 TV/HPV, 34 UP/HPV and 9 UU/HPV. In HPV-positive women, the probability of being infected by UP and UU was 2.5 (p=0.00045) and 6 fold higher (p=0.0016) than in HPV-negative women. The study supports the use of multiplex real-time PCR assays in a routine diagnostic setting. The high sensitivity and specificity of these assays along with the simultaneous detection of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens confers an advantage with respect to more obsolete methods reducing costs and time to diagnosis. PMID:27031891

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  17. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001; women 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001). Use of information/support websites was strongly associated with men’s higher socioeconomic status (managerial/professional vs semiroutine/routine: AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.93, P<.001). Despite no overall association with area-level deprivation, those in densely populated urban areas were more likely to report use of information/support websites than those living in rural areas (men: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.68-6.77, P<.001; women: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, P<.001). No

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions related to occupational exposure to acid mists.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Crosato, Edgard; Mazzilli, Luiz Eugênio Nigro; Frias, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a Brazilian population of workers exposed and non-exposed to acid mists and chemical products. One hundred workers (46 exposed and 54 non-exposed) were evaluated in a Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador - CEREST (Worker's Health Reference Center). The workers responded to questionnaires regarding their personal information and about alcohol consumption and tobacco use. A clinical examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of NCCLs, according to WHO parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by unconditional logistic regression and multiple linear regression, with the critical level of p < 0.05. NCCLs were significantly associated with age groups (18-34, 35-44, 45-68 years). The unconditional logistic regression showed that the presence of NCCLs was better explained by age group (OR = 4.04; CI 95% 1.77-9.22) and occupational exposure to acid mists and chemical products (OR = 3.84; CI 95% 1.10-13.49), whereas the linear multiple regression revealed that NCCLs were better explained by years of smoking (p = 0.01) and age group (p = 0.04). The prevalence of NCCLs in the study population was particularly high (76.84%), and the risk factors for NCCLs were age, exposure to acid mists and smoking habit. Controlling risk factors through preventive and educative measures, allied to the use of personal protective equipment to prevent the occupational exposure to acid mists, may contribute to minimizing the prevalence of NCCLs. PMID:26154372

  19. The prevalence of periodontal diseases among adult population in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tsitaishvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2014-09-01

    The present research was conducted to estimate the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the adult population of Georgia, to study the peculiarity of their distribution within population in different regions of the country. The survey was carried out based on cluster- stratified method derived by WHO. 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men distributed in 4 age groups: I - 20-34, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65+ the residents of the city, town and village in 9 regions of Georgia and the capital Tbilisi were examined. The assessment of periodontal status and oral hygiene was based on WHO-'s recommendation. (WHO 1997 '˜Oral Health Assessment Form') Examination was done under good natural light using a mouth mirror and a periodontal index (CPI) probe for measurements of periodontal pockets depth. Questionnaires comprised questions for revealing the following risk factors: social status and family income, existence of common diseases, people'S attitude towards oral hygiene(tooth brushing, using dental floss, mouth rinsing) acceptability of dental service, sugar consumption rate, tobacco use, consumption of dairy products. The reliable statistical data received from the study relieved high prevalence of periodontal diseases in all regions: in Achara - 71.7, Mtskheta-Mtianeti - 70.8%, Imereti - 64.9%, Qvemo Qartli - 61.6%, Tbilisi - 61.8% and Shida Qartli - 60.5%, Guria - 55.9%, Samtskhe-Javakheti - 56.0%, Kakheti - 59.1%, Samegrelo - 55.2%. Despite the variability of risk factors high prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in regions of Georgia was related to more extent to the low educational medical background, less dental acceptability due to not very positive attitude towards dental service and oral hygiene skills though financial problems also played substantial role. The study confirmed that periodontal diseases represent an actual problem in Georgia and need caring out serious preventive measures to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and

  20. A randomized clinical trial of a brief family intervention to reduce accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Abramovitch, Amitai; Tompson, Martha C.; Barlow, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Accommodation consists of changes in family members’ behavior to prevent or reduce patients’ obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals or distress. High levels of family accommodation are associated with more severe symptoms and functional impairment on the part of patients, and may also interfere with exposure-based treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a brief, adjunctive intervention to reduce accommodation in the family members of adult OCD patients. Patients (N = 18, mean age = 35.44, 33% male, 94% Caucasian) received a course of standard individual exposure and ritual prevention (ERP) for OCD. Family members (N = 18, mean age = 41.72, 56% male, 94% Caucasian) were randomized to either receive or not receive the adjunctive intervention, consisting of two sessions of psychoeducation and skills training in reducing accommodation. Results revealed that the intervention successfully reduced scores on the clinician-rated the Family Accommodation Scale (Week 8 d = 1.05). Patients whose family members received the intervention showed greater reductions in Y-BOCS scores across treatment than patients whose family members had not (Week 8 d = 1.27), and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that change in family accommodation from baseline accounted for a significant amount of variance in later OCD symptoms (β = .45, p = .02). Results from this preliminary study suggest that this adjunctive intervention produces more rapid treatment response compared to traditional ERP alone. Accommodation is a potentially important target for improving treatment in OCD and other diagnostic groups where accommodation is likely to occur. PMID:25645170

  1. Pubertal Expression of α4βδ GABAA Receptors Reduces Seizure-Like Discharges in CA1 Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Shen, Hui; Merlin, Lisa R; Smith, Sheryl S

    2016-01-01

    More than half of children with epilepsy outgrow their seizures, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. GABAergic inhibition increases at puberty in female mice due to expression of extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs). Therefore, we tested the role of these receptors in regulating seizure-like discharges in CA1 hippocampus using a high K(+) (8.5 mM) seizure model. Spontaneous field potentials were recorded from hippocampus of pre-pubertal (~28-32 PND) and pubertal (~35-44 PND) female wild-type or α4-/- mice. The coastline length, a measure of burst intensity, was assessed. 8.5 mM K(+) induced seizure-like discharges in over 60% of pre-pubertal slices, but only in 7% of pubertal slices, where the coastline length was reduced by 70% (P = 0.04). However, the pubertal decrease in seizure-like discharges was not seen in the α4-/-, implicating α4βδ GABARs as the cause of the decreased seizure-like activity during puberty. Administration of THIP or DS2, to selectively increase α4βδ current, reduced activity in 8.5 mM K(+) at puberty, while blockade of α5-GABARs had no effect. GABAergic current was depolarizing but inhibitory in 8.5 mM K(+), suggesting a mechanism for the effects of α4βδ and α5-GABARs, which exhibit different polarity-dependent desensitization. These data suggest that α4βδ GABARs are anti-convulsant during adolescence. PMID:27561815

  2. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    PubMed

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  3. Social defeat stress induces a depression-like phenotype in adolescent male c57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Sergio D; Riggs, Lace M; Nieto, Steven J; Dayrit, Genesis; Zamora, Norma N; Shawhan, Kristi L; Cruz, Bryan; Warren, Brandon L

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Exposure to stress is highly correlated with the emergence of mood-related illnesses. Because major depressive disorder often emerges in adolescence, we assessed the effects of social defeat stress on responses to depressive-like behaviors in juvenile mice. To do this, postnatal day (PD) 35 male c57BL/6 mice were exposed to 10 days of social defeat stress (PD35-44), while control mice were handled daily. Twenty-four hours after the last episode of defeat (PD45), separate groups of mice were tested in the social interaction, forced swimming, sucrose preference, and elevated plus-maze behavioral assays (n = 7-12 per group). Also, we examined body weight gain across days of social defeat and levels of blood serum corticosterone 40 min after the last episode of defeat stress. Our data indicates that defeated mice exhibited a depressive-like phenotype as inferred from increased social avoidance, increased immobility in the forced swim test, and reduced sucrose preference (a measure of anhedonia), when compared to non-defeated controls. Defeated mice also displayed an anxiogenic-like phenotype when tested on the elevated plus-maze. Lastly, stressed mice displayed lower body weight gain, along with increased blood serum corticosterone levels, when compared to non-stressed controls. Overall, we show that in adolescent male c57BL/6 mice, social defeat stress induces a depression- and anxiety-like phenotype 24 h after the last episode of stress. These data suggest that the social defeat paradigm may be used to examine the etiology of stress-induced mood-related disorders during adolescence.

  4. Pubertal Expression of α4βδ GABAA Receptors Reduces Seizure-Like Discharges in CA1 Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Shen, Hui; Merlin, Lisa R; Smith, Sheryl S

    2016-01-01

    More than half of children with epilepsy outgrow their seizures, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. GABAergic inhibition increases at puberty in female mice due to expression of extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs). Therefore, we tested the role of these receptors in regulating seizure-like discharges in CA1 hippocampus using a high K(+) (8.5 mM) seizure model. Spontaneous field potentials were recorded from hippocampus of pre-pubertal (~28-32 PND) and pubertal (~35-44 PND) female wild-type or α4-/- mice. The coastline length, a measure of burst intensity, was assessed. 8.5 mM K(+) induced seizure-like discharges in over 60% of pre-pubertal slices, but only in 7% of pubertal slices, where the coastline length was reduced by 70% (P = 0.04). However, the pubertal decrease in seizure-like discharges was not seen in the α4-/-, implicating α4βδ GABARs as the cause of the decreased seizure-like activity during puberty. Administration of THIP or DS2, to selectively increase α4βδ current, reduced activity in 8.5 mM K(+) at puberty, while blockade of α5-GABARs had no effect. GABAergic current was depolarizing but inhibitory in 8.5 mM K(+), suggesting a mechanism for the effects of α4βδ and α5-GABARs, which exhibit different polarity-dependent desensitization. These data suggest that α4βδ GABARs are anti-convulsant during adolescence.

  5. Left ventricular hypertrophy index based on a combination of frontal and transverse planes in the ECG and VCG: Diagnostic utility of cardiac vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomini, Maria Paula; Juan Ingallina, Fernando; Barone, Valeria; Antonucci, Ricardo; Valentinuzzi, Max; Arini, Pedro David

    2016-04-01

    The changes that left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induces in depolarization and repolarization vectors are well known. We analyzed the performance of the electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic transverse planes (TP in the ECG and XZ in the VCG) and frontal planes (FP in the ECG and XY in the VCG) to discriminate LVH patients from control subjects. In an age-balanced set of 58 patients, the directions and amplitudes of QRS-complexes and T-wave vectors were studied. The repolarization vector significantly decreased in modulus from controls to LVH in the transverse plane (TP: 0.45±0.17mV vs. 0.24±0.13mV, p<0.0005 XZ: 0.43±0.16mV vs. 0.26±0.11mV, p<0.005) while the depolarization vector significantly changed in angle in the electrocardiographic frontal plane (Controls vs. LVH, FP: 48.24±33.66° vs. 46.84±35.44°, p<0.005, XY: 20.28±35.20° vs. 19.35±12.31°, NS). Several LVH indexes were proposed combining such information in both ECG and VCG spaces. A subset of all those indexes with AUC values greater than 0.7 was further studied. This subset comprised four indexes, with three of them belonging to the ECG space. Two out of the four indexes presented the best ROC curves (AUC values: 0.78 and 0.75, respectively). One index belonged to the ECG space and the other one to the VCG space. Both indexes showed a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. In conclusion, the proposed indexes can favorably complement LVH diagnosis

  6. Amino acids in dew - origin and seasonal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheller, Edwin

    At two sites in the Armenhof district, 10 km east of Fulda, Germany, dew samples were collected from June 1996 to June 1997 and investigated for free and protein-bound amino acids. On account of the high pollen content, at the beginning of June 1996 and in May 1997 total amino acid concentrations were 53-390 μmol l -1, in one sample 922 μmol l -1. At other times the concentration in dew was 8-164 μmol l -1. On 4 and 5 June 1996 the diluted free amino acid fraction (DFAA) of the total hydrolysed amino acids (THAA) at both sites amounted to 35-44% and was predominantly arginine, proline and glutamine/glutamate. Likewise on 11 March 1997 the fraction of DFAA was found to be 39.5% with extremely high arginine and proline fractions. At other times the DFAA-fraction was in the range 14-26%. From July 1996 to June 1997 the amino acid concentrations in the vapours rising from a meadow were also measured and it ranged from 8 to 51 μmol l -1. From July to October 1996 the amino acid composition in the hydrolysates of dew samples and meadow vapours collected overnight were almost identical. The DFAA fraction in the condensation water collected overnight from the meadow varied from 18 to 40%. From 4 to 6 June 1996, on 11 and 13 March 1997 and in the period 16-20 May 1997, the amino acid distribution in dew showed much variation. The percentage fraction of arginine and proline in the hydrolysate increased greatly, whereas that of glycine and serine decreased. The large increase in proline and arginine in hydrolysate is attributable solely to the large amounts of free arginine and proline. This effect occurred in both 1996 and 1997 over several days at both sites at any one time and therefore appears confirmed.

  7. The prevalence of periodontal diseases among adult population in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tsitaishvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2014-09-01

    The present research was conducted to estimate the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the adult population of Georgia, to study the peculiarity of their distribution within population in different regions of the country. The survey was carried out based on cluster- stratified method derived by WHO. 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men distributed in 4 age groups: I - 20-34, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65+ the residents of the city, town and village in 9 regions of Georgia and the capital Tbilisi were examined. The assessment of periodontal status and oral hygiene was based on WHO-'s recommendation. (WHO 1997 '˜Oral Health Assessment Form') Examination was done under good natural light using a mouth mirror and a periodontal index (CPI) probe for measurements of periodontal pockets depth. Questionnaires comprised questions for revealing the following risk factors: social status and family income, existence of common diseases, people'S attitude towards oral hygiene(tooth brushing, using dental floss, mouth rinsing) acceptability of dental service, sugar consumption rate, tobacco use, consumption of dairy products. The reliable statistical data received from the study relieved high prevalence of periodontal diseases in all regions: in Achara - 71.7, Mtskheta-Mtianeti - 70.8%, Imereti - 64.9%, Qvemo Qartli - 61.6%, Tbilisi - 61.8% and Shida Qartli - 60.5%, Guria - 55.9%, Samtskhe-Javakheti - 56.0%, Kakheti - 59.1%, Samegrelo - 55.2%. Despite the variability of risk factors high prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in regions of Georgia was related to more extent to the low educational medical background, less dental acceptability due to not very positive attitude towards dental service and oral hygiene skills though financial problems also played substantial role. The study confirmed that periodontal diseases represent an actual problem in Georgia and need caring out serious preventive measures to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and

  8. Binding of radioiodinated human. beta. -endorphin to serum proteins from rats and humans, determined by several methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1985-10-07

    Binding of immunoreactive radioiodinated human ..beta..-endorphin (/sup 125/I-..beta..-EP) to rat serum was demonstrated by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in pooled rat serum on Sephadex G-200. Two radioactive peaks associated with proteins eluted from the column. The first peak eluted at the void volume containing lipoproteins, ..cap alpha../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 2/-macroglobulins, and the second peak at the fraction of albumin. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP to albumin was directly proved by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin on Sephadex G-200. Equilibrium dialysis was not applicable to investigating the interaction of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP with serum proteins, because of the intense nonspecific adsorption to the semi-permeable membrane and the degradation of the peptide during dialysis. Therefore, in order to quantitatively evaluate the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in sera from rats and humans, the authors utilized four other methods (ultrafiltration, charcoal adsorption, polyethylene glycol precipitation and equilibrium gel filtration). These methods corresponded well with each other and indicated 35-44% binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in rat serum. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in normal human serum was 36%, determined by ultrafiltration. Serum protein binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP was concentration independent over the concentration range studied (1-1000 nM). 23 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. [Women's behavior and knowledge concerning family planning in the region of the Park Health Center].

    PubMed

    Ozyurda, F; Durmusoglu, M

    1989-01-01

    1390 women aged 15-44 were surveyed between February-June 1988 in the vicinity of the Park Health Education Center by the Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Public Health. Within this sample, the survey focused on the knowledge, attitude and behavior of the 1082 married women, regarding birth control. Birth control pills, IUDs, and condoms were classified as effective modern birth control methods. Other less effective traditional methods were classified as ineffective. Analysis of the data indicated 74.2% of the subjects resort to some form of birth control while 66.2% use an effective modern method. Age, education, work status, number of children and type and location of housing influence family planning decisions. In general, the women using birth control are primary school graduates aged between 25-39, living in urban areas for at least 5 years. Most have 2 to 3 children and have had an abortion. The most frequently used method of birth control is the IUD. It is notable that 29.5% use the ineffective withdrawal method. 58.62% of the women who do not use birth control, avoid family planning because of their husbands. These women have 2 or more children and are illiterate or primary school graduates between the ages of 25-35 when they are most likely to become pregnant. Family planning services should be geared towards educating these families, especially the husbands. Education services should also target families using the withdrawal method and the 35-44 age group of women who show a low percentage of contraceptive use.

  10. Mortality during a Large-Scale Heat Wave by Place, Demographic Group, Internal and External Causes of Death, and Building Climate Zone.

    PubMed

    Joe, Lauren; Hoshiko, Sumi; Dobraca, Dina; Jackson, Rebecca; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Smith, Daniel; Harnly, Martha

    2016-03-09

    Mortality increases during periods of elevated heat. Identification of vulnerable subgroups by demographics, causes of death, and geographic regions, including deaths occurring at home, is needed to inform public health prevention efforts. We calculated mortality relative risks (RRs) and excess deaths associated with a large-scale California heat wave in 2006, comparing deaths during the heat wave with reference days. For total (all-place) and at-home mortality, we examined risks by demographic factors, internal and external causes of death, and building climate zones. During the heat wave, 582 excess deaths occurred, a 5% increase over expected (RR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.08). Sixty-six percent of excess deaths were at home (RR = 1.12, CI 1.07-1.16). Total mortality risk was higher among those aged 35-44 years than ≥ 65, and among Hispanics than whites. Deaths from external causes increased more sharply (RR = 1.18, CI 1.10-1.27) than from internal causes (RR = 1.04, CI 1.02-1.07). Geographically, risk varied by building climate zone; the highest risks of at-home death occurred in the northernmost coastal zone (RR = 1.58, CI 1.01-2.48) and the southernmost zone of California's Central Valley (RR = 1.43, CI 1.21-1.68). Heat wave mortality risk varied across subpopulations, and some patterns of vulnerability differed from those previously identified. Public health efforts should also address at-home mortality, non-elderly adults, external causes, and at-risk geographic regions.

  11. Detection of differential DNA methylation in repetitive DNA of mice and humans perinatally exposed to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Christopher; Kim, Jung H; Anderson, Olivia S; Nahar, Muna S; Jones, Tamara R; Sartor, Maureen A; Dolinoy, Dana C

    2016-07-01

    Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce changes in DNA methylation in both mouse and human genic regions; however, the response in repetitive elements and transposons has not been explored. Here we present novel methodology to combine genomic DNA enrichment with RepeatMasker analysis on next-generation sequencing data to determine the effect of perinatal BPA exposure on repetitive DNA at the class, family, subfamily, and individual insertion level in both mouse and human samples. Mice were treated during gestation and lactation to BPA in chow at 0, 50, or 50,000 ng/g levels and total BPA was measured in stratified human fetal liver tissue samples as low (non-detect to 0.83 ng/g), medium (3.5 to 5.79 ng/g), or high (35.44 to 96.76 ng/g). Transposon methylation changes were evident in human classes, families, and subfamilies, with the medium group exhibiting hypomethylation compared to both high and low BPA groups. Mouse repeat classes, families, and subfamilies did not respond to BPA with significantly detectable differential DNA methylation. In human samples, 1251 individual transposon loci were detected as differentially methylated by BPA exposure, but only 19 were detected in mice. Of note, this approach recapitulated the discovery of a previously known mouse environmentally labile metastable epiallele, Cabp(IAP). Thus, by querying repetitive DNA in both mouse and humans, we report the first known transposons in humans that respond to perinatal BPA exposure. PMID:27267941

  12. Gingival recession and its association with calculus in subjects deprived of prophylactic dental care.

    PubMed

    van Palenstein Helderman, W H; Lembariti, B S; van der Weijden, G A; van 't Hof, M A

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and severity of gingival recession in Tanzanian adults covering the age range from 20 to 64 years. In addition, it attempts to assess the relationship between the degree of gingival recession and the presence and amount of calculus. In the 20-34 years age group recession occurred in > or = 32% of the buccal, > or = 25% of the lingual, and > or = 13% of the approximal surfaces. These %s increased to > or = 64%, > or = 52%, and > or = 48%, respectively, in the 45-64 years age group. In the 20-34 years age group, lingual surfaces of mandibular incisors and canines followed by buccal surfaces of these teeth were the sites most severely affected with gingival recession. With increasing age, all sites became gradually more severely affected, particularly the buccal and lingual surfaces of the maxillary first molar. The lingual surfaces of mandibular incisors exhibited on an average 1.3 mm, 2.4 mm and 3.2 mm recession in the 20-34 years, 35-44 years and 45-64 years age group, respectively. Most of the correlation coefficients between gingival recession and calculus at the individual tooth surface in three age groups were statistically significant. The highest correlation coefficients (0.50-0.67) were found in the youngest (20-34 years) age group at the lingual surfaces of the mandibular incisors, canine and first premolar and at the buccal surfaces of the mandibular incisors. Based on these findings, the working hypothesis is advanced that longstanding calculus is an important determinant in the onset of gingival recession at sites exhibiting pronounced recession at a young age in populations deprived of prophylactic dental care.

  13. Relevance of dietary protein concentration and quality as risk factors for the formation of calcium oxalate stones in cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, Nadine; Burmeier, Hannes; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary protein for the development of feline calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths has not been conclusively clarified. The present study evaluated the effects of a varying dietary protein concentration and quality on critical indices for the formation of CaOx uroliths. Three diets with a high protein quality (10-11 % greaves meal/diet) and a varying crude protein (CP) concentration (35, 44 and 57 % in DM) were compared. Additionally, the 57 % CP diet was compared with a fourth diet that had a similar CP concentration (55 % in DM), but a lower protein quality (34 % greaves meal/diet). The Ca and oxalate (Ox) concentrations were similar in all diets. A group of eight cats received the same diet at the same time. Each feeding period was divided into a 21 d adaptation period and a 7 d sampling period to collect urine. There were increases in urinary volume, urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with CaOx with increasing dietary protein concentrations. Urinary pH ranged between 6·34 and 6·66 among all groups, with no unidirectional effect of dietary protein. Lower renal Ca excretion was observed when feeding the diet with the lower protein quality, however, the underlying mechanism needs further evaluation. In conclusion, although the observed higher urinary volume is beneficial, the increase in urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary RSS CaOx associated with a high-protein diet may be critical for the development of CaOx uroliths in cats.

  14. The influence of stress at puberty on mood and learning: role of the α4βδ GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Smith, S S

    2013-09-26

    It is well-known that the onset of puberty is associated with changes in mood as well as cognition. Stress can have an impact on these outcomes, which in many cases, can be more influential in females, suggesting that gender differences exist. The adolescent period is a vulnerable time for the onset of certain psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders, which are also more prevalent in females. One factor which may contribute to stress-triggered anxiety at puberty is the GABAA receptor (GABAR), which is known to play a pivotal role in anxiety. Expression of α4βδ GABARs increases on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty in the hippocampus, part of the limbic circuitry which governs emotion. This receptor is a sensitive target for the stress steroid 3α-OH-5[α]β-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone, which paradoxically reduces inhibition and increases anxiety during the pubertal period (post-natal day ∼35-44) of female mice in contrast to its usual effect to enhance inhibition and reduce anxiety. Spatial learning and synaptic plasticity are also adversely impacted at puberty, likely a result of increased expression of α4βδ GABARs on the dendritic spines of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are essential for consolidation of memory. This review will focus on the role of these receptors in mediating behavioral changes at puberty. Stress-mediated changes in mood and cognition in early adolescence may have relevance for the expression of psychopathologies in adulthood.

  15. EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer in organ transplant recipients: a localized indolent posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Hart, Melissa; Thakral, Beenu; Yohe, Sophia; Balfour, Henry H; Singh, Charanjeet; Spears, Michael; McKenna, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBV MCU) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder occurring in elderly or iatrogenic immunocompromised patients. It has not been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. We observed 7 patients with EBV MCU in a cohort of 70 transplant recipients with EBV posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Transplants included: 5 renal, 1 heart, and 1 lung. Median patient age was 61; 5 were male. EBV MCU was observed in oral mucosa in 4 and gastrointestinal tract in 3. Duration of immunosuppressive therapy before EBV MCU was 0.6 to 13 years. Ulcers were undermined by inflammatory cells and polymorphic or monomorphic large cell lymphoproliferation. Reed-Sternberg-like cells were present in 5/7. Large B cells were CD20, CD30, and EBV-encoded RNA positive in all cases. Diagnosis in 3 recent patients was EBV MCU; 4 patients diagnosed before familiarity with EBV MCU were classified as monomorphic large cell (n=3) and polymorphic (n=1) PTLD. None of the patients had EBV DNA in their blood (<1000 copies/mL) at diagnosis or follow-up versus 35/44 transplant patients with systemic PTLD (P<0.001). All lesions resolved with reduced immunosuppression (7/7), change in immunosuppression (2/7), and rituximab (3/7). Five patients are living: 4 healthy, 1 awaiting second renal transplant. Two patients died 3 and 5 years after resolution of EBV MCU. No patient recurred with EBV MCU or other PTLDs. EBV MCU mimics more aggressive categories of PTLD but lacks EBV DNA in blood, which may be a useful distinguishing feature. Lesions are likely to resolve with conservative management. Awareness of EBV MCU in the posttransplant setting is necessary for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions related to occupational exposure to acid mists.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Crosato, Edgard; Mazzilli, Luiz Eugênio Nigro; Frias, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a Brazilian population of workers exposed and non-exposed to acid mists and chemical products. One hundred workers (46 exposed and 54 non-exposed) were evaluated in a Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador - CEREST (Worker's Health Reference Center). The workers responded to questionnaires regarding their personal information and about alcohol consumption and tobacco use. A clinical examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of NCCLs, according to WHO parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by unconditional logistic regression and multiple linear regression, with the critical level of p < 0.05. NCCLs were significantly associated with age groups (18-34, 35-44, 45-68 years). The unconditional logistic regression showed that the presence of NCCLs was better explained by age group (OR = 4.04; CI 95% 1.77-9.22) and occupational exposure to acid mists and chemical products (OR = 3.84; CI 95% 1.10-13.49), whereas the linear multiple regression revealed that NCCLs were better explained by years of smoking (p = 0.01) and age group (p = 0.04). The prevalence of NCCLs in the study population was particularly high (76.84%), and the risk factors for NCCLs were age, exposure to acid mists and smoking habit. Controlling risk factors through preventive and educative measures, allied to the use of personal protective equipment to prevent the occupational exposure to acid mists, may contribute to minimizing the prevalence of NCCLs.

  17. Detection of differential DNA methylation in repetitive DNA of mice and humans perinatally exposed to bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, Christopher; Kim, Jung H.; Anderson, Olivia S.; Nahar, Muna S.; Jones, Tamara R.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce changes in DNA methylation in both mouse and human genic regions; however, the response in repetitive elements and transposons has not been explored. Here we present novel methodology to combine genomic DNA enrichment with RepeatMasker analysis on next-generation sequencing data to determine the effect of perinatal BPA exposure on repetitive DNA at the class, family, subfamily, and individual insertion level in both mouse and human samples. Mice were treated during gestation and lactation to BPA in chow at 0, 50, or 50,000 ng/g levels and total BPA was measured in stratified human fetal liver tissue samples as low (non-detect to 0.83 ng/g), medium (3.5 to 5.79 ng/g), or high (35.44 to 96.76 ng/g). Transposon methylation changes were evident in human classes, families, and subfamilies, with the medium group exhibiting hypomethylation compared to both high and low BPA groups. Mouse repeat classes, families, and subfamilies did not respond to BPA with significantly detectable differential DNA methylation. In human samples, 1251 individual transposon loci were detected as differentially methylated by BPA exposure, but only 19 were detected in mice. Of note, this approach recapitulated the discovery of a previously known mouse environmentally labile metastable epiallele, CabpIAP. Thus, by querying repetitive DNA in both mouse and humans, we report the first known transposons in humans that respond to perinatal BPA exposure. PMID:27267941

  18. Changes of Nitrogen Transformation Rates and Related Functional Genes Abundance under Different Dissolved Oxygen Levels in sediments form an Urban River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the nitrogen rich urban river sediments, we investigated the nitrogen transformation rates and nitrogen-cycling genes in response to different dissolved oxygen (DO) supply levels (saturation, DO > 8.00 mg L-1; aerobic, 2.50 mg L-1 35.44 mg N) and its proportion to ammonium liberated (from 12.96% to 99.84%), but the contributions of anammox to nitrogen loss in each incubation showed no significant difference (83.36% to 89.19%). The dissolved oxygen facilitated an exponential increasing of the anammox oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and raised the denitrifiers (nirK and nirS gene) abundance by an order, but its influence on anammox (hzsB) was insignificant. Four quantitative response relationships between nitrogen transformation rates, nitrogen functional genes abundances, and nitrogen concentrations were established by stepwise linear regression analysis. These relationships confirmed that different nitrogen transformation processes were coupled at the molecular level (functional genes), especially for the coupling of ammonium oxidation and anammox.

  19. Discrimination and participation in traditional healing for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Momper, Sandra L; Fong, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) who live in urban areas today face the daunting task of navigating an urban landscape while maintaining the facets of their respective Native cultures. While AIs/ANs continue to grapple with the intergenerational trauma associated with forced assimilation, relocation movements, and boarding schools, these traumas have manifested themselves in elevated rates of psychopathology. AIs/ANs have elevated rates of domestic abuse, poverty, suicide, and substance misuse. Furthermore, AIs/ANs, like many other minority cultures often face discrimination in their everyday lives. In light of the aversive experiences they face, AI/AN people have followed the tenets of ritual and traditional healing to address imbalances in the body, mind, and spirit. For providers working with AI/AN clients, it is important to understand who is using traditional healing and why they are using alternative services. Secondary data analyses of survey data from 389 urban AIs/ANs were utilized in order to determine the relationship between experiences of discrimination and traditional healing use. Analyses indicated that experiences of discrimination in healthcare settings were significantly associated with participation in traditional healing. Analyses also indicated that nearly a quarter of the sample reported discrimination in a healthcare setting, roughly half of the sample had used traditional healing, and that the majority of those who had used traditional healing were women, and ages 35-44 (27%). This study calls attention to the socio-demographic factors implicated in traditional healing use by urban AI/AN people, in addition to the clinical and demographic characteristics of this sample.

  20. Clinical study on thermography, as modern investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Iosif, Laura; Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; Murariu-Măgureanu, Cătălina; Preoteasa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is an infectious inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa, with frequent recurrences. The aim of this study was to assess the use of infrared thermography as investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis (as inflammatory disorder of the maxillary denture bearing area), by comparing disease and non-disease groups. An observational study was conducted on maxillary edentulous patients treated by acrylic dentures, with and without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Diagnostic test methods used were clinical examination for denture stomatitis and conventional microbiological culture method for oral candidiasis. Thermography analysis of the maxillary denture bearing area was made using the ThermaCAM PM350 infrared camera (Inframetrics, Flir Systems) and ThermaGram Pro 95 software, data being acquired by usage of standard protocol of thermographic registrations. The sample included 52 patients, 21 with and 31 without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The temperature of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area was found to be statistically significantly higher in Candida-associated denture stomatitis (mean 36.20°C), compared to healthy oral mucosa (mean 34.85°C). The thermal threshold value of 35.44°C was identified as best differentiating a pathological from normal state of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area. In conclusion, infrared thermography, a rapid non-invasive investigation method, has the premises to bring valuable data in inflammatory disorders of the maxillary denture bearing area, as Candida-associated denture stomatitis that may be used for screening, diagnostic or monitoring purposes.

  1. Snoring and breathing pauses during sleep: telephone interview survey of a United Kingdom population sample.

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, M. M.; Guilleminault, C.; Priest, R. G.; Caulet, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of snoring, breathing pauses during sleep, and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and determine the relation between these events and sociodemographic variables, other health problems, driving accidents, and consumption of healthcare resources. DESIGN: Telephone interview survey directed by a previously validated computerised system (Sleep-Eval). SETTING: United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 2894 women and 2078 men aged 15-100 years who formed a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interview responses. RESULTS: Forty per cent of the population reported snoring regularly and 3.8% reported breathing pauses during sleep. Regular snoring was significantly associated with male sex, age 25 or more, obesity, daytime sleepiness or naps, night time awakenings, consuming large amounts of caffeine, and smoking. Breathing pauses during sleep were significantly associated with obstructive airways or thyroid disease, male sex, age 35-44 years, consumption of anxiety reducing drugs, complaints of non-restorative sleep, and consultation with a doctor in the past year. The two breathing symptoms were also significantly associated with drowsiness while driving. Based on minimal criteria of the International classification of Sleep Disorders (1990), 1.9% of the sample had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. In the 35-64 year age group 1.5% of women (95% confidence interval 0.8% to 2.2%) and 3.5% of men (2.4% to 4.6%) had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Disordered breathing during sleep is widely underdiagnosed in the United Kingdom. The condition is linked to increased use of medical resources and a greater risk of daytime sleepiness, which augments the risk of accidents. Doctors should ask patients and bed partners regularly about snoring and breathing pauses during sleep. PMID:9093095

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Persists and Correlates with Self-Reported Infection and Behavioural Risks in a Blinded Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Horner, Patrick J; Wills, Gillian S; Righarts, Antoinette; Vieira, Sueli; Kounali, Daphne; Samuel, Dhanraj; Winston, Alan; Muir, David; Dickson, Nigel P; McClure, Myra O

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) serological studies in populations could help monitor changes in lifetime cumulative risk of infection. We developed a double-antigen sandwich ELISA based on the Ct-specific Pgp3 antigen, then tested blind stored sera from over 800 participants in a New Zealand birth cohort from Dunedin at ages 26, 32 and 38. The double-antigen sandwich ELISA was more sensitive than our previously characterised indirect Pgp3 ELISA. Pgp3 antibody was detected more often in women compared to men and correlated with increasing numbers of sexual partners, self-reported Ct, and younger age at sexual debut in both women and men. At age 26, 24.1% (99/411) of women were Pgp3 seropositive, as were 79.5% (35/44) of those reporting Ct infection; Pgp3 antibody persisted to age 38 in 96.5% (83/86). In men at age 26, the figures were 10.7% (47/442) and 25.0% (6/24), respectively, with high (83.9%) antibody persistence to age 38. At age 38, among those Pgp3 seropositive, 63.3% of women and 83.1% of men had not reported Ct infection. Thus, Ct-specific Pgp3 antibody was detected in most women reporting Ct infection and correlated with risk of infection in those who did not, with most infections remaining undetected. As this antibody persisted for at least twelve years in 96% of these women, serology could be used to evaluate Ct prevention programmes among women. PMID:26974653

  3. Population-representative Incidence of Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Yong-Chang; Xu, Ai-Dong; Yao, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xu-Lin; Qian, Yin-Kun; Wang, Hua-Yu; Shen, Yi; Lu, Peng; Wang, Lu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a major cause of hepatic death in the world, but no population-based studies have evaluated the incidence of ACLF. This study was conducted to determine the incidence and short-term outcomes of ACLF in a region of Eastern China. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we collected data from public hospitals in Nantong city between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014. All hospitals with admission potential for ACLF patients were included. The primary outcome was ACLF defined as severe jaundice and coagulopathy with underlying chronic liver disease, according to diagnostic and laboratory criteria suggested by Chinese Society for Hepatology (CSH). Results: During the 10-year period, a consecutive sample of 1934 ACLF patients was included in this study. The overall ACLF incidence rate over the 10-year period was 2.53 (95% confidence interval, 2.16-2.91) per 100,000 population per year, decreasing from 3.35 in 2005 to 2.06 in 2014. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was the leading cause of chronic liver disease and HBV reactivation was the most common cause of acute hepatic event. The 28-day mortality for the ACLF patients had a clear decline during the study period, form 50.39% in 2005 to 35.44% in 2014. Conclusions: In the Eastern China population, the incidence of ACLF is decreasing and the prognosis improving. Short-term mortality was associated with the presence of cirrhosis and growing age. While ACLF remains a life-threatening disorder, our findings suggest that nationwide and long-term cohorts should be conducted for the natural history of ACLF. PMID:27136963

  4. Burnout, working conditions and gender - results from the northern Sweden MONICA Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sick-leave because of mental and behavioural disorders has increased considerably in Sweden since the late nineties, and especially in women. The aim of this study was to assess the level of burnout in the general working population in northern Sweden and analyse it's relation to working conditions and gender. Methods In this cross-sectional study the survey from the MONICA-study (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) in northern Sweden 2004 was used. A burnout instrument, the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), was incorporated in the original survey which was sent to a random sample of 2500 individuals with a response rate of 76%. After including only actively working people, aged 25-64 years, our study population consisted of 1000 participants (497 women and 503 men). ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were used. Results The prevalence of a high level of burnout (SMBQ >4.0) was 13%. Women had a higher level of burnout than men with the most pronounced difference in the age group 35-44 years. In both sexes the level of burnout decreased with age. Demand and control at work, and job insecurity were related to burnout. In women the level of education, socioeconomic position, work object, and working varying hours were of importance. Interaction effects were found between sex and work object, and sex and working hours. In a multiple regression analysis almost half of the gender difference could be explained by work related and life situational factors. Conclusions Working life conditions contributed to the level of burnout in this actively working sample from the general population in northern Sweden. Especially in women, socioeconomic position was associated with burnout. The high level of burnout in women compared to men was partly explained by more unfavourable working conditions and life situational factors. Efforts to level out gender differences in burnout should probably focus on improving both working

  5. Oral Health Status of Rural and Urban Population of Gurgaon Block, Gurgaon District Using WHO Assessment Form through Multistage Sampling Technique

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sumanth; Rajashekharappa, Chinmaya Byali; Garg, Aarti; Ryana, Haneet Kour; Khurana, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral part of general health and well being. Poor oral health can affect a person physiologically and psychologically irrespective of age group. Aim To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of urban and rural population of Gurgaon Block, Gurgaon District, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 810 urban and rural subjects belonging to index age groups of 5, 12, 15, 35-44 and 65-74 years as recommended by WHO, in the city of Gurgaon, Haryana. The World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was used for data collection in which clinical examination, soft and hard tissue findings as well as dentofacial anomalies were recorded. The subjects were selected by multistage random sampling and examined throughout the area by a house to house survey. Statistical Analysis The data was collected and subjected to analysis through SPSS 21. Chi-square was used for compilation of results. Results Of the total population 44.9% had dental caries with a mean DMFT of 1.61. Prevalence of periodontal diseases was 65%; 46% of the population suffered from malocclusions of which 21.19 % had the severe type. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent (46%) out of which 11.23% had moderate and 9.6% had severe type of fluorosis. Treatment was found to be required among 83% of population. Conclusion The dental health care needs are very high both in rural and urban areas in spite of basic facilities available in urban areas. Hence professional and administrative attention is required both in urban and rural areas. Gurgaon Block can be used as a model district to find the effectiveness of programs in bringing down the oral diseases and maintenance of the oral health of the people on a long term basis. PMID:27437359

  6. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya Jatesadapattaya; Philasri, Chutikan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Maneenin, Chanvit; Sirilaph, Samaporn; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species, and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998. In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas. PMID:17072975

  7. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  8. Regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals without a randomised controlled study: analysis of EMA and FDA approvals 1999–2014

    PubMed Central

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Baio, Gianluca; Berlin, Jesse A; Irs, Alar; Freemantle, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of pharmaceuticals is most often demonstrated by randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, in some cases, regulatory applications lack RCT evidence. Objective To investigate the number and type of these approvals over the past 15 years by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods Drug approval data were downloaded from the EMA website and the ‘Drugs@FDA’ database for all decisions on pharmaceuticals published from 1 January 1999 to 8 May 2014. The details of eligible applications were extracted, including the therapeutic area, type of approval and review period. Results Over the period of the study, 76 unique indications were granted without RCT results (44 by the EMA and 60 by the FDA), demonstrating that a substantial number of treatments reach the market without undergoing an RCT. The majority was for haematological malignancies (34), with the next most common areas being oncology (15) and metabolic conditions (15). Of the applications made to both agencies with a comparable data package, the FDA granted more approvals (43/44 vs 35/44) and took less time to review products (8.7 vs 15.5 months). Products reached the market first in the USA in 30 of 34 cases (mean 13.1 months) due to companies making FDA submission before EMA submissions and faster FDA review time. Discussion Despite the frequency with which approvals are granted without RCT results, there is no systematic monitoring of such treatments to confirm their effectiveness or consistency regarding when this form of evidence is appropriate. We recommend a more open debate on the role of marketing authorisations granted without RCT results, and the development of guidelines on what constitutes an acceptable data package for regulators. PMID:27363818

  9. The Relationships of Leptin, Adiponectin Levels and Paraoxonase Activity with Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Females Treated with Psychiatric Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ozenoglu, Aliye; Balci, Huriye; Ugurlu, Serdal; Caglar, Erkan; Uzun, Hafize; Sarkis, Cihat; Gunay, Can; Eker E, Engin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate serum leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 levels in adult females receiving pharmacotherapy for various psychiatric disorders. METHODS The study group consisted of 32 obese females (mean age 40.53 ± 11.00 years, mean body mass index 35.44 ± 5.33 kg/m2) who were receiving treatment for psychiatric disorders, and the control group included 22 obese females (mean age 35.95 ± 9.16 years, mean body mass index 30.78 ± 3.33 kg/m2) who were free of psychiatric disorders. Analyses were performed using a bioelectrical impedance device. Fasting blood samples were obtained for complete blood count and various biochemical tests, including determination of leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 activity. RESULTS Body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance, alanine transaminase, aspartate tarnsaminase, and leptin levels were significantly higher in the study group than in controls. Although body weight was positively correlated with leptin levels in both groups, body weight was negatively correlated with adiponectin levels in the control group and positively correlated with adiponectin levels in the study group. In the study group, body mass index and hip circumference correlated positively with leptin levels, hip circumference correlated positively with adiponectin levels, and waist to hip ratio correlated positively with paraoxonase levels. In the control group, body mass index as well as waist and hip circumferences were positively correlated with leptin levels. Weight, body mass index, and hip circumference were also negatively correlated with the adiponectin/leptin ratio in the control group. CONCLUSION This study indicates a higher risk for obesity-related disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, in patients treated with psychiatric drugs. PMID:18925326

  10. A mucoadhesive in situ gel delivery system for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Jauhari, Saurabh; Dash, Alekha K

    2006-01-01

    MUC1 gene encodes a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human breast cancer and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ gel delivery system containing paclitaxel (PTX) and mucoadhesives for sustained and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. The delivery system consisted of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) in 0.33M citric acid containing PTX. The in vitro release of PTX from the gel was performed in presence and absence of Tween 80 at drug loads of 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% (wt/wt), in Sorensen's phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Different mucin-producing cell lines (Calu-3>Caco-2) were selected for PTX transport studies. Transport of PTX from solution and gel delivery system was performed in side by side diffusion chambers from apical to basal (A-B) and basal to apical (B-A) directions. In vitro release studies revealed that within 4 hours, only 7.61% +/- 0.19%, 12.0% +/- 0.98%, 31.7% +/- 0.40% of PTX were released from 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% drug-loaded gel formulation, respectively, in absence of Tween 80. However, in presence of surfactant (0.05% wt/vol) in the dissolution medium, percentages of PTX released were 28.1% +/- 4.35%, 44.2% +/- 6.35%, and 97.1% +/- 1.22%, respectively. Paclitaxel has shown a polarized transport in all the cell monolayers with B-A transport 2 to 4 times higher than in the A-B direction. The highest mucin-producing cell line (Calu-3) has shown the lowest percentage of PTX transport from gels as compared with Caco-2 cells. Transport of PTX from mucoadhesive gels was shown to be influenced by the mucin-producing capability of cell.

  11. Global Inequalities in Youth Mortality, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Lokhande, Anagha; Azuine, Romuladus E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited cross-national research on youth mortality. We examined age-and gender-variations in all-cause mortality among youth aged 15-34 years across 52 countries. Methods: Using the 2014 WHO mortality database, mortality rates for all countries were computed for the latest available year between 2007 and 2012. Rates, rate ratios, and ordinary least squares (OLS) and Poisson regression were used to analyze international variation in mortality. Results: Mortality rates among youth aged 15-34 years varied from a low of 28.4 deaths per 100,000 population for Hong Kong to a high of 250.6 for Russia and 619.1 for South Africa. For men aged 15-34, Singapore and Hong Kong had the lowest mortality rates (≈40 per 100,000), compared with South Africa and Russia with rates of 589.7 and 383.3, respectively. Global patterns in mortality among women were similar. Youth aged 15-24 in South Africa had 14 times higher mortality and those in the Philippines, Mexico, Russia, Colombia, and Brazil had 5-7 times higher mortality than those in Hong Kong. Youth aged 25-34 in Russia and South Africa had, respectively, 10 and 29 times higher mortality than their counterparts in Hong Kong. United States (US) had the 12th highest mortality rate among youth aged 15-24 and the 13th highest rate among youth aged 25-34. Overall, the US youth had 2-3 times higher rates of mortality than their counterparts in many industrialized countries including Hong Kong, Singapore, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Income inequality, unemployment rate, and human development explained 50-66% of the global variance in youth mortality. Compared to the countries with low unemployment and income inequality and high human development levels, countries with high unemployment and income inequality and low human development had, respectively, 343%, 213%, and 205% higher risks of youth mortality. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Marked international disparities in

  12. Novel fungal consortium for bioremediation of metals and dyes from mixed waste stream.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree

    2014-11-01

    The present study is targeted towards development of a three member fungal consortium for effective removal of metals [Cr(6+) and Cu(2+)] and dyes [AB and PO] from mixed waste streams. Initial studies using individual fungal strain showed that Aspergillus lentulus was best for Cu(2+) and AB removal, Aspergillus terreus for Cr(6+) removal whereas, Rhizopus oryzae was best for PO removal. Based on the complementary pollutant affinities and positive interactions, a consortium comprising all three strains was developed. Consortium removed 100% Cr(6+) and 81.60% Cu(2+) from metal mixture which was significantly higher than that achieved individually by A. lentulus (Cr(6+): 83.11%; Cu(2+): 67.32%), A. terreus (Cr(6+): 95.57%; Cu(2+): 65.77%) or R. oryzae (Cr(6+): 25.34%; Cu(2+): 30.20%). Further, 98.0% AB and 100.0% PO was removed after 48 h by the consortia. Unlike individual strains, consortium's performance was unaltered irrespective of the complexity of metal-dye mixtures, thereby establishing its superiority. PMID:25203229

  13. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  14. Leaping eels electrify threats, supporting Humboldt’s account of a battle with horses

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    In March 1800, Alexander von Humboldt observed the extraordinary spectacle of native fisherman collecting electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) by “fishing with horses” [von Humboldt A (1807) Ann Phys 25:34–43]. The strategy was to herd horses into a pool containing electric eels, provoking the eels to attack by pressing themselves against the horses while discharging. Once the eels were exhausted, they could be safely collected. This legendary tale of South American adventures helped propel Humboldt to fame and has been recounted and illustrated in many publications, but subsequent investigators have been skeptical, and no similar eel behavior has been reported in more than 200 years. Here I report a defensive eel behavior that supports Humboldt’s account. The behavior consists of an approach and leap out of the water during which the eel presses its chin against a threatening conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. The effect is to short-circuit the electric organ through the threat, with increasing power diverted to the threat as the eel attains greater height during the leap. Measurement of voltages and current during the behavior, and assessment of the equivalent circuit, reveal the effectiveness of the behavior and the basis for its natural selection. PMID:27274074

  15. New life-styles: marriage patterns, living arrangements, and fertility outside of marriage.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, E M

    1981-01-01

    The 1970s was a decade of particularly rapid change in life styles in the US. The postponement of marriage by many young adults and the escalating divorce rates resulted in a large increase in the population of one person households. Sharp increases in the proportion of illegitimate births--in combination with rising rates of separation and divorce--brought substantial increases in the proportion of children living in one-parent families. Average household size and average family size declined. The total fertility rate, which had declined by 50% from 1960 to 1975, leveled off after 1975. 1st and 2nd births to women 25-34 years old increased significantly after 1975, suggesting that these cohorts were making up for their very low levels of fertility in previous years. Illegitimate birthrates, which had almost quadrupled between 1940 and 1970, decreased during the 1970s; however, the proportion of all births that were illegitimate continued to increase. These changes are not interpreted as evidence that Americans are moving away from their basic orientation to marriage and a family existence. PMID:11631422

  16. From gelatinous to muscle food chain: rock cod Patagonotothen ramsayi recycles coelenterate and tunicate resources on the Patagonian Shelf.

    PubMed

    Arkhipkin, A; Laptikhovsky, V

    2013-11-01

    Stomach contents of 4808 fishes of 20 species caught in the eastern part of the Patagonian Shelf between 1999 and 2012 were analysed to assess dietary contributions of gelatinous plankton resources. Gelatinous plankton occurred in diets of seven species with two species, Patagonotothen ramsayi and Squalus acanthias, having >10% ctenophores in their diet. Consumption of gelatinous plankton was important in P. ramsayi and was strikingly seasonal, with maximum occurrence (up to 46% of non-empty stomachs) in late summer to autumn. Ctenophores were most abundant in P. ramsayi of 25-34 cm total length, L(T) whereas salps were more frequent in larger >35 cm L(T) individuals. In winter to spring, occurrence of gelatinous plankton in diets was minimal, reflecting their overall seasonal abundance in the ocean. The recent increase in abundance of P. ramsayi has enabled the species to recycle a significant proportion of the ecosystem production from gelatinous dead end to the main muscular food chain via seasonal reliance on ctenophores, jellyfish and tunicates. This additional influx of production that has been diverted from the gelatinous food chain favours the increase in abundance of several piscivorous top predators and affects the trophic web structure of the Patagonian Shelf ecosystem. PMID:24580663

  17. Parallel processing methods for space based power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, F. C.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a method for doing load-flow analysis of a power system by using a decomposition approach. The power system for the Space Shuttle is used as a basis to build a model for the load-flow analysis. To test the decomposition method for doing load-flow analysis, simulations were performed on power systems of 16, 25, 34, 43, 52, 61, 70, and 79 nodes. Each of the power systems was divided into subsystems and simulated under steady-state conditions. The results from these tests have been found to be as accurate as tests performed using a standard serial simulator. The division of the power systems into different subsystems was done by assigning a processor to each area. There were 13 transputers available, therefore, up to 13 different subsystems could be simulated at the same time. This report has preliminary results for a load-flow analysis using a decomposition principal. The report shows that the decomposition algorithm for load-flow analysis is well suited for parallel processing and provides increases in the speed of execution.

  18. Ordering and growth of rare gas films (Xe, Kr, Ar, and Ne) on the pseudo-ten-fold quasicrystalline approximant Al₁₃Co₄(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Petucci, J; Karimi, M; Huang, Y-T; Curtarolo, S; Diehl, R D

    2014-03-01

    Adsorption of the rare gases Kr, Ar, and Ne on the complex alloy surface Al₁₃Co₄(100) was studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) computer simulations. This surface is an approximant to the ten-fold decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystalline surface, on which rare gas adsorption was studied previously. Comparison of adsorption results on the periodic Al₁₃Co₄(100) surface with those of the quasiperiodic Al-Ni-Co surface indicates some similarities, such as layer-by-layer growth, and some dissimilarities, such as the formation of Archimedes tiling phases (Mikhael et al 2008 Nature 454 501, Shechtman et al 1984 Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 1951, Macia 2006 Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 397, Schmiedeberg et al 2010 Eur. Phys. J. E 32 25-34, Kromer et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 218301, Schmiedeberg and Stark 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 218302). The conditions under which Archimedes tiling phases (ATP) emerge on Al₁₃Co₄(100) are examined and their presence is related to the gas-gas and gas-surface interaction parameters. PMID:24521558

  19. Development and application to clinical practice of a validated HPLC method for the analysis of β-glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Colomer, E Gras; Gómez, M A Martínez; Alvarez, A González; Martí, M Climente; Moreno, P León; Zarzoso, M Fernández; Jiménez-Torres, N V

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of our study is to develop a simple, fast and reliable method for measuring β-glucocerebrosidase activity in Gaucher patients leukocytes in clinical practice. This measurement may be a useful marker to drive dose selection and early clinical decision making of enzyme replacement therapy. We measure the enzyme activity by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as substrate. A cohort of eight Gaucher patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy and ten healthy controls were tested; median enzyme activity values was 20.57mU/ml (interquartile range 19.92-21.53mU/ml) in patients and mean was 24.73mU/ml (24.12-25.34mU/ml) in the reference group, which allowed the establishment of the normal range of β-glucocerebrosidase activity. The proposed method for leukocytes glucocerebrosidase activity measuring is fast, easy to use, inexpensive and reliable. Furthermore, significant differences between both populations were observed (p=0.008). This suggests that discerning between patients and healthy individuals and providing an approach to enzyme dosage optimization is feasible. This method could be considered as a decision support tool for clinical monitoring. Our study is a first approach to in depth analysis of enzyme replacement therapy and optimization of dosing therapies. PMID:24447963

  20. Leaping eels electrify threats, supporting Humboldt's account of a battle with horses.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-06-21

    In March 1800, Alexander von Humboldt observed the extraordinary spectacle of native fisherman collecting electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) by "fishing with horses" [von Humboldt A (1807) Ann Phys 25:34-43]. The strategy was to herd horses into a pool containing electric eels, provoking the eels to attack by pressing themselves against the horses while discharging. Once the eels were exhausted, they could be safely collected. This legendary tale of South American adventures helped propel Humboldt to fame and has been recounted and illustrated in many publications, but subsequent investigators have been skeptical, and no similar eel behavior has been reported in more than 200 years. Here I report a defensive eel behavior that supports Humboldt's account. The behavior consists of an approach and leap out of the water during which the eel presses its chin against a threatening conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. The effect is to short-circuit the electric organ through the threat, with increasing power diverted to the threat as the eel attains greater height during the leap. Measurement of voltages and current during the behavior, and assessment of the equivalent circuit, reveal the effectiveness of the behavior and the basis for its natural selection.

  1. Mental disorders in the Greenlandic population. A register study.

    PubMed

    Lynge, I; Mortensen, P B; Munk-Jørgensen, P

    1999-07-01

    In a register study of all psychiatric first hospitalizations (1974-93) of persons born and resident in Greenland rates for all admissions as well as for the separate diagnostic groups, hierarchically organized, were compared with corresponding figures for the population in Denmark. Relative mortality rates for the psychiatric patients compared with the general population were computed for the Greenlandic and Danish populations respectively. No significant differences in the total pattern of hospitalization was found, but Greenlandic men 15-24 years old and Greenlandic women 25-34 years old had significantly higher and older age groups lower first admission rates than Danish men and women, respectively. The rates for affective psychoses were low especially among men in Greenland, whereas the rates for schizophrenia among men were comparatively high. The relative mortality risk compared to the general population was much higher among Danish than Greenlandic psychiatric patients, especially regarding suicide. A probable explanation for that is that the suicide rate in the Green-landic general population is very high.

  2. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper.

  3. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied. PMID:23283175

  4. Charges of human immunodeficiency virus discrimination in the workplace: the Americans with Disabilities Act in action.

    PubMed

    Studdert, David M

    2002-08-01

    Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to provide persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other vulnerable populations with legal means of redress against discrimination, yet virtually nothing is known about how the intended beneficiaries have used these protections. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of ADA charges alleging employment-related discrimination due to HIV and to investigate the charge-filing behavior of workers with HIV. Using a national database of all HIV discrimination charges filed since the inception of the ADA in 1991, the author described respondent employers, issues in dispute, and outcomes of charges. Next, he used multivariate regression analyses to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of charge filers with those of a nationally representative baseline sample of workers with HIV. Of the 3,520 HIV discrimination charges filed through 1999, 18.0% had merit and 14.1% received monetary compensation. Workers who were female (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, p < 0.01), aged less than 25 years (OR = 0.36, p < 0.01), and aged 25-34 years (OR = 0.77, p < 0.01) filed disproportionately fewer charges. Controlling for underlying rates of discrimination in the baseline population magnified this "underclaiming" among young workers. The findings should help to target dissemination and support activities, designed to help workers take advantage of antidiscrimination protections, at the subgroups of workers who need them most.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the

  6. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    PubMed

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets.

  7. Designing tragacanth gum based sterile hydrogel by radiation method for use in drug delivery and wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju; Rajneesh

    2016-07-01

    Present article discusses synthesis and characterization of the sterile and pure hydrogel wound dressings which were prepared through radiation method by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), tragacanth gum (TG) and sodium alginate (SA). The polymer films were characterized by SEM, Cryo-SEM, FTIR, solid state C(13) NMR and XRD, TGA, and DSC. Some important biological properties such as O2 permeability, water vapor transmission rate, microbial permeability, haemolysis, thrombogenic behavior, antioxidant activity, bio-adhesion and mechanical properties were also studied. The hydrogel film showed thrombogenicity (82.43±1.54%), haemolysis (0.83±0.09%), oxygen permeability (6.433±0.058mg/L) and water vapor permeability (197.39±25.34g/m(2)/day). Hydrogel films were found biocompatible and impermeable to microbes. The release of antibiotic drug moxifloxacin occurred through non-Fickian mechanism and release profile was best fitted in Hixson-Crowell model for drug release. Overall, these results indicate the suitability of these hydrogels in wound dressing applications.

  8. Leaping eels electrify threats, supporting Humboldt's account of a battle with horses.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-06-21

    In March 1800, Alexander von Humboldt observed the extraordinary spectacle of native fisherman collecting electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) by "fishing with horses" [von Humboldt A (1807) Ann Phys 25:34-43]. The strategy was to herd horses into a pool containing electric eels, provoking the eels to attack by pressing themselves against the horses while discharging. Once the eels were exhausted, they could be safely collected. This legendary tale of South American adventures helped propel Humboldt to fame and has been recounted and illustrated in many publications, but subsequent investigators have been skeptical, and no similar eel behavior has been reported in more than 200 years. Here I report a defensive eel behavior that supports Humboldt's account. The behavior consists of an approach and leap out of the water during which the eel presses its chin against a threatening conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. The effect is to short-circuit the electric organ through the threat, with increasing power diverted to the threat as the eel attains greater height during the leap. Measurement of voltages and current during the behavior, and assessment of the equivalent circuit, reveal the effectiveness of the behavior and the basis for its natural selection. PMID:27274074

  9. Stigma and Homophobia: Persistent Challenges for HIV Prevention Among Young MSM in Puerto Rico1

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Melissa Marzán; Madera, Sheilla Rodríguez; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the most affected populations by HIV/AIDS. Over the last years an increase of cases has been reported in younger groups. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that stigma and homophobia may have a profound impact on the lives of MSM, and could influence them to engage in HIV risky behaviors. In the U.S and Puerto Rico, an increase in HIV cases among young MSM has been reported. For the period of 2005-2009 an increase of HIV cases was reported with 4.3% in the age group of 13-24 and 55.6% in the age group of 25-34. Understanding the dynamics related HIV risk behaviors among young MSM requires transcending traditional individual behavior oriented perspectives in order to adopt a more comprehensive socio-structural approach. In this manuscript we present a critical analysis of HIV prevention issues among young MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:25678720

  10. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013).

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Mullachery, Pricila; Silver, Diana; Jimenez, Geronimo; Libanio Morais Neto, Otaliba

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD); as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25-34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society. PMID:26230389

  11. A community trial of the impact of improved sexually transmitted disease treatment on the HIV epidemic in rural Tanzania: 2. Baseline survey results.

    PubMed

    Grosskurth, H; Mosha, F; Todd, J; Senkoro, K; Newell, J; Klokke, A; Changalucha, J; West, B; Mayaud, P; Gavyole, A

    1995-08-01

    To measure the impact of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) treatment program on the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe's Mwanza Region, a pre-intervention baseline survey was conducted. Included in the survey were approximately 1000 randomly selected adults from each of the six intervention communities (defined as the population served by a health center and its satellite dispensaries) and six matched comparison communities. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 4.1% (3.7% in men and 4.4% in women), with a range of 1.6-8.6% and no significant differences between intervention and control communities. Peak prevalences for both sexes were found in the 25-34 year age groups and in roadside communities. The following factors were associated with an increased likelihood of HIV infection: separation, divorce, or widowhood; multiple injections in the preceding year; educational achievement of at least Standard 4; travel out of the district in the prior year; history of genital ulcers or discharge; and past or present infection with syphilis. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in circumcised men, but not when adjustment was made for other risk factors. Syphilis prevalence ranged from a low of 4.2% in island communities to a high of 11.1% in roadside communities. The baseline survey indicates that intervention and control populations are generally comparable, and that the goal of locating a study area with a relatively low incidence of HIV and high rates of other STDs has been achieved.

  12. Osmoregulation by juvenile brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, in hypo- and hyper-saline waters.

    PubMed

    Cramp, R L; Hansen, M J; Franklin, C E

    2015-07-01

    While there is a considerable body of work describing osmoregulation by elasmobranchs in brackish and saltwater, far fewer studies have investigated osmoregulation in hypersaline waters. We examined osmo- and ionoregulatory function and plasticity in juvenile brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, exposed to three experimental salinities (25, 34 and 40‰) for two weeks. C. punctatum inhabits sheltered coastal areas and bays which can naturally become hypersaline as a consequence of evaporation of water but can also become hyposaline during flood events. We hypothesised that C. punctatum would demonstrate a phenotypically plastic osmoregulatory physiology. Plasma osmolality, urea, Na(+) and Cl(-) levels increased significantly with increasing environmental salinity. Rectal gland and branchial sodium-potassium ATPase (NKA) activities were unaffected by salinity. Using immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting we found evidence for the presence of the key ion-regulatory proteins vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA), pendrin (Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) co-transporter) and the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) in discrete cells within the branchial epithelia. These results indicate that C. punctatum is a partially euryhaline elasmobranch able to maintain osmo- and ionoregulatory function between environmental salinities of 25‰ and 40‰. As suggested for other elasmobranchs, the gills of C. punctatum likely play a limited role in maintaining Na(+) homeostasis over the salinity range studied, but may play an important role in acid-base balance. PMID:25868436

  13. Crystal structure of the sugar binding domain of the archaeal transcriptional regulator TrmB.

    PubMed

    Krug, Michael; Lee, Sung-Jae; Diederichs, Kay; Boos, Winfried; Welte, Wolfram

    2006-04-21

    TrmB is an alpha-glucoside-sensing transcriptional regulator controlling two operons encoding maltose/trehalose and maltodextrin ABC transporters of Pyrococcus furiosus. The crystal structure of an N-terminal truncated derivative of TrmB (amino acids 2-109 deleted; TrmB(delta2-109)) was solved at 1.5 A resolution. This protein has lost its DNA binding domain but has retained its sugar recognition site. The structure represents a novel sugar-binding fold. TrmB(delta2-109) bound maltose, glucose, sucrose, and maltotriose, exhibiting Kd values of 6.8, 25, 34, and 160 microM, respectively. TrmB(delta2-109) behaved as a monomer in dilute buffer solution in contrast to the full-length protein, which is a dimer. Co-crystallization with bound maltose identified a binding site involving seven amino acid residues: Ser229, Asn305, Gly320, Met321, Val324, Ile325, and Glu326. Six of these residues interact with the nonreducing glucosyl residue of maltose. The nonreducing glucosyl residue is shared by all substrates bound to TrmB, suggesting it as a common recognition motif.

  14. THE EXTRAORDINARY FAR-INFRARED VARIATION OF A PROTOSTAR: HERSCHEL/PACS OBSERVATIONS OF LRLL54361

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, Zoltan; Detre, Örs H.; Bouwmann, Jeroen; Nielbock, Markus; Klaas, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas; Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Rob; Juhasz, Attila; Bally, John; Marton, Gabor

    2014-07-10

    We report Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) photometric observations at 70 μm and 160 μm of LRLL54361—a suspected binary protostar that exhibits periodic (P = 25.34 days) flux variations at shorter wavelengths (3.6 μm and 4.5 μm) thought to be due to pulsed accretion caused by binary motion. The PACS observations show unprecedented flux variation at these far-infrared wavelengths that are well correlated with the variations at shorter wavelengths. At 70 μm the object increases its flux by a factor of six while at 160 μm the change is about a factor of two, consistent with the wavelength dependence seen in the far-infrared spectra. The source is marginally resolved at 70 μm with varying FWHM. Deconvolved images of the sources show elongations exactly matching the outflow cavities traced by the scattered light observations. The spatial variations are anti-correlated with the flux variation, indicating that a light echo is responsible for the changes in FWHM. The observed far-infrared flux variability indicates that the disk and envelope of this source is periodically heated by the accretion pulses of the central source, and suggests that such long wavelength variability in general may provide a reasonable proxy for accretion variations in protostars.

  15. RADIO MONITORING OF THE PERIODICALLY VARIABLE IR SOURCE LRLL 54361: NO DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE RADIO AND IR EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Forbrich, Jan; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A.; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, Robert A.

    2015-11-20

    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star-forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 over roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of ∼100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of the order of a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27 ± 5 μJy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, 53 ± 11 μJy, suggesting that variability in the radio is present, but over larger timescales than in the IR. We discuss other sources in the field, in particular two infrared/X-ray stars that show rapidly varying gyrosynchrotron emission.

  16. Ordering and growth of rare gas films (Xe, Kr, Ar, and Ne) on the pseudo-ten-fold quasicrystalline approximant Al₁₃Co₄(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Petucci, J; Karimi, M; Huang, Y-T; Curtarolo, S; Diehl, R D

    2014-03-01

    Adsorption of the rare gases Kr, Ar, and Ne on the complex alloy surface Al₁₃Co₄(100) was studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) computer simulations. This surface is an approximant to the ten-fold decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystalline surface, on which rare gas adsorption was studied previously. Comparison of adsorption results on the periodic Al₁₃Co₄(100) surface with those of the quasiperiodic Al-Ni-Co surface indicates some similarities, such as layer-by-layer growth, and some dissimilarities, such as the formation of Archimedes tiling phases (Mikhael et al 2008 Nature 454 501, Shechtman et al 1984 Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 1951, Macia 2006 Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 397, Schmiedeberg et al 2010 Eur. Phys. J. E 32 25-34, Kromer et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 218301, Schmiedeberg and Stark 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 218302). The conditions under which Archimedes tiling phases (ATP) emerge on Al₁₃Co₄(100) are examined and their presence is related to the gas-gas and gas-surface interaction parameters.

  17. Integral Light-Harvesting Complex Expression In Symbiodinium Within The Coral Acropora aspera Under Thermal Stress.

    PubMed

    Gierz, Sarah L; Gordon, Benjamin R; Leggat, William

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef success is largely dependent on the symbiosis between coral hosts and dinoflagellate symbionts belonging to the genus Symbiodinium. Elevated temperatures can result in the expulsion of Symbiodinium or loss of their photosynthetic pigments and is known as coral bleaching. It has been postulated that the expression of light-harvesting protein complexes (LHCs), which bind chlorophylls (chl) and carotenoids, are important in photobleaching. This study explored the effect a sixteen-day thermal stress (increasing daily from 25-34 °C) on integral LHC (chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin protein complex (acpPC)) gene expression in Symbiodinium within the coral Acropora aspera. Thermal stress leads to a decrease in Symbiodinium photosynthetic efficiency by day eight, while symbiont density was significantly lower on day sixteen. Over this time period, the gene expression of five Symbiodinium acpPC genes was quantified. Three acpPC genes exhibited up-regulated expression when corals were exposed to temperatures above 31.5 °C (acpPCSym_1:1, day sixteen; acpPCSym_15, day twelve; and (acpPCSym_18), day ten and day sixteen). In contrast, the expression of acpPCSym_5:1 and acpPCSym_10:1 was unchanged throughout the experiment. Interestingly, the three acpPC genes with increased expression cluster together in a phylogenetic analysis of light-harvesting complexes. PMID:27117333

  18. Aluminium intoxication in undialysed adults with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, L S; Beale, G; Sandroni, S; Ballinger, W E

    1992-01-01

    The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome (DES) consists of altered mental status, communication difficulty, seizures and myoclonus. It has been attributed to elevated serum aluminium (A1) levels. Two undialysed patients with chronic renal failure who presented with the characteristic syndrome are reported. The first, a 48 year old female, had used A1 containing phosphate binders for two years. Her serum A1 level was 25.34 mumol/L. Despite treatment with desferoximine and dialysis, she died. Necropsy revealed elevated A1 levels in the cerebral cortex (19 mcg/gm) and spongioform change in the outer three cortical layers. The second patient, a 46 year old woman, had a serum A1 of 8.70 mumol/L. She had never taken A1 containing phosphate binders but had taken several grams/day of citrate for at least six months. Treatment with haemodialysis and discontinuation of the citrate produced a resolution of symptoms and return of the A1 level to normal. During two years of haemodialysis there has been no recurrence. Images PMID:1527541

  19. Prognostic significance of telomeric repeat length alterations in pathological stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, T; Komiya, T; Nitta, T; Takada, Y; Kobayashi, M; Masuda, N; Matui, K; Takada, M; Kikui, M; Yasumitu, T; Ohno, A; Nakagawa, K; Fukuoka, M; Kawase, I

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of alteration in telomere length in pathological stage (p-stage) I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Paired cancer and normal lung tissues were obtained from 72 patients with histologically confirmed p-stage I-IIIA NSCLC. Terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length, which indicates telomere length, was measured by Southern blot analysis. Tumor telomerase activity was also assayed by non-radioactive PCR-ELISA in 55 patients. TRF length (mean +/- SD) in normal tissue was 6.2 +/- 1.1 Kb. Therefore, upper and lower limits of normal range in TRF length was set at 8.4 (mean + 2SD) Kb and 4.0 (mean-2SD) Kb, respectively. A tumor showing TRF length over normal range was defined as positive for the alteration. In 72 patients, 25 (34.7%) with alteration in TRF length had significantly shorter survival durations than those of the others. Telomerase activity did not correlate with survival duration. In multivariate analysis, alteration in TRF length (P = 0.0033) was second to p-stage (P = 0.0004) in importance among the various parameters.

  20. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  1. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied.

  2. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333) or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173) and completed the “restrained eating” subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the “impulse control difficulties” subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  3. Cowbird parasitism in grassland and cropland in the northern Great Plains: Chapter 27

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koford, Rolf R.; Bowen, B.S.; Lokemoen, John T.; Kruse, Arnold D.; Smith, James N.M.; Cook, T.L.; Rothstein, S. IU.; Robinson, S.K.; Sealy, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    The landscape of the Great Plains has been greatly altered by human activities in the past century, and several grassland passerines have experienced significant population declines in recent decades. We explore here whether brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds, which are abundant in the Great Plains, has contributed to these declines. We measured the frequency of cowbird parasitism of passerine species in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland in studies conducted in North Dakota during 1981-1993. The proportions of parasitized nests were 25%, 34%, and 39% in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland, respectively. We speculate that much of the variation in parasitism rate among these habitats is related to the local abundance of cowbirds, to nest visibility, and to the presence of suitable perches for female cowbirds. Local abundance of cowbirds may be high in areas with cattle pastures. Nests and nesting behavior are probably more visible to female cowbirds in cropland than in grassland. Female cowbirds may use shrubs as perches while searching for host nests, and shrubs are more common in natural grasslands than in the other habitats we examined. Experimental work on the determinants of cowbird abundance in grasslands is needed.

  4. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    PubMed

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets. PMID:25970621

  5. Comparing Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Rehabilitation Professionals among Hospital and Home Care Employers

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diem; Davis, Aileen; McGillis Hall, Linda

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare hospital and home care employers' rankings of both the importance and the feasibility of workforce strategies for recruiting and retaining rehabilitation professionals. Methods: An online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all employers of rehabilitation professionals in Ontario hospitals (n=144) and Community Care Access Centre home care providers (n=34). Importance and feasibility rankings were based on the percentage of high ratings; 95% CIs were used to determine significant differences between hospital and home care rankings of recruitment and retention strategies. Results: The response rate was 50% (72/144) from hospitals and 73.5% (25/34) from home-care settings. The recruitment and retention strategies considered most important and feasible for rehabilitation therapists, regardless of setting, were communication between employer and worker, compensation packages, access to research, and professional development in budget planning. Tangible resources, support personnel, work safety, and marketing rehabilitation careers to high school students were ranked significantly higher by hospitals than by home care providers. Conclusions: Similarities exist between hospital and home care employers in terms of the importance and feasibility of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. However, when developing a rehabilitation health human resources plan, the strategies identified as different between hospital and home care settings should be taken into account. PMID:23277683

  6. Valgus laxity of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Osbahr, D C; Wickham, M Q; Kirkendall, D T; Speer, K P

    2001-01-01

    In this investigation, we determined the patterns of valgus laxity and acquired valgus laxity of the ulnar collateral ligament in the elbows of collegiate athletes involved in overhead and nonoverhead sports. Acquired valgus laxity of the elbow is defined as the differential amount of stress valgus opening between the dominant and nondominant elbows. Forty-eight asymptomatic male athletes involved in sports that require overhead arm movements (baseball, tennis, and swimming) and 88 asymptomatic male athletes involved in nonoverhead sports (track, lacrosse, fencing, and wrestling) underwent fluoroscan examination of both their elbows with (13 daN) and without (0 N) valgus stress. There were no statistically significant differences in the amount of valgus stress opening or in acquired valgus laxity between the two groups. In fact, 25% (34 of 136) of the athletes showed an acquired valgus laxity of more than 0.5 mm, and 51.5% (70 of 136) had an acquired valgus laxity that was actually negative. There was also no correlation between the number of years played and acquired valgus laxity. Our results show that acquired valgus laxity does not exist in asymptomatic athletes involved in overhead sports, and there is no threshold value of measurement indicative of acquired valgus laxity.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rosangela de Castro; Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendonça; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Bastos, Jacione Silva; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria; Vilas-Boas, Ana Luisa; Bouzas, Maiara Lana; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Brites, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7%) specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74%) and A(H1N1)pdm09 in 9/34 (26%). Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8%) and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467). No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures. PMID:24714967

  8. Cowbird parasitism in grassland and cropland in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koford, Rolf R.; Bowen, B.S.; Lokemoen, J.T.; Kruse, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    The landscape of the Great Plains has been greatly altered by human activities in the past century, and several grassland passerines have experienced significant population declines in recent decades. We explore here whether brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds, which are abundant in the Great Plains, has contributed to these declines. We measured the frequency of cowbird parasitism of passerine species in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland in studies conducted in North Dakota during 1981-1993. The proportions of parasitized nests were 25%, 34%, and 39% in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland, respectively. We speculate that much of the variation in parasitism rate among these habitats is related to the local abundance of cowbirds, to nest visibility, and to the presence of suitable perches for female cowbirds. Local abundance of cowbirds may be high in areas with cattle pastures. Nests and nesting behavior are probably more visible to female cowbirds in cropland than in grassland. Female cowbirds may use shrubs as perches while searching for host nests, and shrubs are more common in natural grasslands than in the other habitats we examined. Experimental work on the determinants of cowbird abundance in grasslands is needed.

  9. Male breast carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ruoji; Yu, Lin; Zhou, Shuling; Bi, Rui; Shui, Ruohong; Yu, Baohua; Lu, Hongfen; Cai, Xu; Yang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is a relatively rare disease. This study retrospectively investigated the clinicopathological features of 73 cases of male breast carcinoma in Chinese population, and classified the molecular subtype based on surrogate immunohistochemical definitions. The expression of GCDFP15, MGB, AR and FOXP1 were evaluated. Invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in the study group (71.2%, 52/73). The luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma (60.9%, 34.8% respectively). AR and FOXP1 are expressed in 84.2% (48/57) and 71.9% (41/57) of the studied cases. Carcinoma of the luminal A subtype expressed GCDFP15 (73.5%, 25/34) and MGB (58.8%, 20/34) more frequently than cases of the luminal B subtypes (34.8%, 8/23 and 43.5%, 10/23, respectively; P = 0.004, P = 0.255, respectively). In conclusion, invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in male breast carcinoma among Chinese population. Our study revealed that the luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma. AR and FOXP1 are highly expressed in male breast cancer. The luminal A subtype tends to express GCDFP15 and MGB more frequently than the luminal B subtype.

  10. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions.

  11. Caries experience, tooth loss and oral health-related behaviours among Bangladeshi women resident in West Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Williams, S A; Summers, R M; Ahmed, I A; Prendergast, M J

    1996-09-01

    Several studies have reported high levels of caries experience among young Muslim Asian children, but there has been little corresponding information on adult dental health or related health behaviours. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire together with clinical oral findings among first generation Bangladeshi women aged over 25 years. The majority chewed betel quid with tobacco, were of rural origin, used traditional oral hygiene practices and had never visited a dentist. Of the 247 examined, only one was edentulous. A very low level of caries experience was recorded, a mean DFT score of 1.87 at 25-34 years of age, with an average of 1.05 missing teeth. Coronal caries experience was found to be independent of oral hygiene methods, including the use of fluoride toothpaste, or the frequency of betel quid chewing. It was concluded that Bangladeshi adult women have considerably lower levels of caries experience and tooth loss than United Kingdom adults as represented in recent national surveys. PMID:8897738

  12. [Epidemiology of teeth hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Kovalenko, I P

    2015-01-01

    A clinical examination of 98 patients aged 20 to 75 years was carried out to identifyclinical and epidemiological features of hard tooth tissueshypersensitivity. The survey found out what stimuli (cold, hot, sour, mechanical, chemical) cause the appearance of dental hyperesthesia. The detailed survey of the affected area aimed to determine the presence of dental caries, gingival recession, wedge-shaped defects, erosions, microcracks and chipped enamel, as well as wear of the tooth crown. Forty-threepatients of 98 (43.88%) had tooth sensitivity. Most affected age group was 25-34 years (33%). Among patients studied with hyperesthesia 86% complained of pain. It was establishedthat dental hyperesthesia most often causes an intense, but quickly passing pain response, wherein upon exposure of several types of stimuli. Teeth with high sensitivity showed signs of abrasion (74.1%), most often--on the vestibular surface (44.4%). Patients under 45 years had notable cracks and wedge-shaped defects. In patients 45 years and older cracks and increased abrasion of hard dental tissues was seen. PMID:26271696

  13. Osmoregulation by juvenile brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, in hypo- and hyper-saline waters.

    PubMed

    Cramp, R L; Hansen, M J; Franklin, C E

    2015-07-01

    While there is a considerable body of work describing osmoregulation by elasmobranchs in brackish and saltwater, far fewer studies have investigated osmoregulation in hypersaline waters. We examined osmo- and ionoregulatory function and plasticity in juvenile brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, exposed to three experimental salinities (25, 34 and 40‰) for two weeks. C. punctatum inhabits sheltered coastal areas and bays which can naturally become hypersaline as a consequence of evaporation of water but can also become hyposaline during flood events. We hypothesised that C. punctatum would demonstrate a phenotypically plastic osmoregulatory physiology. Plasma osmolality, urea, Na(+) and Cl(-) levels increased significantly with increasing environmental salinity. Rectal gland and branchial sodium-potassium ATPase (NKA) activities were unaffected by salinity. Using immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting we found evidence for the presence of the key ion-regulatory proteins vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA), pendrin (Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) co-transporter) and the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) in discrete cells within the branchial epithelia. These results indicate that C. punctatum is a partially euryhaline elasmobranch able to maintain osmo- and ionoregulatory function between environmental salinities of 25‰ and 40‰. As suggested for other elasmobranchs, the gills of C. punctatum likely play a limited role in maintaining Na(+) homeostasis over the salinity range studied, but may play an important role in acid-base balance.

  14. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions. PMID:26608506

  15. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer: a national study.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, C; Skegg, D C; Spears, G F; Kaldor, J M

    1986-01-01

    In a population based case-control study 433 New Zealand women aged 25-54 with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with 897 women selected at random from the electoral rolls. The relative risk of breast cancer in women who had ever used oral contraceptives was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.25). The relative risk in women aged 25-34 at diagnosis was estimated to be 2.2 (95% confidence interval 0.47 to 9.9) and in older women less than 1. Analyses of risk by duration of use of oral contraceptives, age at first use, and time since first use showed no adverse effect of the pill. In particular, there was no increased risk in women who had used oral contraceptives before the age of 25 or before their first pregnancy, even for prolonged periods. Given the high prevalence of use in New Zealand, this study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that use of oral contraceptives at young ages increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:3094626

  16. EMS runs for suspected opioid overdose: Implications for surveillance and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Amy; Weir, Brian; Hazzard, Frank; Olsen, Yngvild; McWilliams, Junette; Fields, Julie; Gaasch, Wade

    2013-01-01

    Objective Opioid (including prescription opiate) abuse and overdose rates in the US have surged in the past decade. The dearth and limitations of opioid abuse and overdose surveillance systems impede the development of interventions to address this epidemic. We explored evidence to support the validity of emergency medical services (EMS) data on naloxone administration as a possible proxy for estimating incidence of opioid overdose. Methods We reviewed data from Baltimore City Fire Department EMS patient records matched with dispatch records over a thirteen month time period (2008-2009), and census 2008 data. We calculated incidence rates and patient demographic and temporal patterns of naloxone administration, and examined patient evaluation data associated with naloxone administration. Results were compared to the demographic distributions of the EMS patient and city population and to prior study findings. Results Of 116,910 EMS incidents during the study period for patients 15 years and older, EMS providers administered naloxone 1,297 times (1.1% of incidents), an average of 100 administrations per month. Overall incidence was 1.87 administrations per 1,000 population per year. Findings indicated naloxone administration peaked in summer months (31% of administrations), weekends (32%), and late afternoon (4-5:00pm [8%]); and there was a trend toward peaking in the first week of the month. The incidence of suspected opioid overdose was highest among males, whites, and those in the 45-54 year age group. Findings on temporal patterns were comparable to findings from prior studies. Demographic patterns of suspected opioid overdose were similar to medical examiner reports of demographic patterns of fatal drug or alcohol related overdoses in Baltimore in 2008-9 (88% of which involved opioids). The findings on patient evaluation data suggest some inconsistencies with previously recommended clinical indications of opioid overdose. Conclusions While our findings suggest

  17. Suicide Among Farmers in France: Occupational Factors and Recent Trends.

    PubMed

    Bossard, Claire; Santin, Gaëlle; Guseva Canu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have found agricultural workers, including farmers, at elevated risk of suicide, and socioeconomic conditions have been suggested as one of the important determinants of this mortality cause. The real agricultural income per worker in Europe increased steadily from 2005 to 2007 and then fell by 1.8% in 2008 and by 11.6% in 2009. This drop was particularly pronounced in France. Repeated cross-sectional studies were conducted to investigate suicide mortality rates among French farmers in 2007-2009. The study population included all French farmers enrolled yearly in the compulsory Agricultural Social Security and Health Insurance (CCMSA). Most of the mean of 500,164 subjects per year were men (68%). National cause-specific mortality rates were used to calculate standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for both genders and for each of the 3 years. During the 3-year study period, 2,769 men and 997 women died. Suicide accounted for 417 of the men's (15%) and 68 of the women's (6.8%) deaths. Hanging was the most frequent method of suicide for both. Compared with the general population, the increased rate of suicide deaths among male farmers was 28% in 2008 and 22% in 2009. This increased rate was particularly high among those aged 45-54 years (31%) and 55-64 years (47%) in 2008 (and in the 55-64-year-old group in 2009 (64%). Two specific types of farming activity were associated with increased suicide mortality rates in both 2008 and 2009: dairy cattle farming (SMR = 1.56 [95% CI: 1.09-2.15] and SMR=1.47 [95% CI: 1.01-2.04]) and beef cattle farming (SMR = 2.27 [95% CI: 1.59-3.10] and SMR = 1.57 [95% CI: 1.01-2.27]). These results may be useful for a better understanding of the situation from an epidemiological standpoint and for improving suicide prevention policies in this particular population. PMID:27409004

  18. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about "environmental concerns", using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  19. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf; Powell, Ned; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Joura, Elmar A; Rosenlund, Mats; Colau, Brigitte; Schledermann, Doris; Kukk, Kersti; Damaskou, Vasileia; Repanti, Maria; Vladareanu, Radu; Kolomiets, Larisa; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Ordi, Jaume; Molijn, Anco; Quint, Wim; Raillard, Alice; Rosillon, Dominique; De Souza, Sabrina Collas; Jenkins, David; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-02-15

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical specimens dated 2001-2008. The pooled prevalence of individual HPV types was estimated using meta-analytic methods. A total of 3,103 women were diagnosed with HG-CIN and a total of 3,162 with ICC (median ages: 34 and 49 years, respectively), of which 98.5 and 91.8% were HPV-positive, respectively. The most common HPV types in women with HG-CIN were HPV16/33/31 (59.9/10.5/9.0%) and in ICC were HPV16/18/45 (63.3/15.2/5.3%). In squamous cell carcinomas, HPV16/18/33 were most frequent (66.2/10.8/5.3%), and in adenocarcinomas, HPV16/18/45 (54.2/40.4/8.3%). The prevalence of HPV16/18/45 was 1.1/3.5/2.5 times higher in ICC than in HG-CIN. The difference in age at diagnosis between CIN3 and squamous cervical cancer for HPV18 (9 years) was significantly less compared to HPV31/33/'other' (23/20/17 years), and for HPV45 (1 year) than HPV16/31/33/'other' (15/23/20/17 years). In Europe, HPV16 predominates in both HG-CIN and ICC, whereas HPV18/45 are associated with a low median age of ICC. HPV18/45 are more frequent in ICC than HG-CIN and associated with a high median age of HG-CIN, with a narrow age interval between HG-CIN and ICC detection. These findings support the need for primary prevention of HPV16/18/45-related cervical lesions.

  20. High-Resolution Geophysical Constraints on Late Pleistocene-Present Deformation History, Seabed Morphology, and Slip-Rate along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault, Offshore Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D. S.; Haeussler, P. J.; Dartnell, P.; Conrad, J. E.; Kluesner, J. W.; Hart, P. E.; Witter, R. C.; Balster-Gee, A. F.; Maier, K. L.; Watt, J. T.; East, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault (QCFF) of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia is the dominant fault along the 1200 km-long transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. More than 900 km of the QCFF lies offshore where the style and rates of deformation are poorly constrained due to a lack of high-resolution marine geophysical data. In May 2015, the USGS acquired ~900 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and >2000 line-km of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles between Cross Sound, Yakobi Sea Valley, and Icy Point (the northernmost offshore section of the QCFF) using a 24-ch streamer and 500 Joule minisparker source. During a second cruise in August 2015 we conducted targeted multichannel seismic and subbottom CHIRP profiling in the same region. The new data reveal a single trace of the QCFF expressed as a clear and remarkably straight seafloor lineation for >60 km. Subtle jogs in the fault (<3 degrees) are associated with pop-up structures and en echelon pull-apart basins. The near surface deformation along the fault never exceeds a width of 1.2 km. Northward, as the fault approaches Icy Point and a restraining bend, it splays into multiple strands and displays evidence for uplift and transpression. The fault appears to transition from almost purely strike-slip in the south to oblique-convergence as it steps onshore to the north. The QCFF cuts through the Yakobi Sea Valley and Cross Sound, two elongate bathymetric troughs that were filled with glaciers as recently as 17-19 ka. The southern wall of the Yakobi Sea Valley is offset 890±30 m by the QCFF, providing a late Pleistocene-present slip-rate estimate of 45-54 mm/yr. This suggests that nearly the entire plate boundary slip budget is confined to a single, narrow, strike-slip fault zone, which may have implications for models of plate boundary strain localization.

  1. Gynecological cancer in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M Farid

    2009-03-01

    To overview the status of gynecologic cancer in Indonesia. Information regarding Indonesia obtained from World Bank Report and Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2007, epidemiological data obtained from Histopathological Data of Cancer in Indonesia 2002, Department of Health-Registry Body of Indonesian Specialist of Pathology Association-Indonesian Cancer Society; Various Hospitals in big Cities in Indonesia. Indonesia is an Archipelago with a total area of 1,922,570.00 km(2), the population is 222,192,000 (2006), the fourth world rank. Female is 49.86% with life expectancy 69 years. Gross National Product per Capita is 690.00 USD. Histopathological report in 2002 revealed that cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer were the most frequent cancer among female, which were the first (2,532 cases), the third (829 cases) and the eighth (316 cases) rank respectively. The peak age for cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer was 45-54 years. HPV 16, 18 were found in 82% of invasive cervical. Data from various academic hospitals in 2007 showed that cervical cancer is the most common malignancy followed by ovary, uterus, vulva and vagina. Five-year survival rate of stage I, II, III, IV cervical cancer were 50%, 40%, 20%, and 0% respectively. Overall five-year survival rate of carcinoma of the ovary was 54.8%. If sub-classified by stage, five-year survival rate are 94.3%, 75.0%, 31%, and 11.7% for stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rate of endometrial cancer was 71.9%. Indonesia is the biggest Archipelago with a dense population but the income per capita still low (poor country). The most common gynecologic cancer is cervical cancer, followed by ovarian and uterine cancer. These cancers are included in top ten cancers in Indonesia. HPV 16, 18 were the most cause of cervical cancer. The five-year survival rates are comparable with world report.

  2. Incidence estimates of late stages of trachoma among women in a hyperendemic area of central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Munoz, B; Aron, J; Turner, V; West, S

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate 5-year incidences of conjunctival scarring and trichiasis, and 10-year incidence of corneal opacities due to trachoma, using prevalence data from a population sample of 6038 women living in a trachoma-hyperendemic area of central Tanzania. Previous surveys have documented the age-specific prevalence of scarring, trichiasis, and corneal opacities in women in hyperendemic areas. Using the age-stratified prevalences of these different clinical signs, corresponding incidence rates were estimated. Transition rates from one sign to the next were also obtained by restricting the risk group to only women with a specific trachoma sign. Thus, the 5-year incidence of trichiasis among women with conjunctival scarring, and the 10-year incidence of corneal opacities among women with trichiasis were estimated. Incidences of all the signs markedly increased with age. For scarring, 5-year incidence rates increased from 3.1% in the 15-19 age category to 14.3% for women between 55 and 59 years. The 5-year incidence of trichiasis ranged from 0.3% in the 15-19 age category to 7.5% in the age group 55-59. Corneal opacities due to trachoma were highest in the age group 45-54; the 10-year incidence increased to 2.8%. The 5-year incidence of trichiasis among only women with scars increased from 3.2% in the 15-19 age group to 15.1% in women in the 55-59 age group. Once trichiasis is present, almost one-third of the women below 35 and more than 40% of the women older than 45 will develop corneal opacities in a 10-year interval. These estimates are important in understanding the dynamics of progression of trachoma from conjunctival scarring to the potentially blinding signs of trichiasis and corneal opacities. They provide important information for planning adequate services in areas where trachoma is endemic and surgery for trichiasis is a key factor to avoid blindness from trachoma. They also provide clues to the pathogenesis that may be useful in

  3. Invariantly propagating dissolution fingers in finite-width systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution fingers are formed in porous medium due to positive feedback between transport of reactant and chemical reactions [1-4]. We investigate two-dimensional semi-infinite systems, with constant width W in one direction. In numerical simulations we solve the Darcy flow problem combined with advection-dispersion-reaction equation for the solute transport to track the evolving shapes of the fingers and concentration of reactant in the system. We find the stationary, invariantly propagating finger shapes for different widths of the system, flow and reaction rates. Shape of the reaction front, turns out to be controlled by two dimensionless numbers - the (width-based) Péclet number PeW = vW/Dφ0 and Damköhler number DaW = ksW/v, where k is the reaction rate, s - specific reactive surface area, v - characteristic flow rate, D - diffusion coefficient of the solute, and φ0 - initial porosity of the rock matrix. Depending on PeW and DaW stationary shapes can be divided into seperate classes, e.g. parabolic-like and needle-like structures, which can be inferred from theoretical predictions. In addition we determine velocity of propagating fingers in time and concentration of reagent in the system. Our simulations are compared with natural forms (solution pipes). P. Ortoleva, J. Chadam, E. Merino, and A. Sen, Geochemical self-organization II: the reactive-infiltration instability, Am. J. Sci, 287, 1008-1040 (1987). M. L. Hoefner, and H. S. Fogler. Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal 34, 45-54 (1988). C. E. Cohen, D. Ding, M. Quintard, and B. Bazin, From pore scale to wellbore scale: impact of geometry on wormhole growth in carbonate acidization, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 3088-3099 (2008). P. Szymczak and A. J. C. Ladd, Reactive-infiltration nstabilities in rocks. Part II: Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech. 738, 591-630 (2014).

  4. Frequencies of red blood cell major blood group antigens and phenotypes in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Ma, C; Sun, X; Guan, X; Zhang, X; Saldanha, J; Chen, L; Wang, D

    2016-08-01

    Alloantibodies directed to red blood cell (RBC) antigens play an important role in alloimmune-mediated haemolytic transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. The frequencies and phenotypes of RBC antigens are different in populations from different geographic areas and races. However, the data on major blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China are still very limited; thus, we aimed to investigate them in this study. A total of 1412 unrelated voluntary Chinese Han blood donors were randomly recruited. All donors were typed for blood group antigens: D, C, c, E, e, C(w) , Jk(a) , Jk(b) ,M, N, S, s, Le(a) , Le(b) , K, k. Kp(a) , Kp(b) , Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Lu(a) , Lu(b) , P1 and Di(a) using serological technology. Calculations of antigen and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages and for allele frequencies under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amongst the Rh antigens, D was the most common (98.94%) followed by e (92.28%), C (88.81%), c (58.43%), E (50.78%) and C(w) (0.07%) with DCe/DCe (R1 R1 , 40.72%) being the most common phenotype. In the Kell blood group system, k was present in 100% of the donors and a rare phenotype, Kp (a+b+), was found in 0.28% of the donors. For the Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, Jk (a+b+) and Fy (a+b-) were the most common phenotypes (44.05% and 84.35%, respectively). In the MNS blood group system, M+N+S-s+ (45.54%) was the most common, whereas M+N-S-s- and M-N+S-s- were not found. The rare Lu (a-b-) and Lu (a+b+) phenotypes were identified in 0.43% and 1.13% of the donors, respectively. Le(a) and Le(b) were seen in 17.92% and 63.03% of donors, respectively. The frequency of Di(a) was 4.75%, which was higher than in the Chinese population in Taiwan region or the Caucasian and Black populations (P < 0.0001). This study systematically describes the frequencies of 24 blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China. The data can

  5. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  6. [Trends of internet use for health matters in Portugal: 2005-2007].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses trends of Internet use for health or illness matters in Portugal. It is based on two waves of the WHO/Europe eHealth Consumer Trends Survey that took place in 2005 and 2007. The investigation involves 3001 complete interviews to individuals between 15 and 80 years old. Results show that the percentage of the Portuguese population reporting having used the Internet for health or illness matters has increased in average 9.1% (IC 95%, 5.5-12.6) in the 18 months that mediate the two surveys. The analysis by geographical region shows that there are no statistically significant differences between the five studied regions. The analysis by gender and age shows that the difference between men and women is diminishing but detects important exceptions, namely, a Sharp predominance of women in the group of individuals aged 15-34 years old that use the Internet for health or illness matters and the prevalence of men in the age levels 45-54 and 65-80 years old. The analysis by level of education completed show that the use is particularly high among those with complete higher education studies, with an increase of 8.2% (IC 95%, -.6-17.0) in the period under analysis. However, a significant increase has been observed among the Portuguese with before A-level studies, particularly when considering the group of Internet users for health purposes, where it has raised from four users in each ten individuals in 2005 to six users in each ten individuals in 2007. Reading health Web sites is the health related activity that more Portuguese attracts to the Internet but in the restricted group of Internet health users is the activity with higher positive variation in the period (9.2%, IC 95%, 5.3-13.2). Health professionals are still considered as the most important source of health information but their perceived importance has decreased 10% (IC 95%, -12.6, -7.6) between 2005 and 2007, the

  7. Suicide Among Farmers in France: Occupational Factors and Recent Trends.

    PubMed

    Bossard, Claire; Santin, Gaëlle; Guseva Canu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have found agricultural workers, including farmers, at elevated risk of suicide, and socioeconomic conditions have been suggested as one of the important determinants of this mortality cause. The real agricultural income per worker in Europe increased steadily from 2005 to 2007 and then fell by 1.8% in 2008 and by 11.6% in 2009. This drop was particularly pronounced in France. Repeated cross-sectional studies were conducted to investigate suicide mortality rates among French farmers in 2007-2009. The study population included all French farmers enrolled yearly in the compulsory Agricultural Social Security and Health Insurance (CCMSA). Most of the mean of 500,164 subjects per year were men (68%). National cause-specific mortality rates were used to calculate standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for both genders and for each of the 3 years. During the 3-year study period, 2,769 men and 997 women died. Suicide accounted for 417 of the men's (15%) and 68 of the women's (6.8%) deaths. Hanging was the most frequent method of suicide for both. Compared with the general population, the increased rate of suicide deaths among male farmers was 28% in 2008 and 22% in 2009. This increased rate was particularly high among those aged 45-54 years (31%) and 55-64 years (47%) in 2008 (and in the 55-64-year-old group in 2009 (64%). Two specific types of farming activity were associated with increased suicide mortality rates in both 2008 and 2009: dairy cattle farming (SMR = 1.56 [95% CI: 1.09-2.15] and SMR=1.47 [95% CI: 1.01-2.04]) and beef cattle farming (SMR = 2.27 [95% CI: 1.59-3.10] and SMR = 1.57 [95% CI: 1.01-2.27]). These results may be useful for a better understanding of the situation from an epidemiological standpoint and for improving suicide prevention policies in this particular population.

  8. Geochronology, geochemistry, and Hf isotopes of Jurassic intermediate-acidic intrusions in the Xing'an Block, northeastern China: Petrogenesis and implications for subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu; Ge, Wen-chun; Yang, Hao; Xu, Wen-liang; Zhang, Yan-long; Bi, Jun-hui; Liu, Xi-wen

    2016-03-01

    Zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock geochemistry, Hf isotopic compositions, and regional geological observations of Jurassic intermediate-acidic intrusions in the Xing'an Block, northeastern China, are presented to constrain their petrogenesis and the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. Zircon U-Pb age dating indicates that the intrusions were emplaced in three stages: during the Early Jurassic (180-177 Ma), Middle Jurassic (171-170 Ma), and Late Jurassic (∼151 Ma). Despite the wide range in ages of the intrusions, the magmas of Jurassic acidic intrusions were likely derived from a similar or common source and experienced different degrees of magmatic differentiation, as inferred from their geochemical and Hf isotopic characteristics. The Jurassic acidic intrusions are characterized by high SiO2 and total Na2O + K2O, low MgO, and I-type affinities, suggesting that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of lower crustal material. These findings, combined with their εHf(t) values and two-stage model ages, indicate the primary magmas originated from partial melting of juvenile crustal material accreted during the Neoproterozoic to Phanerozoic. The Middle Jurassic intermediate-acidic rocks (diorites and granodiorites of the TJ pluton) have SiO2 contents of 57.96-69.10 wt.%, MgO contents of 4.48-1.81 wt.%, and high Mg numbers (45-54). They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th, U, and K) and light rare earth elements, depleted in high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti) and heavy rare earth elements, and have εHf(t) values of +6.5 to +9.1. These data suggest that the magma was derived from partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge that had been metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. According to these findings and previous studies that focused on contemporaneous magmatic-tectonic activity in northeastern China, we conclude that the generation of Jurassic intermediate-acidic intrusions in the Xing

  9. Association between psychological distress and gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ghuloum, Suhaila; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla OAA; Dafeeah, Elnour E

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To examine the possible association between gastrointestinal symptoms and anxiety and depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: The study was a matched case-control study based on a face to face interview with designed diagnostic screening questionnaires for gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and T2DM, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression and General Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7) for anxiety. The questionnaire consisted of questions about symptoms and signs of anxiety and depression disorders. Also, socio-demographic characteristics, life style habits and the family history of patients were collected. It was carried out from June 2010 to May 2011 among Qatari and other Arab nationals over 20 years of age at Primary Health Care Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar, including patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects over 20 years of age. RESULTS: In the studied sample, most of the studied T2DM patients with GI symptoms (39.3%) and healthy subjects (33.3%) were in the age group 45-54 years (P < 0.001). The prevalence of severe depression (9.5% vs 4.4%, P < 0.001) and anxiety (26.3% vs 13.7%, P < 0.001) was significantly higher in T2DM patients with GI symptoms than in general population. Obesity (35.7% vs 31.2%) and being overweight (47.9% vs 42.8%) were significantly higher in T2DM patients with GI symptoms than in healthy subjects (P = 0.001). Mental health severity score was higher in T2DM patients with GI symptoms than in healthy subjects; depression (8.2 ± 3.7 vs 6.0 ± 3.6) and anxiety (7.6 ± 3.3 vs 6.0 ± 3.7). The most significant GI symptom which was considerably different from controls was early satiety [odds ratio (OR) = 10.8, P = 0.009] in depressed T2DM patients and loose/watery stools (OR = 2.79, P = 0.029) for severe anxiety. Anxiety was observed more than depression in T2DM patients with GI symptoms. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly associated with depression and anxiety in T2DM

  10. A two- and three-dimensional numerical comparison study of slab detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Buiter, Susanne; Brune, Sascha; Davies, Rhodri; Duretz, Thibault; Gerbault, Muriel; Glerum, Anne; Quinteros, Javier; Schmalholz, Stefan; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    (2011), A simple analytical solution for slab detachment, EPSL, vol.304, p45-54.

  11. A two- and three-dimensional numerical modelling benchmark of slab detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Glerum, Anne; Hillebrand, Bram; Schmalholz, Stefan; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    be shown. Duretz et al (2012), Thermomechanical modeling of slab eduction, JGR, vol. 117. Schmalholz (2011), A simple analytical solution for slab detachment, EPSL, vol.304, p45-54.

  12. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Óscar M.; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items–ripe fruits and young leaves–influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore

  13. Feasibility, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial of hand-held NB-UVB phototherapy for the treatment of vitiligo at home (HI-Light trial: Home Intervention of Light therapy)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand-held NB-UVB units are lightweight devices that may overcome the need to treat vitiligo in hospital-based phototherapy cabinets, allowing early treatment at home that may enhance the likelihood of successful repigmentation. The pilot Hi-Light trial examined the feasibility of conducting a large multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the use of such devices by exploring recruitment, adherence, acceptability, and patient education. Methods This was a feasibility, double-blind, multi-centre, parallel group randomised placebo-controlled trial of hand-held NB-UVB phototherapy for the treatment of vitiligo at home. The overall duration of the trial was seven months; three months recruitment and four months treatment. Participants were randomly allocated to active or placebo groups (2:1 ratio). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of eligible participants who were willing to be randomised. The secondary outcomes included proportion of participants expressing interest in the trial and fulfilling eligibility criteria, withdrawal rates and missing data, proportion of participants adhering to and satisfied with the treatment, and incidence of NB-UVB short-term adverse events. Results Eighty-three percent (45/54) of vitiligo patients who expressed interest in the trial were willing to be randomised. Due to time and financial constraints, only 29/45 potential participants were booked to attend a baseline hospital visit. All 29 (100%) potential participants were confirmed as being eligible and were subsequently randomised. Willingness to participate in the study for General Practice (family physicians) surgeries and hospitals were 40% and 79%, respectively; 86% (25/29) of patients adhered to the treatment and 65% (7/11) of patients in the active group had some degree of repigmentation. Only one patient in the active group reported erythema grade 3 (3%). Both devices (Dermfix 1000 NB-UVB and Waldmann NB-UVB 109) were acceptable to participants

  14. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about "environmental concerns", using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  15. Further evidence for the tetraoxoiodate(V) anion, IO(4)(3-): hydrothermal syntheses and structures of Ba[(MoO(2))(6)(IO(4))(2)O(4)] x H(2)O and Ba(3)[(MoO(2))(2)(IO(6))(2)] x 2H(2)O.

    PubMed

    Sykora, Richard E; Wells, Daniel M; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2002-05-20

    The hydrothermal reaction of MoO(3) with BaH(3)IO(6) at 180 degrees C for 3 days results in the formation of Ba[(MoO(2))(6)(IO(4))(2)O(4)] x H(2)O (1). Under similar conditions, the reaction of Ba(OH)(2) x 8H(2)O with MoO(3) and Ba(IO(4))(2) x 6H(2)O yields Ba(3)[(MoO(2))(2)(IO(6))(2)] x 2H(2)O (2). The structure of 1, determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, consists of corner- and edge-sharing distorted MoO(6) octahedra that create two-dimensional slabs. Contained within this molybdenum oxide framework are approximately C(2v) tetraoxoiodate(V) anions, IO(4)(3-), that are involved in bonding with five Mo(VI) centers. The two equatorial oxygen atoms of the IO(4)(3-) anion chelate a single Mo(VI) center, whereas the axial atoms are mu(3)-oxo groups and complete the octahedra of four MoO(6) units. The coordination of the tetraoxoiodate(V) anion to these five highly electropositive centers is probably responsible for stabilizing the substantial anionic charge of this anion. The Ba(2+) cations separate the layers from one another and form long ionic contacts with neighboring oxygen atoms and a water molecule. Compound 2 also contains distorted MoO(6) octahedra. However, these solely edge-share with octahedral hexaoxoiodate(VII), IO(6)(5-), anions to form zigzagging one-dimensional, (1)(infinity)[(MoO(2))(IO(6))](3-), chains that are polar. These chains are separated from one another by Ba(2+) cations that are coordinated by additional water molecules. Bond valence sums for the iodine atoms in 1 and 2 are 5.01 and 7.03, respectively. Crystallographic data: 1, monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 13.584(1) A, b = 7.3977(7) A, c = 20.736(2) A, beta = 108.244(2) degrees, Z = 4; 2, orthorhombic, space group Fdd2, a = 13.356(7) A, b = 45.54(2) A, c = 4.867(3) A, Z = 8.

  16. Cigarette smoking and acute myocardial infarction. A case-control study from the GISSI-2 trial. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto--Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'infarto Miocardioco.

    PubMed

    Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; Nobili, A; D'Avanzo, B; Bechi, S

    1994-08-01

    To make a further quantitative assessment of the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction, a multicentric case-control study was conducted in Italy between September 1988 and June 1989 within the framework of the GISSI-2 trial. Ninety hospitals in various Italian Regions participated. 916 cases of acute myocardial infarction with no history of ischaemic heart disease and 1106 controls admitted to hospital for acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for ischaemic heart disease were studied. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of myocardial infarction according to various measures of tobacco smoking, were adjusted for identified potential confounding factors using multiple logistic regression. Compared to lifelong non-smokers, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) for ex-smokers, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.9) for current smokers of less than 15 cigarettes per day, 3.1 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.2) for 15-24 cigarettes per day and 4.9 (95% CI 3.4 to 7.1) for 25 or more cigarettes per day. No trend in risk was evident for the duration, the RR being around 3 for subsequent categories. There was a significant interaction between smoking and age. Below the age 45, smokers of 25 or more cigarettes per day had a 33 times higher risk than non-smokers, compared to 7.5 at in the age group 45-54, 4.4 between the ages 55-64 and 2.5 at the age of 65 or over. The risk estimates were higher in women (RR for > or = 25 cigarettes per day = 10.1), in subjects in the lowest cholesterol tertile (RR = 11.9), with no history of diabetes (RR = 6.8), hypertension (RR = 9.5), no family history ischaemic heart disease (RR = 9.1) and low body mass index (RR = 9.3). The importance of smoking is confirmed as a cause of acute myocardial infarction: about 50% of all nonfatal infarctions in this Italian population could be attributable to cigarette smoking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  18. Influence of Medical Representatives on Prescribing Practices in Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Workneh, Birhanu Demeke; Gebrehiwot, Mehari Gebregergis; Bayo, Tigist Assefa; Gidey, Meles Tekie; Belay, Yared Belete; Tesfaye, Desalegn Mergiaw; Kassa, Terefe Teshome

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug promotion by medical representatives is one of the factors that influence physicians’ prescribing decisions and choice of drugs. Objective To assess the influence of medical representatives on prescribing practice of physicians in health facilities, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted enrolling all physicians working in public and private health facilities. All public and private health facilities were included and similarly, all physicians rendering services in these facilities were sampled in the study. The data were collected from February to March, 2015. Data were then entered into Epidata Version 3.1 and transferred to STATA version 12 for analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine predictors. Results Of the ninety physicians approached in this study, 40 (48.2%) of the physicians believed that their prescribing decisions were influenced by visits of medical representatives (MRs). The odds of physicians who received gifts from MRs being influenced to prescribe their respective products was six times higher than those who reported not accepting any gifts [AOR = 6.56, 95% CI: 2.25, 19.13]. Stationery materials 23(35.4%) and drug samples 20(54.2%) were the commonest kinds of gifts given to physicians and face to face talking 45(54.2%) was the most frequent promotional methods. The finding of this study showed that around thirty-nine percent of MRs have had negative attitude toward competitors’ product. Moreover, working in private health facility was also another predictor of influence of prescribing decision in the study area [AOR = 12.78, 95% CI: 1.31, 124.56]. Conclusion Nearly half of the physicians working in Mekelle reported that their prescribing decisions were influenced by MRs in the last 12 months. Accepting gifts and working in private health facilities were predictors of influencing prescribing decisions. However, most MRs

  19. Baseline characteristics of the randomized cohort from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Research Study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study is a 16-center randomized clinical trial in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes designed to evaluate the long-term effects (up to 11.5 years) of an intensive weight loss intervention on the time to incidence for major cardiovascular events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eligibility requirements are diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (determined by self-report and verification) in individuals age 45–74 years, BMI >25 kg/m2 (>27 kg/m2 if currently taking insulin). The intensive lifestyle intervention is designed to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity. The study is designed to provide 90% probability of detecting an 18% difference in major cardiovascular disease event rates in patients randomized to the intensive lifestyle intervention compared to the control group receiving standard diabetes support and education. RESULTS The 5145 participants who were randomized between 2001 and 2004 were 63.3 % white, 15.6% African-American, 13.2% Hispanic, 5.1% American Indian, and 1.0% Asian-American, which closely paralleled the ethnic distribution of diabetes in the NHANES 1999–2000 survey. Their average age at entry was 59 ± 6.8 years (mean ± SD), and 60% were women. There were 31.5% between 45-54 years of age, 51.5% were 55–64, and 17.0% ≥65 years of age. There were 14.6% of participants who were taking insulin at the time of randomization and 14.1 % had a history of cardiovascular disease. More men (21.2%) than women (9.3%) had a history of cardiovascular disease. Few participants (4.4%) were current cigarette smokers compared to 16.2% in the NHANES 1999–2000 survey. Furthermore, 65% of participants had a first-degree relative with diabetes. Overall, BMI averaged 36 ± 5.9 kg/m2 at baseline with 83.6% of the men and 86.0% of women having a BMI >30 kg/m2 and 17.9% of men and 25.4% of women having a BMI > 40 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS The Look

  20. Using patient and general practice characteristics to explain variations in cervical smear uptake rates.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, F. A.; Cook, D. G.; Anderson, H. R.; Hilton, S.; Bunn, S.; Stones, C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To produce practice and patient variables for general practices from census and family health services authority data, and to determine the importance of these variables in explaining variation in cervical smear uptake rates between practices. DESIGN--Population based study examining variations in cervical smear uptake rates among 126 general practices using routine data. SETTING--Merton, Sutton, and Wandsworth Family Health Services Authority, which covers parts of inner and outer London. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Percentage of women aged 25-64 years registered with a general practitioner who had undergone a cervical smear test during the five and a half years preceding 31 March 1992. RESULTS--Cervical smear uptake rates varied from 16.5% to 94.1%. The estimated percentage of practice population from ethnic minority groups correlated negatively with uptake rates (r = -0.42), as did variables associated with social deprivation such as overcrowding (r = -0.42), not owning a car (r = -0.41), and unemployment (r = -0.40). Percentage of practice population under 5 years of age correlated positively with uptake rate (r = 0.42). Rates were higher in practices with a female partner than in those without (66.6% v 49.1%; difference 17.5% (95% confidence interval 10.5% to 24.5%)), and in computerised than in non-computerised practices (64.5% v 50.5%; 14.0% (6.4% to 21.6%)). Rates were higher in larger practices. In a stepwise multiple regression model that explained 52% of variation, five factors were significant predictors of uptake rates: presence of a female partner; children under 5; overcrowding; number of women aged 35-44 as percentage of all women aged 25-64; change of address in past year. CONCLUSIONS--Over half of variation in cervical smear uptake rates can be explained by patient and practice variables derived from census and family health services authority data; these variables may have a role in explaining variations in performance of general practices

  1. PERFACT procedure: A new concept to treat highly complex anal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj; Garg, Mahak

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To check the efficacy of the PERFACT procedure in highly complex fistula-in-ano. METHODS: The PERFACT procedure (proximal superficial cauterization, emptying regularly fistula tracts and curettage of tracts) entails two steps: superficial cauterization of mucosa at and around the internal opening and keeping all the tracts clean. The principle is to permanently close the internal opening by granulation tissue. This is achieved by superficial electrocauterization at and around the internal opening and subsequently allowing the wound to heal by secondary intention. Along with this, all the tracts are curetted and it is ensured that they remain empty and clean in the postoperative period until they heal completely. The latter step also facilitates the closure of the internal opening by preventing collected fluid in the tracts from entering the internal opening and thus not letting it close. Objective incontinence scoring was done preoperatively and 3 mo after the operation. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with complex fistula-in-ano were prospectively enrolled. The median follow-up was 9 mo (5-14 mo). The mean age was 42.7 ± 11.3 years. Male:female ratio was 43:8. Fistula was recurrent in 76.5% (39/51), horseshoe in 50.1% (26/51), had multiple tracts in 52.9% (27/51), had an associated abscess in 41.2% (21/51), was anterior in 33.3% (17/51), the internal opening was not found in 15.7% (8/51) and 9.8% (5/51) of fistulas had a supralevator extension. Seven patients were excluded (5 lost to follow up, 2 with tuberculosis leading to/associated with fistula-in-ano). The success rate was 79.5% (35/44) and the recurrence rate was 20.5% (9/44). Out of these recurrences, three underwent reoperation (2 PERFACT procedure, 1 fistulotomy) and all three were successful. Thus, the overall success rate was 86.4%. The only complication was a non-healing tract in 9.1% (4/44) of patients. There was no significant change in objective incontinence scores three months after the operation

  2. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in particular, android fat distribution.

  3. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. Methods We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. Results The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. Conclusion We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web

  4. Continental-scale patterns in modern wood cellulose δ18O: Implications for interpreting paleo-wood cellulose δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S. L.; Johnson, A. H.; Dranoff, M. M.; Taylor, K. D.

    2008-06-01

    The isotopic composition of ancient wood may be a useful archive of some climatic or geochemical conditions of the past, but presently there are many uncertainties that constrain such interpretations. We sampled naturally growing, predominantly native trees in forested regions of North America and the Caribbean to evaluate the strength of the relationships among cellulose δ18O (δ18Ocel), relative humidity (RH), precipitation δ18O (δ18Oppt), and mean annual temperature (MAT) at the continental scale, and the general range of variability in δ18Ocel associated with site hydrologic conditions and species differences. We found up to 4‰ differences among different species growing at the same site, that conifer cellulose at a site is more enriched than angiosperm cellulose by 1.5‰ (p < 0.001), and that differences in landscape position, reflecting differing access to the water table, produced differences of <1‰ in δ18Ocel. At the continental scale, δ18Ocel was strongly influenced by modeled δ18Oppt (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001). Average summer minimum RH (RHmin) combined with δ18Oppt explained more of the variability (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.001) in δ18Ocel across North American and Caribbean forests. MAT and δ18Ocel were also strongly correlated across North America (R = 0.91 and 0.95, p < 0.001, for angiosperms and conifers, respectively). The difference between δ18Oppt and δ18Ocel is not constant (varying from 35-44‰) and is inversely correlated with δ18Oppt. The relationships among δ18Oppt, RHmin, δ18Ocel, and MAT established for North America and the Caribbean applied reasonably well when δ18Ocel was used to estimate MAT and δ18Oppt in Asia, Europe, and South America, but there were important exceptions. The most accurate predictions of MAT and δ18Oppt from δ18Ocel require RHmin. Predictions of δ18Oppt and MAT made from δ18Ocel alone produced errors of up to 8‰ and 16 °C, respectively.

  5. Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na₂S₂O₃) and calcium chloride (CaCl₂) on changes in NH₄(+)⁻N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg⁻¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃ and UN+CaCl₂ and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH₄⁻ disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO₃⁻-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH₄(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO₃⁻-N kg⁻¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg⁻¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃, and UN+CaCl₂, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na₂S₂O₃ proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity.

  6. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  7. Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na₂S₂O₃) and calcium chloride (CaCl₂) on changes in NH₄(+)⁻N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg⁻¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃ and UN+CaCl₂ and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH₄⁻ disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO₃⁻-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH₄(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO₃⁻-N kg⁻¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg⁻¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃, and UN+CaCl₂, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na₂S₂O₃ proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

  8. Enhanced SOA formation from mixed anthropogenic and biogenic emissions during the CARES campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Shilling, John E.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Alexander, M. L.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Fortner, Edward; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, John T.; Sedlacek, Art; Setyan, Ari; Springston, S.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Zhang, Qi

    2013-02-21

    The CARES campaign was conducted during June, 2010 in the vicinity of Sacramento, California to study aerosol formation and aging in a region where anthropogenic and biogenic emissions regularly mix. Here, we describe measurements from an Aerodyne High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), and trace gas detectors (CO, NO, NOx) deployed on the G-1 research aircraft to investigate ambient gas- and particle-phase chemical composition. AMS measurements showed that the particle phase is dominated by organic aerosol (OA) (85% on average) with smaller concentrations of sulfate (5%), nitrate (6%) and ammonium (3%) observed. PTR-MS data showed that isoprene dominated the biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations (BVOCs), with monoterpene concentrations generally below the detection limit. Using two different metrics, median OA concentrations and the slope of plots of OA vs. CO concentrations (i.e., ΔOA/ΔCO), we contrast organic aerosol evolution on flight days with different prevailing meteorological conditions to elucidate the role of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on OA formation. Airmasses influenced predominantly by biogenic emissions had median OA concentrations of 2.9 μg/m3 and near zero ΔOA/ΔCO. Those influenced predominantly by anthropogenic emissions had median OA concentrations of 4.7 μg/m3 and ΔOA/ΔCO ratios of 35 - 44 μg/m3ppmv. When biogenic and anthropogenic emissions mix, OA levels are dramatically enhanced with median OA concentrations of 11.4 μg/m3 and ΔOA/ΔCO ratios of 77 - 157 μg/m3ppmv. Taken together, our observations show that production of OA is enhanced when anthropogenic emissions from Sacramento mix with isoprene-rich air from the foothills. A strong, non-linear dependence of SOA yield from isoprene is the mechanistic explanation for this enhancement most consistent with both the gas- and particle-phase data. If these observations are found to be robust

  9. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Potential to Improve Tumor Control and Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Nguyen, Dan; Heron, Dwight E.; Chen, Allen M.; Lee, Percy; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Vargo, John A.; Low, Daniel A.; Huq, M. Saiful; Tenn, Stephen; Steinberg, Michael L.; Kupelian, Patrick; Sheng, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefit of 4π radiation therapy in recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic head-and-neck cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with 29 tumors who were treated using SBRT were included. In recurrent disease (n=26), SBRT was delivered with a median 44 Gy (range, 35-44 Gy) in 5 fractions. Three patients with sinonasal mucosal melanoma, metastatic breast cancer, and primary undifferentiated carcinoma received 35 Gy, 22.5 Gy, and 40 Gy in 5 fractions, respectively. Novel 4π treatment plans were created for each patient to meet the objective that 95% of the planning target volume was covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) and 50% dose spillage volumes were compared against the delivered clinical SBRT plans. Local control (LC), late toxicity, tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability were determined. Results: Using 4π plans, mean/maximum doses to all OARs were reduced by 22% to 89%/10% to 86%. With 4π plans, the 50% dose spillage volume was decreased by 33%. Planning target volume prescription dose escalation by 10 Gy and 20 Gy were achieved while keeping doses to OARs significantly improved or unchanged from clinical plans, except for the carotid artery maximum dose at 20-Gy escalation. At a median follow-up of 10 months (range, 1-41 months), crude LC was 52%. The 2-year LC of 39.2% approximated the predicted mean TCP of 42.2%, which increased to 45.9% with 4π plans. For 10-Gy and 20-Gy dose escalation, 4π plans increased TCP from 80.1% and 88.1% to 85.5% and 91.4%, respectively. The 7.4% rate of grade ≥3 late toxicity was comparable to the predicted 5.6% mean normal tissue complication probability for OARs, which was significantly reduced by 4π planning at the prescribed and escalated doses. Conclusions: 4π plans may allow dose escalation with significant and consistent

  10. Annual night visiting rates in 129 general practices in one family health services authority: association with patient and general practice characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, F A; Cook, D G; Hilton, S; Poloniecki, J; Hagen, A

    1995-01-01

    practice population aged under five years, percentage aged 35-44 years, percentage who were chronically ill and estimated list inflation) explaining 32% of the variation in night visiting rates. CONCLUSION. Only about one third of the variation in night visiting rates between practices could be explained by patient and practice variables derived from routine data. Population-based research using data collected on individual patients and practices is required to improve current understanding of the patient and practice characteristics that influence the demand for night visits and of why night visiting rates vary so widely between practices. PMID:7492422

  11. Petrogenesis of lamprophyres from Chhota Udepur area, Narmada rift zone, and its relation to Deccan magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Dharma Rao, C. V.; Das, Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Geological setting, petrology and geochemistry of a new find of lamprophyre dykes, intruding the Precambrian basement gneisses from the Chhota Udepur area, Narmada rift zone, Western India, are presented. Of the three lamprophyre dykes, two of them display E-W trend paralleling that of the Narmada rift, extend up to ˜2.5 km in length and constitute the longest yet recorded lamprophyre dykes from the Indian shield. The Chhota Udepur lamprophyres (CUL) show several overlapping mineralogical and geochemical characteristic features displayed by alkaline- and calc-alkaline lamprophyres and hence it is not straight forward to pigeon-hole them in existing lamprophyre classification schemes. They are porphyritic-panidiomorphic with euhedral to sub-hedral phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of olivine (Fo 78.33-78.42 Fa 21.24-21.37), diopsidic augite to titaniferous augite (Wo 54.83-59.03 En 36.75-41.36 Fs 0.1-5.66), biotite and amphibole (kaersutite). Feldspar (orthoclase perthite and plagioclase) is essentially confined to the groundmass along with accessory phases such as apatite and spinel (ti-magnetite). Rare carbonate ocelli are also present. In terms of major element geochemistry the CUL are nepeheline-normative and predominantly sodic (Na 2O > K 2O); yet their K 2O and SiO 2 contents are sufficiently high to signal traits of calc-alkaline lamprophyres. On the other hand, the CUL exclude negative spikes at Nb-Ta which are considered to be a characteristic of subduction-related (calc-alkaline) magmas, are highly evolved (Mg#: 27.82-55.45), enriched in incompatible trace elements (high La/Nb, Zr/Nb) and have fractionated REE distribution patterns (La/Yb N ratios: 35-44). Post-emplacement alteration and crustal contamination have had little influence on their geochemistry. Th/Yb, Ta/Yb, Nb/U and Ce/Pb ratios of the CUL imply an OIB type-enriched mantle source, similar to that displayed by other Deccan-related lamprophyres. A metasomatised (enriched) garnet lherzolite

  12. [State of oral health of adults and the elderly in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Szoke, Judit; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the oral health situation of the Hungarian adult and elderly population at the turn of the millennium and to compare the data with the results of previous surveys. A total of 1627 male and female individuals were clinically examined at 17 sample sites according to the WHO basic criteria using the pathfinder methodology. National epidemiological examinations (pathfinder surveys) were carried out in 1985, 1991 and 2000 in adults. But nationwide oral data among 65-74-year-olds were never collected before 2000. It is strongly suggested by World Health Organization to undertake a regular epidemiological survey in 5-year intervals to monitor changes in oral health of the key-age groups. During recent years, in children, a dramatic caries decline has been observed. In adults, however, a similar change has not occurred although other important favourable trends have been documented as well. The basic findings were: The mean DMFT score was high, and strongly influenced by MT. At age 35-44, the caries prevalence was 15.7 DMFT and at 65-74 it was 23.3 DMFT. For non-smokers, the MT mean value was 8.7, and for smokers 10.8. For those who had smoked more than 20 years the MT mean value was 12.7. The periodontal condition of both age groups was poor. Of the adult sample only 4.5% had healthy gingiva and 25.2% had at least 3 healthy sextants. Between 1985 and 2000, the percentage of edentulous adult persons increased from 0.3 to 1.4 and in 2000 the ratio of edentulous persons among elderly was 26%. The population's need for treatment at all levels (restorative, periodontal and prosthetic) was enormous. The authors concluded that in Hungary "health for all" efforts have been inadequate. Greater emphasis on risk- and preventive orientated praxis and management is needed; increased individual activities and financial support are also required.

  13. Choosing a contraceptive. What's best for you?

    PubMed

    Anthony, J

    1994-04-01

    New types of contraception approved for use in the US include two long-lasting, hormone-based contraceptives, Depo-Provera and Norplant, and the female condom. The female condom is made of polyurethane, which is thinner, stronger, and a better conductor of heat than latex. Its inner ring fits over the cervix and the outer ring protects the labia and the base of the penis. Its typical-use and perfect-use failure rates are 21-26% and around 5%, respectively. One injection of Depo-Provera blocks ovulation for 3 months. Irregular periods are common with Depo-Provera use. Fertility may not return for 6-12 months after discontinuation. Depo-Provera may protect against endometrial cancer. The 6-capsule system Norplant is inserted subdermally in the arm and releases levonorgestrel for up to 5 years. Since its arrival on the US market, more than 900,000 women have used Norplant. Contraindications to Norplant are liver disease, blood clots, inflammation of the veins, history of breast cancer, or breast feeding in the first 6 weeks postpartum. More than 600,000 US women undergo sterilization annually. 25% of all heterosexually active, fertile women of reproductive age and 60% of these women ages 35-44 have had a tubal ligation. Vasectomy is less risky than tubal ligation. Both vasectomy and tubal sterilization are more than 99% effective. Oral contraceptives (OCs) suppress ovulation. 28% of US women of reproductive age use OCs. OCs are more than 99% effective. OCs appear to increase the risk of blood clots, heart attack, and stroke for smokers over 35. Health benefits of OCs include protection against ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, and benign breast tumors. Barrier methods keep sperm from joining the egg. Latex condoms protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). IUDs interfere with sperm transport and egg fertilization. In the US, there is a perception that IUD use is unsafe. Women with new or multiple partners should

  14. Efficacy of Bacillus clausii strain UBBC-07 in the treatment of patients suffering from acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Sudha, M Ratna; Bhonagiri, S; Kumar, M Asin

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of Bacillus clausii strain UBBC 07 in patients suffering from acute diarrhoea. A total of 27 patients (average age of 35.44±8.08 years) with acute diarrhoea were included in a prospective, Phase II clinical study after informed consent and ethical committee approval. The criteria included for all subjects were ≥3 loose stool motions within 24 hours and for more than 7 days. All patients were assigned to receive one capsule of B. clausii strain UBBC-07 (containing 2×109 cfu) two times a day for a period of 10 days. Efficacy assessment of duration of diarrhoea, frequency of defecation, abdominal pain and stool consistency were tested on days 1, 3, 6 and 10. Safety was evaluated by assessing the incidence and type of adverse effects such as increase in blood pressure and pulse rate, physical examination and clinical laboratory tests, i.e. complete blood count, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum creatinine, and stool examination and microscopy, on day 1 and day 10. The results of this study clearly showed that the mean duration of diarrhoea decreased from 34.81±4.69 to 9.26±3.05 (P<0.0001) min per day, the frequency of defecation also decreased from 6.96±1.05 to 1.78±0.50 (P<0.0001) times per day, abdominal pain decreased from 3.22±0.93 (severe) to 0.74±0.71 (absent) (P<0.0001), and stool consistency improved from 3.93±0.38 (watery) to 1.22±0.42 (soft) (P<0.0001). No significant change in safety parameters were observed during treatment. This study shows that the B. clausii strain UBBC-07 can potentially be effective in alleviating the symptoms of diarrhoea without causing any adverse effects. PMID:23443952

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC uncertainty

  16. Impacts of an endoparasitic copepod, Ismaila belciki, on the reproduction, growth and survivorship of its nudibranch host, Janolus fuscus.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Maya; Young, Craig M

    2014-05-01

    Copepods from the genus Ismaila are large endoparasites that inhabit the main body cavity and/or cerata of opisthobranch molluscs. These parasites exhibit many life history characteristics typically found in parasitic castrators, yet the actual impact of infection on reproduction, growth or survivorship of the hosts are unknown. On the Oregon (USA) coast, Ismaila belciki can infect over 80% of their hermaphroditic hosts, Janolus fuscus. In laboratory mating experiments, we compared the reproductive output (egg mass weight, number of egg capsules, number of viable embryos) and the gonadal somatic index of infected versus uninfected J. fuscus. Infected J. fuscus could produce viable sperm and copulate. Mating with an infected individual did not limit a sea slug's reproductive output. However, infected J. fuscus had significantly lower reproductive output (by 34-54%), producing smaller egg masses with fewer capsules and viable embryos. Infected hosts had significantly lower gonadal somatic index than their uninfected counterparts, although there was no significant difference in gonadal somatic index between hosts with single and double infections. By collecting the egg sacs produced by the copepod parasite during experiments, we estimated that 25-34% of the host's reproductive output is usurped by the parasite and re-directed to the parasite's own reproduction. In the laboratory, infection did not alter growth in J. fuscus. However, infection significantly decreased survivorship in mature (but not immature) nudibranch hosts. These results suggest that I. belciki is not a true castrator, but it does reduce the reproductive output of its host and may therefore limit the natural population size of J. fuscus. PMID:24590063

  17. Increasing Diversity in Science and Health Professions: A 21-Year Longitudinal Study Documenting College and Career Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Ned, Judith; Ahn, David; Koehler, Alana; Kennedy, Jeanne D.

    2009-12-01

    Despite decades of precollege science education programs, African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans remain critically underrepresented in science and health professions. This report describes college and career outcomes among graduates of the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program (SMYSP), a 5-week summer residential program for low-income high school students among whom 97% have been followed for up to 21 years. Approximately 24 students are selected annually, with participation limited to low-income students who have faced substantial personal hardships. Undergraduate and medical students provide key program leadership and training. The curriculum is based on science inquiry education and includes hospital internships, anatomy practicums, research projects, faculty lectures, college admissions/standardized test preparation, and long-term college and career guidance. A total of 476 high school students participated between 1988 and 2008, with 61% from underrepresented ethnic minority groups. Overall, 78% of African American, 81% of Latino, and 82% of Native American participants have earned a 4-year college degree (among those admitted to college, and excluding those currently attending college). In contrast, among 25-34-year old California adults, 16% of African Americans, 8% of Latinos, and 10% of Native Americans earn a 4-year college degree. Among SMYSP's 4-year college graduates, 47% are attending or have completed medical or graduate school, and 43% are working as or training to become health professionals. SMYSP offers a model that expands inquiry-based science education beyond the classroom, and recognizes the role of universities as "high school interventionists" to help diversify health professions.

  18. Effects of shisha smoking on carbon monoxide and PM2.5 concentrations in the indoor and outdoor microenvironment of shisha premises.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Gam; Bradley, Janet; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria

    2016-04-01

    There has been significant rise in shisha premises in the United Kingdom with an unsubstantiated belief that shisha smoking is harmless and relatively safe. This study aimed to assess the public health situation by evaluating the extent of shisha environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among those that work in, and are customers of shisha businesses. Concentrations of several ETS pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5μm (PM2.5) in shisha premises were measured using real-time sensors inside and outside twelve shisha premises and at 5 pubs/restaurants where smoking is prohibited. Mean concentration of CO (7.3±2.4mg/m(3)) and PM2.5 (287±233μg/m(3)) inside active shisha premises was higher than concentrations measured within the vicinity of the shisha premises (CO: 0.9±0.7mg/m(3) and PM2.5: 34±14μg/m(3)) and strongly correlated (PM2.5 R=0.957). Concentrations were higher than indoor concentrations in pubs and restaurants where smoking is not permitted under UK law. The number of shisha pipes was a strong predictor of the PM2.5 concentrations. The study also assessed the risk perception within patrons and managers, with only 25% being aware of the risks associated to shisha smoking. The study identifies owners, employees and consumers within active shisha premises being exposed to concentrations of CO and PM2.5 at levels considered hazardous to human health. The results and outcome of this research serve as a basis to influence a discussion around the need of developing specific policies to protect consumers and employees of such premises.

  19. Primary biliary cirrhosis-specific autoantibodies in first degree relatives of Greek primary biliary cirrhosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zografos, Theodoros A; Gatselis, Nikolaos; Zachou, Kalliopi; Liaskos, Christos; Gabeta, Stella; Koukoulis, George K; Dalekos, George N

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and significance of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantibodies in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Greek PBC patients. METHODS: The presence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays, dot-blot assays, and molecularly based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 101 asymptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of 44 PBC patients. In order to specify our results, the same investigation was performed in 40 healthy controls and in a disease control group consisting of 40 asymptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of patients with other autoimmune liver diseases namely, autoimmune hepatitis-1 or primary sclerosing cholangitis (AIH-1/PSC). RESULTS: AMA positivity was observed in 19 (only 4 with abnormal liver function tests) FDRs of PBC patients and none of the healthy controls. The prevalence of AMA was significantly higher in FDRs of PBC patients than in AIH-1/PSC FDRs and healthy controls [18.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 12%-28.1% vs 2.5%, 95% CI: 0.1%-14.7%, P = 0.01; 18.8%, 95% CI: 12%-28.1% vs 0%, 95% CI: 0%-10.9%, P = 0.003, respectively]. PBC-specific ANA positivity was observed in only one FDR from a PSC patient. Multivariate analysis showed that having a proband with PBC independently associated with AMA positivity (odds ratio: 11.24, 95% CI: 1.27-25.34, P = 0.03) whereas among the investigated comorbidities and risk factors, a positive past history for urinary tract infections (UTI) was also independently associated with AMA detection in FDRs of PBC patients (odds ratio: 3.92, 95% CI: 1.25-12.35, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In FDRs of Greek PBC patients, AMA prevalence is significantly increased and independently associated with past UTI. PBC-specific ANA were not detected in anyone of PBC FDRs. PMID:23002341

  20. On geodynamo integrations conserving momentum flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Roberts, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    The equations governing the geodynamo are most often integrated by representing the magnetic field and fluid velocity by toroidal and poloidal scalars (for example, MAG code [1]). This procedure does not automatically conserve the momentum flux. The results can, particularly for flows with large shear, introduce significant errors, unless the viscosity is artificially increased. We describe a method that evades this difficulty, by solving the momentum equation directly while properly conserving momentum. It finds pressure by FFT and cyclic reduction, and integrates the governing equations on overlapping grids so avoiding the pole problem. The number of operations per time step is proportional to N3 where N is proportional to the number of grid points in each direction. This contrasts with the order N4 operations of standard spectral transform methods. The method is easily parallelized. It can also be easily adapted to schemes such as the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method [2], a flux based procedure based on upwinding that is numerically stable even for zero explicit viscosity. The method has been successfully used to investigate the generation of magnetic fields by flows confined to spheroidal containers and driven by precessional and librational forcing [3, 4]. For spherical systems it satisfies dynamo benchmarks [5]. [1] MAG, http://www.geodynamics.org/cig/software/mag [2] Liu, XD, Osher, S and Chan, T, Weighted Essentially Nonoscillatory Schemes, J. Computational Physics, 115, 200-212, 1994. [3] Wu, CC and Roberts, PH, On a dynamo driven by topographic precession, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 103, 467-501, (DOI: 10.1080/03091920903311788), 2009. [4] Wu, CC and Roberts, PH, On a dynamo driven topographically by longitudinal libration, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, DOI:10.1080/03091929.2012.682990, 2012. [5] Christensen, U, et al., A numerical dynamo benchmark, Phys. Earth Planet Int., 128, 25-34, 2001.

  1. Dose-dependent consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids differentially

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Wolters, William W.; Burr, Gary S; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake benefits cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level may be better addressed by diet than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of the dose response to fish intake on plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids. To compare the effects of different doses of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) proportions and CVD risk biomarkers (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, hsCRP, and IL-6) in healthy subjects we performed a randomized 3-period cross-over designed trial (4 wk treatment, 4-8 wk washout) to compare the effects of twice/wk consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 19 apparently healthy men and women with a mean age of aged 40-65 years and a BMI between 25-34.9 kg/m2. All study visits were conducted at the USDA, ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. EPA and total n-3 were increased (p<0.05) by all treatments in a dose response manner, with total n-3 of 8.03 ± 0.26 and 9.21 ± 0.26 % for 180 and 270 g doses, respectively. Linoleic acid did not change in response to treatment while arachidonic acid (P<0.05) and total omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) decreased dose dependently (<0.0001). The addition of farmed Atlantic salmon to the diet twice/wk for 4 wk at portions of 180g and 270g modifies PLFA proportions of n-3 and n-6 in a level associated with decreased risk for CVD. PMID:23351633

  2. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  3. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of exposure, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of age and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced exposure methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each age and sex group compared to males aged 25-34 years. Death rates increased with age, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every age group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. Exposure, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all age categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with age and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate. PMID:25658669

  4. Surface spin-glass in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, F.; Sarwer, W.; Nadeem, K.; Kamran, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Krenn, H.; Letofsky-Papst, I.

    2016-06-01

    Surface effects in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles dispersed in a silica (SiO2) matrix were studied by using AC and DC magnetization. Nanoparticles with different concentration of SiO2 were synthesized by using sol-gel method. Average crystallite size lies in the range 25-34 nm for different SiO2 concentration. TEM image showed that particles are spherical and elongated in shape. Nanoparticles with higher concentration of SiO2 exhibit two peaks in the out-of-phase ac-susceptibility. First peak lies in the high temperature regime and corresponds to average blocking temperature of the nanoparticles. Second peak lies in the low temperature regime and is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing in these nanoparticles. Low temperature peak showed SiO2 concentration dependence and was vanished for large uncoated nanoparticles. The frequency dependence of the AC-susceptibility of low temperature peak was fitted with dynamic scaling law which ensures the presence of spin-glass behavior. With increasing applied DC field, the low temperature peak showed less shift as compared to blocking peak, broaden, and decreased in magnitude which also signifies its identity as spin-glass peak for smaller nanoparticles. M-H loops showed the presence of more surface disorder in nanoparticles dispersed in 60% SiO2 matrix. All these measurements revealed that surface effects become strengthen with increasing SiO2 matrix concentration and surface spins freeze in to spin-glass state at low temperatures.

  5. Suicide prevention evaluation in a Western Athabaskan American Indian Tribe--New Mexico, 1988-1997.

    PubMed

    1998-04-10

    Since 1979, suicide and homicide have alternated as the second and third leading causes of death among young American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). From 1979 through 1992, suicide rates for AI/ANs in all age groups were approximately 1.5 times the rates for the overall U.S. population. During 1991-1993, suicide rates for AI/ANs aged 15-24 and 25-34 years were 31.7 and 26.6 per 100,000 population, respectively; males aged 15-34 years accounted for 64% of all AI/AN suicides. In the overall U.S. population during 1991-1993, the rates for persons in these same age groups were 13.0 and 14.5, respectively. Since 1980, suicide has been either the second or third leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 years in the overall U.S. population. Although knowledge about suicide among AI/ANs has increased, information about the efficacy of suicide prevention and intervention programs in general, and specifically in AI/AN communities, is scarce. In January 1990, following concern raised by tribal officials in 1988 about suicide among youth, a Western Athabaskan tribe in rural New Mexico implemented a suicide prevention and intervention program that targeted tribal members aged 15-19 years. This report summarizes the results of the program through 1997 and indicates that rates of suicide and attempted suicide among this target population decreased substantially after the program was implemented.

  6. Is income or employment a stronger predictor of smoking than education in economically less developed countries? A cross-sectional study in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In developed European countries in the last phase of the smoking epidemic, education is a stronger predictor of smoking than income or employment. We examine whether this also applies in economically less developed countries. Methods Data from 7218 respondents in the 25-64 age group came from two National Health Interview Surveys conducted in 2000 and 2003 in Hungary. Independent effects of educational level, income and employment status were studied in relation to smoking prevalence, initiation and continuation for all age groups combined and separately for 25-34, 35-49 and 50-64 years old. Absolute levels were evaluated by using age-standardized prevalence rates. Relative differences were assessed by means of logistic regression. Results Education and income, but not employment, were associated with equally large differences in smoking prevalence in Hungary in the 25-64 age group. Among men, smoking initiation was related to low educational level, whereas smoking continuation was related to low income. Among women, low education and low income were associated with both high initiation and high continuation rates. Considerable differences were found between the age groups. Inverse social gradients were generally strongest in the youngest age groups. However, smoking continuation among men had the strongest association with low income for the middle-aged group. Conclusions Patterns of inequalities in smoking in Hungary can be best understood in relation to two processes: the smoking epidemic, and the additional effects of poverty. Equity orientated tobacco control measures should target the low educated to prevent their smoking initiation, and the poor to improve their cessation rates. PMID:21314990

  7. [Dental care for foreigners in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Balázs, Péter; Oesterle, August

    2008-10-01

    High quality elective dental care for foreign patients was not exceptional in Hungary before the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Nevertheless, it became business as usual only in the new era thanks to the open state borders and the international competitive market environment. Unfortunately, no scientific study concerning this phenomenon has been conducted so far, however its professional and economic significance has been indicated by day-to-day experience. Additionally, the term "dental tourism" also used in international scientific papers became a commonplace in Hungary with unfavourable connotations. The present survey was the first to study this phenomenon by scientific standards in the most involved areas, namely in the capital city Budapest and in three counties in the Western Hungarian Region. Data collecting was performed by a self-reported questionnaire sent via conventional mail to all members of the Dental Section of the Hungarian Medical Chamber practicing in those indicated regions. Respond rates were 20.65% in Budapest and 25.34% in Western Hungary. The sample obtained this way, clearly indicated dimensions of cross-border patient migration and its economic significance as well. In Western Hungary 80.81% of foreign patients came from the neighbouring Austria and two out of ten practices realized 40 to 100% of their income out of this business. In Budapest foreign patients' nationality was more diversified. The largest group arrived from the United Kingdom (9.93%). Nevertheless the economic impact of dental tourism in Budapest is not relevant and outbalanced by a considerable domestic demand on the local private market.

  8. Gender Role Orientation with Health Literacy and Self-Efficacy for Healthy Eating among Japanese Workers in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Chizuru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masafumi; Kato, Mio; Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Gender role, independent of biological sex, affects health. However, research on healthy eating that considers the importance of gender norms is scarce. People who are androgynous and have high masculinity and femininity are reported to have better health practices than other people. The present study aimed to examine the differences in health literacy (HL) and self-efficacy for healthy eating by gender role in Japanese men and women. Participants were 629 men and women aged 25-34 years, recruited via a Japanese Internet research company database. Participants were categorized into four gender role groups using the Japanese Gender Role Index. HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating were assessed using the healthy eating literacy (HEL) scale and the healthy eating and weight self-efficacy (HEWSE) scale. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc tests and hierarchical multiple regression were used to test the research hypotheses. We found that the Androgynous group had significantly higher HEL and HEWSE scores than the Feminine and Undifferentiated groups. The Masculine group scored significantly higher on both measures than the Undifferentiated group. Being Androgynous (HEL: β = 0.34, p < 0.001; HEWSE: β = 0.30, p < 0.001) was a strong predictor for higher scores even after considering other predictors. The results showed significant associations between gender role orientation and individual HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating. These findings may be relevant for promoting healthy eating from the perspective of gender norms. PMID:27376069

  9. Influence of Grain Refinement on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Tungsten Carbide/Zirconia Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasser, Ali; Kassem, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Ayman; Gepreel, Mohamed A.; Moniem, Ahmed A.

    2016-09-01

    WC-W2C/ZrO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by pressure-less sintering (PS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) of tungsten carbide/yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia, WC/TZ-3Y. Prior to sintering, WC/TZ-3Y powders were totally ball-milled for 20 and 120 h to obtain targeted nano (N) and nano-nano (N-N) structures, indicated by transmission electron microscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). The milled powders were processed via PS at temperatures of 1773 and 1973 K for 70 min and SPS at 1773 K for 10 min. PXRD as well as SEM-EDS indicated the formation of WC-W2C/ZrO2 composites after sintering. The mechanical properties were characterized via Vicker microhardness and nanoindentation techniques indicating enhancements for sufficiently consolidated composites with high W2C content. The effects of reducing particle sizes on phase transformation, microstructure and mechanical properties are reported. In general, the composites based on the N structure showed higher microhardness than those for N-N structure, except for the samples PS-sintered at 1773 K. For instance, after SPS at 1773 K, the N structure showed a microhardness of 18.24 GPa. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that nanoscale hardness up to 22.33 and 25.34 GPa and modulus of elasticity up to 340 and 560 GPa can be obtained for WC-W2C/ZrO2 nanocomposites synthesized by the low-cost PS at 1973 K and by SPS at 1773 K, respectively.

  10. Bumetanide decreases canine cerebrospinal fluid production. In vivo evidence for NaCl cotransport in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, S; Wagner, K R

    1993-01-01

    Na/K/2Cl cotransport carrier plays an important role in fluid absorption and secretion in many epithelial tissues. The role of the carrier, however, in mammalian choroidal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production has been controversial. We used ventriculo-cisternal perfusion (VCP) labeled with blue dextran with or without bumetanide and measured choroidal CSF production in anesthetized, and paralyzed, mechanically ventilated dogs. During 3 h of VCP, mean intracerebroventricular and arterial pressures, PaCO2, pH, [HCO3-], and serum osmolality remained normal in both groups (n = 9 in each group). Beginning 90 min after the start of VCP, choroidal CSF production was measured every 15 min. In group I (control group), values for CSF production (means +/- SD) were 49 +/- 20, 49 +/- 21, 51 +/- 21, 51 +/- 23, 48 +/- 20, 56 +/- 24, and 48 +/- 20 microliters/min, at 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. These values did not differ significantly from each other. In group II (bumetanide group), after baseline control CSF production had been determined at 90 and 105 min, bumetanide (10(-4) mol/liter) was added to VCP. Mean values for CSF production were 54 +/- 15 and 52 +/- 17 microliters/min before, and 39 +/- 25, 34 +/- 19, 28 +/- 10, 30 +/- 17, and 30 +/- 18 microliters/min after addition of bumetanide at 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. Comparing the two groups, baseline values for CSF production measured at 90 and 105 min did not differ significantly. After addition of bumetanide (group II), however, decrements in CSF production varied from 30 +/- 27% at 120 min to 47 +/- 14% at 150 min, which were significantly different from changes in group I. The results of this study indicate that NaCl cotransport carrier is involved in secretion of CSF in dogs, and inhibition of the transporter results in approximately 50% reduction in CSF production. PMID:8227341

  11. Young adults with hemophilia in the U.S.: demographics, comorbidities, and health status.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Randall; Baker, Judith; Riske, Brenda; Ullman, Megan; Niu, Xiaoli; Norton, Kristi; Lou, Mimi; Nichol, Michael B

    2015-12-01

    Improvements in hemophilia care over the last several decades might lead to expectations of a near-normal quality of life for young adults with hemophilia. However, few published reports specifically examine health status indicators in this population. To remedy this knowledge gap, we examined the impact of hemophilia on physical and social functioning and quality of life among a national US cohort of 141 young men with hemophilia aged 18-34 years of age who received care at 10 geographically diverse, federally funded hemophilia treatment centers in 11 states between 2005 and 2013 and enrolled in the Hemophilia Utilization Group Studies. Indicators studied included educational achievement, employment status, insurance, health-related quality of life, and prevalence of the following comorbidities: pain, range of motion limitation, overweight/obesity, and viral status. The cohort was analyzed to compare those aged 18-24 to those aged 25-34 years. When compared to the general US adult population, this nationally representative cohort of young US adults with hemophilia experienced significant health and social burdens: more liver disease, joint damage, joint pain, and unemployment as well as lower high-school graduation rates. Nearly half were overweight or obese. Conversely, this cohort had higher levels of health insurance and equivalent mental health scores. While attention has typically focused on newborns, children, adolescents, and increasingly, on older persons with hemophilia, our findings suggest that a specific focus on young adults is warranted to determine the most effective interventions to improve health and functioning for this apparently vulnerable age group. PMID:26619192

  12. Decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B and a low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infections in the general population of the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, P.; Yersin, C.; Herminie, P.; Lavanchy, D.; Frei, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was carried out on a random sex- and age-stratified sample of 1006 individuals aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles islands. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies were detected using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), followed by a Western blot assay in the case of a positive result for anti-HCV. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HBc antibodies was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-9.9%) and the percentage prevalence among males/females increased from 7.0/3.1 to 19.1/13.4 in the age groups 25-34 to 55-64 years, respectively. Two men and three women were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, with an age-adjusted seroprevalence of 0.34% (95% CI: 0.1-0.8%). Two out of these five subjects who were positive for anti-HCV also had anti-HBc antibodies. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc was significantly higher in unskilled workers, persons with low education, and heavy drinkers. The age-specific seroprevalence of anti-HBc in this population-based survey, which was conducted in 1994, was approximately three times lower than in a previous patient-based survey carried out in 1979. Although there are methodological differences between the two surveys, it is likely that the substantial decrease in anti-HBc prevalence during the last 15 years may be due to significant socioeconomic development and the systematic screening of blood donors since 1981. Because hepatitis C virus infections are serious and the cost of treatment is high, the fact that the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is at present low should not be an argument for not screening blood donors for anti-HCV and eliminating those who are positive. PMID:10612888

  13. Women Empowerment and Its Relation with Health Seeking Behavior in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mainuddin, AKM; Ara Begum, Housne; Rawal, Lal B.; Islam, Anwar; Shariful Islam, SM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, proxy indicators for women empowerment in mobility and health seeking behavior related decision making. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior on mobility and decision making, controlling the effect of other independent variables. Results: The results showed that only 12% women were empowered to decide on their own about seeking healthcare and 8.5% in healthcare seeking for their children. In multivariate analysis women empowerment in health seeking behavior was higher among age group 25-34 years (OR 1.76, [CI = 0.82-3.21]), women’s education, husband’s education, age at marriage > 18 years (OR 6.38, [CI = 0.98-4.21]) and women’s working status (OR 16.44, [CI = 0.79-2.71]). Conclusion: Women empowerment enhances their decision-making authority regarding health seeking behavior. Acknowledging and adopting the implications of these findings are essential for an integrated health and development strategy for Bangladesh and achieving the MDGs. PMID:26175761

  14. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  15. Changing patterns in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)and Hodgkin lymphoma association in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dhiab, Myriam Ben; Ziadi, Sonia; Saad, Hanene; Louhichi, Teheni; Trimeche, Mounir

    2016-09-01

    We compared the features of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) association in Tunisia in two periods of time, 1991-2001 (111 cases) and 2002-2012 (122 cases). The investigation of the EBV status by EBER in situ hybridization showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of EBV-positive HL from 69.3 % for the period 1991-2001 to 40.1 % for the 2002-2012 period (p = 0.00001). EBV positivity has decreased in all age groups but was more pronounced among young patients, in the 15-24-year age group (46.1 vs 10.3 %, p = 0.003), in the 25-34-year age group (56.2 vs 25 %, p = 0.04), and among children (88.4 vs 59.2 %, p = 0.01). This decrease in EBV-positive HL over time contrasted with a remarkable increase in EBV-negative HL in young adults aged 15-34 years (51.2 vs 83 %; p = 0.001), especially among women (59.1 vs 91.2 %; p = 0.01). The decrease in EBV-positive HL over time concerns particularly the nodular sclerosis histological subtype (69.2 vs 31.6 %, p = 0.000001). These results indicate that the epidemiology of HL and its association with EBV are changing over time, with a trend toward a Western profile, and point toward the emergence of other environmental causative factors, especially among young women, which remain to be identified. PMID:27378019

  16. The Utility of Ultrasound Surveillance of Fluid and Growth in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Jauk, Victoria C.; Owen, John; Biggio, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of ultrasound surveillance in obese women. Study Design Retrospective cohort of all obese women undergoing sonography at a single center from 2005–2013. Inclusion criteria were: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, singleton, ≥1 ultrasound performed <20 weeks, and ≥1 ultrasound performed ≥24 weeks. Pregnancies with medical complications, fetal anomalies or preterm premature rupture of membranes were excluded. Outcomes considered were small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, oligohydramnios, and polyhydramnios. We calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for scans performed during 3 gestational age ranges (240/7-316/7, 320/7-356/7, and ≥360/7 weeks). Results 2,002 sonograms were performed in 1,164 obese women ≥24 weeks. SGA was diagnosed in 59 (5.1%) pregnancies; 7 (0.6%) were diagnosed <32 weeks (NNS 159 (95% CI 69–490). LGA was diagnosed in 38 (3.3%) cases; only 1 was identified <32 weeks and was not LGA at birth. For every 29 (95% CI 19–46) scans performed >36 weeks, 1 case of macrosomia was identified. Amniotic fluid abnormalities were diagnosed in 44 (3.8%) pregnancies (oligohydramnios n=19, polyhydramnios n=25); 34.1% were diagnosed <32 weeks (NNS 113, 95% CI 55–282 for oligohydramnios, NNS 100, 95% CI 50–230 for polyhydramnios). At ≥36 weeks, 7 (95% CI 6–8) scans were needed to diagnose any fluid or growth abnormality. Conclusion In obese women without co-morbidities, few sonographic diagnoses of amniotic fluid or fetal growth abnormalities are made <32 weeks gestational age. Therefore, if a policy of serial sonographic surveillance is utilized, we suggest ultrasounds for fluid and growth in obese women begin ≥32 weeks. PMID:24791732

  17. Episodic acidification and changes in fish diversity in Pennsylvania headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heard, R.M.; Sharpe, W.E.; Carline, R.F.; Kimmel, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Current water chemistry and fish communities in 70 Pennsylvania streams were compared with historical records to determine whether fish species richness had declined and, if so, the possible role of acidification. First-, second-, and third-order streams were selected, and stream sites sampled during the 1961-1971 survey were resampled during May and June 1994 in the Appalachian Plateaus province and during June 1995 in the Valley and Ridge province. Stream-flow was measured and a habitat assessment was completed at each site. Dominant bedrock types influencing the stream sampling site were determined for the Appalachian Plateaus streams. Episodic water chemistry was collected for 39 of the 50 Appalachian Plateaus streams and 14 of the 20 Valley and Ridge streams during the winter and spring of 1996. Thirty-eight (76%) streams of the Appalachian Plateaus province and 13 (65%) streams in the Valley and Ridge province had a loss of fish species since the 1961-1971 sampling period. Habitat scores were not related to losses of fish species. Of the 53 streams sampled during runoff episodes 22 (42%) increased in total dissolved aluminum by more than 50 ??g/L, and 31 (58%) streams decreased in pH by 0.5 units or more. Minnows (Cyprinidae) and darters (Percidae) are sensitive to acidity and were the species most often lost. Streams draining watersheds of the Appalachian Plateaus province dominated by Pottsville bedrock had more acidic water quality during base flow and storm flow sampling periods than streams dominated by Pocono bedrock. The results of this study indicate that many Pennsylvania streams have undergone an alarming reduction in fish diversity during the past 25-34 years. In many of these streams the loss in fish diversity may be attributed to episodic acidification.

  18. The effect of active and passive intravenous cocaine administration on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Miszkiel, Joanna; Detka, Jan; Cholewa, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Ewa; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    According to a current hypothesis of learning processes, recent papers pointed out to an important role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in drug addiction. We employed the Western blotting techniques to examine the ERK activity immediately after cocaine iv self-administration and in different drug-free withdrawal periods in rats. To distinguish motivational vs. pharmacological effects of the psychostimulant intake, a "yoked" procedure was used. Animals were decapitated after 14 daily cocaine self-administration sessions or on the 1st, 3rd or 10th extinction days. At each time point the activity of the ERK was assessed in several brain structures, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. Passive, repeated iv cocaine administration resulted in a 45% increase in ERK phosphorylation in the hippocampus while cocaine self-administration did not change brain ERK activity. On the 1st day of extinction, the activity of the ERK in the prefrontal cortex was decreased in rats with a history of cocaine chronic intake: by 66% for "active" cocaine group and by 35% for "yoked" cocaine group. On the 3rd day the reduction in the ERK activity (25-34%) was observed in the hippocampus for both cocaine-treated groups, and also in the nucleus accumbens for "yoked" cocaine group (40%). On the 10th day of extinction there was no significant alteration in ERK activity in any group of rats. Our findings suggest that cortical ERK is involved in cocaine seeking behavior in rats. They also indicate the time and regional adaptations in this enzyme activity after cocaine withdrawal. PMID:24948065

  19. Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities, Especially Diagnosis and Prevention of Recurrence for Chronic Thrombosis-Serial Changes of Sonography and D-Dimer.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Hiromitsu; Kanaoka, Yasushi; Murata, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Masami; Takesue, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Nobuo; Sumimoto, Ryo; Ohgi, Shigetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) have restricted mobility capability and have been bedridden for long periods because of paralysis of the extremities caused by abnormal muscular tonicity due to cerebral palsy and developmental disabilities. Such patients are associated with a high risk of complications like deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we report twelve patients (42.9%) with DVT among 28 patients with SMID during prolonged bed rest. However, we did not detect thrombosis in the soleal veins, finding it mostly in the femoral and common femoral veins. We applied anticoagulant therapy (warfarin), and carefully followed up the cases with DVT, regulating the warfarin dosage at prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) values around two to prevent recurrence of chronic thrombosis. Regarding laboratory data for the coagulation system, there were no cases above 5 µg/ml for the D-dimer and there were significant differences between the DVT and non-DVT groups in the D-dimer levels. The plasma levels of D-dimer in patients with DVT diminished to less than 1.0 µg/ml after warfarin treatment. Concerning sudden death (4.2%) in patients with SMID, we have to be very careful of the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism due to DVT. Therefore, we should consider the particularity of the underdeveloped vascular system from underlying diseases for the evaluation of DVT. A detailed study of DVT as a vascular complication is very important for the smooth medical care of SMID, and serial assessment of compression Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities, as a noninvasive examination and measurement of D-dimer, is very helpful. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 34-42.). PMID:26730253

  20. Cirrhosis and Advanced Fibrosis in Hispanics in Texas: The Dominant Contribution of Central Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jingjing; Watt, Gordon P; Lee, MinJae; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Pan, Jen-Jung; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Fallon, Michael B; Beretta, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a leading cause of death in Hispanics and Hispanics who live in South Texas have the highest incidence of liver cancer in the United States. We aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of cirrhosis in this population. Clinical and demographic variables were extracted for 2466 participants in the community-based Cameron County Hispanic Cohort in South Texas. Aspartate transaminase to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) was used to predict cirrhosis in Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. The prevalence of cirrhosis using APRI≥2 was 0.94%, which is nearly 4-fold higher than the national prevalence. Using APRI≥1, the overall prevalence of cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis was 3.54%. In both analyses, highest prevalence was observed in males, specifically in the 25-34 age group. Risk factors independently associated with APRI≥2 and APRI≥1 included hepatitis C, diabetes and central obesity with a remarkable population attributable fraction of 52.5% and 65.3% from central obesity, respectively. Excess alcohol consumption was also independently associated with APRI≥2. The presence of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing-3 gene variants was independently associated with APRI≥1 in participants >50 years old. Males with both central obesity and excess alcohol consumption presented with cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis at a young age. Alarmingly high prevalence of cirrhosis and advanced fibrosis was identified in Hispanics in South Texas, affecting young males in particular. Central obesity was identified as the major risk factor. Public health efforts are urgently needed to increase awareness and diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis in Hispanics. PMID:26950933

  1. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Adults Screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Ahoada–East Local Government Area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Azuonwu; Osaro, Erhabor; Nnenna, Frank-Peterside

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using “Determine” (Abbott Laboratories, Japan), Start–Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea). All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Subjects included 152) consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25±7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%). HIV infection was higher among females (10.9%) compared to males (10.1%) and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1%) (P= 0.08). HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74%) compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection. PMID:22223994

  2. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Assessment of Sandalwood Essential Oil in Human Breast Cell Lines MCF-7 and MCF-10A.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Carmen; Morales, Luisa; Sastre, Miguel; Haskins, William E; Matta, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Sandalwood essential oil (SEO) is extracted from Santalum trees. Although α-santalol, a main constituent of SEO, has been studied as a chemopreventive agent, the genotoxic activity of the whole oil in human breast cell lines is still unknown. The main objective of this study was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of SEO in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and nontumorigenic breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cells. Proteins associated with SEO genotoxicity were identified using a proteomics approach. Commercially available, high-purity, GC/MS characterized SEO was used to perform the experiments. The main constituents reported in the oil were (Z)-α-santalol (25.34%), (Z)-nuciferol (18.34%), (E)-β-santalol (10.97%), and (E)-nuciferol (10.46%). Upon exposure to SEO (2-8 μg/mL) for 24 hours, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess genotoxicity. SEO exposure induced single- and double-strand breaks selectively in the DNA of MCF-7 cells. Quantitative LC/MS-based proteomics allowed identification of candidate proteins involved in this response: Ku70 (p = 1.37E - 2), Ku80 (p = 5.8E - 3), EPHX1 (p = 3.3E - 3), and 14-3-3ζ (p = 4.0E - 4). These results provide the first evidence that SEO is genotoxic and capable of inducing DNA single- and double-strand breaks in MCF-7 cells. PMID:27293457

  3. Delayed childbearing in the U.S.: facts and fictions.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W H; Nord, C W

    1984-11-01

    Between 1970-82, the proportion of 1st births in the US to women 25 and older rose from 19-36% and the proportion of women still childless at ages 25-34 increased by 56% at about the same time. Although a sharp contrast with the baby boom era of the 1950s and 1960s, todays's epidemic of delayed childbearing is similar to patterns earlier in the 20th century. As then, much is due to delayed age at marriage, but baby boomers now in the their late 20s and early 30s are also delaying childbirth after marriage. The trend stems in part from their economic difficulties as they compete in a tight job market caused both by their large numbers and a turbulent economy. But it is also related to women's increasing education and, in turn, increasing opportunities in and commitment to the labor force, which can be expected to encourage a delayed childbearing even after prospects brighten for young people. Although a diverse group, most of today's delayed childbearers are white, highly educated, 2-career couples. Adequate daytime care for preschool children is a prime concern. Although more employers now offer childcare assistance and flexible work schedules to working parents, the juggle between jobs and childraising can be a strain. On the plus side are delayed childbearers' greater maturity and generally higher incomes, which can ease potential problems created by parent-child age differences as their children grow up. Businesses have been quick to respond to the new market of older, affluent, 1st-time mothers. New methods of treating of circumventing infertility and prenatal detection of chromosomal birth defects can now help overcome potential biological problems that may concern women who choose to delay childbearing past age 30.

  4. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Assessment of Sandalwood Essential Oil in Human Breast Cell Lines MCF-7 and MCF-10A

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Carmen; Morales, Luisa; Sastre, Miguel; Haskins, William E.; Matta, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Sandalwood essential oil (SEO) is extracted from Santalum trees. Although α-santalol, a main constituent of SEO, has been studied as a chemopreventive agent, the genotoxic activity of the whole oil in human breast cell lines is still unknown. The main objective of this study was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of SEO in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and nontumorigenic breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cells. Proteins associated with SEO genotoxicity were identified using a proteomics approach. Commercially available, high-purity, GC/MS characterized SEO was used to perform the experiments. The main constituents reported in the oil were (Z)-α-santalol (25.34%), (Z)-nuciferol (18.34%), (E)-β-santalol (10.97%), and (E)-nuciferol (10.46%). Upon exposure to SEO (2–8 μg/mL) for 24 hours, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess genotoxicity. SEO exposure induced single- and double-strand breaks selectively in the DNA of MCF-7 cells. Quantitative LC/MS-based proteomics allowed identification of candidate proteins involved in this response: Ku70 (p = 1.37E − 2), Ku80 (p = 5.8E − 3), EPHX1 (p = 3.3E − 3), and 14-3-3ζ (p = 4.0E − 4). These results provide the first evidence that SEO is genotoxic and capable of inducing DNA single- and double-strand breaks in MCF-7 cells. PMID:27293457

  5. Seroprevalence of rubella in the cord blood of pregnant women and congenital rubella incidence in Nha Trang, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Masami; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Vynnycky, Emilia; Motomura, Hideki; Tho, Le Huu; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Ariyoshi, Koya; Anh, Dang Duc; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-26

    To investigate susceptibility to and factors associated with rubella infection among pregnant mothers and to estimate the burden of congenital rubella infection (CRI) in Vietnam where rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) is not included in the routine immunization program, we conducted a prospective cohort study in Nha Trang, Vietnam between 2009 and 2010. Rubella-specific immunoglobulin-M and immunoglobulin-G were investigated in cord blood samples by enzyme immunoassay. Corresponding clinical-epidemiological data were analyzed and the national congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence was estimated using modeling. We enrolled 1988 pairs of mothers aged 17-45 years and their newborn babies. No mothers had received RCV. Multivariate analysis revealed that mothers aged 17-24 (aOR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.8) or 25-34 (1.4, 1.0-2.1) years were more likely to be susceptible than those aged 35-45 years. Overall 28.9% (574/1988, 95% CI: 26.9-30.9%) of mothers were seronegative. The CRI rate was 151 (95% CI: 0-322) per 100,000 live births. Modeling estimated that 3788 babies (95% CI: 3283-4143) were born with CRS annually in Vietnam with an overall CRS incidence of 234 (95% CI: 207-262) cases per 100,000 live births. A substantial proportion of women of childbearing age (WCBA) are at risk of rubella infection during pregnancy and this can result in a high frequency of miscarriage or burden of CRS across Vietnam. Prompt introduction of RCV into national immunization program with catch-up vaccination to children and WCBA will reduce CRI in Vietnam.

  6. A Study to Assess the Emotional Disorders with Special Reference to Stress of Medical Students of Agartala Government Medical College and Govinda Ballabh Pant Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Reang, Taranga; Bhattacharjya, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stress is very common psychological phenomena where medical students faced in day to day activities. Epidemiological studies have asserted that about 70-80% of the diseases may be related to stress. Research related to this stress especially among medical students is essential, considering their learning, role and responsibilities as a future physician and health intervention programs. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of stress and identify stressors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students and self administered GHQ-12 and stressor questionnaire were used to collect information regarding stress. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratio (OR). Results: Prevalence of stress was 94.52% and more common among females. 33.56% students felt constantly under strain and 25.34% had loss of sleep over worry. Majority of the students of all semesters had stress (P > 0.05) and stressors viz. ‘competition for marks’ (P = 0.005), ‘frequent examination’ (P = 0.001), ‘difficulty in finding time for recreation’ (P = 0.014) and ‘being away from home’ (P = 0.027) were predominantly experienced by the 1st year medical students. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the causal effect of main parameter on the GHQ caseness and students who found difficulties in following teaching language among the caseness had 81.59% higher chance of developing stress (OR = 8.159, CI = 1.228-54.213). Conclusion: The stress experience was more common due to academics and seen among all year of medical students. Strategy development for eliminating stressors is necessary for promoting healthy life. PMID:24302820

  7. Spatial flow-volume dissociation of the cerebral microcirculatory response to mild hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Stefanovic, Bojana; Koretsky, Alan P; Silva, Afonso C

    2006-08-15

    The spatial and temporal response of the cerebral microcirculation to mild hypercapnia was investigated via two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. Cortical vessels, traversing the top 200 microm of somatosensory cortex, were visualized in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats equipped with a cranial window. Intraluminal vessel diameters, transit times of fluorescent dextrans and red blood cells (RBC) velocities in individual capillaries were measured under normocapnic (PaCO2= 32.6 +/- 2.6 mm Hg) and slightly hypercapnic (PaCO2= 45 +/- 7 mm Hg) conditions. This gentle increase in PaCO2 was sufficient to produce robust and significant increases in both arterial and venous vessel diameters, concomitant to decreases in transit times of a bolus of dye from artery to venule (14%, P < 0.05) and from artery to vein (27%, P < 0.05). On the whole, capillaries exhibited a significant increase in diameter (16 +/- 33%, P < 0.001, n = 393) and a substantial increase in RBC velocities (75 +/- 114%, P < 0.001, n = 46) with hypercapnia. However, the response of the cerebral microvasculature to modest increases in PaCO2 was spatially heterogeneous. The maximal relative dilatation (range: 5-77%; mean +/- SD: 25 +/- 34%, P < 0.001, n = 271) occurred in the smallest capillaries (1.6 microm-4.0 microm resting diameter), while medium and larger capillaries (4.4 microm-6.8 microm resting diameter) showed no significant changes in diameter (P > 0.08, n = 122). In contrast, on average, RBC velocities increased less in the smaller capillaries (39 +/- 5%, P < 0.002, n = 22) than in the medium and larger capillaries (107 +/- 142%, P < 0.003, n = 24). Thus, the changes in capillary RBC velocities were spatially distinct from the observed volumetric changes and occurred to homogenize cerebral blood flow along capillaries of all diameters.

  8. Sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive people in Tehran, Iran: a mixed-method descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Moazen, Babak; Rezaei, Farimah; Hajizadeh, Shayesteh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Setayesh, Hamid Reza; Mohraz, Minoo; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: People Living with HIV (PLHIV) are highly stigmatized and consequently hard-to-access by researchers and importantly, public health outreach in Iran, possibly due to the existing socio-cultural situation in this country. The present study aimed to evaluate the sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Methods: As a mixed-method descriptive study, this project was conducted in 2012 in Tehran, Iran. In this study, we evaluated and discussed socio-demographic characteristics, family and social support, sexual behaviors, fertility desires and needs, PMTCT services, contraceptive methods, unintended pregnancy and safe abortion, and Pap smear tests among 400 participants referring to the behavioral disorders consulting centers. Results: Of the sample 240 (60%) were male and 160 (40%) were female. About 50% of women and 40% of men were 25-34 years old. More than 60% of men and 96% of women were married, while more than 50% of the participants had HIV-positive spouses at the time of study. According to the results, fertility desire was observed among more than 30% of female and 40% of male participants. Results of the in-depth interviews indicate that the participants are not satisfied with most of the existing services offered to address their sexual and reproductive health needs. Conclusion: Despite the availability of services, most of sexual and reproductive health needs of the PLHIV are overlooked by the health system in Iran. Paying attention to sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Iran not only protects their right to live long and healthy lives, but also may prevent the transmission of HIV from the patients to others within the community. PMID:26340488

  9. Outbreak of boils in an Alaskan village

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Michael G; McCumber, Barbara J; Asay, Elvin D; Egeland, Grace M

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether taking steam baths was associated with furunculosis and to evaluate possible risk factors for the occurrence of boils during a large outbreak in Alaska. Design A cohort study of village residents, a case-control study, and assessment of environmental cultures taken from steam baths. Setting Village in southwestern Alaska. Participants 1 adult member from 77 of the 92 house-holds in the village was interviewed; 115 residents with at least one boil occurring between January 1 and December 12, 1996 were considered to be cases; 209 residents without a boil acted as the control group. All 459 village residents were included in the cohort study. Main outcome measure Rate of infection among all residents and residents who regularly took steam baths, risk factors for infection, and relative risk of infection. Results 115 people (25%) had had at least one boil. Men were more likely to have had a boil than women (relative risk 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.2). The highest rate of infection was among people ages 25-34 years (32/76; 42%). No children younger than 2 years had had boils. Boils were associated with using a steam bath (odds ratio 8.1; 3.3 to 20.1). Among those who used a steam bath, the likelihood of developing boils was reduced by routinely sitting on a towel while bathing, which women were more likely to do, and bathing with fewer than 8 people. Of the 93 samples taken from steam baths, one Staphylococcus aureus isolate was obtained from a bench in an outer dressing room. Conclusion Using a steam bath was associated with developing boils in this outbreak in a village in Alaska. People should be advised to sit on towels while using steam baths. PMID:10778372

  10. Investigating the Convergence between Actigraphy, Maternal Sleep Diaries, and the Child Behavior Checklist as Measures of Sleep in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Simard, Valérie; Bernier, Annie; Carrier, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined associations among actigraphy, maternal sleep diaries, and the parent-completed child behavior checklist (CBCL) sleep items. These items are often used as a sleep measure despite their unclear validity with young children. Eighty middle class families (39 girls) drawn from a community sample participated. Children (M = 25.34 months, SD = 1.04) wore an actigraph monitor (Mini-Mitter(®) Actiwatch Actigraph, Respironics) for a 72-h period, and mothers completed a sleep diary during the same period. Eighty-nine percent of the mothers and 75% of the fathers also filled out the CBCL (1.5-5). Mother and father CBCL scores were highly correlated. Overall, good correspondence was found between the CBCL filled out by mothers and sleep efficiency and duration derived from maternal sleep diaries (r between -0.39 and -0.25, p ≤ 0.05). Good correspondence was also found between the CBCL filled out by fathers and sleep efficiency as derived from maternal sleep diaries (r between -0.39 and -0.24, p ≤ 0.05), but not with sleep duration (all results were non-significant). Very few correlations between actigraphy and the CLBL scores reached statistical significance. The Bland and Altman method revealed that sleep diaries and actigraphy showed poor agreement with one another when assessing sleep duration and sleep efficiency. However, diary- and actigraphy-derived sleep durations were significantly correlated. Consistent with findings among older groups of children, this study suggests that the CBCL sleep items, sleep diaries, and actigraphy tap into quite different aspects of sleep among toddlers. The choice of which measures to use should be based on the exact aspects of sleep that one aims to assess. Overall, despite its frequent use, the composite sleep score of the CBCL shows poor links to objective measures of sleep duration and sleep efficiency. PMID:25426082

  11. Microscale mapping of alteration conditions and potential biosignatures in basaltic-ultramafic rocks on early Earth and beyond.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Eugene G; McLoughlin, Nicola; Lanari, Pierre; Erambert, Muriel; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Subseafloor environments preserved in Archean greenstone belts provide an analogue for investigating potential subsurface habitats on Mars. The c. 3.5-3.4 Ga pillow lava metabasalts of the mid-Archean Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, have been argued to contain the earliest evidence for microbial subseafloor life. This includes candidate trace fossils in the form of titanite microtextures, and sulfur isotopic signatures of pyrite preserved in metabasaltic glass of the c. 3.472 Ga Hooggenoeg Formation. It has been contended that similar microtextures in altered martian basalts may represent potential extraterrestrial biosignatures of microbe-fluid-rock interaction. But despite numerous studies describing these putative early traces of life, a detailed metamorphic characterization of the microtextures and their host alteration conditions in the ancient pillow lava metabasites is lacking. Here, we present a new nondestructive technique with which to study the in situ metamorphic alteration conditions associated with potential biosignatures in mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation. Our approach combines quantitative microscale compositional mapping by electron microprobe with inverse thermodynamic modeling to derive low-temperature chlorite crystallization conditions. We found that the titanite microtextures formed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies conditions. Two chlorite temperature groups were identified in the maps surrounding the titanite microtextures and record peak metamorphic conditions at 315 ± 40°C (XFe3+(chlorite) = 25-34%) and lower-temperature chlorite veins/microdomains at T = 210 ± 40°C (lower XFe3+(chlorite) = 40-45%). These results provide the first metamorphic constraints in textural context on the Barberton titanite microtextures and thereby improve our understanding of the local preservation conditions of these potential biosignatures. We suggest that this approach may prove to be an important tool in future

  12. Cirrhosis and Advanced Fibrosis in Hispanics in Texas: The Dominant Contribution of Central Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jingjing; Watt, Gordon P; Lee, MinJae; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Pan, Jen-Jung; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Fallon, Michael B; Beretta, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a leading cause of death in Hispanics and Hispanics who live in South Texas have the highest incidence of liver cancer in the United States. We aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of cirrhosis in this population. Clinical and demographic variables were extracted for 2466 participants in the community-based Cameron County Hispanic Cohort in South Texas. Aspartate transaminase to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) was used to predict cirrhosis in Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. The prevalence of cirrhosis using APRI≥2 was 0.94%, which is nearly 4-fold higher than the national prevalence. Using APRI≥1, the overall prevalence of cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis was 3.54%. In both analyses, highest prevalence was observed in males, specifically in the 25-34 age group. Risk factors independently associated with APRI≥2 and APRI≥1 included hepatitis C, diabetes and central obesity with a remarkable population attributable fraction of 52.5% and 65.3% from central obesity, respectively. Excess alcohol consumption was also independently associated with APRI≥2. The presence of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing-3 gene variants was independently associated with APRI≥1 in participants >50 years old. Males with both central obesity and excess alcohol consumption presented with cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis at a young age. Alarmingly high prevalence of cirrhosis and advanced fibrosis was identified in Hispanics in South Texas, affecting young males in particular. Central obesity was identified as the major risk factor. Public health efforts are urgently needed to increase awareness and diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis in Hispanics.

  13. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31. I. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XIX

    SciTech Connect

    Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella; Garofalo, Alessia; Federici, Luciana E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: alessia.garofalo@studio.unibo.it; and others

    2013-12-10

    We present B, V time-series photometry of Andromeda XIX (And XIX), the most extended (half-light radius of 6.'2) of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal companions, which we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We surveyed a 23' × 23' area centered on And XIX and present the deepest color-magnitude diagram (CMD) ever obtained for this galaxy, reaching, at V ∼ 26.3 mag, about one magnitude below the horizontal branch (HB). The CMD shows a prominent and slightly widened red giant branch, along with a predominantly red HB, which extends to the blue to significantly populate the classical instability strip. We have identified 39 pulsating variable stars, of which 31 are of RR Lyrae type and 8 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). Twelve of the RR Lyrae variables and three of the ACs are located within And XIX's half light radius. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars ((P {sub ab}) = 0.62 days, σ = 0.03 days) and the period-amplitude diagram qualify And XIX as an Oosterhoff-Intermediate system. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars ((V(RR)) = 25.34 mag, σ = 0.10 mag), we determine a distance modulus of (m – M){sub 0} = 24.52 ± 0.23 mag in a scale where the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is 18.5 ± 0.1 mag. The ACs follow a well-defined Period-Wesenheit (PW) relation that appears to be in very good agreement with the PW relationship defined by the ACs in the LMC.

  14. Heart rate variability and cardiac reflexes in small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Galland, Barbara C; Taylor, Barry J; Bolton, David P G; Sayers, Rachel M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the influence of intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal development on heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac reflexes, we studied 27 healthy small for gestational age (SGA) and 23 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants during a nap study. Resting HRV was assessed by point dispersion of Poincaré plots for overall (SDRR) and instantaneous beat-to-beat variability (SDDeltaRR) and the ratio (SDRR/SDDeltaRR). Heart rate reflex and arousal responses to a 60 degrees head-up tilt were determined. All tests/measures were repeated twice in quiet and active sleep and in prone and supine sleep positions at 1 and 3 mo of age. SGA infants exhibited higher resting sympathetic tone [SDRR/SDDeltaRR: 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.0) and 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.5, 1.8) in SGA and AGA, respectively; P=0.046] and a tendency for a smaller tachycardic reflex response to the tilt [Deltaheart rate: 24 beats/min (95% confidence interval: 20, 28) and 30 (95% confidence interval: 25, 34)] in SGA and AGA, respectively; P=0.06]. HRV indexes were reduced in the prone compared with supine position (P<0.0001), but reflex tilt responses were unchanged with position. SGA/AGA differences were independent of sleep position. Gestational age weight status did not influence the likelihood of arousal, but prone sleeping per se reduced the odds 2.5-fold. The findings suggest reduced autonomic activity and cardiac reflexes in SGA infants. The finding that the sympathetic component of the control of HRV was higher in SGA infants could link with findings in adulthood of an association between being born SGA and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:16306252

  15. [Associated variables to hypertension in a region of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Carbajal, H A; Salazar, M R; Riondet, B; Rodrigo, H F; Quaini, S M; Rechifort, V; Aizpurúa, M; Echeverria, R F

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a study in a random sample of 1523 inhabitants (15-75 years old) of Rauch city to determine risk factors prevalence to development hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We measured blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, cholesterol and glucose levels, sodium excretion, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We found a high prevalence of hypertension (43.20% in men and 28.50% in women), and obesity-overweight (54.81% in men and 44.65% in women), both of them augmented with aging. Only 4% of hypertensive subjects were being controlled and only 32% of them were aware of their condition. Men showed a marked increment of prevalence of hypertension and obesity-overweight between groups of 15-24 years and 25-34 years. Women had delayed and more gradual increments. In male and female respectively, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 26.86 and 13.81, the prevalence of diabetes was 3.42 and 1.53, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption was 34.61 and 20.83. Higher BMI and waist circumference identified subjects with higher blood pressure up to 54 and 65 years, in men and women, respectively. Age and waist circumference in the whole group, and alcohol consumption in men, were independently correlated with blood pressure; sodium excretion had no correlation. High prevalence of hypertension and obesity-overweight and their association suggest that the most important primary prevention measure in this community should be to prevent obesity. Low levels of awareness indicate the need of ongoing detection programs, and low grade to control of hypertension could be modified with education programs for health providers. PMID:11808418

  16. Delayed childbearing in the U.S.: facts and fictions.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W H; Nord, C W

    1984-11-01

    Between 1970-82, the proportion of 1st births in the US to women 25 and older rose from 19-36% and the proportion of women still childless at ages 25-34 increased by 56% at about the same time. Although a sharp contrast with the baby boom era of the 1950s and 1960s, todays's epidemic of delayed childbearing is similar to patterns earlier in the 20th century. As then, much is due to delayed age at marriage, but baby boomers now in the their late 20s and early 30s are also delaying childbirth after marriage. The trend stems in part from their economic difficulties as they compete in a tight job market caused both by their large numbers and a turbulent economy. But it is also related to women's increasing education and, in turn, increasing opportunities in and commitment to the labor force, which can be expected to encourage a delayed childbearing even after prospects brighten for young people. Although a diverse group, most of today's delayed childbearers are white, highly educated, 2-career couples. Adequate daytime care for preschool children is a prime concern. Although more employers now offer childcare assistance and flexible work schedules to working parents, the juggle between jobs and childraising can be a strain. On the plus side are delayed childbearers' greater maturity and generally higher incomes, which can ease potential problems created by parent-child age differences as their children grow up. Businesses have been quick to respond to the new market of older, affluent, 1st-time mothers. New methods of treating of circumventing infertility and prenatal detection of chromosomal birth defects can now help overcome potential biological problems that may concern women who choose to delay childbearing past age 30. PMID:12313332

  17. Evaluation of degradation kinetics and physicochemical stability of tenofovir.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Vivek; Putty, Sandeep; Mathes, Christiane; Murowchick, James B; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2015-03-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) has been proven to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through the vagina. But, there is little information available about its stability under various storage and stress conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the degradation behavior and physicochemical stability of TFV using liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The LC-MS analysis was performed on a QTrap mass spectrometer with an enhanced mass spectrum (EMS) scan in positive mode. A reversed phase C18 column was used as the stationary phase. TFV exhibited degradation under acidic and alkaline hydrolytic conditions. The degradation products with m/z 289.2 and 170 amu have been proposed as 6-Hydroxy adenine derivative of TFV, and (2-hydroxypropan-2-yloxy) methylphosphonic acid, respectively. A pseudo-first-order degradation kinetic allowed for estimating the shelf-life, half-life, and time required for 90% degradation of 3.84, 25.34, and 84.22 h in acidic conditions, and 58.26, 384.49, and 1277.75 h in alkaline conditions, respectively. No significant degradation was observed at pH 4.5 (normal cervicovaginal pH) and oxidative stress conditions of 3% and 30% v/v hydrogen peroxide solutions. The shelf life of TFV powder at room temperature was 23 months as calculated by using an Arrhenius plot. The XRD pattern showed that the drug was stable and maintained its original crystallinity under the accelerated and thermal stress conditions applied. Stability analyses revealed that the TFV was stable in various stress conditions; however, formulation strategies should be implemented to protect it in strong acidic and alkaline environments. PMID:24817173

  18. Evaluation of degradation kinetics and physicochemical stability of tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Agrahari, Vivek; Putty, Sandeep; Mathes, Christiane; Murowchick, James B.; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2014-01-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) has been proven to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through the vagina. But, there is little information available about its stability under various storage and stress conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the degradation behavior and physicochemical stability of TFV using liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The LC-MS analysis was performed on a QTrap mass spectrometer with an enhanced mass spectrum (EMS) scan in positive mode. A reversed phase C18 column was used as the stationary phase. TFV exhibited degradation under acidic and alkaline hydrolytic conditions. The degradation products with m/z 289.2 and 170 amu have been proposed as 6-Hydroxy adenine derivative of TFV, and (2-hydroxypropan-2-yloxy) methylphosphonic acid, respectively. A pseudo-first-order degradation kinetic allowed for estimating the shelf-life, half-life, and time required for 90% degradation values of 3.84,25.34, and 84.22 h in acidic conditions, and 58.26,384.49, and 1277.75 h in alkaline conditions, respectively. No significant degradation was observed at pH 4.5 (normal cervicovaginal pH) and oxidative stress conditions of 3% and 30% v/v hydrogen peroxide solution. The shelf life of TFV powder at room temperature was 23 months as calculated by using an Arrhenius plot. The XRD pattern showed that the drug was stable and maintained its original crystallinity under the accelerated and thermal stress conditions applied. Stability analyses revealed that the TFV was stable in various stress conditions; however, formulation strategies should be implemented to protect it in strong acidic and alkaline environments. PMID:24817173

  19. Microscale mapping of alteration conditions and potential biosignatures in basaltic-ultramafic rocks on early Earth and beyond.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Eugene G; McLoughlin, Nicola; Lanari, Pierre; Erambert, Muriel; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Subseafloor environments preserved in Archean greenstone belts provide an analogue for investigating potential subsurface habitats on Mars. The c. 3.5-3.4 Ga pillow lava metabasalts of the mid-Archean Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, have been argued to contain the earliest evidence for microbial subseafloor life. This includes candidate trace fossils in the form of titanite microtextures, and sulfur isotopic signatures of pyrite preserved in metabasaltic glass of the c. 3.472 Ga Hooggenoeg Formation. It has been contended that similar microtextures in altered martian basalts may represent potential extraterrestrial biosignatures of microbe-fluid-rock interaction. But despite numerous studies describing these putative early traces of life, a detailed metamorphic characterization of the microtextures and their host alteration conditions in the ancient pillow lava metabasites is lacking. Here, we present a new nondestructive technique with which to study the in situ metamorphic alteration conditions associated with potential biosignatures in mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation. Our approach combines quantitative microscale compositional mapping by electron microprobe with inverse thermodynamic modeling to derive low-temperature chlorite crystallization conditions. We found that the titanite microtextures formed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies conditions. Two chlorite temperature groups were identified in the maps surrounding the titanite microtextures and record peak metamorphic conditions at 315 ± 40°C (XFe3+(chlorite) = 25-34%) and lower-temperature chlorite veins/microdomains at T = 210 ± 40°C (lower XFe3+(chlorite) = 40-45%). These results provide the first metamorphic constraints in textural context on the Barberton titanite microtextures and thereby improve our understanding of the local preservation conditions of these potential biosignatures. We suggest that this approach may prove to be an important tool in future

  20. Tobacco use in Tunisia: behaviour and awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhfakh, Radhouane; Hsairi, Mohamed; Maalej, Mohsen; Achour, Nourredinne; Nacef, Taoufik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess tobacco use and the awareness of and attitudes towards tobacco and its control in the adult population of Tunisia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1996 of a representative national sample of 5696 subjects aged 25 and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire in Arabic. FINDINGS: Tobacco use was reported by 30.4% of the respondents, of whom 24.6% smoked cigarettes and 5.8% consumed traditional tobacco, i.e. snuff, chewing tobacco and/or water pipe tobacco. Whereas 55.6% of men used tobacco, only 5.2% of women did so. Among men the proportion of tobacco users diminished with age as the rate of cessation increased. Among women, smoking peaked in the 35-54 age group. The proportion of men consuming traditional tobacco alone increased from 2.4% in the 25-34 age group to 20.4% in the 55+ age group; the corresponding values for women were 0.1% and 14.3%. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas and was relatively high among poorly educated men from economically deprived backgrounds. The use of tobacco was believed to be harmful to health by 98.6% of the respondents. Over 90% of the interviewees were aware that tobacco played a part in the development of heart disease. However, there were some gaps in awareness. A fear of cancer was expressed by 85% of the respondents, whereas only 5.6% were fearful of accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Informational and educational campaigns relating to tobacco control should be directed at individuals and communities, taking into account the gaps in awareness of the effects of tobacco on health. PMID:12077609

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities, Especially Diagnosis and Prevention of Recurrence for Chronic Thrombosis—Serial Changes of Sonography and D-Dimer

    PubMed Central

    Kanaoka, Yasushi; Murata, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Masami; Takesue, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Nobuo; Sumimoto, Ryo; Ohgi, Shigetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) have restricted mobility capability and have been bedridden for long periods because of paralysis of the extremities caused by abnormal muscular tonicity due to cerebral palsy and developmental disabilities. Such patients are associated with a high risk of complications like deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we report twelve patients (42.9%) with DVT among 28 patients with SMID during prolonged bed rest. However, we did not detect thrombosis in the soleal veins, finding it mostly in the femoral and common femoral veins. We applied anticoagulant therapy (warfarin), and carefully followed up the cases with DVT, regulating the warfarin dosage at prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) values around two to prevent recurrence of chronic thrombosis. Regarding laboratory data for the coagulation system, there were no cases above 5 µg/ml for the D-dimer and there were significant differences between the DVT and non-DVT groups in the D-dimer levels. The plasma levels of D-dimer in patients with DVT diminished to less than 1.0 µg/ml after warfarin treatment. Concerning sudden death (4.2%) in patients with SMID, we have to be very careful of the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism due to DVT. Therefore, we should consider the particularity of the underdeveloped vascular system from underlying diseases for the evaluation of DVT. A detailed study of DVT as a vascular complication is very important for the smooth medical care of SMID, and serial assessment of compression Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities, as a noninvasive examination and measurement of D-dimer, is very helpful. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 34–42.) PMID:26730253

  2. Thermal balance in term and preterm newborn infants nursed in an incubator equipped with a radiant heat source.

    PubMed

    Sjörs, G; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1997-04-01

    A radiant hood warmer, a device that heats the incubator roof independently of the incubator's main heat source, was used to study the thermal balance of 11 full term and 13 preterm (gestational age 25-34 weeks) infants exposed to an isolated elevation of incubator roof temperature at stable ambient air temperature and humidity. After initial measurements without active heating of the incubator roof, the hood warmer was set to 33 degrees C, 36 degrees C and finally (preterm infants only) to 39 degrees C. At least 18 min of measurements with the infant asleep were made at each hood warmer setting. In the term infants an increase in roof temperature from 30.5 degrees C to 35.6 degrees C resulted in an increase in skin temperature from 35.4 to 35.9 degrees C, and a decrease in radiative heat loss from 32.8 to 20.7 W/m2 exposed skin. In the preterm infants an increase in roof temperature from 31.0 to 38.4 degrees C led to an increase in skin temperature from 35.7 to 36.3 degrees C and a decrease in radiative heat loss from 34.1 to 13.0 W/m2 exposed skin. The increased inner roof surface temperature did not affect evaporative or convective heat loss, skin blood flow, respiratory water loss, oxygen consumption or transepidermal water loss in either group. Thus, at stable ambient air temperature and humidity, the increase in incubator roof temperature resulted in an increase in skin temperature and a decrease in radiative heat loss in both term and preterm infants.

  3. Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants nursed under a radiant heater.

    PubMed

    Kjartansson, S; Arsan, S; Hammarlund, K; Sjörs, G; Sedin, G

    1995-02-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin (g/m2/h) was measured in 12 full-term and 16 preterm infants (gestational age 25-34 wk) both during incubator care and when nursed under a radiant heater. The method for evaporation rate measurement is noninvasive and based on determination of the water vapor pressure gradient close to the skin surface. Measurements were first made with the infant nursed in an incubator with a controlled environment with respect to humidity, temperature, and air velocity. The measurements in the term infants were performed at an ambient relative humidity (RH) of 50%, and in the preterm infants first at 50% and subsequently at 30-40%. Evaporation rate was then measured with the infant nursed under a radiant heater. In term infants, mean evaporation rate was 3.3 g/m2/h during incubator care (RH 50%) and 4.4 g/m2/h during care under the radiant heater. In preterm infants, the corresponding values were 15.5 g/m2/h in the incubator at RH 50%, 16.7 g/m2/h at RH 30-40%, and 17.9 g/m2/h under the radiant heater. It is concluded that the evaporative water loss from the skin depends on the ambient water vapor pressure, irrespective of whether the infant is nursed in an incubator or under a radiant heater. The higher rate of evaporation during care under a radiant heater is due to the lower ambient water vapor pressure and not to any direct effect of the nonionizing radiation on the skin.

  4. Effects of shisha smoking on carbon monoxide and PM2.5 concentrations in the indoor and outdoor microenvironment of shisha premises.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Gam; Bradley, Janet; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria

    2016-04-01

    There has been significant rise in shisha premises in the United Kingdom with an unsubstantiated belief that shisha smoking is harmless and relatively safe. This study aimed to assess the public health situation by evaluating the extent of shisha environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among those that work in, and are customers of shisha businesses. Concentrations of several ETS pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5μm (PM2.5) in shisha premises were measured using real-time sensors inside and outside twelve shisha premises and at 5 pubs/restaurants where smoking is prohibited. Mean concentration of CO (7.3±2.4mg/m(3)) and PM2.5 (287±233μg/m(3)) inside active shisha premises was higher than concentrations measured within the vicinity of the shisha premises (CO: 0.9±0.7mg/m(3) and PM2.5: 34±14μg/m(3)) and strongly correlated (PM2.5 R=0.957). Concentrations were higher than indoor concentrations in pubs and restaurants where smoking is not permitted under UK law. The number of shisha pipes was a strong predictor of the PM2.5 concentrations. The study also assessed the risk perception within patrons and managers, with only 25% being aware of the risks associated to shisha smoking. The study identifies owners, employees and consumers within active shisha premises being exposed to concentrations of CO and PM2.5 at levels considered hazardous to human health. The results and outcome of this research serve as a basis to influence a discussion around the need of developing specific policies to protect consumers and employees of such premises. PMID:26803732

  5. Gender Role Orientation with Health Literacy and Self-Efficacy for Healthy Eating among Japanese Workers in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Chizuru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masafumi; Kato, Mio; Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Gender role, independent of biological sex, affects health. However, research on healthy eating that considers the importance of gender norms is scarce. People who are androgynous and have high masculinity and femininity are reported to have better health practices than other people. The present study aimed to examine the differences in health literacy (HL) and self-efficacy for healthy eating by gender role in Japanese men and women. Participants were 629 men and women aged 25-34 years, recruited via a Japanese Internet research company database. Participants were categorized into four gender role groups using the Japanese Gender Role Index. HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating were assessed using the healthy eating literacy (HEL) scale and the healthy eating and weight self-efficacy (HEWSE) scale. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc tests and hierarchical multiple regression were used to test the research hypotheses. We found that the Androgynous group had significantly higher HEL and HEWSE scores than the Feminine and Undifferentiated groups. The Masculine group scored significantly higher on both measures than the Undifferentiated group. Being Androgynous (HEL: β = 0.34, p < 0.001; HEWSE: β = 0.30, p < 0.001) was a strong predictor for higher scores even after considering other predictors. The results showed significant associations between gender role orientation and individual HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating. These findings may be relevant for promoting healthy eating from the perspective of gender norms.

  6. Early enhancement of fluid transport in rabbit proximal straight tubules after loss of contralateral renal excretory function.

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, K; Levenson, D J; Brenner, B M

    1983-01-01

    To assess the renal functional adaptation to reduced excretory capacity, we studied whole kidney and single nephron function in anesthetized volume-replete rabbits after unilateral (left kidney) nephrectomy (UNX), ureteral obstruction (UO), or ureteroperitoneostomy (UP). At 24 h, despite the absence of measurable hypertrophy of the contralateral (right) kidney, these procedures significantly increased p-aminohippurate clearance (45-54%) and inulin clearance (CIN) (64-110%) compared with sham-operated control animals. In each group, whole kidney sodium reabsorption increased in proportion to the rise in CIN. To determine whether the intrinsic transport capacity of proximal tubule segments is altered by these maneuvers, we measured fluid volume reabsorption rate (Jv) in isolated superficial proximal straight tubule (PST) segments perfused in vitro, comparing each control tubule (obtained by biopsy of the left kidney immediately before an experimental maneuver) with a corresponding tubule segment obtained 24 h or 7 d later from the contralateral kidney. Control tubule Jv in sham-24 h animals averaged 0.48 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm). Jv did not change significantly at 24 h or 7 d after sham maneuvers but increased significantly at 24 h after UNX [delta Jv = 0.13 +/- 0.03 nl/(min X mm)], UO [delta Jv = 0.10 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm)], and UP [delta Jv = 0.13 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm)]. Jv remained increased by similar amounts at 7 d after UNX and UO. To evaluate whether an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) might be the stimulus to this augmentation in Jv values, methylprednisolone (MP) (15 mg/kg per d) was administered daily to sham-operated animals, a maneuver which induced a 73% rise in CIN by day 5. This procedure also produced a significant increase in Jv in PST at 5 d [delta Jv = 0.16 +/- 0.05 nl/(min X mm)]. The increase in Jv evident in each group at 5 or 7 d was paralleled by an equivalent change in tubule cell volume and apparent tubule luminal surface area in

  7. The pre-Caledonian Large Igneous Province and the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, Christian; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre; Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2016-04-01

    Magmatism of the first known rifting phase of the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle is surprisingly well preserved in the Caledonian nappes of central Scandinavia. The Särv and Seve Nappes are characterised by spectacular dyke complexes originally emplaced into continental sediments along the rifted margin of Iapetus. The intensity and structure of the pre-Caledonian Dyke Complex is comparable to that of the present passive margins of the North Atlantic large igneous province (NALIP) and U-Pb ages of 610-590 Ma suggest magmatism was short-lived. It can be described as a pre-Caledonian large igneous province (CLIP). To constrain the origin of CLIP magmatism we: (1) re-visited the dyke complexes of the Sarek, Kebnekaise and Tornetrask mountains of North Sweden; (2) compiled new and published geochemical data for the more than 950 km long, magma-rich segment of the Scandinavian Caledonides; and (3) extended reconstructions of the paleo-position of Baltica back to 600 Ma. Although the appearance of the dykes ranges from garnet amphibolite gneiss to pristine magmatic intrusions, all bulk rock compositions largely reflect the original magmatic rock. The compiled dataset includes 584 analyses that essentially forms a coherent suite of tholeiitic ferrobasalt (2-12 wt% MgO, 45-54 wt% SiO2; 6-16 wt% FeOtot; 0.7-4.0 wt% TiO2) akin to LIP basalts such as those of NALIP (61-54 Ma). A few samples (<20) are significantly contaminated with crust, but most are largely uncontaminated. The delta Nb value is a proxy for geochemical enrichment based on Nb-Zr-Y systematics and was defined for the present-day North Atlantic system to distinguish enriched Iceland basalts (positive delta Nb) from normal MORB basalts (negative delta Nb). The CLIP dykes are dominantly enriched with positive delta Nb (-0.07 to +0.9) in the central and southern portion, but stretching to more negative values (-0.6 to +0.5) in the northern portion (Sarek, Kebnekaise, Tornetrask). The few available rare earth element

  8. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06 mg QE/g and 7.42 mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71 mg QE/g and 0.29 mg CE/g DW, respectively) (p<0.05). Both DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assays showed that all tested extracts possess free radical scavenging activity, while the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) range values were similar for both assays (2.13-45.54 μg/mL and 1.2-43.82 μg/mL, respectively). All plant extracts showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations. Fruit methanolic (IC50=2.76mg/mL) and aqueous (IC50=2.08 mg/mL) extracts showed higher inhibitory effects than chloroformic (IC50=7.62 mg/mL) and hexanic (IC50=12.93 mg/mL) extracts on egg hatching (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation of total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0

  9. Interaction of extended mantle plume head with ancient lithosphere: evidence from deep-seated xenoliths in basalts and lamprophyre diatremes in Western Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2016-04-01

    The Middle Cretaceous lamprophyric diatremes of the Jabel Ansaria Ridge contain xenoliths of ancient lower crustal rocks mainly represented by the suite of partly altered garnet granulite and eclogite-like rocks, which were formed at the expense of ferrogabbros and ferroclinopyroxenites most likely in the course of underplating of Fe-Ti basalt. Garnet (Alm26Grs11Py63) megacrysts and coarse-granular garnet-clinopyroxene intergrowths are most likely the varieties of rocks of this series. Garnet megacrysts are represented by large (up to 10 cm in diameter) round "nodules," often molten from the surface. Garnet is usually fractured, and the kelyphite material similar to that in rocks of the eclogite-granulite series occurs in fractures. In addition, we found several intergrowths of garnet with large (up to 3-5 cm in length) crystals of high-Al augite with the low of Ti and Na contents like in rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite. Coarse-grained garnet-clinopyroxene-hornblende rocks with spinel, as well as megacrysts of Al-Ti augite with kaersutite, form the second group in prevalence. This group is close to mantle xenoliths of the "black series" in alkali Fe-Ti basalt worldwide. Kaersutite in these rocks contains gaseous cavities, which provides evidence for the origin of rocks at the expense of a strongly fluidized melt/fluid. In contrast to rocks of the eclogite-granulite series, these rocks did not undergo alteration. Garnet Alm19-26Grs12-13.5Py59-67.5 usually associates with dark opaque spinel. In contrast, the Late Cenozoic plateaubasalts of the region practically do not contain lower crustal xenoliths, whereas xenoliths of mantle spinel lherzolite (fragments of the upper cooled rim of the plume head) are widely abundant. According to data of mineralogical thermobarometry, rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite were formed at 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths of 45-54 km) and 965-1115°C. Rocks of this suite are typical representatives of the continental lower crust

  10. A reconstruction of radiocarbon production and total solar irradiance from the Holocene 14C and CO2 records: implications of data and model uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat

    2013-04-01

    total solar irradiance (TSI) using a recently published Φ-TSI relationship [Steinhilber et al., 2009]. Our TSI record shows, besides recent solar grand solar minimas like the Maunder Minumum (MM), numerous centennial-scale variations with deviations from the long-term mean of only approx. 0.5 W/m2, while the millennial-scale trend in TSI is even smaller. The frequency-spectrum of TSI reveals well known solar periodicities of different length. Finally, our radiocarbon-based TSI record is fed back into Bern3D-LPX in order model past changes in surfaces atmospheric temperature (SAT) caused by solar variations, leading to relatively low transient SAT excursions of less than 0.1 K. References: Monnin et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2004, 224, 45-54 Reimer et al., Radiocarbon, 2009, 51, 1111-1150 Masarik and Beer, J. Geophys. Res., 1999, 104, 12099-12111 Kovaltsov et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2012, 337-338, 114-120 Knudsen et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2008, 272, 319-329 Usoskin et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2011, 116, A02104- Steinhilber at al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2009, 36, L19704-

  11. Explaining the variability of Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI): deconvolution of variability related to Light Use Efficiency and Canopy attributes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlier, Elodie; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Soudani, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    . 1992. A narrow-waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency. Remote Sensing of Environment 41, 35-44. Garbulsky MF, Peñuelas J, Gamon J, Inoue Y, Filella I. 2011. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the remote sensing of leaf, canopy and ecosystem radiation use efficiencies: A review and meta-analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 281-297. Hilker T, Coops NC, Hall FG, Black TA, Wulder MA, Nesic Z, Krishnan P. 2008. Separating physiologically and directionally induced changes in PRI using BRDF models. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 2777-2788. Hmimina G, Dufrêne E, Soudani K. 2014. Relationship between PRI and leaf ecophysiological and biochemical parameters under two different water statuses: toward a rapid and efficient correction method using real-time measurements. Plant, Cell & Environment 37, 2, 473-487. Nakaji T, Oguma H, Fujinuma Y. 2006. Seasonal changes in the relationship between photochemical reflectance index and photosynthetic light use efficiency of Japanese larch needles. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27, 493-509. Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran P, Munehiro M, Omasa K. 2012. Relationships between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and plant pigment indices at different leaf growth stages. Photosynthesis Research 113, 261-271.

  12. N-methyl-d-aspartate antibody encephalitis: temporal progression of clinical and paraclinical observations in a predominantly non-paraneoplastic disorder of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Sarosh R.; Bera, Katarzyna; Waters, Patrick; Zuliani, Luigi; Maxwell, Susan; Zandi, Michael S.; Friese, Manuel A.; Galea, Ian; Kullmann, Dimitri M.; Beeson, David; Lang, Bethan; Bien, Christian G.

    2010-01-01

    Antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor have been associated with a newly-described encephalopathy that has been mainly identified in young females with ovarian tumours. However, the full clinical spectrum and treatment responses are not yet clear. We established a sensitive cell-based assay for detection of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid, and a quantitative fluorescent immunoprecipitation assay for serial studies. Although there was marked intrathecal synthesis of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies, the absolute levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were higher in serum than in cerebrospinal fluid. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 subclass and were able to activate complement on N-methyl d-aspartate receptor-expressing human embryonic kidney cells. From questionnaires returned on 44 N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody-positive patients, we identified a high proportion without a detected tumour (35/44, 80%: follow-up 3.6–121 months, median 16 months). Among the latter were 15 adult females (43%), 10 adult males (29%) and 10 children (29%), with four in the first decade of life. Overall, there was a high proportion (29%) of non-Caucasians. Good clinical outcomes, as defined by reductions in modified Rankin scores, correlated with decreased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody levels and were associated with early (<40 days) administration of immunotherapies in non-paraneoplastic patients (P < 0.0001) and earlier tumour removal in paraneoplastic patients (P = 0.02). Ten patients (23%) who were first diagnosed during relapses had no evidence of tumours but had received minimal or no immunotherapy during earlier episodes. Temporal analysis of the onset of the neurological features suggested progression through two main stages. The time of onset of the early features, characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms and seizures preceded by a

  13. Two new eimerians (Apicomplexa) from insectivorous mammals in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Couch, Lee; Laakkonen, Juha; Goodman, Steven; Duszynski, Donald W

    2011-04-01

    Fecal samples from 126 insectivorous mammals in Madagascar were collected between spring 1999 and fall 2001. In the Afrosoricida, 21 species in 5 genera were sampled, including 17 species of Microgale (31/96, 32% infected), Hemicentetes semispinosus (1/2, 50%), Oryzorictes hova (1/5, 20%), Setifer setosus (8/13, 61.5%), and Tenrec ecaudatus (5/8, 62.5%); in the Soricomorpha, only Suncus murinus was examined and 1/2 (50%) were infected. Two morphotypes of eimeriid oocysts, representing 2 presumptive new species, were found in 47 (37%) infected animals; only 2 afrosoricid hosts (2% of all hosts, 4% of infected hosts) had both oocyst morphotypes. Sporulated oocysts of the first morphotype, Eimeria tenrececaudata n. sp., are subspheroidal, 18.8 × 17.4 (17-22 × 15-20), with a length∶width ratio (L/W) of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); they lack a micropyle but may contain 0-2 polar granules and a single, small round oocyst residuum, 3 × 2.3. Sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 9.9 × 6.6 (9-11 × 5-8), with a L/W of 1.5 (1.2-2.0); they have a prominent, slightly flattened Stieda body and a substieda body but lack a parastieda body. The sporocyst residuum consists of only a few granules between the sporozoites, which are sausage-shaped and have a large posterior refractile body. Oocysts of the second morphotype, Eimeria setifersetosa n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 30.1 × 28.6 (27-34 × 25-34), with a L/W of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); they lack both micropyle and oocyst residuum, but 1-2 polar granules are usually present. Sporocysts are subspheroidal to broadly ellipsoidal, 9.6 × 7.3 (9-11 × 6-8), with a L/W of 1.3 (1.1-1.7); they have a broad Stieda body, lack sub- and parastieda bodies, and have a residuum of a few granules scattered throughout the sporocyst. Sporozoites were not clearly defined, but what seemed to be a single large refractile body is seen, presumably in each sporozoite.

  14. [The effect of repeated administration of carbetocin (Depotocin, Spofa) in the first days postpartum on levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone and on fertilization].

    PubMed

    Bekeová, E; Krajnicáková, M; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1992-07-01

    Application of new procedures in the sphere of the control of sexual functions requires an extension of present knowledge of postparturient endocrinium or endogenic factors comprised in postparturient physiology of sexual activity. According to recent data, oxytocin, besides its uterotonic and luteolytic activity, acts as an ovarian factor in the local intrafollicular regulation of stereidogenesis and as a modulator of uterine secretion of prostaglandines. Based on present knowledge of oxytocin effects, this study was aimed at investigation of the influence of repeated carbetocin (Depotocin inj. Spofa) administration on the dynamics of changes in thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) concentrations and their mutual correlations from the 36th hour till the 51st day after parturition. Simultaneous study of a possible delayed influence of applied carbetocin on conception of ewes after oestrus evocation on day 51 after lambing was carried out. Nineteen ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, lambed in the first decade of February, were assigned to the experimental (n = 9) and to the control group (n = 10). Experimental ewes were subjected to repeated postparturient carbetocin treatment at the dose 0.07 mg per animal. The first dose was applied i. m. in 24 hours, and the second in 72 hours after parturition. On day 51 oestrus was induced in nine ewes of each group by combined treatment with chlorsuperlutin (Agelin, vaginal pessaries, Spofa) and PMSG (500 I.U./animal). On the day of PMSG application ewes were housed together with rams for the period of the next six days. Samples of blood were taken 24 hours before parturition (-1st day), up to 36 h after parturition and on days 4, 7, 14, 17, 21, 25, 34, 42 and 51 after parturition. Concentrations of T4, T3, E2 and P4 were determined by commercial kits RIA-test-T4; RIA-test-T3; RIA-test-ESTRA and RIA-test-PROG (URVJT Kosice). Animal of the control group showed variations of T4

  15. Virtual screening with AutoDock Vina and the common pharmacophore engine of a low diversity library of fragments and hits against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase: participation in the SAMPL4 protein-ligand binding challenge.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Alexander L; Santiago, Daniel N; Forli, Stefano; Santos-Martins, Diogo; Olson, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    To rigorously assess the tools and protocols that can be used to understand and predict macromolecular recognition, and to gain more structural insight into three newly discovered allosteric binding sites on a critical drug target involved in the treatment of HIV infections, the Olson and Levy labs collaborated on the SAMPL4 challenge. This computational blind challenge involved predicting protein-ligand binding against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase (IN), a viral enzyme for which two drugs (that target the active site) have been approved by the FDA. Positive control cross-docking experiments were utilized to select 13 receptor models out of an initial ensemble of 41 different crystal structures of HIV IN. These 13 models of the targets were selected using our new "Rank Difference Ratio" metric. The first stage of SAMPL4 involved using virtual screens to identify 62 active, allosteric IN inhibitors out of a set of 321 compounds. The second stage involved predicting the binding site(s) and crystallographic binding mode(s) for 57 of these inhibitors. Our team submitted four entries for the first stage that utilized: (1) AutoDock Vina (AD Vina) plus visual inspection; (2) a new common pharmacophore engine; (3) BEDAM replica exchange free energy simulations, and a Consensus approach that combined the predictions of all three strategies. Even with the SAMPL4's very challenging compound library that displayed a significantly lower amount of structural diversity than most libraries that are conventionally employed in prospective virtual screens, these approaches produced hit rates of 24, 25, 34, and 27 %, respectively, on a set with 19 % declared binders. Our only entry for the second stage challenge was based on the results of AD Vina plus visual inspection, and it ranked third place overall according to several different metrics provided by the SAMPL4 organizers. The successful results displayed by these approaches highlight the utility of the computational

  16. Kinematic Models of Southern California Deformation calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain Energy Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain energy ("TSEM models") represent average deformation rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain energy, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates (< 12 mm/yr) are strongly preferred for the San Gorgonio segment of the SAF. The GPS-constrained, locked model prefers a high slip rate for the Imperial Fault (over 30 mm/yr), though the TSEM models prefer slip rates lower than 30 mm/yr. When slip rates for the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system are restricted to less than 5 mm/yr, GPS-constrained models show a preference for high slip rates on the southern San Jacinto and Palos Verde Faults ( > 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a

  17. Influence of crop residue ration supplementation on the attainment of puberty and postpartum reproductive activities of Red Sokoto goats.

    PubMed

    Malau-Aduli, B S; Eduvie, L O; Lakpini, C A M; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2005-02-01

    kidding and conception was 63.04 +/- 25.34 days. Only 25% of the unsupplemented does conceived again during the period under study compared with 100% in rations 1A, 2A, 1C and 2C; 75% in ration 2B and 50% in ration 1B. It was concluded that implementation of supplementary feeding in the dry season improves reproductive performance in the Red Sokoto doe. Furthermore, ration C, a crop residue-based ration, was a suitable dry season supplementation alternative to the expensive conventional concentrate ration for the smallholder goat farmer in the subhumid tropics of Nigeria.

  18. [The causes for the recent decline in Japanese fertility and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Atoh, M

    1984-07-01

    Japanese fertility has declined dramatically since 1973: the crude birth rate (CBR) decreased from 19.4 in 1973 to 12.8/1000 population in 1983, and the total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 2.14 to 1.74 between 1973-81. Decomposition analysis of such decline in the CBR showed that while it was partly due to the change in marital fertility it was due mainly to both the change in age structure and the change in marital pattern. The relative stability of marital fertility was also confirmed by the results from the 8th National Fertility Survey in 1982. The mean number of children ever born was 2.2 on the average for the most recently completed families, the same as in the previous 2 National Fertility Surveys (1972 and 1977). In addition, the total intended number of children for the young married couples who did not complete their fertility was 2.3 on the average. 2-3 children was the response of most of the single people, both male and female, if they married. Conversely, the proportion married decreased in this decade due to the rise in age at 1st marriage; this rise in age was due, partly to a marriage squeeze caused by an imbalanced sex ratio among some age cohorts and mainly by the rapid increase in college enrollment rates in the latter half of the 1960s and in the 1st half of the 1970s. The 8th National Fertility Survey also showed that almost all the unmarried young intended to eventually marry in the normative marriageable age. The female age cohort that suffered the marriage squeeze has already reached the mid-30s and the female cohort younger than this enjoys the relative advantage over the male counterpart in the marriage market. Also, college enrollment rates ceased to increase in the mid-1970s. Therefore, the rise in age at marriage is expected to end soon. Given the universality of marriage desire among the unmarried women in their late 20s, it can be expected that there will be a rise in the proportion of married women aged 25-34 above the

  19. The Effectiveness of Electronic Screening and Brief Intervention for Reducing Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Robert; Phillips, Thomas; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption, but its effectiveness over time has not been subject to meta-analysis. Objective The current study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine the effectiveness of eSBI over time in nontreatment-seeking hazardous/harmful drinkers. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified through searching the electronic databases PsychINFO, Medline, and EMBASE in May 2013. Two members of the study team independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. Studies reporting data that could be transformed into grams of ethanol per week were included in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in grams of ethanol per week between eSBI and control groups was weighted using the random-effects method based on the inverse-variance approach to control for differences in sample size between studies. Results There was a statistically significant mean difference in grams of ethanol consumed per week between those receiving an eSBI versus controls at up to 3 months (mean difference –32.74, 95% CI –56.80 to –8.68, z=2.67, P=.01), 3 to less than 6 months (mean difference –17.33, 95% CI –31.82 to –2.84, z=2.34, P=.02), and from 6 months to less than 12 months follow-up (mean difference –14.91, 95% CI –25.56 to –4.26, z=2.74, P=.01). No statistically significant difference was found at a follow-up period of 12 months or greater (mean difference –7.46, 95% CI –25.34 to 10.43, z=0.82, P=.41). Conclusions A significant reduction in weekly alcohol consumption between intervention and control conditions was demonstrated between 3 months and less than 12 months follow-up indicating eSBI is an effective intervention. PMID:24892426

  20. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    PubMed

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  1. Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Pierotti, Paola; Cariaggi, Maria Paola; Palma, Paolo Dalla; Naldoni, Carlo; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Parisio, Franca; Pojer, Ada; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Sintoni, Catia; Zorzi, Manuel; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of conventional cytology with liquid based cytology for primary screening of cervical cancer. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Nine screening programmes in Italy. Participants Women aged 25-60 attending for a new screening round: 22 466 were assigned to the conventional arm and 22 708 were assigned to the experimental arm. Interventions Conventional cytology compared with liquid based cytology and testing for human papillomavirus. Main outcome measure Relative sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more at blindly reviewed histology, with atypical cells of undetermined significance or more severe cytology considered a positive result. Results In an intention to screen analysis liquid based cytology showed no significant increase in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more (relative sensitivity 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.56) whereas the positive predictive value was reduced (relative positive predictive value v conventional cytology 0.58, 0.44 to 0.77). Liquid based cytology detected more lesions of grade 1 or more (relative sensitivity 1.68, 1.40 to 2.02), with a larger increase among women aged 25-34 (P for heterogeneity 0.0006), but did not detect more lesions of grade 3 or more (relative sensitivity 0.84, 0.56 to 1.25). Results were similar when only low grade intraepithelial lesions or more severe cytology were considered a positive result. No evidence was found of heterogeneity between centres or of improvement with increasing time from start of the study. The relative frequency of women with at least one unsatisfactory result was lower with liquid based cytology (0.62, 0.56 to 0.69). Conclusion Liquid based cytology showed no statistically significant difference in sensitivity to conventional cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more. More positive results were found, however, leading to a lower positive

  2. Researchers confirm AIDS epidemic in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kingman, S

    1993-06-12

    Study findings into the AIDS epidemic were presented at a public lecture at the London School of Hygiene and Public Health to counter press and television reports that the problem of AIDS is greatly exaggerated. A study funded by the Medical Research Council is Britain found that more than 50% of all adult deaths and 80-90% of all deaths among those aged 13-44 in rural part of Uganda are due to HIV infection. 10,000 people of 15 neighboring villages in the Masaka district of southwest Uganda were followed with annual medical examinations and censuses starting in September 1990. 4.8% were infected with HIV overall; 8.2% were infected among those aged 13 and over. The incidence of HIV infection during the 1st year of follow up was 1%. Almost 25% of adults infected with HIV died during the 2-year follow up period of the study suggesting a rate of disease progression twice that observed in industrialized countries. There was excess mortality of 17/1000 among people aged 25-34 and mortality among people infected with HIV was 11.6%/year. Among those who died it was also observed that less than 10% had clinical signs of AIDS at medical examination before death; 44% had no major symptom; 48% had 1 or more major symptoms; and 50% rapidly progressed from being asymptomatic to having fatal AIDS. It was observed in the study that infection with HIV increased the risk of death within 1 year by 60-fold. AIDS in Africa is not being overdiagnosed, but cases of advanced HIV disease are not being recognized. Researchers do not know why the epidemic in Africa is different from those in Europe and the US. It is thought, however, that the most important social conditions promoting the heterosexual spread of HIV are poverty and the lack of women's empowerment. In response, some audience members accused the speakers of racism and blaming female sex workers in Africa for the epidemic.

  3. Trends of People Using Drugs and Opioid Substitute Treatment Recorded in England and Wales General Practice (1994-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Hilary R.; Nazareth, Irwin; Petersen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use is a multifaceted public-health problem with potentially serious impacts. The United Kingdom has one of the highest prevalence of illegal drug use in Europe. Reduction of overall illegal drug use in England and Wales has decreased from 11% to 8.2% (2012/13) over the past 10 years. People who use drugs often seek help from their family doctors. Aims To investigate General Practitioners (family doctors) first recording of drug use and opioid substitute treatment in primary care settings. Design A descriptive study design. Males and females (16-64 years old) were extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Setting England and Wales primary care. Method The first recording of drug use and opioid substitution treatment in primary care was estimated for the period (1994-2012). Poisson regressions were conducted to estimate incidence risk ratios (IRR). Results We identified 33,508 first recordings of drug use and 10,869 individuals with prescriptions for opioid substitute treatment. Overall, males (IRR 2.02, 95% CI:1.97–2.07), people in the age-group; 16-24 (IRR 6.7, 95% CI:6.4–6.9) compared to those over 25 years and the most deprived (IRR 4.2, 95% CI:3.9–4.4) were more likely to have a recording of drug use. Males (IRR 1.2 95% CI:1.2–1.3), in the age-group; 25-34 (IRR 1.8 95% CI:1.7–1.9) and the most deprived (IRR 3.9 95% CI:3.6–4.3) were the groups more likely to have a opioid substitute treatment prescription. Conclusion It is evident from this study that there is little recording of drug use and opioid substitute treatment in primary care. Most drug users do not receive treatment in primary care. PMID:25923806

  4. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    ); 3Gronau, J. & Schmidt-Koenig, K., Nature 226, 87-88 (1970); 4Foà, A., Benvenuti, S., Ioalé, P. & Wallraff, H. G., Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 15, 25-34 (1984); 5Landès, M., Ceranna, L., Le Pichon, A. & Matoza, R. S., J. Geophys. Res. 117, D06102, doi:10.1029/2011JD016684 (2012); 6Hagstrum, J. T., J. Exp. Biol. 216, 687-699 (2013).

  5. Defined plant extracts can protect human cells against combined xenobiotic effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollutants representative of common environmental contaminants induce intracellular toxicity in human cells, which is generally amplified in combinations. We wanted to test the common pathways of intoxication and detoxification in human embryonic and liver cell lines. We used various pollutants such as Roundup residues, Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, and five precise medicinal plant extracts called Circ1, Dig1, Dig2, Sp1, and Uro1 in order to understand whether specific molecular actions took place or not. Methods Kidney and liver are major detoxification organs. We have studied embryonic kidney and hepatic human cell lines E293 and HepG2. The intoxication was induced on the one hand by a formulation of one of the most common herbicides worldwide, Roundup 450 GT+ (glyphosate and specific adjuvants), and on the other hand by a mixture of Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, all found in surface waters, feed and food. The prevention and curative effects of plant extracts were also measured on mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, on the entry of radiolabelled glyphosate (in Roundup) in cells, and on cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4 as well as glutathione-S-transferase. Results Clear toxicities of pollutants were observed on both cell lines at very low sub-agricultural dilutions. The prevention of such phenomena took place within 48 h with the plant extracts tested, with success rates ranging between 25-34% for the E293 intoxicated by Roundup, and surprisingly up to 71% for the HepG2. By contrast, after intoxication, no plant extract was capable of restoring E293 viability within 48 h, however, two medicinal plant combinations did restore the Bisphenol-A/Atrazine intoxicated HepG2 up to 24-28%. The analysis of underlying mechanisms revealed that plant extracts were not capable of preventing radiolabelled glyphosate from entering cells; however Dig2 did restore the CYP1A2 activity disrupted by Roundup, and had only a mild preventive effect on the CYP3A4, and no effect

  6. Variations in temperature acclimation effects on glycogen storage, hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance with seasonal acclimatization in juvenile Chinese crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether temperature acclimation (10 vs 20 °C) effects on tissue glycogen content, hypoxia tolerance, and swimming performance of Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) varied with seasonal acclimatization (winter vs spring) and potential combined interactions. Both the routine metabolic rate (MO(2rout)) and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)) of the MO(2rout) increased significantly with temperature, whereas the seasonal acclimatization showed no significant effect. Only the high temperature group that acclimatized in spring showed a significantly higher aquatic surface respiration (ASR(crit)) value compared with the other three groups. Fish in spring tended to show ASR behavior at higher oxygen tension compared with those in winter, which might have been caused by a more active lifestyle. Time to show LOE prolonged by 25-34% under low temperature. Spring fish showed 20% shorter LOE duration at 10 °C, whereas the difference tended to vanish at 20 °C. Glycogen contents in both liver and muscle were higher in winter than spring. The liver and muscle glycogen content decreased by 5-42% after exposure to anoxic conditions, whereas the magnitude was much smaller in spring. When fish swam in normoxic conditions, fish in higher temperatures showed higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit) than low temperature (5.49 vs 3.74 BL s(-1) in winter and 4.27 vs 3.21 BL s(-1) in spring), whereas fish in winter also showed higher U(crit) than fish in spring for each temperature. However, when fish swam in hypoxic waters, fish in higher temperatures showed a more profound decrease (52-61%) in U(crit) compared to those in lower temperature (25-27%). Fish in lower temperatures that had acclimatized in winter showed the highest U(crit), which might have been caused by higher glycogen storage. The present study suggested that both glycogen storage and alterations in lifestyle had profound effects on hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, which

  7. Lacrosse Equipment and Cervical Spinal Cord Space During Immobilization: Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michael; Tierney, Ryan T.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Edell, Steven; Watkins, Randall

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Removal of the lacrosse helmet to achieve airway access has been discouraged based only on research in which cervical alignment was examined. No researchers have examined the effect of lacrosse equipment on the cervical space available for the spinal cord (SAC). Objective: To determine the effect of lacrosse equipment on the cervical SAC and cervical-thoracic angle (CTA) in the immobilized athlete. Design: Observational study. Setting: Outpatient imaging center. Patients or Other Participants: Ten volunteer lacrosse athletes (age  =  20.7 ± 1.87 years, height  =  180.3 ± 8.3 cm, mass  =  91 ± 12.8 kg) with no history of cervical spine injury or disease and no contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intervention(s): The lacrosse players were positioned supine on a spine board for all test conditions. An MRI scan was completed for each condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): The independent variables were condition (no equipment, shoulder pads only [SP], and full gear that included helmet and shoulder pads [FG]), and cervical spine level (C3–C7). The dependent variables were the SAC and CTA. The MRI scans were evaluated midsagittally. The average of 3 measures was used as the criterion variable. The SAC data were analyzed using a 3 × 5 analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. The CTA data were analyzed with a 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: We found no equipment × level interaction effect (F3.7,72  =  1.34, P  =  .279) or equipment main effect (F2,18  =  1.20, P  =  .325) for the SAC (no equipment  =  5.04 ± 1.44 mm, SP  =  4.69 ± 1.36 mm, FG  =  4.62 ± 1.38 mm). The CTA was greater (ie, more extension; critical P  =  .0167) during the SP (32.64° ± 3.9°) condition than during the no-equipment (25.34° ± 2.3°; t9  =  7.67, P  =  .001) or FG (26.81° ± 5.1°; t9  =  4.80, P  =  .001) condition. Conclusions: Immobilizing healthy lacrosse athletes

  8. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Gerona, Spain, a province with low myocardial infarction incidence. REGICOR Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Masia, R.; Pena, A.; Marrugat, J.; Sala, J.; Vila, J.; Pavesi, M.; Covas, M.; Aubo, C.; Elosua, R.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of main cardiovascular risk factors in the province of Gerona, where the incidence of myocardial infarction is known to be low. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study of prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors conducted on a large random population sample. SETTING: The province of Gerona, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand four hundred and four eligible inhabitants of Gerona aged between 25 and 74 years were randomly selected for a multi-stage sample stratified by age and sex. The following were standardly measured: lipids (total cholesterol, high density, low density, lipoprotein (a) and triglycerides), fibrinogen, basal glycaemia, arterial pressure, anthropometric variables, smoking, history of angina (Rose questionnaire), and a medical history questionnaire. Population measurements were standardised for the world population of 24 to 74 years of age. RESULTS: The participation rate was 72.7% (1748). Total mean cholesterol was 5.69 mmol/l in men and 5.61 mmol/l in women and mean high density cholesterol was 1.22 mmol/l and 1.47 mmol/l, respectively. Median lipoprotein (a) was 0.22 g/l. These three lipids increased significantly with age. Mean fibrinogen was 2.92 g/l in men and 3.09 g/l in women, and was higher in smokers. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic arterial tension > or = 140 mm Hg or diastolic > or = 90 mm Hg or drug treatment) was 31.3% in men and 27.7% in women. The proportion of male smokers was 33.8% and female smokers 22.7%. The proportion of female smokers in the 25-34 year age group exceeded that of the remaining age groups for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Gerona is relatively high for the low myocardial infarction incidence typical of the area, although similar to that of other Spanish areas. The factors that confer sufficient protection to compensate for the effect of the prevalence of these risk factors remain to be elucidated.   PMID

  9. Organic matter characterization in a tropical estuarine-mangrove ecosystem of India: Preliminary assessment by using stable isotopes and lignin phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala Krishna Prasad, M.; Ramanathan, A. L.

    2009-10-01

    In order to characterize the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in the Pichavaram estuarine-mangrove ecosystem (east coast of India), stable isotope (δ 13C and δ 15N) ratios and molecular lignin analyses were conducted in plant litter, benthic algae, sediment, particulate matter and in a variety of benthic invertebrate species. The δ 13C signature of plant litter ranges from -29.75‰ to -27.64‰ suggesting that mangrove trees follow the C 3 photosynthetic pathway. Sedimentary δ 13C signature (-28.92‰ to -25.34‰) demonstrates the greater influence of plant litter organic matter on sedimentary organic matter. Suspended particulate organic pool was influenced by terrestrial source and also seems to be influenced by the marine phytoplankton. Enriched signature of δ 15N in surface sediments (4.66-8.01‰; avg. 6.69‰) suggesting the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen from agricultural fields and human settlements. Spatial chemical variability in availability of nitrogen and plant associated microbial interactions demonstrate variability in δ 15N signature in mangrove plant litter. Two (lower and higher) trophic levels of invertebrates were identified with and observed >4‰ gradient in δ 13C signal between these two trophic groups. The observed δ 13C values suggest that the lower level invertebrates feed on phytoplankton and higher level organisms have a mixed source of diet, phytoplankton, sediment and particulate organic matter. Lignin phenol analyses explain that the benthic surface layer was almost free of lignin. The ratio between syringyl phenols to vanillyl phenols (S/V) is 1.14-1.32 (avg. 1.23) and cinnamyl phenols to vanillyl phenols (C/V) is 0.17-0.31 (avg. 0.24), demonstrate non-woody angiosperm tissues was the major sources of lignin to this ecosystem, while aldehyde to acid ratios (Ad/Al) describe diagenetic nature of sediment and is moderately to less degraded. A two-end-member mixing model indicate that the terrigenous OM was dominant

  10. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and its essential oil on the PC3 and MCF7 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MEMARIANI, TOKTAM; HOSSEINI, TOKTAM; KAMALI, HOSSEIN; MOHAMMADI, AMENEH; GHORBANI, MARYAM; SHAKERI, ABDOREZA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; SHAHSAVAND, SHABNAM

    2016-01-01

    Cyperus longus is one of the Iranian endemic species. However, to date, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no availale academic reports on the cytotoxicity of this plant. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and essential oil (EO) on MCF7 and PC3 cell lines. The chemical constituents of EO were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and incubated with various concentrations of the plant extract and fractions. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay following 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to (12.5–200 µg/ml) of the methanol extract, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water fractions, as well as the EO of the plant. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The most effective fraction in the MCF7 cell line was the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 25.34±2.01). The EtOAc fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 35.2±2.69) and the methanol extract (IC50 after 48 h, 64.64±1.64) were also found to be effective. The IC50 values obtained for the PC3 cell line were 37.97±3.87, 51.57±3.87 and 70.33±2.36 for the CH2Cl2 fraction, the EtOAc fraction and the methanol extract, respectively. Based on these data and due to the partial polarity of the most effective fraction (the CH2Cl2 fraction), we also examined the cytotoxicity of the plant EO. The IC50 values after 48 h were 22.25±4.25 and 12.55±3.65 in the PC3 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay also confirmed these data. Performing GC-MS analysis for the plant EO revealed that β-himachalene (10.81%), α-caryophyllene oxide (7.6%), irisone (4.78%), β-caryophyllene oxide (4.36%), humulene oxide (12%), viridiflorol (4.73%), aristolone (6.39%) and longiverbenone (6.04%) were the main constituents. Our results

  11. Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Goel, Anju

    2016-09-14

    The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs. The aims were to assess the effects of different ventilation settings on in-vehicle PMCs and their comparison during delay conditions at the TIs with those experienced by pedestrians while crossing these TIs. We also estimated the zone of influence (ZoI) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 under different driving conditions and fitted the probability distribution functions to fixed-site data to understand the concentration and exposure dynamics of coarse and fine particles around the studied (3- and 4-way) TIs. The fine particles (PM2.5) showed a strong positive exponential correlation with the air exchange rates under different ventilation settings compared with coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showing an opposite trend. This suggested that the ventilation system of the car was relatively more efficient in removing coarse particles from the incoming outside air. On-road median PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during delays at the TIs were ∼40%, 16% and 17% higher, respectively, compared with free-flow conditions on the rest of the route. About 7% of the average commuting time spent during delay conditions over all the runs at the TIs corresponded to 10, 7 and 8% of the total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The maximum length of the ZoI for PM2.5 and PM1 was highest at the 4-way TI and the maximum length of the ZoI for PM10 was highest at the 3-way TI. The on-road average RDD rate of PM10 inside the cabin when windows were fully open was

  12. Variations in temperature acclimation effects on glycogen storage, hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance with seasonal acclimatization in juvenile Chinese crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether temperature acclimation (10 vs 20 °C) effects on tissue glycogen content, hypoxia tolerance, and swimming performance of Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) varied with seasonal acclimatization (winter vs spring) and potential combined interactions. Both the routine metabolic rate (MO(2rout)) and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)) of the MO(2rout) increased significantly with temperature, whereas the seasonal acclimatization showed no significant effect. Only the high temperature group that acclimatized in spring showed a significantly higher aquatic surface respiration (ASR(crit)) value compared with the other three groups. Fish in spring tended to show ASR behavior at higher oxygen tension compared with those in winter, which might have been caused by a more active lifestyle. Time to show LOE prolonged by 25-34% under low temperature. Spring fish showed 20% shorter LOE duration at 10 °C, whereas the difference tended to vanish at 20 °C. Glycogen contents in both liver and muscle were higher in winter than spring. The liver and muscle glycogen content decreased by 5-42% after exposure to anoxic conditions, whereas the magnitude was much smaller in spring. When fish swam in normoxic conditions, fish in higher temperatures showed higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit) than low temperature (5.49 vs 3.74 BL s(-1) in winter and 4.27 vs 3.21 BL s(-1) in spring), whereas fish in winter also showed higher U(crit) than fish in spring for each temperature. However, when fish swam in hypoxic waters, fish in higher temperatures showed a more profound decrease (52-61%) in U(crit) compared to those in lower temperature (25-27%). Fish in lower temperatures that had acclimatized in winter showed the highest U(crit), which might have been caused by higher glycogen storage. The present study suggested that both glycogen storage and alterations in lifestyle had profound effects on hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, which

  13. Comparison of two continuous fungal bioreactors for posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp mills.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Marín-Mezo, G; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Montes-Horcasitas, M C; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare two continuous systems of posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor (WBL). The first system consisted of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with Trametes versicolor (Tv) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak (biocubes). The second system was a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with Lentinus edodes (Le) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak. The reactors operated for 65 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days, at 28 degrees C, with continuous aeration. Response variables monitored were conventional and specific, unit, net removal efficiency (eta and eta(sun), respectively) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and ligninoids, and enzymatic activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and proteases. The PBR showed an average color eta superior to that of the FBR (52.42 +/- 21.78% and 25.34 +/- 14.38% for PBR and FBR, respectively); removals of COD and ligninoids presented a similar pattern to that of color. Lac activity was significantly larger in PBR than in FBR. Activity of MnP in PBR was higher than that of the FBR (0.004 and 0.002 U MnP/mL, respectively). This difference could be ascribed to the different fungi present in each bioreactor. LiP activity was very low in both reactors. Average value of proteases was almost double in the FBR as compared with PBR (0.472 and 0.209 U Proteases/mL, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of operation, biocubes in the FBR experienced a significant loss of the attached Le biomass, probably by attrition. This and higher protease activity in the FBR could explain the lower pollutant removals achieved in the FBR. Overall, PBR with immobilized Tv showed a better performance than the FBR with Le for the posttreatment of the recalcitrant anaerobic effluent. Extended and sustained pollutant removal (65 days) was achieved in the PBR, although more research is needed to evaluate bioreactor performance at shorter hydraulic

  14. Investigation of ethylene dibromide (EDB) in ground water in Seminole County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, James B.; Hicks, D.W.; Lowe, L. E.; Cohen, S.Z.; Jovanovich, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of ground water in Seminole County, Georgia, for ethylene dibromide (EDB) was conducted in August 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Exposure Assessment Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether EDB, which was previously detected in ground-water samples from four neighboring wells, was localized in the vicinity of the wells or was more widespread in the ground-water system. EDB was detected in 6 of 19 wells sampled. Concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 11.8 micrograms per liter. Five of the six samples that contained EDB were collected from irrigation wells, and one was collected from a domestic well. Concentrations of 4.5 and 11.8 micrograms per liter were found in two irrigation wells located near Buck Hole, a sinkhole in a swampy depression in central Seminole County. EDB was not detected in samples from the remaining 10 irrigation and 3 domestic wells and the surface-water site (detection level less than 0.01 microgram per liter). Nine core samples were collected from a borehole near one of the irrigation wells that had high EDB concentrations. EDB was found in a core sample near the surface and in samples from depths of 24 to 25, 34 to 35, and 39 to 40 feet in the residuum. EDB concentrations in the core samples ranged from 0.06 to 2.4 micrograms per kilogram. EDB in the aquifer was found in a 4-square-mile area of the county in the vicinity of Buck Hole. EDB application information and the local hydrogeology indicate that EDB contamination in ground water in Seminole County probably is due to soil fumigation with EDB. Apparently, EDB moves downward through the residuum and, through undetermined pathways, enters the aquifer. However, because the high concentration of EDB in the aquifer seems to be localized in the Buck Hole area, the possibility of contamination from an EDB fumigant spill cannot be disregarded at this time.

  15. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    PubMed

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  16. Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Goel, Anju

    2016-09-14

    The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs. The aims were to assess the effects of different ventilation settings on in-vehicle PMCs and their comparison during delay conditions at the TIs with those experienced by pedestrians while crossing these TIs. We also estimated the zone of influence (ZoI) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 under different driving conditions and fitted the probability distribution functions to fixed-site data to understand the concentration and exposure dynamics of coarse and fine particles around the studied (3- and 4-way) TIs. The fine particles (PM2.5) showed a strong positive exponential correlation with the air exchange rates under different ventilation settings compared with coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showing an opposite trend. This suggested that the ventilation system of the car was relatively more efficient in removing coarse particles from the incoming outside air. On-road median PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during delays at the TIs were ∼40%, 16% and 17% higher, respectively, compared with free-flow conditions on the rest of the route. About 7% of the average commuting time spent during delay conditions over all the runs at the TIs corresponded to 10, 7 and 8% of the total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The maximum length of the ZoI for PM2.5 and PM1 was highest at the 4-way TI and the maximum length of the ZoI for PM10 was highest at the 3-way TI. The on-road average RDD rate of PM10 inside the cabin when windows were fully open was

  17. Endemic incidence of infections caused by Mycobacterium kansasii in the Karviná district in 1968-1995 (analysis of epidemiological data--review).

    PubMed

    Chobot, S; Malis, J; Sebáková, H; Pelikán, M; Zatloukal, O; Palicka, P; Kocurová, D

    1997-12-01

    The Karviná district (northwestern part of North Moravia and Silesia) is typical by its industrial character, above all mining of black coal which is coked and which led to the devastation of the countryside. The ratio of light industry is low. In a small area (347 km2) there is a population of 824 inhabitants per km2. The population is concentrated in particular in urban agglomerations of the flat block type. Up to 1990 almost 55% of the population was employed in heavy industry. Due to its industrial activities, incl. metallurgical plants and ironworks in nearby Ostrava and Trinec, the district is one of the areas with a heavily contaminated atmosphere in particular with solid aerosol containing toxic metals (the values of solid aerosol varied on average between 100 and 150 micrograms/ml), the elevated values of Nox due to contamination from traffic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were not negligible either during the investigation period. Since 1968 an endemic incidence of mycobacteria has been recorded which is due to Mycobacterium kansasii. At first only an occasional incidence was involved, since 1973 there has been a more substantial increase with a maximum in 1983 (64 cases) and thus up to 1995 there are 961 cases on records, incl. 787 (81.8%) in men and 174 (18.2%) in women. From the total number of recorded M. kansasii in 937 instances (97.3%) the lungs were affected (777 men, 160 women). The mean annual incidence was 34.3 cases, i.e. 12.03 per 100,000 population (28.1, i.e. 20/100,000 in men, 6.2, i.e. 4.28/100,000 in women). As to age, 78.8% of cases are recorded in the age bracket from 25 to 64 years (in men 81%, in women 68.9%). The highest specific morbidity in men is in the age group from 45-54 years (on average 73.13 per 100,000 per year), in women in the age group from 75 to 84 years (on average 9.75 per 100,000 per year). As to occupation, the ratio of mine employees at the time of contraction of the disease (incl. retired miners) was 52

  18. Effects of clozapine administration on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in male C57BL/6 mice: A parallel controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Yan; Liang, Hai-Xia; Liang, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Li, Huan-De

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clozapine has been associated with metabolic adverse events (AEs) (eg, elevated body weight, blood glucose concentrations, cholesterol, triglycerides [TG]), all of which have deleterious effects on health and medication compliance. However, little focus has been directed toward finding a suitable experimental model to study the metabolic AEs associated with clozapine. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clozapine administration for 28 days on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were grouped and treated with clozapine 2 or 10 mg/kg or vehicle intraperitoneally QD for 28 days. Body weight was assessed on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, and 28, and glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, insulin (calculated by insulin resistance index [IRI]), and plasma lipids (including total cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed on day 29. Results: Sixty 10-week-old, male C57BL/6 mice were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups (20 mice per group). The body weight significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg-treated group on days 14, 21, and 28 compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD] body weight: 21.61 [1.05] vs 22.79 [1.11], 22.53 [1.05] vs 24.17 [1.24], and 22.21 [1.07] vs 24.99 [1.39] g, respectively; all, P < 0.05). In the clozapine 10-mg/kg group, blood glucose concentrations significantly increased 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD]: 6.67 [1.25], 25.34 [5.85], 12.68 [3.39], and 7.52 [1.45] mmol/L, respectively, vs 4.61 [0.78], 21.54 [6.55], 11.46 [3.46], and 6.55 [1.42] mmol/L, respectively; all P < 0.05). The clozapine 10-mg/kg group also had significant increases in plasma insulin concentrations compared with the vehicle group (12.70 [5.27] vs 7.62 [4.54] μIU/mL; P < 0.05) and

  19. Human Parathyroid Hormone IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST A GLANDULAR EXTRACT AND THE SYNTHETIC AMINO-TERMINAL FRAGMENTS 1-12 AND 1-34 AND THEIR USE IN THE DETERMINATION OF IMMUNOREACTIVE HORMONE IN HUMAN SERA

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jan A.; Binswanger, Ulrich; Dietrich, Felix M.

    1974-01-01

    Antibodies to a urea-trichloroacetic acid extract [hPTH-(TCA)] of human parathyroid tumors and to the synthetic NH2-terminal fragments of human parathyroid hormone hPTH-(1-12) and -(1-34) were developed in goats to characterize immunochemically various PTH preparations and to estimate immunoreactive PTH (iPTH) in human sera. They were quantitated on the basis of their capacity to bind [131I]-hPTH-(1-12), [131I]hPTH-(1-34) or [131I]bovine PTH (bPTH-(1-84)). The quality of the antibodies was assessed by reference to inhibition of their interaction with labeled peptides by synthetic hPTH comprising 34 NH2-terminal amino acid residues or fragments thereof [hPTH-(1-12), -(13-34), -(18-34), -(25-34), -(18-24)] or by the Sephadex G-100-purified full-length peptide hPTH-(1-84) [hPTH-(1-84)G-100]. The synthetic peptides used in this work correspond in their structure to the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence 1-34, as elucidated by Brewer and collaborators (1972. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.69: 3583-3588). Inhibition studies were also carried out with bPTH-(1-34) and bPTH-(1-84). Anti-hPTH-(TCA) exhibited specificities directed to determinants in the COOH-terminal and NH2-terminal part of hPTH-(1-84) and exhibited cross-reactivity with bPTH-(1-84). Anti-hPTH-(1-34), on the other hand, showed immunological specificities mainly directed to antigenic determinants located in the COOH-terminal half of hPTH-(1-34). In addition, some reactivity with the NH2-terminal hPTH-(1-12) and with the extractive full-length peptides of human and bovine origin was observed. Antibodies to hPTH-(1-12) cross-reacted with hPTH-(1-34) and -(1-84)G-100. iPTH was radioimmunologically determined in human sera by the following systems: (a) [131I]bPTH-(1-84), anti-hPTH-(TCA) and hPTH-(1-84)G-100 as standard; (b) [131I]hPTH-(1-34), anti-hPTH-(1-34) and hPTH-(1-34) as standard. With system (a), COOH-terminal fragments of hPTH-(1-84) having a molecular weight of approximately 7,000 were detected, and

  20. Mapping the bimolecular interface of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-PTH1 receptor complex: spatial proximity between Lys(27) (of the hormone principal binding domain) and leu(261) (of the first extracellular loop) of the human PTH1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Z; Bisello, A; Mierke, D F; Rosenblatt, M; Chorev, M

    2000-07-18

    In an effort to characterize the bimolecular interface between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its human receptor PTH1-Rc (hPTH1-Rc), we previously identified two contact sites in the receptor: one for position 1 and another for position 13 (located at the ends of the principal activation domain) in PTH(1-34). The present study reports a third, novel "contact site" between hPTH1-Rc and Lys(27) of PTH(1-34). Lys(27) is located in the principal binding domain of the hormone (residues 25-34). The photoreactive PTH(1-34) analogue K27 contains a benzophenone (BP) moiety on Lys(27). The analogue binds to stably transfected HEK 293/C-21 cells (which express a high level of recombinant hPTH1-Rc) and stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity with a potency similar to PTH(1-34). In addition, (125)I-K27 cross-links effectively and specifically to the hPTH1-Rc. Enzymatic (Glu-C and Lys-C) and chemical (CNBr and BNPS-skatole) digestions of the photoconjugate between (125)I-K27 and hPTH1-Rc were performed. In addition, photoconjugates involving the bioactive mutants [L261M]- and [R262K]-hPTH1-Rc, transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, were also digested. The data obtained clearly identify L(261) or R(262) of the first extracellular loop of hPTH1-Rc as the contact site for Lys(27) in the hormone. On the basis of (i) the similarity in molecular mass between the CNBr digest of the (125)I-K27-[L261M]hPTH1-Rc conjugate and free (125)I-K27 and (ii) the failure to cross-link (125)I-K27 to a bioactive mutant receptor [L261A]hPTH1-Rc, we conclude that L(261) is the cross-linking site. These results provide the first demonstration of an interaction between the principal binding domain of PTH and the first extracellular loop of hPTH1-Rc. Revealing proximity of Lys(27) (in PTH) to L(261) (in hPTH1-Rc) provides additional insight into the nature of the ligand-receptor bimolecular interface and clearly illustrates that the extracellular loops of the receptor contribute to the specificity of the PTH

  1. Carboniferous magmatism in the Evora Massif (southwest Portugal, Ossa-Morena Zone): from typical arc calc-alkaline to adakitic-like magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Selma M.; Neiva, Ana M. R.; Ramos, Joao M. F.

    2014-05-01

    the PP and the neighboring plutons are observed. First, the PP has the most primitive Sr-Nd isotopic signature; second, several chemical features (like high Na2O [3.86-5.87 %], Sr [278-939 ppm] and Sr/Y [12.4-192.5], low Y [2.4-19.5 ppm] and K2O/Na2O [0.19-0.75], strongly fractionated REE patterns [LaCN/YbCN = 18-43] and lack of pronounced Eu anomaly) suggest that the PP is chemically distinct from typical calc-alkaline arc rocks and is more similar to Archean TTGs and modern adakites. Using the compositional criteria of [6], an evolution towards 'slab-melts' compositions is observed within the PP, whereas the other Evora Massif plutons clearly represent 'non-slab melts'. Given their close spatial and temporal relation, we believe that the link between these granitic bodies deserves further investigation. [1] Silva and Pereira (2004) Geologische Rundschau 93, 886-896; [2] Moita et al. (2005) Geogaceta 37, 55-58; [3] Antunes et al. (2011) Estudios Geologicos 66, 25-34; [4] Antunes et al. (2011) Hutton Symposium Abstracts 9-10; [5] Lima et al. (2012) Journal of Petrology 53, 1887-1911; [6] Defant and Drummond (1990) Nature 347, 662-665.

  2. Seismotectonics investigations in the internal Cottian Alps (Italian Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Gianluigi; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano; Cadoppi, Paola; Balestro, Gianni; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Tallone, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    -Early Miocene) is related to transtensive/extensional movements along the LTZ and the development of minor sub-parallel N-S faults. This kinematic evolution fits in a model of dextral-transtension at regional scale. The more recent activity of the LTZ may have caused the development of Pleistocene lacustrine basin, several hundred metres thick, in the Lower Chisone and Pellice valleys, which did not hosted glacial tongues. Along the LTZ, however, Pleistocene deposits showing evidence of brittle deformation were also found. With the aim to better understand the relation between the current seismic activity and faults, an analysis was carried out by selecting the best located earthquakes (location error less than 3 km) recorded by the seismic network of the North Western Italy (RSNI). This selection is made necessary by the relatively small size of the structures under investigations in order to avoid fake attributions. In addition to get qualitative information about the seismogenic source, the focal mechanisms of four earthquakes occurring along the mapped faults were calculated sorting out the best locatable events among those occurred in the area. The good geometric and kinematic agreement between structural and seismological data indicates a possible dependence of the seismicity of the inner Cottian Alps with the current tectonic activity of the LTZ and its associated minor structures. Balestro G. et al. (2009) Ital. J. Geosci., 128(2), 331-339. Bertotti G., Mosca P. (2009) Tectonophysics, 475, 117-127. Eva C. et al. (1990) Atti del Convegno Gruppo Nazionale Difesa dai terremoti, Ed. Ambiente, Pisa, 1, 25-34. Perrone G. et al. (2009) Ital. J. Geosci., 128(2), 541-549.

  3. Analysis of antibodies raised against soluble and membrane bound proteins of Nosema grylli (Microspora) spores.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, J Y; Dolgikh, V V; Weck-Heimann, A; Entzeroth, R

    2000-01-01

    Da protein connected with polar filaments as it was clearly suggested by IEM and IFA. Mab 1BD9 recognized 25, 34, 43 kDa proteins from the fraction of membrane bound proteins of spore walls, the sites of their interaction with antigens being marked with uneven fluorescence (IFA) and by gold precipitates on spore walls (IEM). Mab 1BB9 reacted with 36, 45, 65 and 75 kDa proteins, which belong mainly to the fraction of membrane-bound spore proteins, and gave a weak fluorescence associated with spores. Mab 2AB3 recognized 44 and 60 kDa proteins from the fraction of soluble spore proteins, and Mab 2AD4 acknowledged a single protein of 55 kDa from the same fraction. The obtained antibodies add to the existing microsporidian antibody bank and can be used for further work of isolation, description and sequencing the microsporidian proteins in order to understand eventually their functions.

  4. [Smoking among students at the School of Health and Social Development and the Health Service Institute in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Touré, N O; Dia Kane, Y; Diatta, A; Ndiaye, E M; Thiam, K; Mbaye, F B R; Hane, A A

    2009-01-01

    We have undertaken a transverse study of smoking among students at the National School of Health and Social Development (ENDSS) and the Health Service Institute (ISS) in Senegal. 683 out of 1142 students were questioned. 609 (89%) replied, of whom 313 (52%) were at the ENDSS and 293 (48%) at the ISS. Senior technical students were most strongly represented at 37.8%, followed by student nurses (27.4%) and midwifery students (23.3%). There were more women (n=378) than men with a sex ratio of 0.61. The average age of the population was 27.5 +/- 6.8 years (range 15 to 58). The average age was 26.2 +/- 5.6 years in the women and 29.6 +/- 8 in the men. The group aged 25-34 was significantly the most affected in both men and women (p=0.0000). The population comprised 502 non-smokers (82.4%), 62 ex-smokers (10.2%) and 45 smokers (7.4%).We found variable alcohol consumption in 119 subjects (19.2%) and 5 students admitted using cannabis. The 62 ex-smokers made up 10.2% of the population. The average age was 31.4 years. 25 ex-smokers (40.3%) drank alcohol, with a sex ratio of 1.95. The reasons for stopping smoking were illness and guilt in 27.4% of cases respectively, economic in 24.2%, medical statements on the effects of smoking on health in 17.7% and personal wishes in only 11.3%. The smokers, numbering 45 (7.4%), had an average age of 27.6 +/- 6.6 years with a sex ratio of 2 (p=0.00000). The age of starting smoking was 20.7 +/- 4.2 years for the women and 19.9 +/- 2.9 years for the men. The latter had smoked for an average of 9.2 years. Cigarettes were used by the great majority of smokers. It was associated with alcohol consumption in 35.6% and cannabis in 11.1% of cases. In the men the motives for starting smoking were stress (60%), pleasure (55.2%) and social influence (53.3%). By contrast, among the women, the two main reasons were stress and fashion in 60% (p=0.04). Our students smoked mostly in public places and in their homes. 34 smokers (75.6%) wished to stop (p=0

  5. Hyperspectral measurements for estimating biophysical parameters and CO2 exchanges in a rice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Meroni, M.; Manca, G.; Cogliati, S.; Busetto, L.; Picchi, V.; Galvagno, M.; Colombo, R.; Seufert, G.

    2009-04-01

    biophysical parameters and carbon GEP based on aerial and satellite images. References Gamon J.A., Penuelas J., Field C.B. 1992. A Narrow-Waveband Spectral Index That Tracks Diurnal Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency. Remote Sensing of Environment, 41:35-44. Meroni M., Colombo R. 2006. Leaf level detection of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence by means of a subnanometer resolution spectroradiometer. Remote Sensing of Environment, 103:438-448. Plascyk J.A. 1975. The MK II Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD-II) for airborne and orbital remote sensing of solar-stimulated luminescence. Optical Engineering, 14:339-346.

  6. [Determination of markers from characteristic HPLC chromatogram of phenols in three official origins of Ephedrae Herba and quantitative analysis of four phenols].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xue; Hong, Hao; Zang, Xin-yu; Xu, Feng; Shang, Ming-ying; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-qing

    2015-12-01

    This study is to establish the characteristic HPLC chromatogram of phenols in Ephedrae Herba, from which to pick out the marker peaks, followed by the analysis of the regularity of their distribution and content in the herbaceous stems of Ephedra sinica, E. intermedia and E. equisetina. The HPLC-DAD method for the characteristic chromatogram as well as quantitative analysis was established. The separation was carried out on a YMC-Pack ODS-A column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 µm), eluted with the mobile phases as 0.01% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) in a linear gradient (0-10 min, 17% B; 10-25 min, 17%-19% B; 25- 33 min, 19%-48% B; 33-35 min, 48%-51% B; 35-44 min, 51% B). The flow rate was kept at 1.0 mL · min⁻¹. The column tem- perature was 40 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 350 nm (0-16 min) and 330 nm (16-44 min). Forty-six batches of collected samples from three official origins of Ephedrae Herba were detected, whose liquid chromatograms proven to be helpful to the differentiation of different origins. With principal component analysis and the analysis of distribution of peak area, twelve key peaks from the chromatogram were discussed in details on their contributions to the characteristics and differences of three official origins of the herb: peak area of peak 10, 11, 12 were found out to be significantly higher in E. equisetina than in other two origins, whose sum (higher than 146 mAU in E. equisetina) was useful for the discrimination between E. equisetina and the other two origins; peak area of 1 and 4 were respectively higher in E. sinica and E. intermedia than in other official origins, indicating their important effect on the differen- tiation of corresponding origins; peak 8 and 9 were picked out as two characteristic common peaks in three official origins of the herb, whose peak area showed little difference among different origins; further, peak area of other key peaks in the chromatogram also showed some difference

  7. Data Mining and Machine Learning in Time-Domain Discovery and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Richards, Joseph W.

    2012-03-01

    The changing heavens have played a central role in the scientific effort of astronomers for centuries. Galileo's synoptic observations of the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus starting in 1610, provided strong refutation of Ptolemaic cosmology. These observations came soon after the discovery of Kepler's supernova had challenged the notion of an unchanging firmament. In more modern times, the discovery of a relationship between period and luminosity in some pulsational variable stars [41] led to the inference of the size of the Milky way, the distance scale to the nearest galaxies, and the expansion of the Universe (see Ref. [30] for review). Distant explosions of supernovae were used to uncover the existence of dark energy and provide a precise numerical account of dark matter (e.g., [3]). Repeat observations of pulsars [71] and nearby main-sequence stars revealed the presence of the first extrasolar planets [17,35,44,45]. Indeed, time-domain observations of transient events and variable stars, as a technique, influences a broad diversity of pursuits in the entire astronomy endeavor [68]. While, at a fundamental level, the nature of the scientific pursuit remains unchanged, the advent of astronomy as a data-driven discipline presents fundamental challenges to the way in which the scientific process must now be conducted. Digital images (and data cubes) are not only getting larger, there are more of them. On logistical grounds, this taxes storage and transport systems. But it also implies that the intimate connection that astronomers have always enjoyed with their data - from collection to processing to analysis to inference - necessarily must evolve. Figure 6.1 highlights some of the ways that the pathway to scientific inference is now influenced (if not driven by) modern automation processes, computing, data-mining, and machine-learning (ML). The emerging reliance on computation and ML is a general one - a central theme of this book - but the time

  8. Data Mining and Machine Learning in Time-Domain Discovery and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Richards, Joseph W.

    2012-03-01

    The changing heavens have played a central role in the scientific effort of astronomers for centuries. Galileo's synoptic observations of the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus starting in 1610, provided strong refutation of Ptolemaic cosmology. These observations came soon after the discovery of Kepler's supernova had challenged the notion of an unchanging firmament. In more modern times, the discovery of a relationship between period and luminosity in some pulsational variable stars [41] led to the inference of the size of the Milky way, the distance scale to the nearest galaxies, and the expansion of the Universe (see Ref. [30] for review). Distant explosions of supernovae were used to uncover the existence of dark energy and provide a precise numerical account of dark matter (e.g., [3]). Repeat observations of pulsars [71] and nearby main-sequence stars revealed the presence of the first extrasolar planets [17,35,44,45]. Indeed, time-domain observations of transient events and variable stars, as a technique, influences a broad diversity of pursuits in the entire astronomy endeavor [68]. While, at a fundamental level, the nature of the scientific pursuit remains unchanged, the advent of astronomy as a data-driven discipline presents fundamental challenges to the way in which the scientific process must now be conducted. Digital images (and data cubes) are not only getting larger, there are more of them. On logistical grounds, this taxes storage and transport systems. But it also implies that the intimate connection that astronomers have always enjoyed with their data - from collection to processing to analysis to inference - necessarily must evolve. Figure 6.1 highlights some of the ways that the pathway to scientific inference is now influenced (if not driven by) modern automation processes, computing, data-mining, and machine-learning (ML). The emerging reliance on computation and ML is a general one - a central theme of this book - but the time

  9. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host

  10. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  11. Telling better stories: strengthening the story in story and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2012-12-01

    analysis', which maximizes a quantitative measure of the spread of a set of qualitative scenarios defined by states of driving forces (Carlsen 2009). It could also include a survey of different worldviews, and the qualitative models that they imply, such as that carried out by Sunderlin (Sunderlin 2003). Futures studies has moved forward from the time the SRES was published, and new techniques are now available that can help us to tell better stories of the future. References Alcamo J 2001 Scenarios as Tools for International Environmental Assessments (Cophenhagen: European Environment Agency) Alcamo J 2008 The SAS approach: combining qualitative and quantitative knowledge in environmental scenarios Environmental Futures—The Practice of Environmental Scenario Analysis vol 2, ed J Alcamo (Amsterdam: Elsevier) pp 123-50 Carlsen H 2009 Climate change and the construction of scenario sets that span the range of societal uncertainties Paper for International Studies Association Annual Convention 2009 (New York City, February) Jackson T 2009 Prosperity Without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet (London: Earthscan) Kriegler E, O'Neill B C, Hallegatte S, Kram T, Lempert R J, Moss R H and Wilbanks T 2012 The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: a new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways Glob. Environ. Change 22 807-22 Nakicenovic N and Swart R (eds) 2000 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Raskin P, Monks F, Ribeiro T, van Vuuren D and Zurek M 2005 Global scenarios in historical perspective Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios: Findings of the Scenarios Working Group vol 2, ed S R Carpenter et al (Washington, DC: Island) pp 35-44 Schweizer V J and Kriegler E 2012 Improving environmental change research with systematic techniques for qualitative scenarios Environ. Res. Lett. 7 044011 Sunderlin W D 2003 Ideology, Social Theory, and the Environment (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

  12. Chemical evolution at the coasts of active volcanic islands in a primordial salty ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasdeit, H.; Fox, S.

    2008-09-01

    (salt concentration ca. 4 %; Fig. 1). After one hour of reflux, a water insoluble dark green residue was iso- EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00081, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 lated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparison with an authentic sample proved that the dipyrromethene 3 had been formed. Conclusions We have, for the first time, demonstrated that conditions favorable for the transformation of amino acids into oligopyrroles may have been present on the young Earth. If the hot-volcanic-coast scenario is true, the first oligopyrrole-type photoreceptor and electrontransfer molecules were available quite early in Earth's history. Future experiments will focus on (i) the inclusion of additional relevant materials such as lava rock and prebiotic oxidation reagents for the formation of dipyrromethenes (e. g. nitrite and nitrate [7]), (ii) the formation of oligopyrroles larger than dipyrromethenes, and (iii) metal complexes of oligopyrroles. References [1] Martin, H., Albarède, F., Claeys, P., Gargaud, M., Marty, B., Morbidelli, A. and Pinti, D. L. (2006) Earth Moon Planets, 98, 97-151. [2] Russell, M. J. and Arndt, N. T. (2005) Biogeosciences, 2, 97-111. [3] Knauth, L. P. (1998) Nature, 395, 554-555. [4] Edmonds, M. and Gerlach, T. M. (2006) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 244, 83-96. [5] Pizzarello, S. (2004) Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 34, 25-34. [6] Plankensteiner, K., Reiner, H. and Rode, B. M. (2006) Mol. Diversity, 10, 3-7. [7] Cleaves, H. J., Chalmers, J. H., Lazcano, A., Miller, S. L. and Bada, J. L. (2008) Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 38, 105-115. [8] Huber, C. and Wächtershäuser, G. (2006) Science, 314, 630-632. [9] Miller, S. L. (1987) in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 52, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, 17-27. [10] Blair, S. K., Magnani, L., Brand, J., Wouterloot, J. G. (2008) Astrobiology, 8, 59-73.

  13. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2010-05-01

    archaeological site Emmaus-Nicopolis (central Israel). Proceed. of the 69th EAGE Conference, P118, London, Great Britain, 5 pp. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E., and Khesin, B.E., 2000. Optimization of magnetic investigations in the archaeological sites in Israel. In: Special Issue of Prospezioni Archeologiche 'Filtering, Modeling and Interpretation of Geophysical Fields at Archaeological Objects', 65-92. Eppelbaum, L., Itkis, S., and Khesin, B., 2006a. Detailed magnetic survey unmasks Prehistoric archaeological sites in Israel. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Calgary, Canada, 1366-1373. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Khesin, B.E., 2001. Disturbing factors in geophysical investigations at archaeological sites and ways of their elimination. Trans. of the IV Conf. on Archaeological Prospection, Vienna, Austria, 99-101. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2001b. Prompt magnetic investigations of archaeological remains in areas of infrastructure development: Israeli experience. Archaeological Prospection, 8 (3), 163-185. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2006b. Some peculiarities of geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel. Russian Archaeology, No. 1, 59-70. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2010. Archaeological geophysics in arid environments: Examples from Israel. Journal of Arid Environments, 74, No. 5. Eppelbaum, L.V., Kutasov, I.M. and Barak, G., 2006c. Ground surface temperature histories inferred from 15 boreholes temperature profiles: Comparison of two approaches. Earth Sciences Research Journal, 10, No. 1, 25-34. Finkelstein, M.I. and Eppelbaum, L.V., 1997. Classification of the disturbing objects using interpretation of low-intensive temporary magnetic variations. Trans. of the Conference of Geological Society of America. Salt Lake City, 29, No.6, p. 326. Itkis, S., Khesin, B., Eppelbaum, L., and Khalaily, H., 2003. The Natufian site of Eynan (Hula valley