Science.gov

Sample records for 25-34 35-44 45-54

  1. 22 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become...

  2. 22 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become...

  3. 22 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become final, or for which a judgment has been entered...

  4. 22 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become final, or for which a judgment has been entered...

  5. 22 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become...

  6. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence... of Evidence where appropriate, e.g., to exclude unreliable evidence. (c) The ALJ shall...

  7. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  8. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  9. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  10. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  11. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  12. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facility, as defined by 18 CFR 292.101, made under market-based rate authority granted by the Commission... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  13. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  14. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  15. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  16. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  17. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  18. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  19. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  20. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  1. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  2. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of...

  3. A Dimensional Liability Model of Age Differences in Mental Disorder Prevalence: Evidence from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M.; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. PMID:25858414

  4. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: evidence from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. PMID:25858414

  5. Prevalence of High Non-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Associated Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Jilin Province, China: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Zhen, Qing; Li, Yong; Kou, Chang Gui; Tao, Yu Chun; Wang, Chang; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Lu, Yu Ping; Yu, Ming Xi; Zhang, Hui Ping; Yu, Ya Qin; Li, Bo; Liu, Ya Wen

    2016-07-01

    Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in patients with diabetes, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is a better predictor of CVDs than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the distribution of non-HDL-C and the prevalence of high non-HDL-C level in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus and identify the associated risk factors. Non-HDL-C concentration positively correlated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-C concentrations. Although both non-HDL-C and LDL-C concentration both related positively with TC concentration, the magnitude of correlation was relatively higher for non-HDL-C. The prevalence of high non-HDL-C (⋝4.14 mmol/L) was higher in two age groups (55-64 years: 46.7%; 65-79 years: 47.3%) than other age groups (18-24 years: 4.2%; 25-34 years: 43.6%; 35-44 years: 38.1%; 45-54 years: 41.0%). It was also higher among overweight (45.1%), generally obese (50.9%), or abdominally obese (47.3%) subjects, compared with normal weight subjects (34.5%). The risk of high non-HDL-C increased with advancing age. Both general obesity [odds ratio (OR)=1.488, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.003-2.209] and abdominal obesity (OR=1.561, 95% CI: 1.101-2.214) were significantly associated with high non-HDL-C levels. PMID:27554125

  6. Development of a capitation scale for IDF career soldiers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Weiss, Yossi; Cohen, Yossi; Shmueli, Amir

    2007-03-01

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law allocates a national healthcare budget to the sickness funds, which provide medical care to civilian population. Medical care for members of the IDF is financed through the budget of the Ministry of Defense and is not included in the national healthcare budget. Benefits provided to soldiers serving in the permanent forces are far more extensive than those provided to civilians. Because of no co-payments, poor management, and the cost-based budget, military healthcare costs in Israel are expected to exceed civilian healthcare costs, adjusting for age and sex. The present paper derives age- and sex-based capitation rates for military personnel, and compares military and civilian age-based expenditure and capitation rates. The study population comprised career soldiers and civilians aged 21-54 years. Expenses of career soldiers were calculated to provide information on the financial costs of medical services for each age group in 2003. Overall expenses for women were higher than for men in all age groups. As anticipated, the older the group, the higher the total expenditure for both men and women. In-patient care represented a higher percentage of the total costs for men (28.3%) than for women (22.1%). Emergency room care was higher for women in the 22-24 age group but comparable to that of men in higher age groups. Specialist visits represented a significantly higher percentage of the total costs for women than for men in the 22-24 and 25-34 age groups (by 6% and 15%, respectively). The difference decreased to 13% in the 35-44 age groups and, in the 45-54 age group, the difference for men was 14% higher than for women. Military costs were similar to civilian costs in the 22-24 age groups, higher in the following two groups, and lower in the 45-54 age group. Like in other organizations, military healthcare services might benefit from outsourcing. The inequality in medical services to soldiers and civilians, the over-use of the

  7. The EEG and Incidence of Epilepsy in Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangye, Sheila R.

    1979-01-01

    It was found, among other things, that neither the presence of congenital heart disease, nor diabetes, nor intercurrent illness appeared to have any effect on the development of seizures. The age groups with the lowest proportion of EEG abnormalities were 25-34 years (48.7 percent abnormal) and 35-44 years (54.1 percent abnormal). (Author/DLS)

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Nauru

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No comprehensive assessment of diabetes prevalence in Nauru has been conducted since an extreme prevalence was documented more than two decades ago. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Methods A nationwide survey in 2004 of people aged 15- 64 years (n = 1592). Fasting plasma glucose levels were used to defined diabetes (≥7.0 mmol/l or 126 mg/dl) and prediabetes (6.1-6.9 mmol/l or 110-125 mg/dl). Results The sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 13.0% (95% CI: 10.6, 15.4) in men, 14.4% (11.9, 16.9) in women, and 13.7% (12.0, 15.4) combined. The sex-standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 6.4% (4.6, 8.2) for men, 5.5% (3.9, 7.2) for women, and 6.0% (4.8, 7.3) combined. The prevalence of diabetes for individuals 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years was 4.5%, 7.6%, 24.1%, 32.9%, and 42.7%, respectively. The prevalence of prediabetes for the same age categories was 4.2%, 8.8%, 5.9%, 6.6%, 7.1%, respectively. Multivariable, multinomial logit modeling found risk factors for prediabetes were high cholesterol levels (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.66, 2.47) and elevated waist circumference (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.08), and for diabetes were age in years (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.07), cholesterol levels (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.58, 2.14) and waist circumference (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07). Conclusions Diabetes remains a major public health problem in Nauru, affecting one out of every ten people. While the prevalence of diabetes has declined, its burden has persisted among the old but also extended towards the younger age groups. PMID:21943388

  9. Sex hormones in women in rural China and in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Key, T. J.; Chen, J.; Wang, D. Y.; Pike, M. C.; Boreham, J.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of certain hormones linked to breast cancer risk were measured in age-pooled samples from 3,250 rural Chinese women in 65 counties, and 300 British women, all aged 35-64. In age-groups 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 respectively, mean oestradiol concentrations were 36% (P = 0.043), 90% (P less than 0.001) and 171% (P = 0.001) higher in the British than in the Chinese women, and mean testosterone concentrations were 48% (P less than 0.001), 68% (P less than 0.001) and 53% (P = 0.001) higher in the British than in the Chinese women. The difference in testosterone concentrations between the two countries appeared to be due largely to the lower average body weight in the Chinese women. Sex hormone binding globulin did not differ significantly between the two countries in age groups 35-44 and 45-54, but was 15% (P = 0.002) lower in the British than in the Chinese women at ages 55-64. Prolactin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two countries in any age group. PMID:2223580

  10. An economic-demographic model of the United States labor market.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J M

    1982-01-01

    An econometric model that has been developed to investigate the effects of demographic change on the US economy is described. The specific demographic features examined are the sizes of age sex groups in the US working age population. The size of these groups from now through the end of the 20th century will be determined primarily by past and current levels of fertility so they can be forecast with some degree of confidence. The model expands both the domain and accuracy of longterm economic forecasting by making use of the considerable quantity of demographic information that can be forecast, at least through this century, with a fairly great degree of confidence. In addition to economic forecasting, this study of the impact of demographic changes on the US labor market contributes to the investigation of the interrelationships among economic and demographic changes. The task of the model is as follows: given an exogenous projection of fertility and mortality rates and net immigration and given exogenous forecasts of variables such as rates of technical change, government demand for goods and services, and tax rates, the model forecasts variables characterizing the labor market and the macroeconomy. The model uses the fundamental principles of supply and demand, the economic theory of production, and the theory of household allocation of time and income to draw the implications of changes in demographic variables for the labor market and the economy. The crux of the model is a set of relationships depicting the behavior of the US labor market. In the labor market submodel, the input of labor of each of 16 age sex groups and its piece in each period is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. The 16 demographic groups are males and females, respectively, of ages 14-15, 16-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65 and over. Equations depicting the supply of and demand for labor of various demographic groups are estimated and provide the behavioral

  11. Fatal Firearm Injuries in Tennessee: A Comparison Study of Tennessee's Two Most Populous Counties 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Amy McMaster; Chancellor, Karen E; Rogers, William R; Ledford, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Firearm injuries are a leading cause of violent death in Tennessee. This study was designed to compare the demographic and epidemiologic features of fatal firearm injuries in Shelby County and Davidson County, Tennessee between 2009 and 2012. We identified 1081 gunshot fatalities for the study period in these two counties. Shelby County had a higher overall, age-adjusted gunshot mortality rate, a higher male age-adjusted gunshot mortality rate, and a higher age-adjusted gunshot homicide rate than Davidson. Age groups 25-34 years and 35-44 years had higher crude mortality rates for gunshot deaths in Shelby County than Davidson County. Both counties had higher age-adjusted gunshot mortality rates for black males than white males, higher homicide rate for black race than white, and higher suicide rate for white race than black. Homicide was the most common manner of death, and handguns were the most common type of firearm used in both counties. PMID:27113699

  12. Restrictive abortion laws, antiabortion attitudes and women's contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall H

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically examines the public and social policy question: Do state restrictive abortion laws affect the likelihood that women use more highly effective contraceptive methods? Using contraceptive use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2002 survey, the empirical results show that Medicaid Funding Restrictions, Informed Consent Laws, and Two-Visit Laws have no significant impact on adult women's (ages 18-44, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44) use of highly effective contraceptive methods. A state's antiabortion attitudes, which likely contribute to the enactment of restrictive abortion laws in a state, are a major factor in inducing greater use of highly effective contraceptive methods by adult women at-risk of an unintended pregnancy. The empirical findings remain robust for various population subgroups of adult women (i.e., married, single, employed, unemployed, with children, no children and college educated). PMID:23017704

  13. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16-64 years old) for the period 2001-2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16-34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16-24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25-34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35-44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16-34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35-44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45-64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16-34 years, may have begun before the 2008

  14. Work-energy level, personal characteristics, and fatal heart attack: a birth-cohort effect.

    PubMed

    Paffenbarger, R S; Hale, W E; Brand, R J; Hyde, R T

    1977-03-01

    In a 22-year followup of 3686 San Francisco longshoremen, a cohort analysis assessed job activity and six personal characteristics in relation to 395 fatal heart attacks. Four cohorts aged 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 in 1951 were studied annually for job shifts affecting energy output and for sudden or delayed death from heart attack by age 75. All subjects underwent multiphasic screening for heavy cigarette smoking, higher blood pressure, history of prior heart disease, obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, and higher blood cholesterol. The first three of these characteristics added risk of fatal heart attack. The amount of risk varied in the four cohorts. Higher energy output on the job reduced risk of fatal heart attack, especially sudden death, in the two younger cohorts, where less active workers were at threefold increased risk. Lack of this effect in the two older cohorts could imply real differences in their work habits, such as being less energetic in heavy jobs or more energetic in light jobs than the younger cohorts. Or, before the study began, early deaths may have winnowed susceptibles from the two older cohorts. Combined low-energy output, heavy smoking, and higher blood pressure increased risk by as much as 20-fold. By elimination of these adverse influences, this population might have had an 88% reduction in its rate of fatal heart attack during the 22 years. PMID:848474

  15. The distribution of cataract surgery services in a public health eye care program in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Marseille, E; Brand, R

    1997-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness of public health cataract programs in low-income countries has been well documented. Equity, another important dimension of program quality which has received less attention is analyzed here by comparisons of surgical coverage rates for major sub-groups within the intended beneficiary population of the Nepal blindness program (NBP). Substantial differences in surgical coverage were found between males and females and between different age groups of the same gender. Among the cataract blind, the surgical coverage of males was 70% higher than that of females. For both genders, the cataract blind over 55 received proportionately fewer services than younger people blind from cataract. Blind males aged 45-54 had a 500% higher rate of surgical coverage than blind males over 65. Blind females aged 35-44 had nearly a 600% higher rate of surgical coverage than blind females over 65. There was wide variation in overall surgical coverage between geographic zones, but little variation by terrain type, an indicator of the logistical difficulties in delivery of services. Members of the two highest caste groupings had somewhat lower surgical coverage than members of lower castes. Program managers should consider developing methods to increase services to women and to those over 65. Reaching these populations will become increasingly important as those most readily served receive surgery and members of the under-served groups form a growing portion of the remaining cataract backlog. PMID:10175620

  16. Hypotension and environmental noise: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich; Thudium, Jürg

    2014-09-01

    Up to now, traffic noise effect studies focused on hypertension as health outcome. Hypotension has not been considered as a potential health outcome although in experiments some people also responded to noise with decreases of blood pressure. Currently, the characteristics of these persons are not known and whether this down regulation of blood pressure is an experimental artifact, selection, or can also be observed in population studies is unanswered. In a cross-sectional replication study, we randomly sampled participants (age 20-75, N = 807) from circular areas (radius = 500 m) around 31 noise measurement sites from four noise exposure strata (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, >64 Leq, dBA). Repeated blood pressure measurements were available for a smaller sample (N = 570). Standardized information on socio-demographics, housing, life style and health was obtained by door to door visits including anthropometric measurements. Noise and air pollution exposure was assigned by GIS based on both calculation and measurements. Reported hypotension or hypotension medication past year was the main outcome studied. Exposure-effect relationships were modeled with multiple non-linear logistic regression techniques using separate noise estimations for total, highway and rail exposure. Reported hypotension was significantly associated with rail and total noise exposure and strongly modified by weather sensitivity. Reported hypotension medication showed associations of similar size with rail and total noise exposure without effect modification by weather sensitivity. The size of the associations in the smaller sample with BMI as additional covariate was similar. Other important cofactors (sex, age, BMI, health) and moderators (weather sensitivity, adjacent main roads and associated annoyance) need to be considered as indispensible part of the observed relationship. This study confirms a potential new noise effect pathway and discusses potential patho-physiological routes of actions. PMID

  17. Quality-of-Life Research on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Soetikno, Roy M.; Mrad, Ramzi; Pao, Victoria; Lenert, Leslie A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The World Wide Web (WWW) is a new communications medium that permits investigators to contact patients in nonmedical settings and study the effects of disease on quality of life through self-administered questionnaires. However, little is known about the feasibility and, what is more important, the validity of this approach. An on-line survey for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients whose UC had been treated with surgical procedures was developed. To understand how patients on the WWW might differ from those in practice and the potential biases in conducting epidemiological research in volunteers recruited on the Internet, post-surgery patients who responded to the WWW survey were compared with those in a surgical practice. Setting: The Internet and private practice surgical clinic. Main outcomes: Scores from the Short form 36 (SF-36) Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Self-Administered Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ). Results: Over a 5-month period, 53 post-surgery patients enrolled in the Internet study; 47 patients from a surgical clinic completed the same computer-based questionnaire. Surgically treated patients on the WWW were younger than their clinic counterparts (median age category 35-44 years vs. 45-54 years, p = 0.01) but more ill with a lower summary IBDQ score (168 vs. 186, p = 0.019) and lower health status across almost all dimensions of the SF-36 (p = 0.016). Conclusions: It is feasible to conduct epidemiological research on the effects of UC on quality of life on the Web; however, systematic differences in disease activity between volunteer patients on the WWW and “in the clinic” may limit the applicability of results. PMID:9391930

  18. Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Alcohol Abuse: Prospective Evaluation in the ERICO Study

    PubMed Central

    Morilha, Abner; Karagulian, Samuel; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Goulart, Alessandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some studies have indicated alcohol abuse as one of the contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease. However, this relationship is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) alcohol abuse in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry Strategy (ERICO Study). Methods 146 participants from the ERICO Study answered structured questionnaires and underwent laboratory evaluations at baseline, 30 days and 180 days after ACS. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was applied to assess harmful alcohol consumption in the 12 months preceding ACS (30 day-interview) and six months after that. Results The frequencies of alcohol abuse were 24.7% and 21.1% in the 12 months preceding ACS and six months after that, respectively. The most significant cardiovascular risk factors associated with high-risk for alcohol abuse 30 days after the acute event were: male sex (88.9%), current smoking (52.8%) and hypertension (58.3%). Six months after the acute event, the most significant results were replicated in our logistic regression, for the association between alcohol abuse among younger individuals [35-44 year-old multivariate OR: 38.30 (95% CI: 1.44-1012.56) and 45-54 year-old multivariate OR: 10.10 (95% CI: 1.06-96.46)] and for smokers [current smokers multivariate OR: 51.09 (95% CI: 3.49-748.01) and past smokers multivariate OR: 40.29 (95% CI: 2.37-685.93)]. Conclusion Individuals younger than 54 years and smokers showed a significant relation with harmful alcohol consumption, regardless of the ACS subtype. PMID:26131701

  19. Increased anxiety and impaired spatial memory in young adult rats following adolescent exposure to methylone.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jollee J; Hughes, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that treatment of adolescent rats with the substituted cathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), might result in heightened anxiety and/or impaired memory during early adulthood, as has been shown for other designer drugs. For 10 consecutive days from 35days after birth (PND35-44, early adolescence) or 45days after birth (PND45-54, late adolescence), male and female PVG/c rats were administered saline or 8.0mg/kg methylone via intraperitoneal injection. When 90days old (early adulthood), their anxiety-related behavior was recorded in an open field and a light/dark box. Acoustic startle amplitude was also measured as well as their spatial memory which was determined by their ability to detect which arm of a Y maze had changed in brightness between an acquisition and a retention trial. Previously methylone-treated rats showed increased anxiety-related behavior only in the open field as reflected in decreased ambulation, and increased corner occupancy and defecation. In the latter two cases, the increases depended on the age of treatment. Also, for defecation, only male rats were affected. In addition, methylone-treated rats displayed signs of impaired spatial memory, independent of anxiety, through their reduced ability to detect a novel changed Y-maze arm. The results of the study suggested some possible consequences in adulthood of methylone use during adolescence. There were also several examples of female rats exhibiting higher overall frequencies of activity and anxiety-related responding than males that were consistent with them being the more active and less anxious of the two sexes. PMID:27178814

  20. The effect of age on sexual and violent reconviction.

    PubMed

    Craig, Leam A

    2011-02-01

    Although a number of research studies indicate an inverse relationship between age and sexual offence recidivism, the effect of age on sexual and violent reconviction remains unclear, with some studies producing contradictory results. In the present study, reconviction data were obtained for 131 offenders (85 sex offenders and 46 violent offenders) followed up over a 2- and 5-year period. The sample was grouped into four age bands (i.e., ≤24, 25-34, 35-44, and ≥45 years) and rates of sexual, violent, sexual and violent (combined), and any offence reconviction were compared. There was an almost linear relationship between age and rate of reconviction, with the youngest age band (≤24 years) presenting the greatest risk of reconviction and the older age bands (≥45 years) presenting the lowest reconviction rate. At the 5-year follow-up, the youngest age band was significantly more likely to be reconvicted of sexual and violent offences (combined) than any other age band. This age band was significantly more likely to be actuarially assessed (i.e., Static-99) as high risk (controlling for age) and was more likely to target strangers, be single, and display non-sexual violence during the index offence. In relation to sexual reconviction, there was a plateau effect in the middle-age band, with the oldest age band (≥45 years) obtaining the highest sexual reconviction rate compared with all other age bands at the 5-year follow-up. Although these findings support the view that lower-aged sexual and violent offenders pose greater risk than their older-aged counterparts, this was not true for sexual reconviction at the 5-year follow-up. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19923381

  1. 21 CFR 558.363 - Narasin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....366. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 558.363, see the List of CFR Sections... this section are as follows: (1) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section. (2) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, with 10, 20, 50, and...

  2. 21 CFR 558.363 - Narasin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....366. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 558.363, see the List of CFR Sections... this section are as follows: (1) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section. (2) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, with 10, 20, 50, and...

  3. 21 CFR 558.363 - Narasin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....366. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 558.363, see the List of CFR Sections... this section are as follows: (1) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section. (2) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, with 10, 20, 50, and...

  4. Demographic, socio-economic and geographic determinants of seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in rural western Kenya, 2011.

    PubMed

    Otieno, Nancy A; Nyawanda, Bryan O; Audi, Allan; Emukule, Gideon; Lebo, Emmaculate; Bigogo, Godfrey; Ochola, Rachel; Muthoka, Phillip; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Shay, David K; Burton, Deron C; Breiman, Robert F; Katz, Mark A; Mott, Joshua A

    2014-11-20

    Influenza-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause a considerable burden of disease in rural and urban sub-Saharan Africa communities with the greatest burden among children. Currently, vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza infection and accompanying morbidities. We examined geographic, socio-economic and demographic factors that contributed to acceptance of childhood seasonal influenza vaccination among children living in a population-based morbidity surveillance system in rural western Kenya, where influenza vaccine was offered free-of-charge to children 6 months-10 years old from April to June, 2011. We evaluated associations between maternal and household demographic variables, socio-economic status, and distance from home to vaccination clinics with family vaccination status. 7249 children from 3735 households were eligible for vaccination. Of these, 2675 (36.9%) were fully vaccinated, 506 (7.0%) were partially vaccinated and 4068 (56.1%) were not vaccinated. Children living in households located >5km radius from the vaccination facilities were significantly less likely to be vaccinated (aOR=0.70; 95% CI 0.54-0.91; p=0.007). Children with mothers aged 25-34 and 35-44 years were more likely to be vaccinated than children with mothers less than 25 years of age (aOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.15-1.62; p<0.001; and aOR=1.35; 95% CI 1.10-1.64; p=0.003, respectively). Finally, children aged 2-5 years and >5 years of age (aOR=1.38; 95% CI 1.20-1.59; p<0.001; and aOR=1.41; 95% CI 1.23-1.63; p<0.001, respectively) and who had a sibling hospitalized within the past year (aOR=1.73; 95% CI 1.40-2.14; p<0.001) were more likely to be vaccinated. Shorter distance from the vaccination center, older maternal and child age, household administrator's occupation that did not require them to be away from the home, and having a sibling hospitalized during the past year were associated with increased likelihood of vaccination against influenza in western Kenya. These

  5. A joint resolution relating to the disapproval of the President's exercise of authority to suspend the debt limit, as submitted under section 1002(b) of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 on October 17, 2013.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2013-10-28

    10/29/2013 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 45 - 54. Record Vote Number: 220. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. What It Means to be a Carrier

    MedlinePlus

    ... those with a premutation. Intermediate or “Grey Area” Alleles An allele is a term to describe one’s gene, like ... is called an “intermediate” or “grey area” sized allele. These are alleles with 45-54 CGG repeats. ...

  7. No latest title...

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Enzi, Michael B. [R-WY

    2012-02-16

    04/24/2012 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 45 - 54. Record Vote Number: 68. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. 21 CFR 558.363 - Narasin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 558.363, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... this section are as follows: (1) To 000986: 36, 45, 54, 72, and 90 grams per pound, paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section. (2) (3) To 000986: 36 grams per pound, with 36 grams per pound nicarbazin,...

  9. A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the National Labor Relations Board relating to representation election procedures.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Enzi, Michael B. [R-WY

    2012-02-16

    04/24/2012 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 45 - 54. Record Vote Number: 68. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  11. Changes in vigorous physical activity and incident diabetes inmale runners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2007-04-30

    We examined the dose-response relationship between changes in reported vigorous exercise (running distance, {Delta}km/wk) and self-reported physician diagnosed diabetes in 25,988 men followed prospectively for (mean {+-} SD) 7.8 {+-} 1.8 years. Logistic regression analyses showed that the log odds for diabetes declined significantly in relation to men's {Delta}km/wk (coefficient {+-} SE: -0.012 {+-} 0.004, P < 0.01), which remained significant when adjusted for BMI (-0.018 {+-} 0.003, P < 0.0001). The decline in the log odds for diabetes was related to the distance run at the end of follow-up when adjusted for baseline distance, with (-0.024 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) or without (-0.027 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) adjustment for BMI. Baseline distance was unrelated to diabetes incidence when adjusted for the distance at the end of follow-up. Compared to men who ran <8 km/wk at the end of follow-up, incidence rates in those who ran {ge} 8 km/wk were 95% lower between 35-44 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 92% lower between 45-54 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 87% lower between 55 and 64 years old (P < 0.0001), and 46% lower between 65-75 yrs old (P = 0.30). For the subset of 6,208 men who maintained the same running distance during follow-up ({+-}5 km/wk), the log odds for diabetes declined with weekly distance run (-0.024 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.02) but not when adjusted for BMI (-0.005 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.65). Conclusion: Vigorous exercise significantly reduces diabetes incidence, due in part to the prevention of age-related weight gain and in part to other exercise effects. Physical activity decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes [1-10]. Moderate and vigorous exercise are purported to produce comparable reductions in diabetes risk if the energy expenditure is the same [3,10]. The optimal physical activity dose remains unclear, however, with some [4-7] but not all studies [1,8,9] showing continued reduction in diabetes for high versus intermediate energy expenditures. The National Runners Health

  12. Childlessness among Older Women in the United States: Trends and Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abma, Joyce C.; Martinez, Gladys M.

    2006-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, the United States has seen an increase in childlessness and first births at older ages. Using the National Survey of Family Growth, we focus on women aged 35-44 who are voluntarily childless (expect no children and are fecund or contraceptively sterile). We compare these women to those who are involuntarily childless…

  13. DYNAMIC STANDARDIZATION OF TREE-RING SERIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compound growth function of Warren (W.G. Warren, 1980. ree-Ring Bull. 40:35-44) represented an attempt to develop a model-based approach that standardized tree ring width sequences and was more flexible than the monotonic functions that were then commonly used. hile the idea ...

  14. Photocrystallography reveals new metastable nitrosyl linkage isomers in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Raithby, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Using the combined techniques of photocrystallography and infrared spectroscopy is a very powerful method for generating and establishing the structures of metastable linkage isomers in the solid state as exemplified by the work of Casaretto et al. [IUCrJ (2015), 2, 35-44] on [RuCl(NO)2(PPh3)2]BF4. PMID:25610621

  15. Spectral classification of SN2016emk as a normal SN Ia at maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.

    2016-08-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of the supernova candidate ATSN2016emk (ra 06:03:42.90, dec -35:44:07.20). The spectrum (390-990nm) was obtained on UT 2016 Aug. 1 with the LDSS3 mounted to the Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.

  16. INTEGRAL follow-up of IceCube HESE 128340 58537957

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Mereghetti, S.; Laurent, P.; Kuulkers, E.

    2016-08-01

    On 2016-08-14 21:45:54 the IceCube detector has observed a high-energy neutrino likely of astrophysical origin, HESE 128340 58537957. The location of the event is contained in a circle of 1.5 degree radius (systematic and statistical uncertainty, 90% confidence) centered at RA=199.3100 Dec=-32.0165, assuming that the interaction in the IceCube detector was track-like.

  17. Perceived Farm Management Educational Needs of Part-Time and Small Scale Farmers in Selected Ohio Counties. Summary of Research 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uko, Okon E.; Miller, Larry E.

    A study described part-time and small farmers (PT/SF) on the basis of their demographic characteristics and determined their farm management educational needs. Findings revealed that the majority of the PT/SF were males who operated farms of 50-150 acres for 11 or more years, were 35-44 years of age, and were high school graduates who principally…

  18. Reaching the Non-Traditional Stopout Population: A Segmentation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatzel, Kim; Callahan, Thomas; Scott, Crystal J.; Davis, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 21% of 25-34-year-olds in the United States, about eight million individuals, have attended college and quit before completing a degree. These non-traditional students may or may not return to college. Those who return to college are referred to as stopouts, whereas those who do not return are referred to as stayouts. In the face of…

  19. Knowledge Management as a Mechanism for Technological and Organizational Change Management in Israeli Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Snunith; Perry, Milly

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, the higher education sector has experienced many pressures and changes (Hanna, "Educause Review, 38"(4), 25-34, 2003; Scott, "Educause Review, 38", 64-80, 2003; Waterhouse, "The power of e-learning: The essential guide for teaching in the digital age", 2005). Universities around the world are facing the need to adapt to a…

  20. Commuting Patterns of Nonmetro Household Heads, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Data from the Annual Housing Survey indicated that 22% of all employed United States household heads commuted to a county different from that in which they lived in 1975. Commuting was more prevalent among men than among women and slightly higher for whites than for Blacks. Commuting tended to increase until age 25-34 and then to decline after age…

  1. Latinas and HIV/AIDS: Implications for the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Miguelina

    1991-01-01

    Among Latinas, the number of cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is increasing relentlessly. From August 1989 to August 1990, there was a 53 percent increase nationally in cumulative AIDS cases among Latinas. In New York City, AIDS is the leading cause of death among Latinas aged 25-34. The conditions and circumstances that place…

  2. Decision Processes Among the Elderly: Do They Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchilds, Jacqueline D.; Bikson, Tora K.

    Decision making processes among older adults were investigated within the context of grocery selection, using a stimulus array involving two product classes (bread and cheese) with 10 items per class. The sample (N=580) was stratified by sex, household status (living alone or with spouse), and age, employing three age groupings: 25-34 (young),…

  3. American Higher Education: "First in the World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, 42 percent of Americans in the 25-34 age range hold a degree from a two- or four-year institution of higher education. At one time, that proportion was high enough to make the United States the best-educated country in the world. But in one generation, America's educational attainment has held steady while in other countries it has…

  4. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  5. A Profile of the Continuing Education Student at Montgomery College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Howard S.

    In order to determine the characteristics of the noncredit Community Services student at Montgomery College, data gathered from the 7,905 registrations received between May 1975 and March 1976 were tabulated and analyzed. Results indicate that the typical student is a 25-34 year old female secretary or housewife, living in the Gaithersburg area,…

  6. Risk indicators of coronal and root caries in Greek middle aged adults and senior citizens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay of multiple determinants which may change overtime. Therefore, periodic surveys of caries experience and redetermination of the risk indicators of the disease are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of coronal and root caries in Greeks aged 35-44 and 65-74-year-old in relation to socio-demographic parameters. Furthermore, trends in coronal caries experience of the 35-44-year-olds were investigated. Methods A sample of 1188 35-44-year-old and 1093 65-74-year-old individuals was selected in 2005 according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys. Caries was assessed in dentate subjects using the DMFT, DMFS, RDFS and RCI indices. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the effect of socio-demographic parameters. Results The mean DMFT and DMFS scores of the adults were 14.06 and 45.78 respectively, while those of the senior citizens were 20.63 and 89.82. Among the 35-44-year-ods, men and those having a higher educational attainment had significantly lower DMFS values (women OR = 1.679, CI: 1.243-2.267 and >12 years of education OR = 0.321, CI: 0.193-0.535 respectively), while educational level was the only predictor of DMFS in senior citizens (OR = 0.279, CI: 0.079-0.992). The mean DMFT score of the 35-44-year-olds has not improved since 1985, but there was a remarkable reduction in the number of DT related to a simultaneous increase in the number of FT. The mean RDFS rose from 0.39 in adults to 2.66 in senior citizens. The mean RDFS score of the middle aged adults was significantly correlated with education (OR = 0.346, CI: 0.180-0.664). The RCI was almost four times greater in seniors (9.73) than in adults (2.53). There were significant differences in caries experience between the surveyed regions. MS and RDS were the major components of the DMFS and RDFS indices

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 is located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 214 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as ''Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas,'' and is comprised of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters {sm_bullet} CAS 11-22-03, Drum {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-18, Storage Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 11-22-03, 25-34-03, 25-34-04, 25-34-05, 25-99-12, and 25-99-18 is No Further Action. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of the fly ash and surrounding wooden structure at CAS 25-99-12 as a best management practice The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 05-99-01 in CAU 214 is Clean Closure. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with the pesticide dieldrin The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 is Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with chromium and soil impacted with the pesticides chlordane and heptachlor {sm_bullet} Implementing use restrictions (UR) at both CASs as detailed in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2005) {sm_bullet} Posting UR warning signs around CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 on the existing chain link fence

  8. Age and gender-related differences in a spatial memory task in humans.

    PubMed

    León, Irene; Tascón, Laura; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive skills decline with age. Our ability to keep oriented in our surrounding environment was demonstrated to be influenced by factors like age and gender. Introduction of virtual reality based tasks improved assessment of spatial memory in humans. In this study, spatial orientation was assessed in a virtual memory task in order to determine the effect of aging and gender on navigational skills. Subjects from 45 to 74 years of age were organized in three groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years old). Two levels of difficulty were considered. Results showed that males outperformed females in 65-74 years-old group. In addition to this, females showed a more noticeable poor performance in spatial memory than males, since memory differences appeared between all age groups. On the other hand, 65-74 year-old males showed an impaired performance in comparison with 45-54 year-old group. These results support that spatial memory becomes less accurate as we age and gender is an important factor influencing spatial orientation skills. PMID:26965569

  9. SV40 lymphomagenesis in Syrian golden hamsters

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Adrienne L.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Heard, Tiffany C.; Sroller, Vojtech; Wong, Connie; Herron, Alan J.; Hamilton, Mary J.; Davis, William C.; Butel, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) isolates differ in oncogenic potential in Syrian golden hamsters following intraperitoneal inoculation. Here we describe the effect of intravenous exposure on tumor induction by SV40. Strains SVCPC (simple regulatory region) and VA45-54(2E) (complex regulatory region) were highly oncogenic following intravenous inoculation, producing a spectrum of tumor types. Three lymphoma cell lines were established; all expressed SV40 T-antigen, were immortalized for growth in culture, and were tumorigenic following transplantation in vivo. New monoclonal antibodies directed against hamster lymphocyte surface antigens are described. The cell lines expressed MHC class II and macrophage markers and were highly phagocytic, indicating a histiocytic origin. Many hamsters that remained tumor-free developed SV40 T-antigen antibodies, suggesting that viral replication occurred. This study shows that route of exposure influences the pathogenesis of SV40-mediated carcinogenesis, that SV40 strain VA45-54(2E) is lymphomagenic in hamsters, that hamster lymphoid cells of histiocytic origin can be transformed in vivo and established in culture, and that reagents to hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules are now available. PMID:19038412

  10. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Jung; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Lee, Sanghyun; Choi, Ran Joo; Chung, Ha Sook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik

    2012-01-01

    Six new germacranolides, zawadskinolides A-F (1-6), and a new eudesmane glucoside, chrysantiloboside (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum, along with thirteen known constituents. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence. Bioassay showed that flavonoids such as apigenin (9), (-)-eriodictyol (10) and nepetin (12), as well as the sesquiterpene lactone, zawadskinolide F (6), inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 66.15, 132.55, 35.44, and 91.32 μM, respectively. PMID:22382409

  11. 21 CFR 25.30 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General. 25.30 Section 25.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.30 General. The classes of actions listed in this section and §§ 25.31 through 25.34 are categorically...

  12. Dental anxiety of parents in an Israeli kibbutz population.

    PubMed

    Peretz, B; Zadik, D

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the levels of dental anxiety in both parents of children in a kibbutz in Israel. Sixty pairs of parents between 22 and 56 years of age with children aged 1-14 years comprised the study population. The parents were divided into three age groups: 22-34 years, 35-44 years, and 45-56 years. Dental anxiety was assessed by using Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale and Kleinknecht's Dental Fear Survey. The mothers showed significantly higher levels of dental anxiety than the fathers. Within the families dental anxiety of husbands and wives were poorly correlated. Mothers in the 35-44-year age group displayed the highest scores of dental anxiety. Among the fathers, dental anxiety was highest in the youngest age group (22-34 years). The mean Corah score for the combined group was much higher than those reported for patients in private clinics in Sweden and in the USA. The results suggest that mothers in their mid-thirties to mid-forties merit special support with regard to the dental situation. PMID:7748856

  13. Prevalence of Osteosclerosis Among Patients Visiting Dental Institute in Rural Area of Western India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahul; Singh, Ravinder; Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Ashtha; Tomar, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) is a benign lesion of unknown aetiology and is not attributed to any dysplastic, inflammatory, neoplasia, or systemic disorder. Aims and Objectives To assess the prevalence and distribution of IO according to its location and to patients’ age and gender, among rural population of western India. Materials and Methods Seven hundred and fifty patients were examined for the presence of IO in the jaw bone. After a thorough clinical examination, radiographic examination was done using OPG. Age specified by WHO were used 5, 12, 15, 35-44 and 65-74. The data collected was than tabulated and subjected to descriptive statistics and chi square test. Results Among the total study population 89 (11.8%) were found to be suffering from IO out of which 27 (7.2%) were males and 62 (16.53%) were females. The maximum number of IO cases cases was seen among the age group of 35-44 y, 33 (22.0%) and minimum in 5 y 9 (6%) Conclusion IO is higher among the females as compared to males and mostly seen among the 3rd and 4th decade individuals. PMID:26436044

  14. Periodontal status of a subject sample of Yemen.

    PubMed

    Mengel, R; Eigenbrodt, M; Schünemann, T; Florès-de-Jacoby, L

    1996-05-01

    From August to October 1991, the periodontal status of 1001 Yemenis representing the age groups 12-14, 15-19, 20-24 and 35-44 years was recorded and evaluated with reference to the CPITN, the calculus index and clinical attachment levels. The impact of chewing khat, the leaves of a cultivated, alkaloid shrub, and of using the traditional miswak chewing stick for oral hygiene purposes were investigated. The results show that 6.9% of the juvenile probands (15-19 years) had healthy periodontal tissue (CPITN 0), whereas bleeding on probing and calculus (CPITN 1 + 2) were registered in 86.2%. In the 35-44 year age group, 1.7% were periodontally healthy, whereas 84.5% displayed plaque retention or shallow pocketing (CPITN 2 + 3) and 12.5% deep pocketing (CPITN 4). The treatment needs in all age groups are confined primarily to calculus removal and instruction in oral hygiene. The clinical attachment level and the calculus index revealed age-related attachment loss and calculus formation, primarily among male probands. The higher khat consumption among the male population is reflected in its detrimental effect on the periodontal tissue, especially among younger probands. Oral hygiene aids have also an influence on periodontal status, with a toothbrush proving more efficient than the miswak. WHO efforts directed towards prophylactic programs need to be intensified but can be staffed by dental hygienists. PMID:8783048

  15. Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0). PMID:25292030

  16. γ-Particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Chamon, L. C.; Cybulska, E. W.; Medina, N. H.; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Silva, C. P.; Gasques, L. R.; Zahn, G. S.; Genezini, F. A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Lubian, J.; Linares, R.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Rossi, E. S.; Nobre, G. P.

    2014-06-01

    The Saci-Perere γ ray spectrometer (located at the Pelletron AcceleratorLaboratory - IFUSP) was employed to implement the γ-particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reaction mechanisms. For this, the 18O+110Pd reaction has been studied in the beam energy range of 45-54 MeV. Several corrections to the data due to various effects (energy and angle integrations, beam spot size, γ detector finite size and the vacuum de-alignment) are small and well controlled. The aim of this work was to establish a proper method to analyze the data and identify the reaction mechanisms involved. To achieve this goal the inelastic scattering to the first excited state of 110Pd has been extracted and compared to coupled channel calculations using the São Paulo Potential (PSP), being reasonably well described by it.

  17. Design and application of two oligonucleotide probes for the identification of Geodermatophilaceae strains using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Urzì, Clara; La Cono, Violetta; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2004-07-01

    Bacteria of the family of Geodermatophilaceae are actively involved in the decay processes [Urzì, C. and Realini, M. (1998) Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 42: 45-54; Urzì, C., Salamone, P., Schumann, P., and Stackebrandt, E. (2000) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50: 529-536] of stone monuments. Characterization of isolates includes phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genetic analysis often requiring long-term procedures. The use of specific probes for members of Geodermatophilaceae family could be useful for the easy detection of those strains colonizing rock surfaces and involved in the biodeterioration. Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed for the specific detection of members of the family Geodermatophilaceae using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); one probe specific for members of the two genera Geodermatophilus/Blastococcus and the second for members of the genus Modestobacter. PMID:15186346

  18. Changes in hypertension treatment and in congestive heart failure mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, S; Thom, T; Abbott, R D

    1989-05-01

    The use of antihypertensive agents has increased in recent years and has been more marked among individuals in older age groups (65-74 years) than in middle-aged groups (45-54 years). Because hypertension is a strong risk factor for the development of congestive heart failure, more common use of antihypertensive agents would be expected to reduce the incidence of congestive heart failure. Examination of the national death statistics reveals decreases in congestive heart failure mortality at younger ages with mortality increases at older ages. The reasons for these divergent trends in congestive heart failure mortality in different ages and the apparent inconsistency with respect to the changes in the use of antihypertensive drugs are explored. We speculate that antihypertensive treatment does not completely prevent congestive heart failure but merely postpones its development by several decades. PMID:2490832

  19. Depolymerization and decolorization of kraft lignin by bacterium Comamonas sp. B-9.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li-yuan; Chen, Yue-hui; Tang, Chong-jian; Yang, Zhi-hui; Zheng, Yu; Shi, Yan

    2014-02-01

    There is no commercial or industrial-scale process for the remediation of black liquor using microorganisms to date. One of the most important causes is that most microorganisms are not able to use lignin as their principal metabolic carbon or energy source. The bacterial strain Comamonas sp. B-9 has shown remarkable ability to degrade kraft lignin and decolorize black liquor using lignin as its principal metabolic carbon and energy source. This report looks at the depolymerization and decolorization of kraft lignin by Comamonas sp. B-9. The degradation, decolorization, and total carbon removal reached 45, 54, and 47.3%, respectively, after 7 days treatment. Comamonas sp. B-9 was capable of depolymerizing kraft lignin effectively as analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and decolorization via degrading benzene ring structures as shown using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. PMID:23948726

  20. Antimicrobial activity and identification of potential antimicrobial compounds from aquatic pteridophyte, Azolla microphylla Kaulf.

    PubMed

    Abraham, G; Yadav, R K; Kaushik, G K

    2015-04-01

    Azolla microphylla Kaulf. is an aquatic nitrogen fixing pteridophyte commonly found in aquatic habitats including paddy fields. Methanolic extract of the fronds of A. microphylla was subjected to partial purification by solvent partitioning with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate followed by hydrolysis, and further partitioning with ethyl acetate. The two fractions, thus obtained were tested for antibacterial activity. It was observed that the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited the growth of the pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae. The GC-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction showed several prominent peaks with retention time ranging from 8.83 to 45.54 min. A comparison of these peaks with the GC-MS libraries revealed that it could be eicosenes and heptadecanes with potential of antimicrobial activity. PMID:26011985

  1. Enhanced electric field tunable dielectric properties of Ba(Sn0.15Ti0.85)O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S. N.; Zhai, J. W.; Gao, L. N.; Yao, X.; Hung, T. F.; Xu, Z. K.

    2008-11-01

    Highly (100)-oriented barium stannate titanate Ba(Sn0.15Ti0.85)O3 (BTS) thin films were deposited on SrTiO3 (STO) and Nb doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) single-crystal substrates through sol-gel process, respectively. Coplanar capacitance and parallel plate capacitance structure configurations were formed by preparing interdigital electrodes (IDEs) and parallel plate electrodes (PPEs) on BTS thin film. The tunability of films with IDE was 45.54%, while the tunability of films with PPE was only 11.54% at the frequency of 1 MHz with an applied electric field of 80 kV/cm. This result showed that the tunability in the a-b plane contributes markedly to the measurements obtained with the IDE.

  2. Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Rams, T E; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this study, socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices were examined across several dentate ethnic and age groups. Oral hygiene scale scores were constructed from toothbrushing and dental floss frequencies self-reported by population-based samples of middle-aged (35-44 years) and older (65-74 years) dentate adults representing Baltimore African-American and White, San Antonio Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, and Navajo and Lakota Native American persons participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) survey. Female gender, education, certain oral health beliefs, household income, and the presence of a usual source of care were revealed with multivariate analysis to show a significant positive relationship with higher oral hygiene scale scores (indicating better personal oral hygiene practices). Other socio-behavioral variables exhibited a more varied, ethnic-specific pattern of association with oral hygiene scale scores. PMID:9549990

  3. Deletion analysis of p16(INKa) and p15(INKb) in relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Graf Einsiedel, Hagen; Taube, Tillmann; Hartmann, Reinhard; Wellmann, Sven; Seifert, Georg; Henze, Günter; Seeger, Karl

    2002-06-15

    This study aimed at determining the prevalence of INK4 deletions and their impact on outcome in 125 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at first relapse using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Patients were enrolled into relapse trials ALL-REZ BFM (ALL-Relapse Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) 90 and 96. The prevalence of p16(INK4a) and p15(INK4b) homozygous deletions was 35% (44 of 125) and 30% (38 of 125), respectively. A highly significant association of both gene deletions was found with the 2 major adverse prognostic factors known for relapsed childhood ALL: T-cell immunophenotype and first remission duration. There was no correlation between INK4 deletions and probability of event-free survival. These findings argue against an independent prognostic role of INK4 deletions in relapsed childhood ALL. PMID:12036898

  4. Women's status and fertility: successive cross-sectional evidence from Tamil Nadu, India, 1970-80.

    PubMed

    Jejeebhoy, S J

    1991-01-01

    This study explores linkages between the status of women and fertility over time in Tamil Nadu, India, using sample survey data for currently married women aged 35-44 in 1970 and 1980. The effects of individual indicators of the status of women on fertility are decomposed into effects through each of the proximate variables, notably those affecting marriage duration, marital fertility, and contraception. There is considerable variation in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between the status indicators and fertility behavior and in the relationship to the underlying mechanisms at the two points in time. On balance, the evidence suggests improvements in the status of women come to exert an increasingly negative effect on fertility over the course of demographic transition. PMID:1949104

  5. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly. PMID:26840821

  6. Determinants of unprotected casual heterosexual sex in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Tuoyire, Derek A; Darteh, Eugene K M

    2014-05-01

    Casual heterosexual sex remains a significant contributor to HIV transmissions in Ghana. The study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to assess the socio-demographic, economic and spatial factors influencing unprotected casual heterosexual sex among men and women. The results of the binary logistic regression models revealed that women aged 35-44 had significantly higher odds of engaging in unprotected casual heterosexual sex than those aged 15-24, unlike the men. There were significantly lower odds of unprotected casual heterosexual sex for women and men with exposure to print media compared with those without exposure. Compared with men residing in the Western Region, unprotected casual heterosexual sex was significantly less likely among those in the Upper East Region. There is the need for behavioural change campaigns in Ghana that take into consideration the multiplicity of factors that determine unprotected casual heterosexual sex. PMID:23931547

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  8. [On the influence of hormonal contraception on the secretion of tears (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wild, H; Benad, A

    1978-01-01

    55 women, 17-41 years of age, were given Schirmer's test to measure tear secretion. The patients had used Nonovlon, Deposiston, or Ovosiston for 8-143 cycles. A reduction in tear secretion was observed in 20 cases, in 3 of which tear secretion was completely inhibited. 6 patients reported dryness or a burning sensation of the eyes. Conjunctivitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca were observed in 4 of the patients, 25-34 years of age, who had used oral contraceptives for 6 months to 5 years. 2 of these patients changed from Nonovlon to Gravistat use, while 1 discontinued oral contraceptive use completely, after which the conditions cleared up. PMID:12261660

  9. Association of hormonal contraceptive use with reduced levels of depressive symptoms: a national study of sexually active women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008), focusing on women aged 25-34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25-34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = -1.04, 95% confidence interval: -1.73, -0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

  10. Predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Awoleke, J O; Adanikin, A I; Ajayi, D D; Ayosanmi, O S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) among pregnant women in a low-resource setting, with the intent of recommending a guideline for screening during antenatal care. A total of 266 healthy pregnant women were antenatally recruited after informed consent. They had routine antenatal investigations, a 1 h 50-g oral glucose tolerance test and quantitative urine culture and sensitivity. The data collected were analysed using statistical software package SPSS v. 17. Prevalence of AB was 23 (8.6%). Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (6, 26.1%), closely followed by Staphylococcus aureus (5, 21.7%). AB was commoner among patients aged 25-34 years, of low parity and higher education. Blood group B- rhesus-positive significantly predicts the likelihood of developing AB in pregnancy (adjusted OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.14-0.96). We conclude that blood group B-rhesus-positive in association with other patients' characteristics, such as age 25-34 years, low parity and higher education could form guidelines for a screening algorithm in our environment. PMID:25029095

  11. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research on how young adults or young adult subgroups utilize and engage with Web-based cessation interventions when trying to quit smoking. Addressing this knowledge gap is important to identify opportunities to optimize the effectiveness of online cessation programs across diverse young adult users. Objective This study examines utilization of the BecomeAnEX.org smoking cessation website among young adults and young adult subgroups compared with older adults to identify patterns of use by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Methods Study participants were 5983 new registered users on a free smoking cessation website who were aged 18 to 70 years. Website utilization was tracked for 6 months; metrics of use included website visits, pages per visit, length of visit, and interaction with specific website features. Differences in website use by age were examined via bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Interactions were examined to determine differences by gender and race/ethnicity within young (18- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds) and older (35 years and older) adult segments. Results A greater percentage of young adults aged 18 to 34 years visited the site only once compared with older adults aged 35 years and older (72.05% vs 56.59%, respectively; P<.001). Young adults also spent less time on the site and viewed fewer pages than older adults. In adjusted analyses, young adults were significantly less likely than older adults to visit the site more than once (18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.68, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64, P<.001), spend more than 3 minutes on the site (18-24 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, P<.001), view 12 or more pages (18-24 years: AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83; P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76, P<.001), utilize the BecomeAnEX.org community

  12. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV. PMID:23438082

  13. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE. PMID:21780972

  14. Serum stability of selected decapeptide agonists of KISS1R using pseudopeptides.

    PubMed

    Asami, Taiji; Nishizawa, Naoki; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Nishibori, Kimiko; Nakayama, Masaharu; Horikoshi, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Tarui, Naoki; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Chieko

    2012-10-15

    Metastin/kisspeptin, a 54-amino acid peptide, is the ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor KISS1R which plays a key role in pathways that regulate reproduction and cell migration in many endocrine and gonadal tissues. The N-terminally truncated decapeptide, metastin(45-54), has 3-10 times higher receptor affinity and intracellular calcium ion-mobilizing activity but is rapidly inactivated in serum. In this study we designed and synthesized stable KISS1R agonistic decapeptide analogs with selected substitutions at positions 47, 50, and 51. Replacement of glycine with azaglycine (azaGly) in which the α-carbon is replaced with a nitrogen atom at position 51 improved the stability of amide bonds between Phe(50)-Gly(51) and Gly(51)-Leu(52) as determined by in vitro mouse serum stability studies. Substitution for tryptophan at position 47 with other amino acids such as serine, threonine, β-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and D-tryptophan (D-Trp), produced analogs that were highly stable in mouse serum. D-Trp(47) analog 13 showed not only high metabolic stability but also excellent KISS1R agonistic activity. Other labile peptides may have increased serum stability using amino acid substitution. PMID:22975302

  15. Nonpigmented and Bacteriochlorophyll-Containing Bradyrhizobia Isolated from Aeschynomene indica

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, P.; Tully, R. E.; Keister, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The legume genus Aeschynomene is unusual, since many species develop stem nodules and the bradyrhizobia isolated from these nodules produce bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl). Evidence is presented that the bradyrhizobia of Aeschynomene indica have wide distribution throughout the world, since A. indica was nodulated when grown in 58 soils collected in 14 different countries. Only 38 of 79 isolates tested synthesized Bchl and carotenoids during heterotrophic growth. Nine isolates produced Bchl constitutively, and cultures were pigmented after growth in the dark. The other isolates required light for Bchl production. The DNA from seven pigmented and three nonpigmented bradyrhizobia hybridized with a DNA probe containing the genes for the photosynthetic apparatus of Rhodobacter capsulatus, but DNA from two other nonpigmented isolates did not hybridize with this probe. A relationship between pigmentation in culture and symbiotic phenotype was not evident, since bradyrhizobia of both Bchl phenotypes nodulated stems of A. indica and formed nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Several isolates, which were ineffective on A. indica, probably do belong to the proposed cross-inoculation group 3 (D. Alazard, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50:732-734, 1985), since they did not nodulate Aeschynomene americana or Macroptilium atropurpureum. Since it has been suggested that extant rhizobia arose from photosynthetic ancestors (J. I. Sprent, p. 45-54, in P. M. Gresshoff, L. E. Roth, G. Stacey, and W. E. Newton, ed., Nitrogen Fixation: Achievements and Objectives, 1990), we propose that the nonpigmented isolates may represent an extant lineage of an intermediate evolutionary stage. PMID:16534933

  16. Thermochemical conversion of raw and defatted algal biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction and slow pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Vardon, Derek R; Sharma, Brajendra K; Blazina, Grant V; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2012-04-01

    Thermochemical conversion is a promising route for recovering energy from algal biomass. Two thermochemical processes, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL: 300 °C and 10-12 MPa) and slow pyrolysis (heated to 450 °C at a rate of 50 °C/min), were used to produce bio-oils from Scenedesmus (raw and defatted) and Spirulina biomass that were compared against Illinois shale oil. Although both thermochemical conversion routes produced energy dense bio-oil (35-37 MJ/kg) that approached shale oil (41 MJ/kg), bio-oil yields (24-45%) and physico-chemical characteristics were highly influenced by conversion route and feedstock selection. Sharp differences were observed in the mean bio-oil molecular weight (pyrolysis 280-360 Da; HTL 700-1330 Da) and the percentage of low boiling compounds (bp<400 °C) (pyrolysis 62-66%; HTL 45-54%). Analysis of the energy consumption ratio (ECR) also revealed that for wet algal biomass (80% moisture content), HTL is more favorable (ECR 0.44-0.63) than pyrolysis (ECR 0.92-1.24) due to required water volatilization in the latter technique. PMID:22285293

  17. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    PubMed

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. PMID:25382477

  18. Gender and incidence of dementia in the Framingham Heart Study from mid-adult life

    PubMed Central

    Au, Rhoda; Preis, Sarah R; Wolf, Philip A; Dufouil, Carole; Seshadri, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender-specific risks for dementia and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) starting in midlife remain largely unknown. Methods Prospectively ascertained dementia/AD and cause-specific mortality in Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants was used to generate 10- to 50-year risk estimates of dementia/AD, based on the Kaplan-Meier method (Cumulative Incidence) or accounting for competing risk of death (lifetime risk, LTR). Results Overall, 777 incident dementia (601 AD) occurred in 7,901 participants (4,333 women) over 136,266 person-years. Whereas cumulative incidences were similar in women and men, LTRs were higher in women >85. LTR of dementia/AD at age 45 was 1 in 5 in women, 1 in 10 in men. Cardiovascular mortality was higher in men with rate ratios decreasing from ~6 at 45-54 to <2 after age 65. Conclusion Selective survival of men with a healthier cardiovascular risk profile and hence lower propensity to dementia might partly explain the higher LTR of dementia/AD in women. PMID:24418058

  19. Benchmarking high-field few-electron correlation and QED contributions in Hg{sup 75+} to Hg{sup 78+} ions. I. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Martinez, A. J.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Braun, J.; Brenner, G.; Bruhns, H.; Lapierre, A.; Mironov, V.; Soria Orts, R.; Tawara, H.; Trinczek, M.; Ullrich, J.; Harman, Z.; Jentschura, U. D.; Keitel, C. H.; Artemyev, A. N.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Scofield, J. H.

    2006-05-15

    The photorecombination of highly charged few-electron mercury ions Hg{sup 75+} to Hg{sup 78+} has been explored with the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap. By monitoring the emitted x rays (65-76 keV) and scanning the electron beam energy (45-54 keV) over the KLL dielectronic recombination (DR) region, the energies of state-selected DR resonances were determined to within {+-}4 eV (relative) and {+-}14 eV (absolute). At this level of experimental accuracy, it becomes possible to make a detailed comparison to various theoretical approaches and methods, all of which include quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects and finite nuclear size contributions (for a 1s electron, these effects can be as large as 160 and 50 eV, respectively). In He-like Hg{sup 78+}, a good agreement between the experimental results and the calculations has been found. However, for the capture into Li-, Be-, and B-like ions, significant discrepancies have been observed for specific levels. The discrepancies suggest the need for further theoretical and experimental studies with other heavy ions along these isoelectronic sequences.

  20. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared to the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.

  1. What kinds of hand injuries are more likely to result in amputation? An analysis of 6549 hand injuries.

    PubMed

    Durusoy, R; Davas, A; Kayalar, M; Bal, E; Aksu, F; Ada, S

    2011-06-01

    We analysed 6549 hand injuries treated between 1992 and 2005 at a specialist hospital in Turkey to identify risk factors for amputations. There were 2899 (44%) hand amputations. Left-side injuries were more prone to amputation. The risk of amputation was higher in men, workers and those in the 15-24 and 45-54 year-old age groups. Compared to home, commercial areas were the places with highest risk, followed by farms and industrial/construction areas. The majority of amputations occurred in industrial/construction areas (87%). Among objects/substances producing injury, watercraft led to the highest risk of amputation and contact with machinery was the mechanism with highest risk. Press machines were the most frequent objects causing amputation both in men and women, followed almost equally by powered wood cutters in men. Doors were the most frequent objects of amputation in children, followed by powered wood cutters. Education, enforcement, and improved engineering are the keys to prevent amputations. Precluding illegal child labour is essential. PMID:21406567

  2. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  3. The Best Modern Analog for Eocene Arctic Forests is within Today's Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Eberle, J.; Sternberg, L. O.; Ellsworth, P.; Eberth, D.; Sweet, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the 25 years that have passed since the first extensive descriptions of the Fossil Forests that persisted above the Arctic Circle during the Eocene (~45-54 Ma), no less than four locations have been suggested as modern analogs. These locations represent a diverse collection of biomes and temperature/precipitation environments, and include the southeastern Unites States and southeastern Asia (based on flora and fauna assemblages), southern Chile and the U.S. Pacific Northwest (based on biomass and productivity estimates), and Pacific Northwestern U.S. and Canada (based on mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation). Here we report on new isotope datasets that allow for a prediction of best modern analog based on a quantitative characterization of paleoseasonality. First, we report high-resolution carbon isotope data from fossil tree rings that record the ratio of summer to winter precipitation. Second, we report analyses of the oxygen isotope composition of phenylglucosazone, a compound isolated from fossil cellulose that straightforwardly records the oxygen isotope composition of meteoric water available to the tree. Together, our analyses indicate that the fossil forests of the Eocene Arctic thrived under a summer-dominated, high-intensity, seasonal precipitation regime, with at least 279 mm of rainfall during the wettest month. A quantitative comparison of mean-annual temperature and precipitation, fossil and modern plant communities, and the seasonality indices, highlights the Korean peninsula as the most appropriate modern analog for the Arctic Eocene forests, in preference to the North and South American analogs previously proposed.

  4. Localisation of luminal epithelium edge in digital histopathology images of IHC stained slides of endometrial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Sanchez, Victor; Patel, Gnyaneshwari; Quenby, Siobhan; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to abnormally high number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells has recently been made possible by a protocol devised by Quenby et al. Hum Reprod 2009;24(1):45-54. The diagnosis involves detection and counting of stromal and uNK cell nuclei in endometrial biopsy slides immunohistochemically stained with haematoxylin for staining cell nuclei and CD56 as a marker for the uNK cells. However, manual diagnosis is a laborious process, fraught with subjective errors. In this paper, we present a novel method for detection of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the human female uterus lining and localisation of the luminal epithelium edge in endometrial biopsies. Specifically, we employ a local phase symmetry based method to detect stromal cell nuclei and propose an adaptive background removal method that significantly eases the segmentation of uNK cell nuclei regions. We also propose a novel method using alpha shapes for the identification of epithelial cell nuclei and B-Spline curve fitting on identified cell nuclei to localise the luminal epithelium edge. The objective of edge localisation is to avoid cell nuclei near the luminal epithelium edge being counted in the diagnosis process due to their non-relevance to the calculation of stromal to uNK cell ratio that determines the diagnosis of recurrent miscarriages in the end. The resulting algorithm offers a promising potential for computer-assisted diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to its high accuracy. PMID:25529641

  5. A histochemical approach to the study of human chorionic gonadotrophin receptors in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Dal Lago, A; Rolandi, M T; Galli, S; Bortolussi, M

    1976-01-01

    Standard suspensions of interstitial cells in PBS were exposed to the action of various fixatives, solvents (clearing agents), temperatures and U. V. light, in order to establish the effects of such chemical and physical agents on the HCG receptors. After exposure to the various agents, the interstitial cells were incubated with [125I]HCG for 2 h at 37 degrees C. To check the specificity of the reaction, competitive tests were performed with added excess non-iodinated HCG. Only formaldehyde fixation for short periods of time, preserved satisfactorily the specific binding activity of the receptors. A different degree of thermolability of the receptors was demonstrated, in relation to 37, 45, 54 and 60 degrees C, while freezing in liquid nitrogen had no effect on the receptors binding activity. After the binding reaction, solvents had a significant solubilizing effect on the HCG-receptor complexes. U. V. light had no significant damaging effect on the receptors. The application of the results for a histochemical approach to the study of the HCG receptors is discussed. PMID:174361

  6. Johor strait as a hotspot for trace elements contamination in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Ismail, Ahmad; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2010-05-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate current status of trace elements contamination in the surface sediments of the Johor Strait. Iron (2.54 +/- 1.24%) was found as the highest occurring element, followed by those of zinc (210.45 +/- 115.4 microg/g), copper (57.84 +/- 45.54 microg/g), chromium (55.50 +/- 31.24 microg/g), lead (52.52 +/- 28.41 microg/g), vanadium (47.76 +/- 25.76 microg/g), arsenic (27.30 +/- 17.11 microg/g), nickel (18.31 +/- 11.77 microg/g), cobalt (5.13 +/- 3.12 microg/g), uranium (4.72 +/- 2.52 microg/g), and cadmium (0.30 +/- 0.30 microg/g), respectively. Bioavailability of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were higher than 50% of total concentration. Vanadium, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were found significantly different between the eastern and western part of the strait (p < 0.05). Combining with other factors, Johor Strait is suitable as a hotspot for trace elements contamination related studies. PMID:20411236

  7. Austerity, precariousness, and the health status of Greek labour market participants: Retrospective cohort analysis of employed and unemployed persons in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-11-01

    Greece implemented the deepest austerity package in Europe during the Great Recession (from 2008), including reductions in severance pay and redundancy notice periods. To evaluate whether these measures worsened labour market participants' health status, we compared changes in self-reported health using two cohorts of employed individuals in Greece from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. During the initial recession (2008-2009) we found that self-reported health worsened both for those remaining in employment and those who lost jobs. Similarly, during the austerity programme (2010-2011) people who lost jobs experienced greater health declines. Importantly, individuals who remained employed in 2011 were also 25 per cent more likely to experience a health decline than in 2009. These harms appeared concentrated in people aged 45-54 who lost jobs. Our study moves beyond existing findings by demonstrating that austerity both exacerbates the negative health consequences of job loss and worsens the health of those still employed. PMID:26290470

  8. Radiologically defined osteoarthrosis in the finger joints of adult residents of Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Cvijetić, S; Dekanić, D; Kurtagić, N; Roić, G

    1994-09-01

    Degenerative changes in the finger joints were studied in 550 Zagreb inhabitants, above the age of 45. The sample was selected by the method of unproportional stratified choice according to age and sex. Radiographs of both hands were taken and osteoarthrosis on the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints was graded according to the five-point Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Body weight, height and arterial blood pressure were measured and occupational work load was evaluated. The prevalence of osteoarthrosis in the finger joints was significantly higher in women (40.9%) than in men (24.8%). It increased with age so that 18.7% of men and 15.0% of women aged 45-54 had finger osteoarthrosis compared to 36.3% of men and 68.2% of women aged 75 and older. Distal interphalangeal joints were more often involved (22.8% of men and 37.9% of women) than the proximal ones (9.7% of men and 19.6% of women). The factors most closely associated with osteoarthrosis were age and body weight. Occupational work load, as classified in this study, was not significantly related to the development of osteoarthrosis, except in the group of housewives, in whom the prevalence of finger arthrosis was greater than in the other groups of women. PMID:7763184

  9. Time-of-travel and dispersion studies, Lehigh River, Francis E. Walter Lake to Easton, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    Results of time-of-travel and dispersion studies are presented for the 77.0 mile reach of the Lehigh River from Francis E. Walter Lake to Easton, Pennsylvania. Rhodamine WT dye was injected at several points for a variety of several common flow conditions and its downstream travel was monitored at a number of downstream points by means of a fluorometer. Time-of-travel data have been related to stream discharge, distance along the river channel and dispersion. If 2.205 pounds of a conservative water soluble contaminant were accidentally spilled into the Lehigh River at Penn Haven Junction at Black Creek 6.09 miles downstream from Rockport, Pennsylvania, when the discharge at Walnutport, Pennsylvania, was 600 cubic feet per second, the leading edge, peak, and trailing edge of the contaminant would arrive 31.6 miles downstream at the Northhampton, Pennsylvania, water intakes 45, 54, and 66 hours later, respectively. The maximum concentration expected at the intakes would be about 1.450 micrograms per liter. From data and relations presented, time-of-travel and maximum concentration estimates can be made for any two points within the reach. (USGS)

  10. Silica exposure, silicosis, and lung cancer: a mortality study of South African gold miners.

    PubMed Central

    Hnizdo, E; Sluis-Cremer, G K

    1991-01-01

    The effects of exposure to gold mining dust with a high concentration of free silica and tobacco smoking on mortality from lung cancer was assessed in a sample of 2209 white South African gold miners who started mining exposure during 1936-43, and were selected for a study of respiratory disorders in 1968-71 when they were aged 45-54. The mortality follow up was from 1968-71 to 30 December 1986. The relative risk for the effect of dust cumulated to the start of the follow up period was estimated as 1.023 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.005-1.042) for a unit of 1000 particle-years. The combined effect of dust and tobacco smoking was better fitted by the multiplicative model than the additive model, suggesting that the two exposures act synergistically. No association between lung cancer and silicosis of the parenchyma or pleura was found, but a positive association existed between silicosis of the hilar glands and lung cancer. PMID:1847069

  11. The effect of vitamin B sub 12 on selenium metabolism in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Whanger, P.D. )

    1991-03-11

    Since animal methylate selenium (Se) and vitamin B{sub 12} is involved in methylation reactions, weaning rats were fed diets with or without vitamin B{sub 12} to evaluate its effect on Se metabolism. Plasma vitamin B{sub 12} of vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats were below detection while vitamin B{sub 12} levels in plasma of control rats ranged from 3-6 ng/ml after 4 weeks feeding. After {sup 75}Se-selenite injection, vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats exhaled 16% of the dose and excreted 22-28% as trimethylselenonium in urine as compared to 45% and 45-54% respectively in control rats. Se methylation experiments with rat liver supernatants from vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats volatilized only 45% as the control rat liver preparation. When rats were fed various levels of Se as selenite, blood and heart Se levels were higher in vitamin B{sub 12} supplemented rats, but lower in liver, kidney, spleen and testis than the deficient rats. This difference in liver between supplemented and deficient rats became greater with higher dietary levels of Se. It is concluded that vitamin B{sub 12} affects Se metabolism through the methylation of this element.

  12. Age, flight experience, and risk of crash involvement in a cohort of professional pilots.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Grabowski, Jurek G; Qiang, Yandong; McCarthy, Melissa L; Rebok, George W

    2003-05-15

    Federal aviation regulations prohibit airline pilots from flying beyond the age of 60 years. However, the relation between pilot age and flight safety has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. From 1987 to 1997, the authors followed a cohort of 3,306 commuter air carrier and air taxi pilots who were aged 45-54 years in 1987. During the follow-up period, the pilots accumulated a total of 12.9 million flight hours and 66 aviation crashes, yielding a rate of 5.1 crashes per million pilot flight hours. Crash risk remained fairly stable as the pilots aged from their late forties to their late fifties. Flight experience, as measured by total flight time at baseline, showed a significant protective effect against the risk of crash involvement. With adjustment for age, pilots who had 5,000-9,999 hours of total flight time at baseline had a 57% lower risk of a crash than their less experienced counterparts (relative risk = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.87). The protective effect of flight experience leveled off after total flight time reached 10,000 hours. The lack of an association between pilot age and crash risk may reflect a strong "healthy worker effect" stemming from the rigorous medical standards and periodic physical examinations required for professional pilots. PMID:12746239

  13. Overweight and Obesity among Palestinian Adults: Analyses of the Anthropometric Data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey (1999-2000).

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Ziad; Jildeh, Christine; Dkeideek, Sahar; Qasrawi, Radwan; Ghannam, Ibrahim; Al Sabbah, Haleama

    2012-01-01

    Background. A cross-sectional survey was designed to provide a baseline data on the prevalence and distribution of overweight and obesity and their associations among adults in Palestine. Methods. A random representative sample of 3617 adults aged 18-64 years was collected between October 1999 and October 2000. Results. The prevalence of overweight was 35.5% in women and 40.3% in men, obesity was 31.5% in women and 17.5% in men. Adults aged 45-54 years old were significantly more likely to be obese (29.2% in men and 50.2% in women) or overweight (48.1% in men and 37.2% in women). When compared with women, men showed significantly more normal BMI level (40.5% versus 31.6%; P < 0.05). Cut-off points for a high waist circumference and high waist-to-hip ratio identified 57.8% and 47.2% of the population, respectively, to be at an increased and high risk for cardiovascular disease. Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, educational level, and marital status) were also found to be significantly related to BMI. Conclusion. Obesity and overweight are enormous public health problems in Palestine. Population-based research at the national level to investigate the social and cultural factors associated with high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian adults should be implemented. PMID:22523663

  14. Working Long Hours is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Diabetes in Urban Male Chinese Workers: The Rosai Karoshi Study.

    PubMed

    Tayama, Jun; Li, Jue; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between number of weekly working hours and the prevalence of diabetes in the urban Chinese population. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose level and number of hours worked per week were collected from 2228 workers in Shanghai, China (Mage  = 44 years; 64% men). Participants were divided into three groups according to the number of hours worked per week (<45, 45-54 and ≥55), and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted with diabetes as the dependent variable. Subjects with a HbA1c of 6.5% or above or those prescribed anti-diabetic medications were defined as having diabetes. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio for having diabetes was found to be significantly higher for those who worked ≥55 h per week compared with those who worked <45 h per week, but only for men. This finding indicates that working long hours could be a risk factor for diabetes in Chinese male workers. PMID:24789310

  15. Aggregating validity indicators embedded in Conners' CPT-II outperforms individual cutoffs at separating valid from invalid performance in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Roth, Robert M; Kirsch, Ned L; Lajiness-O'neill, Renee; Medoff, Brent

    2014-08-01

    Continuous performance tests (CPT) provide a useful paradigm to assess vigilance and sustained attention. However, few established methods exist to assess the validity of a given response set. The present study examined embedded validity indicators (EVIs) previously found effective at dissociating valid from invalid performance in relation to well-established performance validity tests in 104 adults with TBI referred for neuropsychological testing. Findings suggest that aggregating EVIs increases their signal detection performance. While individual EVIs performed well at their optimal cutoffs, two specific combinations of these five indicators generally produced the best classification accuracy. A CVI-5A ≥3 had a specificity of .92-.95 and a sensitivity of .45-.54. At ≥4 the CVI-5B had a specificity of .94-.97 and sensitivity of .40-.50. The CVI-5s provide a single numerical summary of the cumulative evidence of invalid performance within the CPT-II. Results support the use of a flexible, multivariate approach to performance validity assessment. PMID:24957927

  16. [Access, use and preferences of Information and Communication Technologies by physicians in a general hospital in Peru].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Silva, Luis; Ticse, Ray; Alfaro-Carballido, Luz; Guerra-Castañon, Felix

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the access, use and preferences of information and communication technology (ICT) by physicians who practice at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital. The questionnaire explored the availability and skills of ICT, time, educational activities, search engines and technological applications most used as well as ICT preferences in education.211 physicians were surveyed; laptop use was 93%, tablet and smartphone use was 66% and 88%.68% have mobile Internet. Differences were evident in the frequency of use of ICT in 25-34 year old age group as well as a higher level of skills (p<0.05). 86% use PubMed, Facebook and WhatsApp as a means of exchanging images and data related to health, 50% participated in medical blogs, online courses or videoconferences. The use and access of ICT is common among doctors in this hospital and there is positive interest in its use in education. PMID:26338389

  17. Formulation of novel nano-encapsulated Newcastle disease vaccine tablets for vaccination of village chickens.

    PubMed

    Wambura, Philemon N

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of nano-encapsulated vaccine tablet is a novel technique for the delivery of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to village chickens. Vaccine tablets were prepared using gelatin, trehalose and casein as thermostabilisers and binders, respectively, and each vaccine tablet contained a nominal oral dose of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain I-2 for a single chicken. These ND vaccine tablets maintained a titre of 10(8.5) EID(50)/0.1 mL for 90 days at ambient room temperatures (25-34°C). When these vaccine tablets were given to village chickens, a single oral administration of the vaccine produced protective antibody response (≥3.0 log(2)) against challenge with virulent NDV. The findings from the present study showed that, if the vaccine tablet formulation technique is optimised, it will allow the delivery of the ND vaccine without depending on cold chains to rural areas in tropical countries. PMID:20683657

  18. Predicting reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts among Hebrew-speaking readers with and without a reading disability.

    PubMed

    Primor, Liron; Pierce, Margaret E; Katzir, Tami

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which cognitive and reading-related linguistic skills contribute to reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts. The study examined an Israeli national database of Hebrew-speaking readers in fourth grade, from which a subsample of 190 readers with a reading disability (RD) and 190 readers with no reading disability (NRD) was selected. IQ, text reading, reading comprehension, and various linguistic and cognitive skills were assessed. Structural equation modeling results suggested that both groups rely on lower level processes such as text reading accuracy and orthographic knowledge for reading comprehension of both genres. However, RD readers depend more heavily upon these lower level processes compared with NRD for whom higher level processes contribute more to reading comprehension. The various variables accounted for only 25-34% of reading comprehension variance, and possible explanations are discussed. Taken together, these findings highlight the variety of factors influencing reading comprehension and its multidimensional nature. PMID:21993604

  19. Structural modification of 5,7-dimethoxyflavone from Kaempferia parviflora and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Yenjai, Chavi; Wanich, Suchana; Pitchuanchom, Siripit; Sripanidkulchai, Bungon

    2009-09-01

    5,7-Dimethoxyflavone, a major compound from Kaempferia parviflora, was used as a starting material for structural modification. Seven flavonoid derivatives have been synthesized from this flavone. Two new oxime derivatives 4 and 6 exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 36.38 and 25.34 microg/mL, respectively, and against T47D cell line with IC50 values of 41.66 and 22.94 microg/mL, respectively. Compound 7 showed cytotoxicity against HepG2 and T47D cell lines with IC50 values of 21.36 and 25.00 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 6 and 7 showed cytotoxicity nearly equal to the tamoxifen standard. In addition, oxime 6 exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans with an IC50 value of 48.98 microg/mL. PMID:19784571

  20. The epidemiology of suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    A database containing details of every incident of suicidal behaviour on the London Underground railway system between 1940 and 1990 was assembled from the records of London Underground Ltd and the British Transport Police. The total number of cases was 3240. The mean annual number of suicidal acts on the London Underground system increased from 36.1 (1940-1949) to 94.1 (1980-1989). There were significantly fewer incidents on Sundays than on the other days of the week and the daily rate was highest in the spring. 64% of incidents involved males and the peak age group for both sexes was 25-34 yr. Suicide verdicts were returned for a greater proportion of women than men. Overall case fatality was 55%. However, case fatality rates differed between stations, environmental factors appearing to influence survival. Possible strategies to prevent railway suicides and reduce the lethality of this method are discussed. PMID:8153744

  1. A numerical and experimental study of pollutant dispersion in a traffic tunnel.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chung-Yi; Chung, Pei-Ling

    2007-07-01

    Three-dimensional turbulent flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a road tunnel was modeled using the standard k-epsilon turbulence model and solved numerically using the finite volume method. Vehicle emissions were estimated from the measured traffic flow rates and modeled as banded line sources along the tunnel floor. The effects of fan ventilation and piston effect of moving vehicles on the airflow and pollutant dilution were examined. The numerical results reveal that a peak velocity exists near the tunnel floor due to the piston effect of vehicles. The cross-sectional concentrations of air pollutants are non-uniformly distributed and concentrations rise with downstream distance. The piston effect of vehicles can alone provide 25%-34% dilution of air pollutants in the tunnel, compounded 43%-70% dilution effect according to the ventilation condition. PMID:17057955

  2. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J

    2001-08-01

    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum. PMID:11534621

  3. Target tissue distribution of the proenkephalin peptides F, E, and B

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenstein, G.E.; Lund, D.; Schultz, P.; Lewis, R.V.

    1987-08-14

    The adrenal medulla is a rich source of endogenous opioid peptides. These peptides exist predominantly in the form of larger (25-34 amino acid long) enkephalin containing peptides, whose biological roles have yet to be elucidated. We report here the tissue binding distribution of three iodinated enkephalin containing peptides, Peptides F, E, and B, in rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs following intravenous injection. Each (/sup 125/I)peptide has a unique distribution profile but all three are found to bind to the pituitary in each species of animal examined. A number of lines of evidence point toward the enkephalin containing peptides, Peptides F, E, and B, having physiological roles distinct from the enkephalins. The distribution profile of these (/sup 125/I)peptides reported here gives insight into their potential effector sites.

  4. On meromorphically harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric conjugate points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostanci, Hakan; Yalcin, Sibel; Ozturk, Metin

    2007-04-01

    In a previous paper M.P. Chen, Z.-R. Wu and Z.-Z. Zou [M.P. Chen, Z.-R. Wu, Z.-Z. Zou, On functions [alpha]-starlike with respect to symmetric conjugate points, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 201 (1996) 25-34] developed a method, using some operators, to deal with functions analytic and starlike with respect to symmetric conjugate points in the unit disc. Then, the same method is employed to functions meromorphic by Z.Z. Zou and Z.-R. Wu [Zhong Zhu Zou, Zhuo-Ren Wu, On meromorphically starlike functions and functions meromorphically starlike with respect to symmetric conjugate points, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 261 (2001) 17-27]. Now, the method can be employed to functions meromorphic harmonic in the punctured disc 0

  5. Normative data of the Magical Ideation Scale from childhood to adulthood in an Italian cohort.

    PubMed

    Garzitto, Marco; Picardi, Angelo; Fornasari, Livia; Gigantesco, Antonella; Sala, Michela; Fagnani, Corrado; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Ciappolino, Valentina; Fabbro, Franco; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Brambilla, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of schizotypy allows to identify people at risk to develop psychosis. For this purpose, psychometric tools have been developed, such as the Magical Ideation Scale (MIS). This scale investigates attenuated forms of thought transmission experiences, thought withdrawal and aberrant beliefs, related to positive schizotypy. This study aims at providing an Italian version of the MIS and its normative data in the general population from childhood to adulthood, being the first study evaluating subjects under 17year-old. The Italian MIS version was translated by three independent operators and administered to 1378 non-clinical participants, stratified into four age groups (i.e., 8-13, 14-17, 18-24 and 25-34). The unidimensionality of the scale was supported, and its internal consistency was satisfactory (i.e., ordinal Cronbach's αs ranging from 0.86 to 0.90 in different age groups), as well as test-retest reliability (i.e., 1-month ICC of 0.82 in a retested sub-sample). Normative data for the age groups were provided. Specific gender and age-related differences in MIS score were found, i.e. females scored higher than males in the 25-34 age group, which in general, as a group, scored lower than all the other age groups. This study provided evidence of reliability for the Italian version of the MIS in childhood and adolescence, for the first time, as well as in adulthood, showing specific gender and age effects in the early adult cohort. PMID:27423348

  6. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. PMID:26957344

  7. Oral impacts affecting daily performance in a low dental disease Thai population.

    PubMed

    Adulyanon, S; Vourapukjaru, J; Sheiham, A

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure incidence of oral impacts on daily performances and their related features in a low dental disease population. 501 people aged 35-44 years in 16 rural villages in Ban Phang district, Khon Kaen, Thailand, were interviewed about oral impacts on nine physical, psychological and social aspects of performance during the past 6 months, and then had an oral examination. The clinical and behavioural data showed that the sample had low caries (DMFT = 2.7) and a low utilization of dental services. 73.6% of all subjects had at least one daily performance affected by an oral impact. The highest incidence of performances affected were Eating (49.7%), Emotional stability (46.5%) and Smiling (26.1%). Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth performances had a high frequency or long duration of impacts, but a low severity. The low frequency performances; Physical activities, Major role activity and Sleeping were rated as high severity. Pain and discomfort were mainly perceived as the causes of impacts (40.1%) for almost every performance except Smiling. Toothache was the major causal oral condition (32.7%) of almost all aspects of performance. It was concluded that this low caries people have as high an incidence of oral impacts as industrialized, high dental disease populations. Frequency and severity presented the paradoxical effect on different performances and should both be taken into account for overall estimation of impacts. PMID:9007354

  8. Objective sleep of older primiparous Japanese women during the first 4 months postpartum: an actigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Saeki, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko

    2015-03-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to examine objective sleep parameters of older primiparous Japanese women during the first 4 months postpartum using actigraphy. The participants were 18 older primiparae (Mean (SD) = 37.06 (2.62) years, range 35-44 years) who gave birth to healthy neonates at one of three urban Japanese hospitals. Objective sleep quality was measured using actigraphy for 48 h at 1, 2 and 4 months postpartum. The Friedman test was used to test for differences in sleep parameters across time. Sleep duration (SMIN) increased significantly from 2 months (Mean (M) = 301.94 min) to 4 months (M = 372.78 min). Sleep efficiency (SE) increased significantly from 1 month (73.52%) to 2 (86.66%) and 4 months (89.05%). Waking after sleep onset (WASO) decreased significantly from 1 month (M = 114.64 min) to 2 (M = 40.18 min) and 4 months (M = 38.36 min) and long waking episodes (LWEP) significantly decreased from 1 month (4.67) to 2 (2.69) and 4 months (3.12). Persistent postpartum sleep problems can be a sign of postpartum depression as well as health problems among infants. PMID:25759196

  9. THE RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDENTULISM AND PROSTHETIC STATUS OF THE ADULT POPULATION IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the level of edentulism and prosthetic status of the adult population in different regions of Georgia and to assess the influencing risk- factors. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I- (20-34), II-(35-44), III-(45-64), IV- (65-74) in nine regions of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Statistically reliable data received showed the different extent of teeth loss in various regions of Georgia. ≤10 teeth loss were characteristic for Mtskheta (60.2%) and Samtskhe-Javakheti (50.7%),whilst ≥20 teeth lost were noticed more in Achara(2.9%), Samtskhe-Javakheti(2.6%), Shida Qartli (2,5%). Therefore, prosthetic status was mostly presented with one or more bridges or artificial crowns, removable dentures were seen less. Differences in prosthetic status is generally related to low medical education background in all regions, though lack of money was considered as essential obstacle for dental visit for Mtskheta, Imereti and Samtskhe-Javakheti population. Education and family income dictate attitudes towards prosthetic dental care and choice of crown types. On the other hand, material disparity represents the main obstacle to prosthetic procedures, especially implants. PMID:27249432

  10. EVALUATION OF EDENTULISM, PROSTHETIC STATUS AND PROSTHODONTICS TREATMENT NEEDS AMONG THE ADULT POPULATION OF GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the level of edentulism among the adult population of Georgia, to assess the prosthodontics status and normative needs for prosthetic treatment. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I - 20-34, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65-74 in nine regions of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. The loss of teeth due to caries or periodontitis was observed to differing extents throughout the population. One (8.3%) or more bridges (7.6%) and removable dentures (3.2-4.7%) were more frequently observed than implants (0.1%). Metal-ceramic (12.4%) and metal crowns (6.3%) were more commonly detected than zirconia ceramic crowns (0.1%). Statistical analysis of the data demonstrates a rather high normative prosthetic need of implants and bridges and less needs for removable dentures among the population due to less severity of periodontitis and not too high values of missing teeth due to caries (despite the high caries prevalence (99%) throughout the Georgian population). Edentulism is a public problem in Georgia and needs serious attention from government or healthcare centers to prevent the complications . PMID:27249431

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Evaluations of Myrtle Extract, a Plant Traditionally Used for Treatment of Parasitic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Naghibi, Farzaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Taghvai, Mahdieh; Kamkar, Siamak; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Based on the collected ethnobotanical data from the Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC), Iran, Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) was selected for the assessment of in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic activities. Methanolic extract of myrtle was prepared from the aerial parts and assessed for antiplasmodial activity, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The 4-day suppressive test was employed to determine the parasitemia suppression of the myrtle extract against P. berghei  in vivo. The IC50 values of myrtle extract were 35.44 µg/ml against K1 and 0.87 µg/ml against 3D7. Myrtle extract showed a significant suppression of parasitaemia (84.8 ± 1.1% at 10 mg/kg/day) in mice infected with P. berghei after 4 days of treatment. Cytotoxic activity was carried out against mammalian cell lines using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. No cytotoxic effect on mammalian cell lines up to 100 µg/mL was shown. The results support the traditional use of myrtle in malaria. Phytochemical investigation and understanding the mechanism of action would be in our upcoming project. PMID:24455686

  12. Prevalence, incidence, and comorbidity of clinically diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder in Taiwan: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Chung; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Sung, Pi-Shan; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2014-12-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic debilitating anxiety disorder significant in intrusive thoughts and compensation repetitive behaviors. Few studies have reported on this condition Asia. This study estimated the prevalence, incidence and psychiatric comorbidities of OCD in Taiwan. We identified study subjects for 2000-2008 with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic criteria by using National Health Research Institute database. These patients received either outpatient or inpatient care for their condition. Rates were directly age- and sex-adjusted to the 2004 Taiwan population distribution. The estimated mean annual incidence was 27.57 per 10(5) inhabitants and the one year prevalence was 65.05 per 10(5) inhabitants. Incidence and prevalence increased with age, peaking at age 18-24 years in males and at 35-44 years in females. About 53% of adults (≥18 years) and 48% of child and adolescent patients (6-17 years) had one or more comorbid psychiatric conditions. The most common comorbid diagnosis was depressive disorders for both adult and child-adolescent patients. We found a lower prevalence and incidence of clinically diagnosed OCD than that of community studies. Many Asian patients with OCD also had various psychiatric comorbidities, a clinically relevant finding. PMID:25169892

  13. Selected epidemiologic observations of cell-specific leukemia mortality in the United States, 1969-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Levin, L.I.; Merrill, D.W.; Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Utilizing a newly available data set which includes for the first time cell-specific leukemia mortality rates for the United States during 1969-1977, age and sex distributions, time trends and geographic patterns were analyzed. Four major cell types of leukemia were considered. Acute lymphatic leukemia had a bimodal distribution with the first peak in the 5-9-year age group and lowest rates in age group 35-44, after which rates rose geometrically. Acute myeloid leukemia had only a very small childhood peak with a low in the age group 5-9, after which the rates also rose geometrically. For both chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemia the rates rose geometrically after age 15. Rates among females were consistently lower for each age group. The highest sex ratio was found for chronic lymphatic leukemia and is proposed to be the result of a lag period between male and female rates. During the period under study acute lymphatic leukemia mortality in adults declined by almost 10% while acute myeloid leukemia mortality increased by almost 20%. Analysis of the geographic variation of the four major cell types revealed a geographic association between acute lymphatic and acute myeloid leukemia in children, a lack of association between childhood and adult cell types, and an association of acute and chronic cell types in adults.

  14. Clinical measures and treatment needs.

    PubMed

    Marcus, M; Reifel, N M; Nakazono, T T

    1997-05-01

    Clinically evaluated oral health outcome variables from the ICS-II USA data set were examined in the diverse ethnic groups, for two adult age cohorts (35-44 and 65-74 years). These measures were derived from epidemiological examinations and include the DMFT components, loss of attachment, and an indicator of treatment need--the ratio of decayed teeth over decayed and filled teeth. The ratio of decayed over decayed and filled teeth was used in multivariate analysis, since this measure represents an area where public policy could have an impact if determinants were understood. The most important independent variables were race-ethnicity, educational attainment, no fear of dental visits because of pain, and oral hygiene practices. Having a usual source of dental care and visiting the dentist within the past 12 months did not appear to be as important in predicting unmet needs as these other variables. To bridge the gap between the oral health status of majority and minority populations, health educators in minority communities need to become more accessible, have a pro-active interest in oral health, and also be cognizant of the various socio-cultural issues influencing oral health. The problems regarding Native American adults are more complex and require more careful study. PMID:9549992

  15. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    PubMed Central

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease. PMID:23905153

  16. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  17. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  18. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) within the European marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, M.; Cunningham, C.O.; Melvin, W.T.; Kurath, G.

    1999-01-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay (RPA) has been used to detect nucleotide sequence variation within the nucleoprotein gene of 39 viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of European marine origin. The classification of VHSV isolates based on RPA cleavage patterns permitted the identification of ten distinct groups of viruses based on differences at the molecular level. The nucleotide sequence of representatives of each of these groupings was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This revealed grouping of the European marine isolates of VHSV into three genotypes circulating within distinct geographic areas. A fourth genotype was identified comprising isolates originating from North America. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that VHSV isolates recovered from wild caught fish around the British Isles were genetically related to isolates responsible for losses in farmed turbot. Furthermore, a relationship between naturally occurring marine isolates and VHSV isolates causing mortality among rainbow trout in continental Europe was demonstrated. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus within the European marine environment. Virus Res. 63, 35-44. Available from: 

  19. Hardy personality and burnout syndrome among nursing students in three Brazilian universities—an analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing students may exhibit the characteristics of resistance to stress, such as hardiness, which can reduce the risk of burnout. However, we found only one published study about these phenomena among nursing students. Thus, we investigated the association between hardiness and burnout in such students. Methods An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted among 570 nursing students from three Brazilian universities. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic characteristics, hardiness, and burnout, which we analyzed using inferential statistics. Results We observed that 64.04% of nursing students in the sample had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 35.79% had a high level of cynicism, and 87.72% had a low level of professional efficacy: these are dimensions of burnout. We also found that 48.77% had a high level of control, 61.40% a high level of commitment, and 35.44% a high level of challenge: these are dimensions of hardiness. Only 24.74% of the students experienced burnout, and 21.93% met the criteria for a hardy personality. There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of hardiness and burnout (p = 0.033), with 68.00% of hardy students not exhibiting burnout. Conclusions Although nursing students live with educational stressors, burnout was not preponderant in our sample students; this may be linked to hardiness. Thus, given its benefits to student life and health, we recommend the development of strategies to promote hardiness among nursing students. PMID:24678676

  20. Breast carcinomas occurring in young women (< 35 years) are different.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, R. A.; Lees, E.; Webb, M. B.; Dearing, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-three breast carcinomas occurring in women aged between 26 and 44 years were examined for pathological features, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, proliferation as determined by Ki-67 labelling and the presence of c-erbB-2 and p53 protein, and were compared with a control group of carcinomas from women in the 50-67 years age group. Carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years had a significantly high incidence of being poorly differentiated and of having high proliferation rates. This group also had a significantly high incidence of p53 protein staining. Carcinomas in the under 30 years age group had a lower incidence of oestrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. No differences were found in c-erbB-2-positive staining between the groups. Infiltrating lobular carcinomas were only identified in women aged 40 years and over. There was a higher incidence of a family history in the 35-44 years age group (18%) than in the under 35 years age group (11%). Breast carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years are more aggressive. An important finding is the high incidence of p53 positivity, which may indicate genetic instability. Images Figure 1 PMID:8956795

  1. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

    PubMed

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants. PMID:17288176

  2. Prevalence of periodontal diseases among rural population of Mustabad, Krishna District

    PubMed Central

    Ramoji Rao, Mulpuri V.; Katari, Pavan Kumar; Vegi, Lokesh; Bypureddy, Tarun Teja; Prabhakara Rao, Koneru Samyuktha; Tejaswi, Kanikanti Siva

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: People in rural areas neglect oral health as they lack awareness on dental diseases and also due to inadequate availability of dental services. The prevalence of illiteracy is also a reason which can be attributed to a poor oral health. This epidemiological study is undertaken to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the rural population of Mustabad – in Krishna, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study based on randomized sampling method was carried out using the WHO assessment form (1997) on a population of 470. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. Results: The subjects were 220 males and 250 females. Maximum numbers of subjects were in the age group of 35-44 years (21.91%). Prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be 73.62%. The periodontal status deteriorated with aging. Prevalence of periodontitis was higher in females (56.35%) compared to males (43.65%). Males had a higher prevalence of deep pockets (3.18%), whereas females had a higher prevalence of shallow pockets (3.20%). Females had twice the bleeding tendency (18.80%) compared to males (8.64%). Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of periodontal diseases is an impending problem which needs immediate intervention, if not it would have a serious negative impact on the future oral health. The need of the hour is more epidemiological studies with a bigger sample are required. PMID:27195229

  3. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex. PMID:26428091

  4. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite. PMID:26568991

  5. [Soil chemical property changes in vegetable greenhouse fields].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Jiang, Yong; Liang, Wenju

    2005-11-01

    To explore the changes of soil chemical properties in vegetable greenhouse, a comparative study was carried out with the samples gathered from vegetable greenhouse fields and their adjacent upland fields in Damintun Town, Xinming County, Liaoning Province. The results showed that compared with upland fields, the contents of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in greenhouse fields increased significantly. At the depth of 0 approximately 30 cm, soil organic carbon in greenhouses of 1-, 4- and 10-year increased by 31.09%, 35.44%, and 66.80%, respectively, compared with the upland soil. Soil nitrate content at the depth of 0 approximately 30 cm in greenhouse fields was 5.05 approximately 12.49 times as much as that in upland fields. The nitrate content in different soil layers increased with the increasing age of greenhouse field., e.g., at the depth of 20 approximately 30 cm, soil nitrate content was significantly higher in 10-year than in 1- and 4-year greenhouse field, with an increase of 65.73% and 50.89%, respectively, and 6.55 times as much as that in upland field, which indicated that soil nitrate transported downwards, and obviously enriched in deeper soil layers under heavy application of fertilizer. Also with the increasing age of greenhouse field, soil pH decreased, while soil soluble salts accumulated. PMID:16471371

  6. Changed oral conditions, between 1963 and 1999, in the population of the Tokelau atolls of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2001-12-01

    In 1999, an oral health survey was included in an assessment of the community oral health programme of the Tokelau Islands population. This provided a comparison with a similar survey in 1963. In a convenience sample of 386 children and adults, approximately 30 percent of the total population, the deciduous (number of df teeth) and permanent (number of DMF teeth) tooth scores across all age groupings were higher in 1999 compared with 1963. For 15- to 19-year-olds, the mean DMF scores were 8 and 1; and for 35- to 44-year-olds, the scores were 18 and 4 in 1999 and 1963 respectively. The prominent feature of the DMF scores for those over age 25 years was the numbers of missing (M) teeth. The mean number of M teeth at 20-24 years was 5 and 0, and at 35-44 years, 13 and 2 respectively in 1999 and 1963. Periodontal disease was endemic in adults in both surveys. A serious decline in oral health has occurred over the past 35 years. PMID:11887663

  7. Resolution of pulmonary hypertension complication during venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia application.

    PubMed

    Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Wang, Jingkun; Pollock, Robert; Jubak, Bob; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    We are developing a venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia (vv-PISH) system for advanced cancer treatment. The vv-PISH system consistently delivered hyperthermia to adult healthy swine, but significant pulmonary hypertension developed during the heating phase. The goal of this study was to develop a method to prevent pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension results from decreased priming solution air solubility, which causes pulmonary gas embolism. Healthy adult sheep (n = 3) were used to establish a standard vv-PISH sheep model without priming solution preheating. In subsequent sheep (n = 7), the priming solution was preheated (42-46°C) and the hyperthermia circuit flushed with CO2. All sheep survived the experiment and achieved 2 hours of 42°C hyperthermia. In the group lacking priming solution preheating, significant pulmonary hypertension (35-44 mm Hg) developed. In the sheep with priming solution preheating, pulmonary artery pressure was very stable without pulmonary hypertension. Blood electrolytes were in physiologic range, and complete blood counts were unaffected by hyperthermia. Blood chemistries revealed no significant liver or kidney damage. Our simple strategy of priming solution preheating completely resolved the problem of pulmonary hypertension as a milestone toward developing a safe and easy-to-use vv-PISH system for cancer treatment. PMID:23820278

  8. Incidence, Prevalence and Clinical Manifestations of Systemic Sclerosis in Dukagjini Plain

    PubMed Central

    Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Berisha, Idriz; Berisha, Merita; Saiti, Valton; Bajraktari, Halit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is an inflammatory disease of connective tissue, with onset as edema that continues with fibrosis, induration, and skin atrophy, followed by attacks on the joints, internal organs, and secondary proliferation of connective tissue. Purpose: To research in which residence locations and among which group age is the most frequent incidence, prevalence and clinical manifestations of systemic sclerosis in Dukagjini Plain which is inhabited by 698450 resident citizens. Material and methods: 51 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis were studied, out them 44 were females (86.3%) and 7 males (13.7%) respectively, during the period from 2005 to 2010. Their illness was active from 18 to 60 months in accordance with EUSTAR criteria. They are of different age, median age is 44.2 ±10.1. Their diagnose is determined based on revised ACR criteria. Prevalence of patients with PSS was 14.61/100.000, while the incidence was 2.8/100.000, whereas CI (Confidence interval) or limit of accuracy was 95%. Results: Largest number of patients per 100.000 citizens has Istog municipality which has the largest number of patients with PSS. It is followed by Mamusha and Rahovec municipalities. The largest examined group age is 35-44 year old, 41.2% respectively. Conclusion: Additional studies are necessary to carry out in order to find the reasons of asymmetrical distribution of patients with systemic sclerosis in the municipalities of Dukagjini Plain. PMID:23678335

  9. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Image Analysis Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Noel; Valdés, Jose; Guevara, Miguel; Silva, Augusto

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) account for 10-30% of all strokes and are a result of acute bleeding into the brain due to ruptures of small penetrating arteries. Despite major advancements in the management of ischemic strokes and other causes of hemorrhagic strokes, such as ruptured aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), or cavernous angioma, during the past several decades, limited progress has been made in the treatment of ICH, and the prognosis for patients who suffer them remains poor. The societal impact of these hemorrhagic strokes is magnified by the fact that affected patients typically are a decade younger than those afflicted with ischemic strokes. The ICH continues to kill or disable most of their victims. Some studies show that those who suffer ICH have a 30-day mortality rate of 35-44% and a 6-month mortality rate approaching 50%. Approximately 700,000 new strokes occur in the United States annually and approximately 15% are hem-orrhagic strokes related to ICH. The poor outcome associated with ICH is related to the extent of brain damage. ICH produces direct destruction and compression of surrounding brain tissue. Direct compression causes poor perfusion and venous drainage to surrounding penumbra at risk, resulting in ischemia to the tissues that most need perfusion [16].

  10. Emerging of two new subgenotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoya; Xu, Xiaojie; You, Shumei; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens and causes major economic loss to the global swine industry. In this study, a total of 49 PRRSV isolates were collected from different swine herds in seven provinces in Southeast China from 2014 to 2015. All the ORF5 genes and some Nsp2 genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the North America genotype. Among them, five isolates formed a new subgenotype IV derived from highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). Six isolates formed subgenotype III, which were closely related to the NADC30 strain in the US. These isolates formed 13 putative N-linked glycosylation site (NGS) patterns based on N30, 33, 34, 35, 44 and 51. There were fewer NGSs of isolates in subgenotype IV than in subgenotype III. This indicates that the two new subgenotypes of PRRSV strains with different NGS patterns were spreading in those regions of China. The genetic diversity should be considered for the control and prevention of this disease. PMID:27224859

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  12. Development of a dendritic cell vaccine encoding multiple cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes targeting hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Futao; Chen, Lin; Ma, Li; Wang, Yu; He, Yu; Ma, Zhiyuan; Liu, Haili; Guo, Yonghong; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Zhiqiang; Hao, Chunqiu; Jia, Zhansheng

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine encoding hepatitis C virus (HCV) multiple cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes that can stimulate T cell responses in vitro, and can be used for immunization in vivo. DCs were infected with recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses (Ads) expressing 2 HCV sequences fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and FLAG tags. One sequence (sequence 1) contained the HCV CTL epitopes, NS4B 1793-1801 and P7 774-782, as well as the HCV Th epitope, NS3 1248-1261. A second sequence (sequence 2) was the positive epitope control which contained HCV core 35-44, core 132-140 and NS3 1248-1261. The efficiency of infection was detected by flow cytometry and the expression of HCV epitopes in the DCs was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Ad infection significantly enhanced DC maturation and interleukin (IL)-12p70 production, resulting in T cell proliferation and increased interferon-γ secretion. The CTLs stimulated by Ad-infected DCs specifically killed Huh7.5 human hepatoma cells. The recombinant Ad-expressing multiple CTL HCV epitopes effectively infected the DCs in vitro and promoted T cell antiviral immune responses, thereby laying the foundation for the development of anti-HCV DC vaccines. PMID:23934073

  13. Trends in Educational Differentials in Suicide Mortality between 1993 - 2006 in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Weon Young; Khang, Young-Ho; Noh, Manegseok; Ryu, Jae-In; Son, Mia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to examine how inequalities in suicide by education changed during and after macroeconomic restructuring following the economic crisis of 1997 in South Korea. Materials and Methods Using Korea's 1995, 2000, and 2005 census data aggregately linked to mortality data (1993 - 2006), relative and absolute differentials in suicide mortality by education were calculated by gender and age among Korean population aged 35 and over. Results Average annual suicide mortality rates have steadily increased from 1993 - 1997 to 2003 - 2006 in almost all sociodemographic groups stratified by gender, age, and education. Based on the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII), educational differentials in suicide mortality generally increased over time in men and women aged 45 years +. Although RII did not increase with year among men and women aged 35 - 44 years, SII showed a significantly increasing trend in this age group. Conclusion These worsening absolute inequalities in suicide mortality indicate that the governmental suicide prevention policy should be directed toward socially disadvantaged groups of the Korean population. PMID:19718395

  14. The epidemiology of malignant neoplasms of the stomach in Canada during the period 1931-1984.

    PubMed

    Ayiomamitis, A

    1988-01-01

    Morbidity patterns in Canada for malignant neoplasms of the stomach were examined for the period 1970-1980 and mortality patterns for the period 1931-1984. Age-standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) have declined significantly in males (p = 0.011) and females (p = 0.0011) during the period studied by, on average, 0.20 fewer new cases per 100,000 population per yr. The significant declines in ASMRs are attributable to significant declines in age-specific rates for males aged 35-44 (p = 0.013) and 55-64 (p = 0.046) and females aged 55-64, 65-74, and 75-84 yr (p less than 0.015). Significant declines in age-standardized death rates (ASDR) have also occurred in both males and females (p = 0.0001), with 15 of the 16 age-sex groups studied showing significant rates of decline (p less than 0.0005). The greatest rates of decline were noted for males and females aged 75-84, where age-specific rates have declined by more than 4.2 deaths per 100,000 population per yr since 1931. PMID:3337057

  15. Consensus conference on combination oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    At the June 1998 conference of the International Federation of Fertility Societies (IFFS), a consensus was reached that there is no reason to advise selective prescribing of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing different progestins on the basis of their effects on cardiovascular disease. All currently available low-dose OCs, regardless of their progestin component, are more beneficial for a woman's short- or long-term health than the alternative of use of no contraception or use of a less effective method. The usual precautions in selecting appropriate candidates for OC use should be applied. This consensus was reached after several investigators presented the results of their studies on OC use and cardiovascular risk to an IFFS panel. Consolidation of the available research evidence produced annual cardiovascular mortality rates per 100,000 among women 15-24 years old of 1.2 in OC non-users, 2.1 in users of second-generation OCs, and 1.8-2.3 in users of third-generation OCs; among women 35-44 years old, these rates were 9.2, 20.4, and 15.5-17.8, respectively. PMID:10360623

  16. Practices of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Ahmed, Javed; Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Sonekhi, Gomand Beekho; Fayyaz, Nargis; Zainulabdin, Zeeshan; Jindani, Rahim

    2016-02-01

    Self-medication practice among nursing students is of growing concern. Access to drugs and handling them in their future practices make nursing students susceptible to self-prescription and self-medication. This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and pattern of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. A random sample of convenience of 160 nursing students underwent a predesigned questionnaire. More than half of nursing students 79 (52.7%) experienced self-medication with antibiotics. It was more prevalent among males 49 (62%) . Knowledge about the drug 59 (74.7%) and convenience 13 (16.5%) were the key reasons to self-medicate. Fever 37 (46.8%) and sore throat 27 (34.2%) were the common symptoms predisposing to self-medication. Beta-lactam group of antibiotics 35 (44.3%) was most frequent used. Only 26 (32.9%) respondents completed the entire antibiotic course. Efforts must be directed towards educating nursing students about responsible and informed self-medication practices. PMID:26819180

  17. Using the Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Erosion Risk Mapping of Kartalkaya Dam Watershed in Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Alaaddin; Gundogan, Recep; Akay, Abdullah E.

    2008-01-01

    The soil erosion is the most serious environmental problem in watershed areas in Turkey. The main factors affecting the amount of soil erosion include vegetation cover, topography, soil, and climate. In order to describe the areas with high soil erosion risks and to develop adequate erosion prevention measures in the watersheds of dams, erosion risk maps should be generated considering these factors. Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies were used for erosion risk mapping in Kartalkaya Dam Watershed of Kahramanmaras, Turkey, based on the methodology implemented in COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE) model. ASTER imagery was used to generate a land use/cover classification in ERDAS Imagine. The digital maps of the other factors (topography, soil types, and climate) were generated in ArcGIS v9.2, and were then integrated as CORINE input files to produce erosion risk maps. The results indicate that 33.82%, 35.44%, and 30.74% of the study area were under low, moderate, and high actual erosion risks, respectively. The CORINE model integrated with RS and GIS technologies has great potential for producing accurate and inexpensive erosion risk maps in Turkey.

  18. Assessment of changes in community level physiological profile and molecular diversity of bacterial communities in different stages of jute retting.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswapriya; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Ghosh, Sagarmoy; Chakraborty, Ashis; Saha, Manabendra Nath

    2013-12-01

    Retting of jute is essentially microbiological and biochemical in nature. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) as well as genomic diversity of bacterial communities were assessed in water samples collected during pre-retting, after 1st and 2nd charges of retting. The water samples were collected from two widely cultivated jute growing locations, Sonatikari (22 degrees 41'27"N; 88 degrees 35'44"E) and Baduria (22 degrees 44'24"N; 88 degrees 47'24"E), West Bengal, India. The CLPP, expressed as net area under substrate utilization curve, was studied by carbon source utilization patterns in BIOLOG Ecoplates. Molecular diversity was studied by polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of total DNA from water samples. Both between locations and stages of retting, substrate utilizations pattern were carbohydrates > carboxylic acids > polymers > amino acids > amines/amides > phenolic compounds. Differential substrate utilization pattern as well as variation in banding pattern in DGGE profiles was observed between the two locations and at different stages of retting. The variations in CLPP in different stages of retting were due to the change in bacterial communities. PMID:24506039

  19. Plasma isoflavones in Malaysian men according to vegetarianism and by age.

    PubMed

    Hod, Rafidah; Kouidhi, Wided; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Husain, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate lower prevalences of breast and prostate cancers and cardiovascular disease in Southeast Asia where vegetarianism is popular and diets are traditionally high in phytoestrogens. This study assessed plasma isoflavones in vegetarian and non-vegetarian Malaysian men according to age. Daidzein, genistein, equol (a daidzein metabolite), formononetin, biochanin A, estrone, estradiol and testosterone were measured by validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Plasma isoflavone and sex hormone concentrations were measured in 225 subjects according to age (18-34, 35-44 and 45-67 years old). In all age groups, vegetarians had a higher concentration of circulating isoflavones compared with non-vegetarians especially in the 45-67 year age group where all isoflavones except equol, were significantly higher in vegetarians compared with omnivores. By contrast, the 18-34 year group had a significantly higher concentration of daidzein in vegetarians and significantly higher testosterone and estrone concentrations compared with non-vegetarians. In this age group there were weak correlations between estrone, estradiol and testosterone with some of the isoflavones. This human study provides the first Malaysian data for the phytoestrogen status of vegetarian and nonvegetarian men. PMID:26965767

  20. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI) widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total) were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36). At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged). Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:26496435

  1. Processes accompanying of mantle plume emplacement into continental lithosphere: Evidence from NW Arabian plate, Western Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths occurred in the Middle Cretaceous lamprophyre diatremes in Jabel Ansaria (Western Syria) (Sharkov et al., 1992). They are represented mainly garnet granulites and eclogite-like rocks, which underwent by deformations and retrograde metamorphism, and younger fresh pegmatoid garnet-kaersutite-clinopyroxene (Al-Ti augite) rocks; mantle peridotites are absent in these populations. According to mineralogical geothermobarometers, forming of garnet-granulite suite rocks occurred under pressure 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths 45-54 kn) and temperature 965-1115oC. At the same time, among populations of mantle xenoliths in the Late Cenozoic platobasalts of the region, quite the contrary, lower crustal xenoliths are absent, however, predominated spinel lherzolites (fragments of upper cooled rim of a plume head), derived from the close depths (30-40 km: Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2015). From this follows that ancient continental crust was existed here even in the Middle Cretaceous, but in the Late Cenozoic was removed by extended mantle plume head; at that upper sialic crust was not involved in geomechanic processes, because Precambrian metamorphic rocks survived as a basement for Cambrian to Cenozoic sedimentary cover of Arabian platform. In other words, though cardinal rebuilding of deep-seated structure of the region occurred in the Late Cenozoic but it did not affect on the upper shell of the ancient lithosphere. Because composition of mantle xenolithis in basalts is practically similar worldwide, we suggest that deep-seated processes are analogous also. As emplacement of the mantle plume heads accompanied by powerful basaltic magmatism, very likely that range of lower (mafic) continental crust existence is very convenient for extension of plume heads and their adiabatic melting. If such level, because of whatever reasons, was not reached, melting was limited but appeared excess of volatile matters which led to forming of lamprophyre or even kimberlite.

  2. Myostatin inhibitory region of fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) myostatin-1 propeptide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Beum; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, and its activity is suppressed by MSTN propeptide (MSTNpro), the N-terminal part of MSTN precursor cleaved during post-translational MSTN processing. The current study examined which region of flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus) MSTN-1 propeptide (MSTN1pro) is critical for MSTN inhibition. Six different truncated forms of MSTN1pro containing N-terminal maltose binding protein (MBP) as a fusion partner were expressed in Escherichia coli, and partially purified by an affinity chromatography for MSTN-inhibitory activity examination. Peptides covering different regions of flatfish MSTN1pro were also synthesized for MSTN-inhibitory activity examination. A MBP-fused MSTN1pro region consisting of residues 45-100 had the same MSTN-inhibitory potency as the full sequence flatfish MSTN1pro (residues 23-265), indicating that the region of flatfish MSTN1pro consisting of residues 45-100 is sufficient to maintain the full MSTN-inhibitory capacity. A MBP-fused MSTN1pro region consisting of residues 45-80 (Pro45-80) also showed MSTN-inhibitory activity with a lower potency, and the Pro45-80 demonstrated its MSTN binding capacity in a pull-down assay, indicating that the MSTN-inhibitory capacity of Pro45-80 is due to its binding to MSTN. Flatfish MSTN1pro synthetic peptides covering residues 45-65, 45-70, and 45-80 demonstrated MSTN-inhibitory activities, but not the synthetic peptide covering residues 45-54, indicating that residues 45-65 of flatfish MSTN1pro are essential for MSTN inhibition. In conclusion, current study show that like the mammalian MSTNpro, the MSTN-inhibitory region of flatfish MSTN1pro resides near its N-terminus, and imply that smaller sizes of MSTNpro can be effectively used in various applications designed for MSTN inhibition. PMID:26827850

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Cerebrolysin in Infants with Communication Defects due to Severe Perinatal Brain Insult: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Deifalla, Shaymaa M.; El-Houssinie, Moustafa; Mokbel, Somaia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The neuroregenerative drug Cerebrolysin has demonstrated efficacy in improving cognition in adults with stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin in the treatment of communication defects in infants with severe perinatal brain insult. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which 158 infants (age 6-21 months) with communication defects due to severe perinatal brain insult were enrolled; 120 infants completed the study. The Cerebrolysin group (n=60) received twice-weekly Cerebrolysin injections of 0.1 mL/kg body weight for 5 weeks (total of ten injections). The placebo group (n=60) received the same amount and number of normal saline injections. Results The baseline Communication and Symbolic-Behavior-Scale-Developmental Profile scores were comparable between the two groups. After 3 months, the placebo group exhibited improvements in the social (p<0.01) and speech composite (p=0.02) scores, with 10% and 1.5% increases from baseline, respectively. The scores of the Cerebrolysin group changed from concern to no concern, with increases of 65.44%, 45.54%, 358.06%, and 96.00% from baseline in the social (p<0.001), speech (p<0.001), symbolic (p<0.001), and total (p<0.001) scores. Conclusions Cerebrolysin dramatically improved infants' communication especially symbolic behavior which positively affected social interaction. These findings suggest that cerebrolysin may be an effective and feasible way equivalent to stem cell therapy. PMID:26365023

  4. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    PubMed

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. PMID:25015931

  5. Adjusting for confounding effects of treatment switching in a randomized phase II study of dabrafenib plus trametinib in BRAF V600+ metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Amonkar, Mayur M; Stapelkamp, Ceilidh; Sun, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive melanoma who were assigned to 150 mg dabrafenib twice daily combined with 2 mg trametinib once daily in a phase I/II study showed a median overall survival (OS) of 23.8 months, compared with 20.2 months for patients assigned to dabrafenib alone [hazard ratio (HR)=0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-1.24; data cutoff March 2013], on the basis of an intention-to-treat analysis. Because patients assigned to dabrafenib monotherapy were allowed to switch to combination therapy upon disease progression, we attempted to adjust for confounding effects on OS. Randomization-based adjustment methods, Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time Models and the Iterative Parameter Estimation algorithm, were used. Two analyses, 'treatment group' (assumes that treatment effect continues beyond treatment discontinuation) and 'on treatment' (assumes that the treatment effect disappears upon treatment discontinuation), were used to test assumptions on the durability of the treatment effect. A total of 45/54 (83%) patients assigned to dabrafenib monotherapy switched to the trametinib/dabrafenib combination. Adjusted OS HRs ranged from 0.47 to 0.50, depending on the analysis, compared with the unadjusted OS HR of 0.73. CIs continued to cross 1.00; thus, adjusted estimates did not provide statistically significant evidence of a treatment benefit on survival. Reduction of HRs after adjusting for the effect of treatment switching suggests that the intention-to-treat analysis underestimates the effect of dabrafenib plus trametinib on OS, although several factors, such as small trial size and methodological assumptions, affect the certainty of the conclusions. PMID:26340744

  6. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity of fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio-; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Ronquillo de Jesús, Elba

    2015-05-01

    Produced worldwide at 1.2m tons per year, fibrous clays are used in the production of pet litter, animal feed stuff to roof parcels, construction and rheological additives, and other applications needing to replace long-fiber length asbestos. To the authors' knowledge, however, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity by sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejon El Rubio, Spain). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) methods. Histological cuts were obtained for quantifying leukocytes found in the epidermis. Palygorkite and sepiolite caused edema inhibition and migration of neutrophils ca. 68.64 and 45.54%, and 80 and 65%, respectively. Fibrous clays yielded high rates of infiltration, explained by cleavage of polysomes and exposure of silanol groups. Also, fibrous clays showed high inhibition of myeloperoxidase contents shortly after exposure, but decreased sharply afterwards. In contrast, tubular clays caused an increasing inhibition of myeloperoxidase with time. Thus, clay structure restricted the kinetics and mechanism of myeloperoxidase inhibition. Fibrous clays were screened in vitro against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the protein-binding dye sulforhodamine B (SRB). Exposing cancer human cells to sepiolite or palygorskite showed growth inhibition varying with cell line. This study shows that fibrous clays served as an effective anti-inflammatory, limited by chemical transfer and cellular-level signals responding exclusively to an early exposure to clay, and cell viability decreasing significantly only after exposure to high concentrations of sepiolite. PMID:25819359

  7. The Pattern of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Single Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hemairi, Mohammad H.; Albokhari, Shatha M.; Muzaffer, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic arthritis in children. Our aim is to describe demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment of JIA patients followed up in Pediatric Rheumatology clinic in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Medical records of all patients who are followed up between January 2007 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected about demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment. Results. Total patients were 82, males were 31 (37.8%), and mean age of JIA onset was 7.1 ± 3.6 yr. Mean follow-up duration was 2.67±1.6 yr. Systemic onset JIA (SoJIA) was the commonest (36.5%), followed by polyarticular in 29.2% and oligoarticular in 28%. Large and small joints are involved in 76 (92%) and 30 (36.6%), respectively. Main extra-articular feature was fever in 34 (41.4%). Uveitis was diagnosed in 7 (8.5%) and in 5 (21.7%) of oligoarticular JIA. Anemia was found in 49 (59.7%), high ESR in 45 (54.8%), and leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in 33 (40.2%). Positive ANA was found in 30 (36.5%) mainly in oligoarticular subtype as 12 (52%) patients (out of 23) had this positive test. 9 patients (10.9%) required NSAIDs only, 6 patients (7.3%) required NSAIDs and intra-articular steroids only, and 19 (23%) required NSAIDs, methotrexate, steroids, and biologics. Conclusion. SoJIA is the most common JIA subtype in our study. A population based rather than a single center study will give more details about JIA characteristics in Saudi Arabia PMID:26966610

  8. A non-randomized dose-escalation Phase I trial of a protein-based immunotherapeutic for the treatment of breast cancer patients with HER2-overexpressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Limentani, Steven A; Campone, Mario; Dorval, Thierry; Curigliano, Giuseppe; de Boer, Richard; Vogel, Charles; White, Shane; Bachelot, Thomas; Canon, Jean-Luc; Disis, Mary; Awada, Ahmad; Berlière, Martine; Amant, Frédéric; Levine, Ellis; Burny, Wivine; Callegaro, Andrea; de Sousa Alves, Pedro Miguel; Louahed, Jamila; Brichard, Vincent; Lehmann, Frédéric F

    2016-04-01

    This Phase I dose-escalation study (NCT00058526) assessed the safety and immunogenicity of an anti-cancer immunotherapeutic (recombinant HER2 protein (dHER2) combined with the immunostimulant AS15) in patients with early-stage HER2-overexpressing breast cancer (BC). Sixty-one trastuzumab-naive patients with stage II-III HER2-positive BC received the dHER2 immunotherapeutic after surgical resection and adjuvant therapy. They were allocated into four cohorts receiving different doses of dHER2 (20, 100, 500 µg) combined with a fixed AS15 dose. Safety and immunogenicity (dHER2-specific antibody responses) were assessed. After completing the immunization schedule (three or six doses over 14 weeks) and a six-month follow-up, the patients were followed for 5 years for late toxicity, long-term immunogenicity, and clinical status. The immunizations were well tolerated, and increasing doses of dHER2 had no impact on the frequency or severity of adverse events. Few late toxicities were reported, and after 5 years 45/54 patients (83.3 %) were still alive, while 28/45 (62 %) with known disease status were disease free. Regarding the immunogenicity of the compound, a positive association was found between the dHER2 dose, the immunization schedule, and the prevalence of dHER2-specific humoral responses. Among the patients receiving the most intense immunization schedule with the highest dHER2 dose, 6/8 maintained their dHER2-specific antibody response 5 years after immunization. The dHER2 immunotherapeutic had an acceptable safety profile in early HER2-positive BC patients. dHER2-specific antibody responses were induced, with the rate of responders increasing with the dHER2 dose and the number and frequency of immunizations. PMID:26993131

  9. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of oriental fruit moth to the monoterpenoid citral alone and in combination with sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Faraone, N; D'Errico, G; Caleca, V; Cristofaro, A De; Trimble, R M

    2013-04-01

    The monoterpenoid citral synergized the electroantennogram (EAG) response of male Grapholita molesta (Busck) antennae to its main pheromone compound Z8-12:OAc. The response to a 10-μg pheromone stimulus increased by 32, 45, 54, 71 and 94% with the addition of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 μg of citral, respectively. There was no detectable response to 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of citral; the response to 100 and 1,000 μg of citral was 31 and 79% of the response to 10 μg of Z8-12:OAc. In a flight tunnel, citral affected the mate-seeking behavior of males. There was a 66% reduction in the number of males orientating by flight to a virgin calling female when citral was emitted at 1,000 ng/min ≍1 cm downwind from a female. Pheromone and citral induced sensory adaptation in male antennae, but citral did not synergize the effect of pheromone. The exposure of antennae to 1 ng Z8-12:OAc/m(3) air, 1 ng citral/m3 air, 1 ng Z8-12:OAc + 1 ng citral/m3 air, or to 1 ng Z8-12:OAc + 100 ng citral/m3 air for 15 min resulted in a similar reduction in EAG response of 47-63%. The exposure of males to these same treatments for 15 min had no effect on their ability to orientate to a virgin calling female in a flight tunnel. The potential for using citral to control G. molesta by mating disruption is discussed. PMID:23575022

  10. Fasting Plasma Glucose as Initial Screening for Diabetes and Prediabetes in Irish Adults: The Diabetes Mellitus and Vascular Health Initiative (DMVhi)

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Margaret; Kinsley, Brendan T.; Jackson, Abaigeal D.; Walsh, Cathal; O’Grady, Tony; Nolan, John J.; Gaffney, Peter; Boran, Gerard; Kelleher, Cecily; Carr, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes has a long pre clinical asymptomatic phase. Early detection may delay or arrest disease progression. The Diabetes Mellitus and Vascular health initiative (DMVhi) was initiated as a prospective longitudinal cohort study on the prevalence of undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, diabetes risk and cardiovascular risk in a cohort of Irish adults aged 45-75 years. Research Design and Methods Members of the largest Irish private health insurance provider aged 45 to 75 years were invited to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria: already diagnosed with diabetes or taking oral hypoglycaemic agents. Participants completed a detailed medical questionnaire, had weight, height, waist and hip circumference and blood pressure measured. Fasting blood samples were taken for fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Those with FPG in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) range had a 75gm oral glucose tolerance test performed. Results 122,531 subjects were invited to participate. 29,144 (24%) completed the study. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 1.8%, of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 7.1% and of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was 2.9%. Dysglycaemia increased among those aged 45-54, 55-64 and 65-75 years in both males (10.6%, 18.5%, 21.7% respectively) and females (4.3%, 8.6%, 10.9% respectively). Undiagnosed T2D, IFG and IGT were all associated with gender, age, blood pressure, BMI, abdominal obesity, family history of diabetes and triglyceride levels. Using FPG as initial screening may underestimate the prevalence of T2D in the study population. Conclusions This study is the largest screening study for diabetes and prediabetes in the Irish population. Follow up of this cohort will provide data on progression to diabetes and on cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25874867

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of Bulgarian Urban Population: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyakova, Mariana; Shipkovenska, Elena; Dyakov, Peter; Dimitrov, Plamen; Torbova, Svetla

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the total cardiovascular risk of the Bulgarian urban population. Methods A representative sample of Bulgarian urban population (n = 3810, response rate 68.3%) from five Bulgarian cities was inlcuded in a cross-sectional observation study performed in 2005-2007. A detailed cardiovascular risk assessment was performed by general practitioners and a total 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular event was estimated according to the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE, HeartScore®). Results There were 48.7% of participants in the high risk group (SCORE≥5%), 24.3% aged 45-54 and more than half aged 55-64 years. Nearly a quarter of the sample had a total cardiovascular risk of over 10% (SCORE≥10%), whereas 10.1% of the sample had excessively high cardiovascular risk (SCORE≥15%). In the 65-75 age group, the prevalence of men with excessively high risk was 46.6%, compared with 6.0% in women (P < 0.001). Most of the main cardiovascular risk factors were slightly increased or borderline in comparison with clinical thresholds. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk is high in a large proportion of Bulgarian urban population, especially in men aged over 65. These findings indicate that a comprehensive national strategy and program for management of cardiovascular diseases is urgently needed. The SCORE method can be well implemented if a higher threshold for a high risk group is defined and smaller target population is planned for extensive and expensive high risk preventive measures. PMID:19090603

  12. Kisspeptin receptor agonist (FTM080) increased plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone in anestrous ewes

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Joseph A.; Amelse, Lisa L.; Tanco, Valeria M.; Chameroy, Kelly A.; Schrick, F. Neal

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human Metastin 45-54; 500 pmol/kg BW), one of three dosages of FTM080 (500 (FTM080:500), 2500 (FTM080:2500), or 5000 (FTM080:5000) pmol/kg BW), or VEH intravenously. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (4 h) treatment. In experiment 1, FTM080:500 increased (P < 0.05) plasma LH concentrations when compared to VEH. The area under the curve (AUC) of LH following FTM080:500 treatment was also increased (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, plasma LH concentrations increased (P < 0.05) following treatment with KP-10 and FTM080:5000 when compared to VEH and FTM080:500. The AUC of LH following KP-10 was greater than (P < 0.05) all other treatments and the AUC of LH following FTM080:5000 was greater than (P < 0.05) all treatments except KP-10. These data provide evidence to suggest that FTM080 stimulates the gonadotropic axis of ruminants in vivo. Any increased half-life and comparable efficacy of FTM080 to KP-10 in vitro does not appear to translate to in vivo in sheep. PMID:26587345

  13. BIODIVERSITY OF CORALLINE ALGAE IN THE NORTHEASTERN ATLANTIC INCLUDING CORALLINA CAESPITOSA SP. NOV. (CORALLINOIDEAE, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel H; Brodie, Juliet; Russell, Stephen; Irvine, Linda M; Orfanidis, Sotiris

    2009-02-01

    The Corallinoideae (Corallinaceae) is represented in the northeastern Atlantic by Corallina officinalis L.; Corallina elongata J. Ellis et Sol.; Haliptilon squamatum (L.) H. W. Johans., L. M. Irvine et A. M. Webster; and Jania rubens (L.) J. V. Lamour. The delimitation of these geniculate coralline red algae is based primarily on morphological characters. Molecular analysis based on cox1 and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies supported the division of the Corallinoideae into the tribes Janieae and Corallineae. Within the Janieae, a sequence difference of 46-48 bp (8.6%-8.9%) between specimens of H. squamatum and J. rubens in the cox1 phylogeny leads us to conclude that they are congeneric. J. rubens var. rubens and J. rubens var. corniculata (L.) Yendo clustered together in both phylogenies, suggesting that for those genes, there was no genetic basis for the morphological variation. Within the Corallineae, it appears that in some regions, the name C. elongata has been misapplied. C. officinalis samples formed two clusters that differed by 45-54 bp (8.4%-10.0%), indicating species-level divergence, and morphological differences were sufficient to define two species. One of these clusters was consistent with the morphology of the type specimen of C. officinalis (LINN 1293.9). The other species cluster is therefore described here as Corallina caespitosa sp. nov. This study has demonstrated that there is a clear need for a revision of the genus Corallina to determine the extent of "pseudocryptic" diversity in this group of red algae. PMID:27033664

  14. FMR1 gene mutations in patients with fragile X syndrome and obligate carriers: 30 years of experience in Chile.

    PubMed

    Santa María, Lorena; Aliaga, Solange; Faundes, Víctor; Morales, Paulina; Pugin, Ángela; Curotto, Bianca; Soto, Paula; Peña, M Ignacia; Salas, Isabel; Alliende, M Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and co-morbid autism. It is caused by an amplification of the CGG repeat (>200), which is known as the full mutation, within the 5'UTR of the FMR1 gene. Expansions between 55-200 CGG repeats are termed premutation and are associated with a greater risk for fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency. Intermediate alleles, also called the grey zone, include approximately 45-54 repeats and are considered borderline. Individuals with less than 45 repeats have a normal FMR1 gene. We report the occurrence of CGG expansions of the FMR1 gene in Chile among patients with ID and families with a known history of FXS. Here, we present a retrospective review conducted on 2321 cases (2202 probands and 119 relatives) referred for FXS diagnosis and cascade screening at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile. Samples were analysed using traditional cytogenetic methods and/or PCR. Southern blot was used to confirm the diagnosis. Overall frequency of FMR1 expansions observed among probands was 194 (8·8%), the average age of diagnosis was 8·8 ± 5·4 years. Of 119 family members studied, 72 (60%) were diagnosed with a CGG expansion. Our results indicated that the prevalence of CGG expansions of the FMR1 gene among probands is relatively higher than other populations. The average age of diagnosis is also higher than reference values. PCR and Southern blot represent a reliable molecular technique in the diagnosis of FXS. PMID:27350105

  15. Comparative efficacy of subcutaneous versus oral methotrexate in active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Haq, S A; Islam, M N; Azad, A K; Islam, M A; Barua, R; Hasan, M M; Mahmood, M; Safiuddin, M; Rahman, M M; Osmany, M F; Bari, N; Rumki, R S; Rashid, F B

    2013-07-01

    This prospective study was conducted in rheumatology clinic under the department of medicine of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from December 2004 to December 2005 to asses the efficacy, safety and compliance of subcutaneous methotrexate (MTX) in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 92 active rheumatoid arthritis patients according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria were recruited for the trial for six months. Among them 46 cases belonged to injectable MTX group and 46 cases belonged to oral MTX group. Mean±SD age of patients was 45.54±12.42 vs. 44.63±13.99 years in subcutaneous group and oral group respectively. In the subcutaneous group 41 were female and 5 male; in the oral group 34 were female and 12 male. Mean duration of the disease was 49.74 months in subcutaneous group and 49 months in oral group. RA test was positive in 35 cases in both groups whereas Rose Waaler test was positive in 19 patients in subcutaneous group and 14 patients in oral group. At 24 week, response rate of ACR 20 was significantly higher in subcutaneous MTX than oral MTX group (93% vs. 80%, p=0.02). Similarly ACR 50 response was significantly higher in subcutaneous MTX than in oral group (89% vs. 72%, p=0.03). ACR 70 response was not significantly higher in SCMTX group then oral group (11% vs. 9 %, p=0.72). Adverse effects were relatively less in subcutaneous MTX and most common side effects were nausea (37% vs. 63%), vomiting (11% vs. 30%), dyspepsia (29% vs. 48%), dizziness (4l% vs. 52%) and alopecia (72% vs. 85%). The results of the study demonstrated that subcutaneous MTX was significantly more effective than oral MTX at the same dosage in active Rheumatoid arthritis patients with no increase in side effects. PMID:23982537

  16. Earthquake Interactions at Different Scales: an Example from Eastern California and Western Nevada, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, A.; Carena, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes in diffuse plate boundaries occur in spatially and temporally complex patterns. The region east of the Sierra Nevada that encompasses the northern Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ), Walker Lane (WL), and the westernmost part of the Basin and Range province (B&R) is such a kind of plate boundary. In order to better understand the relationship between moderate-to major earthquakes in this area, we modeled the evolution of coseismic, postseismic and interseismic Coulomb stress changes (∆CFS) in this region at two different spatio-temporal scales. In the first example we examined seven historical and instrumental Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes that struck the region around Owens Valley (northern ECSZ) in the last 150 years. In the second example we expanded our study area to all of the northern ECSZ, WL and western B&R, examining seventeen paleoseismological and historical major surface-rupturing earthquakes (Mw ≥ 6.5) that occurred in the last 1400 years. We show that in both cases the majority of the studied events (100% in the first case and 80% in the second) are located in areas of combined coseismic and postseismic positive ∆CFS. This relationship is robust, as shown by control tests with random earthquake sequences. We also show that the White Mountain fault has accumulated up to 30 bars of total ∆CFS (coseismic + postseismic + interseismic) in the last 150 years, and the Hunter Mountain, Fish Lake Valley, Black Mountain, and Pyramid Lake faults have accumulated 40, 45, 54 and 37 bars respectively in the last 1400 years. Such values are comparable to the average stress drop in a major earthquake, and all these faults may be therefore close to failure.

  17. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians.

    PubMed

    Obana, Kyle K; Davis, James

    2016-06-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai'i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65-79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45-54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m(2) greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  18. Exercise in leisure time: coronary attack and death rates.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J N; Clayton, D G; Everitt, M G; Semmence, A M; Burgess, E H

    1990-01-01

    Nine thousand three hundred and seventy six male civil servants, aged 45-64 at entry, with no clinical history of coronary heart disease, were followed for a mean period of 9 years and 4 months during which 474 experienced a coronary attack. The 9% of men who reported that they often participated in vigorous sports or did considerable amounts of cycling or rated the pace of their regular walking as fast (over 4 mph, 6.4 km/h) experienced less than half the non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease of the other men. In addition, entrants aged 55-64 who reported the next lower degree of this vigorous aerobic exercise had rates less than two thirds of the remainder; entrants of 45-54 did not show such an effect. When these forms of exercise were not vigorous they were no protection against the disease, nor were other forms of exercise or high totals of physical activity per se. A history of vigorous sports in the past was not protective. Indications in these men are of protection by specific exercise: vigorous, aerobic, with a threshold of intensity for benefit and "dose response" above this threshold, exercise that has to be habitual, and continuing, which suggests that protection is against the acute phases of the disease. Those men who took vigorous aerobic exercise were demonstrably a favourably "selected" group; they suffered less of the disease, however, whether at low risk or high by the several risk factors that were studied. Men with exercise-related reduction in coronary heart disease also had lower death rates from the total of other causes, and so lower total death rates than the rest of the men. PMID:2375892

  19. Combine-ARMS: a rapid and cost-effective protocol for molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L; Tan, J A; Wong, Y C; Wee, Y C; Thong, M K; Yap, S F

    2001-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia major patients have chronic anemia and are dependent on blood transfusions to sustain life. Molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis of beta3-thalassemia is essential in Malaysia because about 4.5% of the population are heterozygous carriers for beta-thalassemia. The high percentage of compound heterozygosity (47.62%) found in beta-thalassemia major patients in the Thalassaemia Registry, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, also supports a need for rapid, economical, and sensitive protocols for the detection of beta-thalassemia mutations. Molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in Malaysia is currently carried out using ARMS, which detects a single beta-thalassemia mutation per PCR reaction. We developed and evaluated Combine amplification refractory mutation system (C-ARMS) techniques for efficient molecular detection of two to three beta-thalassemia mutations in a single PCR reaction. Three C-ARMS protocols were evaluated and established for molecular characterization of common beta-thalassemia mutations in the Malay and Chinese ethnic groups in Malaysia. Two C-ARMS protocols (cd 41-42/IVSII #654 and -29/cd 71-72) detected the beta-thalassemia mutations in 74.98% of the Chinese patients studied. The CARMS for cd 41-42/IVSII #654 detected beta-thalassemia mutations in 72% of the Chinese families. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 allowed detection of beta-thalassemia mutations in 36.53% of beta-thalassemia in the Malay patients. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 detected beta-thalassemia in 45.54% of the Chinese patients. We conclude that C-ARMS with the ability to detect two to three mutations in a single reaction provides more rapid and cost-effective protocols for beta-thalassemia prenatal diagnosis and molecular analysis programs in Malaysia. PMID:11336396

  20. N-acetyl cysteine as an adjunct to standard anti-Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen in patients with dyspepsia: A prospective randomized, open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Zobeiri, Mehdi; Rahimi, Hojatolah; Arjomandi, Fariba; Daghagzadeh, Hamed; Adibi, Peyman; Hashemi, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) which is associated with diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, has made alternative treatments necessary. This study compares the efficacy of adding N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to standard regimen for H. pylori eradication. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, open-label trial, comparing the efficacy of 14 days of quadruple therapy with Amoxicillin, Bismuth citrate, Omeprazole, Clarithromycin (group A) versus 14 days of above regimen plus NAC (group B) in adult patients with dyspepsia. Primary objective was H. pylori eradication. Compliance and side effects were determined by questionnaires. Our analysis was by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol. This study is registered with www.IRCT.ir, number: IRCT201201078634N1. Result: A total of 121 participants aged 21-76 years with a mean age of 44.5 ± 14.1, and 52.9% female, were randomly allocated a treatment: 60 with 14-day standard therapy and 61 with 14-day standard therapy with NAC. The eradication rate in groups A and B with ITT analyses was 49/60 (81.7%; 95% [confidence intervals] CI = 71.6-91.8%) and 50/61 (82%; 95% CI = 72-91.9%), respectively (P = 0.96). In per-protocol analysis, the rate of H. pylori eradication in groups A and B was 45/54 (83.3%; 95% CI = 73.1-93.6%) and 45/53 (84.9%; 95% CI = 74.9-94.9%), respectively (P = 0.82). Minor well tolerated side effects were reported in 15 (34.9%) and 21 (35.6%) patients of groups A and B, respectively, and only one therapy cessation in group A was created. Conclusion: Standard 14-day triple-drug therapy with NAC is not preferable to standard drug regimens for H. pylori infection. PMID:25298958

  1. Pediatric idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Ahmad S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is a severe illness with high mortality in the pediatric population. AIMS: To highlight our experience about clinical course and outcome of IDCM. Settings and Design: Patients’ files were reviewed retrospectively for diagnosed cases of IDCM in the pediatric cardiology unit of King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from Jan 2003 to Jun 2011. Materials and Methods: Data about full history, clinical examination and investigations were recorded and grouped according to outcome as alive and well (group 1), alive and symptomatic (group 2) and worsened or dead (group 3). Statistical Analysis: Data was subjected to descriptive analysis. Chi-square and Student's paired t-test techniques were used where appropriate. Spearman rank correlation and survival analysis was done. Results: Eighty three patients were included with presenting age median (range), i.e.,14 (2 months–12 years) with females predominance 53 (63.9%). On presentation; cardiomegaly was noted in 72 (86.7%) with increased lung vascularity in 45 (54%). Sixty-one (74%) patients had ST segment and T-wave changes on electrocardiogram, while the same number had left ventricular hypertrophy, and 15 (18%) had arrhythmias. Echocardiography records on presentation and at last follow-up showed significant difference in several areas. Group 1 had 40 (48.2%), Group 2 had 23 (27.7%) while 20 (24.1%) were in Group 3 including nine cases who died. Survival rate over three years was 78%. Older the age, worse was the outcome (Spearman's rho = 0.3, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Majority of subjects were presented during first year of life; the three year survival rate was 78%. Favorable outcome was correlated with younger age at presentation. PMID:23633851

  2. A Neuromorphic Event-Based Neural Recording System for Smart Brain-Machine-Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Federico; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Neural recording systems are a central component of Brain-Machince Interfaces (BMIs). In most of these systems the emphasis is on faithful reproduction and transmission of the recorded signal to remote systems for further processing or data analysis. Here we follow an alternative approach: we propose a neural recording system that can be directly interfaced locally to neuromorphic spiking neural processing circuits for compressing the large amounts of data recorded, carrying out signal processing and neural computation to extract relevant information, and transmitting only the low-bandwidth outcome of the processing to remote computing or actuating modules. The fabricated system includes a low-noise amplifier, a delta-modulator analog-to-digital converter, and a low-power band-pass filter. The bio-amplifier has a programmable gain of 45-54 dB, with a Root Mean Squared (RMS) input-referred noise level of 2.1 μV, and consumes 90 μW . The band-pass filter and delta-modulator circuits include asynchronous handshaking interface logic compatible with event-based communication protocols. We describe the properties of the neural recording circuits, validating them with experimental measurements, and present system-level application examples, by interfacing these circuits to a reconfigurable neuromorphic processor comprising an array of spiking neurons with plastic and dynamic synapses. The pool of neurons within the neuromorphic processor was configured to implement a recurrent neural network, and to process the events generated by the neural recording system in order to carry out pattern recognition. PMID:26513801

  3. Built-up land mapping capabilities of the ASTER and Landsat ETM+ sensors in coastal areas of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hanqiu; Huang, Shaolin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide urbanization has accelerated expansion of urban built-up lands and resulted in substantial negative impacts on the global environments. Precisely measuring the urban sprawl is becoming an increasing need. Among the satellite-based earth observation systems, the Landsat and ASTER data are most suitable for mesoscale measurements of urban changes. Nevertheless, to date the difference in the capability of mapping built-up land between the two sensors is not clear. Therefore, this study compared the performances of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER sensors for built-up land mapping in the coastal areas of southeastern China. The comparison was implemented on three date-coincident image pairs and achieved by using three approaches, including per-band-based, index-based, and classification-based comparisons. The index used is the Index-based Built-up Index (IBI), while the classification algorithm employed is the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results show that in the study areas, ETM+ and ASTER have an overall similar performance in built-up land mapping but also differ in several aspects. The IBI values determined from ASTER were consistently higher than from ETM+ by up to 45.54% according to percentage difference. The ASTER also estimates more built-up land area than ETM+ by 5.9-6.3% estimated with the IBI-based approach or 3.9-6.1% with the SVM classification. The differences in the spectral response functions and spatial resolution between relative spectral bands of the two sensors are attributed to these different performances.

  4. Congestive heart failure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rengo, F; Acanfora, D; Trojano, L; Furgi, G; Picone, C; Iannuzzi, G L; Vitale, D F; Rengo, C; Ferrara, N

    1996-01-01

    Several aspects of congestive heart failure are discussed in the light of international literature and of recent findings of our group. The annual incidence of heart failure in elderly subjects, aged >or=75y, is 13 to 50/1000, while it is 1.6/1000 in people aged 45-54 y. The prevalence of heart failure is about 3% in subjects aged 45-64% in subjects aged more than 65 y and 10% in subjects aged more than 75 y. These data are confirmed by our population based study in elderly subjects. The etiology of congestive heart failure is similar in elderly and middle-aged patients. However, several anatomo-functional, hormonal and autonomic nervous system changes, typical of congestive heart failure, occur during physiologic ageing processes also. These findings may explain the dramatic evolution of congestive heart failure in elderly patients. Moreover, some features of the elderly - e.g. comorbidity, atypical clinical presentations, loss of autonomy, increased iatrogen risk should be considered. No specific drugs exist for the pharmacologic treatment of heart failure in the elderly, so that the geriatric specificity in the treatment of heart failure can be recognized in the art of drug choice and dosage, to obtain the best results with the least side effects. The multiple etiology of congestive heart failure, the comorbidity, the loss of autonomy and the deterioration of cognitive functions suggest the need for multidimensional approach and continuative intervention in elderly patients with heart disease, and in particular with congestive heart failure. Further studies on disease- and age-related changes are necessary to develop new and more potent strategies to secure 'successful ageing'. PMID:15374141

  5. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  6. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition. PMID:25407617

  7. Management of Pediatric Myxopapillary Ependymoma: The Role of Adjuvant Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Agbahiwe, Harold C.; Wharam, Moody; Batra, Sachin; Cohen, Kenneth; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2013-02-01

    Introduction: Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare tumor in children. The primary treatment is gross total resection (GTR), with no clearly defined role for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Published reports, however, suggest that children with MPE present with a more aggressive disease course. The goal of this study was to assess the role of adjuvant RT in pediatric patients with MPE. Methods: Sixteen patients with MPE seen at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) between November 1984 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen of the patients were evaluable with a mean age of 16.8 years (range, 12-21 years). Kaplan-Meier curves and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Results: All patients received surgery as the initial treatment modality. Surgery consisted of either a GTR or a subtotal resection (STR). The median dose of adjuvant RT was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-54 Gy). All patients receiving RT were treated at the involved site. After a median follow-up of 7.2 years (range, 0.75-26.4 years), all patients were alive with stable disease. Local control at 5 and 10 years was 62.5% and 30%, respectively, for surgery alone versus 100% at both time points for surgery and adjuvant RT. Fifty percent of the patients receiving surgery alone had local failure. All patients receiving STR alone had local failure compared to 33% of patients receiving GTR alone. One patient in the surgery and adjuvant RT group developed a distant site of recurrence 1 year from diagnosis. No late toxicity was reported at last follow-up, and neurologic symptoms either improved or remained stable following surgery with or without RT. Conclusions: Adjuvant RT improved local control compared to surgery alone and should be considered after surgical resection in pediatric patients with MPE.

  8. Accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Determining the Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Molars

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Niknami, Mahdi; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Sohrabi, Aydin; Ghasemi, Negin; Akbari Golzar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in determining root canal morphology of mandibular first molars in comparison with staining and clearing technique. Methods and Materials: CBCT images were taken from 96 extracted human mandibular first molars and the teeth were then evaluated based on Vertucci’s classification to determine the root canal morphology. Afterwards, access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the canals with an insulin syringe. The teeth were demineralized with 5% nitric acid. Finally, the cleared teeth were evaluated under a magnifying glass at 5× magnification to determine the root canal morphology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The Fisher’s exact test assessed the differences between the mesial and distal canals and the Cohen’s kappa test was used to assess the level of agreement between the methods. Statistical significance was defined at 0.05. Results: The Kappa coefficient for agreement between the two methods evaluating canal types was 0.346 (95% CI: 0.247-0.445), which is considered a fair level of agreement based on classification of Koch and Landis. The agreement between CBCT and Vertucci’s classification was 52.6% (95% CI: 45.54-59.66%), with a significantly higher agreement rate in the mesial canals (28.1%) compared to the distal canals (77.1%) (P<0.001). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, clearing technique was more accurate than CBCT in providing accurate picture of the root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars. PMID:27141216

  9. Detection of HPV and co-infecting pathogens in healthy Italian women by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Camporiondo, Maria Pia; Farchi, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Denaro, Aurelia; Gallone, Domenica; Maracchioni, Fabio; Favalli, Cartesio; Ciotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogens can be transmitted sexually and are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in a group of 309 healthy women enrolled at the San Camillo - Forlanini hospital of Rome by using two multiplex real-time PCR assays based on TOCE® technology. The women's ages ranged from 34 to 60 years, median 49 [IQR 45-54]. Of the 309 women tested, HPV DNA was detected in 77/309 (24.9%) patients. Of these, 44 (14.2%) harboured a single infection while 33 (10.7%) were infected by multiple genotypes. Prevalence of HPV infection was highest among females aged 40-50 years (15.2%). Of the other pathogens sought, CT, MG and NG were not detected while positive results were found for MH (12/309, 3.9%), TV (4/309, 1.3%), UP (89/309, 28.8%) and UU (14/309, 4.5%). Co-infections were as follows: 5 MH/HPV, 4 TV/HPV, 34 UP/HPV and 9 UU/HPV. In HPV-positive women, the probability of being infected by UP and UU was 2.5 (p=0.00045) and 6 fold higher (p=0.0016) than in HPV-negative women. The study supports the use of multiplex real-time PCR assays in a routine diagnostic setting. The high sensitivity and specificity of these assays along with the simultaneous detection of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens confers an advantage with respect to more obsolete methods reducing costs and time to diagnosis. PMID:27031891

  10. Age-specific suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions of the former USSR during perestroika, in comparison with 22 European countries.

    PubMed

    Värnik, A; Wasserman, D; Dankowicz, M; Eklund, G

    1998-01-01

    Age-specific differences in suicide rates in the Baltic and Slavic regions of the former USSR were studied for the period 1984-1990, and were compared to those of 22 European countries. It was observed that suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the Slavic and Baltic regions increased directly with age for women, and showed a bimodal distribution with peaks for the 45-54 and > or = 75 age groups for men. In most of the 22 European countries, the suicide rates of both men and women increased directly with age. In 1990 the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions ranged from 25.1 for the 15-24 age group to 86.9 for men aged 75 or older, and from 6.0 to 29.8 for women, while the suicide rates in Europe ranged from 13.0 to 64.8 for men and from 3.6 to 18.7 for women. Decreases in the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions during perestroika were largest for the 25-54 age group, averaging at drop of 45% for men and 33% for women between 1984 and 1986-1988. The pattern of age-specific suicide rates for women in the Slavic and Baltic regions remained similar to that in Europe throughout the period studied. This was in contrast to a distinct pattern of male suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions in 1984, which converged with those found in other parts of Europe during 1986-1988. It appears that perestroika contributed to a unique pattern of male suicide mortality in the Slavic and Baltic regions, especially in the 25-54 age group. PMID:9825014

  11. Effects of humic acid on phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Kim, Ki Seob; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kang, Daeseok; Sung, Kijune

    2011-01-01

    The use of humic acid (HA) to enhance the efficiency of phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel was evaluated in this study. A sample of soil was artificially contaminated with commercially available diesel fuel to an initial total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 2300 mg/kg and four heavy metals with concentrations of 400 mg/kg for Pb, 200 mg/kg for Cu, 12 mg/kg for Cd, and 160 mg/kg for Ni. Three plant species, Brassica campestris, Festuca arundinacea, and Helianthus annuus, were selected for the phytodegradation experiment. Percentage degradation of TPH in the soil in a control pot supplemented with HA increased to 45% from 30% without HA. The addition of HA resulted in an increases in the removal of TPH from the soil in pots planted with B. campestris, E arundinacea, and H. annuus, enhancing percentage degradation to 86%, 64%, and 85% from 45%, 54%, and 66%, respectively. The effect of HA was also observed in the degradation of n-alkanes within 30 days. The rates of removal of n-alkanes in soil planted with B. campestris and H. annuus were high for n-alkanes in the range of C11-C28. A dynamic increase in dehydrogenase activity was observed during the last 15 days of a 30-day experimental period in all the pots amended with HA. The enhanced biodegradation performance for TPHs observed might be due to an increase in microbial activities and bioavailable TPH in soils caused by combined effects of plants and HA. The results suggested that HA could act as an enhancing agent for phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel and heavy metals. PMID:22432335

  12. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Two Different n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylates for the Embolization of Varicoceles: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vanlangenhove, Peter Keukeleire, Katrien De; Everaert, Karel; Maele, Georges Van; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This was a prospective, randomized, blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates (NBCAs) for embolization of varicoceles. Methods: A total of 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left-sided, n = 84; right-sided, n = 28) that were diagnosed in 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with NBCA (n = 54; Histoacryl, Braun, Germany) or NBCA-MS (n = 58; Glubran2, General Enterprise Marketing, Viareggio, Lucca, Italy). Handling, embolic efficacy, and safety of both NBCAs were compared according the fulfillment of a standardized embolization plan, the occlusive effect on the spermatic vein, and the sticking to the microcatheter. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Patients of both study arms were comparable for age and clinical indication. Spermatic vein characteristics were comparable for varicocele classification and embolization side. Both NBCAs were equally efficient in occluding the spermatic vein and blocking reflux (NBCA, n = 54/54, 100% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 54/57, 94.7%; P = 0.244). The embolization plan could be accomplished in an equal number of veins for both groups (NBCA, n = 45/54, 83.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 41/58, 70.7%; P = 0.124). Adhesiveness of the glue to the microcatheter was the same in both NBCA groups (NBCA, n = 25/54, 46.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 29/58, 50%; P = 0.71). No glue-related complications were noted. Conclusions: NBCA and NBCA-MS are equally efficient and safe glues for embolization of varicoceles.

  14. Fragile X spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-11-01

    The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45-54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130-250 females and 1 in 250-810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term "Fragile X Spectrum Disorder" (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD. PMID:25606363

  15. Dialysis therapy among elderly patients; data from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, 1981-1991.

    PubMed

    Fenton, S S; Desmeules, M; Jeffery, J R; Corman, J L

    1993-01-01

    Reports of clinical outcomes after commencement of dialysis treatment among elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are not been numerous. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of the elderly treated for ESRD in Canada using the Canadian Organ Replacement Register data. Comparisons with younger age groups are also presented. Analyses of data for the period 1981-1991 indicated that the elderly (65+) represent an expanding portion of all new ESRD patients in Canada. Distributions of dialysis modalities showed no major differences by age groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-75, 75+). However, the overall usage of intermittent peritoneal dialysis has decreased over time (from 17% of patients in 1981-83 to 7% in 1990-91). Deaths from social causes were slightly more frequent among the elderly (15.9% of all deaths among those aged 65+ vs 10% among those aged 45-64). Moreover, deaths from infections were more common among patients on dialysis for a longer period of time and more common among patients on peritoneal dialysis than among those on hemodialysis. Discontinuations of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) because of the inability to cope increased with age. Patients with comorbid conditions were more likely to receive hemodialysis, and, as expected, the presence of these conditions increased with age and significantly reduced survival. Other determinants of survival included calendar period of registration, renal center size, and treatment modality. This paper illustrates the many changes over time in the elderly population treated for ESRD. Also of importance, however, is the elderly Canadian population with ESRD which is not presently treated. PMID:8105905

  16. Association of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene 2DL1 and its HLA-C2 ligand with family history of cancer in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anupam; Saikia, Nabajyoti; Phookan, Jyotirmoy; Baruah, Munindra Narayan; Baruah, Shashi

    2014-08-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are involved in regulating natural killer cell activation through recognition of their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands. We conducted a case-control study with 169 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and 177 healthy participants to study the genomic diversity of KIR and HLA loci and KIR gene expression in context of family history of cancer (FHC) in OSCC. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-specific priming approach was used to type 16 KIR genes in individuals. SSP-real-time PCR was used for HLA class I ligand genotyping and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine the expression of KIR gene. KIR2DL1(+)-HLA-C2(+) genotype was higher and positively associated with OSCC. Notably, all KIR2DL1(+)-HLA-C2(+) genotypes occurred exclusively in patients with FHC, showing a strong positive association of KIR2DL1(+)-HLA-C2(+) genotype with FHC. In addition, all younger age group patients (<55 years) with FHC were positive for KIR2DL1(+)-HLA-C2(+) genotype suggesting association of the genotype with early onset of disease. RNA transcript abundance of inhibitory KIR2DL1 in FHC patients, particularly of lower age groups (<45 and 45-54 years), supports the contention. Further, KIR2DL3(+)-HLA-C(+) genotype was negatively associated with OSCC. Our findings suggest KIR2DL1(+)-HLA-C2(+) genotype as heritable risk factor in OSCC predisposing to OSCC at younger age. Interestingly, KIR2DL3(+)-HLA-C(+) genotype was seen to be protective in OSCC. This study may be useful towards cancer surveillance and early detection of oral cancer in patients with FHC. PMID:24818561

  17. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension. PMID:25354710

  18. Frequent aberrant expression of the human ether à go-go (hEAG1) potassium channel in head and neck cancer: pathobiological mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Villaronga, María Angeles; Rodrigo, Juan P; Alvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; García-Carracedo, Darío; Urdinguio, Rocío G; Fraga, Mario F; Pardo, Luis A; Viloria, Cristina Gutiérrez; Suárez, Carlos; García-Pedrero, Juana María

    2012-10-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that the human ether-à-go-go voltage-gated potassium channels (hEAG1) may represent new valuable membrane therapeutic targets and diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in various cancers. This study is the first to investigate the expression of hEAG1 potassium channel subunit in both primary tumors and HNSCC-derived cell lines to ascertain its clinical and biological role in tumor progression. Our findings demonstrate that hEAG1 is frequently aberrantly expressed in a high percentage of primary tumors (83 %, 45/54 cases) and HNSCC-derived cell lines (83 %, 10/12 cell lines). hEAG1 expression increased during HNSCC progression and was more frequent in advanced tumors. Strikingly, hEAG1 expression was also detected in a notable proportion (39 %, 17/44 cases) of patient-matched normal adjacent mucosa, whereas no expression was detected in normal epithelia from non-oncologic patients without exposure to tobacco carcinogens. In an attempt to identify the underlying mechanisms of aberrant hEAG1 expression in HNSCC, we found that hEAG1 gene copy gain occurred at a low frequency (15 %, 13/88 cases) in primary tumors but was not observed in early stages of HNSCC tumorigenesis. Furthermore, this study provides original evidence supporting the involvement of histone acetylation (i.e., H3Ac and H4K16Ac activating marks) in the regulation of hEAG1 expression in HNSCC. In addition, functional studies in HNSCC cells further revealed that hEAG1 expression is a biologically relevant feature that promotes cell proliferation and invasion, although independently of its ion-conducting function. Our findings strongly support the notion that hEAG1 may represent a promising candidate as tumor marker and membrane therapeutic target for HNSCC treatment. PMID:22466864

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  20. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001; women 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001). Use of information/support websites was strongly associated with men’s higher socioeconomic status (managerial/professional vs semiroutine/routine: AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.93, P<.001). Despite no overall association with area-level deprivation, those in densely populated urban areas were more likely to report use of information/support websites than those living in rural areas (men: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.68-6.77, P<.001; women: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, P<.001). No

  1. Population-representative Incidence of Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Yong-Chang; Xu, Ai-Dong; Yao, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xu-Lin; Qian, Yin-Kun; Wang, Hua-Yu; Shen, Yi; Lu, Peng; Wang, Lu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a major cause of hepatic death in the world, but no population-based studies have evaluated the incidence of ACLF. This study was conducted to determine the incidence and short-term outcomes of ACLF in a region of Eastern China. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we collected data from public hospitals in Nantong city between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014. All hospitals with admission potential for ACLF patients were included. The primary outcome was ACLF defined as severe jaundice and coagulopathy with underlying chronic liver disease, according to diagnostic and laboratory criteria suggested by Chinese Society for Hepatology (CSH). Results: During the 10-year period, a consecutive sample of 1934 ACLF patients was included in this study. The overall ACLF incidence rate over the 10-year period was 2.53 (95% confidence interval, 2.16-2.91) per 100,000 population per year, decreasing from 3.35 in 2005 to 2.06 in 2014. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was the leading cause of chronic liver disease and HBV reactivation was the most common cause of acute hepatic event. The 28-day mortality for the ACLF patients had a clear decline during the study period, form 50.39% in 2005 to 35.44% in 2014. Conclusions: In the Eastern China population, the incidence of ACLF is decreasing and the prognosis improving. Short-term mortality was associated with the presence of cirrhosis and growing age. While ACLF remains a life-threatening disorder, our findings suggest that nationwide and long-term cohorts should be conducted for the natural history of ACLF. PMID:27136963

  2. Investigating the effect of family-focused nursing intervention on caregiver burden of the family members of the patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery in Isfahan Shahid Chamran Hospital during 2012

    PubMed Central

    Moieni, Mahin; Poorpooneh, Zahra; Pahlavanzadeh, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Family burden is defined as the problems, concerns, and unpleasant events affecting the patients undergoing coronary arteries’ surgery, and is associated with these patients physical and psychological improvement. Nurses are in a good position to provide appropriate intervention. This study aimed to investigate the effect of family-focused nursing interventions on the burden of the family members of the patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial conducted on 50 family members of the patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery in Isfahan Shahid Chamran hospital. Caregivers were selected by convenient sampling and were randomly assigned to two groups of study and control. Caregivers in the study group attended a three-interventional session program during their hospitalization time, while the subjects in control group did not. Data collection tool was Novak and Guest caring burden inventory (CBI). Data were analyzed by SPSS. Results: Means and SDs of caring burden before and after the intervention were 30.08 (14.03) and 19.2 (10) in the study group, respectively, and 30.16 (12.62) and 35.44 (10.42) in the control group, respectively. Changes of total scores of caring burden showed a significant difference after the intervention in the study and control groups (P < 0.001). Score changes of subscales of time dependence (P < 0.001), developmental (P < 0.001), physical (P < 0.001), and emotional caring burden (P = 0.007) were also significant. Conclusions: Results showed that family-focused nursing interventions were effective in reducing the family burden of the patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Nurses can administrate family-focused nursing interventions to reduce the caregiver burden. PMID:24834089

  3. Pubertal Expression of α4βδ GABAA Receptors Reduces Seizure-Like Discharges in CA1 Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Shen, Hui; Merlin, Lisa R; Smith, Sheryl S

    2016-01-01

    More than half of children with epilepsy outgrow their seizures, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. GABAergic inhibition increases at puberty in female mice due to expression of extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs). Therefore, we tested the role of these receptors in regulating seizure-like discharges in CA1 hippocampus using a high K(+) (8.5 mM) seizure model. Spontaneous field potentials were recorded from hippocampus of pre-pubertal (~28-32 PND) and pubertal (~35-44 PND) female wild-type or α4-/- mice. The coastline length, a measure of burst intensity, was assessed. 8.5 mM K(+) induced seizure-like discharges in over 60% of pre-pubertal slices, but only in 7% of pubertal slices, where the coastline length was reduced by 70% (P = 0.04). However, the pubertal decrease in seizure-like discharges was not seen in the α4-/-, implicating α4βδ GABARs as the cause of the decreased seizure-like activity during puberty. Administration of THIP or DS2, to selectively increase α4βδ current, reduced activity in 8.5 mM K(+) at puberty, while blockade of α5-GABARs had no effect. GABAergic current was depolarizing but inhibitory in 8.5 mM K(+), suggesting a mechanism for the effects of α4βδ and α5-GABARs, which exhibit different polarity-dependent desensitization. These data suggest that α4βδ GABARs are anti-convulsant during adolescence. PMID:27561815

  4. Clinical and sociodemographic predictors of oral pain and eating problems among adult and senior Spaniards in the national survey performed in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Manuel; López-Valverde, Antonio; Llodra, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain and chewing difficulties have been identified as the strongest predictors of oral disadvantage. The aim of this study is to analyze and quantify the sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical factors modulating the oral pain and eating difficulties reported by Spanish adults and elderly Spanish people in the last National Oral Health Survey performed in 2010. Material and Methods Data concerning pain and chewing difficulties were acquired on a Likert‑scale format from a representative sample of the Spanish general population with ages between 35-44 years (n=391) and 65‑74 years (n=405). Risk factors were identified using bivariate analysis, after which the crude association between risk factors (sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical) and outcome variables (pain and eating problems) was assessed by adjusted odds ratios, calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression. Results Eating problems and oral pain were mainly associated with prosthetic and caries treatment needs as clinical predictors, but female sex was also seen to be a relevant and significant risk factor for suffering pain and eating restrictions. Paradoxically, after taking into account all the aforementioned predictors, the adults had an almost two‑fold higher risk of reporting pain or eating difficulties than the elderly subjects. Conclusions In agreement with the results from the last national oral health survey, prosthetic and caries treatment needs should be considered key factors in determining the oral well‑being of the Spanish population. In sociodemographic terms, the women and adults were seen to be at a significantly higher risk of suffering pain and eating restrictions. Key words: Oral pain, eating difficulties, oral health‑related quality of life, epidemiological studies, self‑assessment. PMID:25858078

  5. Asthma Economic Costs in Adult Asthmatic Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI, Laleh; POURPAK, Zahra; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; BOKAIE, Saied; MOEZZI, Hamid Reza; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoushirvan; MOIN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: High prevalence and increasing rate of asthmatic patients around the word witnesses the high burden of asthma. We have limited data on asthma burden and economic costs in Iran. This study aimed to find direct and indirect economic costs of asthma and their association with some background factors in one of the referral tertiary centers for adult patients with asthma. Methods: We surveyed asthma related economic costs of 197 adult patients who referred to Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran from Jun 2007 to January 2010. The patients were followed up for a period of one-year ±1 month and asthma related costs and its control status were registered. Results: Patients were consisted of 125 (64.1%) females and 70 (35.9%) males. Total cost of asthma was 590.22 ±32.18 USD for one patient per one year, the cost of drug, paraclinic, doctor visit, hospitalization, emergency, transportation, and absent days were 327.02, 4.76, 35.44, 3.82, 0.26, 113.03, 105.89 USD respectively. Men showed a significant elevation in their total (P=0.009) and drug costs (P=0.028). In addition, we found significant differences between total asthma costs and asthma control status (P=0.002). Conclusions: According to the high proportion of asthma, related cost compare to Total Income of an Iranian family, the necessity of public coverage of health assurance is quite clear. We suggest that improving asthma management and accessibility to specialized treatment centers can result in decreasing asthma medication and transportation costs as major direct and indirect asthma related costs. PMID:26587495

  6. Binding of radioiodinated human. beta. -endorphin to serum proteins from rats and humans, determined by several methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1985-10-07

    Binding of immunoreactive radioiodinated human ..beta..-endorphin (/sup 125/I-..beta..-EP) to rat serum was demonstrated by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in pooled rat serum on Sephadex G-200. Two radioactive peaks associated with proteins eluted from the column. The first peak eluted at the void volume containing lipoproteins, ..cap alpha../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 2/-macroglobulins, and the second peak at the fraction of albumin. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP to albumin was directly proved by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin on Sephadex G-200. Equilibrium dialysis was not applicable to investigating the interaction of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP with serum proteins, because of the intense nonspecific adsorption to the semi-permeable membrane and the degradation of the peptide during dialysis. Therefore, in order to quantitatively evaluate the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in sera from rats and humans, the authors utilized four other methods (ultrafiltration, charcoal adsorption, polyethylene glycol precipitation and equilibrium gel filtration). These methods corresponded well with each other and indicated 35-44% binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in rat serum. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in normal human serum was 36%, determined by ultrafiltration. Serum protein binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP was concentration independent over the concentration range studied (1-1000 nM). 23 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. A mucoadhesive in situ gel delivery system for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Jauhari, Saurabh; Dash, Alekha K

    2006-01-01

    MUC1 gene encodes a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human breast cancer and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ gel delivery system containing paclitaxel (PTX) and mucoadhesives for sustained and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. The delivery system consisted of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) in 0.33M citric acid containing PTX. The in vitro release of PTX from the gel was performed in presence and absence of Tween 80 at drug loads of 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% (wt/wt), in Sorensen's phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Different mucin-producing cell lines (Calu-3>Caco-2) were selected for PTX transport studies. Transport of PTX from solution and gel delivery system was performed in side by side diffusion chambers from apical to basal (A-B) and basal to apical (B-A) directions. In vitro release studies revealed that within 4 hours, only 7.61% +/- 0.19%, 12.0% +/- 0.98%, 31.7% +/- 0.40% of PTX were released from 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% drug-loaded gel formulation, respectively, in absence of Tween 80. However, in presence of surfactant (0.05% wt/vol) in the dissolution medium, percentages of PTX released were 28.1% +/- 4.35%, 44.2% +/- 6.35%, and 97.1% +/- 1.22%, respectively. Paclitaxel has shown a polarized transport in all the cell monolayers with B-A transport 2 to 4 times higher than in the A-B direction. The highest mucin-producing cell line (Calu-3) has shown the lowest percentage of PTX transport from gels as compared with Caco-2 cells. Transport of PTX from mucoadhesive gels was shown to be influenced by the mucin-producing capability of cell. PMID:16796370

  8. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children. PMID:12927984

  9. Changes of Nitrogen Transformation Rates and Related Functional Genes Abundance under Different Dissolved Oxygen Levels in sediments form an Urban River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the nitrogen rich urban river sediments, we investigated the nitrogen transformation rates and nitrogen-cycling genes in response to different dissolved oxygen (DO) supply levels (saturation, DO > 8.00 mg L-1; aerobic, 2.50 mg L-1 35.44 mg N) and its proportion to ammonium liberated (from 12.96% to 99.84%), but the contributions of anammox to nitrogen loss in each incubation showed no significant difference (83.36% to 89.19%). The dissolved oxygen facilitated an exponential increasing of the anammox oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and raised the denitrifiers (nirK and nirS gene) abundance by an order, but its influence on anammox (hzsB) was insignificant. Four quantitative response relationships between nitrogen transformation rates, nitrogen functional genes abundances, and nitrogen concentrations were established by stepwise linear regression analysis. These relationships confirmed that different nitrogen transformation processes were coupled at the molecular level (functional genes), especially for the coupling of ammonium oxidation and anammox.

  10. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  11. Clinical study on urothelial tumors of dye workers in Wakayama City.

    PubMed

    Shinka, T; Sawada, Y; Morimoto, S; Fujinaga, T; Nakamura, J; Ohkawa, T

    1991-12-01

    Between January 1951 and December 31, 1990 urothelial tumors were detected in 112 of 1,085 male dye workers (10.3%) in Wakayama City who were formerly engaged in manufacturing of benzidine and/or beta-naphthylamine. The period from exposure to the chemicals to development of the tumor was a mean of 24.1 +/- 9.4 years. A peak incidence of urothelial tumors was observed also approximately 25 years after the peak period of manufacturing these intermediate products of dyes. The mean period from exposure to such carcinogenic chemicals to the onset of the disease was estimated to be 25 years. Of the 78 patients with primary bladder cancer diagnosed since 1969, 43 (55.1%) had tumors diagnosed mostly as a result of a positive urinary cytology test obtained as part of a screening program and 35 (44.9%) had tumors diagnosed as the result of symptoms. Ten patients (24.4%) in the screened group had been treated with total cystectomy by the last followup examination compared with 17 (50.0%) in the symptomatic group. The 10-year cumulative survival rates were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in the screened patients (75.1%) than in the symptomatic patients (55.1%). Our results indicate that screening of high risk populations with urinary cytology tests is effective for early diagnosis and treatment of urothelial tumors, and it improves patient prognosis. Furthermore, the biological behavior of occupational urothelial tumors may be different from that of urothelial tumors in the general population. PMID:1942328

  12. Left ventricular hypertrophy index based on a combination of frontal and transverse planes in the ECG and VCG: Diagnostic utility of cardiac vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomini, Maria Paula; Juan Ingallina, Fernando; Barone, Valeria; Antonucci, Ricardo; Valentinuzzi, Max; Arini, Pedro David

    2016-04-01

    The changes that left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induces in depolarization and repolarization vectors are well known. We analyzed the performance of the electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic transverse planes (TP in the ECG and XZ in the VCG) and frontal planes (FP in the ECG and XY in the VCG) to discriminate LVH patients from control subjects. In an age-balanced set of 58 patients, the directions and amplitudes of QRS-complexes and T-wave vectors were studied. The repolarization vector significantly decreased in modulus from controls to LVH in the transverse plane (TP: 0.45±0.17mV vs. 0.24±0.13mV, p<0.0005 XZ: 0.43±0.16mV vs. 0.26±0.11mV, p<0.005) while the depolarization vector significantly changed in angle in the electrocardiographic frontal plane (Controls vs. LVH, FP: 48.24±33.66° vs. 46.84±35.44°, p<0.005, XY: 20.28±35.20° vs. 19.35±12.31°, NS). Several LVH indexes were proposed combining such information in both ECG and VCG spaces. A subset of all those indexes with AUC values greater than 0.7 was further studied. This subset comprised four indexes, with three of them belonging to the ECG space. Two out of the four indexes presented the best ROC curves (AUC values: 0.78 and 0.75, respectively). One index belonged to the ECG space and the other one to the VCG space. Both indexes showed a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. In conclusion, the proposed indexes can favorably complement LVH diagnosis

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions related to occupational exposure to acid mists.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Crosato, Edgard; Mazzilli, Luiz Eugênio Nigro; Frias, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a Brazilian population of workers exposed and non-exposed to acid mists and chemical products. One hundred workers (46 exposed and 54 non-exposed) were evaluated in a Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador - CEREST (Worker's Health Reference Center). The workers responded to questionnaires regarding their personal information and about alcohol consumption and tobacco use. A clinical examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of NCCLs, according to WHO parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by unconditional logistic regression and multiple linear regression, with the critical level of p < 0.05. NCCLs were significantly associated with age groups (18-34, 35-44, 45-68 years). The unconditional logistic regression showed that the presence of NCCLs was better explained by age group (OR = 4.04; CI 95% 1.77-9.22) and occupational exposure to acid mists and chemical products (OR = 3.84; CI 95% 1.10-13.49), whereas the linear multiple regression revealed that NCCLs were better explained by years of smoking (p = 0.01) and age group (p = 0.04). The prevalence of NCCLs in the study population was particularly high (76.84%), and the risk factors for NCCLs were age, exposure to acid mists and smoking habit. Controlling risk factors through preventive and educative measures, allied to the use of personal protective equipment to prevent the occupational exposure to acid mists, may contribute to minimizing the prevalence of NCCLs. PMID:26154372

  14. A Quantitative Method for the Analysis of Nomothetic Relationships Between Idiographic Structures: Dynamic Patterns Create Attractor States for Sustained Posttreatment Change

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Aaron J.; Newman, Michelle G.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present article aimed to demonstrate that the establishment of dynamic patterns during the course of psychotherapy can create attractor states for continued adaptive change following the conclusion of treatment Method This study is a secondary analysis of T. D. Borkovec and E. Costello (1993). Of the 55 participants in the original study, 33 were retained for the present analysis due to the homogeneity of psychotherapy outcome among these participants. Of these 33, the majority were White (88%) and female (70%), and the average age was 35.44 years (SD = 14.46). Participants participated in 12 weeks of either cognitive behavioral therapy or applied relaxation. Daily diary entries from the treatment period were subjected to time series analyses in order to determine the degree of order versus disorder present within individual dynamic systems. These idiographic data were then aggregated for nomothetic analysis of treatment outcome via linear mixed effect models. Results Spectral power due to daily to intradaily oscillations in thrice-daily diary data significantly moderated reliable change over posttreatment follow-up such that lesser power predicted increases in reliable change over the 1-year follow-up period. Additionally, residual variance for dynamic factor models significantly moderated the slope for change over the follow-up period, such that lesser variance—and thus greater order in dynamic systems—predicted increases in reliable change. Conclusions The degree of order in dynamic systems established during therapy acted as an adaptive attractor state, promoting continued positive gains 1 year after the conclusion of therapy. The present study represents an important innovation in the study of dynamic systems in psychotherapy. PMID:21707138

  15. Assessment of selected antioxidants in tomato pomace subsequent to treatment with the edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, under solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Assi, Jamal A; King, Annie J

    2007-10-31

    Tomato pomace, delignified by the edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, could be used as a poultry feed ingredient to provide alpha-tocopherol for retardation of lipid oxidation in postmortem meat if the antioxidant were retained in pomace after fungal fermentation. Experiments were conducted to investigate changes in the content of alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tomato pomace after sterilization and treatment with P. ostreatus from 0 to 104 days. alpha-Tocopherol (39.26 to 31.15 microg/g) and lycopene (17.42 to 11.19 microg/g) significantly decreased during sterilization while beta-carotene (42.56 to 35.44 microg/g) did not. The content of carotenoids decreased by day 26 as compared to 0 day for the control and for treated samples. alpha-Tocopherol decreased during fungal fermentation at day 26 as compared to 0 day for the control and increased during the same period for treated samples. By 104 days, only alpha-tocopherol in control pomace was present in a significant amount. The alpha-tocopherol content of mushroom fruit grown in pomace (74.10 microg/g) and in wheat straw (51.36 microg/g) was not significantly different. Tomato pomace could be used as a substrate to successfully grow edible mushrooms; however, the initial level of selected antioxidants and their reduction during fungal fermentation must be considered when delignified pomace is utilized for selected nutrient content in animal feed or products for human consumption. PMID:17902625

  16. Clinical study on thermography, as modern investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Iosif, Laura; Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; Murariu-Măgureanu, Cătălina; Preoteasa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is an infectious inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa, with frequent recurrences. The aim of this study was to assess the use of infrared thermography as investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis (as inflammatory disorder of the maxillary denture bearing area), by comparing disease and non-disease groups. An observational study was conducted on maxillary edentulous patients treated by acrylic dentures, with and without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Diagnostic test methods used were clinical examination for denture stomatitis and conventional microbiological culture method for oral candidiasis. Thermography analysis of the maxillary denture bearing area was made using the ThermaCAM PM350 infrared camera (Inframetrics, Flir Systems) and ThermaGram Pro 95 software, data being acquired by usage of standard protocol of thermographic registrations. The sample included 52 patients, 21 with and 31 without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The temperature of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area was found to be statistically significantly higher in Candida-associated denture stomatitis (mean 36.20°C), compared to healthy oral mucosa (mean 34.85°C). The thermal threshold value of 35.44°C was identified as best differentiating a pathological from normal state of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area. In conclusion, infrared thermography, a rapid non-invasive investigation method, has the premises to bring valuable data in inflammatory disorders of the maxillary denture bearing area, as Candida-associated denture stomatitis that may be used for screening, diagnostic or monitoring purposes. PMID:27151707

  17. Identification of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer for Women in Istanbul

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Sevim; Aksoy, Güler

    2007-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer type seen in women, accounts for 18% of all cancer types in women and the risk of a woman to get breast cancer during her life is 11%. These notified rates enable breast cancer to be defined as a preventable and if pre-diagnosed, a treatable cancer type, despite it was regarded as a terrifying type of cancer in the past. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the lifestyle pattern of women without breast cancer in Istanbul. Method: The study was carried out as a descriptive and cross-sectional study with 1000 women. Results: The majority of the women (29.7%) were in the 35-44 year old age group. Out of these 93.1% gave birth before the age of 30, 29.5% breastfed for 7-12 months, 65.8% started menarche between 13-15 years of age (mean of 13.3 years), 15.5% were in menopause and had entered menopause at a mean age of 46.5 years. Their mean body mass index was 24.3kg/m2 and 24.5% of them preferred foods containing high fat content. The majority of the women (85.4%) did not participate in sports regularly. One third (30.3%) of the women had underwent Breast Self Examination. There was a positive family history of breast cancer for 12.1% of the women. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles, lower Breast Self Examination and routine mammography rates and family histories of breast cancer were the risk factors that needed to be given priority for further action. PMID:19319213

  18. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya Jatesadapattaya; Philasri, Chutikan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Maneenin, Chanvit; Sirilaph, Samaporn; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species, and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998. In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas. PMID:17072975

  19. FMR1 CGG Repeats: Reference Levels and Race-Ethnic Variation in Women With Normal Fertility (Study of Women's Health Across the Nation).

    PubMed

    Pastore, Lisa M; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin Q; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2016-09-01

    FMR1 premutation carriers (55-199 CGG repeats), and potentially women with high normal (35-44) or low normal (<28) CGG repeats, are at risk of premature ovarian aging. The scarcity of population data on CGG repeats <45 CGG, and variation in race-ethnicity, makes it difficult to determine true associations. DNA was analyzed for FMR1 CGG repeat lengths from 803 women (386 caucasians, 219 African Americans, 102 Japanese, and 96 Chinese) from the US-based Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Participants had ≥1 menses in the 3 months before enrollment, ≥1 pregnancy, no history of infertility or hormonal therapy, and menopause ≥46 years. Statistical analyses used Fisher exact tests. Among these women with normal reproductive histories, significant FMR1 repeat length differences were found across race-ethnicity for both the longer (P = .0002) and the shorter (P < .0001) alleles. The trinucleotide length variance was greater for non-Asian than Asian women (P < .0001), despite identical median values. Our data indicate that short allele lengths <25 CGG on one or both alleles are more common in non-Asian than Asian women. We confirm the minor allele in the 35 to 39 CGG range among Asians as reported previously. Only 2 (0.3%) premutation carriers were identified. These data demonstrate that FMR1 distributions do vary by race-ethnicity, even within the "normal" range. This study indicates the need to control for race-ethnicity in FMR1 ovarian aging research and provides race-ethnic population data for females separated by allele. PMID:26905421

  20. Detection of differential DNA methylation in repetitive DNA of mice and humans perinatally exposed to bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, Christopher; Kim, Jung H.; Anderson, Olivia S.; Nahar, Muna S.; Jones, Tamara R.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce changes in DNA methylation in both mouse and human genic regions; however, the response in repetitive elements and transposons has not been explored. Here we present novel methodology to combine genomic DNA enrichment with RepeatMasker analysis on next-generation sequencing data to determine the effect of perinatal BPA exposure on repetitive DNA at the class, family, subfamily, and individual insertion level in both mouse and human samples. Mice were treated during gestation and lactation to BPA in chow at 0, 50, or 50,000 ng/g levels and total BPA was measured in stratified human fetal liver tissue samples as low (non-detect to 0.83 ng/g), medium (3.5 to 5.79 ng/g), or high (35.44 to 96.76 ng/g). Transposon methylation changes were evident in human classes, families, and subfamilies, with the medium group exhibiting hypomethylation compared to both high and low BPA groups. Mouse repeat classes, families, and subfamilies did not respond to BPA with significantly detectable differential DNA methylation. In human samples, 1251 individual transposon loci were detected as differentially methylated by BPA exposure, but only 19 were detected in mice. Of note, this approach recapitulated the discovery of a previously known mouse environmentally labile metastable epiallele, CabpIAP. Thus, by querying repetitive DNA in both mouse and humans, we report the first known transposons in humans that respond to perinatal BPA exposure. PMID:27267941

  1. Diagnostic Value of Multiple Tumor Markers for Patients with Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Zhenli; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xueyuan; Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Qiuyan; Li, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Background Various studies assessing the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers in patients with esophageal cancer remain controversial. This study aims to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the potential diagnostic value of 5 serum tumour markers in esophageal cancer. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), through February 28, 2013, without language restriction. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy). The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Results Of 4391 studies initially identified, 44 eligible studies including five tumor markers met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, while meta-analysis could not be conducted for 12 other tumor markers. Approximately 79.55% (35/44) of the included studies were of relatively high quality (QUADAS score≥7). The summary estimates of the positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for diagnosing EC were as follows: CEA, 5.94/0.76/9.26; Cyfra21-1, 12.110.59/22.27; p53 antibody, 6.71/0.75/9.60; SCC-Ag, 7.66/0.68/12.41; and VEGF-C, 0.74/0.37/8.12. The estimated summary receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the performance of all five tumor markers was reasonable. Conclusions The current evidence suggests that CEA, Cyfra21-1, p53, SCC-Ag and VEGF-C have a potential diagnostic value for esophageal carcinoma. PMID:25693076

  2. Urine Collection in the Emergency Department: What Really Happens in There?

    PubMed Central

    Frazee, Bradley W.; Frausto, Kenneth; Cisse, Bitou; White, Douglas E. A.; Alter, Harrison

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In women with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI), a non-contaminated voided specimen is considered important for valid urinalysis and culture results. We assess whether midstream parted-labia catch (MSPC) instructions were provided by nurses, understood, and performed correctly, according to the patient. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of English- and Spanish-speaking female patients submitting voided urine samples for urinalysis for suspected UTI. The survey was conducted in a public teaching hospital emergency department (ED) from June to December 2010, beginning 2 months after development and dissemination of a nursing MSPC instructions protocol. Research assistants administered the survey within 2 hours of urine collection. Nurses were unaware of the study purpose. Results: Of 129 patients approached, 74 (57%) consented and were included in the analysis. Median age was 35; 44% were Latino. Regarding instructions from nurses, patients reported the following: 45 (61%; 95% CI 50–72%) received any instructions; of whom 37 (82%; 95% CI 71–93%) understood them completely. Sixteen (36%; 95% CI 22–51%) were instructed to collect midstream; and 7 (16%; 95% CI 6–29%) to part the labia. Regardless of receiving or understanding instructions, 33 (45%; 95% CI 33–57%) reported actually collecting midstream, and 11 (15%, 95% CI 8–25%) parting the labia. Conclusion: In this ED, instructions for MSPC urine collection frequently were not given, despite a nursing protocol, and patients rarely performed the essential steps. An evidence-based approach to urine testing in the ED that considers urine collection technique, is needed. PMID:23359832

  3. Detection of differential DNA methylation in repetitive DNA of mice and humans perinatally exposed to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Christopher; Kim, Jung H; Anderson, Olivia S; Nahar, Muna S; Jones, Tamara R; Sartor, Maureen A; Dolinoy, Dana C

    2016-07-01

    Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce changes in DNA methylation in both mouse and human genic regions; however, the response in repetitive elements and transposons has not been explored. Here we present novel methodology to combine genomic DNA enrichment with RepeatMasker analysis on next-generation sequencing data to determine the effect of perinatal BPA exposure on repetitive DNA at the class, family, subfamily, and individual insertion level in both mouse and human samples. Mice were treated during gestation and lactation to BPA in chow at 0, 50, or 50,000 ng/g levels and total BPA was measured in stratified human fetal liver tissue samples as low (non-detect to 0.83 ng/g), medium (3.5 to 5.79 ng/g), or high (35.44 to 96.76 ng/g). Transposon methylation changes were evident in human classes, families, and subfamilies, with the medium group exhibiting hypomethylation compared to both high and low BPA groups. Mouse repeat classes, families, and subfamilies did not respond to BPA with significantly detectable differential DNA methylation. In human samples, 1251 individual transposon loci were detected as differentially methylated by BPA exposure, but only 19 were detected in mice. Of note, this approach recapitulated the discovery of a previously known mouse environmentally labile metastable epiallele, Cabp(IAP). Thus, by querying repetitive DNA in both mouse and humans, we report the first known transposons in humans that respond to perinatal BPA exposure. PMID:27267941

  4. Calcium mediates root K+/Na+ homeostasis in poplar species differing in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Dai, Songxiang; Wang, Ruigang; Chen, Shaoliang; Li, Niya; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Zheng, Xiaojiang; Hu, Zanmin; Zhang, Zengkai; Song, Jin; Xu, Yue

    2009-09-01

    Using the non-invasively ion-selective microelectrode technique, flux profiles of K(+), Na(+) and H(+) in mature roots and apical regions, and the effects of Ca(2+) on ion fluxes were investigated in salt-tolerant poplar species, Populus euphratica Oliver and salt-sensitive Populus simonii x (P. pyramidalis + Salix matsudana) (Populus popularis 35-44, P. popularis). Compared to P. popularis, P. euphratica roots exhibited a greater capacity to retain K(+) after exposure to a salt shock (SS, 100 mM NaCl) and a long-term (LT) salinity (50 mM NaCl, 3 weeks). Salt shock-induced K(+) efflux in the two species was markedly restricted by K(+) channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride, but enhanced by sodium orthovanadate, the inhibitor of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, suggesting that the K(+) efflux is mediated by depolarization-activated (DA) channels, e.g., KORCs (outward rectifying K(+) channels) and NSCCs (non-selective cation channels). Populus euphratica roots were more effective to exclude Na(+) than P. popularis in an LT experiment, resulting from the Na(+)/H(+) antiport across the PM. Moreover, pharmacological evidence implies that the greater ability to control K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis in salinized P. euphratica roots is associated with the higher H(+)-pumping activity, which provides an electrochemical H(+) gradient for Na(+)/H(+) exchange and simultaneously decreases the NaCl-induced depolarization of PM, thus reducing Na(+) influx via NSCCs and K(+) efflux through DA-KORCs and DA-NSCCs. Ca(2+) application markedly limited salt-induced K(+) efflux but enhanced the apparent Na(+) efflux, thus enabling the two species, especially the salt-sensitive poplar, to retain K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis in roots exposed to prolonged NaCl treatment. PMID:19638360

  5. The Most Common Cow's Milk Allergenic Proteins with Respect to Allergic Symptoms in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Barzegar, Saeedeh; Teymourpour, Pegah; Yazdanyar, Zahra; Lebaschi, Zahra; Nourizadeh, Maryam; Tazesh, Behnaz; Movahedi, Masoud; Kashani, Homa; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is an immunological response to cow's milk proteins such as casein, α-lactalbumin and β lactoglobulin. The aim of this study was to determine the most common cow's milk allergenic proteins in patients with CMA and identify the most effective proteins in different allergic symptoms. Eighty seven patients (≤18 years) with allergy to cow's milk from 2006 to 2013 entered this study. They had a positive history of allergic reactions to cow's milk and a positive specific IgE test to whole cow's milk. The patients' symptoms were divided into four groups. Serum specific IgEs against four different main proteins of cow's milk were measured using RIDA Allergy Screen. Among 87 patients, 53 (60.5%) were male and the median age was 2.5 years. The frequency of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal symptoms, and anaphylaxis were 63.3%, 55.7%, 20.3%, and 13.4%, respectively. Specific IgEs to total cow's milk protein (n=75, 89.3%), and the main Cow's Milk Proteins including α-lactalbumin (n=65, 77.4%), casein (n=64, 75.3%), β-lactoglobulin (n=52, 62.7%), and bovine serum albumin (n=35, 44.9%) were detected. Specific IgE tests to β-lactoglobulin were positive in 90% of the patients with anaphylaxis. Moreover, significant relationship was found between specific IgE to β-lactoglobulin and anaphylaxis (p=0.04). Although it is presumed that α-lactalbumin and casein are the most common allergenic proteins of cow's milk, in this study there is a significant relationship between the anaphylaxis and the presence of β-lactoglobulin-specific IgE. Therefore, more precautions are recommended due to possible anaphylactic reactions in patients with a positive test history for β-lactoglobulin specific IgE. PMID:27090370

  6. Discrimination and participation in traditional healing for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Momper, Sandra L; Fong, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) who live in urban areas today face the daunting task of navigating an urban landscape while maintaining the facets of their respective Native cultures. While AIs/ANs continue to grapple with the intergenerational trauma associated with forced assimilation, relocation movements, and boarding schools, these traumas have manifested themselves in elevated rates of psychopathology. AIs/ANs have elevated rates of domestic abuse, poverty, suicide, and substance misuse. Furthermore, AIs/ANs, like many other minority cultures often face discrimination in their everyday lives. In light of the aversive experiences they face, AI/AN people have followed the tenets of ritual and traditional healing to address imbalances in the body, mind, and spirit. For providers working with AI/AN clients, it is important to understand who is using traditional healing and why they are using alternative services. Secondary data analyses of survey data from 389 urban AIs/ANs were utilized in order to determine the relationship between experiences of discrimination and traditional healing use. Analyses indicated that experiences of discrimination in healthcare settings were significantly associated with participation in traditional healing. Analyses also indicated that nearly a quarter of the sample reported discrimination in a healthcare setting, roughly half of the sample had used traditional healing, and that the majority of those who had used traditional healing were women, and ages 35-44 (27%). This study calls attention to the socio-demographic factors implicated in traditional healing use by urban AI/AN people, in addition to the clinical and demographic characteristics of this sample. PMID:23821254

  7. Regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals without a randomised controlled study: analysis of EMA and FDA approvals 1999–2014

    PubMed Central

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Baio, Gianluca; Berlin, Jesse A; Irs, Alar; Freemantle, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of pharmaceuticals is most often demonstrated by randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, in some cases, regulatory applications lack RCT evidence. Objective To investigate the number and type of these approvals over the past 15 years by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods Drug approval data were downloaded from the EMA website and the ‘Drugs@FDA’ database for all decisions on pharmaceuticals published from 1 January 1999 to 8 May 2014. The details of eligible applications were extracted, including the therapeutic area, type of approval and review period. Results Over the period of the study, 76 unique indications were granted without RCT results (44 by the EMA and 60 by the FDA), demonstrating that a substantial number of treatments reach the market without undergoing an RCT. The majority was for haematological malignancies (34), with the next most common areas being oncology (15) and metabolic conditions (15). Of the applications made to both agencies with a comparable data package, the FDA granted more approvals (43/44 vs 35/44) and took less time to review products (8.7 vs 15.5 months). Products reached the market first in the USA in 30 of 34 cases (mean 13.1 months) due to companies making FDA submission before EMA submissions and faster FDA review time. Discussion Despite the frequency with which approvals are granted without RCT results, there is no systematic monitoring of such treatments to confirm their effectiveness or consistency regarding when this form of evidence is appropriate. We recommend a more open debate on the role of marketing authorisations granted without RCT results, and the development of guidelines on what constitutes an acceptable data package for regulators. PMID:27363818

  8. Survival in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia in Germany and the United States: Major differences in survival in young adults.

    PubMed

    Pulte, Dianne; Jansen, Lina; Castro, Felipe A; Krilaviciute, Agne; Katalinic, Alexander; Barnes, Benjamin; Ressing, Meike; Holleczek, Bernd; Luttmann, Sabine; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-15

    Previous epidemiologic studies on AML have been limited by the rarity of the disease. Here, we present population level data on survival of patients with AML in Germany and the United States (US). Data were extracted from 11 population-based cancer registries in Germany and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER13) database in the US. Patients diagnosed with AML in 1997-2011 were included. Period analysis was used to estimate 5-year relative survival (RS) and trends in survival in the early 21st century. Overall 5-year age-adjusted RS for patients with AML in 2007-2011 was greater in Germany than in the US at 22.8% and 18.8%, respectively. Five-year RS was higher in Germany than in the US at all ages, with particularly large differences at ages 15-24 for whom 5-year RS was 64.3% in Germany and 55.0% in the US and 35-44, with 5-year RS estimates of 61.8% in Germany and 46.6% in the US. Most of the difference in 5-year RS was due to higher 1-year RS, with overall 1-year RS estimates of 47.0% in Germany and 38.5% in the US. A small increase in RS was observed between 2003-2005 and 2009-2011 in both countries, but no increase in survival was observed in either country for ages 75+. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of AML survival in Germany. Comparison to the US suggests that further analysis into risk factors for poor outcomes in AML in the US may be useful in improving survival. PMID:27176899

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Persists and Correlates with Self-Reported Infection and Behavioural Risks in a Blinded Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Righarts, Antoinette; Vieira, Sueli; Kounali, Daphne; Samuel, Dhanraj; Winston, Alan; Muir, David; Dickson, Nigel P.; McClure, Myra O.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) serological studies in populations could help monitor changes in lifetime cumulative risk of infection. We developed a double-antigen sandwich ELISA based on the Ct-specific Pgp3 antigen, then tested blind stored sera from over 800 participants in a New Zealand birth cohort from Dunedin at ages 26, 32 and 38. The double-antigen sandwich ELISA was more sensitive than our previously characterised indirect Pgp3 ELISA. Pgp3 antibody was detected more often in women compared to men and correlated with increasing numbers of sexual partners, self-reported Ct, and younger age at sexual debut in both women and men. At age 26, 24.1% (99/411) of women were Pgp3 seropositive, as were 79.5% (35/44) of those reporting Ct infection; Pgp3 antibody persisted to age 38 in 96.5% (83/86). In men at age 26, the figures were 10.7% (47/442) and 25.0% (6/24), respectively, with high (83.9%) antibody persistence to age 38. At age 38, among those Pgp3 seropositive, 63.3% of women and 83.1% of men had not reported Ct infection. Thus, Ct-specific Pgp3 antibody was detected in most women reporting Ct infection and correlated with risk of infection in those who did not, with most infections remaining undetected. As this antibody persisted for at least twelve years in 96% of these women, serology could be used to evaluate Ct prevention programmes among women. PMID:26974653

  10. Ultrasound-detected joint inflammation and B cell count: related variables for rituximab-treated RA patients?

    PubMed

    Valor, Lara; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; Janta, Iustina; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Ovalles-Bonilla, Juan Gabriel; González-Fernández, Carlos; Del Rio, Tamara; Hernández-Flórez, Diana; Monteagudo, Indalecio; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional observational study aimed to explore the relationship between B cell count and ultrasound (US)-detected synovitis, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with rituximab. Thirty-seven consecutive RA patients treated with RTX were recruited for the study. The patients underwent clinical [i.e., Disease Activity Score 28 joints (DAS28)], laboratory, and US assessment of 12 joints. Each joint was semiquantitatively (0-3) scored on B-mode and power Doppler mode. The scores were summed, and a global index was created for BM (BMS) and PD scores (PDI) synovitis. BM subclinical synovitis was evident in all patients, with PD synovial signal detected in 16 patients (43.2 %). No correlation was found between DAS28 and US scores. B cells were detected in 27 (72.9 %) patients, but there was no association in the mean B cell count and disease activity as measured by DAS28 (DAS28 < 2.6 = 34.53, DAS28 > 2.6 = 49.45, p = 0.52) and PDI score (PDI < 1 = 49.48, PDI > 1 = 35.44, p = 0.54). There was no correlation between the B cell count and DAS28, BMS, and PDI (r = 0.020, p = 0.907; r = -0.151, p = 0.371; r = -0.099, p = 0.558, respectively). In RTX-treated RA patients, no relationship could be established between US-detected synovitis and peripheral blood B cell count. PMID:27072348

  11. An update on oxycodone: lessons for death investigators in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Jennifer L; Yafistham, Sabrina Putrianita; Gaya, Sanjeev; Saar, Eva; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-03-01

    Oxycodone is one of the most abused prescription drugs. Iatrogenic factors that lead to oxycodone-related death, such as mis-prescribing, present an opportunity for death prevention if identified early. This study investigated deaths involving oxycodone in Australia to explore potentially inappropriate prescribing and the coroner's investigation. The National Coronial Information System identified cases from 2001 to 2011 where oxycodone was detected by toxicological analysis. There were 806 oxycodone-related deaths, with a significant increase in the 11-year period, from 21 deaths in 2001, up almost sevenfold in 2011 (139 deaths). Most deaths were caused by combined drug toxicity (63.4%) or oxycodone toxicity alone (11.8%). Most individuals were male (59.1%), aged 35-44 years (26.7%), who died unintentionally (56.4%), with mental illness (52.1%) and/or a history of acute or chronic pain (46.2%). 312 cases (39%) described a legitimate prescription for oxycodone, of which most involved non-cancer related chronic pain. About three quarters of the indications were deemed appropriate. There were at least 43 different indications treated with oxycodone that were inappropriate. The majority of oxycodone-related cases involved minor to no description of the drugs involved (n = 600; 74.4%). A moderate description of oxycodone involvement was given in 162 cases (20.1%), while only 44 cases (5.5%) involved a thorough examination and recommendations from the coroners on oxycodone and other drugs involved in death. This study emphasized the need for medical practitioners to exercise caution when prescribing oxycodone and for coroners to provide more consistent and detailed information regarding drug use, in order to identify and implement preventive strategies. PMID:25403552

  12. A randomized clinical trial of a brief family intervention to reduce accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Abramovitch, Amitai; Tompson, Martha C.; Barlow, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Accommodation consists of changes in family members’ behavior to prevent or reduce patients’ obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals or distress. High levels of family accommodation are associated with more severe symptoms and functional impairment on the part of patients, and may also interfere with exposure-based treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a brief, adjunctive intervention to reduce accommodation in the family members of adult OCD patients. Patients (N = 18, mean age = 35.44, 33% male, 94% Caucasian) received a course of standard individual exposure and ritual prevention (ERP) for OCD. Family members (N = 18, mean age = 41.72, 56% male, 94% Caucasian) were randomized to either receive or not receive the adjunctive intervention, consisting of two sessions of psychoeducation and skills training in reducing accommodation. Results revealed that the intervention successfully reduced scores on the clinician-rated the Family Accommodation Scale (Week 8 d = 1.05). Patients whose family members received the intervention showed greater reductions in Y-BOCS scores across treatment than patients whose family members had not (Week 8 d = 1.27), and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that change in family accommodation from baseline accounted for a significant amount of variance in later OCD symptoms (β = .45, p = .02). Results from this preliminary study suggest that this adjunctive intervention produces more rapid treatment response compared to traditional ERP alone. Accommodation is a potentially important target for improving treatment in OCD and other diagnostic groups where accommodation is likely to occur. PMID:25645170

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Persists and Correlates with Self-Reported Infection and Behavioural Risks in a Blinded Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Horner, Patrick J; Wills, Gillian S; Righarts, Antoinette; Vieira, Sueli; Kounali, Daphne; Samuel, Dhanraj; Winston, Alan; Muir, David; Dickson, Nigel P; McClure, Myra O

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) serological studies in populations could help monitor changes in lifetime cumulative risk of infection. We developed a double-antigen sandwich ELISA based on the Ct-specific Pgp3 antigen, then tested blind stored sera from over 800 participants in a New Zealand birth cohort from Dunedin at ages 26, 32 and 38. The double-antigen sandwich ELISA was more sensitive than our previously characterised indirect Pgp3 ELISA. Pgp3 antibody was detected more often in women compared to men and correlated with increasing numbers of sexual partners, self-reported Ct, and younger age at sexual debut in both women and men. At age 26, 24.1% (99/411) of women were Pgp3 seropositive, as were 79.5% (35/44) of those reporting Ct infection; Pgp3 antibody persisted to age 38 in 96.5% (83/86). In men at age 26, the figures were 10.7% (47/442) and 25.0% (6/24), respectively, with high (83.9%) antibody persistence to age 38. At age 38, among those Pgp3 seropositive, 63.3% of women and 83.1% of men had not reported Ct infection. Thus, Ct-specific Pgp3 antibody was detected in most women reporting Ct infection and correlated with risk of infection in those who did not, with most infections remaining undetected. As this antibody persisted for at least twelve years in 96% of these women, serology could be used to evaluate Ct prevention programmes among women. PMID:26974653

  14. NaCl-Induced Alternations of Cellular and Tissue Ion Fluxes in Roots of Salt-Resistant and Salt-Sensitive Poplar Species1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Chen, Shaoliang; Dai, Songxiang; Wang, Ruigang; Li, Niya; Shen, Xin; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Lu, Cunfu; Zheng, Xiaojiang; Hu, Zanmin; Zhang, Zengkai; Song, Jin; Xu, Yue

    2009-01-01

    Using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique, fluxes of H+, Na+, and Cl− were investigated in roots and derived protoplasts of salt-tolerant Populus euphratica and salt-sensitive Populus popularis 35-44 (P. popularis). Compared to P. popularis, P. euphratica roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na+ after a short-term exposure to 50 mm NaCl (24 h) and a long term in a saline environment of 100 mm NaCl (15 d). Root protoplasts, isolated from the long-term-stressed P. euphratica roots, had an enhanced Na+ efflux and a correspondingly increased H+ influx, especially at an acidic pH of 5.5. However, the NaCl-induced Na+/H+ exchange in root tissues and cells was inhibited by amiloride (a Na+/H+ antiporter inhibitor) or sodium orthovanadate (a plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitor). These results indicate that the Na+ extrusion in stressed P. euphratica roots is the result of an active Na+/H+ antiport across the plasma membrane. In comparison, the Na+/H+ antiport system in salt-stressed P. popularis roots was insufficient to exclude Na+ at both the tissue and cellular levels. Moreover, salt-treated P. euphratica roots retained a higher capacity for Cl− exclusion than P. popularis, especially during a long term in high salinity. The pattern of NaCl-induced fluxes of H+, Na+, and Cl− differs from that caused by isomotic mannitol in P. euphratica roots, suggesting that NaCl-induced alternations of root ion fluxes are mainly the result of ion-specific effects. PMID:19028881

  15. Systematic errors in temperature estimates from MODIS data covering the western Palearctic and their impact on a parasite development model.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Carné, Jorge; García-Martín, Alberto; Estrada-Peña, Agustin

    2013-11-01

    The modelling of habitat suitability for parasites is a growing area of research due to its association with climate change and ensuing shifts in the distribution of infectious diseases. Such models depend on remote sensing data and require accurate, high-resolution temperature measurements. The temperature is critical for accurate estimation of development rates and potential habitat ranges for a given parasite. The MODIS sensors aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution temperature data for remote sensing applications. This paper describes comparative analysis of MODIS-derived temperatures relative to ground records of surface temperature in the western Palaearctic. The results show that MODIS overestimated maximum temperature values and underestimated minimum temperatures by up to 5-6 °C. The combined use of both Aqua and Terra datasets provided the most accurate temperature estimates around latitude 35-44° N, with an overestimation during spring-summer months and an underestimation in autumn-winter. Errors in temperature estimation were associated with specific ecological regions within the target area as well as technical limitations in the temporal and orbital coverage of the satellites (e.g. sensor limitations and satellite transit times). We estimated error propagation of temperature uncertainties in parasite habitat suitability models by comparing outcomes of published models. Error estimates reached 36% of annual respective measurements depending on the model used. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of adequate image processing and points out the limitations of MODIS temperature data as inputs into predictive models concerning parasite lifecycles. PMID:24258878

  16. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in the healthcare system in Poland: Is it worth the effort?

    PubMed

    Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena; Religioni, Urszula; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Czerw, Aleksandra; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew; Soszyński, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally recognized as a serious public health concern. Current statistics indicate that approximately 2% of people worldwide and 1.9% of people in Poland suffer from HCV infection.This study was conducted to assess the anti-HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Poland and subsequently provide recommendations on the rationale for obligatory screening.A total of 42,274 women participated in our study, of which 16,130 were pregnant. We were granted access to their health data stored in the form of electronic medical records kept by the network of outpatient clinics throughout Poland.The lowest rate of positive anti-HCV test results was found in women ages 25 to 34 (0.73%); however, younger and older age groups had similar rates (15-24 = 0.86%; 35-44 = 0.84%). Additional analysis of data from the period between 2011 and 2014 revealed a downward trend in the proportion of positive anti-HCV tests among pregnant women (mean positive anti-HCV = -0.001 × year + 1.9451; R = 0.7274). Regardless of the gradual increase in the number of female patients undergoing screening between 2004 and 2015, there has been a constant decrease in the rate of positive cases. The rate of pregnant women potentially infected with HCV was twice as lower than that in a control group of women undergoing tests for other medical circumstances: 0.76% vs 1.67% (P < 0.0001).Analysis of real-world data of female patients in Poland provides evidence that screening based on an individual's medical history and behavioral risk factors in clinical circumstances would be more effective than obligatory testing of all pregnant women. PMID:27472714

  17. [Sterilization determinants and their demographic effect on Colombia and Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Hollerbach, P E

    1986-01-01

    This article is based on data gathered during contraceptive prevalence surveys carried out in Costa Rica and Colombia in 1978, and in 1980 in Colombia and 1981 in Costa Rica. The groups studied consisted of women aged 14-49, and ranged in population from n=3,400 to n=4,580. Colombia Ministry of Health policy limits access to sterilization to couples over 30 with at least 3 children. Profamilia, private family planning organization, has similar though less stringent norms. The majority of sterilizations are of females. Sterilization has come under some attack by the Roman Catholic church, family planning programs continue to be viable. In Costa Rica, sterilization has not been practiced as a family planning method officially, but was performed by the national social service system as well as private providers when it was medically indicated. Since 1982, sterilization has been illegal in Costa Rica. Comparing the 2 countries, the Colombian sterilization rate rose from about 17/1000 ever married women in 1970 to 19.8 in 1980. The rate for Costa Rica rose to 21.6 in 1976, after which there was an attempt to restrict the practice. The effects of the restriction had become negligible by 1980. Women married for 19-20 years were the group with the highest % of sterilizations in both countries. Women with 6 or more live children in Costa Rica, and 4 in Colombia, women 30-39 in Colombia and 35-44 in Costa Rica, women having previously used contraceptives and women in urban areas were more likely sterilized. It is projected that a high potential demand for sterilization exists in Colombia, but the demand in Costa Rica is considerably less. The acceptor characteristics (e.g. years married, age) are quite similar for the 2 countries. Generally speaking, fertility is higher among sterilized women in both countries. PMID:12267934

  18. Microscopic visualization of intravasal spermatozoa is positively associated with patency after bilateral microsurgical vasovasostomy.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, R; Mata, D A; Jain, L; Perkins, A R; Marks, S H; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated pre-operative and intraoperative factors associated with successful patency following bilateral microsurgical vasovasostomy (VV). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 1331 men who underwent bilateral VV by two surgeons between 2006 and 2013. Vasal fluid was examined intraoperatively for gross quality (i.e., clear or opaque and creamy/thick) and for the presence of spermatozoa on microscopy (i.e., whole spermatozoa, sperm fragments, or azoospermia). Post-operative patency was assessed by semen analysis or patient report of conception. Perioperative factors were explored using descriptive statistics and examined in logistic regression models for associations with post-operative patency. The median age at VV was 39 years [interquartile range (IQR): 35-44] and the median obstructive interval (OI) was 7 years (IQR: 4-11). Overall, 1307 patients achieved post-operative patency (98%) while 24 remained obstructed (2%). Among those who became patent, 410 reported conception. After adjustment for potential confounders, only microscopic examination of the intravasal fluid for the presence of spermatozoa (bilateral or unilateral whole spermatozoa vs. sperm parts/azoospermia) at the time of VV was significantly associated with post-operative patency with an odds ratio (OR) of 14.2 (95% CI: 5.8-34.9; p = <1 × 10(-8) ). Identification of bilateral or unilateral sperm fragments vs. azoospermia was also associated with increased odds of post-operative patency with an OR of 3.5 (95% CI: 0.9-13.6; p = 0.08). There was no statistically significant association between age at VV, OI, presence of granuloma, gross fluid quality, or surgeon and post-operative patency after controlling for potential confounders. Identification of whole spermatozoa in the vasal fluid at the time of VV was positively associated with post-operative patency. Our findings stress the need for intraoperative microscopy to aid in post-operative patient counseling. PMID:25914288

  19. Bisphenol A-associated alterations in genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns reveal sequence-dependent and non-monotonic effects in human fetal liver

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, Christopher; Kim, Jung H.; Jones, Tamara R.; McEachin, Richard C.; Nahar, Muna S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Sartor, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a high production volume chemical widely used in consumer products, is an endocrine active compound associated with complex epigenetic responses in animal models and humans. Developmental BPA exposure in mice previously revealed widespread changes in the mouse liver methylome. Here, we undertake the first epigenome-wide analysis of the effect of BPA concentration on human fetal liver DNA methylation. Enzymatic enrichment of genomic DNA for high CG density and methylation followed by next-generation sequencing yielded data for positional methylation across the genome. Comparing three groups of BPA-exposed subjects (n=18; 6 per group), high (35.44–96.76 ng/g), low (3.50 to 5.79 ng/g), and non-detect (<0.83 ng/g), revealed regions of altered methylation. Similar numbers of regions of altered methylations were detected in pairwise comparisons; however, their genomic locations were distinct between the non-detect and low or high BPA groups. In general, BPA levels were positively associated with methylation in CpG islands and negatively associated with methylation in CpG shores, shelves, and repetitive regions. DNA methylation at the SNORD imprinted cluster (15q11q13) illustrated both linear and non-monotonic associations with BPA levels. Integrated methylation and RNA-sequencing gene expression analysis revealed differential regulation of transcription at low BPA levels, as well as expression changes in RNA for ligand-binding proteins as BPA levels increase. BPA levels in human fetal liver tissue are associated with complex linear and non-monotonic as well as sequence-dependent alterations in DNA methylation. Future longitudinal studies are needed to link these changes with altered health risks.

  20. Urban growth in Korea, 1970-1980: an application of the human ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Ko, S H

    1994-07-01

    This study supports the ecological perspective proposed by Duncan (population, environment, organization, and technology) explaining urban population growth. Data were obtained from the 1970 and 1980 Korean Population Census and Korean Municipal Yearbook on cities with a minimum size of 20,000-50,000 people (108 cities and towns). Urban growth is most strongly influenced by indigenous labor surplus and the population potential of the city to be in contact with another city. Nine multiple regression variables explained just under 66% of the variance in urban growth. Net migration was influential among those aged 15-24 years. The extent of differentiation of industry affected net migration only among those aged 15-24 years and those aged 35-44 years. Population redistribution was more affected directly by changes in industrial organization, and migration was affected indirectly by environmental and technological effects on organization. Urban growth through migration of older age groups was affected by government expenditure on public works. Urban growth was not much affected by transportation/communication concentration, manufacturing concentration, urban labor surplus, population size, and site. Urban growth was viewed as the interaction between the unemployment rate and the urban wage, following Todaro's equilibrium models. In Korea, larger cities only grew faster during the 1960s. By the 1970s, upper middle-sized cities grew faster. Location was not a significant factor in explaining urban growth, but growth was rapid along a corridor within 100 km from Seoul and 50 km from Pusan, the second largest city in Korea. Caution was urged in interpreting Korea's ecological urban growth patterns as indicative of developing countries. PMID:12345852

  1. Oral Health Status of Rural and Urban Population of Gurgaon Block, Gurgaon District Using WHO Assessment Form through Multistage Sampling Technique

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sumanth; Rajashekharappa, Chinmaya Byali; Garg, Aarti; Ryana, Haneet Kour; Khurana, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral part of general health and well being. Poor oral health can affect a person physiologically and psychologically irrespective of age group. Aim To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of urban and rural population of Gurgaon Block, Gurgaon District, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 810 urban and rural subjects belonging to index age groups of 5, 12, 15, 35-44 and 65-74 years as recommended by WHO, in the city of Gurgaon, Haryana. The World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was used for data collection in which clinical examination, soft and hard tissue findings as well as dentofacial anomalies were recorded. The subjects were selected by multistage random sampling and examined throughout the area by a house to house survey. Statistical Analysis The data was collected and subjected to analysis through SPSS 21. Chi-square was used for compilation of results. Results Of the total population 44.9% had dental caries with a mean DMFT of 1.61. Prevalence of periodontal diseases was 65%; 46% of the population suffered from malocclusions of which 21.19 % had the severe type. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent (46%) out of which 11.23% had moderate and 9.6% had severe type of fluorosis. Treatment was found to be required among 83% of population. Conclusion The dental health care needs are very high both in rural and urban areas in spite of basic facilities available in urban areas. Hence professional and administrative attention is required both in urban and rural areas. Gurgaon Block can be used as a model district to find the effectiveness of programs in bringing down the oral diseases and maintenance of the oral health of the people on a long term basis. PMID:27437359

  2. Detection of circulating melanoma cells in the blood of melanoma patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Roland, Christina L; Ross, Merrick I; Hall, Carolyn S; Laubacher, Barbara; Upshaw, Joshua; Anderson, Amber E; Lucci, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Significant prognostic heterogeneity exists within the substages of melanoma; therefore, novel prognostic biomarkers are needed to provide information on the risk of recurrence. Limited available data suggest prognostic significance for circulating melanoma cells (CMCs); there is a need for a sensitive, reproducible, and standardized identification technique. Using a semiautomated technology, we sought to determine whether CMCs could be identified reliably in stage I-IV melanoma patients and whether the presence of CMC correlated with known prognostic factors. CMCs were detected in the peripheral blood (7.5 ml) of patients with stage I-IV melanoma (n=89) using the CellSearch system. CD146 cells were immunomagnetically enriched; nucleated HMW-MAA/CD45/CD34 cells were considered CMCs. One or more CMCs was detected in 45% of all patients, varying with stage of disease (stages I/II, III, and IV: 35, 44, and 86%, respectively; P=0.03, for stage I/II vs. stage IV); 55% had one CMC, 32% had two CMCs, and 13% had three or more CMCs identified. The presence of CMCs in the blood was associated with histologic subtype, particularly in patients with stage I/II disease (superficial spreading 18% vs. acral lentiginous 75%). Using a semiautomated technique, CMCs can be identified in a significant number of melanoma patients. These data support further study with longer follow-up and longitudinal/serial time points to better determine the identification rates and prognostic significance of CMCs in stage I-IV melanoma patients. PMID:26011119

  3. Drug related deaths in the Split-Dalmatia County 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    Susnjara, Ivana Marasović; Smoljanović, Ankica; Gojanović, Marija Definis

    2011-09-01

    Drug overdoses are a major cause of mortality for drug users and, in many countries, are the leading cause of death in this group. The aim of the present study is to explore the frequency of all drug related deaths in the Split-Dalmatia County in the period between 1997 and 2007 and to analyze some of the characteristics of these deaths to help target preventive policies. The data on drug related deaths were collected using records from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Clinical Hospital Centre Split, University of Split, School of Medicine. There were 190 drug related deaths in the observed period of 11 years. Statistically significant difference (p = 0.004, chi2-test for trend) was found in the number of deaths in 1997 in comparison with the number of deaths in 2007. The majority of 105 (55%) the decedents were 25-34 years old, and 92.1% (175) of them were male. There was a 94% higher probability of mortality in the 25-34 years group (chi2 = 5.55, p = 0.064). Average age of all dead people was 31.01 +/- 7.59 years (median 31.0 years; range 18-49). Almost three quarters of the decedents were single and more than three fifths hadn't been employed. The most common location of death was at home. Approximately, 80% were autopsied followed by full histological and toxicological analyses. Out of all examined cases, the majority of drug related deaths (93 or 60.8%) were attributed to heroin. Heroin was the sole cause of death in 35 (22.9%) cases. Methadone was cause of death in 24 (15.7%) cases. 3.4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) deaths were rare (3.3%). Cocaine deaths were also rare (1.3%). Three fifths (55.6%) of the cases involved includes multi-substance use. During the investigation there was an evident trend towards multi-substance abuse patterns. These data suggest that interventions to prevent drug related mortality should address the use of drugs such as heroin and alcohol in combination. PMID:22053562

  4. Comparing the size-frequency distributions of asteroid families to those produced by SPH/N-body impact simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, D. D.; Bottke, W. F.; Nesvorný, D.; Asphaug, E.; Richardson, D. C.

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the morphology of size-frequency distributions (SFDs) resulting from impacts into 100-km diameter parent asteroids, represented by a suite of 160 SPH/N-body simulations conducted to study asteroid satellite formation (Durda et al. 2004; Icarus 170, 243-257). The spherical basalt projectiles range in diameter from 10 to 46 km (in equally-spaced mass increments in logarithmic space, covering six discrete sizes), impact speeds range from 2.5 to 7 km/s (generally in 1 km/s increments), and impact angles range from 15o to 75o (nearly head-on to very oblique) in 15o increments. For a given impact speed, the shape of the SFD tends to be more ``concave" for the smallest impactors (cratering events) and more ``convex" for the largest impactors (supercatastrophic disruption). At the transition point where ``concave" cratering SFDs begin to transform into more linear power law SFDs, the largest remnant has a diameter of ˜ 20 km. That transition occurs at smaller impactor sizes for greater impactor speeds and at greater impactor sizes for larger impactor angles. Impacts that maximize the number of similar-size largest remnants (at ˜ 20 km) occur at impact speeds of 6-7 km/s with 25-34 km diameter impactors; larger impactors at higher speeds are required to achieve the same results for oblique impacts as for smaller impactors at lower speeds impacting more nearly head-on. The SFDs with the very shallowest slopes overall derive from impacts at about 4-6 km/s with 25-34 km diameter impactors. These modeled SFD morphologies match very well the observed SFDs of actual asteroid families. We find that there are ˜ 20 families produced by catastrophic breakups in the main belt from D > 100 km parent bodies. This suggests that the threshold specific energy, Q*D, is very close to that predicted by Benz and Asphaug (1999; Icarus 142, 5-20).

  5. Global Inequalities in Youth Mortality, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Lokhande, Anagha; Azuine, Romuladus E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited cross-national research on youth mortality. We examined age-and gender-variations in all-cause mortality among youth aged 15-34 years across 52 countries. Methods: Using the 2014 WHO mortality database, mortality rates for all countries were computed for the latest available year between 2007 and 2012. Rates, rate ratios, and ordinary least squares (OLS) and Poisson regression were used to analyze international variation in mortality. Results: Mortality rates among youth aged 15-34 years varied from a low of 28.4 deaths per 100,000 population for Hong Kong to a high of 250.6 for Russia and 619.1 for South Africa. For men aged 15-34, Singapore and Hong Kong had the lowest mortality rates (≈40 per 100,000), compared with South Africa and Russia with rates of 589.7 and 383.3, respectively. Global patterns in mortality among women were similar. Youth aged 15-24 in South Africa had 14 times higher mortality and those in the Philippines, Mexico, Russia, Colombia, and Brazil had 5-7 times higher mortality than those in Hong Kong. Youth aged 25-34 in Russia and South Africa had, respectively, 10 and 29 times higher mortality than their counterparts in Hong Kong. United States (US) had the 12th highest mortality rate among youth aged 15-24 and the 13th highest rate among youth aged 25-34. Overall, the US youth had 2-3 times higher rates of mortality than their counterparts in many industrialized countries including Hong Kong, Singapore, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Income inequality, unemployment rate, and human development explained 50-66% of the global variance in youth mortality. Compared to the countries with low unemployment and income inequality and high human development levels, countries with high unemployment and income inequality and low human development had, respectively, 343%, 213%, and 205% higher risks of youth mortality. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Marked international disparities in

  6. Stigma and Homophobia: Persistent Challenges for HIV Prevention Among Young MSM in Puerto Rico1

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Melissa Marzán; Madera, Sheilla Rodríguez; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the most affected populations by HIV/AIDS. Over the last years an increase of cases has been reported in younger groups. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that stigma and homophobia may have a profound impact on the lives of MSM, and could influence them to engage in HIV risky behaviors. In the U.S and Puerto Rico, an increase in HIV cases among young MSM has been reported. For the period of 2005-2009 an increase of HIV cases was reported with 4.3% in the age group of 13-24 and 55.6% in the age group of 25-34. Understanding the dynamics related HIV risk behaviors among young MSM requires transcending traditional individual behavior oriented perspectives in order to adopt a more comprehensive socio-structural approach. In this manuscript we present a critical analysis of HIV prevention issues among young MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:25678720

  7. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosangela de Castro; Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendonça; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Bastos, Jacione Silva; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria; Vilas-Boas, Ana Luisa; Bouzas, Maiara Lana; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Brites, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7%) specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74%) and A(H1N1)pdm09 in 9/34 (26%). Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8%) and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467). No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures. PMID:24714967

  8. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper. PMID:25857990

  9. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  10. Epidemiology of Occupational Accidents in Iran Based on Social Security Organization Database

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Seifmanesh, Shahdokht; Chavoshi, Farzaneh; Aminian, Omid; Izadi, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Background: Today, occupational accidents are one of the most important problems in industrial world. Due to lack of appropriate system for registration and reporting, there is no accurate statistics of occupational accidents all over the world especially in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study is epidemiological assessment of occupational accidents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Information of available occupational accidents in Social Security Organization was extracted from accident reporting and registration forms. In this cross-sectional study, gender, age, economic activity, type of accident and injured body part in 22158 registered accidents during 2008 were described. Results: The occupational accidents rate was 253 in 100,000 workers in 2008. 98.2% of injured workers were men. The mean age of injured workers was 32.07 ± 9.12 years. The highest percentage belonged to age group of 25-34 years old. In our study, most of the accidents occurred in basic metals industry, electrical and non-electrical machines and construction industry. Falling down from height and crush injury were the most prevalent accidents. Upper and lower extremities were the most common injured body parts. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of accidents in metal and construction industries, engineering controls, the use of appropriate protective equipment and safety worker training seems necessary. PMID:24719699

  11. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rosangela de Castro; Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendonça; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Bastos, Jacione Silva; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria; Vilas-Boas, Ana Luisa; Bouzas, Maiara Lana; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Brites, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7%) specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74%) and A(H1N1)pdm09 in 9/34 (26%). Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8%) and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467). No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures. PMID:24714967

  12. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013).

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Mullachery, Pricila; Silver, Diana; Jimenez, Geronimo; Libanio Morais Neto, Otaliba

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD); as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25-34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society. PMID:26230389

  13. HLA-B27 antigen frequency among suspected Spondyloarthropathy patients attaining a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Tabassum, S; Sultana, S

    2014-12-01

    Human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27), a class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex has a strong disease association with different types of spondarthropathies (SpA). The strength of this disease association varies markedly among racial and ethnic populations. The present study aimed to identify the HLA-B27 antigen frequencies among suspected SpA patients as well as healthy Bangladeshi individuals. The frequency of HLA-B27 was determined in 1500 patients and 1000 healthy subjects attending the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU). HLA-B 27 typing was done by microlymphocytotoxicity test using commercial kit. A total of 738 (49.2%) suspected SpA patients and 107 (10.7%) healthy subjects tested positive for HLA-B27 antigen with higher frequency among younger age groups (54.9%, 52.4% and 56.2% in 0-14 years, 15-24 years and 25-34 years of age respectively). The male female positivity was almost same (11.4% and 9.6%) among control group, but in patient group it was 53.0% and 41.2% respectively. The findings of this hospital based study showed a high frequency of HLA-B27 among suspected SpA patients with male preponderance which is comparable with neighboring countries. PMID:26402974

  14. Detecting bacterial lung infections: in vivo evaluation of in vitro volatile fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangjiang; Bean, Heather D; Wargo, Matthew J; Leclair, Laurie W; Hill, Jane E

    2013-03-01

    The identification of bacteria by their volatilomes is of interest to many scientists and clinicians as it holds the promise of diagnosing infections in situ, particularly lung infections via breath analysis. While there are many studies reporting various bacterial volatile biomarkers or fingerprints using in vitro experiments, it has proven difficult to translate these data to in vivo breath analyses. Therefore, we aimed to create secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) pathogen fingerprints directly from the breath of mice with lung infections. In this study we demonstrated that SESI-MS is capable of differentiating infected versus uninfected mice, P. aeruginosa-infected versus S. aureus-infected mice, as well as distinguish between infections caused by P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 versus FRD1, with statistical significance (p < 0.05). In addition, we compared in vitro and in vivo volatiles and observed that only 25-34% of peaks are shared between the in vitro and in vivo SESI-MS fingerprints. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first breath volatiles measured for P. aeruginosa PAO1, FRD1, and S. aureus RN450, and the first comparison of in vivo and in vitro volatile profiles from the same strains using the murine infection model. PMID:23307645

  15. Designing tragacanth gum based sterile hydrogel by radiation method for use in drug delivery and wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju; Rajneesh

    2016-07-01

    Present article discusses synthesis and characterization of the sterile and pure hydrogel wound dressings which were prepared through radiation method by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), tragacanth gum (TG) and sodium alginate (SA). The polymer films were characterized by SEM, Cryo-SEM, FTIR, solid state C(13) NMR and XRD, TGA, and DSC. Some important biological properties such as O2 permeability, water vapor transmission rate, microbial permeability, haemolysis, thrombogenic behavior, antioxidant activity, bio-adhesion and mechanical properties were also studied. The hydrogel film showed thrombogenicity (82.43±1.54%), haemolysis (0.83±0.09%), oxygen permeability (6.433±0.058mg/L) and water vapor permeability (197.39±25.34g/m(2)/day). Hydrogel films were found biocompatible and impermeable to microbes. The release of antibiotic drug moxifloxacin occurred through non-Fickian mechanism and release profile was best fitted in Hixson-Crowell model for drug release. Overall, these results indicate the suitability of these hydrogels in wound dressing applications. PMID:27020943

  16. Aluminium intoxication in undialysed adults with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, L S; Beale, G; Sandroni, S; Ballinger, W E

    1992-01-01

    The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome (DES) consists of altered mental status, communication difficulty, seizures and myoclonus. It has been attributed to elevated serum aluminium (A1) levels. Two undialysed patients with chronic renal failure who presented with the characteristic syndrome are reported. The first, a 48 year old female, had used A1 containing phosphate binders for two years. Her serum A1 level was 25.34 mumol/L. Despite treatment with desferoximine and dialysis, she died. Necropsy revealed elevated A1 levels in the cerebral cortex (19 mcg/gm) and spongioform change in the outer three cortical layers. The second patient, a 46 year old woman, had a serum A1 of 8.70 mumol/L. She had never taken A1 containing phosphate binders but had taken several grams/day of citrate for at least six months. Treatment with haemodialysis and discontinuation of the citrate produced a resolution of symptoms and return of the A1 level to normal. During two years of haemodialysis there has been no recurrence. Images PMID:1527541

  17. Leaping eels electrify threats, supporting Humboldt's account of a battle with horses.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-06-21

    In March 1800, Alexander von Humboldt observed the extraordinary spectacle of native fisherman collecting electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) by "fishing with horses" [von Humboldt A (1807) Ann Phys 25:34-43]. The strategy was to herd horses into a pool containing electric eels, provoking the eels to attack by pressing themselves against the horses while discharging. Once the eels were exhausted, they could be safely collected. This legendary tale of South American adventures helped propel Humboldt to fame and has been recounted and illustrated in many publications, but subsequent investigators have been skeptical, and no similar eel behavior has been reported in more than 200 years. Here I report a defensive eel behavior that supports Humboldt's account. The behavior consists of an approach and leap out of the water during which the eel presses its chin against a threatening conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. The effect is to short-circuit the electric organ through the threat, with increasing power diverted to the threat as the eel attains greater height during the leap. Measurement of voltages and current during the behavior, and assessment of the equivalent circuit, reveal the effectiveness of the behavior and the basis for its natural selection. PMID:27274074

  18. Total solid content drives hydrogen production through microbial selection during thermophilic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Motte, Jean-Charles; Trably, Eric; Hamelin, Jérôme; Escudié, Renaud; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernet, Nicolas; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Claire

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the effect of total solid content (TS) on thermophilic hydrogen production from wheat straw was investigated. Six TS contents ranging from wet to dry conditions (10-34%TS) were tested in batch tests. A decrease of H₂ yields was observed and three statistical groups were distinguished according to the TS content: wet conditions (10% and 14%TS) with 15.3 ± 1.6 NmlH₂ gTS(-1), intermediate conditions (19%TS) with 6.4 ± 1.0 NmlH₂ gTS(-1) and dry conditions (25-34%TS) with 3.4 ± 0.8 NmlH₂ gTS(-1). Such a decrease in biohydrogen yields was related to a metabolic shift with an accumulation of lactic acid under dry conditions. Concomitantly, a microbial population shift was observed with a dominance of species related to the class Clostridia under wet conditions, and a co-dominance of members of Bacilli, Clostridia classes and Bacteroidetes phylum under dry conditions. PMID:24951274

  19. Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the association between age cohort and utilization of maternal health care services in India, before and after adjusting for individual, household and contextual factors. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06, women were classified into three distinct age cohorts based on their age at childbirth: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the influence of women's age cohort on receiving full antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance (SBA). The analytical sample included the women who delivered their most recent birth at any time in the 5 years preceding the survey. Women belonging to the younger age cohort were found to be disadvantaged in receiving full ANC, whereas increasing age of women was negatively associated with receiving SBA. Low level of education, low mass media exposure, low autonomy, belonging to deprived social groups, poor economic status and residence in the central region were found to be major constraining factors in receiving full ANC and SBA for women in India. The findings support the need for 'age-sensitive' interventions that tailor programmes and incentives to women's health care needs through the reproductive life-stage. Urgent efforts are needed to ensure that women who are illiterate and those belonging to low autonomy and low socioeconomic groups receive the recommended maternal health care benefits. PMID:23866261

  20. Leaping eels electrify threats, supporting Humboldt’s account of a battle with horses

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    In March 1800, Alexander von Humboldt observed the extraordinary spectacle of native fisherman collecting electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) by “fishing with horses” [von Humboldt A (1807) Ann Phys 25:34–43]. The strategy was to herd horses into a pool containing electric eels, provoking the eels to attack by pressing themselves against the horses while discharging. Once the eels were exhausted, they could be safely collected. This legendary tale of South American adventures helped propel Humboldt to fame and has been recounted and illustrated in many publications, but subsequent investigators have been skeptical, and no similar eel behavior has been reported in more than 200 years. Here I report a defensive eel behavior that supports Humboldt’s account. The behavior consists of an approach and leap out of the water during which the eel presses its chin against a threatening conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. The effect is to short-circuit the electric organ through the threat, with increasing power diverted to the threat as the eel attains greater height during the leap. Measurement of voltages and current during the behavior, and assessment of the equivalent circuit, reveal the effectiveness of the behavior and the basis for its natural selection. PMID:27274074

  1. Osmoregulation by juvenile brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, in hypo- and hyper-saline waters.

    PubMed

    Cramp, R L; Hansen, M J; Franklin, C E

    2015-07-01

    While there is a considerable body of work describing osmoregulation by elasmobranchs in brackish and saltwater, far fewer studies have investigated osmoregulation in hypersaline waters. We examined osmo- and ionoregulatory function and plasticity in juvenile brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, exposed to three experimental salinities (25, 34 and 40‰) for two weeks. C. punctatum inhabits sheltered coastal areas and bays which can naturally become hypersaline as a consequence of evaporation of water but can also become hyposaline during flood events. We hypothesised that C. punctatum would demonstrate a phenotypically plastic osmoregulatory physiology. Plasma osmolality, urea, Na(+) and Cl(-) levels increased significantly with increasing environmental salinity. Rectal gland and branchial sodium-potassium ATPase (NKA) activities were unaffected by salinity. Using immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting we found evidence for the presence of the key ion-regulatory proteins vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA), pendrin (Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) co-transporter) and the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) in discrete cells within the branchial epithelia. These results indicate that C. punctatum is a partially euryhaline elasmobranch able to maintain osmo- and ionoregulatory function between environmental salinities of 25‰ and 40‰. As suggested for other elasmobranchs, the gills of C. punctatum likely play a limited role in maintaining Na(+) homeostasis over the salinity range studied, but may play an important role in acid-base balance. PMID:25868436

  2. Serum prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases.

    PubMed

    Çelik, H Tolga; Yurdakök, Murat; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yiğit, Şule

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis and to compare these levels with those of healthy premature newborns. Eighty premature infants (25-34 weeks gestational age) were enrolled. The patient group was composed of 38 premature babies with oxygen radical diseases, and the control group consisted of 42 healthy premature newborns. Complete blood count, serum iron and ferritin concentrations, iron-binding capacity (IBC), transferrin and prohepcidin levels were measured. The mean ferritin and prohepcidin levels were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum prohepcidin levels and iron parameters. We believe that this finding will contribute to a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesis of oxygen radical diseases. There is a need for future studies to explore the link between underlying inflammatory mechanisms and hepcidin in oxygen radical diseases. PMID:25363011

  3. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    PubMed

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets. PMID:25970621

  4. From gelatinous to muscle food chain: rock cod Patagonotothen ramsayi recycles coelenterate and tunicate resources on the Patagonian Shelf.

    PubMed

    Arkhipkin, A; Laptikhovsky, V

    2013-11-01

    Stomach contents of 4808 fishes of 20 species caught in the eastern part of the Patagonian Shelf between 1999 and 2012 were analysed to assess dietary contributions of gelatinous plankton resources. Gelatinous plankton occurred in diets of seven species with two species, Patagonotothen ramsayi and Squalus acanthias, having >10% ctenophores in their diet. Consumption of gelatinous plankton was important in P. ramsayi and was strikingly seasonal, with maximum occurrence (up to 46% of non-empty stomachs) in late summer to autumn. Ctenophores were most abundant in P. ramsayi of 25-34 cm total length, L(T) whereas salps were more frequent in larger >35 cm L(T) individuals. In winter to spring, occurrence of gelatinous plankton in diets was minimal, reflecting their overall seasonal abundance in the ocean. The recent increase in abundance of P. ramsayi has enabled the species to recycle a significant proportion of the ecosystem production from gelatinous dead end to the main muscular food chain via seasonal reliance on ctenophores, jellyfish and tunicates. This additional influx of production that has been diverted from the gelatinous food chain favours the increase in abundance of several piscivorous top predators and affects the trophic web structure of the Patagonian Shelf ecosystem. PMID:24580663

  5. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Biochemical Composition of Microalgae Polyculture Harvested from Phycoremediation of Piggery Wastewater Digestate.

    PubMed

    Michelon, William; Da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Mezzari, Melissa Paola; Pirolli, Mateus; Prandini, Jean Michel; Soares, Hugo Moreira

    2016-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) starvation on the biochemical composition of native microalgae Chlorella spp. polyculture obtained from the phycoremediation of swine wastewaters were investigated. Microalgae-specific growth rate of 1.2 day(-1) was achieved (30.3 mg L(-1) day(-1)). PO4 (-2) and NH3 were completely removed from swine digestate effluent after 3 and 11 days, respectively. Microalgae harvested immediately after nutrient removal showed high protein (56-59 %) and carbohydrate (25-34 %) but low lipid (1.8-3 %) contents. Depletion of N or P alone stimulated carbohydrate production at the expenses of proteins. Significant lipid accumulation from 3 % ± 0.5 to 16.3 % ± 0.8 was reached only after 25 days following N and P starvation as demonstrated by Nile red-stained cells. Regarding to the effects of harvesting methods on cellular biochemical composition, circumstantial evidences indicate that coagulation-flocculation with tannin may lead to lower protein and lipid amounts but increased carbohydrate content (p < 0.01) as compared to centrifugation. PMID:26689804

  6. Traditional Practices of Turkish infertile women: an example from a rural county.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Evsen; Apay, Serap; Özdemir, Funda; Nazik, Hakan

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is not only a health problem, but is also a central existential intrapersonal and relational conflict. Infertility treatments are invasive, expensive, time-consuming, emotionally draining. All over the world there are numerous traditional methods used in the treatment of infertility. This investigation was carried out to determine the traditional practices of infertile women in a rural county in Eastern Turkey. This is a descriptive study carried out in 105 primary infertile women. Data were collected between September 2007 and April 2008 by using a questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. 55% of the women were in the 25-34 year age range. It was observed that only 17% of the women applied to a gynecologist without using any traditional applications while 83% of the women applied for traditional applications. The most prevalent traditional practices were consulting traditional healers, visiting mausoleums where religious leaders were buried, using traditional drugs, use of written fertility amulets. Various traditional practices against infertility are prevalent rural counties. Some of these practices may be potentially harmful for women. Health professionals should be aware that infertile women may sometimes follow questionable traditional practices and advices. PMID:26040063

  7. [Focus of canine heartworm disease in Marajó Island, North of Brazil: A risk factor for human health].

    PubMed

    Garcez, Lourdes Maria; de Souza, Nazaré Fonseca; Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Dickson, Luís Antonio Jerônimo; Abreu, Wandercleyson Uchoa; Cavalcanti, Vânia de Fátima do Nascimento; Gomes, Patrick Abdala Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of human pulmonary dirofilariasis maintains a relation with the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in the canine population. Several mosquito species are vectors of this nematode. Canine blood samples collected in Pingo d'Agua and União villages, Salvaterra municipality (Marajó Island, Pará), in June, 2004 (n = 34) and April, 2005 (N = 90) were analyzed. Parasitological and immunological (ELISA--kit SNAP(R) 3DX Biobrasil) diagnoses were compared following the examination of 34 samples. The prevalence in the population (N = 90) was evaluated by means of ELISA. ELISA revealed more positive samples (25/34; 73.5%) than thick smears (23/34, 67.6%) or Knott (21/34, 61.8%), but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of D. immitis infection was 58% in dogs ranging from 0-2 years old, whereas in older dogs it was 100%. The prevalence of canine dirofilariasis was high in Pingo d'Agua and Vila União (53.5%), indicating the risk of parasite transmission to the people in this area. PMID:17119746

  8. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions. PMID:26608506

  9. [Epidemiology of teeth hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Kovalenko, I P

    2015-01-01

    A clinical examination of 98 patients aged 20 to 75 years was carried out to identifyclinical and epidemiological features of hard tooth tissueshypersensitivity. The survey found out what stimuli (cold, hot, sour, mechanical, chemical) cause the appearance of dental hyperesthesia. The detailed survey of the affected area aimed to determine the presence of dental caries, gingival recession, wedge-shaped defects, erosions, microcracks and chipped enamel, as well as wear of the tooth crown. Forty-threepatients of 98 (43.88%) had tooth sensitivity. Most affected age group was 25-34 years (33%). Among patients studied with hyperesthesia 86% complained of pain. It was establishedthat dental hyperesthesia most often causes an intense, but quickly passing pain response, wherein upon exposure of several types of stimuli. Teeth with high sensitivity showed signs of abrasion (74.1%), most often--on the vestibular surface (44.4%). Patients under 45 years had notable cracks and wedge-shaped defects. In patients 45 years and older cracks and increased abrasion of hard dental tissues was seen. PMID:26271696

  10. Comparing Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Rehabilitation Professionals among Hospital and Home Care Employers

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diem; Davis, Aileen; McGillis Hall, Linda

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare hospital and home care employers' rankings of both the importance and the feasibility of workforce strategies for recruiting and retaining rehabilitation professionals. Methods: An online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all employers of rehabilitation professionals in Ontario hospitals (n=144) and Community Care Access Centre home care providers (n=34). Importance and feasibility rankings were based on the percentage of high ratings; 95% CIs were used to determine significant differences between hospital and home care rankings of recruitment and retention strategies. Results: The response rate was 50% (72/144) from hospitals and 73.5% (25/34) from home-care settings. The recruitment and retention strategies considered most important and feasible for rehabilitation therapists, regardless of setting, were communication between employer and worker, compensation packages, access to research, and professional development in budget planning. Tangible resources, support personnel, work safety, and marketing rehabilitation careers to high school students were ranked significantly higher by hospitals than by home care providers. Conclusions: Similarities exist between hospital and home care employers in terms of the importance and feasibility of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. However, when developing a rehabilitation health human resources plan, the strategies identified as different between hospital and home care settings should be taken into account. PMID:23277683

  11. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  12. Day surgery for achalasia cardia: Time for consensus?

    PubMed

    Naumann, D N; Zaman, S; Daskalakis, M; Nijjar, R; Richardson, M; Super, P; Singhal, R

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) is the most effective therapy for achalasia of the oesophagus. Most case series of LHM report a length of hospital stay (LOS) >1 day. We present 14 years of experience of LHM to examine the safety and feasibility of LHM as a day case procedure. Methods We retrospectively examined patients undergoing elective LHM for achalasia at our institution between 2000 and 2014. Demographics, episode statistics, prior investigations and interventions were collated. Outcomes, including LOS, complications and re-interventions, were compared for the periods before and after a consensus decision at our institution in 2008 to perform LHM as a day case procedure. Results Sixty patients with a mean age of 41±13 years were included, of whom 58% were male. The median LOS for all patients was 1 day (interquartile range [IQR] 0-2.25). Overall, LHM was performed as a day case in 27 (45%) cases, at 2/26 (7.7%) in the first period versus 25/34 (73.5%) in the second (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in age, gender or previous interventions between day surgery and non-day surgery groups. One patient required subsequent unplanned surgery, while six (10%) needed endoscopic treatment of recurrent symptoms within 12 months. Conclusions LHM can be performed safely as a day case procedure. Complication rates are low, with only a small proportion of patients requiring endoscopic treatment for symptom recurrence within 1 year. PMID:26829668

  13. Disparities in suicide mortality trends between United States of America and 25 European countries: retrospective analysis of WHO mortality database.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Boucekine, Mohamed; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Brunel, Lore; Lancon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine changes in temporal trends in suicide mortality in 26 Western countries by retrospective trend analysis of the WHO mortality database on causes of deaths. From 1990 to 2010, there was a median reduction in suicide mortality of 22.7%, ranging from a 46% reduction in Estonia to a 26.2% increase in Romania. Suicide mortality decreased by ≥ 20% in 15 countries, and the reduction tended to be greater in countries with higher mortality in 1990. In most of the central European countries mortality strongly declined. The median changes in the age groups were -25.3% (range -62.9% to 72.6%) in people aged 15-24 years, -36.9% (-60.5% to 32.4%) in 25-34 years, -3.6% (-57.1% to 92%) in 35-54 years, -12.2% (-37% to 65,7%) in 55-74 years and -16.1% (-54.5% to 166.7%) in ≥ 75 years. Suicide prevention programs in youths and in the elderly seem to be effective (at least in females for the elderly) and efforts should be pursued in this way. However, suicide mortality of the people aged 35-54 years has increased in half of the studied countries between 1990 and 2010. Public policies should further orientate their efforts toward this population. PMID:26883796

  14. Contributions of an intensive HIV prevention programme in increasing HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sowmya; Mehrotra, Purnima; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with uptake of HIV testing and to assess their relative contributions in increasing HIV testing. Data are drawn from two rounds of cross-sectional Integrated Behavioural and Biological Assessment (IBBA) surveys of self-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) from Andhra Pradesh, India, recruited through probability-based sampling in 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 (IBBA1, n = 1621; IBBA2, n = 1608, respectively). Logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, programme exposure and HIV testing. Significant factors were further parsed using decomposition analysis to examine the contribution of different components of that factor towards the change in HIV testing. There was a significant increase in the proportion of MSM reporting HIV testing from IBBA1 to IBBA2. Higher literacy levels, being 25-34 years old, being a kothi (predominantly receptive), engaging in both commercial and non-commercial sexual relationships and intervention programme exposure contributed the most to the increase in HIV testing. PMID:25635532

  15. Ordering and growth of rare gas films (Xe, Kr, Ar, and Ne) on the pseudo-ten-fold quasicrystalline approximant Al₁₃Co₄(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Petucci, J; Karimi, M; Huang, Y-T; Curtarolo, S; Diehl, R D

    2014-03-01

    Adsorption of the rare gases Kr, Ar, and Ne on the complex alloy surface Al₁₃Co₄(100) was studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) computer simulations. This surface is an approximant to the ten-fold decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystalline surface, on which rare gas adsorption was studied previously. Comparison of adsorption results on the periodic Al₁₃Co₄(100) surface with those of the quasiperiodic Al-Ni-Co surface indicates some similarities, such as layer-by-layer growth, and some dissimilarities, such as the formation of Archimedes tiling phases (Mikhael et al 2008 Nature 454 501, Shechtman et al 1984 Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 1951, Macia 2006 Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 397, Schmiedeberg et al 2010 Eur. Phys. J. E 32 25-34, Kromer et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 218301, Schmiedeberg and Stark 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 218302). The conditions under which Archimedes tiling phases (ATP) emerge on Al₁₃Co₄(100) are examined and their presence is related to the gas-gas and gas-surface interaction parameters. PMID:24521558

  16. Hepatitis B testing and vaccination among adults with sexually transmitted infections in a large managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Hechter, Rulin C; Jacobsen, Steven J; Luo, Yi; Nomura, Jim H; Towner, William J; Tartof, Sara Y; Tseng, Hung Fu

    2014-06-01

    Data on viral hepatitis B (HBV) testing and vaccination in primary care settings among persons at sexual risk for HBV infection have been sparse. We examined rates and factors associated with HBV serologic testing and vaccination rates in adults infected with sexually transmitted infections. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults diagnosed with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis in Kaiser Permanente Southern California in 2008-2011. The vaccine series initiation was examined in subjects who were tested susceptible. The 90-day hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing rate was 28.1% in 15 357 adults. Testing rates increased through the study period. Only 8.8% of patients received both HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibody tests to determine prior exposure and susceptibility to HBV. Among those who were tested susceptible, 116 (10.6%) subjects initiated the vaccine series. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the odds of receiving testing was inversely associated with female sex, black race, other/unknown race, or having prespecified chronic comorbidities. In survival analysis, adults aged 25-34 years and ≥55 years were more likely to initiate hepatitis B vaccine series compared with those aged 18-24 years. There are missed opportunities in HBV testing and vaccination in primary care. Implementation of provider decision-making support tools in the electronic medical record system may potentially improve hepatitis B testing and vaccination rates. PMID:24571863

  17. Cowbird parasitism in grassland and cropland in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koford, Rolf R.; Bowen, B.S.; Lokemoen, J.T.; Kruse, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    The landscape of the Great Plains has been greatly altered by human activities in the past century, and several grassland passerines have experienced significant population declines in recent decades. We explore here whether brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds, which are abundant in the Great Plains, has contributed to these declines. We measured the frequency of cowbird parasitism of passerine species in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland in studies conducted in North Dakota during 1981-1993. The proportions of parasitized nests were 25%, 34%, and 39% in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland, respectively. We speculate that much of the variation in parasitism rate among these habitats is related to the local abundance of cowbirds, to nest visibility, and to the presence of suitable perches for female cowbirds. Local abundance of cowbirds may be high in areas with cattle pastures. Nests and nesting behavior are probably more visible to female cowbirds in cropland than in grassland. Female cowbirds may use shrubs as perches while searching for host nests, and shrubs are more common in natural grasslands than in the other habitats we examined. Experimental work on the determinants of cowbird abundance in grasslands is needed.

  18. Radio Monitoring of the Periodically Variable IR Source LRLL 54361: No Direct Correlation between the Radio and IR Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, Jan; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A.; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, Robert A.

    2015-11-01

    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star-forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 over roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of ∼100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of the order of a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27 ± 5 μJy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, 53 ± 11 μJy, suggesting that variability in the radio is present, but over larger timescales than in the IR. We discuss other sources in the field, in particular two infrared/X-ray stars that show rapidly varying gyrosynchrotron emission.

  19. Caries experience, tooth loss and oral health-related behaviours among Bangladeshi women resident in West Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Williams, S A; Summers, R M; Ahmed, I A; Prendergast, M J

    1996-09-01

    Several studies have reported high levels of caries experience among young Muslim Asian children, but there has been little corresponding information on adult dental health or related health behaviours. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire together with clinical oral findings among first generation Bangladeshi women aged over 25 years. The majority chewed betel quid with tobacco, were of rural origin, used traditional oral hygiene practices and had never visited a dentist. Of the 247 examined, only one was edentulous. A very low level of caries experience was recorded, a mean DFT score of 1.87 at 25-34 years of age, with an average of 1.05 missing teeth. Coronal caries experience was found to be independent of oral hygiene methods, including the use of fluoride toothpaste, or the frequency of betel quid chewing. It was concluded that Bangladeshi adult women have considerably lower levels of caries experience and tooth loss than United Kingdom adults as represented in recent national surveys. PMID:8897738

  20. Direct Evidence of Octupole Deformation in Neutron-Rich 144Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, B.; Zhu, S.; Wu, C. Y.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Butler, P. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Clark, J. A.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; David, H. M.; Dickerson, C.; Gregor, E. T.; Harker, J.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kay, B. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Korichi, A.; Lauritsen, T.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Pardo, R. C.; Richard, A.; Riley, M. A.; Savard, G.; Scheck, M.; Seweryniak, D.; Smith, M. K.; Vondrasek, R.; Wiens, A.

    2016-03-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 144Ba (t1 /2=11.5 s ) is expected to exhibit some of the strongest octupole correlations among nuclei with mass numbers A less than 200. Until now, indirect evidence for such strong correlations has been inferred from observations such as enhanced E 1 transitions and interleaving positive- and negative-parity levels in the ground-state band. In this experiment, the octupole strength was measured directly by sub-barrier, multistep Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated 650-MeV 144Ba beam on a 1.0 -mg /cm2 208Pb target. The measured value of the matrix element, ⟨31 -∥M (E 3 )∥01 +⟩=0.65 (+17/-23) e b3 /2, corresponds to a reduced B (E 3 ) transition probability of 48 (+25/-34) W .u . This result represents an unambiguous determination of the octupole collectivity, is larger than any available theoretical prediction, and is consistent with octupole deformation.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of maternal anemia in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Samson; Enquselassie, Fikre; Umeta, Melaku

    2014-03-01

    In order to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal anemia, a survey was conducted among 700 randomly selected pregnant women in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. The prevalences of anemia, Iron Deficiency (ID) and ID anemia were 31.6%, 17.4% and 8.7%, respectively. The burden of anemia was significantly high among illiterates, women devoid of self-income, lowlanders, multiparas and women aged 25-34 years. Women who weren't on iron-folate supplementation had 1.90 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.14-3.19) times increased odds of anemia. Anemia was associated with ID, zinc deficiency and elevated C-reactive protein with odds ratio of 2.46 (95% CI: 1.63-3.73), 2.29 (95% CI: 1.62-3.23) and 1.98 (95% CI: 1.12-3.47) respectively; however, it was not associated with vitamin A deficiency. Though ID was a significant correlate of anemia, only 11.8% of anemia was attributable to it. Zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiencies did not show synergistic interaction in associating with anemia. PMID:24796168

  2. Modelling the core convection using finite element and finite difference methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. H.; Li, Ligang; Liao, Xinhao

    2006-08-01

    Applications of both parallel finite element and finite difference methods to thermal convection in a rotating spherical shell modelling the fluid dynamics of the Earth's outer core are presented. The numerical schemes are verified by reproducing the convection benchmark test by Christensen et al. [Christensen, U.R., Aubert, J., Cardin, P., Dormy, E., Gibbons, S., Glatzmaier, G.A., Grote, E., Honkura, Y., Jones, C., Kono, M., Matsushima, M., Sakuraba, A., Takahashi, F., Tilgner, A., Wilcht, J., Zhang, K., 2001. A numerical dynamo benchmark. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 128, 25-34.]. Both global average and local characteristics agree satisfactorily with the benchmark solution. With the element-by-element (EBE) parallelization technique, the finite element code demonstrates nearly optimal linear scalability in computational speed. The finite difference code is also efficient and scalable by utilizing a parallel library Aztec [Tuminaro, R.S., Heroux, M., Hutchinson, S.A., Shadid, J.N., 1999. Official AZTEC User's Guide: Version 2.1.].

  3. Cowbird parasitism in grassland and cropland in the northern Great Plains: Chapter 27

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koford, Rolf R.; Bowen, B.S.; Lokemoen, John T.; Kruse, Arnold D.

    2000-01-01

    The landscape of the Great Plains has been greatly altered by human activities in the past century, and several grassland passerines have experienced significant population declines in recent decades. We explore here whether brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds, which are abundant in the Great Plains, has contributed to these declines. We measured the frequency of cowbird parasitism of passerine species in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland in studies conducted in North Dakota during 1981-1993. The proportions of parasitized nests were 25%, 34%, and 39% in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland, respectively. We speculate that much of the variation in parasitism rate among these habitats is related to the local abundance of cowbirds, to nest visibility, and to the presence of suitable perches for female cowbirds. Local abundance of cowbirds may be high in areas with cattle pastures. Nests and nesting behavior are probably more visible to female cowbirds in cropland than in grassland. Female cowbirds may use shrubs as perches while searching for host nests, and shrubs are more common in natural grasslands than in the other habitats we examined. Experimental work on the determinants of cowbird abundance in grasslands is needed.

  4. Integral Light-Harvesting Complex Expression In Symbiodinium Within The Coral Acropora aspera Under Thermal Stress.

    PubMed

    Gierz, Sarah L; Gordon, Benjamin R; Leggat, William

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef success is largely dependent on the symbiosis between coral hosts and dinoflagellate symbionts belonging to the genus Symbiodinium. Elevated temperatures can result in the expulsion of Symbiodinium or loss of their photosynthetic pigments and is known as coral bleaching. It has been postulated that the expression of light-harvesting protein complexes (LHCs), which bind chlorophylls (chl) and carotenoids, are important in photobleaching. This study explored the effect a sixteen-day thermal stress (increasing daily from 25-34 °C) on integral LHC (chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin protein complex (acpPC)) gene expression in Symbiodinium within the coral Acropora aspera. Thermal stress leads to a decrease in Symbiodinium photosynthetic efficiency by day eight, while symbiont density was significantly lower on day sixteen. Over this time period, the gene expression of five Symbiodinium acpPC genes was quantified. Three acpPC genes exhibited up-regulated expression when corals were exposed to temperatures above 31.5 °C (acpPCSym_1:1, day sixteen; acpPCSym_15, day twelve; and (acpPCSym_18), day ten and day sixteen). In contrast, the expression of acpPCSym_5:1 and acpPCSym_10:1 was unchanged throughout the experiment. Interestingly, the three acpPC genes with increased expression cluster together in a phylogenetic analysis of light-harvesting complexes. PMID:27117333

  5. Metropolitan-scale Transport and Dispersion from the New York World Trade Center Following September 11, 2001. Part I: An Evaluation of the CALMET Meteorological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Robert C.; Childs, Peter P.; Huber, Alan H.; Raman, Sethu

    2005-10-01

    Following the collapse of the New York City World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2001, Local, State and Federal agencies initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better understand the impact of emissions from the disaster. A study of the estimated pathway that a potential plume of emissions would likely track was completed to support the U.S. EPA’s initial exposure assessments. The plume from the World Trade Center was estimated using the CALMET-CALPUFF dispersion modeling system. The following is the first of two reports that compares several meteorological models, including the CALMET diagnostic model, the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) and 5th Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) in the complex marine-influenced urban setting of NYC. Results indicate wind speed, in most cases, is greater in CALMET than the two mesoscale models because the CALMET micrometeorological processor does not properly adjust the wind field for surface roughness variations that exits in a major built-up urban area. Small-scale circulations, which were resolved by the mesoscale models, were not well simulated by CALMET. Independent wind observations in Lower Manhattan suggest that the wind direction estimates of CALMET possess a high degree of error because of the urban influence. Wind speed is on average 1.5 ms-1 stronger in CALMET than what observations indicate. The wind direction downwind of the city is rotated 25 34 clockwise in CALMET, relative to what observations indicate.

  6. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied. PMID:23283175

  7. THE EXTRAORDINARY FAR-INFRARED VARIATION OF A PROTOSTAR: HERSCHEL/PACS OBSERVATIONS OF LRLL54361

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, Zoltan; Detre, Örs H.; Bouwmann, Jeroen; Nielbock, Markus; Klaas, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas; Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Rob; Juhasz, Attila; Bally, John; Marton, Gabor

    2014-07-10

    We report Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) photometric observations at 70 μm and 160 μm of LRLL54361—a suspected binary protostar that exhibits periodic (P = 25.34 days) flux variations at shorter wavelengths (3.6 μm and 4.5 μm) thought to be due to pulsed accretion caused by binary motion. The PACS observations show unprecedented flux variation at these far-infrared wavelengths that are well correlated with the variations at shorter wavelengths. At 70 μm the object increases its flux by a factor of six while at 160 μm the change is about a factor of two, consistent with the wavelength dependence seen in the far-infrared spectra. The source is marginally resolved at 70 μm with varying FWHM. Deconvolved images of the sources show elongations exactly matching the outflow cavities traced by the scattered light observations. The spatial variations are anti-correlated with the flux variation, indicating that a light echo is responsible for the changes in FWHM. The observed far-infrared flux variability indicates that the disk and envelope of this source is periodically heated by the accretion pulses of the central source, and suggests that such long wavelength variability in general may provide a reasonable proxy for accretion variations in protostars.

  8. Development and application to clinical practice of a validated HPLC method for the analysis of β-glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Colomer, E Gras; Gómez, M A Martínez; Alvarez, A González; Martí, M Climente; Moreno, P León; Zarzoso, M Fernández; Jiménez-Torres, N V

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of our study is to develop a simple, fast and reliable method for measuring β-glucocerebrosidase activity in Gaucher patients leukocytes in clinical practice. This measurement may be a useful marker to drive dose selection and early clinical decision making of enzyme replacement therapy. We measure the enzyme activity by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as substrate. A cohort of eight Gaucher patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy and ten healthy controls were tested; median enzyme activity values was 20.57mU/ml (interquartile range 19.92-21.53mU/ml) in patients and mean was 24.73mU/ml (24.12-25.34mU/ml) in the reference group, which allowed the establishment of the normal range of β-glucocerebrosidase activity. The proposed method for leukocytes glucocerebrosidase activity measuring is fast, easy to use, inexpensive and reliable. Furthermore, significant differences between both populations were observed (p=0.008). This suggests that discerning between patients and healthy individuals and providing an approach to enzyme dosage optimization is feasible. This method could be considered as a decision support tool for clinical monitoring. Our study is a first approach to in depth analysis of enzyme replacement therapy and optimization of dosing therapies. PMID:24447963

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yang, Huirong; Yang, Zituo; Zhao, Huihong; Sun, Jijia; Xiao, Shibin; Yang, Xiankuan; Li, Guifeng

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of Protonibea diacanthus in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,535 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. All of them are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and 8 tRNA genes on the light strand. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 31.09% of G, 27.54% of T, 25.34% of A and 16.03% of C. All the protein-coding genes start with ATG initiation codon except ATP6 with GTG, and 5 types of inferred termination codons are AGA (COXI and COXII), T (ND3, ND4, Cytb), TA (ND2, COXIII and ATP6), TAA (ND1, ATP8 and ND4L) and TAG (DN5 and ND6). There are 14 intergenic spacers and 7 gene overlaps. The tandem repeat sequence is observed in 12S-rRNA, 16S-rRNA, tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), COXIII, ND4L and ND4 genes. Gene arrangement and distribution are consistent with the typical vertebrates. PMID:25211087

  11. Hidden homicide increases in the USA, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Webster, Daniel; Baker, Susan P

    2008-07-01

    Prior to 1999, dramatic fluctuations in homicide rates were driven by changes in the rates of firearm homicide among men aged 15-24. Since 2000, the overall homicide rate has appeared stable, masking any changes in population subgroups. We analyzed recent trends in homicide rates by weapon, age, race, gender, state, and urbanization to determine whether the risk of victimization increased substantially during 1999-2005 for demographic subgroups. The analysis of WISQARS data and Wonder data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed no trend in the homicide rate nationally between 1999 and 2005; this obscured large increases in firearm homicide rates among black men aged 25-44 and among white men aged 25-34. Between 1999 and 2005, for ages 25-44 combined, the increase for black men was 31% compared with 12% for white men. Significant increases among men aged 25-44 occurred in Alabama, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington. The firearm homicide rate increased the most in large central metropolitan areas (+32%) and large fringe metropolitan areas (+30%) for men aged 25-44. We conclude that the recent, unrecognized increases in firearm homicide among men aged 25-44, especially black men, in large metropolitan areas merit the attention of policymakers. PMID:18509760

  12. Direct Evidence of Octupole Deformation in Neutron-Rich ^{144}Ba.

    PubMed

    Bucher, B; Zhu, S; Wu, C Y; Janssens, R V F; Cline, D; Hayes, A B; Albers, M; Ayangeakaa, A D; Butler, P A; Campbell, C M; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Clark, J A; Crawford, H L; Cromaz, M; David, H M; Dickerson, C; Gregor, E T; Harker, J; Hoffman, C R; Kay, B P; Kondev, F G; Korichi, A; Lauritsen, T; Macchiavelli, A O; Pardo, R C; Richard, A; Riley, M A; Savard, G; Scheck, M; Seweryniak, D; Smith, M K; Vondrasek, R; Wiens, A

    2016-03-18

    The neutron-rich nucleus ^{144}Ba (t_{1/2}=11.5  s) is expected to exhibit some of the strongest octupole correlations among nuclei with mass numbers A less than 200. Until now, indirect evidence for such strong correlations has been inferred from observations such as enhanced E1 transitions and interleaving positive- and negative-parity levels in the ground-state band. In this experiment, the octupole strength was measured directly by sub-barrier, multistep Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated 650-MeV ^{144}Ba beam on a 1.0-mg/cm^{2} ^{208}Pb target. The measured value of the matrix element, ⟨3_{1}^{-}∥M(E3)∥0_{1}^{+}⟩=0.65(+17/-23) eb^{3/2}, corresponds to a reduced B(E3) transition probability of 48(+25/-34)  W.u. This result represents an unambiguous determination of the octupole collectivity, is larger than any available theoretical prediction, and is consistent with octupole deformation. PMID:27035298

  13. [Antagonistic interactions between stress factors during the growth of microorganisms under conditions simulating the parameters of their natural ecotopes].

    PubMed

    Arzumanian, V G; Voronina, N A; Geĭdebrekht, O V; Shelemekh, O V; Plakunov, V K; Beliaev, S S

    2002-01-01

    Two stress factors, hypoxia (microaerobic conditions) and a high salt concentration, if applied simultaneously to aerobic microorganisms, display an antagonistic mode of interaction. As a result, the NaCl level that is usually optimal for moderate halophiles (5-6%) becomes optimal for the growth of weak halophiles (Rhodococcus erythropolis and Shewanella sp. CN32); the halotolerant yeast Yarrowia lypolytica acquires halophilic properties (with a growth optimum at a NaCl concentration of 10%), and the growth rate of the extremely halophilic Halobacterium salinarum increases at supraoptimal salt concentrations (25-34%). This phenomenon is apparently due to multiple changes in metabolic reactions. In particular, high salt concentrations suppress respiration and the formation of enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) that protect the cell from toxic oxygen species. Therefore, establishment of microaerobic conditions compensates for the loss of these protective mechanisms and enables cell growth at higher salt concentrations than under aerobic conditions. Of some importance can also be the increase in the intracellular concentrations of osmoprotectants caused by the suppression of their intracellular oxidation. The implications of this phenomenon for the ecophysiology of microorganisms (including oiloxidizing species) and for the classification of weak and moderate halophiles are discussed. PMID:12024812

  14. Racial/Ethnic and Nativity Patterns of U.S. Adolescent and Young Adult Smoking.

    PubMed

    Wade, Becky; Lariscy, Joseph T; Hummer, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    We document racial/ethnic and nativity differences in U.S. smoking patterns among adolescents and young adults using the 2006 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (n=44,202). Stratifying the sample by nativity status within five racial/ethnic groups (Asian American, Mexican American, other Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white), and further by sex and age, we compare self-reports of lifetime smoking across groups. U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites, particularly men, report smoking more than individuals in other racial/ethnic/nativity groups. Some groups of young women (e.g., foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans, foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and foreign-born blacks) report extremely low levels of smoking. Foreign-born females in all of the 25-34 year old racial/ethnic groups exhibit greater proportions of never smoking than their U.S.-born counterparts. Heavy/moderate and light/intermittent smoking is generally higher in the older age group among U.S.-born males and females whereas smoking among the foreign-born of both sexes is low at younger ages and remains low at older ages. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of considering both race/ethnicity and nativity in assessments of smoking patterns and in strategies to reduce overall U.S. smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable health disparities. PMID:25339787

  15. Post-chemotherapy surgery in advanced non-seminomatous germ-cell testicular tumours: the significance of histology with particular reference to differentiated (mature) teratoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tait, D.; Peckham, M. J.; Hendry, W. F.; Goldstraw, P.

    1984-01-01

    Of a total of 307 patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced non-seminomatous germ-cell testicular tumours between 1976 and 1983, 73 (23.8%) had masses excised after treatment. Resected tissue showed residual malignancy in 16 (22%), fibrosis and necrosis in 25 (34%) and differentiated (mature teratoma) in 32 (44%). Of the 16 patients with tumour only 7 (44%) are alive and disease-free compared with 21/25 (84%) and 27/32 (84%) for fibrosis/necrosis and differentiated teratoma respectively. In addition to histological evidence of residual tumour, elevated serum markers at the time of surgery and/or incomplete excision of residual masses were adverse prognostic features. Of 12 patients with differentiated teratoma or fibrosis who had incomplete resections or densely adherent masses excised with difficulty, 7 subsequently relapsed. The majority of differentiated teratoma patients (75%) had evidence of differentiation in their primary tumours; 88% showed cystic change in metastases and almost one-third showed an increase in the size of metastases during chemotherapy. The data suggest that post-chemotherapy surgery may have a therapeutic as well as a diagnostic role and that complete excision of residual disease should be attempted even if resection at one site has shown either fibrosis or differentiated teratoma. The significance of these findings in relation to treatment induced differentiation is discussed. PMID:6093838

  16. Graft Loss Due to Recurrent Disease in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients on a Rapid Prednisone Discontinuation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chavers, Blanche M.; Rheault, Michelle N.; Gillingham, Kristen J.; Matas, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent disease is the 4th most common cause of graft loss (GL) in pediatric kidney transplant (KTx) recipients. We studied the incidence of recurrent disease and GL due to recurrent disease in pediatric KTx recipients on a rapid discontinuation of prednisone (RDP) protocol. Between 2002 and 2010 we performed 74 KTxs in patients age 5–18 years using a RDP protocol, 25 (34%) were at risk for recurrence of primary disease. Outcomes were compared to 69 historical controls (18 [26%] at risk for recurrence), KTx between 1996–2000. Follow up period was 39 ± 25 months in RDP and 124 ± 38 months in controls. The incidence of recurrent disease at 3 years post KTx was 16% in RDP and 28% in controls (p=NS). Mean time to recurrent disease was 22 ± 26 months in RDP and 46 ± 48 months in controls (p=0.54). Nine (12%) grafts were lost in the RDP group (1-recurrence) and 32 (46%) in the control group (4-recurrence). Time to GL was 85 months in the RDP recipient and 46 ± 21 months in controls. A RDP protocol in pediatric KTx recipients may not be associated with increased risk of graft loss due to recurrent disease. PMID:22574837

  17. Effects of cloud, aerosol, and ozone on surface spectral Ultraviolet and total irradiance observed in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hana; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Woogyung; Lee, Yun Gon; Cho, Hi Ku

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there have been substantial attempts to model the radiative transfer for climatological and biological purposes. However, the incorporation of clouds, aerosols and ozone into the modeling process is one of the difficult tasks due to their variable transmission in both temporal and space domains. In this study we quantify the atmospheric transmissions by clouds, aerosol optical depth (AOD at 320 nm) and total ozone (Ozone) together with all skies in three solar radiation components of the global solar (GS 305-2800nm), total ultraviolet (TUV 290-363nm) and the erythemal weighted ultraviolet (EUV 290-325nm) irradiances with statistical methods using the data at Seoul. The purpose of this study also is to clarify the different characteristics between cloud, AOD and Ozone in the wavelength-dependent solar radiation components. The ozone, EUV and TUV used in this study (March 2003 - February 2014) have been measured with Dobson Spectrophotometer (Beck #124) and Brewer Spectrophotometer (SCI-TEC#148) at Yonsei University, respectively. GS, Cloud Cover (CC) are available from the Korean Meteorological Agency. The measured total (effect of cloud, aerosol, and ozone) transmissions on annual average showed 74%, 76% and 80% of GS, TUV and EUV irradiance, respectively. For the comparison of the measured values with modeled, we have also constructed a multiple linear regression model for the total transmission. The average ratio of measured to modeled total transmission were 0.94, 0.96 and 0.96 with higher measured than modeled value in the three components, respectively, The individual transmission by clouds under the constant AOD and Ozone atmosphere on average showed 68%, 71% and 76% and further the overcast clouds reduced the transmissions to the 45%, 54% and 59% of the clear sky irradiance in the GS, TUV and EUV, respectively. The annual transmissions by AOD showed on average 67%, 70% and 74% and further the high loadings 2.5-4.0 AOD reduced the

  18. Frequencies of red blood cell major blood group antigens and phenotypes in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Ma, C; Sun, X; Guan, X; Zhang, X; Saldanha, J; Chen, L; Wang, D

    2016-08-01

    Alloantibodies directed to red blood cell (RBC) antigens play an important role in alloimmune-mediated haemolytic transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. The frequencies and phenotypes of RBC antigens are different in populations from different geographic areas and races. However, the data on major blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China are still very limited; thus, we aimed to investigate them in this study. A total of 1412 unrelated voluntary Chinese Han blood donors were randomly recruited. All donors were typed for blood group antigens: D, C, c, E, e, C(w) , Jk(a) , Jk(b) ,M, N, S, s, Le(a) , Le(b) , K, k. Kp(a) , Kp(b) , Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Lu(a) , Lu(b) , P1 and Di(a) using serological technology. Calculations of antigen and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages and for allele frequencies under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amongst the Rh antigens, D was the most common (98.94%) followed by e (92.28%), C (88.81%), c (58.43%), E (50.78%) and C(w) (0.07%) with DCe/DCe (R1 R1 , 40.72%) being the most common phenotype. In the Kell blood group system, k was present in 100% of the donors and a rare phenotype, Kp (a+b+), was found in 0.28% of the donors. For the Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, Jk (a+b+) and Fy (a+b-) were the most common phenotypes (44.05% and 84.35%, respectively). In the MNS blood group system, M+N+S-s+ (45.54%) was the most common, whereas M+N-S-s- and M-N+S-s- were not found. The rare Lu (a-b-) and Lu (a+b+) phenotypes were identified in 0.43% and 1.13% of the donors, respectively. Le(a) and Le(b) were seen in 17.92% and 63.03% of donors, respectively. The frequency of Di(a) was 4.75%, which was higher than in the Chinese population in Taiwan region or the Caucasian and Black populations (P < 0.0001). This study systematically describes the frequencies of 24 blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China. The data can

  19. High-Resolution Geophysical Constraints on Late Pleistocene-Present Deformation History, Seabed Morphology, and Slip-Rate along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault, Offshore Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D. S.; Haeussler, P. J.; Dartnell, P.; Conrad, J. E.; Kluesner, J. W.; Hart, P. E.; Witter, R. C.; Balster-Gee, A. F.; Maier, K. L.; Watt, J. T.; East, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault (QCFF) of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia is the dominant fault along the 1200 km-long transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. More than 900 km of the QCFF lies offshore where the style and rates of deformation are poorly constrained due to a lack of high-resolution marine geophysical data. In May 2015, the USGS acquired ~900 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and >2000 line-km of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles between Cross Sound, Yakobi Sea Valley, and Icy Point (the northernmost offshore section of the QCFF) using a 24-ch streamer and 500 Joule minisparker source. During a second cruise in August 2015 we conducted targeted multichannel seismic and subbottom CHIRP profiling in the same region. The new data reveal a single trace of the QCFF expressed as a clear and remarkably straight seafloor lineation for >60 km. Subtle jogs in the fault (<3 degrees) are associated with pop-up structures and en echelon pull-apart basins. The near surface deformation along the fault never exceeds a width of 1.2 km. Northward, as the fault approaches Icy Point and a restraining bend, it splays into multiple strands and displays evidence for uplift and transpression. The fault appears to transition from almost purely strike-slip in the south to oblique-convergence as it steps onshore to the north. The QCFF cuts through the Yakobi Sea Valley and Cross Sound, two elongate bathymetric troughs that were filled with glaciers as recently as 17-19 ka. The southern wall of the Yakobi Sea Valley is offset 890±30 m by the QCFF, providing a late Pleistocene-present slip-rate estimate of 45-54 mm/yr. This suggests that nearly the entire plate boundary slip budget is confined to a single, narrow, strike-slip fault zone, which may have implications for models of plate boundary strain localization.

  20. Baseline characteristics of the randomized cohort from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Research Study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study is a 16-center randomized clinical trial in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes designed to evaluate the long-term effects (up to 11.5 years) of an intensive weight loss intervention on the time to incidence for major cardiovascular events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eligibility requirements are diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (determined by self-report and verification) in individuals age 45–74 years, BMI >25 kg/m2 (>27 kg/m2 if currently taking insulin). The intensive lifestyle intervention is designed to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity. The study is designed to provide 90% probability of detecting an 18% difference in major cardiovascular disease event rates in patients randomized to the intensive lifestyle intervention compared to the control group receiving standard diabetes support and education. RESULTS The 5145 participants who were randomized between 2001 and 2004 were 63.3 % white, 15.6% African-American, 13.2% Hispanic, 5.1% American Indian, and 1.0% Asian-American, which closely paralleled the ethnic distribution of diabetes in the NHANES 1999–2000 survey. Their average age at entry was 59 ± 6.8 years (mean ± SD), and 60% were women. There were 31.5% between 45-54 years of age, 51.5% were 55–64, and 17.0% ≥65 years of age. There were 14.6% of participants who were taking insulin at the time of randomization and 14.1 % had a history of cardiovascular disease. More men (21.2%) than women (9.3%) had a history of cardiovascular disease. Few participants (4.4%) were current cigarette smokers compared to 16.2% in the NHANES 1999–2000 survey. Furthermore, 65% of participants had a first-degree relative with diabetes. Overall, BMI averaged 36 ± 5.9 kg/m2 at baseline with 83.6% of the men and 86.0% of women having a BMI >30 kg/m2 and 17.9% of men and 25.4% of women having a BMI > 40 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS The Look

  1. Biomechanical analysis of squat jump and countermovement jump from varying starting positions.

    PubMed

    Mackala, Krzysztof; Stodółka, Jacek; Siemienski, Adam; Coh, Milan

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 strategies, defined by foot placement during the initiation of the take-off on performance in vertical jumps. The additional area of interest in this experiment was whether technique of the take-off phase might be an exploratory factor that has different electromyogram (EMG) muscle activity during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performed starting from the standard position, with parallel foot placement, and from the experimental one, with straddle foot placement. Six well-experienced male 100-400 m sprinters, who were members of the Polish youth and senior national team (mean values: age 21.6 years, best performance: 100 m in 10.54 seconds and 400 m in 45.54 seconds), performed vertical SJ and vertical CMJ from 2 initial positions with different foot placement. To collect all selected kinematic and kinetic data, the video recording system BTS Vixta was used in conjunction with force platforms (Kistler model 9286B). The latest system for 3D motion analysis, BTS SMART, based on the passive IR reflective markers was also applied. Electromyograms of 6 lower limb muscles were collected using a Noraxon EMG device. The CMJ was on average 7 cm higher than the SJ (CMJ, 85 cm and SJ, 78 cm), which amounts to 8.97%. This was not because of the increase of center of gravity (COG) velocity at take-off because velocities of center of gravity (COG) projection were almost equal (SJ, 2.93 m·scompared with CMJ, 2.99 m·s). No significant differences of both magnitude and rate of development of the muscle torques and powers between jumps were found, but when we analyzed the problem with division into single legs (right and left) and with division into different jumps (SJ and CMJ), the differences were evident. The profiles of EMG activity of selected muscles showed some differences between SJ and CMJ. The vertical SJ and CMJ performance measurement may be of value to coaches and conditioning specialists who

  2. Influence of Medical Representatives on Prescribing Practices in Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Workneh, Birhanu Demeke; Gebrehiwot, Mehari Gebregergis; Bayo, Tigist Assefa; Gidey, Meles Tekie; Belay, Yared Belete; Tesfaye, Desalegn Mergiaw; Kassa, Terefe Teshome

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug promotion by medical representatives is one of the factors that influence physicians’ prescribing decisions and choice of drugs. Objective To assess the influence of medical representatives on prescribing practice of physicians in health facilities, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted enrolling all physicians working in public and private health facilities. All public and private health facilities were included and similarly, all physicians rendering services in these facilities were sampled in the study. The data were collected from February to March, 2015. Data were then entered into Epidata Version 3.1 and transferred to STATA version 12 for analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine predictors. Results Of the ninety physicians approached in this study, 40 (48.2%) of the physicians believed that their prescribing decisions were influenced by visits of medical representatives (MRs). The odds of physicians who received gifts from MRs being influenced to prescribe their respective products was six times higher than those who reported not accepting any gifts [AOR = 6.56, 95% CI: 2.25, 19.13]. Stationery materials 23(35.4%) and drug samples 20(54.2%) were the commonest kinds of gifts given to physicians and face to face talking 45(54.2%) was the most frequent promotional methods. The finding of this study showed that around thirty-nine percent of MRs have had negative attitude toward competitors’ product. Moreover, working in private health facility was also another predictor of influence of prescribing decision in the study area [AOR = 12.78, 95% CI: 1.31, 124.56]. Conclusion Nearly half of the physicians working in Mekelle reported that their prescribing decisions were influenced by MRs in the last 12 months. Accepting gifts and working in private health facilities were predictors of influencing prescribing decisions. However, most MRs

  3. Multimodal treatment for stage IVA thymoma: a proposable strategy.

    PubMed

    Rena, Ottavio; Mineo, Tommaso Claudio; Casadio, Caterina

    2012-04-01

    A retrospective review of a series of consecutive patients was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of a multimodal treatment in the management of stage IVA thymoma at first diagnosis. From 1998 to 2008, 18 patients affected by stage IVA thymoma underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and subsequent mediastinal radiation therapy. There were 10 males and 8 females, mean age 54.5 years (range 29-68). Not specific symptoms were present in 12 cases and thymus-related syndromes were reported in 4. Histological subtypes were 1 AB, 2 B1, 4 B2, 7 B3, 1 mixed B1-B2, 1 mixed B1-B3 and 2 mixed B2-B3 thymomas. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy) was well tolerated in all cases. Those patients demonstrating clinical response at restaging (16/18) received surgical resection: "en-bloc" thymoma, residual thymic tissue and tumour involved organs resection was carried out together with the pleural implants removal. Complete macroscopic resection was achieved 10/16 patients (64%). Postoperative mortality and morbidity were null and 24%, respectively. Adjuvant radiation therapy consisted of 45-54 Gy administered by a 6 MV linear accelerator to the whole mediastinum and previous tumour bed. Mean follow-up was 82±33 months (range 31-143); overall survival was 85% and 53% at 5- and 10-years. Disease-related survival of the entire cohort was 100% and 58% at 5- and 10-years, whereas freedom from relapse survival for patients submitted to complete resection was 58% and 42% at 5- and 10-years. Disease-related survival when complete and not complete resection were considered were 100% and 52% and 72% and 0% at 5- and 10-years respectively (p=0.048). Multimodal management based on induction chemotherapy, subsequent surgery and postoperative mediastinal radiation allows a good complete resection rate and it is demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment to warrant a good long-term survival in stage IVA thymoma patients. PMID

  4. Geochronology, geochemistry, and Hf isotopes of Jurassic intermediate-acidic intrusions in the Xing'an Block, northeastern China: Petrogenesis and implications for subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu; Ge, Wen-chun; Yang, Hao; Xu, Wen-liang; Zhang, Yan-long; Bi, Jun-hui; Liu, Xi-wen

    2016-03-01

    Zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock geochemistry, Hf isotopic compositions, and regional geological observations of Jurassic intermediate-acidic intrusions in the Xing'an Block, northeastern China, are presented to constrain their petrogenesis and the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. Zircon U-Pb age dating indicates that the intrusions were emplaced in three stages: during the Early Jurassic (180-177 Ma), Middle Jurassic (171-170 Ma), and Late Jurassic (∼151 Ma). Despite the wide range in ages of the intrusions, the magmas of Jurassic acidic intrusions were likely derived from a similar or common source and experienced different degrees of magmatic differentiation, as inferred from their geochemical and Hf isotopic characteristics. The Jurassic acidic intrusions are characterized by high SiO2 and total Na2O + K2O, low MgO, and I-type affinities, suggesting that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of lower crustal material. These findings, combined with their εHf(t) values and two-stage model ages, indicate the primary magmas originated from partial melting of juvenile crustal material accreted during the Neoproterozoic to Phanerozoic. The Middle Jurassic intermediate-acidic rocks (diorites and granodiorites of the TJ pluton) have SiO2 contents of 57.96-69.10 wt.%, MgO contents of 4.48-1.81 wt.%, and high Mg numbers (45-54). They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th, U, and K) and light rare earth elements, depleted in high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti) and heavy rare earth elements, and have εHf(t) values of +6.5 to +9.1. These data suggest that the magma was derived from partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge that had been metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. According to these findings and previous studies that focused on contemporaneous magmatic-tectonic activity in northeastern China, we conclude that the generation of Jurassic intermediate-acidic intrusions in the Xing

  5. Overweight and obesity prevalence and its predictors in a general population: A community-based study in Kerman, Iran (Kerman coronary artery diseases risk factors studies)

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Forood, Afsaneh; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Shadkam, Mitra; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to present age-sex standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as central obesity and its associated variables in an adult population of Iran. METHODS Around 5900 adult individuals aged 15-75 years enrolled to the study from 2009 to 2011 applying randomized cluster household survey in Kerman, southeastern of Iran. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m2, obesity was considered as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, and central obesity was regarded as waist circumference (WC) > 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. RESULTS The overall age-sex standardized prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity was 29.6% (29.5% men, 29.7% women), 13.0% (9.3% men, 16.9% women) and 14.4% (7.5% men, 21.5% women), respectively. “Overweight/obesity” increased by age, [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 7.9 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8, 10.7)] for 65-75 years old, 11.7 (95% CI: 9, 15.3) for 55-65 years old, 10.1 (95% CI: 7.8, 13) for 45-54 years old compared with the first age group), female gender [AOR: 1.5 (1.3, 1.8); P < 0.001], higher education (AOR > 1.5 compared with illiterate individuals; P < 0.001), and low physical activity [AOR: 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8); P = 0.006] and decreased by smoking [AOR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.3, 0.6); P < 0.001] and opium using [AOR: 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 0.7); P < 0.001]. Female gender [AOR: 4.1 (95% CI: 3.3, 5); P < 0.001], advanced (AOR > 7 for age groups ≥ 35 years old; P < 0.001) positively, while smoking [AOR: 0.6 (0.4, 0.8); P = 0.004] negatively were the most significant predictors for abnormal WC. CONCLUSION Our data reveal that overweight and obesity affected almost half of the adult population (43.0%), and central obesity was around 15.0%, which reflect the high prevalence of this abnormality. In addition, several demographic, social and lifestyle factors were associated with obesity. Appropriate interventions and strategies with a concentration of the general population are needed to

  6. [Trends of internet use for health matters in Portugal: 2005-2007].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses trends of Internet use for health or illness matters in Portugal. It is based on two waves of the WHO/Europe eHealth Consumer Trends Survey that took place in 2005 and 2007. The investigation involves 3001 complete interviews to individuals between 15 and 80 years old. Results show that the percentage of the Portuguese population reporting having used the Internet for health or illness matters has increased in average 9.1% (IC 95%, 5.5-12.6) in the 18 months that mediate the two surveys. The analysis by geographical region shows that there are no statistically significant differences between the five studied regions. The analysis by gender and age shows that the difference between men and women is diminishing but detects important exceptions, namely, a Sharp predominance of women in the group of individuals aged 15-34 years old that use the Internet for health or illness matters and the prevalence of men in the age levels 45-54 and 65-80 years old. The analysis by level of education completed show that the use is particularly high among those with complete higher education studies, with an increase of 8.2% (IC 95%, -.6-17.0) in the period under analysis. However, a significant increase has been observed among the Portuguese with before A-level studies, particularly when considering the group of Internet users for health purposes, where it has raised from four users in each ten individuals in 2005 to six users in each ten individuals in 2007. Reading health Web sites is the health related activity that more Portuguese attracts to the Internet but in the restricted group of Internet health users is the activity with higher positive variation in the period (9.2%, IC 95%, 5.3-13.2). Health professionals are still considered as the most important source of health information but their perceived importance has decreased 10% (IC 95%, -12.6, -7.6) between 2005 and 2007, the

  7. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Óscar M.; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items–ripe fruits and young leaves–influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore

  8. Cost effectiveness of lowering cholesterol concentration with statins in patients with and without pre-existing coronary heart disease: life table method applied to health authority population.

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, P. D.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To estimate the cost effectiveness of statins in lowering serum cholesterol concentration in people at varying risk of fatal cardiovascular disease and to explore the implications of changing the criteria for intervention on cost and cost effectiveness for a purchasing authority. DESIGN--A life table method was used to model the effect of treatment with a statin on survival over 10 years in men and women aged 45-64. The costs of intervention were estimated from the direct costs of treatment, offset by savings associated with a reduction in coronary angiographies, non-fatal myocardial infarctions, and revascularisation procedures. The robustness of the model to various assumptions was tested in a sensitivity analysis. SETTING--Population of a typical district health authority. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Cost per life year saved. RESULTS--The average cost effectiveness of treating men aged 45-64 with no history of coronary heart disease and a cholesterol concentration > 6.5 mmol/l for 10 years with a statin was 136,000 pounds per life year saved. The average cost effectiveness for patients with pre-existing coronary heart disease and a cholesterol concentration > 5.4 mmol/l was 32,000 pounds. These averages hide enormous differences in cost effectiveness between groups at different risk, ranging from 6000 pounds per life year in men aged 55-64 who have had a myocardial infarction and whose cholesterol concentration is above 7.2 mmol/l to 361,000 pounds per life year saved in women aged 45-54 with angina and a cholesterol concentration of 5.5-6.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS--Lowering serum cholesterol concentration in patients with and without preexisting coronary heart disease is effective and safe, but treatment for all those in whom treatment is likely to be effective is not sustainable within current NHS resources. Data on cost effectiveness data should be taken into account when assessing who should be eligible for treatment. PMID:8664620

  9. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  10. A two- and three-dimensional numerical comparison study of slab detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Buiter, Susanne; Brune, Sascha; Davies, Rhodri; Duretz, Thibault; Gerbault, Muriel; Glerum, Anne; Quinteros, Javier; Schmalholz, Stefan; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    (2011), A simple analytical solution for slab detachment, EPSL, vol.304, p45-54.

  11. Invariantly propagating dissolution fingers in finite-width systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution fingers are formed in porous medium due to positive feedback between transport of reactant and chemical reactions [1-4]. We investigate two-dimensional semi-infinite systems, with constant width W in one direction. In numerical simulations we solve the Darcy flow problem combined with advection-dispersion-reaction equation for the solute transport to track the evolving shapes of the fingers and concentration of reactant in the system. We find the stationary, invariantly propagating finger shapes for different widths of the system, flow and reaction rates. Shape of the reaction front, turns out to be controlled by two dimensionless numbers - the (width-based) Péclet number PeW = vW/Dφ0 and Damköhler number DaW = ksW/v, where k is the reaction rate, s - specific reactive surface area, v - characteristic flow rate, D - diffusion coefficient of the solute, and φ0 - initial porosity of the rock matrix. Depending on PeW and DaW stationary shapes can be divided into seperate classes, e.g. parabolic-like and needle-like structures, which can be inferred from theoretical predictions. In addition we determine velocity of propagating fingers in time and concentration of reagent in the system. Our simulations are compared with natural forms (solution pipes). P. Ortoleva, J. Chadam, E. Merino, and A. Sen, Geochemical self-organization II: the reactive-infiltration instability, Am. J. Sci, 287, 1008-1040 (1987). M. L. Hoefner, and H. S. Fogler. Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal 34, 45-54 (1988). C. E. Cohen, D. Ding, M. Quintard, and B. Bazin, From pore scale to wellbore scale: impact of geometry on wormhole growth in carbonate acidization, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 3088-3099 (2008). P. Szymczak and A. J. C. Ladd, Reactive-infiltration nstabilities in rocks. Part II: Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech. 738, 591-630 (2014).

  12. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Óscar M; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items-ripe fruits and young leaves-influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore, brown

  13. EMS runs for suspected opioid overdose: Implications for surveillance and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Amy; Weir, Brian; Hazzard, Frank; Olsen, Yngvild; McWilliams, Junette; Fields, Julie; Gaasch, Wade

    2013-01-01

    Objective Opioid (including prescription opiate) abuse and overdose rates in the US have surged in the past decade. The dearth and limitations of opioid abuse and overdose surveillance systems impede the development of interventions to address this epidemic. We explored evidence to support the validity of emergency medical services (EMS) data on naloxone administration as a possible proxy for estimating incidence of opioid overdose. Methods We reviewed data from Baltimore City Fire Department EMS patient records matched with dispatch records over a thirteen month time period (2008-2009), and census 2008 data. We calculated incidence rates and patient demographic and temporal patterns of naloxone administration, and examined patient evaluation data associated with naloxone administration. Results were compared to the demographic distributions of the EMS patient and city population and to prior study findings. Results Of 116,910 EMS incidents during the study period for patients 15 years and older, EMS providers administered naloxone 1,297 times (1.1% of incidents), an average of 100 administrations per month. Overall incidence was 1.87 administrations per 1,000 population per year. Findings indicated naloxone administration peaked in summer months (31% of administrations), weekends (32%), and late afternoon (4-5:00pm [8%]); and there was a trend toward peaking in the first week of the month. The incidence of suspected opioid overdose was highest among males, whites, and those in the 45-54 year age group. Findings on temporal patterns were comparable to findings from prior studies. Demographic patterns of suspected opioid overdose were similar to medical examiner reports of demographic patterns of fatal drug or alcohol related overdoses in Baltimore in 2008-9 (88% of which involved opioids). The findings on patient evaluation data suggest some inconsistencies with previously recommended clinical indications of opioid overdose. Conclusions While our findings suggest

  14. Feasibility, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial of hand-held NB-UVB phototherapy for the treatment of vitiligo at home (HI-Light trial: Home Intervention of Light therapy)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand-held NB-UVB units are lightweight devices that may overcome the need to treat vitiligo in hospital-based phototherapy cabinets, allowing early treatment at home that may enhance the likelihood of successful repigmentation. The pilot Hi-Light trial examined the feasibility of conducting a large multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the use of such devices by exploring recruitment, adherence, acceptability, and patient education. Methods This was a feasibility, double-blind, multi-centre, parallel group randomised placebo-controlled trial of hand-held NB-UVB phototherapy for the treatment of vitiligo at home. The overall duration of the trial was seven months; three months recruitment and four months treatment. Participants were randomly allocated to active or placebo groups (2:1 ratio). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of eligible participants who were willing to be randomised. The secondary outcomes included proportion of participants expressing interest in the trial and fulfilling eligibility criteria, withdrawal rates and missing data, proportion of participants adhering to and satisfied with the treatment, and incidence of NB-UVB short-term adverse events. Results Eighty-three percent (45/54) of vitiligo patients who expressed interest in the trial were willing to be randomised. Due to time and financial constraints, only 29/45 potential participants were booked to attend a baseline hospital visit. All 29 (100%) potential participants were confirmed as being eligible and were subsequently randomised. Willingness to participate in the study for General Practice (family physicians) surgeries and hospitals were 40% and 79%, respectively; 86% (25/29) of patients adhered to the treatment and 65% (7/11) of patients in the active group had some degree of repigmentation. Only one patient in the active group reported erythema grade 3 (3%). Both devices (Dermfix 1000 NB-UVB and Waldmann NB-UVB 109) were acceptable to participants

  15. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  16. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  17. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in particular, android fat distribution. PMID:27131888

  18. Impact of Pulmonary Hypertension on Outcomes Following Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Spencer J.; Moon, Marc R.; Lindman, Brian R.; Bailey, Marci S.; Hill, Laureen L.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) historically has been considered a significant risk factor affecting early and late outcomes following valve replacement. Given the number of recent advances in the management of PH following cardiac surgery a better understanding of the impact of PH on outcomes may assist in the clinical management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if pulmonary hypertension remains a risk factor in the modern era for adverse outcomes following aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic valve stenosis. Methods From January 1996 to June 2009, 1,080 patients underwent AVR for primary aortic valve stenosis, of which 574 (53%) had normal systolic pulmonary artery pressures (sPAP) and 506 (47%) had PH. PH was defined as mild (sPAP 35-44 mmHg), moderate (45-59mmHg), or severe (≥ 60mmHg). In the group of patients with PH, 204 had postoperative echocardiograms. Results Operative mortality was significantly higher in patients with PH (47/506, 9% versus 31/574, 5%; p=0.02). The incidence of postoperative stroke was similar (p=0.14), but patients with PH had an increased median hospital LOS (8 versus 7 days, p=0.001) and an increased incidence of prolonged ventilation (26% versus 17%, p<0.001). Preoperative PH was an independent risk factor for decreased long term survival (RR 1.7, p=0.02). Those with persistent PH postoperatively had decreased survival. Five-year survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 78 ± 6% with normal sPAP and 77 ± 7% with mild PH postoperatively, compared to 64 ± 8% with moderate PH and 45 ± 12% with severe PH (p<0.001). Conclusion In patients undergoing AVR, preoperative PH increased operative mortality and decreased long-term survival. Patients with persistent moderate or severe PH after AVR had decreased long-term survival. These data suggest that PH had a significant impact on outcomes in patients undergoing AVR and should be considered in preoperative risk assessment. PMID:21596173

  19. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    More, Garland; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1), 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2), scopoletin (3), α-amyrin (4), phytol (5), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6). The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans), Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1-6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin) which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC(50) value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL). Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC(50) of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC(50) value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC(50) values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22693528

  20. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  1. HLA-A, B and DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in volunteer bone marrow donors from the north of Parana State

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Marlene Silva; Jarduli, Luciana Ribeiro; Jorge, Adylson Justino; Camargo, Rossana Batista Oliveira Godoy; Carneiro, Fernando Pagotto; Gelinski, Jair Roberto; Silva, Roseclei Assunção Feliciano; Lavado, Edson Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of allele and haplotype frequencies of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is important in the search for unrelated bone marrow donors. The Brazilian population is very heterogeneous and the HLA system is highly informative of populations because of the high level of polymorphisms. Aim The aim of this study was to characterize the immunogenetic profile of ethnic groups (Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians and Asians) in the north of Parana State. Methods A study was carried out of 3978 voluntary bone marrow donors registered in the Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry and typed for the HLA-A, B and DRB1 (low resolution) loci. The alleles were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotides method using the LabType SSO kit (One Lambda, CA, USA). The ARLEQUIN v.3.11 computer program was used to calculate allele and haplotype frequencies Results The most common alleles found in Caucasians were HLA-A*02, 24, 01; HLA-B*35, 44, 51; DRB1*11, 13, 07; for Afro-Brazilians they were HLA-A*02, 03, 30; HLA-B*35, 15, 44; DRB1*13, 11, 03; and for Asians they were: HLA-A*24, 02, 26; HLA-B*40, 51, 52; DRB1*04, 15, 09. The most common haplotype combinations were: HLA-A*01, B*08, DRB1*03 and HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 for Caucasians; HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 and HLA-A*01, B*08 and DRB1*03 for Afro-Brazilians; and HLA-A*24, B*52, DRB1*15 and HLA-A*24, B*40 and DRB1*09 for Asians. Conclusion There is a need to target and expand bone marrow donor campaigns in the north of Parana State. The data of this study may be used as a reference by the Instituto Nacional de Cancer/Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry to evaluate the immunogenetic profile of populations in specific regions and in the selection of bone marrow donors PMID:23049380

  2. Togo 1988: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    In 1988, the Demographic Research Unit interviewed at least 3360 women in Togo. Total fertility remained 6.1 since 1960. Rural women had a mean of 6.9 children compared to 4.8 for urban women. Fertility was lowest for women with the most education (4.4 vs. 6.7 for those with no education). Age specific fertility decreased over time. For example, in 25-29 year olds it fell from 338 (1968) to 277 (1988). The youngest women wanted the least number of children (4.7 vs. 5.7 for the 35-44 year olds). Those women with the least number of children wanted the least number of children (4.5 for those with 0 children compared to 5.9 for those with 6 or more children). 24.8% did not want any more children. 65.2% of those with 6 or more children did want any more children. 32.9% of the women wanted a child later before becoming pregnant with their last child. 33.9% of the women used a contraceptive, but only 3.1% used a modern contraceptive. Use increased with education. Government health facilities and pharmacies distributed most contraceptives. Prolonged abstinence (59%; current users 21.8%)) was the leading form of contraception followed by periodic abstinence (20.2%; 6.4% current users). 1% were currently using a modern method. Contraceptive prevalence ranged from 16.7% for 15-19 year olds to 39% for 30-34 year olds. It increased with the number of children. 37.5% of women not using a contraceptive and in a union intended to use a contraceptive in the future. The leading reasons for not using a contraceptive included wanted a child (35.4%) and no information (21.7%). Noneducated women married earlier (17.3 years) than the most educated women (22.3 years). The mean length of breast feeding was 22.6 months. Infant mortality fell from 193-81 from 1960-1987. Midwives and matrons helped with most births. 29.4% of the children had diarrhea within 2 weeks before the survey. 93.3% of the children had at least 1 vaccination. PMID:1858105

  3. Increasing intensity of therapies assigned at diagnosis does not improve survival of adults with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Krug, U; Berdel, W E; Gale, R P; Haferlach, C; Schnittger, S; Müller-Tidow, C; Braess, J; Spiekermann, K; Staib, P; Beelen, D; Serve, H; Schliemann, C; Stelljes, M; Balleisen, L; Maschmeyer, G; Grüneisen, A; Eimermacher, H; Giagounidis, A; Rasche, H; Hehlmann, R; Lengfelder, E; Thiel, E; Reichle, A; Aul, C; Ludwig, W-D; Kern, W; Haferlach, T; Köpcke, W; Görlich, D; Sauerland, M C; Heinecke, A; Wörmann, B J; Hiddemann, W; Büchner, T

    2016-06-01

    We randomized 3375 adults with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome to test whether increasingly intensive chemotherapies assigned at study-entry and analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis improved outcomes. In total, 1529 subjects <60 years were randomized to receive: (1) a first course of induction therapy with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone (HAM) or with standard-dose cytarabine, daunorubicin and 6-thioguanine (TAD) followed by a second course of HAM; (2) granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) or no G-CSF before induction and consolidation courses; and (3) high-dose therapy and an autotransplant or maintenance chemotherapy. In total, 1846 subjects ⩾60 years were randomized to receive: (1) a first induction course of HAM or TAD and second induction course of HAM (if they had bone marrow blasts ⩾5% after the first course); and (2) G-CSF or no G-CSF as above. Median follow-up was 7.4 years (range, 1 day to 14.7 years). Five-year event-free survivals (EFSs) for subjects receiving a first induction course of HAM vs TAD were 17% (95% confidence interval, 15, 18%) vs 16% (95% confidence interval 14, 18%; P=0.719). Five-year EFSs for subjects randomized to receive or not receive G-CSF were 19% (95% confidence interval 16, 21%) vs 16% (95% confidence interval 14, 19%; P=0.266). Five-year relapse-free survivals (RFSs) for subjects <60 years receiving an autotransplant vs maintenance therapy were 43% (95% confidence interval 40, 47%) vs 40 (95% confidence interval 35, 44%; P=0.535). Many subjects never achieved pre-specified landmarks and consequently did not receive their assigned therapies. These data indicate the limited impact of more intensive therapies on outcomes of adults with AML. Moreover, none of the more intensive therapies we tested improved 5-year EFS, RFS or any other outcomes. PMID:26859081

  4. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Potential to Improve Tumor Control and Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Nguyen, Dan; Heron, Dwight E.; Chen, Allen M.; Lee, Percy; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Vargo, John A.; Low, Daniel A.; Huq, M. Saiful; Tenn, Stephen; Steinberg, Michael L.; Kupelian, Patrick; Sheng, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefit of 4π radiation therapy in recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic head-and-neck cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with 29 tumors who were treated using SBRT were included. In recurrent disease (n=26), SBRT was delivered with a median 44 Gy (range, 35-44 Gy) in 5 fractions. Three patients with sinonasal mucosal melanoma, metastatic breast cancer, and primary undifferentiated carcinoma received 35 Gy, 22.5 Gy, and 40 Gy in 5 fractions, respectively. Novel 4π treatment plans were created for each patient to meet the objective that 95% of the planning target volume was covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) and 50% dose spillage volumes were compared against the delivered clinical SBRT plans. Local control (LC), late toxicity, tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability were determined. Results: Using 4π plans, mean/maximum doses to all OARs were reduced by 22% to 89%/10% to 86%. With 4π plans, the 50% dose spillage volume was decreased by 33%. Planning target volume prescription dose escalation by 10 Gy and 20 Gy were achieved while keeping doses to OARs significantly improved or unchanged from clinical plans, except for the carotid artery maximum dose at 20-Gy escalation. At a median follow-up of 10 months (range, 1-41 months), crude LC was 52%. The 2-year LC of 39.2% approximated the predicted mean TCP of 42.2%, which increased to 45.9% with 4π plans. For 10-Gy and 20-Gy dose escalation, 4π plans increased TCP from 80.1% and 88.1% to 85.5% and 91.4%, respectively. The 7.4% rate of grade ≥3 late toxicity was comparable to the predicted 5.6% mean normal tissue complication probability for OARs, which was significantly reduced by 4π planning at the prescribed and escalated doses. Conclusions: 4π plans may allow dose escalation with significant and consistent

  5. Notch1 is overexpressed in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with its proliferation, invasiveness and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Rui; Zhang, Rui; Shi, Xiang-De; Zhu, Man-Sheng; Xu, Lei-Bo; Zeng, Hong; Liu, Chao

    2014-06-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has been reported to play crucial roles in inhibiting hepatocyte differentiation and allowing formation of intrahepatic bile ducts. However, little is known about its significance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Notch1 expression in ICC tissues and cells. The expression of Notch1 was examined in paraffin-embedded sections of ICC (n=44) by immunohistochemistry. Notch1 was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in cultured ICC cells (RBE and HCCC-9810). The proliferation, invasiveness and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation assays, Transwell assays and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression levels of several multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes, MDR1-P-glycoprotein (ABCB‑1), breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG‑2) and the multidrug resistance protein isoform 1 (MRP‑1), were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Notch1 was overexpressed in cell membranes and cytoplasm of ICC compared with the adjacent liver tissue (35/44, 79.5%) and this was more common in cases with tumor size≥5 cm (p=0.021) and HBs-Ag positive (p=0.018). By silencing Notch1, the proliferation and invasiveness of ICC cells were inhibited and the inhibition rate of 5-FU was markedly increased. In addition, IC50 values of 5-FU in RBE cells were decreased from 148.74±0.72 to 5.37±0.28 µg/ml and the corresponding values for HCCC-9810 cells were 326.92±0.87 to 42.60±0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, Notch1 silencing clearly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells treated by 5-FU compared with the control. Notch1 knockdown led to diminished expression levels of ABCB‑1 and MRP‑1. Therefore, Notch may play important roles in the development of ICC. Silencing Notch1 can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of ICC cells and increase their

  6. Using patient and general practice characteristics to explain variations in cervical smear uptake rates.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, F. A.; Cook, D. G.; Anderson, H. R.; Hilton, S.; Bunn, S.; Stones, C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To produce practice and patient variables for general practices from census and family health services authority data, and to determine the importance of these variables in explaining variation in cervical smear uptake rates between practices. DESIGN--Population based study examining variations in cervical smear uptake rates among 126 general practices using routine data. SETTING--Merton, Sutton, and Wandsworth Family Health Services Authority, which covers parts of inner and outer London. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Percentage of women aged 25-64 years registered with a general practitioner who had undergone a cervical smear test during the five and a half years preceding 31 March 1992. RESULTS--Cervical smear uptake rates varied from 16.5% to 94.1%. The estimated percentage of practice population from ethnic minority groups correlated negatively with uptake rates (r = -0.42), as did variables associated with social deprivation such as overcrowding (r = -0.42), not owning a car (r = -0.41), and unemployment (r = -0.40). Percentage of practice population under 5 years of age correlated positively with uptake rate (r = 0.42). Rates were higher in practices with a female partner than in those without (66.6% v 49.1%; difference 17.5% (95% confidence interval 10.5% to 24.5%)), and in computerised than in non-computerised practices (64.5% v 50.5%; 14.0% (6.4% to 21.6%)). Rates were higher in larger practices. In a stepwise multiple regression model that explained 52% of variation, five factors were significant predictors of uptake rates: presence of a female partner; children under 5; overcrowding; number of women aged 35-44 as percentage of all women aged 25-64; change of address in past year. CONCLUSIONS--Over half of variation in cervical smear uptake rates can be explained by patient and practice variables derived from census and family health services authority data; these variables may have a role in explaining variations in performance of general practices

  7. Diversity of dental patterns: application on different ages using the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; de Almeida, Natalie Haddad; Crosato, Edgard; Michel-Crosato, Edgard

    2011-04-15

    Methods of individual identification using human remains are widely used in forensic anthropology; however, there are few studies that use statistical methods in order to obtain a correct definition of parameters. The objectives of the study were to verify the diversity of dental patterns in the Brazilian population and analyse its application on different ages. Data from the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey were used to verify the presence and absence of dental treatment among 35,613 individuals of several age groups: 15-19, 35-44 and 65-74. Information referring to every dental element was described: higid (H), decayed (D), filled (F), missing (M) and prosthesis (P). Coincidences that were observed in pairs of homologous teeth were analysed according to clinical situation, gender and age. Ordinary findings (presented in more than 10% of pairs) and extraordinary ones (presented in less than 10% of pairs) were described. Total and conditional diversity estimates were performed. Among adolescents, H were the most frequent teeth, and the first molar teeth were the ones presenting less frequency of H. Among adults, the frequency of M teeth among females ranged from 15.17% to 71.59%, and among males they ranged from 9.00% to 87.20%. Among the elderly, M teeth were observed in the largest frequency, and anterior teeth presented fewer losses than posterior ones. M was the condition that most coincided with both sides in the elderly. In adults, some pairs of teeth presented H, but mostly pairs of teeth presented as M. Among adolescents, there was more concordance of the H component. Among male and female adolescents, we observed extraordinary findings in DMFP dental conditions in most of the teeth. Among adults, the less frequent dental condition was P, which was found in several teeth. The extraordinary findings among elderly male teeth were codes H, D, F and P; among females, they were H, D, F and P codes. The high prevalence of healthy teeth in adolescents and a

  8. Enhanced SOA formation from mixed anthropogenic and biogenic emissions during the CARES campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Shilling, John E.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Alexander, M. L.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Fortner, Edward; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, John T.; Sedlacek, Art; Setyan, Ari; Springston, S.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Zhang, Qi

    2013-02-21

    The CARES campaign was conducted during June, 2010 in the vicinity of Sacramento, California to study aerosol formation and aging in a region where anthropogenic and biogenic emissions regularly mix. Here, we describe measurements from an Aerodyne High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), and trace gas detectors (CO, NO, NOx) deployed on the G-1 research aircraft to investigate ambient gas- and particle-phase chemical composition. AMS measurements showed that the particle phase is dominated by organic aerosol (OA) (85% on average) with smaller concentrations of sulfate (5%), nitrate (6%) and ammonium (3%) observed. PTR-MS data showed that isoprene dominated the biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations (BVOCs), with monoterpene concentrations generally below the detection limit. Using two different metrics, median OA concentrations and the slope of plots of OA vs. CO concentrations (i.e., ΔOA/ΔCO), we contrast organic aerosol evolution on flight days with different prevailing meteorological conditions to elucidate the role of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on OA formation. Airmasses influenced predominantly by biogenic emissions had median OA concentrations of 2.9 μg/m3 and near zero ΔOA/ΔCO. Those influenced predominantly by anthropogenic emissions had median OA concentrations of 4.7 μg/m3 and ΔOA/ΔCO ratios of 35 - 44 μg/m3ppmv. When biogenic and anthropogenic emissions mix, OA levels are dramatically enhanced with median OA concentrations of 11.4 μg/m3 and ΔOA/ΔCO ratios of 77 - 157 μg/m3ppmv. Taken together, our observations show that production of OA is enhanced when anthropogenic emissions from Sacramento mix with isoprene-rich air from the foothills. A strong, non-linear dependence of SOA yield from isoprene is the mechanistic explanation for this enhancement most consistent with both the gas- and particle-phase data. If these observations are found to be robust

  9. Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na₂S₂O₃) and calcium chloride (CaCl₂) on changes in NH₄(+)⁻N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg⁻¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃ and UN+CaCl₂ and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH₄⁻ disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO₃⁻-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH₄(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO₃⁻-N kg⁻¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg⁻¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃, and UN+CaCl₂, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na₂S₂O₃ proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

  10. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. Methods We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. Results The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. Conclusion We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web

  11. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    More, Garland; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1), 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2), scopoletin (3), α-amyrin (4), phytol (5), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6). The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans), Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin) which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL). Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22693528

  12. Efficacy of Bacillus clausii strain UBBC-07 in the treatment of patients suffering from acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Sudha, M Ratna; Bhonagiri, S; Kumar, M Asin

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of Bacillus clausii strain UBBC 07 in patients suffering from acute diarrhoea. A total of 27 patients (average age of 35.44±8.08 years) with acute diarrhoea were included in a prospective, Phase II clinical study after informed consent and ethical committee approval. The criteria included for all subjects were ≥3 loose stool motions within 24 hours and for more than 7 days. All patients were assigned to receive one capsule of B. clausii strain UBBC-07 (containing 2×109 cfu) two times a day for a period of 10 days. Efficacy assessment of duration of diarrhoea, frequency of defecation, abdominal pain and stool consistency were tested on days 1, 3, 6 and 10. Safety was evaluated by assessing the incidence and type of adverse effects such as increase in blood pressure and pulse rate, physical examination and clinical laboratory tests, i.e. complete blood count, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum creatinine, and stool examination and microscopy, on day 1 and day 10. The results of this study clearly showed that the mean duration of diarrhoea decreased from 34.81±4.69 to 9.26±3.05 (P<0.0001) min per day, the frequency of defecation also decreased from 6.96±1.05 to 1.78±0.50 (P<0.0001) times per day, abdominal pain decreased from 3.22±0.93 (severe) to 0.74±0.71 (absent) (P<0.0001), and stool consistency improved from 3.93±0.38 (watery) to 1.22±0.42 (soft) (P<0.0001). No significant change in safety parameters were observed during treatment. This study shows that the B. clausii strain UBBC-07 can potentially be effective in alleviating the symptoms of diarrhoea without causing any adverse effects. PMID:23443952

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC uncertainty

  14. Partitioning and availability of uranium and nickel in contaminated riparian sediments.

    PubMed

    Sowder, Andrew G; Bertsch, Paul M; Morris, Pamela J

    2003-01-01

    The effects of iron oxides and organic matter on the partitioning and chemical lability of U and Ni were examined for contaminated riparian sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. In sequential extractions of four sediments that ranged from 12.7 to 82.2 g kg(-1) in organic carbon, U was found almost exclusively in moderately labile fractions (93% in acid-soluble + organically bound). Nickel was distributed across all operationally defined fractions, including substantial amounts in the very labile fractions (4-15% in water-soluble + exchangeable), noncrystalline and crystalline iron oxides (38-49%), and in the nonlabile residual fraction (25-34%). Aqueous U concentrations in 1:1 sediment-water extracts were highly correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (R2 = 0.96; p < 0.0001) and ranged from 29 to 410 microg L(-1). Aqueous concentrations of Ni exceeded U by two to three orders of magnitude (124-2227 microg L(-1)) but were not correlated with DOC (R2 = 0.04; p = 0.53). Partitioning and solubility trends suggest that Ni availability is controlled primarily by iron-oxide phases, whereas U availability is dominated by naturally occurring organic carbon. Discrete mineral phases were also identified as nonlabile reservoirs of anthropogenic metals. In spite of comparably high sediment concentrations, Ni appears to be significantly more available than U in riparian sediments and therefore warrants greater consideration in terms of environmental consequences (i.e., transport, biological uptake, and toxicity). PMID:12809289

  15. Surface spin-glass in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, F.; Sarwer, W.; Nadeem, K.; Kamran, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Krenn, H.; Letofsky-Papst, I.

    2016-06-01

    Surface effects in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles dispersed in a silica (SiO2) matrix were studied by using AC and DC magnetization. Nanoparticles with different concentration of SiO2 were synthesized by using sol-gel method. Average crystallite size lies in the range 25-34 nm for different SiO2 concentration. TEM image showed that particles are spherical and elongated in shape. Nanoparticles with higher concentration of SiO2 exhibit two peaks in the out-of-phase ac-susceptibility. First peak lies in the high temperature regime and corresponds to average blocking temperature of the nanoparticles. Second peak lies in the low temperature regime and is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing in these nanoparticles. Low temperature peak showed SiO2 concentration dependence and was vanished for large uncoated nanoparticles. The frequency dependence of the AC-susceptibility of low temperature peak was fitted with dynamic scaling law which ensures the presence of spin-glass behavior. With increasing applied DC field, the low temperature peak showed less shift as compared to blocking peak, broaden, and decreased in magnitude which also signifies its identity as spin-glass peak for smaller nanoparticles. M-H loops showed the presence of more surface disorder in nanoparticles dispersed in 60% SiO2 matrix. All these measurements revealed that surface effects become strengthen with increasing SiO2 matrix concentration and surface spins freeze in to spin-glass state at low temperatures.

  16. Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities, Especially Diagnosis and Prevention of Recurrence for Chronic Thrombosis-Serial Changes of Sonography and D-Dimer.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Hiromitsu; Kanaoka, Yasushi; Murata, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Masami; Takesue, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Nobuo; Sumimoto, Ryo; Ohgi, Shigetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) have restricted mobility capability and have been bedridden for long periods because of paralysis of the extremities caused by abnormal muscular tonicity due to cerebral palsy and developmental disabilities. Such patients are associated with a high risk of complications like deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we report twelve patients (42.9%) with DVT among 28 patients with SMID during prolonged bed rest. However, we did not detect thrombosis in the soleal veins, finding it mostly in the femoral and common femoral veins. We applied anticoagulant therapy (warfarin), and carefully followed up the cases with DVT, regulating the warfarin dosage at prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) values around two to prevent recurrence of chronic thrombosis. Regarding laboratory data for the coagulation system, there were no cases above 5 µg/ml for the D-dimer and there were significant differences between the DVT and non-DVT groups in the D-dimer levels. The plasma levels of D-dimer in patients with DVT diminished to less than 1.0 µg/ml after warfarin treatment. Concerning sudden death (4.2%) in patients with SMID, we have to be very careful of the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism due to DVT. Therefore, we should consider the particularity of the underdeveloped vascular system from underlying diseases for the evaluation of DVT. A detailed study of DVT as a vascular complication is very important for the smooth medical care of SMID, and serial assessment of compression Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities, as a noninvasive examination and measurement of D-dimer, is very helpful. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 34-42.). PMID:26730253

  17. Young adults with hemophilia in the U.S.: demographics, comorbidities, and health status.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Randall; Baker, Judith; Riske, Brenda; Ullman, Megan; Niu, Xiaoli; Norton, Kristi; Lou, Mimi; Nichol, Michael B

    2015-12-01

    Improvements in hemophilia care over the last several decades might lead to expectations of a near-normal quality of life for young adults with hemophilia. However, few published reports specifically examine health status indicators in this population. To remedy this knowledge gap, we examined the impact of hemophilia on physical and social functioning and quality of life among a national US cohort of 141 young men with hemophilia aged 18-34 years of age who received care at 10 geographically diverse, federally funded hemophilia treatment centers in 11 states between 2005 and 2013 and enrolled in the Hemophilia Utilization Group Studies. Indicators studied included educational achievement, employment status, insurance, health-related quality of life, and prevalence of the following comorbidities: pain, range of motion limitation, overweight/obesity, and viral status. The cohort was analyzed to compare those aged 18-24 to those aged 25-34 years. When compared to the general US adult population, this nationally representative cohort of young US adults with hemophilia experienced significant health and social burdens: more liver disease, joint damage, joint pain, and unemployment as well as lower high-school graduation rates. Nearly half were overweight or obese. Conversely, this cohort had higher levels of health insurance and equivalent mental health scores. While attention has typically focused on newborns, children, adolescents, and increasingly, on older persons with hemophilia, our findings suggest that a specific focus on young adults is warranted to determine the most effective interventions to improve health and functioning for this apparently vulnerable age group. PMID:26619192

  18. Increased Mortality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Design: Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Setting: Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. Patients/Participants: All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. Interventions: None Measurements and Results: Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Conclusions: Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation. Citation: Ohayon MM; Black J; Lai C; Eller M; Guinta D; Bhattacharyya A. Increased mortality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(3):439-444. PMID:24587565

  19. Cytokine and Chemokine Signature in Elite Versus Viremic Controllers Infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Platten, Martin; Jung, Norma; Trapp, Susanna; Flossdorf, Pia; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Stephan, Christoph; Mauss, Stefan; Weiss, Verena; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Lehmann, Clara

    2016-06-01

    HIV long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) maintaining high CD4(+) T-cell counts without antiretroviral therapy (ART) are divided into elite controllers (ECs) with undetectable and viremic controllers (VCs) with low viral loads. Little is known about the long-term changes of T-cell subsets and inflammation patterns in ECs versus VCs. The aim of the study was to explore the long-term evolution of CD4(+) T-cell levels in LTNPs and to analyze cytokine profiles in ECs versus VCs. Nineteen ECs and 15 VCs were enrolled from the natural virus controller cohort (NaViC). T-cell counts were monitored over years, the mean annual change was calculated, and plasma concentrations of 25 cytokines were evaluated using a multiplex bead array. While absolute numbers of T cells did not differ between ECs and VCs over time, we observed a significant decrease of CD4(+) T-cell percentages in VCs, but not in ECs (median [interquartile range]: ECs: 37% [28-41] vs. VCs: 29% [25-34]; p = .02). ECs had lower levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β, p = .003), interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10, p = .03), and monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG, p = .02). CD4(+) T-cell percentages inversely correlated with MIP 1-β (r = -0.42, p = .017) and IP-10 (r = -0.77, p < .0001). A subtle decline of CD4(+) T-cell percentages could be observed in VCs, but not in ECs, which was associated with higher plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Hence, even low levels of HIV replication might go along with a progressive decline in CD4(+) T-cell counts in LTNPs. PMID:26751176

  20. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of exposure, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of age and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced exposure methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each age and sex group compared to males aged 25-34 years. Death rates increased with age, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every age group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. Exposure, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all age categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with age and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate. PMID:25658669

  1. Sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive people in Tehran, Iran: a mixed-method descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Moazen, Babak; Rezaei, Farimah; Hajizadeh, Shayesteh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Setayesh, Hamid Reza; Mohraz, Minoo; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: People Living with HIV (PLHIV) are highly stigmatized and consequently hard-to-access by researchers and importantly, public health outreach in Iran, possibly due to the existing socio-cultural situation in this country. The present study aimed to evaluate the sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Methods: As a mixed-method descriptive study, this project was conducted in 2012 in Tehran, Iran. In this study, we evaluated and discussed socio-demographic characteristics, family and social support, sexual behaviors, fertility desires and needs, PMTCT services, contraceptive methods, unintended pregnancy and safe abortion, and Pap smear tests among 400 participants referring to the behavioral disorders consulting centers. Results: Of the sample 240 (60%) were male and 160 (40%) were female. About 50% of women and 40% of men were 25-34 years old. More than 60% of men and 96% of women were married, while more than 50% of the participants had HIV-positive spouses at the time of study. According to the results, fertility desire was observed among more than 30% of female and 40% of male participants. Results of the in-depth interviews indicate that the participants are not satisfied with most of the existing services offered to address their sexual and reproductive health needs. Conclusion: Despite the availability of services, most of sexual and reproductive health needs of the PLHIV are overlooked by the health system in Iran. Paying attention to sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Iran not only protects their right to live long and healthy lives, but also may prevent the transmission of HIV from the patients to others within the community. PMID:26340488

  2. Patterns of injuries and motor-vehicle traffic accidents in Athens.

    PubMed

    Pikoulis, E; Filias, V; Pikoulis, N; Daskalakis, P; Avgerinos, E D; Tavernarakis, G; Belechri, M; Pappa, P; Theos, C; Geranios, A; Gougoudi, E; Leppaniemi, A; Tsatsoulis, P

    2006-09-01

    The extremely high cost of motor-vehicle accidents in public health leads to the necessity of a better injury data collection in the Accident and Emergency Hospital Departments. The 'Asclepeion' of Voula Hospital covers the southeastern suburban areas of the greater Athens area (1,000,000 population). The aim of this study is to present information on the pattern of injuries in Athens, in order to understand the magnitude of the problem and develop rational prevention programmes. Specially trained health visitors of the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS) interviewed in person every injured victim who was brought into the Emergency Service of the 'Asclepeion' of Voula Hospital. The study was performed during a 3-year period, from 1996 to 1998; 4564 persons were interviewed. Traffic accidents were more frequent on weekdays with a seasonal peak in July and among young Greeks (aged 25 - 34 years). The usual type of injuries seen in vehicle-accident victims were cerebral contusion and concussion, while in motorcycle-accident victims, head contusion and fractures. The most common reasons for the accident were excessive speed, poor condition of road, inattention, abstraction or drowsiness and drug effects. A total of 29.8% of motorcycle drivers and 5.7% of motorcycle passengers wore a helmet and 26.3% of car drivers and 14.1% of car passengers were using seatbelts. The identification of road traffic injury patterns can contribute to the development of injury prevention measures and guide rational preventive interventions that can reduce the incidence of these injuries. The EDISS system established at 'Asclepeion' of Voula Emergency Service can provide useful and accurate information about this serious and multidimensional problem of Greek Public Health. PMID:16943163

  3. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the safety profile, tolerability, and efficacy of rofecoxib in advanced elderly patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Truitt, K E; Sperling, R S; Ettinger, W H; Greenwald, M; DeTora, L; Zeng, Q; Bolognese, J; Ehrich, E

    2001-04-01

    This 6-week study was conducted to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of rofecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) compared to nabumetone (a non-selective NSAID) and placebo in osteoarthritis (OA) patients aged 80 and older. Three hundred forty-one patients, mean age 83 years, were randomized. Allocations were made in an approximately 1:2:1:2 ratio (placebo: 12.5 mg rofecoxib: 25 mg rofecoxib: 1500 mg nabumetone). Least square mean changes from baseline in the primary efficacy endpoint, Patient Global Assessment of Disease Status, were as follows (with negative numbers indicating improvement): -14.85 mm for placebo; -25.34 mm for 12.5 mg rofecoxib; -25.40 mm for 25 mg of rofecoxib; and -25.95 mm for nabumetone (p<0.001 for all active treatments vs placebo.) Results from secondary endpoints, including the 3 WOMAC sub-scales (pain, stiffness, and disability) and the Investigator Global Assessment of Disease Status, were consistent with those for the primary endpoint. No significant between-group differences were observed in the proportions of patients who discontinued treatment due to either clinical or laboratory adverse experiences. Renal safety (edema and hypertension adverse experiences) was similar for rofecoxib and nabumetone. No gastroduodenal ulcers occurred; however, the demonstration of gastrointestinal risk with rofecoxib or nabumetone was beyond the scope of this trial. We conclude that in patients 80 years and older, rofecoxib, 12.5 mg and 25 mg once daily, demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment for OA as did 1500 mg of nabumetone. Rofecoxib and nabumetone were generally well tolerated in this elderly population. PMID:11405384

  4. Evaluation of degradation kinetics and physicochemical stability of tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Agrahari, Vivek; Putty, Sandeep; Mathes, Christiane; Murowchick, James B.; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2014-01-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) has been proven to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through the vagina. But, there is little information available about its stability under various storage and stress conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the degradation behavior and physicochemical stability of TFV using liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The LC-MS analysis was performed on a QTrap mass spectrometer with an enhanced mass spectrum (EMS) scan in positive mode. A reversed phase C18 column was used as the stationary phase. TFV exhibited degradation under acidic and alkaline hydrolytic conditions. The degradation products with m/z 289.2 and 170 amu have been proposed as 6-Hydroxy adenine derivative of TFV, and (2-hydroxypropan-2-yloxy) methylphosphonic acid, respectively. A pseudo-first-order degradation kinetic allowed for estimating the shelf-life, half-life, and time required for 90% degradation values of 3.84,25.34, and 84.22 h in acidic conditions, and 58.26,384.49, and 1277.75 h in alkaline conditions, respectively. No significant degradation was observed at pH 4.5 (normal cervicovaginal pH) and oxidative stress conditions of 3% and 30% v/v hydrogen peroxide solution. The shelf life of TFV powder at room temperature was 23 months as calculated by using an Arrhenius plot. The XRD pattern showed that the drug was stable and maintained its original crystallinity under the accelerated and thermal stress conditions applied. Stability analyses revealed that the TFV was stable in various stress conditions; however, formulation strategies should be implemented to protect it in strong acidic and alkaline environments. PMID:24817173

  5. A Study to Assess the Emotional Disorders with Special Reference to Stress of Medical Students of Agartala Government Medical College and Govinda Ballabh Pant Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Reang, Taranga; Bhattacharjya, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stress is very common psychological phenomena where medical students faced in day to day activities. Epidemiological studies have asserted that about 70-80% of the diseases may be related to stress. Research related to this stress especially among medical students is essential, considering their learning, role and responsibilities as a future physician and health intervention programs. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of stress and identify stressors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students and self administered GHQ-12 and stressor questionnaire were used to collect information regarding stress. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratio (OR). Results: Prevalence of stress was 94.52% and more common among females. 33.56% students felt constantly under strain and 25.34% had loss of sleep over worry. Majority of the students of all semesters had stress (P > 0.05) and stressors viz. ‘competition for marks’ (P = 0.005), ‘frequent examination’ (P = 0.001), ‘difficulty in finding time for recreation’ (P = 0.014) and ‘being away from home’ (P = 0.027) were predominantly experienced by the 1st year medical students. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the causal effect of main parameter on the GHQ caseness and students who found difficulties in following teaching language among the caseness had 81.59% higher chance of developing stress (OR = 8.159, CI = 1.228-54.213). Conclusion: The stress experience was more common due to academics and seen among all year of medical students. Strategy development for eliminating stressors is necessary for promoting healthy life. PMID:24302820

  6. Tobacco use in Tunisia: behaviour and awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhfakh, Radhouane; Hsairi, Mohamed; Maalej, Mohsen; Achour, Nourredinne; Nacef, Taoufik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess tobacco use and the awareness of and attitudes towards tobacco and its control in the adult population of Tunisia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1996 of a representative national sample of 5696 subjects aged 25 and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire in Arabic. FINDINGS: Tobacco use was reported by 30.4% of the respondents, of whom 24.6% smoked cigarettes and 5.8% consumed traditional tobacco, i.e. snuff, chewing tobacco and/or water pipe tobacco. Whereas 55.6% of men used tobacco, only 5.2% of women did so. Among men the proportion of tobacco users diminished with age as the rate of cessation increased. Among women, smoking peaked in the 35-54 age group. The proportion of men consuming traditional tobacco alone increased from 2.4% in the 25-34 age group to 20.4% in the 55+ age group; the corresponding values for women were 0.1% and 14.3%. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas and was relatively high among poorly educated men from economically deprived backgrounds. The use of tobacco was believed to be harmful to health by 98.6% of the respondents. Over 90% of the interviewees were aware that tobacco played a part in the development of heart disease. However, there were some gaps in awareness. A fear of cancer was expressed by 85% of the respondents, whereas only 5.6% were fearful of accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Informational and educational campaigns relating to tobacco control should be directed at individuals and communities, taking into account the gaps in awareness of the effects of tobacco on health. PMID:12077609

  7. Carotid thin fluttering bands: A new element of arterial wall remodelling? An ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Luca; Sole, Andrea; Tamburino, Corrado; Di Pino, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    Carotid artery ultrasound is a non-invasive and reproducible technique used for early atherosclerotic assessment. Intimal flap has been described in the presence of dissection or mobile plaque rupture, however presence of carotid thin fluttering bands (TFBs) have not been described yet. To investigate frequency, characteristics and impact of TFBs in carotid lumen of patients who underwent carotid ultrasound scan (CUS). 3341 patients were admitted from January 2009 to January 2014. Patients with history of cerebral ischemia (CI) were excluded. In the cases in which TFBs were observed, a 3-months clinical and CUS follow-up (FU) was performed. TFBs were found in 71 patients (2.1%). The mean age was 63.41 ± 11.20 years (range 42-89). All patients showed a mean increase in intima-media thickness. We identified two subgroups: in 22 patients the TFB was related to a carotid plaque while in 49 no carotid plaque was found. TFB mostly originated in the carotid bulb (88.7%) and was similarly located in carotid arteries (49.3% left-side and 50.7% right-side). CUS and clinical FU were available for all patients (mean duration 25.34 months, median 19). CI occurred in none of the patients. TFB disappeared in 13 patients (18.3%) with no sign or symptoms of CI. In 3 of 49 patients without carotid plaque (6.1%), progressive thickening beneath TFB was observed. TFB is a rare finding. Longer FU is needed to evaluate its prognosis. To date, the pathophysiology is unknown, however it could be related to vascular remodeling. PMID:26179862

  8. Episodic acidification and changes in fish diversity in Pennsylvania headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heard, R.M.; Sharpe, W.E.; Carline, R.F.; Kimmel, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Current water chemistry and fish communities in 70 Pennsylvania streams were compared with historical records to determine whether fish species richness had declined and, if so, the possible role of acidification. First-, second-, and third-order streams were selected, and stream sites sampled during the 1961-1971 survey were resampled during May and June 1994 in the Appalachian Plateaus province and during June 1995 in the Valley and Ridge province. Stream-flow was measured and a habitat assessment was completed at each site. Dominant bedrock types influencing the stream sampling site were determined for the Appalachian Plateaus streams. Episodic water chemistry was collected for 39 of the 50 Appalachian Plateaus streams and 14 of the 20 Valley and Ridge streams during the winter and spring of 1996. Thirty-eight (76%) streams of the Appalachian Plateaus province and 13 (65%) streams in the Valley and Ridge province had a loss of fish species since the 1961-1971 sampling period. Habitat scores were not related to losses of fish species. Of the 53 streams sampled during runoff episodes 22 (42%) increased in total dissolved aluminum by more than 50 ??g/L, and 31 (58%) streams decreased in pH by 0.5 units or more. Minnows (Cyprinidae) and darters (Percidae) are sensitive to acidity and were the species most often lost. Streams draining watersheds of the Appalachian Plateaus province dominated by Pottsville bedrock had more acidic water quality during base flow and storm flow sampling periods than streams dominated by Pocono bedrock. The results of this study indicate that many Pennsylvania streams have undergone an alarming reduction in fish diversity during the past 25-34 years. In many of these streams the loss in fish diversity may be attributed to episodic acidification.

  9. Delayed childbearing in the U.S.: facts and fictions.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W H; Nord, C W

    1984-11-01

    Between 1970-82, the proportion of 1st births in the US to women 25 and older rose from 19-36% and the proportion of women still childless at ages 25-34 increased by 56% at about the same time. Although a sharp contrast with the baby boom era of the 1950s and 1960s, todays's epidemic of delayed childbearing is similar to patterns earlier in the 20th century. As then, much is due to delayed age at marriage, but baby boomers now in the their late 20s and early 30s are also delaying childbirth after marriage. The trend stems in part from their economic difficulties as they compete in a tight job market caused both by their large numbers and a turbulent economy. But it is also related to women's increasing education and, in turn, increasing opportunities in and commitment to the labor force, which can be expected to encourage a delayed childbearing even after prospects brighten for young people. Although a diverse group, most of today's delayed childbearers are white, highly educated, 2-career couples. Adequate daytime care for preschool children is a prime concern. Although more employers now offer childcare assistance and flexible work schedules to working parents, the juggle between jobs and childraising can be a strain. On the plus side are delayed childbearers' greater maturity and generally higher incomes, which can ease potential problems created by parent-child age differences as their children grow up. Businesses have been quick to respond to the new market of older, affluent, 1st-time mothers. New methods of treating of circumventing infertility and prenatal detection of chromosomal birth defects can now help overcome potential biological problems that may concern women who choose to delay childbearing past age 30. PMID:12313332

  10. Human papillomavirus infection is rare in nonmalignant tonsil tissue in the UK: implications for tonsil cancer precursor lesions.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Elizabeth; Newcombe, Robert G; Green, Adele C; Kelly, Carole; Noel Gill, O; Hall, Gillian; Fiander, Alison N; Pirotte, Evelyne; Hibbitts, Sam J; Homer, Jarrod; Powell, Ned G

    2014-11-15

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated tonsil cancer is increasing but the prevalence of HPV, and of premalignant precursors, in tonsil tissue is unknown. We aimed to assess prevalence of HPV infection in nonmalignant tonsillar crypt epithelia and to histopathologically characterise positive samples. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tonsil tissue specimens were obtained from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of patients aged 0-69 years whose paired tonsils were archived following elective tonsillectomy at hospitals throughout England and Southern Scotland from 2004 to 2008. Homogenised fresh-frozen tonsil tissue was also obtained from archive for two random subsets of males aged 25-34 and over 44. HPV status was assessed in all samples for 20 mucosal HPV types by GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme immunoassay and by HPV16 type-specific PCR targeting the E6 gene. In the homogenised material, HPV status was also assessed for 44 HPV types by SPF10-PCR enzyme immunoassay. Of 4,095 randomly sampled FFPE specimens, amplifiable DNA was extracted from 3,377 (82.5%) and from 511 of 524 (97.5%) homogenised tonsils. HPV DNA was identified in 0 of 3,377 (0%, 95% CI 0-0.089%) fixed samples and 0 of 511 (0%, 95% CI 0-0.58%) homogenised samples. This suggests HPV infection may be rare in tonsil reticulated crypt epithelia. Furthermore, we found no evidence of HPV-associated premalignant neoplasia. These data suggest that if HPV-associated premalignant lesions do occur, they are likely to be rare and may have a high risk of progression to carcinoma. PMID:24723209

  11. Investigating the Convergence between Actigraphy, Maternal Sleep Diaries, and the Child Behavior Checklist as Measures of Sleep in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Simard, Valérie; Bernier, Annie; Carrier, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined associations among actigraphy, maternal sleep diaries, and the parent-completed child behavior checklist (CBCL) sleep items. These items are often used as a sleep measure despite their unclear validity with young children. Eighty middle class families (39 girls) drawn from a community sample participated. Children (M = 25.34 months, SD = 1.04) wore an actigraph monitor (Mini-Mitter® Actiwatch Actigraph, Respironics) for a 72-h period, and mothers completed a sleep diary during the same period. Eighty-nine percent of the mothers and 75% of the fathers also filled out the CBCL (1.5–5). Mother and father CBCL scores were highly correlated. Overall, good correspondence was found between the CBCL filled out by mothers and sleep efficiency and duration derived from maternal sleep diaries (r between −0.39 and −0.25, p ≤ 0.05). Good correspondence was also found between the CBCL filled out by fathers and sleep efficiency as derived from maternal sleep diaries (r between −0.39 and −0.24, p ≤ 0.05), but not with sleep duration (all results were non-significant). Very few correlations between actigraphy and the CLBL scores reached statistical significance. The Bland and Altman method revealed that sleep diaries and actigraphy showed poor agreement with one another when assessing sleep duration and sleep efficiency. However, diary- and actigraphy-derived sleep durations were significantly correlated. Consistent with findings among older groups of children, this study suggests that the CBCL sleep items, sleep diaries, and actigraphy tap into quite different aspects of sleep among toddlers. The choice of which measures to use should be based on the exact aspects of sleep that one aims to assess. Overall, despite its frequent use, the composite sleep score of the CBCL shows poor links to objective measures of sleep duration and sleep efficiency. PMID:25426082

  12. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Assessment of Sandalwood Essential Oil in Human Breast Cell Lines MCF-7 and MCF-10A

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Carmen; Morales, Luisa; Sastre, Miguel; Haskins, William E.; Matta, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Sandalwood essential oil (SEO) is extracted from Santalum trees. Although α-santalol, a main constituent of SEO, has been studied as a chemopreventive agent, the genotoxic activity of the whole oil in human breast cell lines is still unknown. The main objective of this study was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of SEO in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and nontumorigenic breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cells. Proteins associated with SEO genotoxicity were identified using a proteomics approach. Commercially available, high-purity, GC/MS characterized SEO was used to perform the experiments. The main constituents reported in the oil were (Z)-α-santalol (25.34%), (Z)-nuciferol (18.34%), (E)-β-santalol (10.97%), and (E)-nuciferol (10.46%). Upon exposure to SEO (2–8 μg/mL) for 24 hours, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess genotoxicity. SEO exposure induced single- and double-strand breaks selectively in the DNA of MCF-7 cells. Quantitative LC/MS-based proteomics allowed identification of candidate proteins involved in this response: Ku70 (p = 1.37E − 2), Ku80 (p = 5.8E − 3), EPHX1 (p = 3.3E − 3), and 14-3-3ζ (p = 4.0E − 4). These results provide the first evidence that SEO is genotoxic and capable of inducing DNA single- and double-strand breaks in MCF-7 cells. PMID:27293457

  13. Microscale mapping of alteration conditions and potential biosignatures in basaltic-ultramafic rocks on early Earth and beyond.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Eugene G; McLoughlin, Nicola; Lanari, Pierre; Erambert, Muriel; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Subseafloor environments preserved in Archean greenstone belts provide an analogue for investigating potential subsurface habitats on Mars. The c. 3.5-3.4 Ga pillow lava metabasalts of the mid-Archean Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, have been argued to contain the earliest evidence for microbial subseafloor life. This includes candidate trace fossils in the form of titanite microtextures, and sulfur isotopic signatures of pyrite preserved in metabasaltic glass of the c. 3.472 Ga Hooggenoeg Formation. It has been contended that similar microtextures in altered martian basalts may represent potential extraterrestrial biosignatures of microbe-fluid-rock interaction. But despite numerous studies describing these putative early traces of life, a detailed metamorphic characterization of the microtextures and their host alteration conditions in the ancient pillow lava metabasites is lacking. Here, we present a new nondestructive technique with which to study the in situ metamorphic alteration conditions associated with potential biosignatures in mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation. Our approach combines quantitative microscale compositional mapping by electron microprobe with inverse thermodynamic modeling to derive low-temperature chlorite crystallization conditions. We found that the titanite microtextures formed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies conditions. Two chlorite temperature groups were identified in the maps surrounding the titanite microtextures and record peak metamorphic conditions at 315 ± 40°C (XFe3+(chlorite) = 25-34%) and lower-temperature chlorite veins/microdomains at T = 210 ± 40°C (lower XFe3+(chlorite) = 40-45%). These results provide the first metamorphic constraints in textural context on the Barberton titanite microtextures and thereby improve our understanding of the local preservation conditions of these potential biosignatures. We suggest that this approach may prove to be an important tool in future

  14. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Bezucha, G R; Lenser, M C; Hanson, P G; Nagle, F J

    1982-12-01

    Eight healthy male adults (25-34 yr) were studied to compare hemodynamic responses to static exercise (30% MVC in leg extension), static-dynamic exercise (one-arm cranking, 66 and 79% VO2 max-arm), and dynamic exercise (two-leg cycling, 58 and 82% VOmax-legs). Leg extension (LE) strength was measured by a spring scale. Cranking and cycling were performed on a Quinton bicycle ergometer. VO2 was measured using an automated open-circuit system. Heart rate (HR) was monitored from a CM-5 ECG lead, and arterial pressure (Pa) was measured from an indwelling brachial artery catheter. Cardiac output (Q) was measured using a CO2-rebreathing procedure. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was calculated using the mean arterial pressure (Pa) as the systemic pressure gradient. In 30% LE, a significant (P less than 0.05) Pa increase occurred (pressor response) mediated primarily by an increase in Q. One-arm cranking and two-leg cycling at similar relative VO2 demands resulted in nearly identical increases in Pa due to different contributions of Q and TPR. Q and the arteriovenous O2 difference varied as a function of VO2 regardless of the mode of exercise (static or dynamic). On the other hand, the HR response, which accounted for increased Q in the exercises containing a static component, and Pa varied with mode of exercise. Any generalized scheme of cardiovascular control during exercise must account for the potential influence of dynamic and static components of the exercise. PMID:7153155

  15. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Adults Screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Ahoada–East Local Government Area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Azuonwu; Osaro, Erhabor; Nnenna, Frank-Peterside

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using “Determine” (Abbott Laboratories, Japan), Start–Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea). All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Subjects included 152) consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25±7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%). HIV infection was higher among females (10.9%) compared to males (10.1%) and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1%) (P= 0.08). HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74%) compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection. PMID:22223994

  16. Effects of shisha smoking on carbon monoxide and PM2.5 concentrations in the indoor and outdoor microenvironment of shisha premises.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Gam; Bradley, Janet; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria

    2016-04-01

    There has been significant rise in shisha premises in the United Kingdom with an unsubstantiated belief that shisha smoking is harmless and relatively safe. This study aimed to assess the public health situation by evaluating the extent of shisha environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among those that work in, and are customers of shisha businesses. Concentrations of several ETS pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5μm (PM2.5) in shisha premises were measured using real-time sensors inside and outside twelve shisha premises and at 5 pubs/restaurants where smoking is prohibited. Mean concentration of CO (7.3±2.4mg/m(3)) and PM2.5 (287±233μg/m(3)) inside active shisha premises was higher than concentrations measured within the vicinity of the shisha premises (CO: 0.9±0.7mg/m(3) and PM2.5: 34±14μg/m(3)) and strongly correlated (PM2.5 R=0.957). Concentrations were higher than indoor concentrations in pubs and restaurants where smoking is not permitted under UK law. The number of shisha pipes was a strong predictor of the PM2.5 concentrations. The study also assessed the risk perception within patrons and managers, with only 25% being aware of the risks associated to shisha smoking. The study identifies owners, employees and consumers within active shisha premises being exposed to concentrations of CO and PM2.5 at levels considered hazardous to human health. The results and outcome of this research serve as a basis to influence a discussion around the need of developing specific policies to protect consumers and employees of such premises. PMID:26803732

  17. [Blood glucose and insulin in arterial hypertension. The elderly hypertensive patient].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, T; Clara, J G; Bicho, M; Azevedo, M; Manso, C; da Costa, J N

    1993-11-01

    The clinical importance of relationship between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and high blood pressure is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age in the relation between hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertension (HT). Two groups of patients with moderate to severe essential hypertension, aged < 65 (n = 40) and > or = 65 (n = 55) were compared with two other groups of normotensive subjects (NT) matched for sex (n = 14) and age (n = 18). The radioimmunoassay method and glucose oxidase methods were used to evaluate plasma insulin and plasma glucose concentrations. The global analysis shows: The plasma glucose level was significantly lower (p < 0.02) in NT group (n = 32; glycemia: 67.52 +/- 44 mg/dl) than in the HT group (n = 95; glycemia: 86.25 +/- 34.7 mg/dl. Further more the plasma insulin level in NT (3.37 +/- 3.18 microU/ml) was also lower than in HT (4.29 +/- 3.08 microU/ml) although without statistical significance. The patients (HT) aged < 65 years old had higher glycemia (85.76 +/- 26.8 mg/dl) and insulinemia (4.92 +/- 3.56) than NT of same age (glycemia: 59.0 +/- 11.8 mg/dl, insulinemia: 2.86 +/- 1.86), respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.05. In HT aged > or = 65 the glycemia (82.38 +/- (9.67 mg/dl) was higher than in the NT matched group (65.5 +/- 20.36 mg/dl), p < 0.01, but plasma insulin was not different in the two groups (3.88 +/- 2.63 and 3.80 +/- 2.27 microU/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8305245

  18. Activity of glycosidases (β-N-acetyloglucosaminidase, α-mannosidase, and β-galactosidase) in the uterine luminal fluid of cows after multiple ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Tsiligianni, Theodora; Amiridis, Georgios S.; Vainas, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the activity of β-N-acetyloglucosaminidase (β-NAGASE), α-mannosidase, and β-galactosidase in the uterine luminal fluid of cows after superovulation treatment, along with the possible associations between the activity of these 3 glycosidases and the superovulatory response. Embryos and a sample of fluid flushed from each uterine horn were collected on day 7 after artificial insemination (on estrus day 0) from 32 cows in which superovulation was induced with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone. Glycosidase activity was assayed colorimetrically. The cows were classified as to superovulatory response according to the number of corpora lutea per ovary (group 1, 1 to 4; group 2,> 4) and according to the total number of embryos per horn (T1, 0; T2, 1 to 2; T3, 3 to 4; T4, > 4) and the number of transferable embryos per horn (TR1, 0; TR2, 1 to 2; TR3, 3 to 4; TR4, > 4). The mean activity of β-NAGASE was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group 2 than in group 1, at 95.99 (standard error 20.43) versus 226.72 (46.77) IU/L. It was also significantly lower (P < 0.01) in group T4 compared with groups T1, T2, and T3, at 50.09 (8.21) versus 129.25 (34.60), 222.27 (62.62), and 290.26 (93.77) IU/L, respectively, as well as in group T1 compared with group T3. There was a positive relationship between β-NAGASE activity and both the total number of embryos (P = 0.047) and the number of transferable embryos per horn (P = 0.013) when 1 to 4 corpora lutea developed per ipsilateral ovary. No difference in α-mannosidase or β-galactosidase activity was detected among the groups. PMID:17955905

  19. Evaluation of functional capacity in individuals with signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal disease: results of the BRAZCO population study (Brazilian COPCORD Study).

    PubMed

    Jennings, Fabio; Sato, Emilia Inoue; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2015-11-01

    The disability caused by the musculoskeletal signs and symptoms affects the quality of life of a population, especially that related to health. The objective of this study is to evaluate the functional capacity of individuals of the Brazilian population who presented musculoskeletal signs and symptoms (MSK-S). The prevalence of MSK-S was evaluated in 5000 individuals (>15 years) in 16 capitals from the five regions of Brazil using the COPCORD Core Questionnaire. Those individuals (n = 2494) that experienced MSK-S and referred some level of disability at the time of the interview were invited to complete the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). The HAQ-DI scores were compared among regions, and subgroups according to gender, age and type of activity. Three hundred ninety-four (7.9 %) participants reported disability at the time of the interview. The average score of HAQ-DI was 1.09 (SD = 0.71), and the Brazilian region with the highest level of disability was the North region. Among individuals without history of trauma, the disability was higher when the duration of MSK-S was longer. Disability was shown to worsen with increasing age, and the group with 25-34 years showed the lowest scores. Females showed worse functional capacity scores compared to males (p = 0.002). Individuals showed higher degrees of difficulty or were incapable of performing the activities walking, reaching, usual activities and dressing. MSK-S reduce the functional capacity of individuals of the Brazilian general population. The reduction in functional capacity was mainly observed in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal complaints not due to trauma, as well as in female gender and in advancing age. PMID:26055534

  20. Homogenization of snow depth time series of the Trentino Province (North-East Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, Giorgia; Bellin, Alberto; Trenti, Alberto; Chiogna, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Snow depth and duration are significantly affected by small variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, and hence represent valuable metrics to detect and quantify the ongoing effects of climate change in Alpine regions. However, long and accurate time series of snow depth measurements are rare. In this work, we present the snow depth dataset collected for the Trentino Province (North-East Italy). It consists of 65 site time series located between 900 m a.s.l. and 2900 m a.s.l. and a temporal extension, which ranges between 2 and 70 years. The time series have been constructed merging data from different sources and collected using different measurement instruments. The dataset has been homogenized using the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT), in order to detect and correct breakpoints caused by changes in the instrument's location and other external effect different from climate change. A few approaches have been selected for the construction of the reference time series used to detect the breakpoints in the tested time series (Alexanderson and Moberg 1997, Peterson and Easterling 1994). The results obtained with the selected methodologies provide consistent results and agree on the identification of the breakpoints, which are to a great extent independent on the methodology applied to construct the reference time series. The test was able to detect 16 breakpoints in the time series, 14 of which have been confirmed by metadata. In summary, the SNHT was able to identify breakpoints in long-term snow depth time series. The successive homogenization provided useful datasets to investigate the impact of climate change in the Southern Alps. References Alexandersson, Hans, and Anders Moberg. "Homogenization of Swedish temperature data. Part I: Homogeneity test for linear trends." International Journal of Climatology 17.1 (1997): 25-34. Peterson, Thomas C., and David R. Easterling. "Creation of homogeneous composite climatological reference series

  1. Effects of chronic citalopram treatment on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in group- and isolation-housed mice.

    PubMed

    Günther, Lydia; Liebscher, Sabine; Jähkel, Monika; Oehler, Jochen

    2008-09-28

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are characterized by high clinical effectiveness and good tolerability. A 2-3 week delay in the onset of effects is caused by adaptive mechanisms, probably at the serotonergic (5-HT) receptor level. To analyze this in detail, we measured 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor bindings in vitro after 3 weeks of citalopram treatment (20 mg/kg i.p. daily) in group-housed as well as isolation-housed mice, reflecting neurobiological aspects seen in psychiatric patients. Isolation housing increased somatodendritic (+52%) and postsynaptic (+30-95%) 5-HT(1A) as well as postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptor binding (+25-34%), which confirms previous findings. Chronic citalopram treatment did not induce alterations in raphe 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor binding, independent of housing conditions. Housing-dependent citalopram effects on postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor binding were found with increases in group- (+11-42%) but decreases in isolation-housed (-11 to 35%) mice. Forebrain 5-HT(2A) receptor binding decreased between 11 and 38% after chronic citalopram administration, independent of housing conditions. Citalopram's long-term action comprises alterations at the postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding levels. Housing conditions interact with citalopram effects, especially on 5-HT(1A) receptor binding, and should be more strongly considered in pharmacological studies. In general, SSRI-induced alterations were more pronounced and affected more brain regions in isolates, supporting the concept of a higher responsiveness in "stressed" animals. Isolation-induced receptor binding changes were partly normalized by chronic citalopram treatment, suggesting the isolation housing model for further analyses of SSRI effects, especially at the behavioral level. PMID:18657534

  2. Women Empowerment and Its Relation with Health Seeking Behavior in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mainuddin, AKM; Ara Begum, Housne; Rawal, Lal B.; Islam, Anwar; Shariful Islam, SM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, proxy indicators for women empowerment in mobility and health seeking behavior related decision making. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior on mobility and decision making, controlling the effect of other independent variables. Results: The results showed that only 12% women were empowered to decide on their own about seeking healthcare and 8.5% in healthcare seeking for their children. In multivariate analysis women empowerment in health seeking behavior was higher among age group 25-34 years (OR 1.76, [CI = 0.82-3.21]), women’s education, husband’s education, age at marriage > 18 years (OR 6.38, [CI = 0.98-4.21]) and women’s working status (OR 16.44, [CI = 0.79-2.71]). Conclusion: Women empowerment enhances their decision-making authority regarding health seeking behavior. Acknowledging and adopting the implications of these findings are essential for an integrated health and development strategy for Bangladesh and achieving the MDGs. PMID:26175761

  3. Morphological analysis of three populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fajardo Ramos, Mayury; González Obando, Ranulfo; Fidel Suárez, Marco; López, David; Wilkerson, Richard; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2008-02-01

    Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovarifrom three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, respectively. Using the diagnostic characters ratio of the length of the basal dark area of hind tarsomere II/length of hind tarsomere II, ratio of the length of the humeral pale spot/length of the pre-humeral dark spot, and the ratio of the length of the subcostal pale spot/length of the distal sector dark spot (DS-III2/Ta-III2, HP/PHD, SCP/DSD) approximately 5% of the adult females were misidentified as a species of Nyssorhynchus, different from An. nuneztovari. Approximately 5% of the specimens showed DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratio less than 0.25 (range 0.21 - 0.24), and among them 3.34% shared a HP/PHD ratio less than 1.50. Consequently, 1.52% of An. nuneztovari individuals can be misidentified as Anopheles oswaldoi. In those specimens with the DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratios higher than 0.25, 34.45% displayed SCP/DSD values greater than 0.50 and of these, 3.65% displayed HP/PHD values greater than 1.8. This combination of characters could lead one to misidentify samples of An. nuneztovari as Anopheles rangeli. Similarly, 2.43% of the females could be identified erroneously as either Anopheles aquasalis or Anopheles benarrochi. Individuals with a HP/PHD ratio greater than 2.0, could be misidentified as Anopheles trinkae, Anopheles strodei or Anopheles evansae. A distinct combination of diagnostic characters for An. nuneztovari from Colombia is proposed. PMID:18368239

  4. Dissociation between blood pressure and heart rate response to hypoxia after bilateral carotid body removal in men with systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Niewinski, Piotr; Janczak, Dariusz; Rucinski, Artur; Tubek, Stanislaw; Engelman, Zoar J; Jazwiec, Przemyslaw; Banasiak, Waldemar; Sobotka, Paul A; Hart, Emma C J; Paton, Julian F R; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    While the ventilatory response to hypoxia is known to be mediated by the carotid bodies, the origin of the haemodynamic alterations evoked by hypoxia is less certain. Bilateral carotid body removal (CBR) performed to treat congestive heart failure may serve as a model to improve our understanding of haemodynamic responses to hypoxia in humans. We studied six congestive heart failure patients before and 1 month after CBR [median (interquartile range): age, 58.5 (56-61) years old; and ejection fraction, 32 (25-34)%]. Peripheral chemosensitivity (hypoxic ventilatory response) was equated to the slope relating lowest oxygen saturation to highest minute ventilation following exposures to hypoxia. Likewise, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) slopes were calculated as slopes relating the lowest oxygen saturations to the highest SBP, DBP and HR responses. We found that CBR reduces the hypoxic ventilatory response (91%, P < 0.05), SBP (71%, P < 0.05) and DBP slopes (59%, P = 0.07). In contrast, the HR slope remained unchanged. The dissociation between the blood pressure and HR responses after CBR shows involvement of a different chemoreceptive site(s) maintaining the response to acute hypoxia. We conclude that carotid bodies are responsible for ventilatory and blood pressure responses, while the HR response might be mediated by the aortic bodies. The significant reduction of the blood pressure response to hypoxia after CBR suggests a decrease in sympathetic tone, which is of particular clinical relevance in congestive heart failure. PMID:24243836

  5. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay. PMID:22902261

  6. Identification of produced powerful radicals involved in the mineralization of bisphenol A using a novel UV-Na(2)S(2)O(8)/H(2)O(2)-Fe(II,III) two-stage oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Fong; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2009-03-15

    A two-stage oxidation (UV-Na(2)S(2)O(8)/H(2)O(2)-Fe(II,III)) process was applied to mineralize bisphenol A (BPA) at pH(i) (initial pH) 7. We take advantage of the high oxidation potential of sulfate radicals and use persulfate as the 1st-stage oxidant to oxidize BPA to less complex compounds (stoichiometric ratio: [S(2)O(8)(2-)](0)/[BPA](0)=1). Afterwards, the traditional photo-Fenton process was used to mineralize those compounds to CO(2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to utilize the two processes in conjunction for the complete degradation of BPA. During the 2nd-stage reaction, other oxidants (H(2)O(2) and Iron alone) were also employed to observe the extent of enhancement of photo-Fenton. Further, qualitative identification of both hydroxyl and sulfate radicals was performed to evaluate their dominance under different conditions. The BPA degradation in this UV/persulfate process formulated a pseudo-first-order kinetic model well, with a rate constant of approximately 0.038 min(-1) (25 degrees C), 0.057 min(-1) (35 degrees C), and 0.087 min(-1) (50 degrees C), respectively. The much lower activation energy (DeltaE = 26 kJ mol(-1)) was further calculated to clarify that the thermal-effect of an illuminated system differs from single heat-assisted systems described in other research. Final total organic carbon (TOC) removal levels of BPA by the use of such two-stage oxidation processes were 25-34%, 25%, and 87-91% for additional Fe(II,III) activation, H(2)O(2) promotion, and Fe(II,III)/H(2)O(2) promotions, respectively. PMID:18635314

  7. Mental alertness in response to hypoglycaemia in normal man: the effect of 12 hours and 72 hours of fasting.

    PubMed

    Fourest-Fontecave, S; Adamson, U; Lins, P E; Ekblom, B; Sandahl, C; Strand, L

    1987-01-01

    To study the influence of hypoglycaemia and starvation on mental functions eight healthy male students age 25-34 years with an ideal body mass of 99.9% +/- 2.5% (mean +/- SEM) were recruited. Hypoglycaemia was induced in random order by an insulin-glucose clamp technique (insulin: 2.4 mU/kg/min + glucose at variable rate) keeping the venous blood glucose at 2.2 mmol/l both after an overnight fast and after 72 h fasting. Mental alertness was assessed by measuring the recognition time, moving time and total reaction time to a visual signal and by a verbal mental clearness test and a synonym learning test during normo- as well as hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia prolonged the total reaction time (p less than 0.05) and the time required for the mental clearness test (p less than 0.05). Compared with a control study performed at normoglycaemia the learning effect of the synonym test was reduced by hypoglycaemia. Fasting, which resulted in a body weight reduction of 2.6 +/- 0.3 kg and ketonuria prolonged the total reaction time (p less than 0.005) by increasing the moving time but did not affect the mental clearness test. When hypoglycaemia was preceded by 72 h fasting it did not increase the total reaction time, nor did it modify the mental clearness test. Moreover, the learning effect of the synonym test was less impaired. In conclusion, mental alertness was reduced by moderate hypoglycaemia after an overnight fast while similar hypoglycaemia did not reduce mental alertness after prolonged fasting. This may illustrate a decrease of the glucose dependency of the central nervous system during prolonged fasting. PMID:3315761

  8. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Assessment of Sandalwood Essential Oil in Human Breast Cell Lines MCF-7 and MCF-10A.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Carmen; Morales, Luisa; Sastre, Miguel; Haskins, William E; Matta, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Sandalwood essential oil (SEO) is extracted from Santalum trees. Although α-santalol, a main constituent of SEO, has been studied as a chemopreventive agent, the genotoxic activity of the whole oil in human breast cell lines is still unknown. The main objective of this study was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of SEO in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and nontumorigenic breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cells. Proteins associated with SEO genotoxicity were identified using a proteomics approach. Commercially available, high-purity, GC/MS characterized SEO was used to perform the experiments. The main constituents reported in the oil were (Z)-α-santalol (25.34%), (Z)-nuciferol (18.34%), (E)-β-santalol (10.97%), and (E)-nuciferol (10.46%). Upon exposure to SEO (2-8 μg/mL) for 24 hours, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess genotoxicity. SEO exposure induced single- and double-strand breaks selectively in the DNA of MCF-7 cells. Quantitative LC/MS-based proteomics allowed identification of candidate proteins involved in this response: Ku70 (p = 1.37E - 2), Ku80 (p = 5.8E - 3), EPHX1 (p = 3.3E - 3), and 14-3-3ζ (p = 4.0E - 4). These results provide the first evidence that SEO is genotoxic and capable of inducing DNA single- and double-strand breaks in MCF-7 cells. PMID:27293457

  9. Outbreak of boils in an Alaskan village

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Michael G; McCumber, Barbara J; Asay, Elvin D; Egeland, Grace M

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether taking steam baths was associated with furunculosis and to evaluate possible risk factors for the occurrence of boils during a large outbreak in Alaska. Design A cohort study of village residents, a case-control study, and assessment of environmental cultures taken from steam baths. Setting Village in southwestern Alaska. Participants 1 adult member from 77 of the 92 house-holds in the village was interviewed; 115 residents with at least one boil occurring between January 1 and December 12, 1996 were considered to be cases; 209 residents without a boil acted as the control group. All 459 village residents were included in the cohort study. Main outcome measure Rate of infection among all residents and residents who regularly took steam baths, risk factors for infection, and relative risk of infection. Results 115 people (25%) had had at least one boil. Men were more likely to have had a boil than women (relative risk 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.2). The highest rate of infection was among people ages 25-34 years (32/76; 42%). No children younger than 2 years had had boils. Boils were associated with using a steam bath (odds ratio 8.1; 3.3 to 20.1). Among those who used a steam bath, the likelihood of developing boils was reduced by routinely sitting on a towel while bathing, which women were more likely to do, and bathing with fewer than 8 people. Of the 93 samples taken from steam baths, one Staphylococcus aureus isolate was obtained from a bench in an outer dressing room. Conclusion Using a steam bath was associated with developing boils in this outbreak in a village in Alaska. People should be advised to sit on towels while using steam baths. PMID:10778372

  10. Outcomes for paediatric Burkitt lymphoma treated with anthracycline-based therapy in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Christopher C; Westmoreland, Kate D; Heimlich, Brett J; El-Mallawany, Nader K; Wasswa, Peter; Mtete, Idah; Butia, Mercy; Itimu, Salama; Chasela, Mary; Mtunda, Mary; Chikasema, Mary; Makwakwa, Victor; Kaimila, Bongani; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Chimzimu, Fred; Kampani, Coxcilly; Dhungel, Bal M; Krysiak, Robert; Montgomery, Nathan D; Fedoriw, Yuri; Rosenberg, Nora E; Liomba, N George; Gopal, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common paediatric cancer in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Anthracyline-based treatment is standard in resource-rich settings, but has not been described in SSA. Children ≤18 years of age with newly diagnosed BL were prospectively enrolled from June 2013 to May 2015 in Malawi. Staging and supportive care were standardized, as was treatment with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) for six cycles. Among 73 children with BL, median age was 9·2 years (interquartile range 7·7-11·8), 48 (66%) were male and two were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Twelve (16%) had stage I/II disease, 36 (49%) stage III and 25 (34%) stage IV. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 17 (25%), and grade 3/4 anaemia in 29 (42%) of 69 evaluable children. Eighteen-month overall survival was 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18-41%) overall. Mortality was associated with age >9 years [hazard ratio [HR] 2·13, 95% CI 1·15-3·94], female gender (HR 2·12, 95% CI 1·12-4·03), stage (HR 1·52 per unit, 95% CI 1·07-2·17), lactate dehydrogenase (HR 1·03 per 100 iu/l, 95% CI 1·01-1·05), albumin (HR 0·96 per g/l, 95% CI 0·93-0·99) and performance status (HR 0·78 per 10-point increase, 95% CI 0·69-0·89). CHOP did not improve outcomes in paediatric BL compared to less intensive regimens in Malawi. PMID:26914979

  11. Cirrhosis and Advanced Fibrosis in Hispanics in Texas: The Dominant Contribution of Central Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jingjing; Watt, Gordon P; Lee, MinJae; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Pan, Jen-Jung; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Fallon, Michael B; Beretta, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a leading cause of death in Hispanics and Hispanics who live in South Texas have the highest incidence of liver cancer in the United States. We aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of cirrhosis in this population. Clinical and demographic variables were extracted for 2466 participants in the community-based Cameron County Hispanic Cohort in South Texas. Aspartate transaminase to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) was used to predict cirrhosis in Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. The prevalence of cirrhosis using APRI≥2 was 0.94%, which is nearly 4-fold higher than the national prevalence. Using APRI≥1, the overall prevalence of cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis was 3.54%. In both analyses, highest prevalence was observed in males, specifically in the 25-34 age group. Risk factors independently associated with APRI≥2 and APRI≥1 included hepatitis C, diabetes and central obesity with a remarkable population attributable fraction of 52.5% and 65.3% from central obesity, respectively. Excess alcohol consumption was also independently associated with APRI≥2. The presence of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing-3 gene variants was independently associated with APRI≥1 in participants >50 years old. Males with both central obesity and excess alcohol consumption presented with cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis at a young age. Alarmingly high prevalence of cirrhosis and advanced fibrosis was identified in Hispanics in South Texas, affecting young males in particular. Central obesity was identified as the major risk factor. Public health efforts are urgently needed to increase awareness and diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis in Hispanics. PMID:26950933

  12. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of

  13. Changing patterns in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)and Hodgkin lymphoma association in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dhiab, Myriam Ben; Ziadi, Sonia; Saad, Hanene; Louhichi, Teheni; Trimeche, Mounir

    2016-09-01

    We compared the features of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) association in Tunisia in two periods of time, 1991-2001 (111 cases) and 2002-2012 (122 cases). The investigation of the EBV status by EBER in situ hybridization showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of EBV-positive HL from 69.3 % for the period 1991-2001 to 40.1 % for the 2002-2012 period (p = 0.00001). EBV positivity has decreased in all age groups but was more pronounced among young patients, in the 15-24-year age group (46.1 vs 10.3 %, p = 0.003), in the 25-34-year age group (56.2 vs 25 %, p = 0.04), and among children (88.4 vs 59.2 %, p = 0.01). This decrease in EBV-positive HL over time contrasted with a remarkable increase in EBV-negative HL in young adults aged 15-34 years (51.2 vs 83 %; p = 0.001), especially among women (59.1 vs 91.2 %; p = 0.01). The decrease in EBV-positive HL over time concerns particularly the nodular sclerosis histological subtype (69.2 vs 31.6 %, p = 0.000001). These results indicate that the epidemiology of HL and its association with EBV are changing over time, with a trend toward a Western profile, and point toward the emergence of other environmental causative factors, especially among young women, which remain to be identified. PMID:27378019

  14. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  15. Adolescent girls' anxieties -- role of stressful life events.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Sofat, R; Gill, P J; Soni, R K; Kaur, L

    1990-01-01

    The study aim was to examine stressful events among 300 adolescent girls 11-17 years old enrolled in school in India. 50.33% had illiterate mothers. 22.33% had mothers who had a primary education and 25.34% who had a secondary education. 82.33% (247) were from nuclear families, and 17.67% (53) were from joint families. The largest proportions reported financial problems (38.67%) followed by household moves (30.33%) and a close relative's death (27.33%). Other concerns reported were parental frequent change or loss of job (12.33%), involvement in a court case (4.67%), death of one or both parents (4.33%), and frequent parental arguments (1.33%) and serious family accidents (1.33%). No stressful events were reported by 31.69% (95 girls); 68.34% reported stressful family events. A significant correlation was found between anxiety and life in a nuclear family (p 0.001). Anxiety was also higher, but not statistically significantly so, among families with an illiterate mother and lower socioeconomic status. More anxieties were reported among girls with working mothers (68%) than non-working mothers (32%). A significant correlation was found between the score of life events and the number of girls reporting anxieties. Individual anxieties were reported for inadequate height (15.66%), fear of boys' teasing (12.33%), losing hair (11.60%), menstrual tensions (10.33%), weak eyesight (9.66%), pimples (9.33%), weakness (8.88%), lack of study time (5.67%), excessive weight (3.67%), dark complexion (2.66%), and bad teeth (2.00%); 55.34% reported these anxieties. PMID:12346030

  16. On geodynamo integrations conserving momentum flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Roberts, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    The equations governing the geodynamo are most often integrated by representing the magnetic field and fluid velocity by toroidal and poloidal scalars (for example, MAG code [1]). This procedure does not automatically conserve the momentum flux. The results can, particularly for flows with large shear, introduce significant errors, unless the viscosity is artificially increased. We describe a method that evades this difficulty, by solving the momentum equation directly while properly conserving momentum. It finds pressure by FFT and cyclic reduction, and integrates the governing equations on overlapping grids so avoiding the pole problem. The number of operations per time step is proportional to N3 where N is proportional to the number of grid points in each direction. This contrasts with the order N4 operations of standard spectral transform methods. The method is easily parallelized. It can also be easily adapted to schemes such as the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method [2], a flux based procedure based on upwinding that is numerically stable even for zero explicit viscosity. The method has been successfully used to investigate the generation of magnetic fields by flows confined to spheroidal containers and driven by precessional and librational forcing [3, 4]. For spherical systems it satisfies dynamo benchmarks [5]. [1] MAG, http://www.geodynamics.org/cig/software/mag [2] Liu, XD, Osher, S and Chan, T, Weighted Essentially Nonoscillatory Schemes, J. Computational Physics, 115, 200-212, 1994. [3] Wu, CC and Roberts, PH, On a dynamo driven by topographic precession, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 103, 467-501, (DOI: 10.1080/03091920903311788), 2009. [4] Wu, CC and Roberts, PH, On a dynamo driven topographically by longitudinal libration, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, DOI:10.1080/03091929.2012.682990, 2012. [5] Christensen, U, et al., A numerical dynamo benchmark, Phys. Earth Planet Int., 128, 25-34, 2001.

  17. Gender Role Orientation with Health Literacy and Self-Efficacy for Healthy Eating among Japanese Workers in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Chizuru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masafumi; Kato, Mio; Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Gender role, independent of biological sex, affects health. However, research on healthy eating that considers the importance of gender norms is scarce. People who are androgynous and have high masculinity and femininity are reported to have better health practices than other people. The present study aimed to examine the differences in health literacy (HL) and self-efficacy for healthy eating by gender role in Japanese men and women. Participants were 629 men and women aged 25-34 years, recruited via a Japanese Internet research company database. Participants were categorized into four gender role groups using the Japanese Gender Role Index. HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating were assessed using the healthy eating literacy (HEL) scale and the healthy eating and weight self-efficacy (HEWSE) scale. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc tests and hierarchical multiple regression were used to test the research hypotheses. We found that the Androgynous group had significantly higher HEL and HEWSE scores than the Feminine and Undifferentiated groups. The Masculine group scored significantly higher on both measures than the Undifferentiated group. Being Androgynous (HEL: β = 0.34, p < 0.001; HEWSE: β = 0.30, p < 0.001) was a strong predictor for higher scores even after considering other predictors. The results showed significant associations between gender role orientation and individual HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating. These findings may be relevant for promoting healthy eating from the perspective of gender norms. PMID:27376069

  18. Retrospective study of canine cutaneous tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Pakhrin, Bidur; Kang, Min-Soo; Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Mi-Sun; Jee, Hyang; You, Mi-Hyeon; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Byung-Il; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Over the 42 month period from January 2003 to June 2006, a total of 2,952 canine biopsy specimens were received from the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University and from veterinary practitioners across the nation. Out of these, 748 (25.34%) cases were diagnosed as canine cutaneous tumors in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea. Thirty-eight different types of cutaneous tumors were identified and categorized into epithelial and melanocytic tumors (56.95%), mesenchymal tumors (38.90%), and hematopoietic tumors (4.14%) located in the skin. Among these, 69.25% were benign and 30.74% were malignant. The top ten most frequently diagnosed cutaneous tumors were epidermal and follicular cysts (12.70%), lipoma (11.36%), mast cell tumors (8.82%), cutaneous histiocytoma (7.49%), basal cell tumors (6.82%), sebaceous gland adenoma (6.68%), sebaceous gland hyperplasia (5.08%), hepatoid gland adenoma (3.61%), apocrine adenocarcinoma (3.07%), and fibroma (2.81%), in order of prevalence. They comprised 68.45% of all cutaneous tumors. These top ten cutaneous tumors were distributed on the trunk (30.08%), head and neck (20.9%), extremities (19.14%), anal and perianal area (8.59%), and tail (3.91%). The age of the dogs with the ten most frequent tumors had a mean age of 8.3 years, with a range of 2 months to 19 years. When all types of tumors were considered together in the entire population, there was no difference in incidence according to sex. PMID:17679768

  19. Retrospective study of canine cutaneous tumors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Pakhrin, Bidur; Kang, Min Soo; Bae, Il Hong; Park, Mi Sun; Jee, Hyang; You, Mi Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Byung Il; Choi, Yang Kyu; Kim, Dae Yong

    2007-09-01

    Over the 42 month period from January 2003 to June 2006, a total of 2,952 canine biopsy specimens were received from the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University and from veterinary practitioners across the nation. Out of these, 748 (25.34%) cases were diagnosed as canine cutaneous tumors in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea. Thirty-eight different types of cutaneous tumors were identified and categorized into epithelial and melanocytic tumors (56.95%), mesenchymal tumors (38.90%), and hematopoietic tumors (4.14%) located in the skin. Among these, 69.25% were benign and 30.74% were malignant. The top ten most frequently diagnosed cutaneous tumors were epidermal and follicular cysts (12.70%), lipoma (11.36%), mast cell tumors (8.82%), cutaneous histiocytoma (7.49%), basal cell tumors (6.82%), sebaceous gland adenoma (6.68%), sebaceous gland hyperplasia (5.08%), hepatoid gland adenoma (3.61%), apocrine adenocarcinoma (3.07%), and fibroma (2.81%), in order of prevalence. They comprised 68.45% of all cutaneous tumors. These top ten cutaneous tumors were distributed on the trunk (30.08%), head and neck (20.9%), extremities (19.14%), anal and perianal area (8.59%), and tail (3.91%). The age of the dogs with the ten most frequent tumors had a mean age of 8.3 years, with a range of 2 months to 19 years. When all types of tumors were considered together in the entire population, there was no difference in incidence according to sex. PMID:17679768

  20. Epidemiology, outcome and emm types of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Finland.

    PubMed

    Siljander, T; Lyytikäinen, O; Vähäkuopus, S; Snellman, M; Jalava, J; Vuopio, J

    2010-10-01

    In 2006, Finnish nationwide surveillance showed an increase of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease and clinicians were alarmed by severe disease manifestations, prompting the investigation of recent trends and outcome for iGAS. A case of iGAS was defined as Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Cases during 1998-2007 and isolates during 2004-2007 were included. Case-patients' 7-day outcome was available for 2004-2007. Isolates were emm typed. A total of 1,318 cases of iGAS were identified. The average annual incidence was 2.5/100,000 population. The rate was higher in males than females in persons aged 45-64 years, but lower in persons aged 25-34 years. The annual incidence was highest in 2007 (3.9/100,000). Occasional peaks occurred during midwinter and midsummer. The most common emm types were 28 (21%), 1 (16%), 84 (10%), 75 (7%) and 89 (6%). During 2004-2007, emm1 replaced emm28 as the most predominant type. The overall case fatality was 8%. Cases with emm1 were associated with high case fatality (14% vs. 8% in other types; p < 0.02); that of emm28 infections was 2% (p < 0.01). Changes in emm type prevalence influenced incidence and case fatality. Differences in age- and sex-specific incidence and seasonal patterns suggest variations in predisposing factors and underlying conditions. PMID:20563620

  1. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31. I. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XIX

    SciTech Connect

    Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella; Garofalo, Alessia; Federici, Luciana E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: alessia.garofalo@studio.unibo.it; and others

    2013-12-10

    We present B, V time-series photometry of Andromeda XIX (And XIX), the most extended (half-light radius of 6.'2) of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal companions, which we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We surveyed a 23' × 23' area centered on And XIX and present the deepest color-magnitude diagram (CMD) ever obtained for this galaxy, reaching, at V ∼ 26.3 mag, about one magnitude below the horizontal branch (HB). The CMD shows a prominent and slightly widened red giant branch, along with a predominantly red HB, which extends to the blue to significantly populate the classical instability strip. We have identified 39 pulsating variable stars, of which 31 are of RR Lyrae type and 8 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). Twelve of the RR Lyrae variables and three of the ACs are located within And XIX's half light radius. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars ((P {sub ab}) = 0.62 days, σ = 0.03 days) and the period-amplitude diagram qualify And XIX as an Oosterhoff-Intermediate system. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars ((V(RR)) = 25.34 mag, σ = 0.10 mag), we determine a distance modulus of (m – M){sub 0} = 24.52 ± 0.23 mag in a scale where the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is 18.5 ± 0.1 mag. The ACs follow a well-defined Period-Wesenheit (PW) relation that appears to be in very good agreement with the PW relationship defined by the ACs in the LMC.

  2. Pulmonary function of guinea pigs exposed to freshly generated ultrafine zinc oxide with and without spike concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, H.F.; Chen, L.C.; Ainsworth, D.; Peoples, S.; Amdur, M.O.

    1988-07-01

    Exposure of guinea pigs 3 hr/day for 5 consecutive days to freshly formed ultrafine zinc oxide (ZnO) (count median diameter: 0.05 micron; geometric standard deviation: 2.0) at a concentration of 7 mg/m3 produced a gradual decrease in total lung capacity and vital capacity over the course of the exposure period. The carbon monoxide (CO) diffusing capacity (DLCO) was not affected until the fourth day, when it dropped abruptly to 30% below control levels. Wet-lung weight/body weight ratios and wet-lung/dry-lung weight ratios increased, indicating the presence of edema. Exposures to 2.7 mg/m3 ZnO, using the same 3 hr/day, 5 day time frame, did not alter any parameters measured. In 2 experiments a single high peak of ZnO (25-34 mg/m3) occurred. In one experiment exposure was stopped, but pulmonary function measurements were made as scheduled; in the other case, exposures to ZnO were continued. In both, lung volumes were decreased abruptly and to a greater extent than when peaks were absent. Continued exposure caused greater decrements in total lung capacity (TLC) and vital capacity (VC) as well as decrements in functional residual capacity (FRC) and residual volume (RV) than were observed when exposure was stopped. Peak exposures reduced DLCO to 45%-60% below control. These values rose to 25%-30% below control with or without continued exposure. Airway resistance increased and compliance decreased following peak exposures. When exposure was stopped, these changes were reversible; with continued exposure they still were different from control levels on the fifth day.

  3. Increasing Diversity in Science and Health Professions: A 21-Year Longitudinal Study Documenting College and Career Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Ned, Judith; Ahn, David; Koehler, Alana; Kennedy, Jeanne D.

    2009-12-01

    Despite decades of precollege science education programs, African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans remain critically underrepresented in science and health professions. This report describes college and career outcomes among graduates of the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program (SMYSP), a 5-week summer residential program for low-income high school students among whom 97% have been followed for up to 21 years. Approximately 24 students are selected annually, with participation limited to low-income students who have faced substantial personal hardships. Undergraduate and medical students provide key program leadership and training. The curriculum is based on science inquiry education and includes hospital internships, anatomy practicums, research projects, faculty lectures, college admissions/standardized test preparation, and long-term college and career guidance. A total of 476 high school students participated between 1988 and 2008, with 61% from underrepresented ethnic minority groups. Overall, 78% of African American, 81% of Latino, and 82% of Native American participants have earned a 4-year college degree (among those admitted to college, and excluding those currently attending college). In contrast, among 25-34-year old California adults, 16% of African Americans, 8% of Latinos, and 10% of Native Americans earn a 4-year college degree. Among SMYSP's 4-year college graduates, 47% are attending or have completed medical or graduate school, and 43% are working as or training to become health professionals. SMYSP offers a model that expands inquiry-based science education beyond the classroom, and recognizes the role of universities as "high school interventionists" to help diversify health professions.

  4. [Associated variables to hypertension in a region of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Carbajal, H A; Salazar, M R; Riondet, B; Rodrigo, H F; Quaini, S M; Rechifort, V; Aizpurúa, M; Echeverria, R F

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a study in a random sample of 1523 inhabitants (15-75 years old) of Rauch city to determine risk factors prevalence to development hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We measured blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, cholesterol and glucose levels, sodium excretion, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We found a high prevalence of hypertension (43.20% in men and 28.50% in women), and obesity-overweight (54.81% in men and 44.65% in women), both of them augmented with aging. Only 4% of hypertensive subjects were being controlled and only 32% of them were aware of their condition. Men showed a marked increment of prevalence of hypertension and obesity-overweight between groups of 15-24 years and 25-34 years. Women had delayed and more gradual increments. In male and female respectively, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 26.86 and 13.81, the prevalence of diabetes was 3.42 and 1.53, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption was 34.61 and 20.83. Higher BMI and waist circumference identified subjects with higher blood pressure up to 54 and 65 years, in men and women, respectively. Age and waist circumference in the whole group, and alcohol consumption in men, were independently correlated with blood pressure; sodium excretion had no correlation. High prevalence of hypertension and obesity-overweight and their association suggest that the most important primary prevention measure in this community should be to prevent obesity. Low levels of awareness indicate the need of ongoing detection programs, and low grade to control of hypertension could be modified with education programs for health providers. PMID:11808418

  5. Decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B and a low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infections in the general population of the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, P.; Yersin, C.; Herminie, P.; Lavanchy, D.; Frei, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was carried out on a random sex- and age-stratified sample of 1006 individuals aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles islands. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies were detected using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), followed by a Western blot assay in the case of a positive result for anti-HCV. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HBc antibodies was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-9.9%) and the percentage prevalence among males/females increased from 7.0/3.1 to 19.1/13.4 in the age groups 25-34 to 55-64 years, respectively. Two men and three women were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, with an age-adjusted seroprevalence of 0.34% (95% CI: 0.1-0.8%). Two out of these five subjects who were positive for anti-HCV also had anti-HBc antibodies. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc was significantly higher in unskilled workers, persons with low education, and heavy drinkers. The age-specific seroprevalence of anti-HBc in this population-based survey, which was conducted in 1994, was approximately three times lower than in a previous patient-based survey carried out in 1979. Although there are methodological differences between the two surveys, it is likely that the substantial decrease in anti-HBc prevalence during the last 15 years may be due to significant socioeconomic development and the systematic screening of blood donors since 1981. Because hepatitis C virus infections are serious and the cost of treatment is high, the fact that the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is at present low should not be an argument for not screening blood donors for anti-HCV and eliminating those who are positive. PMID:10612888

  6. Evaluation of degradation kinetics and physicochemical stability of tenofovir.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Vivek; Putty, Sandeep; Mathes, Christiane; Murowchick, James B; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2015-03-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) has been proven to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through the vagina. But, there is little information available about its stability under various storage and stress conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the degradation behavior and physicochemical stability of TFV using liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The LC-MS analysis was performed on a QTrap mass spectrometer with an enhanced mass spectrum (EMS) scan in positive mode. A reversed phase C18 column was used as the stationary phase. TFV exhibited degradation under acidic and alkaline hydrolytic conditions. The degradation products with m/z 289.2 and 170 amu have been proposed as 6-Hydroxy adenine derivative of TFV, and (2-hydroxypropan-2-yloxy) methylphosphonic acid, respectively. A pseudo-first-order degradation kinetic allowed for estimating the shelf-life, half-life, and time required for 90% degradation of 3.84, 25.34, and 84.22 h in acidic conditions, and 58.26, 384.49, and 1277.75 h in alkaline conditions, respectively. No significant degradation was observed at pH 4.5 (normal cervicovaginal pH) and oxidative stress conditions of 3% and 30% v/v hydrogen peroxide solutions. The shelf life of TFV powder at room temperature was 23 months as calculated by using an Arrhenius plot. The XRD pattern showed that the drug was stable and maintained its original crystallinity under the accelerated and thermal stress conditions applied. Stability analyses revealed that the TFV was stable in various stress conditions; however, formulation strategies should be implemented to protect it in strong acidic and alkaline environments. PMID:24817173

  7. Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities, Especially Diagnosis and Prevention of Recurrence for Chronic Thrombosis—Serial Changes of Sonography and D-Dimer

    PubMed Central

    Kanaoka, Yasushi; Murata, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Masami; Takesue, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Nobuo; Sumimoto, Ryo; Ohgi, Shigetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) have restricted mobility capability and have been bedridden for long periods because of paralysis of the extremities caused by abnormal muscular tonicity due to cerebral palsy and developmental disabilities. Such patients are associated with a high risk of complications like deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we report twelve patients (42.9%) with DVT among 28 patients with SMID during prolonged bed rest. However, we did not detect thrombosis in the soleal veins, finding it mostly in the femoral and common femoral veins. We applied anticoagulant therapy (warfarin), and carefully followed up the cases with DVT, regulating the warfarin dosage at prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) values around two to prevent recurrence of chronic thrombosis. Regarding laboratory data for the coagulation system, there were no cases above 5 µg/ml for the D-dimer and there were significant differences between the DVT and non-DVT groups in the D-dimer levels. The plasma levels of D-dimer in patients with DVT diminished to less than 1.0 µg/ml after warfarin treatment. Concerning sudden death (4.2%) in patients with SMID, we have to be very careful of the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism due to DVT. Therefore, we should consider the particularity of the underdeveloped vascular system from underlying diseases for the evaluation of DVT. A detailed study of DVT as a vascular complication is very important for the smooth medical care of SMID, and serial assessment of compression Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities, as a noninvasive examination and measurement of D-dimer, is very helpful. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 34–42.) PMID:26730253

  8. Elevated levels of adaption in Helicobacter pylori genomes from Japan; a link to higher incidences of gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Soto-Girón, Maria Juliana; Ospina, Oscar E; Massey, Steven Edward

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that lives in the human stomach and is a major risk factor for gastric cancer and ulcers. H.pylori is host dependent and has been carried with human populations around the world after their departure from Africa. We wished to investigate how H.pylori has coevolved with its host during that time, focusing on strains from Japanese and European populations, given that gastric cancer incidence is high in Japanese populations, while low in European. A positive selection analysis of eight H.pylori genomes was conducted, using maximum likelihood based pairwise comparisons in order to maximize the number of strain-specific genes included in the study. Using the genic Ka/Ks ratio, comparisons of four Japanese H.pylori genomes suggests 25-34 genes under positive selection, while four European H.pylori genomes suggests 16-21 genes; few of the genes identified were in common between lineages. Of the identified genes which were annotated, 38% possessed homologs associated with pathogenicity and / or host adaptation, consistent with their involvement in a coevolutionary 'arms race' with the host. Given the efficacy of identifying host interaction factors de novo, in the absence of functionally annotated homologs our evolutionary approach may have value in identifying novel genes which H.pylori employs to interact with the human gut environment. In addition, the larger number of genes inferred as being under positive selection in Japanese strains compared to European implies a stronger overall adaptive pressure, potentially resulting from an elevated immune response which may be linked to increased inflammation, an initial stage in the development of gastric cancer. PMID:25788149

  9. Household and neighbourhood risks for injury to 5-14 year old children.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Robin; Reading, Richard; Gale, Susan

    2003-08-01

    Injuries in childhood are strongly related to poverty at the household level and to living in a deprived neighbourhood, but it is not clear whether these effects are independent. In this prospective population study, all injuries to 5-14 year old children living in the city of Norwich, UK, and presented at the hospital Accident and Emergency Department over a 13 month period were recorded (N=3526). Information on the population of resident children and household composition was assembled from the health authority population register. Neighbourhood information was extracted from the census and local surveys. Unadjusted risks were calculated for individual and neighbourhood factors, followed by multilevel modelling in which predictors were included at three levels: individual, enumeration district and social area (neighbourhood). The overall injury rate was 16.44 per 100 children per year. Injury rates between neighbourhoods varied two-fold and were highest in more deprived areas. In the final multilevel model injury risk was related to gender (boys vs. girls OR=1.35), age of child (OR=1.07 per year), number of adults in the household (OR=0.91 per adult), and age gap between child and eldest female (15-24 years vs. 25-34 years, OR=1.15). Injury rates were also related to social area deprivation, although variations in injury rates between neighbourhoods were not wholly explained by deprivation. The adjusted odds ratio between the most and least deprived social areas was 1.35. Excluding less serious injuries did not substantially change the results. The risks were very similar to those found in a previous study of pre-school children, with the same neighbourhoods identified as high and low risk as before. This evidence that neighbourhood factors independently influence injury risk over and above individual and household factors supports the use of area-based policies to reduce injuries in children. PMID:12821011

  10. Interaction of extended mantle plume head with ancient lithosphere: evidence from deep-seated xenoliths in basalts and lamprophyre diatremes in Western Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2016-04-01

    The Middle Cretaceous lamprophyric diatremes of the Jabel Ansaria Ridge contain xenoliths of ancient lower crustal rocks mainly represented by the suite of partly altered garnet granulite and eclogite-like rocks, which were formed at the expense of ferrogabbros and ferroclinopyroxenites most likely in the course of underplating of Fe-Ti basalt. Garnet (Alm26Grs11Py63) megacrysts and coarse-granular garnet-clinopyroxene intergrowths are most likely the varieties of rocks of this series. Garnet megacrysts are represented by large (up to 10 cm in diameter) round "nodules," often molten from the surface. Garnet is usually fractured, and the kelyphite material similar to that in rocks of the eclogite-granulite series occurs in fractures. In addition, we found several intergrowths of garnet with large (up to 3-5 cm in length) crystals of high-Al augite with the low of Ti and Na contents like in rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite. Coarse-grained garnet-clinopyroxene-hornblende rocks with spinel, as well as megacrysts of Al-Ti augite with kaersutite, form the second group in prevalence. This group is close to mantle xenoliths of the "black series" in alkali Fe-Ti basalt worldwide. Kaersutite in these rocks contains gaseous cavities, which provides evidence for the origin of rocks at the expense of a strongly fluidized melt/fluid. In contrast to rocks of the eclogite-granulite series, these rocks did not undergo alteration. Garnet Alm19-26Grs12-13.5Py59-67.5 usually associates with dark opaque spinel. In contrast, the Late Cenozoic plateaubasalts of the region practically do not contain lower crustal xenoliths, whereas xenoliths of mantle spinel lherzolite (fragments of the upper cooled rim of the plume head) are widely abundant. According to data of mineralogical thermobarometry, rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite were formed at 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths of 45-54 km) and 965-1115°C. Rocks of this suite are typical representatives of the continental lower crust

  11. Early enhancement of fluid transport in rabbit proximal straight tubules after loss of contralateral renal excretory function.

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, K; Levenson, D J; Brenner, B M

    1983-01-01

    To assess the renal functional adaptation to reduced excretory capacity, we studied whole kidney and single nephron function in anesthetized volume-replete rabbits after unilateral (left kidney) nephrectomy (UNX), ureteral obstruction (UO), or ureteroperitoneostomy (UP). At 24 h, despite the absence of measurable hypertrophy of the contralateral (right) kidney, these procedures significantly increased p-aminohippurate clearance (45-54%) and inulin clearance (CIN) (64-110%) compared with sham-operated control animals. In each group, whole kidney sodium reabsorption increased in proportion to the rise in CIN. To determine whether the intrinsic transport capacity of proximal tubule segments is altered by these maneuvers, we measured fluid volume reabsorption rate (Jv) in isolated superficial proximal straight tubule (PST) segments perfused in vitro, comparing each control tubule (obtained by biopsy of the left kidney immediately before an experimental maneuver) with a corresponding tubule segment obtained 24 h or 7 d later from the contralateral kidney. Control tubule Jv in sham-24 h animals averaged 0.48 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm). Jv did not change significantly at 24 h or 7 d after sham maneuvers but increased significantly at 24 h after UNX [delta Jv = 0.13 +/- 0.03 nl/(min X mm)], UO [delta Jv = 0.10 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm)], and UP [delta Jv = 0.13 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm)]. Jv remained increased by similar amounts at 7 d after UNX and UO. To evaluate whether an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) might be the stimulus to this augmentation in Jv values, methylprednisolone (MP) (15 mg/kg per d) was administered daily to sham-operated animals, a maneuver which induced a 73% rise in CIN by day 5. This procedure also produced a significant increase in Jv in PST at 5 d [delta Jv = 0.16 +/- 0.05 nl/(min X mm)]. The increase in Jv evident in each group at 5 or 7 d was paralleled by an equivalent change in tubule cell volume and apparent tubule luminal surface area in

  12. Attitudes of undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University towards medical practice and migration, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    .017) indicated aspiration to emigrate following graduation, particularly to the United States of America (42%) or European countries (15%). The attitude towards emigration was higher among Year IV (63%) and Internship (71%) students compared to Year I to Year III students (45-54%). Male students were more likely to say they would emigrate than females (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.10-2.29). Likewise, students with clinical training were more likely to want to emigrate than pre-clinical students, although the difference was marginally significant (adjusted OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.00-2.49). Conclusions The attitudes of the majority of Ethiopian medical students in the capital city towards practicing medicine in rural areas were found to be poor, and the intent to migrate after completing medical training was found to be very high among the study participants, creating a huge potential for brain drain. This necessitates the importance of improving the quality of education and career choice satisfaction, creating conducive training and working conditions including retention efforts for medical graduates to serve their nation. It follows that recruiting altruistic and rural background students into medical schools is likely to produce graduates who are more likely to practice medicine in rural settings. PMID:22867022

  13. The pre-Caledonian Large Igneous Province and the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, Christian; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre; Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2016-04-01

    Magmatism of the first known rifting phase of the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle is surprisingly well preserved in the Caledonian nappes of central Scandinavia. The Särv and Seve Nappes are characterised by spectacular dyke complexes originally emplaced into continental sediments along the rifted margin of Iapetus. The intensity and structure of the pre-Caledonian Dyke Complex is comparable to that of the present passive margins of the North Atlantic large igneous province (NALIP) and U-Pb ages of 610-590 Ma suggest magmatism was short-lived. It can be described as a pre-Caledonian large igneous province (CLIP). To constrain the origin of CLIP magmatism we: (1) re-visited the dyke complexes of the Sarek, Kebnekaise and Tornetrask mountains of North Sweden; (2) compiled new and published geochemical data for the more than 950 km long, magma-rich segment of the Scandinavian Caledonides; and (3) extended reconstructions of the paleo-position of Baltica back to 600 Ma. Although the appearance of the dykes ranges from garnet amphibolite gneiss to pristine magmatic intrusions, all bulk rock compositions largely reflect the original magmatic rock. The compiled dataset includes 584 analyses that essentially forms a coherent suite of tholeiitic ferrobasalt (2-12 wt% MgO, 45-54 wt% SiO2; 6-16 wt% FeOtot; 0.7-4.0 wt% TiO2) akin to LIP basalts such as those of NALIP (61-54 Ma). A few samples (<20) are significantly contaminated with crust, but most are largely uncontaminated. The delta Nb value is a proxy for geochemical enrichment based on Nb-Zr-Y systematics and was defined for the present-day North Atlantic system to distinguish enriched Iceland basalts (positive delta Nb) from normal MORB basalts (negative delta Nb). The CLIP dykes are dominantly enriched with positive delta Nb (-0.07 to +0.9) in the central and southern portion, but stretching to more negative values (-0.6 to +0.5) in the northern portion (Sarek, Kebnekaise, Tornetrask). The few available rare earth element

  14. Abrupt pH Changes of sea Surface Waters in the sub-Equatorial Pacific Ocean at the end of the Younger Dryas (YD): MC-ICPMS Analysis of Boron Isotopes in Reef Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douville, E.; Paterne, M.; Cabioch, G.; Isnard, H.; Chartier, F.; Bouman, C.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Caillon, N.

    2006-12-01

    . Fischer, Evidence for substantial accumulation rate variability in Antarctica during the Holocene, through synchronization of CO2 in the Taylor Dome, Dome C and DML ice cores, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 224, 45-54, 2004. Monnin E., A. Indermühle, A. Dällenbach, J. Flückiger, B. Stauffer, T. F. Stocker, D. Raynaud and J.M. Barnola, Atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last glacial termination, Science, 291, 112-114, 2001. Palmer M.R. and P.N. Person, A 23,000-Year record of surface water pH and pCO2 in the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean, Science, 300, 480-482, 2003.

  15. A reconstruction of radiocarbon production and total solar irradiance from the Holocene 14C and CO2 records: implications of data and model uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat

    2013-04-01

    total solar irradiance (TSI) using a recently published Φ-TSI relationship [Steinhilber et al., 2009]. Our TSI record shows, besides recent solar grand solar minimas like the Maunder Minumum (MM), numerous centennial-scale variations with deviations from the long-term mean of only approx. 0.5 W/m2, while the millennial-scale trend in TSI is even smaller. The frequency-spectrum of TSI reveals well known solar periodicities of different length. Finally, our radiocarbon-based TSI record is fed back into Bern3D-LPX in order model past changes in surfaces atmospheric temperature (SAT) caused by solar variations, leading to relatively low transient SAT excursions of less than 0.1 K. References: Monnin et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2004, 224, 45-54 Reimer et al., Radiocarbon, 2009, 51, 1111-1150 Masarik and Beer, J. Geophys. Res., 1999, 104, 12099-12111 Kovaltsov et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2012, 337-338, 114-120 Knudsen et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2008, 272, 319-329 Usoskin et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2011, 116, A02104- Steinhilber at al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2009, 36, L19704-

  16. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06mg QE/g and 7.42mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71mg QE/g and 0.29mg CE/g DW, respectively) (p<0.05). Both DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assays showed that all tested extracts possess free radical scavenging activity, while the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) range values were similar for both assays (2.13-45.54μg/mL and 1.2-43.82μg/mL, respectively). All plant extracts showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations. Fruit methanolic (IC50=2.76mg/mL) and aqueous (IC50=2.08mg/mL) extracts showed higher inhibitory effects than chloroformic (IC50=7.62mg/mL) and hexanic (IC50=12.93mg/mL) extracts on egg hatching (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation of total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0

  17. Estimation of irrigation requirement for wheat in the southern Spain by using a soil water balance remote sensing driven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Laura; Bodas, Vicente; Espósito, Gabriel; Campos, Isidro; Aliaga, Jerónimo; Calera, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    amount does not respond to the modeled crop irrigation water requirement. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is a valid method for the assessment of irrigation performance and could provide a powerful tool for irrigation recommendations. Further improvements should consider the analysis of irrigation systems efficiency and uniformity. References Allen R. G., Pereira L. S., Raes D., Smith M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, FAO; Rome, 301 pp. Campos, I., Neale, C.M.U., Calera, A., Balbontín, C. and González-Piqueras, J. 2010c. Assesing satellite-based basal crop coefficients for irrigates grapes (Vitis vinífera L.). Agricultural Water Management, 98: 45-54. Sánchez, N., Martínez-Fernández, J., Calera, A., Torres, E. and Pérez-Gutiérrez, C. 2010. Combining remote sensing and in situ soil moisture data for the application and validation of a distributed water balance model (HIDROMORE). Agricultural Water Management, 98: 69-78. Steduto, P., Hsiao, T. C., Fereres, E., Raes, D. 2012. Crop yield response to water. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 66, FAO; Rome, 503 pp.

  18. N-methyl-D-aspartate antibody encephalitis: temporal progression of clinical and paraclinical observations in a predominantly non-paraneoplastic disorder of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Irani, Sarosh R; Bera, Katarzyna; Waters, Patrick; Zuliani, Luigi; Maxwell, Susan; Zandi, Michael S; Friese, Manuel A; Galea, Ian; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Beeson, David; Lang, Bethan; Bien, Christian G; Vincent, Angela

    2010-06-01

    Antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor have been associated with a newly-described encephalopathy that has been mainly identified in young females with ovarian tumours. However, the full clinical spectrum and treatment responses are not yet clear. We established a sensitive cell-based assay for detection of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid, and a quantitative fluorescent immunoprecipitation assay for serial studies. Although there was marked intrathecal synthesis of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies, the absolute levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were higher in serum than in cerebrospinal fluid. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 subclass and were able to activate complement on N-methyl d-aspartate receptor-expressing human embryonic kidney cells. From questionnaires returned on 44 N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody-positive patients, we identified a high proportion without a detected tumour (35/44, 80%: follow-up 3.6-121 months, median 16 months). Among the latter were 15 adult females (43%), 10 adult males (29%) and 10 children (29%), with four in the first decade of life. Overall, there was a high proportion (29%) of non-Caucasians. Good clinical outcomes, as defined by reductions in modified Rankin scores, correlated with decreased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody levels and were associated with early (<40 days) administration of immunotherapies in non-paraneoplastic patients (P < 0.0001) and earlier tumour removal in paraneoplastic patients (P = 0.02). Ten patients (23%) who were first diagnosed during relapses had no evidence of tumours but had received minimal or no immunotherapy during earlier episodes. Temporal analysis of the onset of the neurological features suggested progression through two main stages. The time of onset of the early features, characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms and seizures preceded by a

  19. Explaining the variability of Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI): deconvolution of variability related to Light Use Efficiency and Canopy attributes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlier, Elodie; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Soudani, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    . 1992. A narrow-waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency. Remote Sensing of Environment 41, 35-44. Garbulsky MF, Peñuelas J, Gamon J, Inoue Y, Filella I. 2011. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the remote sensing of leaf, canopy and ecosystem radiation use efficiencies: A review and meta-analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 281-297. Hilker T, Coops NC, Hall FG, Black TA, Wulder MA, Nesic Z, Krishnan P. 2008. Separating physiologically and directionally induced changes in PRI using BRDF models. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 2777-2788. Hmimina G, Dufrêne E, Soudani K. 2014. Relationship between PRI and leaf ecophysiological and biochemical parameters under two different water statuses: toward a rapid and efficient correction method using real-time measurements. Plant, Cell & Environment 37, 2, 473-487. Nakaji T, Oguma H, Fujinuma Y. 2006. Seasonal changes in the relationship between photochemical reflectance index and photosynthetic light use efficiency of Japanese larch needles. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27, 493-509. Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran P, Munehiro M, Omasa K. 2012. Relationships between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and plant pigment indices at different leaf growth stages. Photosynthesis Research 113, 261-271.

  20. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer--collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, N; Hirose, K; Tajima, K; Rohan, T; Calle, E E; Heath, C W; Coates, R J; Liff, J M; Talamini, R; Chantarakul, N; Koetsawang, S; Rachawat, D; Morabia, A; Schuman, L; Stewart, W; Szklo, M; Bain, C; Schofield, F; Siskind, V; Band, P; Coldman, A J; Gallagher, R P; Hislop, T G; Yang, P; Kolonel, L M; Nomura, A M Y; Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; De Sanjosé, S; Lee, N; Marchbanks, P; Ory, H W; Peterson, H B; Wilson, H G; Wingo, P A; Ebeling, K; Kunde, D; Nishan, P; Hopper, J L; Colditz, G; Gajalanski, V; Martin, N; Pardthaisong, T; Silpisornkosol, S; Theetranont, C; Boosiri, B; Chutivongse, S; Jimakorn, P; Virutamasen, P; Wongsrichanalai, C; Ewertz, M; Adami, H O; Bergkvist, L; Magnusson, C; Persson, I; Chang-Claude, J; Paul, C; Skegg, D C G; Spears, G F S; Boyle, P; Evstifeeva, T; Daling, J R; Hutchinson, W B; Malone, K; Noonan, E A; Stanford, J L; Thomas, D B; Weiss, N S; White, E; Andrieu, N; Brêmond, A; Clavel, F; Gairard, B; Lansac, J; Piana, L; Renaud, R; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P; Cuevas, H R; Ontiveros, P; Palet, A; Salazar, S B; Aristizabel, N; Cuadros, A; Tryggvadottir, L; Tulinius, H; Bachelot, A; Lê, M G; Peto, J; Franceschi, S; Lubin, F; Modan, B; Ron, E; Wax, Y; Friedman, G D; Hiatt, R A; Levi, F; Bishop, T; Kosmelj, K; Primic-Zakelj, M; Ravnihar, B; Stare, J; Beeson, W L; Fraser, G; Bullbrook, R D; Cuzick, J; Duffy, S W; Fentiman, I S; Hayward, J L; Wang, D Y; McMichael, A J; McPherson, K; Hanson, R L; Leske, M C; Mahoney, M C; Nasca, P C; Varma, A O; Weinstein, A L; Moller, T R; Olsson, H; Ranstam, J; Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; Apelo, R A; Baens, J; de la Cruz, J R; Javier, B; Lacaya, L B; Ngelangel, C A; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Marubini, E; Ferraroni, M; Gerber, M; Richardson, S; Segala, C; Gatei, D; Kenya, P; Kungu, A; Mati, J G; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Schairer, C; Spirtas, R; Lee, H P; Rookus, M A; van Leeuwen, F E; Schoenberg, J A; McCredie, M; Gammon, M D; Clarke, E A; Jones, L; Neil, A; Vessey, M; Yeates, D; Appleby, P; Banks, E; Beral, V; Bull, D; Crossley, B; Goodill, A; Green, J; Hermon, C; Key, T; Langston, N; Lewis, C; Reeves, G; Collins, R; Doll, R; Peto, R; Mabuchi, K; Preston, D; Hannaford, P; Kay, C; Rosero-Bixby, L; Gao, Y T; Jin, F; Yuan, J-M; Wei, H Y; Yun, T; Zhiheng, C; Berry, G; Cooper Booth, J; Jelihovsky, T; MacLennan, R; Shearman, R; Wang, Q-S; Baines, C-J; Miller, A B; Wall, C; Lund, E; Stalsberg, H; Shu, X O; Zheng, W; Katsouyanni, K; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Dabancens, A; Martinez, L; Molina, R; Salas, O; Alexander, F E; Anderson, K; Folsom, A R; Hulka, B S; Bernstein, L; Enger, S; Haile, R W; Paganini-Hill, A; Pike, M C; Ross, R K; Ursin, G; Yu, M C; Longnecker, M P; Newcomb, P; Bergkvist, L; Kalache, A; Farley, T M M; Holck, S; Meirik, O

    2002-11-18

    Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58,515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95,067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19-1.45, P<0.00001) for an intake of 35-44 g per day alcohol, and 1.46 (1.33-1.61, P<0.00001) for >/=45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1% per 10 g per day, P<0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers=1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92-1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were

  1. Variations in temperature acclimation effects on glycogen storage, hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance with seasonal acclimatization in juvenile Chinese crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether temperature acclimation (10 vs 20 °C) effects on tissue glycogen content, hypoxia tolerance, and swimming performance of Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) varied with seasonal acclimatization (winter vs spring) and potential combined interactions. Both the routine metabolic rate (MO(2rout)) and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)) of the MO(2rout) increased significantly with temperature, whereas the seasonal acclimatization showed no significant effect. Only the high temperature group that acclimatized in spring showed a significantly higher aquatic surface respiration (ASR(crit)) value compared with the other three groups. Fish in spring tended to show ASR behavior at higher oxygen tension compared with those in winter, which might have been caused by a more active lifestyle. Time to show LOE prolonged by 25-34% under low temperature. Spring fish showed 20% shorter LOE duration at 10 °C, whereas the difference tended to vanish at 20 °C. Glycogen contents in both liver and muscle were higher in winter than spring. The liver and muscle glycogen content decreased by 5-42% after exposure to anoxic conditions, whereas the magnitude was much smaller in spring. When fish swam in normoxic conditions, fish in higher temperatures showed higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit) than low temperature (5.49 vs 3.74 BL s(-1) in winter and 4.27 vs 3.21 BL s(-1) in spring), whereas fish in winter also showed higher U(crit) than fish in spring for each temperature. However, when fish swam in hypoxic waters, fish in higher temperatures showed a more profound decrease (52-61%) in U(crit) compared to those in lower temperature (25-27%). Fish in lower temperatures that had acclimatized in winter showed the highest U(crit), which might have been caused by higher glycogen storage. The present study suggested that both glycogen storage and alterations in lifestyle had profound effects on hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, which

  2. Two new eimerians (Apicomplexa) from insectivorous mammals in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Couch, Lee; Laakkonen, Juha; Goodman, Steven; Duszynski, Donald W

    2011-04-01

    Fecal samples from 126 insectivorous mammals in Madagascar were collected between spring 1999 and fall 2001. In the Afrosoricida, 21 species in 5 genera were sampled, including 17 species of Microgale (31/96, 32% infected), Hemicentetes semispinosus (1/2, 50%), Oryzorictes hova (1/5, 20%), Setifer setosus (8/13, 61.5%), and Tenrec ecaudatus (5/8, 62.5%); in the Soricomorpha, only Suncus murinus was examined and 1/2 (50%) were infected. Two morphotypes of eimeriid oocysts, representing 2 presumptive new species, were found in 47 (37%) infected animals; only 2 afrosoricid hosts (2% of all hosts, 4% of infected hosts) had both oocyst morphotypes. Sporulated oocysts of the first morphotype, Eimeria tenrececaudata n. sp., are subspheroidal, 18.8 × 17.4 (17-22 × 15-20), with a length∶width ratio (L/W) of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); they lack a micropyle but may contain 0-2 polar granules and a single, small round oocyst residuum, 3 × 2.3. Sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 9.9 × 6.6 (9-11 × 5-8), with a L/W of 1.5 (1.2-2.0); they have a prominent, slightly flattened Stieda body and a substieda body but lack a parastieda body. The sporocyst residuum consists of only a few granules between the sporozoites, which are sausage-shaped and have a large posterior refractile body. Oocysts of the second morphotype, Eimeria setifersetosa n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 30.1 × 28.6 (27-34 × 25-34), with a L/W of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); they lack both micropyle and oocyst residuum, but 1-2 polar granules are usually present. Sporocysts are subspheroidal to broadly ellipsoidal, 9.6 × 7.3 (9-11 × 6-8), with a L/W of 1.3 (1.1-1.7); they have a broad Stieda body, lack sub- and parastieda bodies, and have a residuum of a few granules scattered throughout the sporocyst. Sporozoites were not clearly defined, but what seemed to be a single large refractile body is seen, presumably in each sporozoite. PMID:21506791

  3. Where are we now in the sexual revolution?

    PubMed

    Selverstone, R

    1989-03-01

    Selverstone concludes the there really has been a sexual revolution. An enormous sociocultural change has taken place during the lives of parents of schoolchildren. Parents say they feel that there is an increased openness about sexuality today and greater access to accurate information. They also indicate that they are able to have more open conversations with their children than they were able to have with their parents, and that their children seem to have more opposite sex friendships. However, they also are apprehensive about the acceleration of their children's sexual involvement and observe that the sexual double standard still prevails. Other important changes include the following. 1) There is a continuing acceleration in the number of young people who are beginning to have sexual intercourse. Orr et al reported that in a blue-collar, urban, junior high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, 46% of the 14-year-old girls and 74% of the 14-year-old boys had already had intercourse. In the Kinsey sample, only 28% of 14-year-old boys had intercourse. 2) Discussion of sexually transmitted disease is frank and open. 3) 2/3 of American Catholics use birth control. 4) Between 1970 and 1985, births to unwed mothers increased 50%; today, 1 in 5 births in the US is to an unwed mother. 5) Abortion, a clandestine subject in yesteryear, is now one of the most critical and divisive of political issues. 6) People are waiting longer to get married. Between 1970 and 1984, the median age for marriage rose 2 1/2 years, and since 1956, 3 years. 7) Currently, 72% of all women aged 25-34 work, and both spouses work in 56% of all families. However, economic and job discrimination against women is still the rule rather than the exception. 8) There has been a movement toward a less male-dominated heterosexual approach to religion, also. 9) This is perhaps the 1st generation that has begun to comprehend that perhaps 4-7% of the population will be exclusively or predominantly homosexual

  4. Common opportunistic infections and their CD4 cell correlates among HIV-infected patients attending at antiretroviral therapy clinic of Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic is among the greatest health crises ever faced by humanity. Morbidity and mortality in HIV disease is due to immunosuppression leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections (OIs) during the natural course of the disease. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence and CD4 correlates of OIs among adult HIV-infected patients attending at Gondar University Hospital. Methods Cross sectional study was conducted on 360 adult HIV-infected patients attending antiretroviral therapy clinic from February 2012-April 2012. Patients’ OI status was determined through clinical diagnosis and laboratory investigations. CD4 count was determined using flow cytometry technique. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained from interview and patients’ medical records. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS version 16 statistical soft ware and odds ratio was used as the measure of association. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results In this study, 360 HIV-infected patients were included; of whom (n = 216/360, 60%) were females. The majority of patients (n = 153/360, 42.5%) were 25-34 years old with mean age of 35.5+ 8.8 standard deviation. The overall prevalence of OIs was (n = 71/360, 19.7%). Tuberculosis (n = 35/360, 9.72%) followed by oral candidiasis (n = 18/360, 5%) and diarrhea (n = 12/360, 3.3%) were the most frequently observed OIs. CD4 count less than 200/mm3 (OR = 4.933, P < 0.001), World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage III (OR = 9.418, P < 0.001) and IV (OR = 22.665, P < 0.001) were found to have strong association with acquisition of OIs. Conclusions Tuberculosis, oral candidiasis and diarrhea were the leading OIs encountered by HIV-infected patients. CD4 count less than 200/mm3 and advanced WHO clinical stages of the disease were found to be predictors of OIs

  5. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and its essential oil on the PC3 and MCF7 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MEMARIANI, TOKTAM; HOSSEINI, TOKTAM; KAMALI, HOSSEIN; MOHAMMADI, AMENEH; GHORBANI, MARYAM; SHAKERI, ABDOREZA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; SHAHSAVAND, SHABNAM

    2016-01-01

    Cyperus longus is one of the Iranian endemic species. However, to date, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no availale academic reports on the cytotoxicity of this plant. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and essential oil (EO) on MCF7 and PC3 cell lines. The chemical constituents of EO were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and incubated with various concentrations of the plant extract and fractions. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay following 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to (12.5–200 µg/ml) of the methanol extract, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water fractions, as well as the EO of the plant. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The most effective fraction in the MCF7 cell line was the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 25.34±2.01). The EtOAc fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 35.2±2.69) and the methanol extract (IC50 after 48 h, 64.64±1.64) were also found to be effective. The IC50 values obtained for the PC3 cell line were 37.97±3.87, 51.57±3.87 and 70.33±2.36 for the CH2Cl2 fraction, the EtOAc fraction and the methanol extract, respectively. Based on these data and due to the partial polarity of the most effective fraction (the CH2Cl2 fraction), we also examined the cytotoxicity of the plant EO. The IC50 values after 48 h were 22.25±4.25 and 12.55±3.65 in the PC3 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay also confirmed these data. Performing GC-MS analysis for the plant EO revealed that β-himachalene (10.81%), α-caryophyllene oxide (7.6%), irisone (4.78%), β-caryophyllene oxide (4.36%), humulene oxide (12%), viridiflorol (4.73%), aristolone (6.39%) and longiverbenone (6.04%) were the main constituents. Our results

  6. Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD) predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9) μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl). About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7%) of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67) times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34) and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63) times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74) time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23) times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were not associated to

  7. Kinematic Models of Southern California Deformation calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain Energy Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain energy ("TSEM models") represent average deformation rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain energy, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates (< 12 mm/yr) are strongly preferred for the San Gorgonio segment of the SAF. The GPS-constrained, locked model prefers a high slip rate for the Imperial Fault (over 30 mm/yr), though the TSEM models prefer slip rates lower than 30 mm/yr. When slip rates for the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system are restricted to less than 5 mm/yr, GPS-constrained models show a preference for high slip rates on the southern San Jacinto and Palos Verde Faults ( > 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a

  8. A randomized trial of high-dose ciprofloxacin versus azlocillin and netilmicin in the empirical therapy of febrile neutropenic patients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P R; Liu Yin, J A; Tooth, J A

    1992-08-01

    A prospective, randomized trial comparing monotherapy with high-dose ciprofloxacin versus a standard combination regimen of azlocillin and netilmicin in the empirical treatment of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients was performed. One hundred and forty-six patient episodes were randomized, but ten (seven ciprofloxacin and three azlocillin/netilmicin) were considered unevaluable for efficacy, and three episodes were withdrawn due to incorrect randomization or non-neutropenia. Of the remaining 133 episodes, infections resolved without modification of therapy in 25/66 (38%) versus 28/67 (42%) of ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin treated groups respectively (P = 0.72). Considering all randomized episodes, therapy was modified in 46/73 (63%) episodes with ciprofloxacin and 39/70 (56%) with azlocillin/netilmicin (P = 0.40). Of 73 patient episodes randomized to ciprofloxacin, 25 (34%) received oral follow-on therapy after a median of three days of intravenous therapy. Infections were microbiologically documented in 31/73 (42%) ciprofloxacin and 32/70 (46%) azlocillin/netilmicin, of which 8/27 (30%) and 14/31 (45%) of evaluable episodes resolved without modification of therapy respectively (P = 0.28). Gram-positive organisms accounted for 78% of all organisms cultured with 36% coagulase-negative staphylococci. Bacteriological eradication was recorded in 18/24 (75%) and 26/29 (90%) evaluable patient episodes treated with ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin respectively (P = 0.27). Superinfections were seen in 14% of episodes in both groups, and subsequent infections in 12% ciprofloxacin and 14% azlocillin/netilmicin treated patients. Two patients (one ciprofloxacin and one azlocillin/netilmicin) died within 48 h of randomization, and a further 13 patients (four ciprofloxacin and nine azlocillin/netilmicin) died before resolution of neutropenia. Adverse events were recorded in 9% and 15% of ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin treated patients respectively

  9. The Shock Structure of Supernova Remnant IC443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; Higdon, S. J. U.; Burton, M. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We present and discuss ISO observations of IC443, a supernova remnant interacting with a molecular cloud. An SWS spectrum centered on molecular hydrogen clump R10E (RA(2000) = 6 17 7.6, Decl(2000) = 22 25 34.6) is dominated by strong [SiII] (34 microns) emission and the pure rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen ranging from 0-0 S(1) to 0-0 S(13). Fits to these H$-2$ lines imply a large column (approx. 7E19 cm$ {-2)$) of warm (T approx. 700 K) gas and an ortho/para ratio for hydrogen near 3. LWS Fabry-Perot spectra of [OI] (63 microns) and [CII] (158 microns) at positions R10E and C (RA(2000) = 6 17 42.8, Decl(2000) = 22 21 38.1) find broad (approx. 75 km/s), blue-shifted (-40 km/s) line profiles; their similarity strongly suggests a common, shock-generated origin for these two lines. The surprisingly large [CII]/[OI] ratio (approx. 0.1 to 0.2) confirms previous observations with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These [CII] and [OI] line intensities, the [SiII] intensity (above), and LWS grating measurements of OH (119 microns) and [OI] (145 microns) are all readily fit by a single, fast J-shock model. Although the [OI] (63) emission can alternatively be produced by a slow C-shock, this ensemble of lines can not be produced by such a shock and provides strong evidence for the existence of a J-shock. A 24-arcmin strip map shows that this far-infrared line emission is spatially correlated with the H$-2$ 1-0 S(1) emission, which most likely arises in an associated C-shock. In addition to this spatially correlated shock emission, the strip map identifies extended [CII] and [OI] emission with a significantly larger line ratio (approx. 0.6); this 'background' component is compared with current J-shock, C-shock, photo-dissociation region (PDR), and X-ray dissociation region (XDR) models in an effort to explain its origin.

  10. Trends of People Using Drugs and Opioid Substitute Treatment Recorded in England and Wales General Practice (1994-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Hilary R.; Nazareth, Irwin; Petersen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use is a multifaceted public-health problem with potentially serious impacts. The United Kingdom has one of the highest prevalence of illegal drug use in Europe. Reduction of overall illegal drug use in England and Wales has decreased from 11% to 8.2% (2012/13) over the past 10 years. People who use drugs often seek help from their family doctors. Aims To investigate General Practitioners (family doctors) first recording of drug use and opioid substitute treatment in primary care settings. Design A descriptive study design. Males and females (16-64 years old) were extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Setting England and Wales primary care. Method The first recording of drug use and opioid substitution treatment in primary care was estimated for the period (1994-2012). Poisson regressions were conducted to estimate incidence risk ratios (IRR). Results We identified 33,508 first recordings of drug use and 10,869 individuals with prescriptions for opioid substitute treatment. Overall, males (IRR 2.02, 95% CI:1.97–2.07), people in the age-group; 16-24 (IRR 6.7, 95% CI:6.4–6.9) compared to those over 25 years and the most deprived (IRR 4.2, 95% CI:3.9–4.4) were more likely to have a recording of drug use. Males (IRR 1.2 95% CI:1.2–1.3), in the age-group; 25-34 (IRR 1.8 95% CI:1.7–1.9) and the most deprived (IRR 3.9 95% CI:3.6–4.3) were the groups more likely to have a opioid substitute treatment prescription. Conclusion It is evident from this study that there is little recording of drug use and opioid substitute treatment in primary care. Most drug users do not receive treatment in primary care. PMID:25923806

  11. Inspiratory muscle training reduces blood lactate concentration during volitional hyperpnoea.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter I; Sharpe, Graham R; Johnson, Michael A

    2008-09-01

    Although reduced blood lactate concentrations ([lac(-)](B)) have been observed during whole-body exercise following inspiratory muscle training (IMT), it remains unknown whether the inspiratory muscles are the source of at least part of this reduction. To investigate this, we tested the hypothesis that IMT would attenuate the increase in [lac(-)](B) caused by mimicking, at rest, the breathing pattern observed during high-intensity exercise. Twenty-two physically active males were matched for 85% maximal exercise minute ventilation (.V(E) max) and divided equally into an IMT or a control group. Prior to and following a 6 week intervention, participants performed 10 min of volitional hyperpnoea at the breathing pattern commensurate with 85% .V(E) max. The IMT group performed 6 weeks of pressure-threshold IMT; the control group performed no IMT. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased (mean +/- SD) 31 +/- 22% following IMT and was unchanged in the control group. Prior to the intervention in the control group, [lac(-)](B) increased from 0.76 +/- 0.24 mmol L(-1) at rest to 1.50 +/- 0.60 mmol L(-1) (P < 0.05) following 10 min volitional hyperpnoea. In the IMT group, [lac(-)](B) increased from 0.85 +/- 0.40 mmol L(-1) at rest to 2.02 +/- 0.85 mmol L(-1) following 10 min volitional hyperpnoea (P < 0.05). After 6 weeks, increases in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea were unchanged in the control group. Conversely, following IMT the increase in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea was reduced by 17 +/- 37% and 25 +/- 34% following 8 and 10 min, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increases in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea at 85% .V(E) max were attenuated following IMT. These findings suggest that the inspiratory muscles were the source of at least part of this reduction, and provide a possible explanation for some of the IMT-mediated reductions in [lac(-)](B), often observed during whole-body exercise. PMID:18560878

  12. Early variations in plasmodium falciparum dynamics in Nigerian children after treatment with two artemisinin-based combinations: implications on delayed parasite clearance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Combination treatments, preferably containing an artemisinin derivative, are recommended to improve efficacy and prevent Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (AA) are efficacious regimens that have been widely adopted in sub-Saharan Africa. However, most study designs ignore the effects of these regimens on peripheral parasitaemia in the first 24 hours of therapy. The study protocol was designed to evaluate more closely the early effects and the standard measures of efficacies of these two regimens. Methods In an open label, randomized controlled clinical trial, children aged 12 months to 132 months were randomized to receive AL (5-14 kg, one tablet; 15-24 kg, two tablets and 25-34 kg, three tablets twice daily) or artesunate (4 mg/kg daily) plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg daily) for three days. Peripheral blood smears were made hourly in the first 4 hours, 8 h, 16 h, 24 h, and daily on days 2-7, and on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for microscopic identification and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum. Results A total of 193 children were randomized to receive either AL (97) or AA (96). In children that received both medications, early response of peripheral parasitaemia showed that 42% of children who received AL and 36.7% of those who received AA had an immediate rise in peripheral parasitaemia (0-4 h after treatment) followed by a rapid fall. The rise in parasitaemia was significant and seems to suggest a mobilization of asexual parasites from the deep tissues to the periphery. Days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 cure rates in the per protocol (PP) population were > 90% in both groups of children. Both drug combinations were well tolerated with minimal side effects. Conclusion The study showed the high efficacy of AL and AA in Nigerian children. In addition the study demonstrated the mobilisation of asexual parasites from the deep to the periphery in the early hours of commencing ACT treatment in a

  13. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    ); 3Gronau, J. & Schmidt-Koenig, K., Nature 226, 87-88 (1970); 4Foà, A., Benvenuti, S., Ioalé, P. & Wallraff, H. G., Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 15, 25-34 (1984); 5Landès, M., Ceranna, L., Le Pichon, A. & Matoza, R. S., J. Geophys. Res. 117, D06102, doi:10.1029/2011JD016684 (2012); 6Hagstrum, J. T., J. Exp. Biol. 216, 687-699 (2013).

  14. Investigation of ethylene dibromide (EDB) in ground water in Seminole County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, James B.; Hicks, D.W.; Lowe, L. E.; Cohen, S.Z.; Jovanovich, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of ground water in Seminole County, Georgia, for ethylene dibromide (EDB) was conducted in August 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Exposure Assessment Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether EDB, which was previously detected in ground-water samples from four neighboring wells, was localized in the vicinity of the wells or was more widespread in the ground-water system. EDB was detected in 6 of 19 wells sampled. Concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 11.8 micrograms per liter. Five of the six samples that contained EDB were collected from irrigation wells, and one was collected from a domestic well. Concentrations of 4.5 and 11.8 micrograms per liter were found in two irrigation wells located near Buck Hole, a sinkhole in a swampy depression in central Seminole County. EDB was not detected in samples from the remaining 10 irrigation and 3 domestic wells and the surface-water site (detection level less than 0.01 microgram per liter). Nine core samples were collected from a borehole near one of the irrigation wells that had high EDB concentrations. EDB was found in a core sample near the surface and in samples from depths of 24 to 25, 34 to 35, and 39 to 40 feet in the residuum. EDB concentrations in the core samples ranged from 0.06 to 2.4 micrograms per kilogram. EDB in the aquifer was found in a 4-square-mile area of the county in the vicinity of Buck Hole. EDB application information and the local hydrogeology indicate that EDB contamination in ground water in Seminole County probably is due to soil fumigation with EDB. Apparently, EDB moves downward through the residuum and, through undetermined pathways, enters the aquifer. However, because the high concentration of EDB in the aquifer seems to be localized in the Buck Hole area, the possibility of contamination from an EDB fumigant spill cannot be disregarded at this time.

  15. Virtual screening with AutoDock Vina and the common pharmacophore engine of a low diversity library of fragments and hits against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase: participation in the SAMPL4 protein-ligand binding challenge.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Alexander L; Santiago, Daniel N; Forli, Stefano; Santos-Martins, Diogo; Olson, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    To rigorously assess the tools and protocols that can be used to understand and predict macromolecular recognition, and to gain more structural insight into three newly discovered allosteric binding sites on a critical drug target involved in the treatment of HIV infections, the Olson and Levy labs collaborated on the SAMPL4 challenge. This computational blind challenge involved predicting protein-ligand binding against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase (IN), a viral enzyme for which two drugs (that target the active site) have been approved by the FDA. Positive control cross-docking experiments were utilized to select 13 receptor models out of an initial ensemble of 41 different crystal structures of HIV IN. These 13 models of the targets were selected using our new "Rank Difference Ratio" metric. The first stage of SAMPL4 involved using virtual screens to identify 62 active, allosteric IN inhibitors out of a set of 321 compounds. The second stage involved predicting the binding site(s) and crystallographic binding mode(s) for 57 of these inhibitors. Our team submitted four entries for the first stage that utilized: (1) AutoDock Vina (AD Vina) plus visual inspection; (2) a new common pharmacophore engine; (3) BEDAM replica exchange free energy simulations, and a Consensus approach that combined the predictions of all three strategies. Even with the SAMPL4's very challenging compound library that displayed a significantly lower amount of structural diversity than most libraries that are conventionally employed in prospective virtual screens, these approaches produced hit rates of 24, 25, 34, and 27 %, respectively, on a set with 19 % declared binders. Our only entry for the second stage challenge was based on the results of AD Vina plus visual inspection, and it ranked third place overall according to several different metrics provided by the SAMPL4 organizers. The successful results displayed by these approaches highlight the utility of the computational

  16. The Effectiveness of Electronic Screening and Brief Intervention for Reducing Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Robert; Phillips, Thomas; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption, but its effectiveness over time has not been subject to meta-analysis. Objective The current study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine the effectiveness of eSBI over time in nontreatment-seeking hazardous/harmful drinkers. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified through searching the electronic databases PsychINFO, Medline, and EMBASE in May 2013. Two members of the study team independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. Studies reporting data that could be transformed into grams of ethanol per week were included in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in grams of ethanol per week between eSBI and control groups was weighted using the random-effects method based on the inverse-variance approach to control for differences in sample size between studies. Results There was a statistically significant mean difference in grams of ethanol consumed per week between those receiving an eSBI versus controls at up to 3 months (mean difference –32.74, 95% CI –56.80 to –8.68, z=2.67, P=.01), 3 to less than 6 months (mean difference –17.33, 95% CI –31.82 to –2.84, z=2.34, P=.02), and from 6 months to less than 12 months follow-up (mean difference –14.91, 95% CI –25.56 to –4.26, z=2.74, P=.01). No statistically significant difference was found at a follow-up period of 12 months or greater (mean difference –7.46, 95% CI –25.34 to 10.43, z=0.82, P=.41). Conclusions A significant reduction in weekly alcohol consumption between intervention and control conditions was demonstrated between 3 months and less than 12 months follow-up indicating eSBI is an effective intervention. PMID:24892426

  17. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    PubMed

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  18. Women's interest in vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Darroch, J E; Frost, J J

    1999-01-01

    Research is underway to develop safe, effective microbicides that women can use vaginally to prevent sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission. To estimate potential interest in microbicide use, interviews were conducted in 1998 with a nationally representative sample of 1000 sexually active US women 18-44 years of age. 20% of these women had either had an STD in the past or thought they might be infected. 93% of respondents indicated they would be interested in using a vaginal microbicide if they found themselves in a situation where they were at risk of STD transmission and 40% expressed current interest in such a product. Women who were not in a union were almost 3 times as likely as cohabiting women and 12 times as likely as married women to be both worried about contracting an STD and very interested in using a vaginal microbicide. Women who were 25-34 years of age, had a family income under US$20,000, did not have a college education, and were Black or Hispanic also were significantly more likely to express worry about their STD risk and interest in the product. The strongest independent predictor of whether a woman was worried about STDs and very interested in using a microbicide was whether she and her partner were already using condoms for STD prevention (odds ratio, 8.8). Two-thirds of respondents preferred a product that could be applied several hours before intercourse and was available without a prescription. 84% said they would use microbicide along with condoms rather than as a substitute for them. The findings of this survey suggest an estimated 12.6 million US women 15-44 years of age would be interested in current use of a microbicide. More than 7 million of these women would remain interested even if the product protected only against HIV, was just 70-80% effective, and cost $2 per application. Given this level of interest, the development, testing, and marketing of such products should be expedited. PMID:10029928

  19. Time-series growth in the female labor force.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P; Ward, M P

    1985-01-01

    This paper investigates the reasons for the growth in the female labor force in the US during the 20th century. Female labor force participation rates increased by 50% from 1950 to 1970. Real wages have played a significant but hardly exclusive role both in the long term growth in female employment and in the more accelerated growth after 1950. At the beginning of this century, fewer than 1 woman in 5 was a member of the labor force; by 1981 more than 6 in 10 were. Increases in female participation were slightly larger among younger women during the 1970s; for the next 20 years the age shape tilted toward older women. For US women 25-34 years old, labor force participation rates have been rising by more than 2 percentage points per year. Closely intertwined with decisions regarding women's work are those involving marriage and family formation. 2 demographic factors that would play a part in subsequent developments are: nuclearization of the US family and urbanization. Time-series trends in education are observed because schooling affects female labor supply independently of any influence through wages; increased years of schooling across birth cohorts shows that an increase of 1.33 years of schooling increased labor participation by 6.9 percentage points during the pre-World War II era. The swing in marriage rates also affects timing, especially for younger women. Based on disaggregated time series data across the period 1950-1981, mean values at single years of age of labor supply, education, work experience, weekly wages, and fertility are determined. Profiles indicate that female labor supply varies considerably not only across cohorts but also over life cycles within birth cohorts. Results show that: 1) relative female wages defined over the work force were lower in 1980 than in 1950, 2) children, especially when young, reduce labor supply, 3) large negative elasticities are linked to female wages, and 4) with all fertility induced effects included, real wage

  20. Carboniferous magmatism in the Evora Massif (southwest Portugal, Ossa-Morena Zone): from typical arc calc-alkaline to adakitic-like magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Selma M.; Neiva, Ana M. R.; Ramos, Joao M. F.

    2014-05-01

    the PP and the neighboring plutons are observed. First, the PP has the most primitive Sr-Nd isotopic signature; second, several chemical features (like high Na2O [3.86-5.87 %], Sr [278-939 ppm] and Sr/Y [12.4-192.5], low Y [2.4-19.5 ppm] and K2O/Na2O [0.19-0.75], strongly fractionated REE patterns [LaCN/YbCN = 18-43] and lack of pronounced Eu anomaly) suggest that the PP is chemically distinct from typical calc-alkaline arc rocks and is more similar to Archean TTGs and modern adakites. Using the compositional criteria of [6], an evolution towards 'slab-melts' compositions is observed within the PP, whereas the other Evora Massif plutons clearly represent 'non-slab melts'. Given their close spatial and temporal relation, we believe that the link between these granitic bodies deserves further investigation. [1] Silva and Pereira (2004) Geologische Rundschau 93, 886-896; [2] Moita et al. (2005) Geogaceta 37, 55-58; [3] Antunes et al. (2011) Estudios Geologicos 66, 25-34; [4] Antunes et al. (2011) Hutton Symposium Abstracts 9-10; [5] Lima et al. (2012) Journal of Petrology 53, 1887-1911; [6] Defant and Drummond (1990) Nature 347, 662-665.

  1. Transvaginal follicular aspiration and embryo development in superstimulated early postpartum beef cows and subsequent fertility after artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Aller, J F; Mucci, N C; Kaiser, G G; Ríos, G; Callejas, S S; Alberio, R H

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate in early postpartum suckled beef cows with and without FSH pre-stimulation: (i) the influence of the postpartum period on the number and quality of oocytes recovered by ovum pick-up (OPU), (ii) the overall efficiency of the OPU/IVP embryos from days 30 to 80 postpartum and (iii) if repeated OPU negatively affect fertility following a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol. After parturition suckled Angus cows (n = 30) were divided in three groups (n = 10 group(-1)). All cows were anestrous at the commencement of experimental treatments (30.0 +/- 3.2 days postpartum, mean +/- SD; range 25-34 days). Group 1 treatments included: dominant follicle ablation (DFA), FSH treatment and OPU procedure 5 days after DFA. A total of 9 mg FSH (Ovagen) was administered s.c. once a day over 2 days at equal doses (4.5 + 4.5mg). For fertility test the cows received an intravaginal progesterone treatment from Days 78 to 86 postpartum and were fixed-time artificially inseminated (FTAI) at 56 and 72 h after device removal. Group 2: as cited for Group 1 with no FSH treatment. In both groups, OPU was repeated four times (Days 35, 49, 63 and 77 postpartum) and the collected oocytes classified as viable were in vitro matured, fertilized and presumptive embryos cultured for 8 days. Group 3 (Control FTAI): cows that had not previously aspirations were FTAI as Groups 1 and 2. Pregnancy was diagnosed by means ultrasonography 39 days after FTAI. The numbers (mean +/- SEM) of follicles visible and aspirated at the time of OPU in FSH-treated cows were greater (P < 0.05) than in non-treated cows (10.6 +/- 0.6 and 8.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.5 and 4.6 +/- 0.3, respectively). Following FSH treatment, the number (mean +/- SEM) of recovered oocytes per cow per OPU session and percentage of viable oocytes were greater in the treated (P < 0.05) than in non-treated animals (3.0 +/- 0.1 and 39.5% vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 and 30.0%). The cleavage and embryo development

  2. Assessment of personal and community-level exposures to particulate matter among children with asthma in Detroit, Michigan, as part of Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA).

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Gerald J; Dvonch, Timothy; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Parker, Edith A; Isreal, Barbara A; Marsik, Frank J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Robins, Thomas G; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Sam, Mathew

    2002-01-01

    We report on the research conducted by the Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA) in Detroit, Michigan, to evaluate personal and community-level exposures to particulate matter (PM) among children with asthma living in an urban environment. CAAA is a community-based participatory research collaboration among academia, health agencies, and community-based organizations. CAAA investigates the effects of environmental exposures on the residents of Detroit through a participatory process that engages participants from the affected communities in all aspects of the design and conduct of the research; disseminates the results to all parties involved; and uses the research results to design, in collaboration with all partners, interventions to reduce the identified environmental exposures. The CAAA PM exposure assessment includes four seasonal measurement campaigns each year that are conducted for a 2-week duration each season. In each seasonal measurement period, daily ambient measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm and 10 microm, respectively) are collected at two elementary schools in the eastside and southwest communities of Detroit. Concurrently, indoor measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 are made at the schools as well as inside the homes of a subset of 20 children with asthma. Daily personal exposure measurements of PM10 are also collected for these 20 children with asthma. Results from the first five seasonal assessment periods reveal that mean personal PM10 (68.4 39.2 microg/m(3)) and indoor home PM10 (52.2 30.6 microg/m(3)) exposures are significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the outdoor PM10 concentrations (25.8 11.8 microg/m(3)). The same was also found for PM2.5 (indoor PM2.5 = 34.4 21.7 microg/m(3); outdoor PM2.5 = 15.6 8.2 microg/m(3)). In addition, significant differences (p < 0.05) in community-level exposure to both PM10 and PM2.5 are observed between the two Detroit communities (southwest PM10 = 28.9 14.4 microg/m(3)), PM2.5 = 17.0 9.3 microg/m(3); eastside PM10 = 23.8 12.1 microg/m(3), PM2.5 = 15.5 9.0 microg/m(3). The increased levels in the southwest Detroit community are likely due to the proximity to heavy industrial pollutant point sources and interstate motorways. Trace element characterization of filter samples collected over the 2-year period will allow a more complete assessment of the PM components. When combined with other project measures, including concurrent seasonal twice-daily peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory volume at 1 sec and daily asthma symptom and medication dairies for 300 children with asthma living in the two Detroit communities, these data will allow not only investigations into the sources of PM in the Detroit airshed with regard to PM exposure assessment but also the role of air pollutants in exacerbation of childhood asthma. PMID:11929726

  3. Mapping the bimolecular interface of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-PTH1 receptor complex: spatial proximity between Lys(27) (of the hormone principal binding domain) and leu(261) (of the first extracellular loop) of the human PTH1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Z; Bisello, A; Mierke, D F; Rosenblatt, M; Chorev, M

    2000-07-18

    In an effort to characterize the bimolecular interface between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its human receptor PTH1-Rc (hPTH1-Rc), we previously identified two contact sites in the receptor: one for position 1 and another for position 13 (located at the ends of the principal activation domain) in PTH(1-34). The present study reports a third, novel "contact site" between hPTH1-Rc and Lys(27) of PTH(1-34). Lys(27) is located in the principal binding domain of the hormone (residues 25-34). The photoreactive PTH(1-34) analogue K27 contains a benzophenone (BP) moiety on Lys(27). The analogue binds to stably transfected HEK 293/C-21 cells (which express a high level of recombinant hPTH1-Rc) and stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity with a potency similar to PTH(1-34). In addition, (125)I-K27 cross-links effectively and specifically to the hPTH1-Rc. Enzymatic (Glu-C and Lys-C) and chemical (CNBr and BNPS-skatole) digestions of the photoconjugate between (125)I-K27 and hPTH1-Rc were performed. In addition, photoconjugates involving the bioactive mutants [L261M]- and [R262K]-hPTH1-Rc, transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, were also digested. The data obtained clearly identify L(261) or R(262) of the first extracellular loop of hPTH1-Rc as the contact site for Lys(27) in the hormone. On the basis of (i) the similarity in molecular mass between the CNBr digest of the (125)I-K27-[L261M]hPTH1-Rc conjugate and free (125)I-K27 and (ii) the failure to cross-link (125)I-K27 to a bioactive mutant receptor [L261A]hPTH1-Rc, we conclude that L(261) is the cross-linking site. These results provide the first demonstration of an interaction between the principal binding domain of PTH and the first extracellular loop of hPTH1-Rc. Revealing proximity of Lys(27) (in PTH) to L(261) (in hPTH1-Rc) provides additional insight into the nature of the ligand-receptor bimolecular interface and clearly illustrates that the extracellular loops of the receptor contribute to the specificity of the PTH

  4. Seismotectonics investigations in the internal Cottian Alps (Italian Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Gianluigi; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano; Cadoppi, Paola; Balestro, Gianni; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Tallone, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    -Early Miocene) is related to transtensive/extensional movements along the LTZ and the development of minor sub-parallel N-S faults. This kinematic evolution fits in a model of dextral-transtension at regional scale. The more recent activity of the LTZ may have caused the development of Pleistocene lacustrine basin, several hundred metres thick, in the Lower Chisone and Pellice valleys, which did not hosted glacial tongues. Along the LTZ, however, Pleistocene deposits showing evidence of brittle deformation were also found. With the aim to better understand the relation between the current seismic activity and faults, an analysis was carried out by selecting the best located earthquakes (location error less than 3 km) recorded by the seismic network of the North Western Italy (RSNI). This selection is made necessary by the relatively small size of the structures under investigations in order to avoid fake attributions. In addition to get qualitative information about the seismogenic source, the focal mechanisms of four earthquakes occurring along the mapped faults were calculated sorting out the best locatable events among those occurred in the area. The good geometric and kinematic agreement between structural and seismological data indicates a possible dependence of the seismicity of the inner Cottian Alps with the current tectonic activity of the LTZ and its associated minor structures. Balestro G. et al. (2009) Ital. J. Geosci., 128(2), 331-339. Bertotti G., Mosca P. (2009) Tectonophysics, 475, 117-127. Eva C. et al. (1990) Atti del Convegno Gruppo Nazionale Difesa dai terremoti, Ed. Ambiente, Pisa, 1, 25-34. Perrone G. et al. (2009) Ital. J. Geosci., 128(2), 541-549.

  5. Phyllosilicate-poor palagonitic dust from Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii): A mineralogical analogue for magnetic Martian dust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2001-03-01

    of the Mars Pathfinder Magnet Array (MA) experiment was performed on Mauna Kea Volcano in areas with phyllosilicate-poor palagonitic dust and with copies of the Pathfinder MA. On the basis of the magnetic properties of dust collected by all five MA magnets and the observation that the Pathfinder MAs collected dust on the four strongest magnets, the value for the saturation magnetization of Martian dust collected in the MA experiments is revised downward from 4+/-2Am2/kg to 2.5+/-1.5Am2/kg. The revised value corresponds to 2.7+/-1.6wt% magnetite if the magnetic mineral is magnetite (using Js=92Am2/kg for pure magnetite, Fe3O4) or to 5.0+/-3.0 to 3.4+/-2.0wt% maghemite if the magnetic mineral is pure maghemite (using Js=50 to 74 Am2/kg for pure maghemite, γ-Fe2O3). Comparison of the magnetic properties of bulk Mauna Kea palagonitic dust to those for dust collected by MA magnets shows that the MA magnets extracted (culled) a subset (25-34 wt %) of composite magnetic particles from bulk dust. The extent of culling of Martian dust is not well constrained. Because the Mauna Kea palagonitic dust satisfies the essential constraints of the Pathfinder magnetic properties experiment (composite and magnetic particles capable of being collected by five MA magnets), a working hypothesis for the strongly magnetic mineral present in Martian dust and soil is magnetite (possibly Ti-bearing) formed by rapid crystallization from silicate liquids having volcanic and/or impact origins. Subsequent palagonitization of the glass produces the nanophase ferric oxide phases that dominate the spectral properties of Martian bright regions at visible and near-IR wavelengths. Magnetic and phyllosilicate-poor palagonitic dust from Mauna Kea Volcano is thus a spectral and magnetic analogue for magnetic Martian dust.

  6. Effects of clozapine administration on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in male C57BL/6 mice: A parallel controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Yan; Liang, Hai-Xia; Liang, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Li, Huan-De

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clozapine has been associated with metabolic adverse events (AEs) (eg, elevated body weight, blood glucose concentrations, cholesterol, triglycerides [TG]), all of which have deleterious effects on health and medication compliance. However, little focus has been directed toward finding a suitable experimental model to study the metabolic AEs associated with clozapine. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clozapine administration for 28 days on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were grouped and treated with clozapine 2 or 10 mg/kg or vehicle intraperitoneally QD for 28 days. Body weight was assessed on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, and 28, and glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, insulin (calculated by insulin resistance index [IRI]), and plasma lipids (including total cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed on day 29. Results: Sixty 10-week-old, male C57BL/6 mice were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups (20 mice per group). The body weight significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg-treated group on days 14, 21, and 28 compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD] body weight: 21.61 [1.05] vs 22.79 [1.11], 22.53 [1.05] vs 24.17 [1.24], and 22.21 [1.07] vs 24.99 [1.39] g, respectively; all, P < 0.05). In the clozapine 10-mg/kg group, blood glucose concentrations significantly increased 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD]: 6.67 [1.25], 25.34 [5.85], 12.68 [3.39], and 7.52 [1.45] mmol/L, respectively, vs 4.61 [0.78], 21.54 [6.55], 11.46 [3.46], and 6.55 [1.42] mmol/L, respectively; all P < 0.05). The clozapine 10-mg/kg group also had significant increases in plasma insulin concentrations compared with the vehicle group (12.70 [5.27] vs 7.62 [4.54] μIU/mL; P < 0.05) and

  7. Hyperspectral measurements for estimating biophysical parameters and CO2 exchanges in a rice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Meroni, M.; Manca, G.; Cogliati, S.; Busetto, L.; Picchi, V.; Galvagno, M.; Colombo, R.; Seufert, G.

    2009-04-01

    biophysical parameters and carbon GEP based on aerial and satellite images. References Gamon J.A., Penuelas J., Field C.B. 1992. A Narrow-Waveband Spectral Index That Tracks Diurnal Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency. Remote Sensing of Environment, 41:35-44. Meroni M., Colombo R. 2006. Leaf level detection of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence by means of a subnanometer resolution spectroradiometer. Remote Sensing of Environment, 103:438-448. Plascyk J.A. 1975. The MK II Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD-II) for airborne and orbital remote sensing of solar-stimulated luminescence. Optical Engineering, 14:339-346.

  8. Data Mining and Machine Learning in Time-Domain Discovery and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Richards, Joseph W.

    2012-03-01

    The changing heavens have played a central role in the scientific effort of astronomers for centuries. Galileo's synoptic observations of the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus starting in 1610, provided strong refutation of Ptolemaic cosmology. These observations came soon after the discovery of Kepler's supernova had challenged the notion of an unchanging firmament. In more modern times, the discovery of a relationship between period and luminosity in some pulsational variable stars [41] led to the inference of the size of the Milky way, the distance scale to the nearest galaxies, and the expansion of the Universe (see Ref. [30] for review). Distant explosions of supernovae were used to uncover the existence of dark energy and provide a precise numerical account of dark matter (e.g., [3]). Repeat observations of pulsars [71] and nearby main-sequence stars revealed the presence of the first extrasolar planets [17,35,44,45]. Indeed, time-domain observations of transient events and variable stars, as a technique, influences a broad diversity of pursuits in the entire astronomy endeavor [68]. While, at a fundamental level, the nature of the scientific pursuit remains unchanged, the advent of astronomy as a data-driven discipline presents fundamental challenges to the way in which the scientific process must now be conducted. Digital images (and data cubes) are not only getting larger, there are more of them. On logistical grounds, this taxes storage and transport systems. But it also implies that the intimate connection that astronomers have always enjoyed with their data - from collection to processing to analysis to inference - necessarily must evolve. Figure 6.1 highlights some of the ways that the pathway to scientific inference is now influenced (if not driven by) modern automation processes, computing, data-mining, and machine-learning (ML). The emerging reliance on computation and ML is a general one - a central theme of this book - but the time

  9. [Determination of markers from characteristic HPLC chromatogram of phenols in three official origins of Ephedrae Herba and quantitative analysis of four phenols].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xue; Hong, Hao; Zang, Xin-yu; Xu, Feng; Shang, Ming-ying; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-qing

    2015-12-01

    This study is to establish the characteristic HPLC chromatogram of phenols in Ephedrae Herba, from which to pick out the marker peaks, followed by the analysis of the regularity of their distribution and content in the herbaceous stems of Ephedra sinica, E. intermedia and E. equisetina. The HPLC-DAD method for the characteristic chromatogram as well as quantitative analysis was established. The separation was carried out on a YMC-Pack ODS-A column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 µm), eluted with the mobile phases as 0.01% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) in a linear gradient (0-10 min, 17% B; 10-25 min, 17%-19% B; 25- 33 min, 19%-48% B; 33-35 min, 48%-51% B; 35-44 min, 51% B). The flow rate was kept at 1.0 mL · min⁻¹. The column tem- perature was 40 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 350 nm (0-16 min) and 330 nm (16-44 min). Forty-six batches of collected samples from three official origins of Ephedrae Herba were detected, whose liquid chromatograms proven to be helpful to the differentiation of different origins. With principal component analysis and the analysis of distribution of peak area, twelve key peaks from the chromatogram were discussed in details on their contributions to the characteristics and differences of three official origins of the herb: peak area of peak 10, 11, 12 were found out to be significantly higher in E. equisetina than in other two origins, whose sum (higher than 146 mAU in E. equisetina) was useful for the discrimination between E. equisetina and the other two origins; peak area of 1 and 4 were respectively higher in E. sinica and E. intermedia than in other official origins, indicating their important effect on the differen- tiation of corresponding origins; peak 8 and 9 were picked out as two characteristic common peaks in three official origins of the herb, whose peak area showed little difference among different origins; further, peak area of other key peaks in the chromatogram also showed some difference

  10. OGLE-IV Transient Search summary of season 2015b - continuation of ATEL#8484

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Klencki, J.; Sitek, M.; Mroz, P.; Udalski, A.; Kozlowski, S.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Szymanski, M. K.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.

    2015-12-01

    .972 OGLE15ny 23:56:29.37 -79:49:29.8 2457318.62663 18.506 OGLE15oa 4:36:25.64 -62:47:51.8 2457318.76243 18.741 OGLE15om 3:19:00.00 -64:40:40.3 2457317.68868 20.104 OGLE15os 4:05:37.37 -67:02:55.7 2457318.71957 19.992 OGLE15ot 23:15:44.01 -77:31:29.2 2457318.60934 20.383 OGLE15ou 2:55:12.03 -70:41:19.2 2457318.69371 18.967 OGLE15ov 3:06:01.40 -67:08:22.9 2457322.68637 20.347 OGLE15pf 5:17:12.38 -71:52:39.7 2457325.78585 18.444 OGLE15pu 0:26:41.63 -63:41:44.5 2457325.58600 20.289 OGLE15qk 3:30:00.33 -71:30:08.6 2457324.69908 21.426 OGLE15qo 4:09:40.21 -74:35:54.8 2457324.72378 18.590 OGLE15qy 2:44:59.88 -70:53:44.5 2457339.66174 20.400 OGLE15qz 3:08:35.88 -70:30:41.7 2457339.67226 19.786 SLSN-Ic (z=0.59) hostless ATEL#8296, ATEL#8314 OGLE15ra 0:45:54.93 -72:27:23.2 2457339.58743 19.696 OGLE15rb 5:12:52.03 -61:52:00.3 2457340.74221 19.301 OGLE15rc 4:59:27.51 -60:16:46.6 2457340.73547 18.797 OGLE15rd 0:29:34.51 -67:59:52.3 2457340.56877 19.794 OGLE15rw 6:27:24.94 -67:31:50.1 2457342.77767 19.111 OGLE15rx 4:44:26.99 -67:40:16.4 2457342.72258 20.182 OGLE15ry 4:05:33.79 -65:05:48.6 2457341.71825 19.960 OGLE15sd 1:42:21.47 -71:47:15.6 2457339.62646 20.054 SLSN (z=0.56) faint host, ATEL#8369 list continued in the next ATEL.

  11. [Attitudes toward marriage among unmarried Japanese youth].

    PubMed

    Nohara Atoh, M; Kojima, H

    1983-10-01

    The Institute of Population Problems, Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, conducted the Survey on the Attitudes toward Marriage among youth on June 1, 1982. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 5807 unmarried Japanese men and women ages 18-34 living in 325 census tracts which were drawn by the systematic sampling procedure. The survey had a high response rate of 86%. Major findings cover such areas as marriage intentions, types of marriage, friends of the opposite sex, circumstances of the encounter, desired age at marriage and desired age gap between spouses, attitudes toward postmarital residence with parents and the muko-yoshi marriage. There are few single people who intend to remain unmarried all their lives (2% for males and 4% for females) but the % of women ages 30-34 is high (24%). Single women with college education and those with white collar jobs are less likely than other groups to plan permanent celibacy. More than 50% of the respondents under age 25 prefer to have a ren-ai marriage (a couple meeting without formal introduction), but the proportion decreases with age. The percentage of respondents who want to have a miai marriage (a couple meeting through formal introduction) is always low (3-4%). Those who have no preference for marriage types increase with age and have the majority falling in the age groups 25-34. Ren-ai marriage is less popular among unmarried youth with the following characteristics; junior high graduates, those graduates of sex-segregated high schools, the unemployed, blue collar workers, rural residents, and inhabitants of Chugoku-Shikoku and Tohoku Districts. The relative unpopularity of ren-ai marriage among these groups seems to reflect the lack of chance among them to meet people of the opposite sex. The actual behavior of recently married couples corresponds to the attitudes of single people: the higher the marriage age, the higher percentage of miai marriages. 40% of the men and 30% of the women do

  12. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host

  13. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  14. Chemical evolution at the coasts of active volcanic islands in a primordial salty ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasdeit, H.; Fox, S.

    2008-09-01

    (salt concentration ca. 4 %; Fig. 1). After one hour of reflux, a water insoluble dark green residue was iso- EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00081, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 lated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparison with an authentic sample proved that the dipyrromethene 3 had been formed. Conclusions We have, for the first time, demonstrated that conditions favorable for the transformation of amino acids into oligopyrroles may have been present on the young Earth. If the hot-volcanic-coast scenario is true, the first oligopyrrole-type photoreceptor and electrontransfer molecules were available quite early in Earth's history. Future experiments will focus on (i) the inclusion of additional relevant materials such as lava rock and prebiotic oxidation reagents for the formation of dipyrromethenes (e. g. nitrite and nitrate [7]), (ii) the formation of oligopyrroles larger than dipyrromethenes, and (iii) metal complexes of oligopyrroles. References [1] Martin, H., Albarède, F., Claeys, P., Gargaud, M., Marty, B., Morbidelli, A. and Pinti, D. L. (2006) Earth Moon Planets, 98, 97-151. [2] Russell, M. J. and Arndt, N. T. (2005) Biogeosciences, 2, 97-111. [3] Knauth, L. P. (1998) Nature, 395, 554-555. [4] Edmonds, M. and Gerlach, T. M. (2006) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 244, 83-96. [5] Pizzarello, S. (2004) Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 34, 25-34. [6] Plankensteiner, K., Reiner, H. and Rode, B. M. (2006) Mol. Diversity, 10, 3-7. [7] Cleaves, H. J., Chalmers, J. H., Lazcano, A., Miller, S. L. and Bada, J. L. (2008) Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 38, 105-115. [8] Huber, C. and Wächtershäuser, G. (2006) Science, 314, 630-632. [9] Miller, S. L. (1987) in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 52, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, 17-27. [10] Blair, S. K., Magnani, L., Brand, J., Wouterloot, J. G. (2008) Astrobiology, 8, 59-73.

  15. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2010-05-01

    archaeological site Emmaus-Nicopolis (central Israel). Proceed. of the 69th EAGE Conference, P118, London, Great Britain, 5 pp. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E., and Khesin, B.E., 2000. Optimization of magnetic investigations in the archaeological sites in Israel. In: Special Issue of Prospezioni Archeologiche 'Filtering, Modeling and Interpretation of Geophysical Fields at Archaeological Objects', 65-92. Eppelbaum, L., Itkis, S., and Khesin, B., 2006a. Detailed magnetic survey unmasks Prehistoric archaeological sites in Israel. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Calgary, Canada, 1366-1373. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Khesin, B.E., 2001. Disturbing factors in geophysical investigations at archaeological sites and ways of their elimination. Trans. of the IV Conf. on Archaeological Prospection, Vienna, Austria, 99-101. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2001b. Prompt magnetic investigations of archaeological remains in areas of infrastructure development: Israeli experience. Archaeological Prospection, 8 (3), 163-185. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2006b. Some peculiarities of geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel. Russian Archaeology, No. 1, 59-70. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2010. Archaeological geophysics in arid environments: Examples from Israel. Journal of Arid Environments, 74, No. 5. Eppelbaum, L.V., Kutasov, I.M. and Barak, G., 2006c. Ground surface temperature histories inferred from 15 boreholes temperature profiles: Comparison of two approaches. Earth Sciences Research Journal, 10, No. 1, 25-34. Finkelstein, M.I. and Eppelbaum, L.V., 1997. Classification of the disturbing objects using interpretation of low-intensive temporary magnetic variations. Trans. of the Conference of Geological Society of America. Salt Lake City, 29, No.6, p. 326. Itkis, S., Khesin, B., Eppelbaum, L., and Khalaily, H., 2003. The Natufian site of Eynan (Hula valley