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Sample records for 25-34 35-44 45-54

  1. 43 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44... FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or... administrative offset under 31 U.S.C. 3716, except that an administrative offset may not be made under...

  2. 22 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES... overpayment of federal taxes, then or later owing by the United States to the defendant....

  3. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  4. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  5. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence... of Evidence where appropriate, e.g., to exclude unreliable evidence. (c) The ALJ shall...

  6. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  7. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  8. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  9. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  10. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  11. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affiliate cross-subsidization. (a) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy. No wholesale sale of electric energy may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and a market... affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  12. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affiliate cross-subsidization. (a) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy. No wholesale sale of electric energy may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and a market... affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  13. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... affiliate cross-subsidization. (a) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy. No wholesale sale of electric energy may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and a market... affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  14. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  15. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  16. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND TARIFFS Cross-Subsidization Restrictions on Affiliate Transactions § 35.44 Protections against.... (b) Non-power goods or services. (1) Unless otherwise permitted by Commission rule or order, and except as permitted by paragraph (b)(4) of this section, sales of any non-power goods or services by...

  17. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... claimants if value is $1,000 or less. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... is $1,000 or less. The money and effects of the deceased patient shall in all cases be delivered to the legal representative, if any, of his estate. If the value is $1,000 or less, and the officer...

  18. 42 CFR 35.44 - Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if value is $1,000 or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other person who would be entitled to receive the money and effects under the law of the patient's... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of Deceased Patients § 35.44 Delivery to legal representative; to other claimants if...

  19. Design and synthesis of downsized metastin (45-54) analogs with maintenance of high GPR54 agonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Niida, Ayumu; Wang, Zixuan; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Tamamura, Hirokazu; Otaka, Akira; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Broach, James R; Peiper, Stephen C; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2006-01-01

    Metastin has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene product that mediates its function through a G protein coupled receptor, GPR54. To refine insight into the critical pharmacophore for the activation of GPR54, we have conducted alanine and d-amino acid scanning on a biologically active metastin fragment (45-54). Based on these data and structures of peptides previously reported to activate GPR54, a series of shortened metastin (45-54) derivatives were synthesized and tested for the ability to induce GPR54 signaling. These biological experiments were performed in yeast containing human GPR54 that was coupled to the pheromone response pathway and a pheromone responsive lacZ reporter gene. Compounds 32, 33, and 39, which possess an N-terminal basic group and a C-terminal RW-amide motif, were strong agonists, similar to the level of metastin. This may provide an approach to reverse the pro-metastatic effect of metastin deletion in multiple malignant tumors.

  20. Coronary heart disease mortality among men aged 35-44 years by prefecture in Japan in 1995-1999 compared with that among white men aged 35-44 by state in the United States in 1995-1998: vital statistics data in recent birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Sekikawa, A; Satoh, T; Hayakawa, T; Ueshima, H; Kuller, L H

    2001-10-01

    The levels of risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in men in the post World War II (WWII) birth cohort are almost similar between Japan and the USA, except for the considerably higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in Japan and the much higher prevalence of obesity in the USA. The present study evaluated the CHD mortality among men in the post WWII birth cohort by prefecture in Japan in 1995-1999 and then compared the data with those for white men in different states in the USA. There was a greater than 2-fold difference in CHD mortality among men aged 35-44 by prefecture in Japan: 5.3/100,000 in Kumamoto vs 12.6/100,000 in Tochigi. CHD mortality among men aged 35-44 in the top 3 prefectures in Japan is about half that of white men in the USA and is similar to that of white men in the lowest 3 states. The much lower CHD mortality in Japan does not appear to be caused by differences in the classification of causes of death and the results suggest that there may be strong and important protective factors that reduce the risk of CHD in Japan.

  1. Continuous human metastin 45-54 infusion desensitizes G protein-coupled receptor 54-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone release monitored indirectly in the juvenile male Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): a finding with therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Seminara, Stephanie B; Dipietro, Meloni J; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Crowley, William F; Plant, Tony M

    2006-05-01

    The effect of continuous administration of the C-terminal fragment of metastin, the ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54, on GnRH-induced LH secretion was examined in three agonadal, juvenile male monkeys whose responsiveness to GnRH was heightened by pretreatment with a chronic pulsatile iv infusion of synthetic GnRH. After bolus injection of 10 microg human (hu) metastin 45-54 (equivalent to kisspeptin 112-121), the GPR54 agonist was infused continuously at a dose of 100 microg/h and elicited a brisk LH response for approximately 3 h. This rise was then followed by a precipitous drop in LH despite continuous exposure of GPR54 to metastin 45-54. On d 4, during the final 3 h of the infusion, single boluses of hu metastin 45-54 (10 microg), N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDA) (10 mg/kg) and GnRH (0.3 microg) were administered to interrogate each element of the metastin-GPR54-GnRH-GnRH receptor cascade. Although the NMDA and GnRH boluses were able to elicit LH pulses, that of hu metastin 45-54 was not, demonstrating functional integrity of GnRH neurons (NMDA) and GnRH receptors (NMDA and GnRH) but desensitization of GPR54. The desensitization of GPR54 by continuous hu metastin 45-54 administration has therapeutic implications for a variety of conditions currently being treated by GnRH and its analogs, including restoration of fertility in patients with abnormal GnRH secretion (i.e. idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypothalamic amenorrhea) and selective, reversible suppression of the pituitary-gonadal axis to achieve suppression of gonadal steroids (i.e. precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer).

  2. Radiographic Evaluation of Mandible to Predict the Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothi Shiv; Mohan, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is been conducted using digital panoramic radiographs for predicting age in various age groups and the accuracy of the parameters were accessed as age advances. Materials and Methods: The selected 300 panoramic images were divided into 3 age group of Group A (25-34 years), Group B (35-44 years), and Group C (45 -54 years). Each group comprised of 100 subjects in which 50 were males & 50 females. The age changes were evaluated using five parameters collectively, which were: Gonial angle, Antegonial angle, Mental foramen, Mandibular canal, Mandibular foramen. These parameters were evaluated on panoramic radiographs for age prediction and changes in their position as age advances. Results: Among all the parameters changes in Mandibular canal and mandibular foramen was found to be highly significant (p value ≤0.05) as age advances. Conclusion: These parameters can be used to predict the age of the individual as there were significant changes in Mandibular canal and Mandibular foramen as age advances. For Further studies large sample size, and recent modalities in radiography like CBCT or CT scan are required. PMID:25478451

  3. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: evidence from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health.

  4. How Does Sex Influence Multimorbidity? Secondary Analysis of a Large Nationally Representative Dataset.

    PubMed

    Agur, Karolina; McLean, Gary; Hunt, Kate; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W

    2016-03-31

    Multimorbidity increases with age and is generally more common in women, but little is known about sex effects on the "typology" of multimorbidity. We have characterized multimorbidity in a large nationally representative primary care dataset in terms of sex in ten year age groups from 25 years to 75 years and over, in a cross-sectional analysis of multimorbidity type (physical-only, mental-only, mixed physical and mental; and commonest conditions) for 1,272,685 adults in Scotland. Our results show that women had more multimorbidity overall in every age group, which was most pronounced in the 45-54 years age group (women 26.5% vs. men 19.6%; difference 6.9 (95% CI 6.5 to 7.2). From the age of 45, physical-only multimorbidity was consistently more common in men, and physical-mental multimorbidity more common in women. The biggest difference in physical-mental multimorbidity was found in the 75 years and over group (women 30.9% vs. men 21.2%; difference 9.7 (95% CI 9.1 to 10.2). The commonest condition in women was depression until the age of 55 years, thereafter hypertension. In men, drugs misuse had the highest prevalence in those aged 25-34 years, depression for those aged 35-44 years, and hypertension for 45 years and over. Depression, pain, irritable bowel syndrome and thyroid disorders were more common in women than men across all age groups. We conclude that the higher overall prevalence of multimorbidity in women is mainly due to more mixed physical and mental health problems. The marked difference between the sexes over 75 years especially warrants further investigation.

  5. The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Wetselaar, Peter; Vermaire, Jan H.; Visscher, Corine M.; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuller, Annemarie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth wear in different age groups of the Dutch adult population and to determine this tooth wear distribution by gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Results were compared with the outcomes of a previous study in a comparable population. As part of a comprehensive investigation of the oral health of the general Dutch adult population in 2013, tooth wear was assessed among 1,125 subjects in the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. The data collected were subjected to stratified analysis by 5 age groups (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years), gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Tooth wear was assessed using a 5-point ordinal occlusal/incisal grading scale. The number of teeth affected was higher in older age groups. Men showed more tooth wear than women, and subjects with low socioeconomic status (low SES) showed on average higher scores than those with high SES. Tooth wear prevalence found in this study was higher in all age groups than in the previous study. The present study found prevalences of 13% for mild tooth wear and 80% for moderate tooth wear, leading to the conclusion that these are common conditions in the Dutch adult population. Severe tooth wear (prevalence 6%) may however be characterized as rare. A tendency was found for there to be more tooth wear in older age groups, in men as compared with women, in persons with lower SES, and in the present survey as compared with the previous one. PMID:27694757

  6. Prostate Can Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    or completed college), body weight classification (underweight, healthy weight , overweight , obesity ), baseline smoking status (non-smokers, former...completed highschool, more than highschool). b adjusted for age, education, body mass index (underweight, normal weight , overweight , obese ), living (urban...for age (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65+ years) and BMI (underweight, normal weight , overweight , obese ) b adjusted for age, education (no formal schooling

  7. The EEG and Incidence of Epilepsy in Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangye, Sheila R.

    1979-01-01

    It was found, among other things, that neither the presence of congenital heart disease, nor diabetes, nor intercurrent illness appeared to have any effect on the development of seizures. The age groups with the lowest proportion of EEG abnormalities were 25-34 years (48.7 percent abnormal) and 35-44 years (54.1 percent abnormal). (Author/DLS)

  8. [Sociodemographic and occupational aspects of public assistance demand for problems related to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Conde López, V; Martínez Rodríguez, J M

    1990-01-01

    Bibliographic quotations on alcohol related problems in Castilla y León, and some socieconomic data on income, annual revenues, sectorial brute outputs, vine culture surface, red and white wine production in Valladolid, regional enterprise export and evolution are reported on introduction. Characteristics and limitations of the utilized notifications system and number of alcoholic (N = 433) and psychiatric cases (N = 2788) by institutions during 1986-1987 period are summarized. Notification rates, ranking between 1,08 0/000 at risk, and risk populations by province are reported at results section. Differences between alcoholic and remainder psychiatric patients were evaluated with regard to sex, marriage status, education, labour activity and consultation age. Significant differences (p less than or equal to 0.01) of morbidity between alcoholic and remainder psychiatric patients were found at the following intervals of age: 15-24 (4.7% alcoholic vs. 13.7% psychiatric patients), 25-34 (21.6% alcoholic vs. 18.9% psychiatric patients), 35-44 (26.0% alcoholic vs. 16.7% psychiatric patients), 45-54 alcoholic vs. 15.9% psychiatric patients) and older than 65 (6.6% alcoholic vs. 15.2 psychiatric patients). Significant differences (p less than or equal to 0.001) are also observed between alcoholic and psychiatric patients at male (89.8% alcoholic vs. 43.9% psychiatric patients) and female (10.2% alcoholic vs. 56.1% psychiatric patients) categories. Significant differences (p less than or equal to 0.01) are found at window (2.6% alcoholic vs. 7.7% psychiatric patients) and separated couples rates (8.6% alcoholic vs. 2.5% psychiatric patients). With regard to education there are significant differences between first school (32.8% alcoholic vs. 26.28% psychiatric patients (p less than or equal to 0.01), high school (5.0% alcoholic vs. 9.53% psychiatric patients, p less than or equal to 0.05) and university studies (2.5% alcoholic vs. 5.52% psychiatric patients, p less than

  9. Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

  10. Case-control study of oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Palmer, J R; Rao, R S; Zauber, A G; Strom, B L; Warshauer, M E; Harlap, S; Shapiro, S

    1996-01-01

    The relation of oral contraceptive use to the risk of breast cancer in white women aged 25-59 years was assessed with data collected during 1977-1992 in a case-control surveillance system in hospitals in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. A total of 3,540 cases with breast cancer were compared with 4,488 controls with nonmalignant nongynecologic conditions unrelated to oral contraceptive use. Relative risk estimates were obtained by unconditional logistic regression with control for major risk factors. For at least 1 year of use relative to less than 1 year, the multivariate relative risk estimate was 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.3) in women aged 25-34 years, 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.0) in women aged 35-44 years, and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.4) in women aged 45-59 years (p < 0.01 for the difference across age). Among women aged 25-34 years, the relative risk estimates were greatest for use of long duration, but the trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.17); in addition, the duration of use was correlated with the recency of use, and it was not possible to distinguish their effects. Among women aged 35-44 years, the relative risk estimate decreased with increasing duration of use (p = 0.01). Among women aged 45-59 years, some relative risk estimates were increased, but there was no consistent pattern. The results add to the evidence of an association between oral contraceptive use and an increased risk of breast cancer at young ages.

  11. Trends in inequalities in induced abortion according to educational level among urban women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Gloria; García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women's socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20-44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-1.47) between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20-24 and 25-34 and changed little among women aged 35-44. Among women aged 20-24 and 25-34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35-44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe.

  12. [Oral contraception and circulatory risks].

    PubMed

    Wingrave, S J

    1984-10-01

    The longterm prospective study of health effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) conducted by the Royal College of General Practitioners compared 23,000 OC users with 23,000 controls matched for age and marital status. As of 1981, 55 deaths attributable to circulatory problems had occurred in ever-users of OCs, ciompared to 10 in controls, giving a relative risk of 4.2 for OC users. No relation was found between duration of use and mortality risk among users, although mortality risks were greater at all durations of use than for nonusers. Parity was related to mortality risk among users but not among controls. The most significant factors affecting the relation between pill use and circulatory risk were age and smoking. Among users who smoked, the risk ratios were 3.4 for those aged 25-34, 4.2 for those aged 35-44, 7.4 for those aged 45 and over, and 5.1 for the entire group. Among nonsmoking pill users, the ratios were 1.6 for those aged 25-34, 3.3 for those aged 35-44, 4.6 for those 45 and over, and 3.2 for the total sample. Among smokers, the rates of excess deaths were 1 in 10,000 for users aged 15-34, 1 in 2000 for those aged 35-44, and 1 in550 for those aged 45 and over. Among nonsmokers, the rates were 1 in 50,000 users for those aged 25-34, 1 in 6700 for those aged 35-44, and 1 in 2500 for those aged 45 and over. The majority of deaths were attributed to ischemic cardiac problems and to sub-arachnoid hemorrhages, and risks appeared to be elevated in former as well as current users. The total incidence of circulatory effects in former users appears to be elevated only for cerebrovascular disorders, but the suggestion of residual effects requires further study before conclusions can be drawn. Smokers who developed cardiovascular or cerebrovascular problems were at 2-3 times greater risk of dying than were other women. The percentages of fatal cases of ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases were 22.8% among ever-users who smoked, 10.9% among controls who

  13. Role of reproductive factors in breast cancer in a low-risk area: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, D. N.; Ganesh, B.; Desai, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study of 689 breast cancer patients seen at Tata Memorial Hospital during the period 1980-84 was carried out. During the same period 711 females who attended the hospital without a history of benign breast lesions or gynaecological complaints were selected as controls. Patients were interviewed by trained investigators to collect data on reproductive factors, menstrual history, tobacco smoking and chewing habit, dietary practices (vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet) and alcohol consumption. Cases and controls were stratified into four age groups (< 35 years, 35-44, 45-54 and 55+ years) and three places of residence (Bombay, Maharashtra, others). The adjusted relative risk (RR) for unmarried women compared with married women was 2.3. Nulliparous women had a 2.2-fold higher risk than parous women. Late age at marriage (30 years and above) and late age at first pregnancy (30 years and above) showed excess risks of 2.5 and 5.4 compared with women married at the age of 14 years and age at first pregnancy of < or = 14 years. Three or more pregnancies was associated with a 40-50% reduction in risk (P < 0.01). Non-vegetarian diet, literacy status and a history of stillbirth and abortion did not emerge as significant risk factors for breast cancer in our study. These findings, in a low-risk population, were consistent with those reported from high-risk populations. PMID:8018523

  14. Evaluation of motorcycle safety strategies using the severity of injuries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soyoung; Xiao, Qin; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2013-10-01

    The growth of motorcycle fatalities in California has been especially prominent, specifically with regard to the 24 and under age group and those aged 45-54. This research quantitatively examined factors associated with motorcyclist fatalities and assessed strategies that could improve motorcyclist safety, specifically focusing on the two age groups mentioned above. Severity of injury was estimated separately for both age groups with multinomial logit models and pseudo-elasticity using motorcycle-related collision data that was collected between 2005 and 2009. The results were compared with motorcyclists aged 35-44, a group that shows a consistent trend of fatalities. This research found that lack or improper use of helmets, victim ejection, alcohol/drug effects, collisions (head-on, broadside, hit-object), and truck involvement were more likely to result in fatal injuries regardless of age group. Weekend and non-peak hour activity was found to have a strong effect in both the younger and older age groups. Two factors, movement of running off the road preceding a collision and multi-vehicle involvement, were found to be statistically significant factors in increasing older motorcyclist fatalities. Use of street lights in the dark was found to decrease the probability of severe injury for older motorcyclists. Driver type of victim, at-fault driver, local road, and speed violation were significant factors in increasing the fatalities of younger motorcyclists. Road conditions and collision location factors were not found to be statistically significant to motorcyclist fatalities. Based on the statistically significant factors identified in this research, the following safety strategies appear to be effective methods of reducing motorcyclist fatalities: public education of alcohol use, promoting helmet use, enforcing heavy vehicle and speed violations, improving roadway facilities, clearer roadway guidance and street lighting systems, and motorcyclist training.

  15. Herd immunity in adults against influenza-related illnesses with use of the trivalent-live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV-T) in children.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Pedro A; Gaglani, Manjusha J; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Herschler, Gayla; Riggs, Mark; Griffith, Melissa; Fewlass, Charles; Watts, Matt; Hessel, Colin; Cordova, Julie; Glezen, W Paul

    2005-02-18

    Highest attack rates for influenza occur in children. Immunization of schoolchildren with inactivated influenza vaccine in Michigan and Japan was associated with decreased morbidity and mortality, respectively, in older community contacts. An open-labeled, non-randomized, community-based trial in children with the cold adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent (CAIV-T) was initiated to determine the coverage necessary to reduce spread of influenza in the community. Age-specific baseline rates of medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) for Scott and White Health Plan (SWHP) members at intervention (Temple and Belton) and comparison communities (Waco, Bryan, and College Station) were obtained in 1997-1998. During three subsequent vaccination years, 4298, 5251 and 5150 children received one dose per season of CAIV-T. Vaccinees represented 20-25% of the age-eligible children. Age-specific MAARI rates were compared for SWHP members in the intervention and comparison sites during the influenza outbreaks. Baseline age-specific MAARI rates per 100 persons for the influenza season were comparable between the intervention and comparison communities. In the subsequent three influenza seasons, the age groups 35-44, 45-54, 55-65 and >64 years experienced reductions in MAARI rates in the intervention communities. In adults > or =35 years of age, significant reductions in MAARI of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.13), 0.18 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.22) and 0.15 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.19), were observed in the influenza seasons for vaccination years 1, 2 and 3, respectively. No consistent reduction in MAARI rates was detected in the younger age groups. Vaccination of approximately 20-25% of children, 1.5-18 years of age in the intervention communities resulted in an indirect protection of 8-18% against MAARI in adults > or =35 years of age.

  16. [Functional cardiovascular assessment in dentists performing local anesthesia in out-patient settings].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, S A; Razumova, S N; Vasil'ev, Yu L

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of the cardiovascular changes assessment using electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring during local anesthesia in GP dentists. Selective ECG monitoring was carried out in 60 dentists aged 25-55 years (1 group - 25-34 y.o.; 2 group - 35-44 y.o.; 3 group - 45-55 y.o.) by means of portable «Valens» system. The study of stress index or the index of regulatory systems tension (IT) was conducted for 6 hours in the first day half within 1 working day. IT from 50 to 150 relative units was considered normal. In the first group IT peak was observed at the time of expectation of clinically relevant anesthesia in upper and lower jaw, while in the second and third groups it was associated with pain reaction in the course of treatment despite of clinical signs of anesthesia in the maxilla (IT=20±5.3 and 231±1.4, correspondingly) and mandible (IT=213±2.7 and 223±2.6, correspondingly). In all groups greater IT correlated more with mandible anesthesia events.

  17. Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: a population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs), such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR), and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%), and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%). The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92]) for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23]) for 45 + years age group). Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57) (95%CI [1.44, 4.57])). Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age group 25-34 years

  18. Alcohol problem resources and services in State supported programs, FY 1987.

    PubMed Central

    Butynski, W; Canova, D M

    1988-01-01

    During fiscal year 1987, expenditures for alcohol and drug abuse services in facilities receiving at least some funds from State alcohol and drug agencies totaled $1,809,749,013. Of this total, approximately 51.1 percent was contributed by State governments, 17.9 percent by the Federal Government, 9.1 percent by county or local agencies, and 21.9 percent by other sources (for example, private health insurance). Approximately 76.5 percent of the funds was expended for treatment services, 12.6 percent for prevention services, and 10.9 percent for other services (for example, administration, research, training). Between fiscal years 1985 and 1987, total expenditures increased 31.2 percent, although great variability existed among States, with some undergoing significant cuts. The total number of alcohol and drug treatment units that received State funds was 6,632. During fiscal year 1987, admissions for alcoholism treatment in these State-supported facilities totaled 1,317,473. Most admissions were to a nonhospital environment (84.6 percent) and were for outpatient care (44.9 percent). Of the total number of admissions, 76.2 percent were men and 19.8 percent women; the sex of 4.0 percent was not reported. With regard to age, 27.4 percent were 25-34, 21.7 percent were 35-44, 10.7 percent were 21-24, and 4.1 percent were under 18. In terms of race or ethnicity, 69.7 percent of those admitted were white, 15.6 percent black, 5.5 percent Hispanic, 3.6 percent Native American, 0.2 percent Asian or Pacific Islander, 0.3 percent others, and 5.2 percent not reported. Compared with the 1,317,473 admissions for alcoholism, the combined total of all other drug admissions was only 450,553.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141955

  19. Mothers' factors associated with female genital mutilation in daughters in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region.

    PubMed

    Shabila, Nazar P

    2017-03-01

    An important proactive factor for the continuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) is tradition and customs inherited in the family from mothers to daughters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine mothers' factors associated with the occurrence of FGM among their daughters. The datasets from the Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, on 5,184 women aged 15 to 49 years having at least one daughter, was used. Multivariate analysis based on a binary logistic regression model was applied. Mothers' age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.18 at ages 25-34 years, aOR = 22.64 at ages 35-44 years, and aOR = 29.78 at ages 45-49 years, compared to the age group 15-24 years), educational level (aOR = 0.52 for primary education, aOR = 0.26 for secondary education, and aOR = 0.03 for higher education compared to uneducated), employment status (aOR = 0.55 for women having office work compared with unemployed), FGM status (aOR = 27.44 for circumcised mothers compared to uncircumcised), the governorate of residence (aOR = 18.73 for Suleimaniya and aOR = 33.23 for Erbil compared with Dohuk), and the wealth index of the household (aOR = 0.55 for richest group compared to the poorest) were significantly associated with the occurrence of FGM in daughters. Strategies aimed at preventing this harmful practice in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region should include female education and empowerment.

  20. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel investigational nonapeptide KISS1R agonists with testosterone-suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Asami, Taiji; Nishizawa, Naoki; Matsui, Hisanori; Nishibori, Kimiko; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Horikoshi, Yasuko; Nakayama, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Tarui, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Chieko

    2013-11-14

    Metastin/kisspeptin is a 54 amino acid peptide ligand of the KISS1R receptor and is a critical regulator of GnRH secretion. The N-terminally truncated peptide, metastin(45-54), possesses a 10-fold higher receptor-binding affinity than full-length metastin and agonistic KISS1R activity but is rapidly inactivated in rodent plasma. We have developed a decapeptide analog [D-Tyr(45),D-Trp(47),azaGly(51),Arg(Me)(53)]metastin(45-54) with improved serum stability compared with metastin(45-54) but with decreased KISS1R agonistic activity. Amino acid replacements at positions 45-47 led to an enhancement of KISS1R agonistic activity and metabolic stability. N-terminal truncation resulted in a stable nonapeptide, [D-Tyr(46),D-Pya(4)(47),azaGly(51),Arg(Me)(53)]metastin(46-54), compound 26, which displayed KISS1R binding affinities comparable to metastin(45-54) and had improved serum stability. Compound 26 reduced plasma testosterone in male rats and is the first short-length metastin analog to possess testosterone suppressive activities. Compound 26 has led to the elucidation of investigational analogs TAK-683 and TAK-448, both of which have undergone clinical evaluation for hormone-dependent diseases such as prostate cancer.

  1. A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the National Labor Relations Board relating to representation election procedures.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Enzi, Michael B. [R-WY

    2012-02-16

    04/24/2012 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 45 - 54. Record Vote Number: 68. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Institute for the Study of Human Capabilities Summary Descriptions of Research for the Period September 1988 through June 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    and Performance. Plenum Press. pp. 23-45. Suthers, R.A. & D.W. Hector. (1988). Individual variation in vocal tract resonance may assist oilbirds ...Performance. Plenum Press. pp. 23-45. 54 Suthers, R.A. & D.W. Hector. (1988). Individual variation in vocal tract resonance may assist oilbirds

  3. A joint resolution relating to the disapproval of the President's exercise of authority to suspend the debt limit, as submitted under section 1002(b) of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 on October 17, 2013.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2013-10-28

    10/29/2013 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 45 - 54. Record Vote Number: 220. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Trypsin resistance of a decapeptide KISS1R agonist containing an Nω-methylarginine substitution.

    PubMed

    Asami, Taiji; Nishizawa, Naoki; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Nishibori, Kimiko; Horikoshi, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Chieko

    2012-10-15

    Metastin/kisspeptin is an amidated peptide with 54 amino acid residues isolated from human placental tissues as a ligand of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor KISS1R that is expressed throughout the central nervous system and in a variety of endocrine and gonadal tissues. Compared to the full-length metastin protein, the N-terminal truncated peptide metastin(45-54) has 3-10 times higher receptor affinity and enhanced ability to increase intracellular calcium concentration which is essential for activation of protein kinases involved in intracellular signaling in a number of pathways that affect reproduction and cell migration. However, metastin(45-54) is rapidly inactivated in serum. In this study, we designed and synthesized a number of metastin(45-54) analogs and evaluated their agonistic activity and trypsin resistance. Among analogs with substitutions of arginine at position 53, N(ω)(-)methylarginine analog 8 showed 3-fold more potent agonistic activity compared with metastin(45-54). Furthermore, analog 8 was shown to resist trypsin cleavage between positions 53 and 54. This substitution may be useful in the development of other Arg-containing peptides for which the avoidance of cleavage is desired.

  5. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  6. Changes in vigorous physical activity and incident diabetes inmale runners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2007-04-30

    We examined the dose-response relationship between changes in reported vigorous exercise (running distance, {Delta}km/wk) and self-reported physician diagnosed diabetes in 25,988 men followed prospectively for (mean {+-} SD) 7.8 {+-} 1.8 years. Logistic regression analyses showed that the log odds for diabetes declined significantly in relation to men's {Delta}km/wk (coefficient {+-} SE: -0.012 {+-} 0.004, P < 0.01), which remained significant when adjusted for BMI (-0.018 {+-} 0.003, P < 0.0001). The decline in the log odds for diabetes was related to the distance run at the end of follow-up when adjusted for baseline distance, with (-0.024 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) or without (-0.027 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) adjustment for BMI. Baseline distance was unrelated to diabetes incidence when adjusted for the distance at the end of follow-up. Compared to men who ran <8 km/wk at the end of follow-up, incidence rates in those who ran {ge} 8 km/wk were 95% lower between 35-44 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 92% lower between 45-54 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 87% lower between 55 and 64 years old (P < 0.0001), and 46% lower between 65-75 yrs old (P = 0.30). For the subset of 6,208 men who maintained the same running distance during follow-up ({+-}5 km/wk), the log odds for diabetes declined with weekly distance run (-0.024 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.02) but not when adjusted for BMI (-0.005 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.65). Conclusion: Vigorous exercise significantly reduces diabetes incidence, due in part to the prevention of age-related weight gain and in part to other exercise effects. Physical activity decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes [1-10]. Moderate and vigorous exercise are purported to produce comparable reductions in diabetes risk if the energy expenditure is the same [3,10]. The optimal physical activity dose remains unclear, however, with some [4-7] but not all studies [1,8,9] showing continued reduction in diabetes for high versus intermediate energy expenditures. The National Runners Health

  7. 20 Facts on Women Workers. Facts on Working Women No. 93-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin summarizes some current information on working women into 20 short statements. Some of the highlights are the following: (1) about 58 percent of all women aged 16 and older (58 million) were labor force participants in 1992; (2) labor force participation for women was highest among those in the 35-44 age group---77 percent, with 73…

  8. A Climatology of the Refractive Index Structure Function Parameter, Cn(2), in the North Atlantic Ocean Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstracl eitered Inl Blck 20, It dlfferean from Report) " IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Original manuscript received...A..... .. : %G 2 ::;:r 47 FIGURE 25 &#34o S.- .: :I -L Lmr > -,-- ---------" --- - ------ ------------- D 4

  9. Effects of a KiSS-1 peptide, a metastasis suppressor gene, on the invasive ability of renal cell carcinoma cells through a modulation of a matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Ohno, Yoshio; Horiguchi, Yutaka; Ozu, Choichiro; Namiki, Kazunori; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2008-08-29

    Although effects of a metastasis suppressor gene, KiSS-1, have been postulated to be mediated by its receptor, hOT7T175, the mechanism of such effects remains unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the mechanism of how KiSS-1 works and to assess effects of a synthesized truncated KiSS-1 protein on the invasive ability of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. Four RCC cell lines, Caki-1, KU19-20, RSP and RSM, were investigated to determine mRNA expressions of KiSS-1, its receptor, hOT7T175, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and MMP inhibitors. While all cell lines demonstrated hOT7T175 mRNA expressions, only Caki-1 had KiSS-1 transcripts. A synthesized truncated KiSS-1 peptide, metastin (45-54), produced a marked suppression of the invasive ability in KU19-20 cells, which were deficient for KiSS-1 transcripts, but not in Caki-1 cells. Metastin (45-54) also increased the ability of KU19-20 cells to attach to collagen 4. Both MMP-2 mRNA levels and protein production were significantly decreased only in KU19-20 cells by metastin (45-54). In conclusion, metastin (45-54) may have potential therapeutic use by suppressing the motility and invasive ability of RCC cells which possess hOT7T175 with either a negative expression or very low expression level of KiSS-1 through, at least in part, the down-regulation of MMP-2.

  10. The HLA-E(R)/HLA-E(R) genotype affects the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is associated with HLA-E-restricted recognition of an HCV-derived peptide by interferon-gamma-secreting human CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Daniela; Vogel, Martin; Langhans, Bettina; Krämer, Benjamin; Körner, Christian; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Steinberg, Verena; Michalk, Monika; Berg, Thomas; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Spengler, Ulrich; Nattermann, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Recently, we showed chronic hepatitis C to be associated with increased expression of HLA-E and identified peptide hepatitis C virus (HCV) core amino acids 35-44 as a ligand for HLA-E that stabilizes HLA-E expression, favoring inhibition of natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Here we describe HLA-E-restricted recognition of peptide HCV core amino acids 35-44 by CD8(+) T cells. Frequency of HLA-E-restricted responses was significantly higher in patients homozygous for the HLA-E(R) allele (60% vs 38%; P = .038). Moreover, we found that the HLA-E(R) allelic variant confers protection against chronic infection with HCV genotypes 2 and 3. Taken together, our data indicate an important immunomodulating function of HLA-E in hepatitis C.

  11. Colicin type 7 produced by majority of Shigella sonnei isolated from Thai patients with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kaewklom, Siriporn; Samosornsuk, Seksun; Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan

    2013-01-01

    Thirty one out of 153 strains of Shigella sonnei isolated from Thai patients with diarrhoea showed antibacterial activity against S. sonnei by agar well diffusion method. All of them harbor plasmids with the genetic determination of colicin type 7 (Js) gene but without colicin E and colicin U gene. The PCR product obtained from strain 35/44 was shown to be the gene for colicin type 7 lytic protein (cja). The partially purified bacteriocin (PPB) containing colicin type 7 of strain 35/44 was prepared and used for characterization. The antibacterial activity of PPB against a total of 17 selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was tested. It was found that PPB of strain 35/44 was active against E. coli O157, S. sonnei and S. boydii. The sensitivity of PPB from this strain to proteinase K, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin suggests the proteinaceous nature of these antimicrobial substances. Therefore, this isolated bacterium can be regarded as bacteriocin producing bacteria. The bacteriocin produced by this isolated S. sonnei was heat stable as evidenced by its ability to maintain the activity at 80 °C for 60 min. In addition, it was stable within a wide range of pH (3-9). The molecular weight of colicin type 7 from isolated S. sonnei strain 35/44 analyzed by SDS-PAGE was 54.4 kDa composing of at least five subunits. It is to our knowledge; the first report of Thai patients with diarrhoea that S. sonnei isolated from them contained colicin type 7.

  12. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or test Maximum number within tolerances (X) (Y) (X) (Y) (X) (Y) 0 2 34 43 68 81 1 2 35 44 69 82 2 4... 87 102 20 27 54 65 88 103 21 28 55 67 89 104 22 29 56 68 90 105 23 30 57 69 91 106 24 31 58 70 92 107... in the table, a tolerance based on a degree of certainty of 5 percent (P=0.05) can be calculated...

  13. Fundamental Concepts Relating Local Atomic Arrangements, Deformation, and Fracture of Intermetallic Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Takahashi and H. Oikawa, J. Mater. Sci., 25 (1990) 629. 1 18. S.C. Huang and D.S. Shih, in Microstructure/Property Relationships in Titanium Aluminides and...is often somewhat higher than the shear moduli of the constituent elements. In addition, the slip vector associated with superlattice dislocations is...1990) 35-44. 101. Bania, P.J. and Hall, J.A., in Titanium Science and Technology, Lutjering, G., Swicker, V., and Bunk, W. (eds.), Deutche

  14. Phospholipid Biosynthesis and Solvent Tolerance in Pseudomonas putida Strains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    11. Franklin, T. J., and G. A. Snow. 1989. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs, p. 173–200. In K. J. Barrett-Bee and R. D. Nolan (ed.), Biochemistry of...transforming (8, 20, 35, 44). Most of these organisms do not harbor plasmids, indicating that the resistance factors reside on the chromosome (8, 35...Extrusion pumps similar to those described for antibiotic resistance have also been postulated as having a role in solvent tolerance (21). The 1996 study

  15. Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1986. Part 5. Waterways and Harbors, National Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    10,676,900 3,734,295 .......... 215 PUEL WOOD, CHARCOAL . HASTES... al3.30 70.740 33,315 151.193 10.711 3 141039...INLAND $ NANO TOTAL, TRAFFIC TOTAL IMPORTS IENPORTS RECEIPTS ISHIPRENT SHORT TONS 09 1..........0........ ...... . .... 45, 54,9~4,1,9 ,7,0 1146615356...401,945 2412 RAFTED LOGS .......... 14.111,235 2413 FUEL 40OD. CHARCOAL , OWES -- 2.761 190,439 13,202 99.? 351,93 2414 TIMOER, POSTS, POLES, PILING

  16. Processing Science to Increase the Reliability of Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    r Octahedron 6 3 4 35.264 45 54.736 Cube 8 4 3 45 35.264 54.736 Icosahedron 12 3 5 20.908 31.721 37.38 -’ Dodecahedron 20 5 3 31.717 20.905 37.38...an in-plane coordination of 5 or 6 would result from the bisection of a dodecahedron (pore coordination 12), and from this polyhedron predict the...equilibrium dihedral angle (for a dodecahedron shaped pore the dihedral angle is 1380). However, grains are not symmetrically arranged around real

  17. American Higher Education: "First in the World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, 42 percent of Americans in the 25-34 age range hold a degree from a two- or four-year institution of higher education. At one time, that proportion was high enough to make the United States the best-educated country in the world. But in one generation, America's educational attainment has held steady while in other countries it has…

  18. Interdisciplinary Program for Quantitative Flaw Definition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    materials. In ordinary eddy current testing a small search coil, having in some cases a ferrite core for field concentration, is placed near the metal...a block approximately 1"x1"xO.25" in size, containing small samarium cobalt magnets and a 15 mil diameter pure YIG sphere mounted with its center

  19. An Investigation into the Tripping Behavior of Longitudinally T-Stiffened Rectangular Flat Plates Loaded Statically and Impulsively.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    strain gages were attached as described in [Ref. 14: p. 132] and coated with silicone sealant to ensure water tight integrity. The tourmaline ...EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE strain gages CEA-350 ohms 50k microstrain pressure transducers .25" Tourmaline 10 ksi, 97% response ratio amplifiers Ektron 563F J -- 2

  20. Time Periodic Control of a Multi-Blade Helicopter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    motion (13-22). Friedmann and Silverthorn (13) examined the flap-lag motion of a cantilevered rotor blade at arbitrary d, advance ratios. They concluded...Advance Ratio,* NASA SP-352: 25-34 (1974). 13. Friedmann, P. and L. J. Silverthorn . "Aeroelastic Stability of Periodic Systems with Applications to Rotor

  1. Reaching the Non-Traditional Stopout Population: A Segmentation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatzel, Kim; Callahan, Thomas; Scott, Crystal J.; Davis, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 21% of 25-34-year-olds in the United States, about eight million individuals, have attended college and quit before completing a degree. These non-traditional students may or may not return to college. Those who return to college are referred to as stopouts, whereas those who do not return are referred to as stayouts. In the face of…

  2. Knowledge Management as a Mechanism for Technological and Organizational Change Management in Israeli Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Snunith; Perry, Milly

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, the higher education sector has experienced many pressures and changes (Hanna, "Educause Review, 38"(4), 25-34, 2003; Scott, "Educause Review, 38", 64-80, 2003; Waterhouse, "The power of e-learning: The essential guide for teaching in the digital age", 2005). Universities around the world are…

  3. Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment on Upper Gordons Creek, Urban Flood Damage Reduction Measures at Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    recommendation. QWI"DV Ni- F- estr :_ .le ute The coupliance of the recoymended plan with Water Resource Council designated environmental statutes is...IlI25 &#34Ittl LIlI .6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NAIONCA PLIFEAU O T ’JAN[D’A > TABLE 3-4 Upper Gordons Creek Initial Stage Plan Formulation

  4. Security Games Applied to Real-World: Research Contributions and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Challenges 25 34. Alpcan, T.: Network Security: A Decision and Game-Theoretic Approach. Cambridge Uni- versity Press (2010) 35. Vanek , O., Yin, Z...The 11th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS). (2012) 36. Jain, M., Korzhyk, D., Vanek , O., Pechoucek, M

  5. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  6. Complete Health: Prevalence and Predictors among U.S. Adults in 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed 3,032 U.S. adults to operationalize, estimate the prevalence, and ascertain the epidemiology of complete health. Overall, 19 percent of adults were completely healthy, 18.8 percent were completely unhealthy, and 62.2 percent had a version of incomplete health. Completely healthy adults were likely to be young (age 25-34 years) or old…

  7. The Effectiveness of a University Mentoring Project in Peri-Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; Lawson, Mike; van Breda, Marja

    2012-01-01

    The Bradley report (2008) recommended that there be an increase in the percentage of young Australian's completing a university degree, with a subsequent target set by the Australian Federal Government to 40% of 25-34 years olds holding a first degree by 2025. As students who transition to university following completion of high school in…

  8. Latinas and HIV/AIDS: Implications for the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Miguelina

    1991-01-01

    Among Latinas, the number of cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is increasing relentlessly. From August 1989 to August 1990, there was a 53 percent increase nationally in cumulative AIDS cases among Latinas. In New York City, AIDS is the leading cause of death among Latinas aged 25-34. The conditions and circumstances that place…

  9. Comparison of Demineralized Dentin and Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone as Carriers for Enamel Matrix Proteins in a Rat Critical Size Defect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    derivative in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. A 12-month re-entry study. J Periodontol 2001;72:25-34. Froum S., Weinberg M., Novak J., Mailhot...1 B . O dontogenesis ........................................................................ 2 C. Periodontal regeneration...LITERATURE REVIEW A. Introduction Periodontal disease may result in destruction of periodontal attachment and eventual loss of bone and/or teeth. About 13

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF MENTAL MORBIDITY IN A RURAL PRIMARY HEATH CENTRE OF HARYANA

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Jugal; Reddaiah, V.P.; Kapoor, Vinay; Gill, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of mental morbidity including comorbidity with physical illnesses in a rural primary health centre is very high. Most common entitites in the diagnostic group according to DSM-IU-R were mood disorders (28%), somatoform disorders (27%), and anxiety disorders (17.6%). Majority of them presented with somatic symptoms. There were significant differences in rates for mental disorders when age (particularly 35-44 years), marital status, types of family, and females operated for tubectomy were analysed. The study emphasises the need for effective mental health care to the rural community through primary health centres. PMID:21584121

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 is located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 214 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as ''Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas,'' and is comprised of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters {sm_bullet} CAS 11-22-03, Drum {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-18, Storage Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 11-22-03, 25-34-03, 25-34-04, 25-34-05, 25-99-12, and 25-99-18 is No Further Action. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of the fly ash and surrounding wooden structure at CAS 25-99-12 as a best management practice The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 05-99-01 in CAU 214 is Clean Closure. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with the pesticide dieldrin The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 is Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with chromium and soil impacted with the pesticides chlordane and heptachlor {sm_bullet} Implementing use restrictions (UR) at both CASs as detailed in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2005) {sm_bullet} Posting UR warning signs around CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 on the existing chain link fence

  12. Genotype distribution and the relative risk factors for human papillomavirus in Urumqi, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifang; Meng, Wei; DU, Rong; Zhu, Yuejie; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Yan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV genotype distributions in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. The related risk factors for high-risk HPV infection was also analyzed. A stratified cluster sampling method was used for the population-based cervical cancer screening of women aged 18-69 years in the Urumqi Saybagh district. Exfoliated cervical cell samples were collected for liquid-based cytology detection and HPV genotyping DNA microarrays. Education level, number of sexual partners, condom use and occupation were used in the multivariate analysis model. The HPV infection rate of women working in service industries was significantly higher compared with those of white-collar workers, community residents and migrant workers. The 35-44-year-old migrant worker group had the highest HPV infection rates among all of the groups in the three different age ranges. The number of marriages, education level, smoking history, number of abortions, use of condoms, number of sexual partners, number of sexual partners in the past five years and occupation were all associated with female HPV infection rate (P<0.05). The 35-44-year-old women were the age group with the highest HPV infection rate. The HPV infection rate of females in service industries was the highest. Education level and condom use were protective factors of HPV infection, while the number of sexual partners and occupation were risk factors for HPV infection.

  13. [Oral health of Guaraní Indians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Pedro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Vettore, Mario Viana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the oral health conditions of Guaraní Indians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional oral health survey was conducted in 508 subjects (90.7% of the Guaraní population) using World Health Organization criteria. At 5 years of age, 38.5% of children were caries-free. DMF-T was 1.7 at 12 years. 54.2% of subjects in the 35-44-year group and 12% in the 65-74-year group had at least 20 teeth. Numbers of teeth for the 35-44 and 65-74 age groups were 18.5 and 8.5, respectively. While caries index did not differ by gender for deciduous teeth, DMF-T and tooth loss was higher in women. Nearly 60% of the population showed no periodontal illness. Gingival bleeding and calculus were the most severe periodontal conditions. Gingival bleeding and calculus were more common in men and excluded sextants more common in women. Oral health promotion strategies are needed for this ethnic group and should consider the epidemiological profile according to age and gender.

  14. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  15. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Pandya, J.D., J. Royland , R.C. McPhail, P.G. Sullivan, and P. Kodavanti. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 42: 25-34, (2016).

  16. Foundation Report on Stonewall Jackson Dam, West Fork River Basin, Weston, West Virginia. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-21

    ci last ucvate 05/01𔄂t I E C 1e I d raPe T,.oe Width Ce; 1 CFJ haracter 25 - LOCHTION Character 25 &#34 STATION Character Iv 4 r",PELEV Numeric 7 H E r...I __ 9 7 9.b parting, shalv :am. gr., v/scat. cisc. no d’s. otm fHe EMG PORN 18 36 EPVOI DITIONS API O3LOLIETE STONECAL 1AKO DAE 220 MAR7 STNWLLJCSO

  17. Auxiliary Salvage Tow and Rescue: T-STAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    39 7.2.2 High Pressure Air Compressors (HPACs) .............................................................. 39 7.2.3 Potable Water Pumps...39 Table 24: Potable Water Pump Data ............................................................................................. 39 Table 25...2 4.5 Lifeboat Winch 2 4.0 Anchor Chain 2.25"x165 Fathoms 2 44.6 Ships Anchors 2 3.6 Bow Hawse Pipe and Bull Nose 1 1.6 Anchors, Mooring Chains

  18. Mechanics of Composite Materials with Different Moduli in Tension and Compression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Bethesda, Maryland, 3-5 April 1978, by Robert M. Jones and Jose C . F. Henneman . To appear in AIAA Journal. (24) "Biaxial...Canada, 16-20 April 1978, by Robert M. Jones and Jose C . F. Henneman . (25) &#34Analysis of Nonlinear Deformation Behavior of Laminated Fiber- Reinforced...CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPA~I, T SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE C .2 _SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVEfttr DALLAS, TEXAS 75275 /FINAL

  19. CONARC Training Workshop, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 5-7 October 1971. Volume I. General: Opening, Closing, and Dinner Sessions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-10-01

    Appendix A 4. Workshop Agenda Summary. .......... Appendix B 5. Presentation by GEN Ralph E . Haines, Jr.* Appendix C 6. Presentation by Dr. Leon M...Lessinger . .Appendix D 7. Presentation by Dr. George E . Bair......Appendix E 8. Presentation by BG Ira A. Hunt, Jr .. .... Appendix F 9. Summary of Each...Individualized Instruction Speciality Workshop. @,2 J25" e . VOL V - Methods and Media Speciality Workshop. Z 5-3 f . VOL VI - Quality Control Speciality

  20. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (a) A separation zone bounded by a line connecting the following geographical positions: Latitude... following geographical positions: Latitude Longitude 48°14.27′ N 123°13.41′ W 48°14.05′ N 123°16.08′ W 48°15... connecting the following geographical positions: Latitude Longitude 48°12.72′ N 123°25.34′ W 48°12.34′ N...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (a) A separation zone bounded by a line connecting the following geographical positions: Latitude... following geographical positions: Latitude Longitude 48°14.27′ N 123°13.41′ W 48°14.05′ N 123°16.08′ W 48°15... connecting the following geographical positions: Latitude Longitude 48°12.72′ N 123°25.34′ W 48°12.34′ N...

  2. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. Methods The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007–2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson’s χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%), which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively). Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%). Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups. Conclusion Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies. PMID:27898722

  3. The Role of Familiarity, Priming and Perception in Similarity Judgments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    cessing that can detect both color similarity and brightness difference between colors . It is based on the CIEDE2000 al- gorithm ( CIE , 2001), and has...process approach to selecting color scales for complex visualizations. Journal of Experimental Psychol- ogy: Applied, 15(1), 25-34. CIE . (2001...perceptual stimuli where the only feature was color (so there are no features to comparatively weigh), and where the color hues are fairly similar (so there is

  4. Interpretive Overview of Cultural Resources in Saylorville Lake, Iowa. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    lflflflfllflflflflflflfl III ’ I~ 12 &LL 11.25 &#34.6E MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A N !A I’ 9 -sMSU INTERPRETIVE...O.. 12 The Character of Previous Investigations & Future Needs....... e .... * eeeee 24 III OVERVIEW OF PREHISTORIC CULTURES.................. 26...volume III , of the contract is problem-oriented testing of the research questions. The scope-of-work for the entire contract is reproduced in Appendix

  5. Fracture Prediction in Brittle Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-29

    Components of Bending Test ............................. 36 4.2 Assembled View of 4-Point Bend Test ...................... 36 4.3 Self- Aligning 4-Point...concentrations at bearing points 35 D. 1. 25" - diameter alignment rods for stablizing upper load frame E. Upper pivot arm with load roller and...apparatus, there was a question as to what type of alignment mechanism should be used to locate the outer (lower) and the inner (upper) specimen

  6. Immunology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    to be as safe as chloro- in children aged 6 months to 5 years. quine [23"’,24",25"’]. Boudreau ct al. f23"’] found that mefloquine caused mild sleep ...significant health problems . As the disease flourishes and drug resistance spreads, the search for vaccines and effective drugs for therapy and...infection). It reers. Most clones recognized variant peptides from dif- was most effective in children under 5 years of age and ferent Pfalciparun

  7. A Classification and Analysis of National Contract Management Journal Articles from 1990 to 1999 and Journal of Supply Chain Management Articles from 1987 to 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Managing Software Development: An Insight into the Process,” Lt. Col. Jerome S. Gabig , pp. 41-50. This article discusses large software...Deductive Change: The Amount of the Decrease Is Not Always the Same,” Jerome S. Gabig , Jr., pp. 25-34. There are two clauses in federal procurement...Privatization: A Coming Wave for Federal Information Technology Requirements,” Jerome S. Gabig , Jr., pp. 9-24. The author uses privatization

  8. Resonant Acoustic Determination of Complex Elastic Moduli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    F ( 79 "C) 1 Complete Cure - days @ 77"F (25" C) 2 - 4 Complete Cure -L hrs. @ 175 F ( 79 °C) 2 - 3 Color Amber or Black Ratio (By Weight): Part A 100...Classification Authority 3 Distribution Availability of Report 2b Declassification/Downgrading Schedule Approved for public release; distribution is...Mechanical Model ..................................................... 7 3 . Complex Modulus, Loss Tangent and Quality Factor .................... 10 4

  9. FORENSIC Autopsy of People Having Committed Suicide in 2002 and in 2012: Comparison of Epidemiological and Sociological Data.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Angélique; Bagur, Jacques; Lemoine, Patrick; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Malicier, Daniel; Maujean, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    This work compares epidemiological and sociological data on persons having committed suicide in 2002 and in 2012 through a retrospective study of every suicide case having led to an autopsy at the Institute for Forensic Medicine of Lyon in 2002 and in 2012. The study included sociodemographic data, medical data, and toxicological data. A total of 486 cases were included (242 cases in 2002 and 244 cases in 2012). People committing suicide were on average older in 2012 than in 2002 with a larger proportion of over 55. There was also an increase in the proportion of psychiatric antecedents (p < 0.001). Whatever the date of death by suicide, the most affected age range is the 45-54. The results highlight the necessity of bolstering the prevention plans, in particular for people over 45.

  10. Microencapsulation of Lithium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    Flash Point, COG, -F 290 430 445 455 475 190 192 SFire Point. COC. * 395 505 500 515 560 220 222 Acid No., Max. 1.0 10 10 1.0 10 - - Saponification ...1.0 1.0 1.0 10 Saponification No . Max 2 0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 S Iodine Number 46 45 54 55 52 520 - Specific Gravity 1 04 1.05 1.12 1.10 1.10 1.12 Melt...Fire Point. ’F. 480 4180 4; IAO 182 0 18 480 0& 495 52 PICCOUKAO ~N u~~~ ’-’t Saponification Number I 1 I I * ~ ijj~iiort~4nden typo r

  11. Life cycle assessment of the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) in comparison to different energy recovery, animal-based and non-refining management systems.

    PubMed

    Bühle, Lutz; Hensgen, Frank; Donnison, Iain; Heinsoo, Katrin; Wachendorf, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The study compares energy production from semi-natural grasslands by the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) through mechanical separation of the biomass with the dry fermentation (DF) and hay combustion system (HC). In addition, traditional use for beef cattle production and non-refining systems of landscape conservation, i.e. mulching and composting, are considered. Highest conversion efficiency (45-54% of the gross yield), net savings of fossil fuels (44-54 GJ ha(-1)) and net savings of greenhouse gases (2.9-3.7 t CO(2-eq)ha(-1)) are obtained by HC and IFBB. Potentials of DF are limited due to low digestibility of the mature biomass.

  12. Long-term marriage patterns in the United States from colonial times to the present.

    PubMed

    Haines, M R

    1996-01-01

    The author presents an overview of long-term trends in U.S. nuptiality. "Marriage in colonial North America was notable for being early (for women) and marked by low percentages never marrying.... Between 1800 and the present there have been long cycles in nuptiality. Since about 1800, female age at first marriage rose from relatively low levels to a peak around 1900. Thereupon a gradual decline commenced with a trough being reached about 1960 at the height of the baby boom. There then began another, and rapid, upswing in female marriage age. Proportions never married at ages 45-54 replicated these cycles with a lag of about 20-30 years. Since 1880 (when comprehensive census data became available), male nuptiality patterns have generally paralleled those of women. Male marriage ages were higher than those of females with proportions never marrying also usually higher."

  13. Flight Control System Reliability and Maintainability Investigations. Appendix F. Design Handbook Change Resommendations, AFSC Design Handbook, DH-2- 1, DH-2-X.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    usually stainless steel (MIL-C-5424 or MIL-C-18375). Assuming that the bending stress is made small by the use of adequately large sheaves (Ds/d_ of at...0.20- 0.35 1 ES2IO0 steel 0.98- | 1.10 1.30- 1.60 0.25- 0.45 0.025 MAX 0.025 MAX 0.20- 0.35 ! 44QC stainless 0.95- 1.20 16.0...1 17-7PH stainless Excellent Good Good Good j 410 stainless Good Poor Fair Fair Rene 41 Excellent Good Good Good { A-286 Excellent

  14. Trends in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy in New South Wales between 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Boufous, S; Quartararo, M; Mohsin, M; Parker, J

    2001-11-01

    During the last three decades, ectopic pregnancy rates have increased considerably in different parts of the world including Australia. Recent reports, however, suggest that the incidence is decreasing or at least stabilising. An analysis of the New South Wales Inpatient Statistics Data collected during the period between 1990 and 1998 has shown a decline in the rate of ectopic pregnancy after 1993. Overall the rate decreased from 17.4 per 1,000 births in 1990-1991 to 16.2 per 1,000 births in 1997-1998. The decline was greater for women aged 35-44 years than for younger women. The findings are consistent with recent studies in other countries, which indicate slowing or the end of the previous upward trend in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy

  15. Major colorectal cancer aetiological hypotheses do not explain mortality trends among Maori and non-Maori New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Smith, A H; Pearce, N E; Joseph, J G

    1985-03-01

    New Zealand colorectal cancer mortality rates are presented for the period 1947-1980. Mortality has been increasing and is now the highest in the world for both males and females in the age range 35-64; indeed New Zealand mortality rates for those aged 35-44 are approximately twice those of other countries with high mortality. By contrast, colorectal cancer mortality rates among Maoris, the indigenous New Zealanders of Polynesian descent, have been decreasing so that they are now less than half the non-Maori mortality rates. These findings cannot be explained by ethnic differences in consumption of the major proposed dietary risk factors: total fat, cholesterol, meat, fibre and beer. Possible differences in the prevalence of lactose malabsorption, in faecal mutagen activity, and in the prevalence of colorectal polyps warrant further investigation.

  16. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly.

  17. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in Amblyomma ticks likely to infest humans in rural areas from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Saracho Bottero, María N; Tarragona, Evelina L; Nava, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This work was performed to detect Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group in Amblyomma ticks likely to infest humans in rural areas from northwestern Argentina. Free-living ticks were collected and determined as Amblyomma tigrinum, Amblyomma neumanni and Amblyomma tonelliae. Rickettsia infection was determined by polymerase chain reactions which amplify fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. A high frequency (35/44, 79.5%) of Candidatus "Rickettsia andeanae" was observed in A. tigrinum ticks, and Candidatus "Rickettsia amblyommii" was found in three out of 14 nymphs of A. neumanni. All 14 Amblyomma tonelliae ticks were negative for rikettsiae. The infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks aggressive for humans reveals the potential risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens of people inhabiting rural areas of northwestern Argentina.

  18. Implications of social media use on health information technology engagement: Data from HINTS 4 cycle 3.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Devlon N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Coa, Kisha I; Oh, April; Hesse, Bradford

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the association between Internet/social media use and health information technology (HIT) engagement. This study examines patterns of social media use and HIT engagement in the U.S.A. using data from the 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3,164). Specifically, predictors of two HIT activities (i.e., communicating with a healthcare provider using the Internet or email and tracking personal health information electronically) are examined. Persons who were females, higher education, non-Hispanic others, having a regular healthcare provider, and ages 35-44 were more likely to participate in HIT activities. After controlling for sociodemographics and health correlates, social media use was significantly associated with HIT engagement. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to systematically examine the use and relationships across multiple types of health-related online media.

  19. [Frequency of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders, vertical orthodontic anomalies and their relationships based on screening of a large population].

    PubMed

    Madléna, Melinda; Fejérdy, Pál; Kaán, Miklós; Hermann, Péter

    2015-03-01

    Altogether 4606 volunteers (2923 vomen, 1683 men) participated in the representative national epidemiological study to screen the alterations of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The characteristic clinical signs and subjective complaints according to TMJ were evaluated by medical history taking and physical examination. Regarding the orthodontic anomalies, the vertical abnormalities (deep bite and open bite) were specifically noted. Clinical signs showing functional problems of TMJ were found in 45.19% of the screened population, mainly in the group of 35-44 year olds. The frequency of clicking and crepitation of TMJ was significantly higher in women compared to men (p < 0.05). The highest rate of clinical signs of TMJ disorders was found in the South-Transdanubian region, the lowest rate in the Middle-Transdanubian region, between these regions it was a significant difference regarding the frequency of deviation/deflexion (p < 0.05). Of the vertical abnormalities, deep bite occured most frequently in the 35-44 ys old age group. The prevalence of deep bite was higher among males than females in the whole screened population, but the difference was not statistically significant. Significant relationship was detected between deep bite and TMJ pain, deep bite and noises in the joint in the majority of the population. The most frequent anomaly in the South-Transdanubian region was deep bite, while the open bite occured most frequently in south middle part of Hungary. Conclusion: the Hungarian population needs well organized specific programs to improve the oral health including TMJ and orthodontic aspects.

  20. PCB concentrations in women based on breastfeeding history: NHANES 2001-2004.

    PubMed

    Alcala, Cecilia S; Phillips, Linda J

    2017-04-01

    Data from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to evaluate serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in women of reproductive age, with or without a history of breastfeeding. Analytical data for PCBs 138, 153, and 180 were used along with responses to the NHANES Reproductive Health questions: [Have you] breastfed any of your children? " and "[What] number of children [have been] breastfed [for] at least 1 month? " PCB concentrations were found to be significantly lower among 15-44 year old women who had a history of breastfeeding compared to those who had not breastfed any of their children. Based on data for 474 women, ages 15-44 years, mean serum PCB 138, 153, and 180 concentrations were 16.4, 21.4, and 14.3ng/g lipid for women who have a history of breastfeeding, and 24.0, 30.0, and 21.4ng/g lipid for women who have not breastfed, respectively. These results were weighted using the 2001-2004 sample weights provided by NHANES to represent over 27 million U.S. women. PCB concentrations were also lower among women who had breastfed multiple children. Mean serum PCB 138, 153, and 180 concentrations were 11.8, 15.2, and 10.1ng/g lipid, respectively, for women 35-44 years who had breastfed six children and 22.7, 31.9, and 22.5ng/g lipid, respectively, for women 35-44 years who had breastfed only one child. The results tend to support the long-standing hypothesis that depuration of PCBs may occur via breastfeeding.

  1. α4βδ GABAA receptors reduce dendritic spine density in CA1 hippocampus and impair relearning ability of adolescent female mice: Effects of a GABA agonist and a stress steroid.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Sonia; Shen, Hui; Smith, Sheryl S

    2017-04-07

    Synaptic pruning underlies the transition from an immature to an adult CNS through refinements of neuronal circuits. Our recent study indicates that pubertal synaptic pruning is triggered by the inhibition generated by extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs) which are increased for 10 d on dendritic spines of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty (PND 35-44) in the female mouse, suggesting α4βδ GABARs as a novel target for the regulation of adolescent synaptic pruning. In the present study we used a pharmacological approach to further examine the role of these receptors in altering spine density during puberty of female mice and the impact of these changes on spatial learning, assessed in adulthood. Two drugs were chronically administered during the pubertal period (PND 35-44): the GABA agonist gaboxadol (GBX, 0.1mg/kg, i.p.), to enhance current gated by α4βδ GABARs and the neurosteroid/stress steroid THP (3α-OH-5β-pregnan-20-one, 10mg/kg, i.p.) to decrease expression of α4βδ. Spine density was determined on PND 56 with Golgi staining. Spatial learning and relearning were assessed using the multiple object relocation task and an active place avoidance task on PND 56. Pubertal GBX decreased spine density post-pubertally by 70% (P<0.05), while decreasing α4βδ expression with THP increased spine density by twofold (P<0.05), in both cases, with greatest effects on the mushroom spines. Adult relearning ability was compromised in both hippocampus-dependent tasks after pubertal administration of either drug. These findings suggest that an optimal spine density produced by α4βδ GABARs is necessary for optimal cognition in adults.

  2. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Paniya Tribes in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Valsan, Iris; Joseph, Joe; Mohamed, Shamaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The tribal communities of Kerala have been largely left out of the gains of the Kerala model of development. Aim The study was aimed to obtain baseline data of oral health status and treatment needs of Paniyas, in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive population based survey of adult Paniya belonging to index age groups of 35-44 years and 65-74 years was conducted. The study population comprised of 420 subjects drawn from three talukas by stratified cluster sampling. Modified version of WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was used to assess the oral health status. Results Caries prevalence was 40%. The mean DMFT in the 35-44 years age group was 1.52±1.95 and in 65-74 age group it was 18.47 ± 13.10. Oral mucosal lesions were seen in 4.52% and 76.9% had periodontal disease. Tooth brushing was reported by 55.5% of the subjects. Paan chewing, with tobacco or without tobacco, habit was reported by 89.3%. Bi-variate analyses between the CPI scores and age groups showed high statistical significance. The maximum mean treatment requirement was for extraction (1.37 ± 4.01) and was observed in 65-74 age groups. Conclusion The lack of basic oral health care access is important for high oral disease burden in these populations. Efforts are to be done for basic oral health care facility to these marginal populations. PMID:27891449

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  4. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.

  5. Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-15

    Kurn, D. M. in Proc. Int. School of Physics “ Enrico Fermi ” (eds Inguscio, M., Stringari, S. & Wieman, C. E.) 67–176 (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999). 25...34Bosons in Cigar-Shaped Traps: Thomas- Fermi Regime, Tonks-Girardeau Regime, and In Between". Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5413 (2001) 12. E. Altman, E. Demler...each plot. In c, the momentum profiles for the ideal Bose gas (green dotted lines) and the ideal Fermi gas (yellow dashed lines) are also displayed for

  6. Williams AFB, Chandler, Arizona. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-16

    HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 23104 WILLIAMS AFB ARIZONA/CHANDLER 42-74 NOV STlAT ION STATION AME{ TRDEMNTH ALL WEATHER 0900-1100 ClASS MOVIS (L ST.) CONDITION...1 9. 1011.12 13. 14 I. 16 17.18 19.20 21.22 23.24 25".26 27.28129.30 .31 D.B./W.B. pDy nulbFWetI ulbOew Porn , 34/ 33 289 32/3R1 _ I jJ _, _ 267 30

  7. Proceedings of Damping 󈨟, 13-15 February 1991, San Diego, California; Volume 1 (Pages AAC-1 through DCC-19)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    support structure. Trusses are both lightweight and rigid and have been designed in beam configurations. The plan is to mount sensors, equipment and...than the preliminary concept. TABLE 2 NATURAL MODES OF 12M TRUSS Beam Character Undamped Frequency Hz AM-PED Frequency, Hz Fundamental 2.26...Mast. Girders 5.56" O.D. x .188" wall Tripods 8.625" O.D. x .188" wall Space Frame Beams a. 1.00" O.D.x.035" wall b. 1.25" O.D.x.035" wall c

  8. CALS Test Network Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Reduce media dependent instructions - Review, revise and simplify decl:ttra:on and data file header information - Review packaging requirements...5881 73 CTN Handbook March 1993 CTN Test Reports TEST DATA AND TOOLS X Media (F=Floppy; T=9-Track Tape) For Floppy: - 3.5" LD/HD - 5.25" LD/HD E I...CTNTB.350) CIN TAPETOOL (VAX, VMS. StN’UNIX. PC DOS) CTN Tech, Pubs. Ref Docs -l I Files (PreliminarN) _ CTN Tools Tape To receive copies of test data

  9. Projectile and Fragment Penetration in Snow and Frozen Soil,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    penetration data for the 5.56-mm steel FSP’s fired into Hanover silt are given in Figure 3. These data show that penetration into the frozen silt was...coefficient of deformation, CD 2 • @ Cold Room @Firing Room SInstrumentation Room @D Loading Room Figure 1. CRREL terminal ballistics facility ( TBF ). in cm 4 10...1 1 , 0 0 Unfrozen 0 S-30C 8 - -10% 3 & -25"C PNAIO 00 BALL AMMO = 6- 0 . a AK 0A C 0 ," o• •&& && . 4 - AA& STEEL 2 7 S!2 -AO• CUBE w 0 200 400 600

  10. Species-richness of the Anopheles annulipes Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Revealed by Tree and Model-Based Allozyme Clustering Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, The University of Queensland , Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia Received 24 January 2006; accepted for...s.l. in Australia t.:l 0 0 ’"’l Number Locality name* Longitude Latitude OTU (N) 15% Cluster Kl5fj1 K20 K25 &#34’i :r., C 1 Basalt R.t 145°46’E 19°37𔄂...groups is given according to separate Bayesian analyses at K = 15, 20 and 25. ~ *Locations by State and Territory are: 1-20 ( Queensland ), 21-39 (New

  11. ’Protected’ Nanoparticles for an Oral Single-Dose Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Vaccine. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    capsules were placed in 500 ml of Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF), USP, at a pH of 1.2, for two hours prior to dissolution in Simulation Intestinal Fluid... CAPSULE 5 S10 -0-- CAPSULE 6 25" .0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 HOURS HOURS Figure 8. Dissolution profiles for different formulations of the PORT SystemTM. A...Increasing the number of coats of cellulose acetate increases the release time. B) Dissolution profile of 6 capsules coated with 8% cellulose acetate. C

  12. Low Resistivity - High Lifetime Single Crystal Silicon Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    were grown with (111) orientation. Wafers were cut from the seed and tang ends of these initial implanted ingots for resistivity, Sirtl etch, lifetime...elemental gallium into the seed end of the pre-purified rod, and then zoning through the rod in a single, dislocation-free pass. Zero defect ingots 1.25" in...contact (Ti-Ag) 7) Contact sinter (600 C) 8) Evaporate front contact grid pattern (Ti-Ag) 9) Apply Ta 205 AR coating -7 - The PNH cleaning technique

  13. Prevention of Heaving in Structures Built on Black Shale by Prevention of Crystal Growth within the Shales.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    Kodak Co. Oleic Acid Matheson, Coleman and Bell Oxalic Acid Iowa State University Labs PBS.AMV/800 .4559 Mobay Chem Corp. Phytic Acid Iowa State... Phytic Acid LJ . 0 Calnox 214H CAc .. I n, C. 3 4 5 8 12 20 TIME (DAYS/IO) 3.0 pH2.5 "SYMBOLS A Polyfon 0 0 Polyhall M295 U) . Polyhall 650 V Polyhall 990...DAYS/IO) 3.0 pH 5-7 SYMBOLSI ’I ..-"" * yfo Phytic Acid C/- I .."_,0 Polyhall M295 ង I Polyhall 650 L Polyhall 990 0 PVP 74185 . /] PVP 74186 (0

  14. Nefro-urological mortality causes in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Peral, D; Suárez-Guzmán, F J

    2014-11-01

    The causes of mortality from nefro-urologic diseases in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the nineteenth century will be our object of study. We have analyzed the death registry books of the parishes in Jerez. The percentage of deaths from nefro-urologic diseases compared to other pathologies is 0.8%, being most affected males in age ranges from 25-34 and 65-75 years of age. The months with the highest mortality were July, December and January. Due to the deficient death registrations in the first decades of the century, the results should be taken with caution.

  15. Good adherence to mediterranean diet can prevent gastrointestinal symptoms: A survey from Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Francesco Paolo; Polese, Barbara; Vozzella, Letizia; Gala, Antonietta; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; Medugno, Fabiana; Santini, Antonello; Barrea, Luigi; Cargiolli, Martina; Andreozzi, Paolo; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Cuomo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate how different levels of adherence to a mediterranean diet (MD) correlate with the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders. METHODS As many as 1134 subjects (598 M and 536 F; age range 17-83 years) were prospectively investigated in relation to their dietary habits and the presence of functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients with relevant chronic organic disease were excluded from the study. The Mediterranean Diet Quality index for children and adolescents (KIDMED) and the Short Mediterranean Diet Questionnaire were administered. All subjects were grouped into five categories according to their ages: 17-24 years; 25-34; 35-49; 50-64; above 64. RESULTS On the basis of the Rome III criteria, our population consisted of 719 (63.4%) individuals who did not meet the criteria for any functional disorder and were classified as controls (CNT), 172 (13.3%) patients meeting criteria for prevalent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 243 (23.3%) meeting criteria for prevalent functional dyspepsia (FD). A significantly lower adherence score in IBS (0.57 ± 0.23, P < 0.001) and FD (0.56 ± 0.24, P < 0.05) was found compared to CNT (0.62 ± 0.21). Females with FD and IBS exhibited significantly lower adherence scores (respectively 0.58 ± 0.24, P < 0.05 and 0.56 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) whereas males were significantly lower only for FD (0.53 ± 0.25, P < 0.05). Age cluster analyses showed a significantly lower score in the 17-24 years and 25-34 year categories for FD (17-24 years: 0.44 ± 0.21, P < 0.001; 25-34 years: 0.48 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and IBS (17-24 years: 0.45 ± 0.20, P < 0.05; 24-34 years: 0.44 ± 0.21, P < 0.001) compared to CNT (17-24 years: 0.56 ± 0.21; 25-34 years: 0.69 ± 0.20). CONCLUSION Low adherence to MD may trigger functional gastrointestinal symptoms, mainly in younger subjects. Moreover, with increasing age, patients tend to adopt dietary regimens closer to MD. PMID:27867690

  16. Anomie and United States Suicide rates, 1973--1976.

    PubMed

    Boor, M

    1979-10-01

    Related annual variations in United States suicide rates between 1973 and 1976 to concomitant annual variations in expressions of anomie obtained on the 5-item Srole anomie scale by a representative sample of the United States population. Expressions of anomie increased significantly for persons in the age groups (15--24 and 25--34 year) that displayed increases in suicide rates, annual variations in endorsement of anomie statements were correlated significantly with the concomitant annual variations in the suicide rates of the 15--24 year age group, and there was a nonsignificant tendency toward this relationship in the other (25--34 year) age group with increasing suicide rates. However, expressions of anomie also increased significantly for persons in the older age groups that showed no increases in suicide rates. Thus, Durkheim's hypothesis was not supported among older persons as it was among younger persons. Previous studies suggest that measures of anomie that focus explicitly on perceptions of internal-external control may be related more closely to suicidal behavior (especially for older persons) than measures that focus on other components of anomie.

  17. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research on how young adults or young adult subgroups utilize and engage with Web-based cessation interventions when trying to quit smoking. Addressing this knowledge gap is important to identify opportunities to optimize the effectiveness of online cessation programs across diverse young adult users. Objective This study examines utilization of the BecomeAnEX.org smoking cessation website among young adults and young adult subgroups compared with older adults to identify patterns of use by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Methods Study participants were 5983 new registered users on a free smoking cessation website who were aged 18 to 70 years. Website utilization was tracked for 6 months; metrics of use included website visits, pages per visit, length of visit, and interaction with specific website features. Differences in website use by age were examined via bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Interactions were examined to determine differences by gender and race/ethnicity within young (18- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds) and older (35 years and older) adult segments. Results A greater percentage of young adults aged 18 to 34 years visited the site only once compared with older adults aged 35 years and older (72.05% vs 56.59%, respectively; P<.001). Young adults also spent less time on the site and viewed fewer pages than older adults. In adjusted analyses, young adults were significantly less likely than older adults to visit the site more than once (18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.68, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64, P<.001), spend more than 3 minutes on the site (18-24 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, P<.001), view 12 or more pages (18-24 years: AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83; P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76, P<.001), utilize the BecomeAnEX.org community

  18. [Thyroid hormone levels and thyroid dysfunction of French adults participating in the SU.VI.MAX study].

    PubMed

    Valeix, P; Dos Santos, C; Castetbon, K; Bertrais, S; Cousty, C; Hercberg, S

    2004-12-01

    Abnormal thyroid function has important public health consequences. However, the various degrees of thyroid dysfunction remain unsettled. The SU.VI.MAX cohort provided a unique opportunity to conduct a cross-sectional study of abnormal thyroid function in a large representative population of 11256 men and women representing the geographic distribution of the French continental adult population. Thyroid status was measured, in fasting blood samples, at baseline in 1994-1995. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels (abnormal < 0.4 mU/l or > or =4.0 mU/l) and free thyroxine (fT4) were both performed in duplicate on the same sample. Subjects with previous or present thyroid diseases or who were taking thyroid hormones or antithyroid drugs (n=920) were excluded (8.1%). Thus, the final study group consisted of 10346 subjects, 4121 men aged 45-60 years (mean +/-SD) (51.8+/-4.7 yrs), 2641 women aged 35-44 years (40.6+/-2.8 yrs), and 3584 women aged 45-60 years (51.4+/-4.4 yrs). Median (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) for TSH (mU/l) were 1.52 (0.20-4.54) for men, 1.78 (0.22-5.54) for women aged 35-44 years, and 1.96 (0.22-6.80) for women aged 45-60 years. The TSH distribution of women was shifted to the right compared with men. Arithmetic mean fT4 (+/-SD) was 10.7+/-1.7 ng/l (13.8 +/-2.2 pmol/l) for men and 10.9+/-1.8 ng/l (14.0+/-2.3 pmol/l) for women. The prevalence of abnormal TSH values in men, and in women (35-44 yrs and 45-60 yrs) were TSH<0.4 mU/l 7.0%, 5.3% and 4.4%; TSH 4.0-9.9 mU/l 4.0%, 7.2% and 11.1% and TSH > or =10.0 mU/l 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Geometric mean serum TSH and arithmetic mean serum fT4 concentrations showed significant overall inter-regional differences for men and women (p<0.0001). There was also an inter-regional difference in the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction for men (p=0.003), and for the older group of women (i.e. > or =45 yrs) (p=0.04) exclusively. Over the age of 45 years, the women: men ratio for unrecognized elevated TSH levels (> or

  19. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared to the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.

  20. Community stand structure of rehabilitated forest at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatma, N. A. H.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Shaharuddin, M. I.; Wickneswari, R.

    2016-11-01

    A descriptive study of species composition, community structure and biomass was conducted in compartment 107, which is a rehabilitated area at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. The objective is to determine the forest structure and species composition in a rehabilitated area of Kenaboi FR since enrichment planting had done. A sample plot of 1 hectare was censused and a total of 395 trees with diameter ≥ 5 cm DBH were recorded. A total of 285 individual trees were identified belonging to 20 families and the commonest family was Dipterocarpaceae with 193 individuals. The highest tree density per ha was Shorea acuminata at 33% followed by S. parvifolia, 10% and S. leprosula, 6%. The biggest tree was Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume with a diameter of 101 cm. The total basal area was 34.48 m2/ha, whereby the highest basal area was between 45 - 54.9 cm DBH class that contributed 10.21 m2/ha (30%). The total biomass estimation (above ground and below ground) was 792.57 t/ha. Dipterocarpaceae contributed the highest total biomass at 545.14 t/ha with S. acuminata contributed the highest total biomass of 330.45 t/ha. This study will contribute to the knowledge of regeneration forest especially on how the ecological process restoring the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in rehabilitated forest by practicing the enrichment planting of native species.

  1. Austerity, precariousness, and the health status of Greek labour market participants: Retrospective cohort analysis of employed and unemployed persons in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-11-01

    Greece implemented the deepest austerity package in Europe during the Great Recession (from 2008), including reductions in severance pay and redundancy notice periods. To evaluate whether these measures worsened labour market participants' health status, we compared changes in self-reported health using two cohorts of employed individuals in Greece from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. During the initial recession (2008-2009) we found that self-reported health worsened both for those remaining in employment and those who lost jobs. Similarly, during the austerity programme (2010-2011) people who lost jobs experienced greater health declines. Importantly, individuals who remained employed in 2011 were also 25 per cent more likely to experience a health decline than in 2009. These harms appeared concentrated in people aged 45-54 who lost jobs. Our study moves beyond existing findings by demonstrating that austerity both exacerbates the negative health consequences of job loss and worsens the health of those still employed.

  2. Quantitative aspects of the epidemiology of Schistosoma japonicum infection in a rural community of Luzon, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    In a rural community on the island of Luzon, Philippines, the overall prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection, based on stool examination performed by both a new modified quantitative thick smear and the merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC) technique, was 49.5% in a total study population of 755 persons. Peak prevalence was observed in the 15-19-year age group, then decreased gradually. Although the total egg output was highest in the 15-19-year age group, individuals with high egg counts were found among all age groups. The prevalence and intensity of infection were higher in men than in women except in the 45-54-year age group. A small proportion (4.1%) of the study population (age range 6-53 years) excreted 50% of the eggs counted in this study. Liver and spleen enlargement were significantly associated with S. japonicum infection in all age groups. The frequency of a past history of dysentery and marked liver enlargement (≥ 5 cm) increased in parallel with increasing egg counts. Clustering of individuals with high egg counts in households was observed, but there was no correlation between geographical proximity of residence to potential transmission sites and household infection rates. An effective control strategy would be based on treatment of all infected persons in this endemic area rather than only a selected age group. PMID:6969135

  3. Loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking and its relation to disability and mortality in South African gold miners.

    PubMed Central

    Hnizdo, E

    1992-01-01

    The data from a lung function study on 2209 white 45-54 year old South African gold miners in 1968-71 and at a five year follow up examination, were analysed to establish the actual loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking. Ex-smokers were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 1625 subjects, 1249 had the five year follow up test of lung function. The estimated excess loss of lung function for a 50 year old gold miner, associated with 24 years of underground dust exposure of an average respirable dust concentration of 0.30 mg m-3 (14.4 ghm-3) was 236 ml of FEV1 (95% confidence interval (95% CI 134-337) and 217 ml of FVC (95% CI 110-324). By comparison, the effect of smoking one packet of cigarettes a day over 30 years was associated with an estimated loss of 552 ml of FEV1 (95% CI 461-644) and 335 ml of FVC (95% CI 170-500). The cumulative dust exposure was not associated with the longitudinal loss of FEV1 or FVC when the initial FEV1 and FVC were adjusted in the models. According to the predicted values, however, gold miners appear to have a greater loss of lung function from 50 to 55 years of age than that predicted for a general population. PMID:1322158

  4. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    PubMed

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible.

  5. Human papillomavirus prevalence among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and invasive cervical cancer from Goiânia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rabelo-Santos, S H; Zeferino, L; Villa, L L; Sobrinho, J P; Amaral, R G; Magalhães, A V

    2003-03-01

    This study estimated the prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade III and invasive cervical cancer from Goi s (Brazil Central Region). Seventy-four cases were analyzed and consisted of 18 CIN III, 48 squamous cell carcinomas, 4 adenocarcinomas, 1 adenosquamous carcinoma and 3 undifferentiated carcinomas. HPV-DNA sequences were examined in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues using primers from L1 region GP5+/GP6+. Polymerase chain reaction products were typed with dot blot hybridization using probes for HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 54, 6/11, 42/43/44, 51/52, 56/58. The prevalence of HPV was estimated to be 76% (56/74). HPV 16 was the most frequently found type, followed by HPV 33, 18 and 31. The prevalence of untyped HPV was 6%; 79% percent of the squamous cell carcinoma cases and 61% percent of the CIN III were positive for HPV and the prevalence rate of HPV types was the same for the total number of cases. According to other studies, HPV type 16 is the most prevalent virus in all Brazilian regions, but there is variation regarding to other types. Type 18 is the second most prevalent HPV in North, Southeast and South Brazil regions and types 31 and 33 are the second most prevalent HPV in Northeast and Central Brazil, respectively.

  6. Localisation of luminal epithelium edge in digital histopathology images of IHC stained slides of endometrial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Sanchez, Victor; Patel, Gnyaneshwari; Quenby, Siobhan; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to abnormally high number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells has recently been made possible by a protocol devised by Quenby et al. Hum Reprod 2009;24(1):45-54. The diagnosis involves detection and counting of stromal and uNK cell nuclei in endometrial biopsy slides immunohistochemically stained with haematoxylin for staining cell nuclei and CD56 as a marker for the uNK cells. However, manual diagnosis is a laborious process, fraught with subjective errors. In this paper, we present a novel method for detection of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the human female uterus lining and localisation of the luminal epithelium edge in endometrial biopsies. Specifically, we employ a local phase symmetry based method to detect stromal cell nuclei and propose an adaptive background removal method that significantly eases the segmentation of uNK cell nuclei regions. We also propose a novel method using alpha shapes for the identification of epithelial cell nuclei and B-Spline curve fitting on identified cell nuclei to localise the luminal epithelium edge. The objective of edge localisation is to avoid cell nuclei near the luminal epithelium edge being counted in the diagnosis process due to their non-relevance to the calculation of stromal to uNK cell ratio that determines the diagnosis of recurrent miscarriages in the end. The resulting algorithm offers a promising potential for computer-assisted diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to its high accuracy.

  7. The Best Modern Analog for Eocene Arctic Forests is within Today's Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Eberle, J.; Sternberg, L. O.; Ellsworth, P.; Eberth, D.; Sweet, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the 25 years that have passed since the first extensive descriptions of the Fossil Forests that persisted above the Arctic Circle during the Eocene (~45-54 Ma), no less than four locations have been suggested as modern analogs. These locations represent a diverse collection of biomes and temperature/precipitation environments, and include the southeastern Unites States and southeastern Asia (based on flora and fauna assemblages), southern Chile and the U.S. Pacific Northwest (based on biomass and productivity estimates), and Pacific Northwestern U.S. and Canada (based on mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation). Here we report on new isotope datasets that allow for a prediction of best modern analog based on a quantitative characterization of paleoseasonality. First, we report high-resolution carbon isotope data from fossil tree rings that record the ratio of summer to winter precipitation. Second, we report analyses of the oxygen isotope composition of phenylglucosazone, a compound isolated from fossil cellulose that straightforwardly records the oxygen isotope composition of meteoric water available to the tree. Together, our analyses indicate that the fossil forests of the Eocene Arctic thrived under a summer-dominated, high-intensity, seasonal precipitation regime, with at least 279 mm of rainfall during the wettest month. A quantitative comparison of mean-annual temperature and precipitation, fossil and modern plant communities, and the seasonality indices, highlights the Korean peninsula as the most appropriate modern analog for the Arctic Eocene forests, in preference to the North and South American analogs previously proposed.

  8. Companion animal knowledge, attachment and pet cat care and their associations with household demographics for residents of a rural Texas town.

    PubMed

    Ramón, Melanie E; Slater, Margaret R; Ward, Michael P

    2010-05-01

    This cross-sectional telephone survey explored companion animal attachment and knowledge as well as cat care of residents in a small Texas town. The survey included 441 residents of randomly selected households (55% response rate). Dogs were owned by 48% of households and cats by 29%. Companion animal ownership was associated with being 25-44 years old, being Anglo, having an income over $85,000/year, and feeding unowned cats. More knowledge about animals was associated with being any age except 45-54 years old and with completing college or an advanced degree. Higher attachment was associated with being a woman and having no children in the household. Attachment and knowledge were not related to ethnicity. Cats were likely to be sterilized if they had been owned more than 2 years and had been rabies vaccinated. Outside-only cats were used to control vermin ("mousers") and were less likely to have visited a veterinarian. Cats with identification were likely to be from a shelter, frequently have visited the veterinarian, and been vaccinated against rabies. There are many companion animal owners who still do not have basic knowledge to prevent accidental litters or provide basic health care. Attachment scores for companion animal owners were similar to those previously reported and similar for cat and dog owners. A pattern of better care emerges for owners who view their cats as companions.

  9. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J

    2015-03-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects some but not all carriers of small, noncoding CGG-repeat expansions (55-200 repeats; premutation) within the fragile X gene (FMR1). Principal features of FXTAS include intention tremor, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, memory and executive function deficits, autonomic dysfunction, brain atrophy with white matter disease, and cognitive decline. Although FXTAS was originally considered to be confined to the premutation range, rare individuals with a gray zone (45-54 repeats) or an unmethylated full mutation (>200 repeats) allele have now been described, the constant feature of the disorder remaining the requirement for FMR1 expression, in contradistinction to the gene silencing mechanism of fragile X syndrome. Although transcriptional activity is required for FXTAS pathogenesis, the specific trigger(s) for FXTAS pathogenesis remains elusive, highlighting the need for more research in this area. This need is underscored by recent neuroimaging findings of changes in the central nervous system that consistently appear well before the onset of clinical symptoms, thus creating an opportunity to delay or prevent the appearance of FXTAS.

  10. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Snow Using Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, G.; Ariya, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) in snow-samples from different environments were determined. Samples were collected in Resolute, Nunavut in the high Arctic (latitude: 74.70° /longitude: - 94.91° ), the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec (at Mont Albert near Ste-Anne-des Monts: 49.12° /- 66.49° ) and downtown Montreal, Quebec ( 45.54° /- 73.60° ) in order to reflect different degrees of anthropogenic influence. In order to assess the ability of compounds contained in the sample to perform photochemistry, samples were irradiated with UV-light in the 300-400 nm range. Filtering through a 0.2 μ m-filter provided information about compounds primarily associated with the liquid phase. A solid phase micro extraction (SPME) procedure was developed for sample preparation and VOC were identified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). We will present our results at several urban and remote sites, and the implication of the result to atmospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  11. Loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking and its relation to disability and mortality in South African gold miners.

    PubMed

    Hnizdo, E

    1992-07-01

    The data from a lung function study on 2209 white 45-54 year old South African gold miners in 1968-71 and at a five year follow up examination, were analysed to establish the actual loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking. Ex-smokers were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 1625 subjects, 1249 had the five year follow up test of lung function. The estimated excess loss of lung function for a 50 year old gold miner, associated with 24 years of underground dust exposure of an average respirable dust concentration of 0.30 mg m-3 (14.4 ghm-3) was 236 ml of FEV1 (95% confidence interval (95% CI 134-337) and 217 ml of FVC (95% CI 110-324). By comparison, the effect of smoking one packet of cigarettes a day over 30 years was associated with an estimated loss of 552 ml of FEV1 (95% CI 461-644) and 335 ml of FVC (95% CI 170-500). The cumulative dust exposure was not associated with the longitudinal loss of FEV1 or FVC when the initial FEV1 and FVC were adjusted in the models. According to the predicted values, however, gold miners appear to have a greater loss of lung function from 50 to 55 years of age than that predicted for a general population.

  12. Thermochemical conversion of raw and defatted algal biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction and slow pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Vardon, Derek R; Sharma, Brajendra K; Blazina, Grant V; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2012-04-01

    Thermochemical conversion is a promising route for recovering energy from algal biomass. Two thermochemical processes, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL: 300 °C and 10-12 MPa) and slow pyrolysis (heated to 450 °C at a rate of 50 °C/min), were used to produce bio-oils from Scenedesmus (raw and defatted) and Spirulina biomass that were compared against Illinois shale oil. Although both thermochemical conversion routes produced energy dense bio-oil (35-37 MJ/kg) that approached shale oil (41 MJ/kg), bio-oil yields (24-45%) and physico-chemical characteristics were highly influenced by conversion route and feedstock selection. Sharp differences were observed in the mean bio-oil molecular weight (pyrolysis 280-360 Da; HTL 700-1330 Da) and the percentage of low boiling compounds (bp<400 °C) (pyrolysis 62-66%; HTL 45-54%). Analysis of the energy consumption ratio (ECR) also revealed that for wet algal biomass (80% moisture content), HTL is more favorable (ECR 0.44-0.63) than pyrolysis (ECR 0.92-1.24) due to required water volatilization in the latter technique.

  13. What kinds of hand injuries are more likely to result in amputation? An analysis of 6549 hand injuries.

    PubMed

    Durusoy, R; Davas, A; Kayalar, M; Bal, E; Aksu, F; Ada, S

    2011-06-01

    We analysed 6549 hand injuries treated between 1992 and 2005 at a specialist hospital in Turkey to identify risk factors for amputations. There were 2899 (44%) hand amputations. Left-side injuries were more prone to amputation. The risk of amputation was higher in men, workers and those in the 15-24 and 45-54 year-old age groups. Compared to home, commercial areas were the places with highest risk, followed by farms and industrial/construction areas. The majority of amputations occurred in industrial/construction areas (87%). Among objects/substances producing injury, watercraft led to the highest risk of amputation and contact with machinery was the mechanism with highest risk. Press machines were the most frequent objects causing amputation both in men and women, followed almost equally by powered wood cutters in men. Doors were the most frequent objects of amputation in children, followed by powered wood cutters. Education, enforcement, and improved engineering are the keys to prevent amputations. Precluding illegal child labour is essential.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO2eq kg(-1) rice, 45.54 kg CO2eq kg(-1) mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO2eq kg(-1) milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with <1 kg CO2eq kg(-1) product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  15. Effects of a Behavioral and Exercise Program on Depression and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Azilyana; Justine, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary behavior and low participation in exercise among older adults can lead to depression and low quality of life (QOL). The current study investigated the effects of behavioral and exercise programs on depression severity and QOL among Malaysian community-dwelling older adults. A controlled, quasi-experimental, pre-posttest design was used. A total of 63 participants were divided into three groups: (a) exercise and behavior group (EBG), (b) exercise only group (EG), and (c) control group (CG). Results showed a significant difference in depression among groups (F(2,58) = 33.49, p < 0.01, η(2) = 0.54; mean, EBG < EG < CG) and in physical (F(2,58) = 5.33, p < 0.01, η(2)= 0.16; mean, EBG > EG > CG) and mental (F(2,58) = 4.08, p < 0.01, η(2) = 0.12; mean, EBG > CG > EG) scores of QOL. A combination of behavioral and exercise programs has superior effects on depression and QOL of older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(2), 45-54.].

  16. The effect of vitamin B sub 12 on selenium metabolism in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Whanger, P.D. )

    1991-03-11

    Since animal methylate selenium (Se) and vitamin B{sub 12} is involved in methylation reactions, weaning rats were fed diets with or without vitamin B{sub 12} to evaluate its effect on Se metabolism. Plasma vitamin B{sub 12} of vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats were below detection while vitamin B{sub 12} levels in plasma of control rats ranged from 3-6 ng/ml after 4 weeks feeding. After {sup 75}Se-selenite injection, vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats exhaled 16% of the dose and excreted 22-28% as trimethylselenonium in urine as compared to 45% and 45-54% respectively in control rats. Se methylation experiments with rat liver supernatants from vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats volatilized only 45% as the control rat liver preparation. When rats were fed various levels of Se as selenite, blood and heart Se levels were higher in vitamin B{sub 12} supplemented rats, but lower in liver, kidney, spleen and testis than the deficient rats. This difference in liver between supplemented and deficient rats became greater with higher dietary levels of Se. It is concluded that vitamin B{sub 12} affects Se metabolism through the methylation of this element.

  17. Study of the Genetic Etiology of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: FMR1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Barasoain, Maitane; Barrenetxea, Gorka; Huerta, Iratxe; Télez, Mercedes; Criado, Begoña; Arrieta, Isabel

    2016-12-13

    Menopause is a period of women's life characterized by the cessation of menses in a definitive way. The mean age for menopause is approximately 51 years. Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) refers to ovarian dysfunction defined as irregular menses and elevated gonadotrophin levels before or at the age of 40 years. The etiology of POI is unknown but several genes have been reported as being of significance. The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) is one of the most important genes associated with POI. The FMR1 gene contains a highly polymorphic CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of exon 1. Four allelic forms have been defined with respect to CGG repeat length and instability during transmission. Normal (5-44 CGG) alleles are usually transmitted from parent to offspring in a stable manner. The full mutation form consists of over 200 repeats, which induces hypermethylation of the FMR1 gene promoter and the subsequent silencing of the gene, associated with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). Finally, FMR1 intermediate (45-54 CGG) and premutation (55-200 CGG) alleles have been principally associated with two phenotypes, fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI).

  18. DALY-Based Health Risk Assessment of Construction Noise in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhihui

    2016-10-26

    Noise produced by construction activities has become the second most serious acoustic polluting element in China. To provide industry practitioners with a better understanding of the health risks of construction noise and to aid in creating environmentally friendly construction plans during early construction stages, we developed a quantitative model to assess the health impairment risks (HIA) associated with construction noise for individuals living adjacent to construction sites. This model classifies noise-induced health impairments into four categories: cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, and annoyance, and uses disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as an indicator of damage. Furthermore, the value of a statistical life (VSL) is used to transform DALYs into a monetary value based on the affected demographic characteristics, thereby offering policy makers a reliable theoretical foundation for establishing reasonable standards to compensate residents suffering from construction noise. A practical earthwork project in Beijing is used as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The results indicate that construction noise could bring significant health risks to the neighboring resident community, with an estimated 34.51 DALYs of health damage and 20.47 million yuan in social costs. In particular, people aged 45-54 are most vulnerable to construction noise, with the greatest health risks being caused by sleep disturbance.

  19. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known for their high tolerance toward organic acids and alcohols (R. S. Gold, M. M. Meagher, R. Hutkins, and T. Conway, J. Ind. Microbiol. 10:45-54, 1992) and could potentially serve as platform organisms for production of these compounds. In this study, we attempted to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed fermentation product was obtained by further inactivating the phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and the native alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE).

  20. Ingestion and sublethal effects of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil on marine planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Baca, Sarah; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Planktonic copepods play a key function in marine ecosystems, however, little is known about the effects of dispersants and chemically dispersed crude oil on these important planktonic organisms. We examined the potential for the copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Parvocalanus crassirostris to ingest crude oil droplets and determined the acute toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed crude oil to these copepods. We detected ingestion of crude oil droplets by adults and nauplii of the three copepod species. Exposure to crude oil alone (1 µL L(-1), 48 h) caused a reduction of egg production rates (EPRs) by 26-39 %, fecal pellet production rates (PPRs) by 11-27 %, and egg hatching (EH) by 1-38 % compared to the controls, depending on the species. Dispersant alone (0.05 µL L(-1), 48 h) produced a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 20-35, 12-23 and 2-11 %, respectively. Dispersant-treated crude oil was the most toxic treatment, ~1.6 times more toxic than crude oil alone, causing a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 45-54, 28-41 and 11-31 %, respectively. Our results indicate that low concentrations of dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil are toxic to marine zooplankton, and that the ingestion of crude oil droplets by copepods may be an important route by which crude oil pollution can enter marine food webs.

  1. KiSS-1 expression and metastin-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Dun, Siok L; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Yin, Deling; Yang, Jun; Chang, Jaw Kang; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J

    2005-01-17

    Metastin, the gene product of metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1, is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (or AXOR12, or OT7T175). The expression of KiSS-1 gene and peptide and the distribution of metastin were studied in the rat central nervous system by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical methods. KiSS-1 gene and peptide expression was higher in the hypothalamus than in the brainstem and spinal cord. In the brain, metastin-like immunoreactivity (irMT) was found mainly in three groups of cells: dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and caudal ventrolateral medulla. Immunoreactive fibers of varying density were noted in bed nucleus of stria terminalis, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, zona incerta, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, spinal trigeminal tract, rostral ventrolateral medulla, and medullary reticular nucleus. Preabsorption of the antiserum with metastin peptide fragment (45-54)-NH2 (1 microg/ml) resulted in no staining in any of the sections. The biological activity of metastin was assessed by monitoring intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in cultured hippocampal neurons, which are known to express GPR54. Metastin increased [Ca2+]i in a population of cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that metastin is biologically active in rat central neurons, and its anatomical distribution suggests a possible role in nociception and autonomic and neuroendocrine functions.

  2. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  3. Practices of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Ahmed, Javed; Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Sonekhi, Gomand Beekho; Fayyaz, Nargis; Zainulabdin, Zeeshan; Jindani, Rahim

    2016-02-01

    Self-medication practice among nursing students is of growing concern. Access to drugs and handling them in their future practices make nursing students susceptible to self-prescription and self-medication. This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and pattern of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. A random sample of convenience of 160 nursing students underwent a predesigned questionnaire. More than half of nursing students 79 (52.7%) experienced self-medication with antibiotics. It was more prevalent among males 49 (62%) . Knowledge about the drug 59 (74.7%) and convenience 13 (16.5%) were the key reasons to self-medicate. Fever 37 (46.8%) and sore throat 27 (34.2%) were the common symptoms predisposing to self-medication. Beta-lactam group of antibiotics 35 (44.3%) was most frequent used. Only 26 (32.9%) respondents completed the entire antibiotic course. Efforts must be directed towards educating nursing students about responsible and informed self-medication practices.

  4. Effect of long term application of toothpaste Apadent Total Care Medical nano-hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Polyakova, M A; Avdeenko, O E; Paramonov, Yu O; Kondrat'ev, S A; Pilyagina, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste «Apadent Total Care» containing nanocalciumhydroxyapatite and its influence on caries resistance of tooth enamel and teeth sensitivity. The study involved 30 people: 15 patients aged 17-25 years and 15 aged 35-44 years. Study participants used «Apadent Total Care» toothpaste with nanocalciumhydroxyapatite. To evaluate the effectiveness of toothpastes clinical assessment of enamel remineralization rate was carried out, as well as the dynamics of enamel acid resistance and teeth sensitivity (Shiff index). Clinical evaluation of tooth enamel before the procedure and after 3 months of use of toothpaste with nanohydroxyapatite showed the improvement of all indices. Time for complete remineralisation of enamel in both groups did not exceed 3 days. Acid resistance of tooth enamel increased by 1.65 in group I and 1,75 in group II. The Schiff index after 3 months of using «Apadent» toothpaste also decreased in both groups.

  5. Sexual and relationship satisfaction among heterosexual men and women: the importance of desired frequency of sex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony; Lyons, Anthony; Ferris, Jason; Richters, Juliet; Pitts, Marian; Shelley, Julia; Simpson, Judy M

    2011-01-01

    Little is known of the extent to which heterosexual couples are satisfied with their current frequency of sex and the degree to which this predicts overall sexual and relationship satisfaction. A population-based survey of 4,290 men and 4,366 women was conducted among Australians aged 16 to 64 years from a range of sociodemographic backgrounds, of whom 3,240 men and 3,304 women were in regular heterosexual relationships. Only 46% of men and 58% of women were satisfied with their current frequency of sex. Dissatisfied men were overwhelmingly likely to desire sex more frequently; among dissatisfied women, only two thirds wanted sex more frequently. Age was a significant factor but only for men, with those aged 35-44 years tending to be least satisfied. Men and women who were dissatisfied with their frequency of sex were also more likely to express overall lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. The authors' findings not only highlight desired frequency of sex as a major factor in satisfaction, but also reveal important gender and other sociodemographic differences that need to be taken into account by researchers and therapists seeking to understand and improve sexual and relationship satisfaction among heterosexual couples. Other issues such as length of time spent having sex and practices engaged in may also be relevant, particularly for women.

  6. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) within the European marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, M.; Cunningham, C.O.; Melvin, W.T.; Kurath, G.

    1999-01-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay (RPA) has been used to detect nucleotide sequence variation within the nucleoprotein gene of 39 viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of European marine origin. The classification of VHSV isolates based on RPA cleavage patterns permitted the identification of ten distinct groups of viruses based on differences at the molecular level. The nucleotide sequence of representatives of each of these groupings was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This revealed grouping of the European marine isolates of VHSV into three genotypes circulating within distinct geographic areas. A fourth genotype was identified comprising isolates originating from North America. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that VHSV isolates recovered from wild caught fish around the British Isles were genetically related to isolates responsible for losses in farmed turbot. Furthermore, a relationship between naturally occurring marine isolates and VHSV isolates causing mortality among rainbow trout in continental Europe was demonstrated. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus within the European marine environment. Virus Res. 63, 35-44. Available from: 

  7. Thermogenesis and flowering biology of Colocasia gigantea, Araceae.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Anton; Roupsard, Olivier; Garcia, José Quero; Melteras, Marie; Molisale, Tari; Tara, Serge; Lebot, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The thermogenesis and flowering biology of Colocasia gigantea (Blume) Hook. f. were studied from December 2005 to February 2006 on Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (South Pacific). Endogenous thermogenesis was measured in two ways: (1) continuously over 5-day periods, and (2) over 3 h during maximum heating. The study showed that heat was generated by the male part of the spadix and probably the lower zone of the sterile region. The temperatures of the male part peaked twice: (1) between 0625 and 0640 (during the female phase) and (2) 24 h later (during the male phase). The average maximum temperature was 42.25 +/- 0.14 degrees C during the female phase (16.63 degrees C above the ambient temperature) and 35.14 +/- 0.22 degrees C during the male phase (10.61 degrees C above the ambient temperature). In the lower zone of the sterile region, thermogenesis was documented only during the female phase. The average maximum temperature was 35.44 +/- 0.41 degrees C (9.82 degrees C above the ambient temperature). Thermogenic heating appeared to be closely associated with the activities of pollinating insects.

  8. Hardy personality and burnout syndrome among nursing students in three Brazilian universities—an analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing students may exhibit the characteristics of resistance to stress, such as hardiness, which can reduce the risk of burnout. However, we found only one published study about these phenomena among nursing students. Thus, we investigated the association between hardiness and burnout in such students. Methods An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted among 570 nursing students from three Brazilian universities. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic characteristics, hardiness, and burnout, which we analyzed using inferential statistics. Results We observed that 64.04% of nursing students in the sample had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 35.79% had a high level of cynicism, and 87.72% had a low level of professional efficacy: these are dimensions of burnout. We also found that 48.77% had a high level of control, 61.40% a high level of commitment, and 35.44% a high level of challenge: these are dimensions of hardiness. Only 24.74% of the students experienced burnout, and 21.93% met the criteria for a hardy personality. There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of hardiness and burnout (p = 0.033), with 68.00% of hardy students not exhibiting burnout. Conclusions Although nursing students live with educational stressors, burnout was not preponderant in our sample students; this may be linked to hardiness. Thus, given its benefits to student life and health, we recommend the development of strategies to promote hardiness among nursing students. PMID:24678676

  9. Prevalence of cervical cancer and associated mortality in Grenada, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Bahadoor-Yetman, A; Riley, L; Gibbons, A; Fields, P J; Mapp-Alexander, V; Hage, R; Baldwin, A

    2016-04-01

    Objective To assess cervical cancer prevalence and associated mortality in Grenada, West Indies during 2000-2010. Methods Records of visits to hospital and clinical facilities were obtained from the histopathology laboratory of the Grenada General Hospital. Records were de-identified and electronically compiled. Cervical cancer prevalence was assessed via cross-sectional analysis of this secondary data. Of a total 12 012 records, 2 527 were selected for analysis using sampling without replacement. Cases were matched to corresponding patient data from death registries, where possible, and used to calculate associated mortality rates. Results The observed prevalence of cervical cancer was 52.4 per 100 000 women (ages 15 and above). The highest rates of cervical cancer occurred in the 35-44 age group, with the second highest among 45-64-year-olds. A total of 65 deaths were attributable to cervical cancer during 2000-2010, more than 50% of which were among women > 65 years old. The observed mortality rate was 16.7 per 100 000, almost twice the rate estimated by WHO for the region. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need for a comprehensive cervical cancer-screening program in Grenada. Results should contribute to informing future studies on how to appropriately generate and execute public health policy for education, screening, prevention, and control of cervical cancer in Grenada.

  10. Adolescent GBR12909 exposure induces oxidative stress, disrupts parvalbumin-positive interneurons, and leads to hyperactivity and impulsivity in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asma; de Jong, Loek A W; Kamenski, Mary E; Higa, Kerin K; Lucero, Jacinta D; Young, Jared W; Behrens, M Margarita; Powell, Susan B

    2017-03-14

    The adolescent period in mammals is a critical period of brain maturation and thus represents a time of susceptibility to environmental insult, e.g. psychosocial stress and/or drugs of abuse, which may cause lasting impairments in brain function and behavior and even precipitate symptoms in at-risk individuals. One likely effect of these environmental insults is to increase oxidative stress in the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that redox dysregulation plays an important role in the development of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and that GABA interneurons are particularly susceptible to alterations in oxidative stress. The current study sought to model this adolescent neurochemical "stress" by exposing mice to the dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909 (5mg/kg; IP) during adolescence (postnatal day 35-44) and measuring the resultant effect on locomotor behavior and probabilistic reversal learning as well as GABAergic interneurons and oxidative stress in adulthood. C57BL6/J mice exposed to GBR12909 showed increased activity in a novel environment and increased impulsivity as measured by premature responding in the probabilistic reversal learning task. Adolescent GBR12909-exposed mice also showed decreased parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex, which was accompanied by increased oxidative stress in PV+ neurons. These findings indicate that adolescent exposure to a dopamine transporter inhibitor results in loss of PV in GABAergic interneurons, elevations in markers of oxidative stress, and alterations in behavior in adulthood.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial evaluations of myrtle extract, a plant traditionally used for treatment of parasitic disorders.

    PubMed

    Naghibi, Farzaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Taghvai, Mahdieh; Kamkar, Siamak; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Based on the collected ethnobotanical data from the Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC), Iran, Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) was selected for the assessment of in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic activities. Methanolic extract of myrtle was prepared from the aerial parts and assessed for antiplasmodial activity, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The 4-day suppressive test was employed to determine the parasitemia suppression of the myrtle extract against P. berghei in vivo. The IC50 values of myrtle extract were 35.44 µg/ml against K1 and 0.87 µg/ml against 3D7. Myrtle extract showed a significant suppression of parasitaemia (84.8 ± 1.1% at 10 mg/kg/day) in mice infected with P. berghei after 4 days of treatment. Cytotoxic activity was carried out against mammalian cell lines using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. No cytotoxic effect on mammalian cell lines up to 100 µg/mL was shown. The results support the traditional use of myrtle in malaria. Phytochemical investigation and understanding the mechanism of action would be in our upcoming project.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Evaluations of Myrtle Extract, a Plant Traditionally Used for Treatment of Parasitic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Naghibi, Farzaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Taghvai, Mahdieh; Kamkar, Siamak; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Based on the collected ethnobotanical data from the Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC), Iran, Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) was selected for the assessment of in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic activities. Methanolic extract of myrtle was prepared from the aerial parts and assessed for antiplasmodial activity, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The 4-day suppressive test was employed to determine the parasitemia suppression of the myrtle extract against P. berghei  in vivo. The IC50 values of myrtle extract were 35.44 µg/ml against K1 and 0.87 µg/ml against 3D7. Myrtle extract showed a significant suppression of parasitaemia (84.8 ± 1.1% at 10 mg/kg/day) in mice infected with P. berghei after 4 days of treatment. Cytotoxic activity was carried out against mammalian cell lines using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. No cytotoxic effect on mammalian cell lines up to 100 µg/mL was shown. The results support the traditional use of myrtle in malaria. Phytochemical investigation and understanding the mechanism of action would be in our upcoming project. PMID:24455686

  13. Latitudinal variations in the abundance, biomass, taxonomic composition and estimated production of epipelagic mesozooplankton along the 155°E longitude in the western North Pacific during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Matsuno, K.; Abe, Y.; Arima, D.; Imai, I.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 100 mesozooplankton samples collected with NORPAC nets from a 0 to 150-m depth at latitudinal stations (35-44°N) along 155°E each May from 2002 through 2011 were analyzed. The mesozooplankton abundance at each station varied from 39 to 1106 ind. m-3. The mesozooplankton biomass was consistently higher (80-100 mg DM m-3) in the transition domain (40-42°N) than the biomass in the other domains. An empirical metabolic rate-based carbon budget model indicated that production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders was highest (120-175 mg C m-2 d-1) in the transition domain. A comparison between the production of the mesozooplankton suspension feeders and the food requirement of mesozooplankton carnivores indicated that the latter was well fulfilled by the former in the subarctic and transition domains. However, the food requirement of the mesozooplankton carnivores was near equal to or exceeded the production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders in the subtropical domain. As an annual event, the feeding migration of epipelagic fish to the transition and subarctic domains in summer may be interpreted by their utilization of the excess secondary production (production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders).

  14. The epidemiology of malignant neoplasms of the stomach in Canada during the period 1931-1984.

    PubMed

    Ayiomamitis, A

    1988-01-01

    Morbidity patterns in Canada for malignant neoplasms of the stomach were examined for the period 1970-1980 and mortality patterns for the period 1931-1984. Age-standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) have declined significantly in males (p = 0.011) and females (p = 0.0011) during the period studied by, on average, 0.20 fewer new cases per 100,000 population per yr. The significant declines in ASMRs are attributable to significant declines in age-specific rates for males aged 35-44 (p = 0.013) and 55-64 (p = 0.046) and females aged 55-64, 65-74, and 75-84 yr (p less than 0.015). Significant declines in age-standardized death rates (ASDR) have also occurred in both males and females (p = 0.0001), with 15 of the 16 age-sex groups studied showing significant rates of decline (p less than 0.0005). The greatest rates of decline were noted for males and females aged 75-84, where age-specific rates have declined by more than 4.2 deaths per 100,000 population per yr since 1931.

  15. Assessment of changes in community level physiological profile and molecular diversity of bacterial communities in different stages of jute retting.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswapriya; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Ghosh, Sagarmoy; Chakraborty, Ashis; Saha, Manabendra Nath

    2013-12-01

    Retting of jute is essentially microbiological and biochemical in nature. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) as well as genomic diversity of bacterial communities were assessed in water samples collected during pre-retting, after 1st and 2nd charges of retting. The water samples were collected from two widely cultivated jute growing locations, Sonatikari (22 degrees 41'27"N; 88 degrees 35'44"E) and Baduria (22 degrees 44'24"N; 88 degrees 47'24"E), West Bengal, India. The CLPP, expressed as net area under substrate utilization curve, was studied by carbon source utilization patterns in BIOLOG Ecoplates. Molecular diversity was studied by polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of total DNA from water samples. Both between locations and stages of retting, substrate utilizations pattern were carbohydrates > carboxylic acids > polymers > amino acids > amines/amides > phenolic compounds. Differential substrate utilization pattern as well as variation in banding pattern in DGGE profiles was observed between the two locations and at different stages of retting. The variations in CLPP in different stages of retting were due to the change in bacterial communities.

  16. Psorinum Therapy in Treating Stomach, Gall Bladder, Pancreatic, and Liver Cancers: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment “Psorinum Therapy” in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment. PMID:21197093

  17. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex.

  18. Changed oral conditions, between 1963 and 1999, in the population of the Tokelau atolls of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2001-12-01

    In 1999, an oral health survey was included in an assessment of the community oral health programme of the Tokelau Islands population. This provided a comparison with a similar survey in 1963. In a convenience sample of 386 children and adults, approximately 30 percent of the total population, the deciduous (number of df teeth) and permanent (number of DMF teeth) tooth scores across all age groupings were higher in 1999 compared with 1963. For 15- to 19-year-olds, the mean DMF scores were 8 and 1; and for 35- to 44-year-olds, the scores were 18 and 4 in 1999 and 1963 respectively. The prominent feature of the DMF scores for those over age 25 years was the numbers of missing (M) teeth. The mean number of M teeth at 20-24 years was 5 and 0, and at 35-44 years, 13 and 2 respectively in 1999 and 1963. Periodontal disease was endemic in adults in both surveys. A serious decline in oral health has occurred over the past 35 years.

  19. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of transcription factor expression in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Colinas, Juliette; Wang, Jean Y.; Mace, Daniel; Ohler, Uwe; Benfey, Philip N.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how the expression of transcription factor (TF) genes is modulated is essential for reconstructing gene regulatory networks. There is increasing evidence that sequences other than upstream noncoding can contribute to modulating gene expression, but how frequently they do so remains unclear. Here, we investigated the regulation of TFs expressed in a tissue-enriched manner in Arabidopsis roots. For 61 TFs, we created GFP reporter constructs driven by each TF’s upstream noncoding sequence (including the 5′UTR) fused to the GFP reporter gene alone or together with the TF’s coding sequence. We compared the visually detectable GFP patterns with endogenous mRNA expression patterns, as defined by a genome-wide microarray root expression map. An automated image analysis method for quantifying GFP signals in different tissues was developed and used to validate our visual comparison method. From these combined analyses, we found that (i) the upstream noncoding sequence was sufficient to recapitulate the mRNA expression pattern for 80% (35/44) of the TFs, and (ii) 25% of the TFs undergo posttranscriptional regulation via microRNA-mediated mRNA degradation (2/24) or via intercellular protein movement (6/24). The results suggest that, for Arabidopsis TFs, upstream noncoding sequences are major contributors to mRNA expression pattern establishment, but modulation of transcription factor protein expression pattern after transcription is relatively frequent. This study provides a systematic overview of regulation of TF expression at a cellular level. PMID:16581911

  20. Patterns of sexual mixing with respect to social, health and sexual characteristics among heterosexual couples in England: analyses of probability sample survey data.

    PubMed

    Prah, P; Copas, A J; Mercer, C H; Nardone, A; Johnson, A M

    2015-05-01

    Patterns of sexual mixing are major determinants of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, in particular the extent to which high-risk populations mix with low-risk populations. However, patterns of mixing in the general population are poorly understood. We analysed data from a national probability sample survey of households, the Health Survey for England 2010. A total of 943 heterosexual couples living together, where at least one partner was aged between 16-44 years, were included. We used correlation coefficients to measure the strength of similarities between partners with respect to demographic characteristics, general health, health behaviours and sexual history. Males were on average 2 years older than their female partners, although this age difference ranged from a median of 0 years in men aged 16-24 years to a median of 2 years in men aged 35-44 years. A positive correlation between partners was found for all demographic characteristics. With respect to general health and health behaviours, a strongly positive correlation was found between men and women in reporting alcohol consumption at ⩾3 days a week and smoking. Men typically reported greater numbers of sexual partners than their female partner, although men and women with more partners were more likely to mix with each other. We have been able to elucidate the patterns of sexual mixing between men and women living together in England. Mixing based on demographic characteristics was more assortative than sexual characteristics. These data can better inform mathematical models of STI transmission.

  1. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Image Analysis Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Noel; Valdés, Jose; Guevara, Miguel; Silva, Augusto

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) account for 10-30% of all strokes and are a result of acute bleeding into the brain due to ruptures of small penetrating arteries. Despite major advancements in the management of ischemic strokes and other causes of hemorrhagic strokes, such as ruptured aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), or cavernous angioma, during the past several decades, limited progress has been made in the treatment of ICH, and the prognosis for patients who suffer them remains poor. The societal impact of these hemorrhagic strokes is magnified by the fact that affected patients typically are a decade younger than those afflicted with ischemic strokes. The ICH continues to kill or disable most of their victims. Some studies show that those who suffer ICH have a 30-day mortality rate of 35-44% and a 6-month mortality rate approaching 50%. Approximately 700,000 new strokes occur in the United States annually and approximately 15% are hem-orrhagic strokes related to ICH. The poor outcome associated with ICH is related to the extent of brain damage. ICH produces direct destruction and compression of surrounding brain tissue. Direct compression causes poor perfusion and venous drainage to surrounding penumbra at risk, resulting in ischemia to the tissues that most need perfusion [16].

  2. Adolescent exposure to nicotine alters the aversive effects of cocaine in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Mary Anne; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine is one of the most commonly used drugs in adolescence and has been shown to alter the rewarding effects of cocaine when administered in adulthood. Although the abuse potential of a drug has been suggested to be a balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the long-term effects of nicotine on the aversive properties of other drugs had not been studied. To that end, in the present study rats exposed to nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) during adolescence (postnatal days 35-44) were tested for the acquisition and extinction of a cocaine-induced conditioned taste aversion (10, 18 or 32 mg/kg) in adulthood. Conditioning consisted of four saccharin-drug pairings followed by six extinction trials. Although cocaine-induced aversions at all doses, no effect of nicotine preexposure was seen during acquisition. During extinction, the nicotine-preexposed groups conditioned with 10 and 18 mg/kg cocaine displayed a decreased rate of extinction compared to their respective controls. These results suggest that while adolescent nicotine exposure does not appear to directly alter the aversive properties of cocaine it may affect other processes related to the response to drugs given in adulthood.

  3. Prevalence, incidence, and comorbidity of clinically diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder in Taiwan: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Chung; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Sung, Pi-Shan; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2014-12-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic debilitating anxiety disorder significant in intrusive thoughts and compensation repetitive behaviors. Few studies have reported on this condition Asia. This study estimated the prevalence, incidence and psychiatric comorbidities of OCD in Taiwan. We identified study subjects for 2000-2008 with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic criteria by using National Health Research Institute database. These patients received either outpatient or inpatient care for their condition. Rates were directly age- and sex-adjusted to the 2004 Taiwan population distribution. The estimated mean annual incidence was 27.57 per 10(5) inhabitants and the one year prevalence was 65.05 per 10(5) inhabitants. Incidence and prevalence increased with age, peaking at age 18-24 years in males and at 35-44 years in females. About 53% of adults (≥18 years) and 48% of child and adolescent patients (6-17 years) had one or more comorbid psychiatric conditions. The most common comorbid diagnosis was depressive disorders for both adult and child-adolescent patients. We found a lower prevalence and incidence of clinically diagnosed OCD than that of community studies. Many Asian patients with OCD also had various psychiatric comorbidities, a clinically relevant finding.

  4. Mental health of women entering fertility treatment: What role do age and internal resources play?

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Skvirsky, Vera; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowitz, Eran

    2016-11-24

    Drawing on Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of stress and coping, the study aimed at (a) examining the associations between the mental health of women entering fertility treatment and their internal resources (hope and two aspects of self-consciousness: reflection and rumination); (b) indicating whether mental health is associated with age (above or below 35), and whether this association is mediated by the internal resources. The sample consisted of 137 women (76 aged 20-34; 61 aged 35-44) at the start of fertility treatment who completed a series of self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that younger women reported higher distress and rumination than older women. Higher hope was associated with greater well-being, and higher rumination was associated with greater distress. Furthermore, hope and rumination were found to mediate the association between age and mental health. These findings highlight the importance of developing age-based interventions for women entering fertility treatment, aimed at strengthening their resilience to effectively cope with the demanding process ahead.

  5. Oral impacts affecting daily performance in a low dental disease Thai population.

    PubMed

    Adulyanon, S; Vourapukjaru, J; Sheiham, A

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure incidence of oral impacts on daily performances and their related features in a low dental disease population. 501 people aged 35-44 years in 16 rural villages in Ban Phang district, Khon Kaen, Thailand, were interviewed about oral impacts on nine physical, psychological and social aspects of performance during the past 6 months, and then had an oral examination. The clinical and behavioural data showed that the sample had low caries (DMFT = 2.7) and a low utilization of dental services. 73.6% of all subjects had at least one daily performance affected by an oral impact. The highest incidence of performances affected were Eating (49.7%), Emotional stability (46.5%) and Smiling (26.1%). Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth performances had a high frequency or long duration of impacts, but a low severity. The low frequency performances; Physical activities, Major role activity and Sleeping were rated as high severity. Pain and discomfort were mainly perceived as the causes of impacts (40.1%) for almost every performance except Smiling. Toothache was the major causal oral condition (32.7%) of almost all aspects of performance. It was concluded that this low caries people have as high an incidence of oral impacts as industrialized, high dental disease populations. Frequency and severity presented the paradoxical effect on different performances and should both be taken into account for overall estimation of impacts.

  6. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked.

  7. Trends in Educational Differentials in Suicide Mortality between 1993 - 2006 in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Weon Young; Khang, Young-Ho; Noh, Manegseok; Ryu, Jae-In; Son, Mia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to examine how inequalities in suicide by education changed during and after macroeconomic restructuring following the economic crisis of 1997 in South Korea. Materials and Methods Using Korea's 1995, 2000, and 2005 census data aggregately linked to mortality data (1993 - 2006), relative and absolute differentials in suicide mortality by education were calculated by gender and age among Korean population aged 35 and over. Results Average annual suicide mortality rates have steadily increased from 1993 - 1997 to 2003 - 2006 in almost all sociodemographic groups stratified by gender, age, and education. Based on the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII), educational differentials in suicide mortality generally increased over time in men and women aged 45 years +. Although RII did not increase with year among men and women aged 35 - 44 years, SII showed a significantly increasing trend in this age group. Conclusion These worsening absolute inequalities in suicide mortality indicate that the governmental suicide prevention policy should be directed toward socially disadvantaged groups of the Korean population. PMID:19718395

  8. Modeled estimates of myocardial infarction and venous thromboembolic disease in users of second and third generation oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Schwingl, P J; Shelton, J

    1997-03-01

    Consistent reports from several recent studies suggest that users of third generation oral contraceptives (OCs) containing gestodene and desogestrel may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). Paradoxically, other reports indicate that these users may be at decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with users of second generation OCs. To determine whether the potentially increased risk of VTE would outweigh the potentially reduced risk of MI in users of third generation OCs, we conducted an analysis to quantify the trade-offs providers and users may be faced to make between these formulations. The baseline rates of VTE and MI among non-users were calculated using US data on incidence and mortality of these conditions and estimates of the proportion of women exposed to these formulations in the US. These were multiplied by relative risks published in recent studies on third generation progestins to produce age- and formulation-specific risks. Results indicate that there would be small differences in disease burden between users of second and third generation OCs under the model assumptions at younger ages. However, among women 35-44 years of age, modeling results indicate that the potentially decreased incidence of MI among users of third generation OCs more than offsets the potentially increased risk of VTE at this age.

  9. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products.

  10. The Kilkenny Health Project: food and nutrient intakes in randomly selected healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gibney, M J; Moloney, M; Shelley, E

    1989-03-01

    1. Sixty healthy subjects aged 35-44 years (thirty men and thirty women) were randomly selected from electoral registers to participate in a dietary survey using the 7 d weighed-intake method during June-August 1985. 2. Energy intake (MJ/d) was 12.5 for men and 8.4 for women. Fat contributed 36.0 and 39.1% of the total energy intake of men and women respectively. When this was adjusted to exclude energy derived from alcoholic beverages, the corresponding values were 38.8 and 39.7% respectively. The major sources of dietary fat (%) were spreadable fats (28), meat (23), milk (12) and biscuits and cakes (11). 3. The subjects were divided into low- and high-fat groups both on the relative intake of fat (less than 35% or greater than 40% dietary energy from fat) and on the absolute intake of fat (greater than or less than 120 g fat/d). By either criterion, high-fat consumers had lower than average intakes of low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods such as potatoes, bread, fruit and table sugar, and higher intakes of milk, butter and confectionery products. Meat intake was higher among high-fat eaters only when a high-fat diet was defined as a percentage of energy.

  11. Inhibition of AKR1C3 Activation Overcomes Resistance to Abiraterone in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengfei; Armstrong, Cameron M; Lou, Wei; Lombard, Alan; Evans, Christopher P; Gao, Allen C

    2017-01-01

    Abiraterone suppresses intracrine androgen synthesis via inhibition of CYP17A1. However, clinical evidence suggests that androgen synthesis is not fully inhibited by abiraterone and the sustained androgen production may lead to disease relapse. In the present study, we identified AKR1C3, an important enzyme in the steroidogenesis pathway, as a critical mechanism driving resistance to abiraterone through increasing intracrine androgen synthesis and enhancing androgen signaling. We found that overexpression of AKR1C3 confers resistance to abiraterone while downregulation of AKR1C3 resensitizes resistant cells to abiraterone treatment. In abiraterone-resistant prostate cancer cells, AKR1C3 is overexpressed and the levels of intracrine androgens are elevated. In addition, AKR1C3 activation increases intracrine androgen synthesis and enhances androgen receptor (AR) signaling via activating AR transcriptional activity. Treatment of abiraterone-resistant cells with indomethacin, an AKR1C3 inhibitor, overcomes resistance and enhances abiraterone therapy both in vitro and in vivo by reducing the levels of intracrine androgens and diminishing AR transcriptional activity. These results demonstrate that AKR1C3 activation is a critical mechanism of resistance to abiraterone through increasing intracrine androgen synthesis and enhancing androgen signaling. Furthermore, this study provides a preclinical proof-of-principle for clinical trials investigating the combination of targeting AKR1C3 using indomethacin with abiraterone for advanced prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 35-44. ©2016 AACR.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of natural Cobitis elongatoides (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Songqian; Tomljanovic, Tea; Tian, Xianchang; Wang, Yizhou; Cao, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-01

    Cobitis elongatoides is a small sized freshwater fish species that is widely distributed in Europe, especially in Croatia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of C. elongatoides is sequenced to be 16,540 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, a control region and the origin of the light strand replication. The overall base composition of C. elongatoides in descending order is A 29.37%, T 28.53%, C 25.34%, and G 16.76%, with a slight A + T bias. The mitogenome sequence data may provide useful information to the population genetics analysis of C. elongatoides and the elucidation of evolutionary mechanisms in Cobitidae.

  13. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J

    2001-08-01

    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum.

  14. [Access, use and preferences of Information and Communication Technologies by physicians in a general hospital in Peru].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Silva, Luis; Ticse, Ray; Alfaro-Carballido, Luz; Guerra-Castañon, Felix

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the access, use and preferences of information and communication technology (ICT) by physicians who practice at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital. The questionnaire explored the availability and skills of ICT, time, educational activities, search engines and technological applications most used as well as ICT preferences in education.211 physicians were surveyed; laptop use was 93%, tablet and smartphone use was 66% and 88%.68% have mobile Internet. Differences were evident in the frequency of use of ICT in 25-34 year old age group as well as a higher level of skills (p<0.05). 86% use PubMed, Facebook and WhatsApp as a means of exchanging images and data related to health, 50% participated in medical blogs, online courses or videoconferences. The use and access of ICT is common among doctors in this hospital and there is positive interest in its use in education.

  15. Hierarchical network architectures of carbon fiber paper supported cobalt oxide nanonet for high-capacity pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Shuang; Ding, Yong; Zhu, Xingbao; Wang, Zhong Lin; Liu, Meilin

    2012-01-11

    We present a high-capacity pseudocapacitor based on a hierarchical network architecture consisting of Co(3)O(4) nanowire network (nanonet) coated on a carbon fiber paper. With this tailored architecture, the electrode shows ideal capacitive behavior (rectangular shape of cyclic voltammograms) and large specific capacitance (1124 F/g) at high charge/discharge rate (25.34 A/g), still retaining ~94% of the capacitance at a much lower rate of 0.25 A/g. The much-improved capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability may be attributed to the unique hierarchical network structures, which improves electron/ion transport, enhances the kinetics of redox reactions, and facilitates facile stress relaxation during cycling.

  16. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology, Volume 45, Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Experimental study of adifreece heaving of augere- d caisson finned tubes t1 9 9 1, p.1- 1 7 , eng) 45-25" lieSD footings t1 9 91,. p.152-163. engl 45-2330...t1 9 89 , 16p., cogs 45-941 tinucotre 98,p4-Sms4513 45-0 All"- d Nf. Aadesild, T. Alsilks’s hligh-rank coals Saab Direct Igntion Syste and its cold...poiygnifcac (1990. p.343-357. eng Albert, D.G. 45-2414 Aad-~ D -W. Seismic studies on the grid eastern half of the Ross Ice Shelf: Allard R. Lake Hoare

  17. Hospital Palliative Care Teams and Post-Acute Care in Nursing Facilities: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joan G

    2017-01-01

    Although palliative care consultation teams are common in U.S. hospitals, follow up and outcomes of consultations for frail older adults discharged to nursing facilities are unclear. To summarize and critique research on the care of patients discharged to nursing facilities following a hospital-based palliative care consult, a systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, Ageline, and PsycINFO was conducted in February 2016. Data from the articles (N = 12) were abstracted and analyzed. The results of 12 articles reflecting research conducted in five countries are presented in narrative form. Two studies focused on nurse perceptions only, three described patient/family/caregiver experiences and needs, and seven described patient-focused outcomes. Collectively, these articles demonstrate that disruption in palliative care service on hospital discharge and nursing facility admission may result in high symptom burden, poor communication, and inadequate coordination of care. High mortality was also noted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(1):25-34.].

  18. Electrical Characterization of Signal Processing Microcircuit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    eTA - 125"C 02,04 20 no delay 06,08 Driver input capacitance CCI VIN - 0 V TA " 25’C All 6 pf CC 2 VIM - 15 V TA - 25"C All 3.5 Switch input...calacitance). NOTES: 1. The logic driver slil have the following Cliracteristics: A. VLOGIC ’ 0 V to 4 V for parts 01 -04. VLOCIC ’ 0 V to 15 V for parts...ILeaage current from an IDOM~) ’Vs . 10 V. ’V O 0 I 01 02 I 20 . 0 1SA I-N- driver into the lConnect all unused sources - -37 ’ switch

  19. Study of Uranium Oxide Insertion Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    band gap (AE) for U0 3 polymorphs is in the range 2.52 - 2.68 eV (20,325 - • 21,616 cm-1) and the activation energy (Es) for U30 8 is 1.10 eV (8,872...with uranium ions and move by a phonon- activated 0 hopping mechanism. Electrons introduced into the uranium oxide during insertion A - Aj" + e’u (1.7...insertion into a-U 30 8 at - 25"C in 1M LiBF4 in propylene carbonate /1,2- dimethoxyethane Lithium insertion into a-U 30 8 causes very little change in

  20. [Experience with Neisseria lactamica (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kuzemenská, P; Burian, V; Janovská, D; Mysková, M; Hausenblasová, M

    1976-12-01

    The authors have performed a detailed study of the presence of a new microbial species, Neisseria lactamica which even recently had still been classified among the nontypable Neisseria meningitidis strains. An examination of the spread of Neisseria strains among the healthy population of this country revealed 1.6% to be carriers of Neisseria lactamica as compared with 4.7% being carriers of Neisseria meningitidis. From the material examined, the highest number of Neisseria lactamica carriers was found among the 0-1 year age group (5.9%) whereas the maximum number of Neisseria meningitidis carriers was found in the 25-34 year age group (11.1%). The simultaneous identification of N. meningitidis and N. lactamica in exceptional cases means a new and important observation.

  1. The epidemiology of suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    A database containing details of every incident of suicidal behaviour on the London Underground railway system between 1940 and 1990 was assembled from the records of London Underground Ltd and the British Transport Police. The total number of cases was 3240. The mean annual number of suicidal acts on the London Underground system increased from 36.1 (1940-1949) to 94.1 (1980-1989). There were significantly fewer incidents on Sundays than on the other days of the week and the daily rate was highest in the spring. 64% of incidents involved males and the peak age group for both sexes was 25-34 yr. Suicide verdicts were returned for a greater proportion of women than men. Overall case fatality was 55%. However, case fatality rates differed between stations, environmental factors appearing to influence survival. Possible strategies to prevent railway suicides and reduce the lethality of this method are discussed.

  2. 77 FR 64599 - Change in Rates and Classes of General Applicability for Competitive Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ....25 27.05 28.70 30.60 1 16.05 23.50 28.30 31.70 32.85 34.85 35.90 2 18.10 25.05 30.85 34.55 35.95 38.10 39.40 3 21.55 26.25 34.70 39.75 41.45 43.90 45.15 4 22.95 27.95 37.00 44.95 46.70 49.45 50.80 5 24... 137.90 144.95 149.10 27 68.05 113.00 123.35 136.50 141.50 148.70 153.05 28 69.45 116.80 127.30...

  3. Target tissue distribution of the proenkephalin peptides F, E, and B

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenstein, G.E.; Lund, D.; Schultz, P.; Lewis, R.V.

    1987-08-14

    The adrenal medulla is a rich source of endogenous opioid peptides. These peptides exist predominantly in the form of larger (25-34 amino acid long) enkephalin containing peptides, whose biological roles have yet to be elucidated. We report here the tissue binding distribution of three iodinated enkephalin containing peptides, Peptides F, E, and B, in rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs following intravenous injection. Each (/sup 125/I)peptide has a unique distribution profile but all three are found to bind to the pituitary in each species of animal examined. A number of lines of evidence point toward the enkephalin containing peptides, Peptides F, E, and B, having physiological roles distinct from the enkephalins. The distribution profile of these (/sup 125/I)peptides reported here gives insight into their potential effector sites.

  4. [Pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youths: data from a macromorphometric and histomorphometric investigation of the aorta and coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Lesauskaite, Vaiva; Stalioraityte, Elena; Tanganelli, Piero; Epistolato, Maria Carmela

    2004-01-01

    We present a review of data from epidemiological and morphological studies carried out in Kaunas of atherosclerosis in youths. Since 1985, Kaunas has been a Collaborating Center involved with the World Health Organization and International Society and Federation of Cardiology studying the pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youth. During the pilot study (1985-1987), we estimated the prevalence and extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and coronary arteries correlated to various risk factors in Kaunas residents aged 5 to 44 years. Within the framework of this international study, we compared histomorphometric characteristics of arteries collected from trauma victims aged 5 to 34 years in Budapest (Hungary), Heidelberg (Germany), Kaunas (Lithuania), Yaounde (Cameroon), and Mexico City (Mexico). These data revealed that males from countries with a high mortality from ischemic heart disease (Hungary, Lithuania, Germany) tended to have thicker intima in the thoracic and abdominal aorta and left anterior descending coronary artery than did males from countries with low mortality from ischemic heart disease (Mexico, Cameroon). We detected an increased mean intimal thickness of the abdominal aorta in male smokers aged 25-34 years. Males with hypertension aged 15-24 and 25-34 years had a thicker intima in the aorta and left anterior descending coronary artery than normotensive males. The morphological and epidemiological studies of atherosclerosis in youths carried out in Kaunas demonstrated that aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions appeared as early as childhood and advanced until the lesions become clinically apparent in adulthood. Histomorphometric findings support the postulate that increased intimal thickness can be considered a structural determinant of atherogenesis. These data draw attention to the means for the primary prevention of atherosclerosis in youth.

  5. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka.

  6. Population-based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in an urban slum in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Orjioke, C; Ekenze, O S; Ijoma, U; Onodugo, O; Okudo, G; Okwara, C; Chime, P; Mbadiwe, N; Eddy, A; Onyekonwu, C; Onyebueke, G; Ulasi, I; Mba, A U

    2016-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders. Apart from high prevalence rates, recent trends with regard to hypertension in Africa include: low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Although a large number of studies provide data about hypertension in SSA, few studies focused on special populations such as urban slum dwellers. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases was used to access the prevalence of hypertension among adults in one of the urban slums in Enugu. Out of the 811 individuals aged 20 years and above surveyed, 774 (95.4%) cases were analyzed. About 4.7% and 2.7% reported a past history of diabetes and stroke, respectively, whereas 15% had a positive family history of hypertension. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (23.2-24.2) kg m(-2) among males and 26.6 (25.7-26.7) kg m(-2) among females (P<0.0001). The prevalence of hypertension was 52.5% (95% CI: 48.9-56.0) and 55.4% (95% CI: 49.5-61.3) in males and 50.8% (95% CI: 46.4-55.1) in females (P=0.23). It increased with age peaking at 45-54 years in females and ⩾55 years in males. About 40.1% were aware of their hypertension and 28.8% of those aware had normal blood pressure. In regression analysis, systolic (R(2)=0.192) and diastolic (R(2)=0.129) blood pressures increased with age and BMI. The prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Enugu slums is very high and a cause for concern, and calls for urgent attention.

  7. Recent trends in long-term survival of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia: disclosing the impact of advances in therapy on the population level.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Gondos, Adam; Pulte, Dianne

    2008-10-01

    Within the past decades, major advances in therapy for chronic myelocytic leukemia, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, interferon therapy, and, more recently, also therapy with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, have entered clinical practice. The impact of these advances on long-term survival on the population level should be disclosed as timely as possible. We estimated trends in age specific 5- and 10-year relative survival of chronic myelocytic leukemia patients in the United States from 1990-1992 to 2002-2004. Our analysis is based on records from 8,329 patients aged 15 years or older with a first diagnosis of chronic myelocytic leukemia included in the 1973-2004 data base of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Period analysis was used to disclose recent developments with minimum delay. Overall, 5-year relative survival increased from 27 to 49%, and 10-year relative survival increased from 9.5 to 34% between 1990-92 and 2002-04. The increase was most dramatic for younger patients, with 10-year relative survival increasing from 16 to 72% in age group 15-44 years, from 12 to 54% in age group 45-54 years, and from 8 to 34% in age group 55-64 years (p<0.0001 in all cases). Improvements were more modest and not statistically significant, and survival remained at much lower levels among age groups 65-74 and 75+ years. Our analysis discloses a dramatic recent increase in long-term survival of younger patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia which most likely reflects rapid dissemination of advances in therapy on the population level.

  8. A Neuromorphic Event-Based Neural Recording System for Smart Brain-Machine-Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Federico; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Neural recording systems are a central component of Brain-Machince Interfaces (BMIs). In most of these systems the emphasis is on faithful reproduction and transmission of the recorded signal to remote systems for further processing or data analysis. Here we follow an alternative approach: we propose a neural recording system that can be directly interfaced locally to neuromorphic spiking neural processing circuits for compressing the large amounts of data recorded, carrying out signal processing and neural computation to extract relevant information, and transmitting only the low-bandwidth outcome of the processing to remote computing or actuating modules. The fabricated system includes a low-noise amplifier, a delta-modulator analog-to-digital converter, and a low-power band-pass filter. The bio-amplifier has a programmable gain of 45-54 dB, with a Root Mean Squared (RMS) input-referred noise level of 2.1 μV, and consumes 90 μW . The band-pass filter and delta-modulator circuits include asynchronous handshaking interface logic compatible with event-based communication protocols. We describe the properties of the neural recording circuits, validating them with experimental measurements, and present system-level application examples, by interfacing these circuits to a reconfigurable neuromorphic processor comprising an array of spiking neurons with plastic and dynamic synapses. The pool of neurons within the neuromorphic processor was configured to implement a recurrent neural network, and to process the events generated by the neural recording system in order to carry out pattern recognition.

  9. Prevalence and Distribution of Abdominal Aortic Calcium by Sex and Age-Group in a Community-based Cohort (From The Framingham Heart Study)

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (N=1656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by sex and age group (<45, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75 years). The prevalence and burden of AAC increased monotonically and supralinearly with age in both sexes but was greater in men than women in each age group. Below age 45 <16% of referent-subsample participants had any quantifiable AAC, while above age 65 nearly 90% of referent participants had >0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of referent group AAC as “high,” the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each sex in the overall study sample. AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort. PMID:22727181

  10. Earthquake Interactions at Different Scales: an Example from Eastern California and Western Nevada, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, A.; Carena, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes in diffuse plate boundaries occur in spatially and temporally complex patterns. The region east of the Sierra Nevada that encompasses the northern Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ), Walker Lane (WL), and the westernmost part of the Basin and Range province (B&R) is such a kind of plate boundary. In order to better understand the relationship between moderate-to major earthquakes in this area, we modeled the evolution of coseismic, postseismic and interseismic Coulomb stress changes (∆CFS) in this region at two different spatio-temporal scales. In the first example we examined seven historical and instrumental Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes that struck the region around Owens Valley (northern ECSZ) in the last 150 years. In the second example we expanded our study area to all of the northern ECSZ, WL and western B&R, examining seventeen paleoseismological and historical major surface-rupturing earthquakes (Mw ≥ 6.5) that occurred in the last 1400 years. We show that in both cases the majority of the studied events (100% in the first case and 80% in the second) are located in areas of combined coseismic and postseismic positive ∆CFS. This relationship is robust, as shown by control tests with random earthquake sequences. We also show that the White Mountain fault has accumulated up to 30 bars of total ∆CFS (coseismic + postseismic + interseismic) in the last 150 years, and the Hunter Mountain, Fish Lake Valley, Black Mountain, and Pyramid Lake faults have accumulated 40, 45, 54 and 37 bars respectively in the last 1400 years. Such values are comparable to the average stress drop in a major earthquake, and all these faults may be therefore close to failure.

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Cerebrolysin in Infants with Communication Defects due to Severe Perinatal Brain Insult: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Deifalla, Shaymaa M.; El-Houssinie, Moustafa; Mokbel, Somaia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The neuroregenerative drug Cerebrolysin has demonstrated efficacy in improving cognition in adults with stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin in the treatment of communication defects in infants with severe perinatal brain insult. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which 158 infants (age 6-21 months) with communication defects due to severe perinatal brain insult were enrolled; 120 infants completed the study. The Cerebrolysin group (n=60) received twice-weekly Cerebrolysin injections of 0.1 mL/kg body weight for 5 weeks (total of ten injections). The placebo group (n=60) received the same amount and number of normal saline injections. Results The baseline Communication and Symbolic-Behavior-Scale-Developmental Profile scores were comparable between the two groups. After 3 months, the placebo group exhibited improvements in the social (p<0.01) and speech composite (p=0.02) scores, with 10% and 1.5% increases from baseline, respectively. The scores of the Cerebrolysin group changed from concern to no concern, with increases of 65.44%, 45.54%, 358.06%, and 96.00% from baseline in the social (p<0.001), speech (p<0.001), symbolic (p<0.001), and total (p<0.001) scores. Conclusions Cerebrolysin dramatically improved infants' communication especially symbolic behavior which positively affected social interaction. These findings suggest that cerebrolysin may be an effective and feasible way equivalent to stem cell therapy. PMID:26365023

  12. Kisspeptin receptor agonist (FTM080) increased plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone in anestrous ewes

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Joseph A.; Amelse, Lisa L.; Tanco, Valeria M.; Chameroy, Kelly A.; Schrick, F. Neal

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human Metastin 45-54; 500 pmol/kg BW), one of three dosages of FTM080 (500 (FTM080:500), 2500 (FTM080:2500), or 5000 (FTM080:5000) pmol/kg BW), or VEH intravenously. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (4 h) treatment. In experiment 1, FTM080:500 increased (P < 0.05) plasma LH concentrations when compared to VEH. The area under the curve (AUC) of LH following FTM080:500 treatment was also increased (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, plasma LH concentrations increased (P < 0.05) following treatment with KP-10 and FTM080:5000 when compared to VEH and FTM080:500. The AUC of LH following KP-10 was greater than (P < 0.05) all other treatments and the AUC of LH following FTM080:5000 was greater than (P < 0.05) all treatments except KP-10. These data provide evidence to suggest that FTM080 stimulates the gonadotropic axis of ruminants in vivo. Any increased half-life and comparable efficacy of FTM080 to KP-10 in vitro does not appear to translate to in vivo in sheep. PMID:26587345

  13. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Autrup, Herman; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Wallin, Håkan; Møller, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric or intratracheal exposure in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, and DNA repair after 24 h in liver and lung tissue of rats. Rats were exposed to WSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in areas with and without many operating wood stoves or carbon black (CB) at the dose of 0.64 mg/kg body weight. The levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine, and 1-N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (εdG) were significantly increased with 23% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-45%), 54% (95% CI:18-90%), and 73% (95% CI: 31-134%) in the liver of rats exposed orally to CB, respectively. Rats orally exposed to PM from the wood stove area and low oxygen combustion WSPM (LOWS) had 35% (95% CI: 0.1-71%) and 45% (95% CI: 10-82%) increased levels of εdG in the liver, respectively. No significant differences were observed for bulky DNA adducts. Increased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, heme oxygenase-1, and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 was observed in the liver following intragastric exposure and in the lung following instillation in particular of LOWS. Exposure to LOWS also increased the proportion of neutrophils in BAL fluid. These results indicate that WSPM and CB exert the strongest effect in terms of oxidative stress-induced response, inflammation, and genotoxicity in the organ closest to the port of entry.

  14. The effect of an APOE polymorphism on cognitive function depends on age.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min-Ho; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Kim, Hee N; Song, Hye-Rim; Kim, Byeong C; Choi, Seong-Min; Oh, Sun-Young; Jeong, Seul-Ki

    2014-01-01

    It remains controversial whether APOE E4 polymorphism is related to cognitive function in general population. We aimed to evaluate an association between the APOE E4 genotype and cognitive function, and whether this association may differ by age. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of modified Mini-Mental State Examination (K-mMMSE) in 10,371 Koreans aged 45-74 years in Namwon City. According to the APOE E4 status, all participants were classified as non-carriers, heterozygotes, or homozygotes. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between APOE genotypes and cognition. The frequency of APOE genotypes in the study population was 0.4, 10.1, 1.1, 72.9, 14.7 and 0.8 % for E2E2, E2E3, E2E4, E3E3, E3E4, and E4E4, respectively. Compared to the APOE E4 non-carriers, the heterozygotes and homozygotes showed 1.3 and 7.3 % lower K-mMMSE scores at 65-74 years and 0.8 and 4.6 % higher scores at 45-55 years, respectively. Educational attainment modified the effect of APOE E4 on cognitive function in the 45-54 age group (p for interaction =0.003), showing that the E4 carriers with no-formal education showed significantly higher cognitive function than those with formal education. The present study demonstrates that the effect of APOE E4 on cognitive function depends on age and education.

  15. FMR1 gene mutations in patients with fragile X syndrome and obligate carriers: 30 years of experience in Chile.

    PubMed

    Santa María, Lorena; Aliaga, Solange; Faundes, Víctor; Morales, Paulina; Pugin, Ángela; Curotto, Bianca; Soto, Paula; Peña, M Ignacia; Salas, Isabel; Alliende, M Angélica

    2016-06-28

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and co-morbid autism. It is caused by an amplification of the CGG repeat (>200), which is known as the full mutation, within the 5'UTR of the FMR1 gene. Expansions between 55-200 CGG repeats are termed premutation and are associated with a greater risk for fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency. Intermediate alleles, also called the grey zone, include approximately 45-54 repeats and are considered borderline. Individuals with less than 45 repeats have a normal FMR1 gene. We report the occurrence of CGG expansions of the FMR1 gene in Chile among patients with ID and families with a known history of FXS. Here, we present a retrospective review conducted on 2321 cases (2202 probands and 119 relatives) referred for FXS diagnosis and cascade screening at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile. Samples were analysed using traditional cytogenetic methods and/or PCR. Southern blot was used to confirm the diagnosis. Overall frequency of FMR1 expansions observed among probands was 194 (8·8%), the average age of diagnosis was 8·8 ± 5·4 years. Of 119 family members studied, 72 (60%) were diagnosed with a CGG expansion. Our results indicated that the prevalence of CGG expansions of the FMR1 gene among probands is relatively higher than other populations. The average age of diagnosis is also higher than reference values. PCR and Southern blot represent a reliable molecular technique in the diagnosis of FXS.

  16. Fasting Plasma Glucose as Initial Screening for Diabetes and Prediabetes in Irish Adults: The Diabetes Mellitus and Vascular Health Initiative (DMVhi)

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Margaret; Kinsley, Brendan T.; Jackson, Abaigeal D.; Walsh, Cathal; O’Grady, Tony; Nolan, John J.; Gaffney, Peter; Boran, Gerard; Kelleher, Cecily; Carr, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes has a long pre clinical asymptomatic phase. Early detection may delay or arrest disease progression. The Diabetes Mellitus and Vascular health initiative (DMVhi) was initiated as a prospective longitudinal cohort study on the prevalence of undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, diabetes risk and cardiovascular risk in a cohort of Irish adults aged 45-75 years. Research Design and Methods Members of the largest Irish private health insurance provider aged 45 to 75 years were invited to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria: already diagnosed with diabetes or taking oral hypoglycaemic agents. Participants completed a detailed medical questionnaire, had weight, height, waist and hip circumference and blood pressure measured. Fasting blood samples were taken for fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Those with FPG in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) range had a 75gm oral glucose tolerance test performed. Results 122,531 subjects were invited to participate. 29,144 (24%) completed the study. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 1.8%, of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 7.1% and of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was 2.9%. Dysglycaemia increased among those aged 45-54, 55-64 and 65-75 years in both males (10.6%, 18.5%, 21.7% respectively) and females (4.3%, 8.6%, 10.9% respectively). Undiagnosed T2D, IFG and IGT were all associated with gender, age, blood pressure, BMI, abdominal obesity, family history of diabetes and triglyceride levels. Using FPG as initial screening may underestimate the prevalence of T2D in the study population. Conclusions This study is the largest screening study for diabetes and prediabetes in the Irish population. Follow up of this cohort will provide data on progression to diabetes and on cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25874867

  17. Hepatitis C virus infection in the general population: A large community-based study in Mianyang, West China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Li, Hong; Ji, Yulin; Ma, Yuanji; Hou, Fengsu; Yuan, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major public health problem. The objective of the current study was to reveal the seroepidemiology of HCV in the general population in Mianyang City. This study collected 438,575 blood samples from participants who had enrolled in the National Science and Technology Development Project and their demographic information, and then evaluated HCV antibody and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The overall anti-HCV positive rate was 0.80% (3,491/438,575) in the Mianyang general population, and it was 1.19% in rural population and 0.20% in urban. Anti-HCV positive rate increased with age, peaked at 45-54 years (2.01%), and then decreased. Anti-HCV prevalence was higher in males (0.89%) than that in females (0.73%). The prevalence of anti-HCV in participants with a history of blood transfusion, surgery, or with a previous diagnosis of hypertension was higher. The abnormal ALT levels (> 40 IU/L) were observed in 50.11% and 7.74% of anti-HCV positive and negative groups, respectively. In anti-HCV positive groups, the rate of abnormal ALT levels was higher in 55-64 age groups, male, and rural population. Though Mianyang was a low endemic area for HCV infection, the alarming fact was the large number of abnormal ALT levels in patients related to hepatitis C. This revealed delayed diagnosis and treatment of HCV infections. It is a necessity to promote early diagnosis and timely treatment of HCV infections.

  18. Cancer incidence in the first-degree relatives of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Auranen, A.; Pukkala, E.; Mäkinen, J.; Sankila, R.; Grénman, S.; Salmi, T.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer incidence was studied among 3072 first-degree relatives of 559 unselected ovarian cancer patients. Among cohort members there were 306 cancer cases. The overall cancer incidence was not increased: the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) in males was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.1) and in females 1.0 (0.8-1.1). The female relatives had a significantly increased risk for ovarian cancer (SIR 2.8, 1.8-4.2). The excess was attributable to sisters only (SIR 3.7, 2.3-5.7). The relative risk for ovarian cancer among sisters decreased both by increasing age of the sister and by increasing age at diagnosis of the index patient: the SIRs were 7.3 (1.5-21.4), 4.5 (1.6-9.8) and 3.1 (1.7-5.4) for sisters of index patients diagnosed in age < 45, 45-54 and 55-75 years respectively. The age dependency of the risk supports the role of genetic factors in familial ovarian cancer. Although the risk of ovarian cancer among sisters from families with breast cancer (SIR 9.2, 3.7-19.0) was significantly higher than among sisters from families with no breast cancer patients (SIR 2.9, 1.6-4.8, rate ratio 3.1, P < 0.05), the excess was not solely attributable to coaggregation of breast and ovarian cancer. Among the 27 families with two or more ovarian cancers, only sisters were affected in 24 families, which might implicate recessive inheritance or shared environmental factors influencing ovarian cancer risk in sisters. PMID:8688336

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Two Different n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylates for the Embolization of Varicoceles: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vanlangenhove, Peter Keukeleire, Katrien De; Everaert, Karel; Maele, Georges Van; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This was a prospective, randomized, blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates (NBCAs) for embolization of varicoceles. Methods: A total of 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left-sided, n = 84; right-sided, n = 28) that were diagnosed in 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with NBCA (n = 54; Histoacryl, Braun, Germany) or NBCA-MS (n = 58; Glubran2, General Enterprise Marketing, Viareggio, Lucca, Italy). Handling, embolic efficacy, and safety of both NBCAs were compared according the fulfillment of a standardized embolization plan, the occlusive effect on the spermatic vein, and the sticking to the microcatheter. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Patients of both study arms were comparable for age and clinical indication. Spermatic vein characteristics were comparable for varicocele classification and embolization side. Both NBCAs were equally efficient in occluding the spermatic vein and blocking reflux (NBCA, n = 54/54, 100% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 54/57, 94.7%; P = 0.244). The embolization plan could be accomplished in an equal number of veins for both groups (NBCA, n = 45/54, 83.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 41/58, 70.7%; P = 0.124). Adhesiveness of the glue to the microcatheter was the same in both NBCA groups (NBCA, n = 25/54, 46.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 29/58, 50%; P = 0.71). No glue-related complications were noted. Conclusions: NBCA and NBCA-MS are equally efficient and safe glues for embolization of varicoceles.

  20. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension.

  1. Effects of Sublethal Exposure to a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Formulation on Metabolic Activities of Different Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes in Rats.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Karen; Najle, Roberto; Lifschitz, Adrián; Maté, María L; Lanusse, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo L

    2014-07-01

    The activities of different xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver subcellular fractions from Wistar rats exposed to a glyphosate (GLP)-based herbicide (Roundup full II) were evaluated in this work. Exposure to the herbicide triggered protective mechanisms against oxidative stress (increased glutathione peroxidase activity and total glutathione levels). Liver microsomes from both male and female rats exposed to the herbicide had lower (45%-54%, P < 0.01) hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels compared to their respective control animals. In female rats, the hepatic 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (a general CYP-dependent enzyme activity) was 57% higher (P < 0.05) in herbicide-exposed compared to control animals. Conversely, this enzyme activity was 58% lower (P < 0.05) in male rats receiving the herbicide. Lower (P < 0.05) 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethlyase (EROD, CYP1A1/2 dependent) and oleandomycin triacetate (TAO) N-demethylase (CYP3A dependent) enzyme activities were observed in liver microsomes from exposed male rats. Conversely, in females receiving the herbicide, EROD increased (123%-168%, P < 0.05), whereas TAO N-demethylase did not change. A higher (158%-179%, P < 0.01) benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase (a CYP2B-dependent enzyme activity) activity was only observed in herbicide-exposed female rats. In herbicide-exposed rats, the hepatic S-oxidation of methimazole (flavin monooxygenase dependent) was 49% to 62% lower (P < 0.001), whereas the carbonyl reduction of menadione (a cytosolic carbonyl reductase-dependent activity) was higher (P < 0.05). Exposure to the herbicide had no effects on enzymatic activities dependent on carboxylesterases, glutathione transferases, and uridinediphospho-glucuronosyltransferases. This research demonstrated certain biochemical modifications after exposure to a GLP-based herbicide. Such modifications may affect the metabolic fate of different endobiotic and xenobiotic substances. The pharmacotoxicological significance of these

  2. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    PubMed

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis.

  3. Alcohol-related deaths in Wisconsin: the impact of alcohol on mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Nashold, R D; Naor, E M

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the impact of alcohol as an underlying and non-underlying cause of death in Wisconsin showed a marked increase between 1963 and 1977 in the frequency of deaths reported with mention of alcohol. The rate of deaths for which alcohol was a non-underlying cause rose more sharply during this period (2.4 per 100,000 to 9.3) than that of alcohol-related causes (4.6/100,000 to 9.0). Nearly 90 per cent of alcohol-related deaths at ages 15-24 reported alcohol as a non-underlying cause, compared to 40.7 per cent at ages 45-54 and 57 per cent at ages 75+. This proportion was higher (50.8 per cent) among males than among females (32.8 per cent). Deaths related to alcohol are attributed to a number of underlying causes in addition to alcohol. In 1975-77, nearly half of the reported alcohol-related deaths were attributed to other causes, including accidents (14.8 per cent), heart disease (14.3 per cent), respiratory diseases (4.9 per cent), suicide (3.7 per cent), and cancer (31 per cent). These percentages may reflect substantial underreporting. Comparison of motor vehicle driver death certificates with blood alcohol test reports for these drivers shows 90 per cent underreporting of alcohol on death certificates. This fact, along with other information on underreporting, shows that the approximately 650 deaths now being reported with mention of alcohol annually in Wisconsin, represent only a portion of such deaths. PMID:7294267

  4. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity of fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio-; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Ronquillo de Jesús, Elba

    2015-05-01

    Produced worldwide at 1.2m tons per year, fibrous clays are used in the production of pet litter, animal feed stuff to roof parcels, construction and rheological additives, and other applications needing to replace long-fiber length asbestos. To the authors' knowledge, however, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity by sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejon El Rubio, Spain). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) methods. Histological cuts were obtained for quantifying leukocytes found in the epidermis. Palygorkite and sepiolite caused edema inhibition and migration of neutrophils ca. 68.64 and 45.54%, and 80 and 65%, respectively. Fibrous clays yielded high rates of infiltration, explained by cleavage of polysomes and exposure of silanol groups. Also, fibrous clays showed high inhibition of myeloperoxidase contents shortly after exposure, but decreased sharply afterwards. In contrast, tubular clays caused an increasing inhibition of myeloperoxidase with time. Thus, clay structure restricted the kinetics and mechanism of myeloperoxidase inhibition. Fibrous clays were screened in vitro against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the protein-binding dye sulforhodamine B (SRB). Exposing cancer human cells to sepiolite or palygorskite showed growth inhibition varying with cell line. This study shows that fibrous clays served as an effective anti-inflammatory, limited by chemical transfer and cellular-level signals responding exclusively to an early exposure to clay, and cell viability decreasing significantly only after exposure to high concentrations of sepiolite.

  5. Respiratory diseases among union carpenters: cohort and case-control analyses.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, H J; Dement, J M

    1998-02-01

    Lung diseases, defined by ICD-9 diagnoses on medical insurance claims, were studied through the combined use of administrative records, private health insurance, and workers' compensation claims for a cohort of 10,938 active union carpenters between 1989 and 1992. The cohort defined the study base for a nested case-control study, in which cases (n = 220) were initially identified by an ICD-9 code for asthma in private health insurance or workers' compensation files. A questionnaire was used to collect information on respiratory history and potential home and workplace exposures. Questions used by Burney et al. to define a discriminant function predictor (DFP) of a bronchial response to histamine were used to reclassify cases and controls for further exploratory analyses. Bronchitis accounted for over 50% of the lung disease cases among this cohort followed by asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease, and chronic bronchitis. Incidence density rates of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive airway disease adjusted for age, sex, and time in the union increased with increasing age. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program data to estimate expected lung cancer cases in our cohort, an elevated standardized incidence rate (SIR) was seen among male carpenters between the ages of 45-54. Smoking history was not available for the entire cohort. Using the ICD-9 or Burney case definition of asthma, odds ratios were significantly elevated for exposure to hay, epoxy paints, enzymes, animals, and molds. Additional exposures associated with asthma using Burney's definition, are ones to which a majority of these carpenters were exposed including cement, drywall, and demolition dusts.

  6. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  7. Processes accompanying of mantle plume emplacement into continental lithosphere: Evidence from NW Arabian plate, Western Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths occurred in the Middle Cretaceous lamprophyre diatremes in Jabel Ansaria (Western Syria) (Sharkov et al., 1992). They are represented mainly garnet granulites and eclogite-like rocks, which underwent by deformations and retrograde metamorphism, and younger fresh pegmatoid garnet-kaersutite-clinopyroxene (Al-Ti augite) rocks; mantle peridotites are absent in these populations. According to mineralogical geothermobarometers, forming of garnet-granulite suite rocks occurred under pressure 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths 45-54 kn) and temperature 965-1115oC. At the same time, among populations of mantle xenoliths in the Late Cenozoic platobasalts of the region, quite the contrary, lower crustal xenoliths are absent, however, predominated spinel lherzolites (fragments of upper cooled rim of a plume head), derived from the close depths (30-40 km: Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2015). From this follows that ancient continental crust was existed here even in the Middle Cretaceous, but in the Late Cenozoic was removed by extended mantle plume head; at that upper sialic crust was not involved in geomechanic processes, because Precambrian metamorphic rocks survived as a basement for Cambrian to Cenozoic sedimentary cover of Arabian platform. In other words, though cardinal rebuilding of deep-seated structure of the region occurred in the Late Cenozoic but it did not affect on the upper shell of the ancient lithosphere. Because composition of mantle xenolithis in basalts is practically similar worldwide, we suggest that deep-seated processes are analogous also. As emplacement of the mantle plume heads accompanied by powerful basaltic magmatism, very likely that range of lower (mafic) continental crust existence is very convenient for extension of plume heads and their adiabatic melting. If such level, because of whatever reasons, was not reached, melting was limited but appeared excess of volatile matters which led to forming of lamprophyre or even kimberlite.

  8. [Development and clinical testing of the Russian version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS].

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J F; Abdufattaev, U A; Makhmudov, D Kh; Mirkhamidov, D Kh; Khadzhikhanov, F A; Azgamov, A V; Pilatz, A; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F M; Akilov, F A

    2014-01-01

    The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS was originally developed in the Uzbek language and has demonstrated high reliability and validity. The study was aimed to develop a Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire and evaluate its psychometric properties. Translation and adaptation of the ACSS questionnaire containing 18 questions, 6 of them - for the typical symptoms of acute cystitis (AC), 4 - for the differential diagnosis; 3 - for the quality of life, and 5 - for the conditions that may affect the choice of treatment, were performed according to the recommendations developed by the Mapi Research Institute. Study involved 83 Russian-speaking women (mean age, 35.6 ±13.7 years); 38 (45.8%) patients were in the main group (patients with AC), and 45 (54.2%) - in the control group (without AC). Medical examination and appropriate treatment of the respondents were conducted in accordance with approved standards. After completing the course of therapy, 19 (50%) patients of the main group came for the control examination. There was statistically significant difference in the scores obtained in the two groups. Score profiles positively correlated with the results of laboratory tests (rho = 0.26-0.48). Cronbach's alpha for the Russian version of the questionnaire was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91), area under the curve in the ROC analysis was 0.96. The results of testing the Russian version correspond to those of the original version. The Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire has high. reliability and validity, and can be recommended for clinical research and diagnosis of primary AC, and dynamic monitoring of the effectiveness of the treatment of the Russian-speaking population of patients.

  9. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Christian R; Strizich, Garrett; Seeman, Teresa E; Isasi, Carmen R; Gallo, Linda C; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Cai, Jianwen; Penedo, Frank J; Arguelles, Willian; Sanders, Anne E; Lipton, Richard B; Kaplan, Robert C

    2016-12-01

    Allostatic load (AL), an index of biological "wear and tear" on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18-74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18-44, 45-54, 55-74 years), by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years) and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years) were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years), and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years) (P <0.0001 for increasing trend). Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5). Our findings support both a "healthy immigrant" pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages.

  10. Detection of HPV and co-infecting pathogens in healthy Italian women by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Camporiondo, Maria Pia; Farchi, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Denaro, Aurelia; Gallone, Domenica; Maracchioni, Fabio; Favalli, Cartesio; Ciotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogens can be transmitted sexually and are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in a group of 309 healthy women enrolled at the San Camillo - Forlanini hospital of Rome by using two multiplex real-time PCR assays based on TOCE® technology. The women's ages ranged from 34 to 60 years, median 49 [IQR 45-54]. Of the 309 women tested, HPV DNA was detected in 77/309 (24.9%) patients. Of these, 44 (14.2%) harboured a single infection while 33 (10.7%) were infected by multiple genotypes. Prevalence of HPV infection was highest among females aged 40-50 years (15.2%). Of the other pathogens sought, CT, MG and NG were not detected while positive results were found for MH (12/309, 3.9%), TV (4/309, 1.3%), UP (89/309, 28.8%) and UU (14/309, 4.5%). Co-infections were as follows: 5 MH/HPV, 4 TV/HPV, 34 UP/HPV and 9 UU/HPV. In HPV-positive women, the probability of being infected by UP and UU was 2.5 (p=0.00045) and 6 fold higher (p=0.0016) than in HPV-negative women. The study supports the use of multiplex real-time PCR assays in a routine diagnostic setting. The high sensitivity and specificity of these assays along with the simultaneous detection of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens confers an advantage with respect to more obsolete methods reducing costs and time to diagnosis.

  11. Usefulness of Age and Gender in the Early Triage of Patients with Acute Chest Pain Having Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Bamberg, Fabian; Truong, Quynh A.; Blankstein, Ron; Nasir, Khurram; Lee, Hang; Rogers, Ian S.; Achenbach, Stephan; Brady, Thomas J.; Nagurney, John T.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2009-01-01

    To identify age- and gender- specific sub-populations of patients with acute chest pain in whom coronary CT angiography (CTA) yields the highest diagnostic benefit. Subjects with acute chest pain and an inconclusive initial evaluation (non-diagnostic electrocardiogram, negative cardiac biomarkers) underwent contrast-enhanced 64-slice CT coronary angiography as part of an observational cohort study. Independent investigators determined the presence of significant coronary stenosis (>50% luminal narrowing) and the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during index hospitalization. We determined diagnostic accuracy and impact on pretest probability of ACS using Bayes' theorem. Among 368 patients (52.7±12 age, 61% males), 8% had ACS. Presence of significant coronary stenosis by CT and the occurrence of ACS increased with age for both men and women (p<0.001). Cardiac CTA was highly sensitive and specific in women younger than 65 years of age (sensitivity: 100% and specificity >87%) and men younger than 55 years of age (sensitivity: 100% in <45 and 80% in 45-54 years old men; specificity: >88.2%). Moreover, in these patients coronary CTA led to restratification from low to high (for a positive CTA) or from low to very low risk (for a negative CTA). In contrast, a negative CTA result did not result in restratification to low risk category in women >65 and men >55 years of age. In conclusion, this analysis provides initial evidence that men <55 and women <65 might benefit more from cardiac CTA than elderly patients. Thus, age and gender may serve as simple criteria to appropriately select patients who may derive the greatest diagnostic benefit from coronary CTA in the setting of acute chest pain. PMID:19840556

  12. Frequent aberrant expression of the human ether à go-go (hEAG1) potassium channel in head and neck cancer: pathobiological mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Villaronga, María Angeles; Rodrigo, Juan P; Alvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; García-Carracedo, Darío; Urdinguio, Rocío G; Fraga, Mario F; Pardo, Luis A; Viloria, Cristina Gutiérrez; Suárez, Carlos; García-Pedrero, Juana María

    2012-10-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that the human ether-à-go-go voltage-gated potassium channels (hEAG1) may represent new valuable membrane therapeutic targets and diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in various cancers. This study is the first to investigate the expression of hEAG1 potassium channel subunit in both primary tumors and HNSCC-derived cell lines to ascertain its clinical and biological role in tumor progression. Our findings demonstrate that hEAG1 is frequently aberrantly expressed in a high percentage of primary tumors (83 %, 45/54 cases) and HNSCC-derived cell lines (83 %, 10/12 cell lines). hEAG1 expression increased during HNSCC progression and was more frequent in advanced tumors. Strikingly, hEAG1 expression was also detected in a notable proportion (39 %, 17/44 cases) of patient-matched normal adjacent mucosa, whereas no expression was detected in normal epithelia from non-oncologic patients without exposure to tobacco carcinogens. In an attempt to identify the underlying mechanisms of aberrant hEAG1 expression in HNSCC, we found that hEAG1 gene copy gain occurred at a low frequency (15 %, 13/88 cases) in primary tumors but was not observed in early stages of HNSCC tumorigenesis. Furthermore, this study provides original evidence supporting the involvement of histone acetylation (i.e., H3Ac and H4K16Ac activating marks) in the regulation of hEAG1 expression in HNSCC. In addition, functional studies in HNSCC cells further revealed that hEAG1 expression is a biologically relevant feature that promotes cell proliferation and invasion, although independently of its ion-conducting function. Our findings strongly support the notion that hEAG1 may represent a promising candidate as tumor marker and membrane therapeutic target for HNSCC treatment.

  13. Management of Pediatric Myxopapillary Ependymoma: The Role of Adjuvant Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Agbahiwe, Harold C.; Wharam, Moody; Batra, Sachin; Cohen, Kenneth; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2013-02-01

    Introduction: Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare tumor in children. The primary treatment is gross total resection (GTR), with no clearly defined role for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Published reports, however, suggest that children with MPE present with a more aggressive disease course. The goal of this study was to assess the role of adjuvant RT in pediatric patients with MPE. Methods: Sixteen patients with MPE seen at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) between November 1984 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen of the patients were evaluable with a mean age of 16.8 years (range, 12-21 years). Kaplan-Meier curves and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Results: All patients received surgery as the initial treatment modality. Surgery consisted of either a GTR or a subtotal resection (STR). The median dose of adjuvant RT was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-54 Gy). All patients receiving RT were treated at the involved site. After a median follow-up of 7.2 years (range, 0.75-26.4 years), all patients were alive with stable disease. Local control at 5 and 10 years was 62.5% and 30%, respectively, for surgery alone versus 100% at both time points for surgery and adjuvant RT. Fifty percent of the patients receiving surgery alone had local failure. All patients receiving STR alone had local failure compared to 33% of patients receiving GTR alone. One patient in the surgery and adjuvant RT group developed a distant site of recurrence 1 year from diagnosis. No late toxicity was reported at last follow-up, and neurologic symptoms either improved or remained stable following surgery with or without RT. Conclusions: Adjuvant RT improved local control compared to surgery alone and should be considered after surgical resection in pediatric patients with MPE.

  14. Evaluation of Tc-99m (V) DMSA binding to human plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bi-Fang; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Chiu, Nan-Tsing; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wang, Mei-Hui; Shen, Lie-Hang

    2008-01-01

    As a critical step toward elucidating the mechanism of localization of Tc-99m (V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), we investigated its binding and transport in blood in comparison with Ga-67 citrate. The studies were performed in vitro by incubating Tc-99m (V) DMSA with blood (one sample at 4 degrees Celcius and another at 37 degrees Celcius) to assess its binding to plasma proteins using ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography and affinity chromatography. A parallel experiment for determining the blood binding of Ga-67 citrate was performed using the same procedures. Using ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography, labeled plasma samples showed that protein binding for Tc-99m (V) DMSA was 45-54% at 37 degrees Celcius and 73-80% at 4 degrees Celcius. The figures for Ga-67 citrate were 43-53% at 37 degrees Celcius and 75-81% at 4 degrees Celcius. Electrophoresis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA was mostly bound to plasma albumin (36.05 +/- 2.48% at 37 degrees Celcius and 60.04 +/- 1.87% at 4 degrees Celcius), and that the proportion of Ga-67 radioactivity associated with beta-globulin was 34.23 +/- 1.37% at 37 degrees Celcius and 55.71 +/- 3.69% at 4 degrees Celcius. In affinity chromatography experiments, Tc-99m (V) DMSA did not bind to transferrin, unlike Ga-67 citrate. This study demonstrates that, at the radiopharmaceutical tracer level, most Tc-99m (V) DMSA in blood is protein-bound, primarily to albumin, but not to transferrin. In contrast, Ga-67 citrate was bound primarily to transferrin. The knowledge that albumin is the main transport protein of Tc-99m (V) DMSA may contribute to a better understanding of its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics.

  15. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition.

  16. Hormonal contraception and risk of cardiovascular disease. An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Farley, T M; Collins, J; Schlesselman, J J

    1998-03-01

    The most frequent major adverse effect of hormonal contraception is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) differs and is strongly influenced by smoking and the presence of other cardiovascular risks factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The incidence of each disease rises with age and there are differences in risk among hormonal contraceptive preparations. This article provides a framework within which to assess the balance of risks among types of hormonal contraceptives according to individual circumstances. Data on cardiovascular disease mortality rates in women of reproductive age in different countries of the world were compiled from nationally reported statistics and supplemented where possible with reported disease incidence rates. Risks associated with current use of hormonal contraception were compiled from the most recent publications on the cardiovascular effects of steroid hormone contraception. These were combined to estimate the total cardiovascular incidence and mortality according to baseline cardiovascular risk and individual characteristics. Mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases are very low in women of reproductive age. Myocardial infarction mortality rates rise from < 0.4 per 100,000 woman-years at age 15-24 years to the range 2 to 7 per 100,000 woman-years at age 35-44 years. Stroke mortality rates similarly rise steeply with age and are between 3 and 5 times higher than those for MI. VTE mortality rates rise less steeply with age and are approximately one-tenth the MI mortality rates at age 35-44 years. The adverse effect of oral contraceptives (OC) on the risk of VTE is the most important contributor to the total number of cardiovascular cases attributable to OC use. The increased risk of stroke and MI dominate the patterns of mortality in OC users and smokers. The additional risks attributable to

  17. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001; women 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001). Use of information/support websites was strongly associated with men’s higher socioeconomic status (managerial/professional vs semiroutine/routine: AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.93, P<.001). Despite no overall association with area-level deprivation, those in densely populated urban areas were more likely to report use of information/support websites than those living in rural areas (men: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.68-6.77, P<.001; women: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, P<.001). No

  18. Regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals without a randomised controlled study: analysis of EMA and FDA approvals 1999–2014

    PubMed Central

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Baio, Gianluca; Berlin, Jesse A; Irs, Alar; Freemantle, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of pharmaceuticals is most often demonstrated by randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, in some cases, regulatory applications lack RCT evidence. Objective To investigate the number and type of these approvals over the past 15 years by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods Drug approval data were downloaded from the EMA website and the ‘Drugs@FDA’ database for all decisions on pharmaceuticals published from 1 January 1999 to 8 May 2014. The details of eligible applications were extracted, including the therapeutic area, type of approval and review period. Results Over the period of the study, 76 unique indications were granted without RCT results (44 by the EMA and 60 by the FDA), demonstrating that a substantial number of treatments reach the market without undergoing an RCT. The majority was for haematological malignancies (34), with the next most common areas being oncology (15) and metabolic conditions (15). Of the applications made to both agencies with a comparable data package, the FDA granted more approvals (43/44 vs 35/44) and took less time to review products (8.7 vs 15.5 months). Products reached the market first in the USA in 30 of 34 cases (mean 13.1 months) due to companies making FDA submission before EMA submissions and faster FDA review time. Discussion Despite the frequency with which approvals are granted without RCT results, there is no systematic monitoring of such treatments to confirm their effectiveness or consistency regarding when this form of evidence is appropriate. We recommend a more open debate on the role of marketing authorisations granted without RCT results, and the development of guidelines on what constitutes an acceptable data package for regulators. PMID:27363818

  19. Impact of shortened dental arches on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, J L F; Tan, H; Peres, K G; Peres, M A

    2016-03-01

    This study described the prevalence of adults with shortened dental arches (SDA) in Brazil, specifically assessing the differences of oral health-related quality of life [the prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP)] by dentition status. We analysed data from the 2010 National Survey of Oral Health in Brazil, including home interviews and oral examinations. The assessment of SDA used two alternative definitions: having 3-5 natural occlusal units (OUs) in posterior teeth or having 4 OUs in posterior teeth. Both definitions included having intact anterior region and no dental prosthesis. The analysis was weighted, and a complex sampling design was used. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations as adjusted for socio-demographic conditions and dental outcomes. A total of 9779 adults (35-44 years old) participated in the study. A non-negligible proportion had SDA: 9·9% and 3·8% for the first and second definition, respectively. Individuals with SDA (first definition) ranked higher in OIDP prevalence [count ratio (CR) 1·22; 1·09-1·36, 95% confidence interval (CI)] and severity (CR = 1·43; 1·19-1·72, 95% CI) than those with more natural teeth. This difference was not statistically significant when adjusted for socio-demographic and dental covariates: OIDP prevalence (CR = 1·04; 0·92-1·17, 95% CI) and severity (CR = 1·09; 0·91-1·30, 95% CI). Analogous results were obtained when the second definition of SDA was adopted. These findings suggest that a considerable contingent of adults may function well without dental prostheses, despite having several missing teeth. This conclusion challenges the traditional approach of replacing any missing tooth and instructs the allocation of more dental resources to preventive, diagnostic and restorative services.

  20. Left ventricular hypertrophy index based on a combination of frontal and transverse planes in the ECG and VCG: Diagnostic utility of cardiac vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomini, Maria Paula; Juan Ingallina, Fernando; Barone, Valeria; Antonucci, Ricardo; Valentinuzzi, Max; Arini, Pedro David

    2016-04-01

    The changes that left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induces in depolarization and repolarization vectors are well known. We analyzed the performance of the electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic transverse planes (TP in the ECG and XZ in the VCG) and frontal planes (FP in the ECG and XY in the VCG) to discriminate LVH patients from control subjects. In an age-balanced set of 58 patients, the directions and amplitudes of QRS-complexes and T-wave vectors were studied. The repolarization vector significantly decreased in modulus from controls to LVH in the transverse plane (TP: 0.45±0.17mV vs. 0.24±0.13mV, p<0.0005 XZ: 0.43±0.16mV vs. 0.26±0.11mV, p<0.005) while the depolarization vector significantly changed in angle in the electrocardiographic frontal plane (Controls vs. LVH, FP: 48.24±33.66° vs. 46.84±35.44°, p<0.005, XY: 20.28±35.20° vs. 19.35±12.31°, NS). Several LVH indexes were proposed combining such information in both ECG and VCG spaces. A subset of all those indexes with AUC values greater than 0.7 was further studied. This subset comprised four indexes, with three of them belonging to the ECG space. Two out of the four indexes presented the best ROC curves (AUC values: 0.78 and 0.75, respectively). One index belonged to the ECG space and the other one to the VCG space. Both indexes showed a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. In conclusion, the proposed indexes can favorably complement LVH diagnosis

  1. Clinical and sociodemographic predictors of oral pain and eating problems among adult and senior Spaniards in the national survey performed in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Manuel; López-Valverde, Antonio; Llodra, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain and chewing difficulties have been identified as the strongest predictors of oral disadvantage. The aim of this study is to analyze and quantify the sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical factors modulating the oral pain and eating difficulties reported by Spanish adults and elderly Spanish people in the last National Oral Health Survey performed in 2010. Material and Methods Data concerning pain and chewing difficulties were acquired on a Likert‑scale format from a representative sample of the Spanish general population with ages between 35-44 years (n=391) and 65‑74 years (n=405). Risk factors were identified using bivariate analysis, after which the crude association between risk factors (sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical) and outcome variables (pain and eating problems) was assessed by adjusted odds ratios, calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression. Results Eating problems and oral pain were mainly associated with prosthetic and caries treatment needs as clinical predictors, but female sex was also seen to be a relevant and significant risk factor for suffering pain and eating restrictions. Paradoxically, after taking into account all the aforementioned predictors, the adults had an almost two‑fold higher risk of reporting pain or eating difficulties than the elderly subjects. Conclusions In agreement with the results from the last national oral health survey, prosthetic and caries treatment needs should be considered key factors in determining the oral well‑being of the Spanish population. In sociodemographic terms, the women and adults were seen to be at a significantly higher risk of suffering pain and eating restrictions. Key words: Oral pain, eating difficulties, oral health‑related quality of life, epidemiological studies, self‑assessment. PMID:25858078

  2. The utility of dental patterns in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Martin-de-Las-Heras, Stella; Valenzuela, Aurora; Luna, Juan de Dios; Bravo, Manuel

    2010-02-25

    The comparison of antemortem and postmortem dental patterns, which reflect a combination of dental states, can be quantified for human identification. However, the utility derived from the uniqueness of these patterns is limited by variations in oral health status related to population, age, and birth cohort. We analyzed dental pattern diversity from reference datasets that documented differences in oral health. Our analysis was based on full dentitions and partial dentitions available in forensic situations. To analyze the diversity of dental patterns, data from 3166 adults were extracted from the last 3 contemporary Spanish National Oral Health Examination Surveys, corresponding to the years 1993, 2000, and 2005. Each survey comprised 2 adult age groups (35-44 years and 65-74 years), therefore six datasets were available for our study. Our six samples showed substantial variability in oral health status (caries history) and dental code distribution, not only between age groups within the same survey year, but also between different survey years for the same age group. To test the overall diversity of dental patterns in each datasets, pairwise comparisons were performed and the total number of pattern matches was generated. We calculated total and conditional diversity (excluding individuals in whom all teeth were classified as unrestored or missing) for each forensic situation. To test the homogeneity of diversity estimates among the six datasets we used a random effect model that requires a parameter estimate together with its standard error. Total diversity values were low and heterogeneous. However, conditional diversities were high and homogeneous, which allowed all data to be pooled into a single database. Once data were pooled, high combined diversity values (above 0.99) were obtained for each forensic situation. This indicates their usefulness for forensic purposes. We conclude that the conditional diversity value derived from dental patterns is a

  3. The demand for fertility control in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N; Zahid, G M

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of fertility and contraceptive use data for Pakistan is directed toward estimating the likelihood of contraceptive use. Data are drawn from the 1975 Fertility Survey, the 1979-80 Population, Labor Force, and Migration Survey, the 1984-85 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, and the 1990-91 Demographic and Health Survey. Increased demand for family planning is construed to be reflected in the excess number of children over the desired number of children according to the Easterlin and Crimmons and the Bulatao and Lee frameworks. A higher probability of contraceptive use is expected to be related to having a large family. Findings indicate that there was a lack of correspondence between the desire for no more children and actual use of contraception. The proportion desiring no more children was 40-50%. In the logistic model, the findings show that the likelihood of contraceptive use in all surveys was significantly increased with women's education, urban residence, and family planning accessibility. The number of living and desired children were independent of each other, and neither factor influenced significantly the demand for contraception. The nature of and magnitude of the effect varied for each survey. The generalized conclusion was that contraceptive use is not being used by women who desire no more children. Although contraceptive use has increased over time, the number of desired children has remained stable. The suggestion is to target women aged 35-44 years who appear to have achieved their desired fertility and to expand levels of education and economic and social opportunities for women.

  4. Efficacy of Bacillus clausii strain UBBC-07 in the treatment of patients suffering from acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Sudha, M Ratna; Bhonagiri, S; Kumar, M Asin

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of Bacillus clausii strain UBBC 07 in patients suffering from acute diarrhoea. A total of 27 patients (average age of 35.44±8.08 years) with acute diarrhoea were included in a prospective, Phase II clinical study after informed consent and ethical committee approval. The criteria included for all subjects were ≥3 loose stool motions within 24 hours and for more than 7 days. All patients were assigned to receive one capsule of B. clausii strain UBBC-07 (containing 2×109 cfu) two times a day for a period of 10 days. Efficacy assessment of duration of diarrhoea, frequency of defecation, abdominal pain and stool consistency were tested on days 1, 3, 6 and 10. Safety was evaluated by assessing the incidence and type of adverse effects such as increase in blood pressure and pulse rate, physical examination and clinical laboratory tests, i.e. complete blood count, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum creatinine, and stool examination and microscopy, on day 1 and day 10. The results of this study clearly showed that the mean duration of diarrhoea decreased from 34.81±4.69 to 9.26±3.05 (P<0.0001) min per day, the frequency of defecation also decreased from 6.96±1.05 to 1.78±0.50 (P<0.0001) times per day, abdominal pain decreased from 3.22±0.93 (severe) to 0.74±0.71 (absent) (P<0.0001), and stool consistency improved from 3.93±0.38 (watery) to 1.22±0.42 (soft) (P<0.0001). No significant change in safety parameters were observed during treatment. This study shows that the B. clausii strain UBBC-07 can potentially be effective in alleviating the symptoms of diarrhoea without causing any adverse effects.

  5. The influence of stress at puberty on mood and learning: role of the α4βδ GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Smith, S S

    2013-09-26

    It is well-known that the onset of puberty is associated with changes in mood as well as cognition. Stress can have an impact on these outcomes, which in many cases, can be more influential in females, suggesting that gender differences exist. The adolescent period is a vulnerable time for the onset of certain psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders, which are also more prevalent in females. One factor which may contribute to stress-triggered anxiety at puberty is the GABAA receptor (GABAR), which is known to play a pivotal role in anxiety. Expression of α4βδ GABARs increases on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty in the hippocampus, part of the limbic circuitry which governs emotion. This receptor is a sensitive target for the stress steroid 3α-OH-5[α]β-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone, which paradoxically reduces inhibition and increases anxiety during the pubertal period (post-natal day ∼35-44) of female mice in contrast to its usual effect to enhance inhibition and reduce anxiety. Spatial learning and synaptic plasticity are also adversely impacted at puberty, likely a result of increased expression of α4βδ GABARs on the dendritic spines of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are essential for consolidation of memory. This review will focus on the role of these receptors in mediating behavioral changes at puberty. Stress-mediated changes in mood and cognition in early adolescence may have relevance for the expression of psychopathologies in adulthood.

  6. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  7. Effect of sampling frames on response rates in the WHO MONICA risk factor surveys.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Hermann K; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Tolonen, Hanna; Sans, Susana; Molarius, Anu; Eastwood, Brian J

    2005-01-01

    Sample surveys are used to investigate occurrence and determinants of diseases in populations. Their reliability is influenced by quality of sampling frame and response rate. We investigated relationship between sampling frame type and response rates and assessed their impact on non-response bias, using data from the WHO MONICA Project, where 37 centres in 20 countries conducted sample surveys, employing the best locally available sampling frame. Sampling frames fell into three categories: Population registers (PR), electoral registers (ER), and health care registers (HR). Response rate (rrs) was factored into components reflecting quality of sampling frame (contact rate cr) and characterizing willingness of sample members to participate (enrolment rate er). The mean quality score for the sampling frames was 92% for PR, 87% for HR and 85% for ER; they contributed on average 23, 20, and 26% to the respective non-response rates. For all frame types and both sexes the lowest quality score occurred in the age group 35 - 44, suggesting a reduced ability to track migration of a highly mobile population group. The patterns in the age/sex distribution of er indicate at least for males in PR and females in HR a potential for non-response bias. Estimation of non-response bias through an abbreviated questionnaire failed because of low item response. We found that contact rate characterizes sampling frame quality. For all frame types it had a major influence on response rate. It is likely that low er and low cr cause different kind of bias, requiring different measures to minimize their effects.

  8. Estimating contact patterns relevant to the spread of infectious diseases in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ajelli, Marco; Litvinova, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Understanding human mixing patterns is the key to provide public health decision makers with model-based evaluation of strategies for the control of infectious diseases. Here we conducted a population-based survey in Tomsk, Russia, asking participants to record all their contacts in physical person during the day. We estimated 9.8 contacts per person per day on average, 15.2 when including additional estimated professional contacts. We found that contacts were highly assortative by age, especially for school-age individuals, and the number of contacts negatively correlated with the age of the participant. The network of contacts was quite clustered, with the majority of contacts (about 72%) occurring between family members, students of the same school/university, and work colleagues. School represents the location where the largest number of contacts was recorded - students contacted about 7 individuals per day at school. Our modeling analysis based on the recorded contact patterns supports the importance of modeling age-mixing patterns - we show that, in the case of an epidemic caused by a novel influenza virus, school-age individuals would be the most affected age group, followed by adults aged 35-44 years. In conclusion, this study reveals an age-mixing pattern in general agreement with that estimated for European countries, although with several quantitative differences. The observed differences can be attributable to sociodemographic and cultural differences between countries. The age- and setting-specific contact matrices provided in this study could be instrumental for the design of control measures for airborne infections, specifically targeted on the characteristics of the Russian population.

  9. Thermal, metabolic, hygric and ventilatory physiology of the sandhill dunnart (Sminthopsis psammophila; Marsupialia, Dasyuridae).

    PubMed

    Withers, Philip C; Cooper, Christine E

    2009-07-01

    We present here the first physiological data for the sandhill dunnart (Sminthopsis psammophila), the second largest (35-44 g) sminthopsine dasyurid marsupial, and report torpor for this species. Their thermoneutral body temperature (34.4 degrees C), thermolability below thermoneutrality (0.062 degrees C degrees C(-1)), and mild hyperthermia above thermoneutrality (35.5 degrees C) are typical of small dunnarts, and dasyurids. Basal metabolic rate (0.80 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1)) is as predicted from mass. Sandhill dunnarts generally conform to the Scholander-Irving model of endothermy, although metabolism increases less than expected and extrapolates to a higher than actual body temperature.Wet (0.22 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1) C(-1)) and dry (2.8 J g(-1) h(-1) degrees C(-1)) thermal conductances were as predicted. Thermoneutral evaporative water loss (1.6 mg g(-1) h(-1)) was only 54% of expected, but this is not significantly different, and more likely reflects variability in the marsupial dataset than an adaptation.Relative water economy resembles that of other small marsupials, rodents and birds, with a point of relative economy of 18 degrees C. Respiratory ventilation closely matches metabolic rate, with minute volume increased at low ambient temperatures by increased breathing rate rather than tidal volume; oxygen extraction was constant at about 17%, except during hyperthermia above the thermoneutrality. Torpor conferred significant energetic and hygric benefits. We found no evidence of deviation from allometrically- and phylogenetically-based expectations despite the sandhill dunnart's arid habitat and large (for a dunnart) body mass.

  10. Salt-induced expression of genes related to Na(+)/K(+) and ROS homeostasis in leaves of salt-resistant and salt-sensitive poplar species.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingquan; Hou, Peichen; Shen, Xin; Wang, Meijuan; Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Lu, Cunfu; Zhang, Deqiang; Zheng, Xiaojiang; Hu, Zanmin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2010-06-01

    Using the Affymetrix poplar genome array, we explored the leaf transcriptome of salt-tolerant Populus euphratica Oliv. and salt-sensitive P. popularis 35-44 (P. popularis) under control and saline conditions. Our objective was to clarify the genomic differences in regulating K(+)/Na(+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis between the two species. Compared to P. popularis, salt-tolerant P. euphratica responses to salinity involved induction of a relatively larger number of probesets after short-term (ST) exposure to 150 mM NaCl (24 h) and relatively fewer probesets after a long-term (LT) exposure to salinity (200 mM NaCl, 28 days). Compared to P. popularis, leaves of the control P. euphratica plants exhibited a higher transcript abundance of genes related to Na(+)/H(+) antiport (Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, H(+) pumps) and K(+) uptake and transport. Notably, the expression of these genes did not decrease (with a few exceptions) during salt treatment. Regarding ROS homeostasis, P. euphratica exhibited rapid up-regulation of a variety of antioxidant enzymes after exposure to ST salinity, indicating a rapid adaptive response to salt stress. However, the effect of NaCl on transcription in P. popularis leaves was more pronounced after exposure to prolonged salinity. LT-stressed P. popularis up-regulated some genes mediating K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis but decreased transcription of main scavengers of superoxide radicals and H(2)O(2) except for some isoforms of a few scavengers. Mineral and ROS analyses show that NaCl induced a marked increase of leaf Na(+) and H(2)O(2) in LT-stressed plants of the two species and the effects were even more pronounced in the salt-sensitive poplar. We place the transcription results in the context of our physiological measurements to infer some implications of NaCl-induced alterations in gene expression related to K(+)/Na(+) and ROS homeostasis.

  11. Assessment of selected antioxidants in tomato pomace subsequent to treatment with the edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, under solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Assi, Jamal A; King, Annie J

    2007-10-31

    Tomato pomace, delignified by the edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, could be used as a poultry feed ingredient to provide alpha-tocopherol for retardation of lipid oxidation in postmortem meat if the antioxidant were retained in pomace after fungal fermentation. Experiments were conducted to investigate changes in the content of alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tomato pomace after sterilization and treatment with P. ostreatus from 0 to 104 days. alpha-Tocopherol (39.26 to 31.15 microg/g) and lycopene (17.42 to 11.19 microg/g) significantly decreased during sterilization while beta-carotene (42.56 to 35.44 microg/g) did not. The content of carotenoids decreased by day 26 as compared to 0 day for the control and for treated samples. alpha-Tocopherol decreased during fungal fermentation at day 26 as compared to 0 day for the control and increased during the same period for treated samples. By 104 days, only alpha-tocopherol in control pomace was present in a significant amount. The alpha-tocopherol content of mushroom fruit grown in pomace (74.10 microg/g) and in wheat straw (51.36 microg/g) was not significantly different. Tomato pomace could be used as a substrate to successfully grow edible mushrooms; however, the initial level of selected antioxidants and their reduction during fungal fermentation must be considered when delignified pomace is utilized for selected nutrient content in animal feed or products for human consumption.

  12. Factors associated with the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Daniele Aparecida Silva; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Mayara Santos; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives and the associated factors in Brazilian women. METHODS 20,454 women who answered the VIGITEL survey in 2008 also participated in this study, of which 3,985 reported using oral contraceptives. We defined the following conditions for the contraindicated use of contraceptives: hypertension; cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, stroke/cerebrovascular accident; diabetes mellitus; being smoker and 35 years old or older. We estimated the prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of contraindicated use in users of oral contraceptives and the factors associated with contraindication by prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS In the total population, 21% (95%CI 19.7–21.9) of women showed some contraindication to the use of oral contraceptives, of which 11.7% (95%CI 10.6–13.7) belonged to the group of users of oral contraceptives. The most frequent contraindication in users of oral contraceptives was hypertension (9.1%). The largest proportion of women with at least one contraindication was aged between 45 and 49 years (45.8%) and with education level between zero and eight years (23.8%). The prevalence of contraindication to oral contraceptives was higher in women less educated (zero to eight years of study) (PR = 2.46; 95%CI 1.57–3.86; p < 0.05) and with age between 35-44 years (PR = 4.00; 95%CI 2.34–6.83) and 45-49 years (PR = 5.59; 95%CI 2.90–10.75). CONCLUSIONS Age greater than or equal to 35 and low education level were demographic and iniquity factors, respectively, in the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives. PMID:28099550

  13. EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer in organ transplant recipients: a localized indolent posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Hart, Melissa; Thakral, Beenu; Yohe, Sophia; Balfour, Henry H; Singh, Charanjeet; Spears, Michael; McKenna, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBV MCU) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder occurring in elderly or iatrogenic immunocompromised patients. It has not been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. We observed 7 patients with EBV MCU in a cohort of 70 transplant recipients with EBV posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Transplants included: 5 renal, 1 heart, and 1 lung. Median patient age was 61; 5 were male. EBV MCU was observed in oral mucosa in 4 and gastrointestinal tract in 3. Duration of immunosuppressive therapy before EBV MCU was 0.6 to 13 years. Ulcers were undermined by inflammatory cells and polymorphic or monomorphic large cell lymphoproliferation. Reed-Sternberg-like cells were present in 5/7. Large B cells were CD20, CD30, and EBV-encoded RNA positive in all cases. Diagnosis in 3 recent patients was EBV MCU; 4 patients diagnosed before familiarity with EBV MCU were classified as monomorphic large cell (n=3) and polymorphic (n=1) PTLD. None of the patients had EBV DNA in their blood (<1000 copies/mL) at diagnosis or follow-up versus 35/44 transplant patients with systemic PTLD (P<0.001). All lesions resolved with reduced immunosuppression (7/7), change in immunosuppression (2/7), and rituximab (3/7). Five patients are living: 4 healthy, 1 awaiting second renal transplant. Two patients died 3 and 5 years after resolution of EBV MCU. No patient recurred with EBV MCU or other PTLDs. EBV MCU mimics more aggressive categories of PTLD but lacks EBV DNA in blood, which may be a useful distinguishing feature. Lesions are likely to resolve with conservative management. Awareness of EBV MCU in the posttransplant setting is necessary for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Ultrasound-detected joint inflammation and B cell count: related variables for rituximab-treated RA patients?

    PubMed

    Valor, Lara; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; Janta, Iustina; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Ovalles-Bonilla, Juan Gabriel; González-Fernández, Carlos; Del Rio, Tamara; Hernández-Flórez, Diana; Monteagudo, Indalecio; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional observational study aimed to explore the relationship between B cell count and ultrasound (US)-detected synovitis, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with rituximab. Thirty-seven consecutive RA patients treated with RTX were recruited for the study. The patients underwent clinical [i.e., Disease Activity Score 28 joints (DAS28)], laboratory, and US assessment of 12 joints. Each joint was semiquantitatively (0-3) scored on B-mode and power Doppler mode. The scores were summed, and a global index was created for BM (BMS) and PD scores (PDI) synovitis. BM subclinical synovitis was evident in all patients, with PD synovial signal detected in 16 patients (43.2 %). No correlation was found between DAS28 and US scores. B cells were detected in 27 (72.9 %) patients, but there was no association in the mean B cell count and disease activity as measured by DAS28 (DAS28 < 2.6 = 34.53, DAS28 > 2.6 = 49.45, p = 0.52) and PDI score (PDI < 1 = 49.48, PDI > 1 = 35.44, p = 0.54). There was no correlation between the B cell count and DAS28, BMS, and PDI (r = 0.020, p = 0.907; r = -0.151, p = 0.371; r = -0.099, p = 0.558, respectively). In RTX-treated RA patients, no relationship could be established between US-detected synovitis and peripheral blood B cell count.

  15. [Women's behavior and knowledge concerning family planning in the region of the Park Health Center].

    PubMed

    Ozyurda, F; Durmusoglu, M

    1989-01-01

    1390 women aged 15-44 were surveyed between February-June 1988 in the vicinity of the Park Health Education Center by the Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Public Health. Within this sample, the survey focused on the knowledge, attitude and behavior of the 1082 married women, regarding birth control. Birth control pills, IUDs, and condoms were classified as effective modern birth control methods. Other less effective traditional methods were classified as ineffective. Analysis of the data indicated 74.2% of the subjects resort to some form of birth control while 66.2% use an effective modern method. Age, education, work status, number of children and type and location of housing influence family planning decisions. In general, the women using birth control are primary school graduates aged between 25-39, living in urban areas for at least 5 years. Most have 2 to 3 children and have had an abortion. The most frequently used method of birth control is the IUD. It is notable that 29.5% use the ineffective withdrawal method. 58.62% of the women who do not use birth control, avoid family planning because of their husbands. These women have 2 or more children and are illiterate or primary school graduates between the ages of 25-35 when they are most likely to become pregnant. Family planning services should be geared towards educating these families, especially the husbands. Education services should also target families using the withdrawal method and the 35-44 age group of women who show a low percentage of contraceptive use.

  16. Mortality during a Large-Scale Heat Wave by Place, Demographic Group, Internal and External Causes of Death, and Building Climate Zone.

    PubMed

    Joe, Lauren; Hoshiko, Sumi; Dobraca, Dina; Jackson, Rebecca; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Smith, Daniel; Harnly, Martha

    2016-03-09

    Mortality increases during periods of elevated heat. Identification of vulnerable subgroups by demographics, causes of death, and geographic regions, including deaths occurring at home, is needed to inform public health prevention efforts. We calculated mortality relative risks (RRs) and excess deaths associated with a large-scale California heat wave in 2006, comparing deaths during the heat wave with reference days. For total (all-place) and at-home mortality, we examined risks by demographic factors, internal and external causes of death, and building climate zones. During the heat wave, 582 excess deaths occurred, a 5% increase over expected (RR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.08). Sixty-six percent of excess deaths were at home (RR = 1.12, CI 1.07-1.16). Total mortality risk was higher among those aged 35-44 years than ≥ 65, and among Hispanics than whites. Deaths from external causes increased more sharply (RR = 1.18, CI 1.10-1.27) than from internal causes (RR = 1.04, CI 1.02-1.07). Geographically, risk varied by building climate zone; the highest risks of at-home death occurred in the northernmost coastal zone (RR = 1.58, CI 1.01-2.48) and the southernmost zone of California's Central Valley (RR = 1.43, CI 1.21-1.68). Heat wave mortality risk varied across subpopulations, and some patterns of vulnerability differed from those previously identified. Public health efforts should also address at-home mortality, non-elderly adults, external causes, and at-risk geographic regions.

  17. Rheumatic fever in indigenous Australian children.

    PubMed

    Parnaby, Matthew G; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-09-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) caused by acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a disease of poverty, poor hygiene and poor living standards. RHD remains one of the major causes of childhood cardiac disease in developing nations. Within developed nations, there has been a dramatic drop in the prevalence of RHD because of the improvement of living standards, access to health care and the widespread availability of penicillin-based drugs. Despite a dramatic reduction of RHD in Australia overall, it continues to be a major contributor to childhood and adult cardiac disease in Indigenous communities throughout northern and central Australia. Currently, Australia has among the highest recorded rates of ARF and RHD in the world. The most accurate epidemiological data in Australia come from the Northern Territory's RHD control programme. In the Northern Territory, 92% of people with RHD are Indigenous, of whom 85% live in remote communities and towns. The incidence of ARF is highest in 5-14-year-olds, ranging from 150 to 380 per 100,000. Prevalence rates of RHD since 2000 have steadily increased to almost 2% of the Indigenous population in the Northern Territory, 3.2% in those aged 35-44 years. Living in remote communities is a contributing factor to ARF/RHD as well as a major barrier for adequate follow-up and care. Impediments to ARF/RHD control include the paucity of specialist services, rapid turnover of health staff, lack of knowledge of ARF/RHD by health staff, patients and communities, and the high mobility of the Indigenous population. Fortunately, the recently announced National Rheumatic Fever Strategy, comprising recurrent funding to the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia for control programmes, as well as the creation of a National Coordination Unit suggest that RHD control in Australia is now a tangible prospect. For the disease to be eradicated, Australia will have to address the underpinning determinants of poverty, social and living conditions.

  18. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children.

  19. Oral Health Status of Rural and Urban Population of Gurgaon Block, Gurgaon District Using WHO Assessment Form through Multistage Sampling Technique

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sumanth; Rajashekharappa, Chinmaya Byali; Garg, Aarti; Ryana, Haneet Kour; Khurana, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral part of general health and well being. Poor oral health can affect a person physiologically and psychologically irrespective of age group. Aim To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of urban and rural population of Gurgaon Block, Gurgaon District, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 810 urban and rural subjects belonging to index age groups of 5, 12, 15, 35-44 and 65-74 years as recommended by WHO, in the city of Gurgaon, Haryana. The World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was used for data collection in which clinical examination, soft and hard tissue findings as well as dentofacial anomalies were recorded. The subjects were selected by multistage random sampling and examined throughout the area by a house to house survey. Statistical Analysis The data was collected and subjected to analysis through SPSS 21. Chi-square was used for compilation of results. Results Of the total population 44.9% had dental caries with a mean DMFT of 1.61. Prevalence of periodontal diseases was 65%; 46% of the population suffered from malocclusions of which 21.19 % had the severe type. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent (46%) out of which 11.23% had moderate and 9.6% had severe type of fluorosis. Treatment was found to be required among 83% of population. Conclusion The dental health care needs are very high both in rural and urban areas in spite of basic facilities available in urban areas. Hence professional and administrative attention is required both in urban and rural areas. Gurgaon Block can be used as a model district to find the effectiveness of programs in bringing down the oral diseases and maintenance of the oral health of the people on a long term basis. PMID:27437359

  20. Snoring and breathing pauses during sleep: telephone interview survey of a United Kingdom population sample.

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, M. M.; Guilleminault, C.; Priest, R. G.; Caulet, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of snoring, breathing pauses during sleep, and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and determine the relation between these events and sociodemographic variables, other health problems, driving accidents, and consumption of healthcare resources. DESIGN: Telephone interview survey directed by a previously validated computerised system (Sleep-Eval). SETTING: United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 2894 women and 2078 men aged 15-100 years who formed a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interview responses. RESULTS: Forty per cent of the population reported snoring regularly and 3.8% reported breathing pauses during sleep. Regular snoring was significantly associated with male sex, age 25 or more, obesity, daytime sleepiness or naps, night time awakenings, consuming large amounts of caffeine, and smoking. Breathing pauses during sleep were significantly associated with obstructive airways or thyroid disease, male sex, age 35-44 years, consumption of anxiety reducing drugs, complaints of non-restorative sleep, and consultation with a doctor in the past year. The two breathing symptoms were also significantly associated with drowsiness while driving. Based on minimal criteria of the International classification of Sleep Disorders (1990), 1.9% of the sample had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. In the 35-64 year age group 1.5% of women (95% confidence interval 0.8% to 2.2%) and 3.5% of men (2.4% to 4.6%) had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Disordered breathing during sleep is widely underdiagnosed in the United Kingdom. The condition is linked to increased use of medical resources and a greater risk of daytime sleepiness, which augments the risk of accidents. Doctors should ask patients and bed partners regularly about snoring and breathing pauses during sleep. PMID:9093095

  1. Trends in life expectancy by education in Norway 1961-2009.

    PubMed

    Steingrímsdóttir, Olöf Anna; Næss, Øyvind; Moe, Joakim Oliu; Grøholt, Else-Karin; Thelle, Dag Steinar; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Bævre, Kåre

    2012-03-01

    Educational attainment and longevity are strongly related. Large population studies covering long periods to provide evidence of trends in educational inequalities regarding life expectancy are scarce though, especially prior to the 1980s. Our objective was to document changes in life expectancy by education in Norway in the period 1961-2009, and to determine whether the patterns differ between sexes. This is a register-based population study of all Norwegian residents over 34 years, with data from the National Central Population Registry and the National Education Database. For each calendar year during 1961-2009, death rates by 1 year age groups were calculated separately for each sex and three educational categories (primary, secondary and tertiary). Annual life tables were used to calculate life expectancy at age 35 (e ( 35 )) and survival probability for the three age-intervals 35-44, 45-64, and 65-90. All education groups increased their e ( 35 ) over time, but inequalities in e ( 35 ) between tertiary and primary educational categories widened 5.3 years for men and 3.2 years for women during the study period. The probability for women with primary education to survive to age 64 did not improve from 1961 to 2009. The gain in life expectancy lagged about 10 years in lower compared to higher education groups which might suggest that improvements in life sustaining factors reach different segments of the population at different times. The widening of the gap seems to have partly tapered off over the last two decades, and the changes in life expectancy should be followed carefully in the future to document the development.

  2. An update on oxycodone: lessons for death investigators in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Jennifer L; Yafistham, Sabrina Putrianita; Gaya, Sanjeev; Saar, Eva; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-03-01

    Oxycodone is one of the most abused prescription drugs. Iatrogenic factors that lead to oxycodone-related death, such as mis-prescribing, present an opportunity for death prevention if identified early. This study investigated deaths involving oxycodone in Australia to explore potentially inappropriate prescribing and the coroner's investigation. The National Coronial Information System identified cases from 2001 to 2011 where oxycodone was detected by toxicological analysis. There were 806 oxycodone-related deaths, with a significant increase in the 11-year period, from 21 deaths in 2001, up almost sevenfold in 2011 (139 deaths). Most deaths were caused by combined drug toxicity (63.4%) or oxycodone toxicity alone (11.8%). Most individuals were male (59.1%), aged 35-44 years (26.7%), who died unintentionally (56.4%), with mental illness (52.1%) and/or a history of acute or chronic pain (46.2%). 312 cases (39%) described a legitimate prescription for oxycodone, of which most involved non-cancer related chronic pain. About three quarters of the indications were deemed appropriate. There were at least 43 different indications treated with oxycodone that were inappropriate. The majority of oxycodone-related cases involved minor to no description of the drugs involved (n = 600; 74.4%). A moderate description of oxycodone involvement was given in 162 cases (20.1%), while only 44 cases (5.5%) involved a thorough examination and recommendations from the coroners on oxycodone and other drugs involved in death. This study emphasized the need for medical practitioners to exercise caution when prescribing oxycodone and for coroners to provide more consistent and detailed information regarding drug use, in order to identify and implement preventive strategies.

  3. Accuracy of cone beam dental CT, intraoral digital and conventional film radiography for the detection of periapical lesions. An ex vivo study in pig jaws.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Wenzel, Ann

    2007-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of cone beam CT scanning (NewTom 3G) with intraoral periapical radiography (Dixi2, Planmeca CCD sensor and Insight film) for the detection of periapical bone defects. Ten frozen pig mandibles were used. All soft tissues were removed and the jaws were sagittally sectioned to obtain three blocks from each side of the jaw containing the premolars and the molars with surrounding jaw bone. All teeth with intact roots were then "extracted". First, 15 blocks were used to define defect size and exposure parameters; then, the remaining 45 blocks were divided into three equal groups. In one group, cylindrical defects of 1 x 1 mm were prepared beyond the apices of the extraction sockets, in another group defects of 2 x 2 mm were similarly prepared, while no defects were prepared in the last group. The teeth were replaced into their sockets and digital and conventional radiographs of all blocks were taken under reproducible conditions. In addition, all blocks were CT scanned with the same volumetric data and then reconstructed to provide sagittal and coronal 2-D sections. Masked evaluation of the images (defect present vs no defect) was performed by four calibrated examiners. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and the significance level was set to P < 0.05. NewTom 3G was statistically significantly better in terms of sensitivity (54%), positive (82.6%) and negative (44.5%) predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy (61%) when compared with digital radiographs (23%, 60%, 31%, 39%), and with conventional ones (28%, 70%, 35%, 44%)-except in the positive predictive value. Specificity was similar for all three methods. No difference was observed between the two periapical (digital vs conventional) radiographs. NewTom 3G may be useful in cases of immediate implants intended to replace teeth with suspicion for possible existing endodontic pathology, or in candidate implant sites neighboring such teeth.

  4. Population-representative Incidence of Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Yong-Chang; Xu, Ai-Dong; Yao, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xu-Lin; Qian, Yin-Kun; Wang, Hua-Yu; Shen, Yi; Lu, Peng; Wang, Lu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a major cause of hepatic death in the world, but no population-based studies have evaluated the incidence of ACLF. This study was conducted to determine the incidence and short-term outcomes of ACLF in a region of Eastern China. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we collected data from public hospitals in Nantong city between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014. All hospitals with admission potential for ACLF patients were included. The primary outcome was ACLF defined as severe jaundice and coagulopathy with underlying chronic liver disease, according to diagnostic and laboratory criteria suggested by Chinese Society for Hepatology (CSH). Results: During the 10-year period, a consecutive sample of 1934 ACLF patients was included in this study. The overall ACLF incidence rate over the 10-year period was 2.53 (95% confidence interval, 2.16-2.91) per 100,000 population per year, decreasing from 3.35 in 2005 to 2.06 in 2014. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was the leading cause of chronic liver disease and HBV reactivation was the most common cause of acute hepatic event. The 28-day mortality for the ACLF patients had a clear decline during the study period, form 50.39% in 2005 to 35.44% in 2014. Conclusions: In the Eastern China population, the incidence of ACLF is decreasing and the prognosis improving. Short-term mortality was associated with the presence of cirrhosis and growing age. While ACLF remains a life-threatening disorder, our findings suggest that nationwide and long-term cohorts should be conducted for the natural history of ACLF. PMID:27136963

  5. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in the healthcare system in Poland: Is it worth the effort?

    PubMed

    Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena; Religioni, Urszula; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Czerw, Aleksandra; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew; Soszyński, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally recognized as a serious public health concern. Current statistics indicate that approximately 2% of people worldwide and 1.9% of people in Poland suffer from HCV infection.This study was conducted to assess the anti-HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Poland and subsequently provide recommendations on the rationale for obligatory screening.A total of 42,274 women participated in our study, of which 16,130 were pregnant. We were granted access to their health data stored in the form of electronic medical records kept by the network of outpatient clinics throughout Poland.The lowest rate of positive anti-HCV test results was found in women ages 25 to 34 (0.73%); however, younger and older age groups had similar rates (15-24 = 0.86%; 35-44 = 0.84%). Additional analysis of data from the period between 2011 and 2014 revealed a downward trend in the proportion of positive anti-HCV tests among pregnant women (mean positive anti-HCV = -0.001 × year + 1.9451; R = 0.7274). Regardless of the gradual increase in the number of female patients undergoing screening between 2004 and 2015, there has been a constant decrease in the rate of positive cases. The rate of pregnant women potentially infected with HCV was twice as lower than that in a control group of women undergoing tests for other medical circumstances: 0.76% vs 1.67% (P < 0.0001).Analysis of real-world data of female patients in Poland provides evidence that screening based on an individual's medical history and behavioral risk factors in clinical circumstances would be more effective than obligatory testing of all pregnant women.

  6. National survey on edentulism and its geographic distribution, among Mexicans 18 years of age and older (with emphasis in WHO age groups).

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, C E; Pérez-Núñez, R; Maupomé, G; Avila-Burgos, L; Pontigo-Loyola, A P; Patiño-Marín, N; Villalobos-Rodelo, J J

    2008-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of edentulism in adults aged 18 years and older in Mexico and to describe its distribution in 20 of the 32 States in Mexico, highlighting the experience in the WHO age groups. A secondary analysis of the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2002-2003 (representative at the state level and part of the Word Health Survey) was undertaken. The sample design was probabilistic, stratified and through conglomerates. Data on dental conditions were available only for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico, leading to a total of 24 159 households (N = 54 638 654). The percentage of edentulism was determined as the proportion of subjects that self-reported complete loss of teeth. Data were analyzed using the SVY module for complex surveys in STATA 8.2. The mean age was 41.3 +/- 17.0 years (range 18-99). An estimated 6.3% (N = 3 437 816) of the population > or =18 years was edentulous. Lowest prevalences were observed in the states of Tlaxcala, Puebla and the Estado de Mexico with 3.4%, 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Highest prevalences were observed in San Luis Potosí, Colima, and Michoacán with 10.3%, 10.2% and 10.1%, respectively. Following the WHO age groups, the prevalence ranged from 2.4% in the 35-44 group through 25.5% in the 65-74 group. No obvious association between socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level and prevalence of edentulism was found. The prevalence of complete tooth loss observed in the present study varied greatly across states, although no straightforward association was found with socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level. This study could serve as a baseline to enable future evaluations of the oral status of Mexican adults and elders, following WHO age groups.

  7. Ecotoxicological effect of grounded MV River Princess on the intertidal benthic organisms off Goa.

    PubMed

    Ingole, B; Sivadas, S; Goltekar, R; Clemente, S; Nanajkar, M; Sawant, R; D'Silva, C; Sarkar, A; Ansari, Z

    2006-02-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of oil spill from the grounded vessel MV River Princess on the intertidal benthic organisms of Sinquerim-Candolim beach at Goa were investigated. An intertidal expanse of 1 km on either side of the grounded vessel was selected to evaluate the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the sediment and its effects on the composition, abundance and diversity of micro-, meio- and macrobenthos. TPH in the intertidal sediment ranged from 7.8 to 89 microg g(-1) (mean 35.44+/-26.35 SD). Microbenthos comprised of microalgae, protozoans and juvenile forms of meiobenthos. Apart from juvenile nematodes, which were abundant, Coscinodiscus spp., Navicula spp., and Nitzschia spp. representing microalgae were also observed in microbenthic samples. Meiobenthos was represented by 13 taxa and their total density ranged between 92 and 1057 nos. 10 cm(-2). Maximum meiobenthic abundance of 1057 nos. 10 cm(-2) was observed at Sinquerim. Nematodes were the dominant meiobenthic taxa followed by turbellarians and harpacticoid copepods. The macrobenthos was numerically dominated by polychaetes, followed by crustaceans whereas bivalve molluscs were less represented. There was substantial increase in the petroleum concentration in the beach sediment compared to the previously reported values and highest TPH (89 microg g(-1) sediment) values were in the vicinity of the grounded vessel. The polychaete/amphipod ratio and cumulative and partial dominance abundance-biomass curves showed significant negative impact of TPH on macrofauna. The benthic community structure also showed measurable changes, as there was significant decrease (60%) in the number of species. Given that the microalgal counts were low in sediment, it is assumed that the intertidal meiofauna was possibly using oil-degrading bacteria as alternate food source. In conclusion, the results reported here suggest that the grounded ore carrier is not only detrimental to the beach community, that

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  9. Further evidence for the tetraoxoiodate(V) anion, IO(4)(3-): hydrothermal syntheses and structures of Ba[(MoO(2))(6)(IO(4))(2)O(4)] x H(2)O and Ba(3)[(MoO(2))(2)(IO(6))(2)] x 2H(2)O.

    PubMed

    Sykora, Richard E; Wells, Daniel M; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2002-05-20

    The hydrothermal reaction of MoO(3) with BaH(3)IO(6) at 180 degrees C for 3 days results in the formation of Ba[(MoO(2))(6)(IO(4))(2)O(4)] x H(2)O (1). Under similar conditions, the reaction of Ba(OH)(2) x 8H(2)O with MoO(3) and Ba(IO(4))(2) x 6H(2)O yields Ba(3)[(MoO(2))(2)(IO(6))(2)] x 2H(2)O (2). The structure of 1, determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, consists of corner- and edge-sharing distorted MoO(6) octahedra that create two-dimensional slabs. Contained within this molybdenum oxide framework are approximately C(2v) tetraoxoiodate(V) anions, IO(4)(3-), that are involved in bonding with five Mo(VI) centers. The two equatorial oxygen atoms of the IO(4)(3-) anion chelate a single Mo(VI) center, whereas the axial atoms are mu(3)-oxo groups and complete the octahedra of four MoO(6) units. The coordination of the tetraoxoiodate(V) anion to these five highly electropositive centers is probably responsible for stabilizing the substantial anionic charge of this anion. The Ba(2+) cations separate the layers from one another and form long ionic contacts with neighboring oxygen atoms and a water molecule. Compound 2 also contains distorted MoO(6) octahedra. However, these solely edge-share with octahedral hexaoxoiodate(VII), IO(6)(5-), anions to form zigzagging one-dimensional, (1)(infinity)[(MoO(2))(IO(6))](3-), chains that are polar. These chains are separated from one another by Ba(2+) cations that are coordinated by additional water molecules. Bond valence sums for the iodine atoms in 1 and 2 are 5.01 and 7.03, respectively. Crystallographic data: 1, monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 13.584(1) A, b = 7.3977(7) A, c = 20.736(2) A, beta = 108.244(2) degrees, Z = 4; 2, orthorhombic, space group Fdd2, a = 13.356(7) A, b = 45.54(2) A, c = 4.867(3) A, Z = 8.

  10. Gynecological cancer in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M Farid

    2009-03-01

    To overview the status of gynecologic cancer in Indonesia. Information regarding Indonesia obtained from World Bank Report and Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2007, epidemiological data obtained from Histopathological Data of Cancer in Indonesia 2002, Department of Health-Registry Body of Indonesian Specialist of Pathology Association-Indonesian Cancer Society; Various Hospitals in big Cities in Indonesia. Indonesia is an Archipelago with a total area of 1,922,570.00 km(2), the population is 222,192,000 (2006), the fourth world rank. Female is 49.86% with life expectancy 69 years. Gross National Product per Capita is 690.00 USD. Histopathological report in 2002 revealed that cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer were the most frequent cancer among female, which were the first (2,532 cases), the third (829 cases) and the eighth (316 cases) rank respectively. The peak age for cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer was 45-54 years. HPV 16, 18 were found in 82% of invasive cervical. Data from various academic hospitals in 2007 showed that cervical cancer is the most common malignancy followed by ovary, uterus, vulva and vagina. Five-year survival rate of stage I, II, III, IV cervical cancer were 50%, 40%, 20%, and 0% respectively. Overall five-year survival rate of carcinoma of the ovary was 54.8%. If sub-classified by stage, five-year survival rate are 94.3%, 75.0%, 31%, and 11.7% for stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rate of endometrial cancer was 71.9%. Indonesia is the biggest Archipelago with a dense population but the income per capita still low (poor country). The most common gynecologic cancer is cervical cancer, followed by ovarian and uterine cancer. These cancers are included in top ten cancers in Indonesia. HPV 16, 18 were the most cause of cervical cancer. The five-year survival rates are comparable with world report.

  11. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  12. [Trends of internet use for health matters in Portugal: 2005-2007].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses trends of Internet use for health or illness matters in Portugal. It is based on two waves of the WHO/Europe eHealth Consumer Trends Survey that took place in 2005 and 2007. The investigation involves 3001 complete interviews to individuals between 15 and 80 years old. Results show that the percentage of the Portuguese population reporting having used the Internet for health or illness matters has increased in average 9.1% (IC 95%, 5.5-12.6) in the 18 months that mediate the two surveys. The analysis by geographical region shows that there are no statistically significant differences between the five studied regions. The analysis by gender and age shows that the difference between men and women is diminishing but detects important exceptions, namely, a Sharp predominance of women in the group of individuals aged 15-34 years old that use the Internet for health or illness matters and the prevalence of men in the age levels 45-54 and 65-80 years old. The analysis by level of education completed show that the use is particularly high among those with complete higher education studies, with an increase of 8.2% (IC 95%, -.6-17.0) in the period under analysis. However, a significant increase has been observed among the Portuguese with before A-level studies, particularly when considering the group of Internet users for health purposes, where it has raised from four users in each ten individuals in 2005 to six users in each ten individuals in 2007. Reading health Web sites is the health related activity that more Portuguese attracts to the Internet but in the restricted group of Internet health users is the activity with higher positive variation in the period (9.2%, IC 95%, 5.3-13.2). Health professionals are still considered as the most important source of health information but their perceived importance has decreased 10% (IC 95%, -12.6, -7.6) between 2005 and 2007, the

  13. Patterns of Sedentary Behavior in US Middle-Age and Older Adults: The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Keith M.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hutto, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in a national cohort of U.S. middle-aged and older adults and determine factors that influence prolonged sedentary behavior. Methods We studied 8,096 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a population-based study of black and white adults ≥45 years. Seven-day accelerometry was conducted. Prolonged sedentary behavior was defined as accumulating ≥50% of total sedentary time in bouts ≥30 min. Results The number of sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min were 8.8 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.9, 1.9 ± 1.1, and 0.8 ± 0.7 bouts/day, respectively. Sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min accounted for 60.0 ± 13.9%, 48.0 ± 15.5%, 26.0 ± 15.4%, and 14.2 ± 12.9% of total sedentary time, respectively. Several factors were associated with prolonged sedentary behavior in multivariate-adjusted models (Odds Ratio [95% CI]): older age (65-74 years: 1.99 [1.55-2.57]; ≥75 years: 4.68 [3.61-6.07] vs. 45-54 years), male sex (1.41 [1.28-1.56] vs. female), residence in non-stroke belt/buckle region of U.S. (stroke belt: 0.87 [0.77-0.98]; stroke buckle: 0.86 [0.77-0.95] vs. non-belt/buckle), body mass index (BMI) (overweight: 1.33 [1.18-1.51]; obese: 2.15 [1.89-2.44] vs. normal weight), winter (1.18 [1.03-1.35] vs. summer), and low amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [0 min/week: 2.00 [1.66-2.40] vs. ≥150 min/week). Conclusions In this sample of U.S. middle-aged and older adults, a large proportion of total sedentary time was accumulated in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior as almost one-half was accumulated in sedentary bouts ≥30 min. Several sociodemographic (age, sex, BMI), behavioral (MVPA), environmental (region), and seasonal factors are associated with patterns of prolonged sedentary behavior. PMID:26460633

  14. A two- and three-dimensional numerical modelling benchmark of slab detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Glerum, Anne; Hillebrand, Bram; Schmalholz, Stefan; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    be shown. Duretz et al (2012), Thermomechanical modeling of slab eduction, JGR, vol. 117. Schmalholz (2011), A simple analytical solution for slab detachment, EPSL, vol.304, p45-54.

  15. Influence of Medical Representatives on Prescribing Practices in Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Workneh, Birhanu Demeke; Gebrehiwot, Mehari Gebregergis; Bayo, Tigist Assefa; Gidey, Meles Tekie; Belay, Yared Belete; Tesfaye, Desalegn Mergiaw; Kassa, Terefe Teshome

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug promotion by medical representatives is one of the factors that influence physicians’ prescribing decisions and choice of drugs. Objective To assess the influence of medical representatives on prescribing practice of physicians in health facilities, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted enrolling all physicians working in public and private health facilities. All public and private health facilities were included and similarly, all physicians rendering services in these facilities were sampled in the study. The data were collected from February to March, 2015. Data were then entered into Epidata Version 3.1 and transferred to STATA version 12 for analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine predictors. Results Of the ninety physicians approached in this study, 40 (48.2%) of the physicians believed that their prescribing decisions were influenced by visits of medical representatives (MRs). The odds of physicians who received gifts from MRs being influenced to prescribe their respective products was six times higher than those who reported not accepting any gifts [AOR = 6.56, 95% CI: 2.25, 19.13]. Stationery materials 23(35.4%) and drug samples 20(54.2%) were the commonest kinds of gifts given to physicians and face to face talking 45(54.2%) was the most frequent promotional methods. The finding of this study showed that around thirty-nine percent of MRs have had negative attitude toward competitors’ product. Moreover, working in private health facility was also another predictor of influence of prescribing decision in the study area [AOR = 12.78, 95% CI: 1.31, 124.56]. Conclusion Nearly half of the physicians working in Mekelle reported that their prescribing decisions were influenced by MRs in the last 12 months. Accepting gifts and working in private health facilities were predictors of influencing prescribing decisions. However, most MRs

  16. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections With Needle Tenotomy for Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James J.; Harrison, Julian R.; Boachie-Adjei, Kwadwo; Vargas, Elizabeth; Moley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gluteal tendinopathy is a prevalent condition that can be associated with significant pain and disability. To date, no studies have prospectively assessed the efficacy of intratendinous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as a minimally invasive treatment for gluteus medius tendinopathy. Purpose: To prospectively assess the efficacy of intratendinous PRP injections as treatment for chronic recalcitrant gluteus medius tendinopathy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: During the study period between July 2011 and November 2015, data were collected from the Hospital for Special Surgery Center for Hip Preservation Outcomes Registry on participants who underwent ultrasound-guided intratendinous PRP injections for recalcitrant gluteus medius tendinosis and/or partial tears of the tendon associated with moderate to severe lateral hip pain for longer than 3 months. All participants were assessed pre- and postinjection with 4 outcome measures: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score–Activities of Daily Living subscale (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Score–Sport-Specific subscale (HOS-Sport), and the International Hip Outcome Tool–33 (iHOT-33). Demographic data, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, and smoking status, were also collected. Results: A total of 21 patients were included in the study, with a mean follow-up of 19.7 months (range, 12.1-32.3 months). The mean improvements from preinjection to postinjection follow-up were 56.73 to 74.17 for mHHS, 68.93 to 84.14 for HOS-ADL, 45.54 to 66.72 for HOS-Sport, and 34.06 to 66.33 for iHOT-33. All mean outcome measure improvements were clinically and statistically significant (P < .001). Length of follow-up was positively correlated with improvements in HOS-ADL (P = .021) and HOS-Sport (P = .004) scores. No adverse events were observed during or after the procedure. Conclusion: In this registry study with prospective follow-up, we found ultrasound

  17. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Óscar M.; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items–ripe fruits and young leaves–influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore

  18. Cigarette smoking and acute myocardial infarction. A case-control study from the GISSI-2 trial. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto--Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'infarto Miocardioco.

    PubMed

    Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; Nobili, A; D'Avanzo, B; Bechi, S

    1994-08-01

    To make a further quantitative assessment of the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction, a multicentric case-control study was conducted in Italy between September 1988 and June 1989 within the framework of the GISSI-2 trial. Ninety hospitals in various Italian Regions participated. 916 cases of acute myocardial infarction with no history of ischaemic heart disease and 1106 controls admitted to hospital for acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for ischaemic heart disease were studied. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of myocardial infarction according to various measures of tobacco smoking, were adjusted for identified potential confounding factors using multiple logistic regression. Compared to lifelong non-smokers, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) for ex-smokers, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.9) for current smokers of less than 15 cigarettes per day, 3.1 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.2) for 15-24 cigarettes per day and 4.9 (95% CI 3.4 to 7.1) for 25 or more cigarettes per day. No trend in risk was evident for the duration, the RR being around 3 for subsequent categories. There was a significant interaction between smoking and age. Below the age 45, smokers of 25 or more cigarettes per day had a 33 times higher risk than non-smokers, compared to 7.5 at in the age group 45-54, 4.4 between the ages 55-64 and 2.5 at the age of 65 or over. The risk estimates were higher in women (RR for > or = 25 cigarettes per day = 10.1), in subjects in the lowest cholesterol tertile (RR = 11.9), with no history of diabetes (RR = 6.8), hypertension (RR = 9.5), no family history ischaemic heart disease (RR = 9.1) and low body mass index (RR = 9.3). The importance of smoking is confirmed as a cause of acute myocardial infarction: about 50% of all nonfatal infarctions in this Italian population could be attributable to cigarette smoking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Factors influencing self-perception of health status.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Hanke, Wojciech; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate subjective health status of Łódź adult population and to determine the factors affecting their self-perception of health. The study population consisted of randomly selected 1,056 adults aged 20-74 years from L6di district. Logistic regression model was applied to assess the factors influencing the self-perception of health. More than 30% of study subjects described their health as poor or very poor. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women regarding self-perception of health (p>0.05). Older people more frequently reported their health as poor and very poor compared to those younger than 25 years of age. Four percent of men and 10% of women younger than 25 years of age described their health as poor or very poor whereas in age category 45-54 years that percentage increased to more than 40% (men RR=16.3; p<0.001, women RR=7.5; p<0.001), in 55-64 to 60% (men RR=18.6; p<0.001, women RR=10.0; p<0.001) and for people older than 64 years of age to 60% for men (RR=12.6; p<0.01) and 72% for women (RR=13.4; p<0.001). People with lower educational degree perceived their health as worse compared to those with university diploma (men RR=5.3; p<0.001; women 4.6; p<0.001). The risk of indicating the health as poor or very poor was 3.4 times higher for unemployed men comparing to employed (p<0.001) and 1.5 for unemployed women compared to employed (p>0.05). Men indicating no leisure-time physical activity significantly more frequently described their health as poor or very poor than men with satisfactory level of recreational physical activity (RR=2.2; p<0.01). Current and former smoker men described their health as worse compared to non-smokers (current smokers RR=1.5; p>0.05; former smokers RR=1.8; p>0.05). Preventive programs aimed at improving self-perceived health should concentrate on increasing recreational physical activity and elimination of smoking. Those actions should in particular target people

  20. Work and family roles of Soviet women: historical trends and cross-section analysis.

    PubMed

    Ofer, G; Vinokur, A

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the way of life of USSR women over the last 2 generations are very similar to those experienced by women in most industrialized and industializing societies. The rate of participation of women in the labor force increased substantially, and this movement was accompanied by a marked rise in the level of women's general and professional education. As a result, women occupy more white collar positions than they did in older generations, but these developments have created a double burden for most women who complain that increased resonsibilities outside the home have not been synchronized with an adequate increase in men's sharing household responsibilities. Historical explanations for changes in women's role particularly emphasize the nature of relationships between participation, wages, incomes, fertility, education and labor market conditions. The long term changes of these major variables, since the 1920s, along with an investigation based on an income survey of 1000 immigrant families, are studied in this paper. Cross sectional analysis examines a longer life cycle, participation decisions, and relates them to decisions on fertility and education. Fertility rates among the Jewish immigrants are much higher and labor participation rates of women much lower than for the rest of the population. Some of the main features of the long trends since 1926 are: 1) of the overall measures of participation of women, only those in the 15-54 and 20-54 age ranges show some increase over the 1926-1980 period, 2) sharp rises in specific participation rates for 25-44 and 45-54 age groups since 1950, and for urban women overall, 3) only a small fraction of the total increase in participation can be attributed to the increase in the proportion of single women, and 4) by 1980 the overall female participation figure rose to 80%--and 88% for the 20-54 age group--the difference reflecting the sharp decline in 15-19 age group participation. While the short run decision about

  1. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  2. High-Resolution Geophysical Constraints on Late Pleistocene-Present Deformation History, Seabed Morphology, and Slip-Rate along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault, Offshore Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D. S.; Haeussler, P. J.; Dartnell, P.; Conrad, J. E.; Kluesner, J. W.; Hart, P. E.; Witter, R. C.; Balster-Gee, A. F.; Maier, K. L.; Watt, J. T.; East, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault (QCFF) of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia is the dominant fault along the 1200 km-long transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. More than 900 km of the QCFF lies offshore where the style and rates of deformation are poorly constrained due to a lack of high-resolution marine geophysical data. In May 2015, the USGS acquired ~900 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and >2000 line-km of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles between Cross Sound, Yakobi Sea Valley, and Icy Point (the northernmost offshore section of the QCFF) using a 24-ch streamer and 500 Joule minisparker source. During a second cruise in August 2015 we conducted targeted multichannel seismic and subbottom CHIRP profiling in the same region. The new data reveal a single trace of the QCFF expressed as a clear and remarkably straight seafloor lineation for >60 km. Subtle jogs in the fault (<3 degrees) are associated with pop-up structures and en echelon pull-apart basins. The near surface deformation along the fault never exceeds a width of 1.2 km. Northward, as the fault approaches Icy Point and a restraining bend, it splays into multiple strands and displays evidence for uplift and transpression. The fault appears to transition from almost purely strike-slip in the south to oblique-convergence as it steps onshore to the north. The QCFF cuts through the Yakobi Sea Valley and Cross Sound, two elongate bathymetric troughs that were filled with glaciers as recently as 17-19 ka. The southern wall of the Yakobi Sea Valley is offset 890±30 m by the QCFF, providing a late Pleistocene-present slip-rate estimate of 45-54 mm/yr. This suggests that nearly the entire plate boundary slip budget is confined to a single, narrow, strike-slip fault zone, which may have implications for models of plate boundary strain localization.

  3. Effects of cloud, aerosol, and ozone on surface spectral Ultraviolet and total irradiance observed in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hana; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Woogyung; Lee, Yun Gon; Cho, Hi Ku

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there have been substantial attempts to model the radiative transfer for climatological and biological purposes. However, the incorporation of clouds, aerosols and ozone into the modeling process is one of the difficult tasks due to their variable transmission in both temporal and space domains. In this study we quantify the atmospheric transmissions by clouds, aerosol optical depth (AOD at 320 nm) and total ozone (Ozone) together with all skies in three solar radiation components of the global solar (GS 305-2800nm), total ultraviolet (TUV 290-363nm) and the erythemal weighted ultraviolet (EUV 290-325nm) irradiances with statistical methods using the data at Seoul. The purpose of this study also is to clarify the different characteristics between cloud, AOD and Ozone in the wavelength-dependent solar radiation components. The ozone, EUV and TUV used in this study (March 2003 - February 2014) have been measured with Dobson Spectrophotometer (Beck #124) and Brewer Spectrophotometer (SCI-TEC#148) at Yonsei University, respectively. GS, Cloud Cover (CC) are available from the Korean Meteorological Agency. The measured total (effect of cloud, aerosol, and ozone) transmissions on annual average showed 74%, 76% and 80% of GS, TUV and EUV irradiance, respectively. For the comparison of the measured values with modeled, we have also constructed a multiple linear regression model for the total transmission. The average ratio of measured to modeled total transmission were 0.94, 0.96 and 0.96 with higher measured than modeled value in the three components, respectively, The individual transmission by clouds under the constant AOD and Ozone atmosphere on average showed 68%, 71% and 76% and further the overcast clouds reduced the transmissions to the 45%, 54% and 59% of the clear sky irradiance in the GS, TUV and EUV, respectively. The annual transmissions by AOD showed on average 67%, 70% and 74% and further the high loadings 2.5-4.0 AOD reduced the

  4. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Óscar M; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items-ripe fruits and young leaves-influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore, brown

  5. Multimodal treatment for stage IVA thymoma: a proposable strategy.

    PubMed

    Rena, Ottavio; Mineo, Tommaso Claudio; Casadio, Caterina

    2012-04-01

    A retrospective review of a series of consecutive patients was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of a multimodal treatment in the management of stage IVA thymoma at first diagnosis. From 1998 to 2008, 18 patients affected by stage IVA thymoma underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and subsequent mediastinal radiation therapy. There were 10 males and 8 females, mean age 54.5 years (range 29-68). Not specific symptoms were present in 12 cases and thymus-related syndromes were reported in 4. Histological subtypes were 1 AB, 2 B1, 4 B2, 7 B3, 1 mixed B1-B2, 1 mixed B1-B3 and 2 mixed B2-B3 thymomas. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy) was well tolerated in all cases. Those patients demonstrating clinical response at restaging (16/18) received surgical resection: "en-bloc" thymoma, residual thymic tissue and tumour involved organs resection was carried out together with the pleural implants removal. Complete macroscopic resection was achieved 10/16 patients (64%). Postoperative mortality and morbidity were null and 24%, respectively. Adjuvant radiation therapy consisted of 45-54 Gy administered by a 6 MV linear accelerator to the whole mediastinum and previous tumour bed. Mean follow-up was 82±33 months (range 31-143); overall survival was 85% and 53% at 5- and 10-years. Disease-related survival of the entire cohort was 100% and 58% at 5- and 10-years, whereas freedom from relapse survival for patients submitted to complete resection was 58% and 42% at 5- and 10-years. Disease-related survival when complete and not complete resection were considered were 100% and 52% and 72% and 0% at 5- and 10-years respectively (p=0.048). Multimodal management based on induction chemotherapy, subsequent surgery and postoperative mediastinal radiation allows a good complete resection rate and it is demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment to warrant a good long-term survival in stage IVA thymoma patients.

  6. Invariantly propagating dissolution fingers in finite-width systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution fingers are formed in porous medium due to positive feedback between transport of reactant and chemical reactions [1-4]. We investigate two-dimensional semi-infinite systems, with constant width W in one direction. In numerical simulations we solve the Darcy flow problem combined with advection-dispersion-reaction equation for the solute transport to track the evolving shapes of the fingers and concentration of reactant in the system. We find the stationary, invariantly propagating finger shapes for different widths of the system, flow and reaction rates. Shape of the reaction front, turns out to be controlled by two dimensionless numbers - the (width-based) Péclet number PeW = vW/Dφ0 and Damköhler number DaW = ksW/v, where k is the reaction rate, s - specific reactive surface area, v - characteristic flow rate, D - diffusion coefficient of the solute, and φ0 - initial porosity of the rock matrix. Depending on PeW and DaW stationary shapes can be divided into seperate classes, e.g. parabolic-like and needle-like structures, which can be inferred from theoretical predictions. In addition we determine velocity of propagating fingers in time and concentration of reagent in the system. Our simulations are compared with natural forms (solution pipes). P. Ortoleva, J. Chadam, E. Merino, and A. Sen, Geochemical self-organization II: the reactive-infiltration instability, Am. J. Sci, 287, 1008-1040 (1987). M. L. Hoefner, and H. S. Fogler. Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal 34, 45-54 (1988). C. E. Cohen, D. Ding, M. Quintard, and B. Bazin, From pore scale to wellbore scale: impact of geometry on wormhole growth in carbonate acidization, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 3088-3099 (2008). P. Szymczak and A. J. C. Ladd, Reactive-infiltration nstabilities in rocks. Part II: Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech. 738, 591-630 (2014).

  7. Large Scale Population Assessment of Physical Activity Using Wrist Worn Accelerometers: The UK Biobank Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dan; Hammerla, Nils; Granat, Malcolm H.; van Hees, Vincent T.; Trenell, Michael I.; Owen, Christoper G.; Preece, Stephen J.; Peakman, Tim; Brage, Soren

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity has not been objectively measured in prospective cohorts with sufficiently large numbers to reliably detect associations with multiple health outcomes. Technological advances now make this possible. We describe the methods used to collect and analyse accelerometer measured physical activity in over 100,000 participants of the UK Biobank study, and report variation by age, sex, day, time of day, and season. Methods Participants were approached by email to wear a wrist-worn accelerometer for seven days that was posted to them. Physical activity information was extracted from 100Hz raw triaxial acceleration data after calibration, removal of gravity and sensor noise, and identification of wear / non-wear episodes. We report age- and sex-specific wear-time compliance and accelerometer measured physical activity, overall and by hour-of-day, week-weekend day and season. Results 103,712 datasets were received (44.8% response), with a median wear-time of 6.9 days (IQR:6.5–7.0). 96,600 participants (93.3%) provided valid data for physical activity analyses. Vector magnitude, a proxy for overall physical activity, was 7.5% (2.35mg) lower per decade of age (Cohen’s d = 0.9). Women had a higher vector magnitude than men, apart from those aged 45-54yrs. There were major differences in vector magnitude by time of day (d = 0.66). Vector magnitude differences between week and weekend days (d = 0.12 for men, d = 0.09 for women) and between seasons (d = 0.27 for men, d = 0.15 for women) were small. Conclusions It is feasible to collect and analyse objective physical activity data in large studies. The summary measure of overall physical activity is lower in older participants and age-related differences in activity are most prominent in the afternoon and evening. This work lays the foundation for studies of physical activity and its health consequences. Our summary variables are part of the UK Biobank dataset and can be used by researchers as

  8. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper.

  9. From gelatinous to muscle food chain: rock cod Patagonotothen ramsayi recycles coelenterate and tunicate resources on the Patagonian Shelf.

    PubMed

    Arkhipkin, A; Laptikhovsky, V

    2013-11-01

    Stomach contents of 4808 fishes of 20 species caught in the eastern part of the Patagonian Shelf between 1999 and 2012 were analysed to assess dietary contributions of gelatinous plankton resources. Gelatinous plankton occurred in diets of seven species with two species, Patagonotothen ramsayi and Squalus acanthias, having >10% ctenophores in their diet. Consumption of gelatinous plankton was important in P. ramsayi and was strikingly seasonal, with maximum occurrence (up to 46% of non-empty stomachs) in late summer to autumn. Ctenophores were most abundant in P. ramsayi of 25-34 cm total length, L(T) whereas salps were more frequent in larger >35 cm L(T) individuals. In winter to spring, occurrence of gelatinous plankton in diets was minimal, reflecting their overall seasonal abundance in the ocean. The recent increase in abundance of P. ramsayi has enabled the species to recycle a significant proportion of the ecosystem production from gelatinous dead end to the main muscular food chain via seasonal reliance on ctenophores, jellyfish and tunicates. This additional influx of production that has been diverted from the gelatinous food chain favours the increase in abundance of several piscivorous top predators and affects the trophic web structure of the Patagonian Shelf ecosystem.

  10. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333) or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173) and completed the “restrained eating” subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the “impulse control difficulties” subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  11. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    PubMed

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets.

  12. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Biochemical Composition of Microalgae Polyculture Harvested from Phycoremediation of Piggery Wastewater Digestate.

    PubMed

    Michelon, William; Da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Mezzari, Melissa Paola; Pirolli, Mateus; Prandini, Jean Michel; Soares, Hugo Moreira

    2016-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) starvation on the biochemical composition of native microalgae Chlorella spp. polyculture obtained from the phycoremediation of swine wastewaters were investigated. Microalgae-specific growth rate of 1.2 day(-1) was achieved (30.3 mg L(-1) day(-1)). PO4 (-2) and NH3 were completely removed from swine digestate effluent after 3 and 11 days, respectively. Microalgae harvested immediately after nutrient removal showed high protein (56-59 %) and carbohydrate (25-34 %) but low lipid (1.8-3 %) contents. Depletion of N or P alone stimulated carbohydrate production at the expenses of proteins. Significant lipid accumulation from 3 % ± 0.5 to 16.3 % ± 0.8 was reached only after 25 days following N and P starvation as demonstrated by Nile red-stained cells. Regarding to the effects of harvesting methods on cellular biochemical composition, circumstantial evidences indicate that coagulation-flocculation with tannin may lead to lower protein and lipid amounts but increased carbohydrate content (p < 0.01) as compared to centrifugation.

  13. Ordering and growth of rare gas films (Xe, Kr, Ar, and Ne) on the pseudo-ten-fold quasicrystalline approximant Al₁₃Co₄(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Petucci, J; Karimi, M; Huang, Y-T; Curtarolo, S; Diehl, R D

    2014-03-05

    Adsorption of the rare gases Kr, Ar, and Ne on the complex alloy surface Al₁₃Co₄(100) was studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) computer simulations. This surface is an approximant to the ten-fold decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystalline surface, on which rare gas adsorption was studied previously. Comparison of adsorption results on the periodic Al₁₃Co₄(100) surface with those of the quasiperiodic Al-Ni-Co surface indicates some similarities, such as layer-by-layer growth, and some dissimilarities, such as the formation of Archimedes tiling phases (Mikhael et al 2008 Nature 454 501, Shechtman et al 1984 Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 1951, Macia 2006 Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 397, Schmiedeberg et al 2010 Eur. Phys. J. E 32 25-34, Kromer et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 218301, Schmiedeberg and Stark 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 218302). The conditions under which Archimedes tiling phases (ATP) emerge on Al₁₃Co₄(100) are examined and their presence is related to the gas-gas and gas-surface interaction parameters.

  14. Leaping eels electrify threats, supporting Humboldt’s account of a battle with horses

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    In March 1800, Alexander von Humboldt observed the extraordinary spectacle of native fisherman collecting electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) by “fishing with horses” [von Humboldt A (1807) Ann Phys 25:34–43]. The strategy was to herd horses into a pool containing electric eels, provoking the eels to attack by pressing themselves against the horses while discharging. Once the eels were exhausted, they could be safely collected. This legendary tale of South American adventures helped propel Humboldt to fame and has been recounted and illustrated in many publications, but subsequent investigators have been skeptical, and no similar eel behavior has been reported in more than 200 years. Here I report a defensive eel behavior that supports Humboldt’s account. The behavior consists of an approach and leap out of the water during which the eel presses its chin against a threatening conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. The effect is to short-circuit the electric organ through the threat, with increasing power diverted to the threat as the eel attains greater height during the leap. Measurement of voltages and current during the behavior, and assessment of the equivalent circuit, reveal the effectiveness of the behavior and the basis for its natural selection. PMID:27274074

  15. RADIO MONITORING OF THE PERIODICALLY VARIABLE IR SOURCE LRLL 54361: NO DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE RADIO AND IR EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Forbrich, Jan; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A.; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, Robert A.

    2015-11-20

    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star-forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 over roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of ∼100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of the order of a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27 ± 5 μJy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, 53 ± 11 μJy, suggesting that variability in the radio is present, but over larger timescales than in the IR. We discuss other sources in the field, in particular two infrared/X-ray stars that show rapidly varying gyrosynchrotron emission.

  16. Molecular cloning, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of human brain glutamate receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.; Ferrer-Montiel, A.V.; Schinder, A.F.; Montal, M. ); McPherson, J.P. ); Evans, G.A. )

    1992-02-15

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding a glutamate receptor was isolated from a human brain cDNA library, and the gene product was characterized after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Degenerate PCR primers to conserved regions of published rat brain glutamate receptor sequences amplified a 1-kilobase fragment from a human brain cDNA library. This fragment was used as a probe for subsequent hybridization screening. Two clones were isolated that, based on sequence information, code for different receptors: a 3-kilobase clone, HBGR1, contains a full-length glutamate receptor cDNA highly homologous to the rat brain clone GluR1, and a second clone, HBGR2, contains approximately two-thirds of the coding region of a receptor homologous to rat brain clone GluR2. Southern and PCr analysis of a somatic cell-hybrid panel mapped HBGR1 to human chromosome 5q31.3-33.3 and mapped HBGR2 to chromosome 4q25-34.3. Xenopus oocytes injected with in vitro-synthesized HBGR1 cRNA expressed currents activated by glutamate receptor agonists. These results indicate that clone HBGR1 codes for a glutamate receptor of the kainate subtype cognate to members of the glutamate receptor family from rodent brain.

  17. Lifespan changes in multi-tasking: concurrent walking and memory search in children, young, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Krampe, Ralf Th; Schaefer, Sabine; Lindenberger, Ulman; Baltes, Paul B

    2011-03-01

    We investigated dual-task performance of cognitive (semantic fluency) and sensorimotor tasks (walking) in 120 children and adults from four age groups (9-year olds, M=9.52 years; 11-year olds, M=11.51 years; young adults, M=25.34 years; older adults, M=64.28 years; N=30 per group). Distances walked during 90 s and numbers of category exemplars generated in the semantic fluency task showed an inverted U-shape function with age. In line with general resource models proportional dual-task costs in walking also showed a U-shaped relation as a function of age with pronounced decrements in the youngest and oldest groups. Only 9-year olds showed significant costs in the cognitive task. Individual differences in single-task performance accounted for more than half of the variance in dual-task performance. Reliable age-related residual variance implicated additional factors particularly in children's developing multi-tasking performances.

  18. Behavioral risk factors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among intravenous drug users in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Robles, R R; Colón, H M; Sahai, H; Matos, T D; Marrero, C A; Reyes, J C

    1992-03-01

    This study reports on four empirical models likely to contribute to understanding the behaviors linked with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among intravenous drug users. The sample comprises 1,637 intravenous drug users recruited between May 1989 and June 1990 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Adjusting for sociodemographics, four logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association of risk behaviors with HIV seropositivity. In model 1, the variables found to be significantly associated with HIV seropositivity were injecting four times a day, injection as the only route of consuming drugs, and years of injection. In model 2, the only risk behavior significantly associated with HIV seropositivity was injecting drugs in shooting galleries. In model 3, all sex risk variables failed to meet the adjusted level of significance. In model 4, pneumonia, hepatitis, and syphilis were significantly linked with HIV infection. In order to assess the individual effects of the significant variables in each one of the four models, a logistic regression analysis was performed simultaneously controlling for all of the variables. After adjustment for the Bonferroni correction, age group 25-34 years, injection as the only route of using drugs, number of years of injection, and syphilis were the only significant variables remaining.

  19. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions.

  20. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  1. THE EXTRAORDINARY FAR-INFRARED VARIATION OF A PROTOSTAR: HERSCHEL/PACS OBSERVATIONS OF LRLL54361

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, Zoltan; Detre, Örs H.; Bouwmann, Jeroen; Nielbock, Markus; Klaas, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas; Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Rob; Juhasz, Attila; Bally, John; Marton, Gabor

    2014-07-10

    We report Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) photometric observations at 70 μm and 160 μm of LRLL54361—a suspected binary protostar that exhibits periodic (P = 25.34 days) flux variations at shorter wavelengths (3.6 μm and 4.5 μm) thought to be due to pulsed accretion caused by binary motion. The PACS observations show unprecedented flux variation at these far-infrared wavelengths that are well correlated with the variations at shorter wavelengths. At 70 μm the object increases its flux by a factor of six while at 160 μm the change is about a factor of two, consistent with the wavelength dependence seen in the far-infrared spectra. The source is marginally resolved at 70 μm with varying FWHM. Deconvolved images of the sources show elongations exactly matching the outflow cavities traced by the scattered light observations. The spatial variations are anti-correlated with the flux variation, indicating that a light echo is responsible for the changes in FWHM. The observed far-infrared flux variability indicates that the disk and envelope of this source is periodically heated by the accretion pulses of the central source, and suggests that such long wavelength variability in general may provide a reasonable proxy for accretion variations in protostars.

  2. A community trial of the impact of improved sexually transmitted disease treatment on the HIV epidemic in rural Tanzania: 2. Baseline survey results.

    PubMed

    Grosskurth, H; Mosha, F; Todd, J; Senkoro, K; Newell, J; Klokke, A; Changalucha, J; West, B; Mayaud, P; Gavyole, A

    1995-08-01

    To measure the impact of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) treatment program on the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe's Mwanza Region, a pre-intervention baseline survey was conducted. Included in the survey were approximately 1000 randomly selected adults from each of the six intervention communities (defined as the population served by a health center and its satellite dispensaries) and six matched comparison communities. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 4.1% (3.7% in men and 4.4% in women), with a range of 1.6-8.6% and no significant differences between intervention and control communities. Peak prevalences for both sexes were found in the 25-34 year age groups and in roadside communities. The following factors were associated with an increased likelihood of HIV infection: separation, divorce, or widowhood; multiple injections in the preceding year; educational achievement of at least Standard 4; travel out of the district in the prior year; history of genital ulcers or discharge; and past or present infection with syphilis. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in circumcised men, but not when adjustment was made for other risk factors. Syphilis prevalence ranged from a low of 4.2% in island communities to a high of 11.1% in roadside communities. The baseline survey indicates that intervention and control populations are generally comparable, and that the goal of locating a study area with a relatively low incidence of HIV and high rates of other STDs has been achieved.

  3. Descriptive Summaries for Program Elements of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Army Program FY 1981. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    6 蕨 . 𔄃 . 4. 19 𔃿a U54.454 k. J6-U 66 06 2 0-1 * 0 0. 1- 6U4 0 A62 05 Iw o 46 15 05 6.2 A600- A.4D, &j 0) IL1 04. a- v 0.a0 !I ’A.11 0 16 E’o 0...0 CL~ 2.0 c 6.. a " P.. 66666 0.5 to .4 a 60 3 1 6Id C0 a’ 4. 0. 4- L.E I 1 0 4 6 .0 i0I0 " 66 ay~ -04 00 b.~C 13 IS . .4 s,6 0 𔃿 05 9 .25" a0... 05 aU U UU A ll. * Id I U A.WU U.14.6 C. CI U~~~~ MU rC C U C C C C. USC .. UZA U’C C t U to . ". Cz ..U UUU Go Go 9C2 Id ~ 4C U W -UU A 41~~ Go. OC

  4. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 105 years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied.

  5. The burden of hypertension and its risk factors in Malawi: nationwide population-based STEPS survey.

    PubMed

    Msyamboza, Kelias P; Kathyola, Damson; Dzowela, Titha; Bowie, Cameron

    2012-12-01

    Hypertension is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases, accounting for at least half of haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes, heart failure and renal failure in sub-Saharan Africa. However, population-based data to inform policies are scarce. Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based nationwide survey was conducted on participants aged 25-64 years in Malawi. Detailed findings on the burden of hypertension are presented in this paper. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in 3727 participants. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension (BP ≥140/90 mmHg) was 33.2% (95% CI 30.9-35.6%). Hypertension was more frequent in males than females (36.9% vs 29.9%), alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (40.9% vs 31.6%), overweight than non-overweight (41.5% vs 30.7%) and increased with increasing age (21.4% in 25-34 years old vs 59.2% in 55-64 years old). Three-quarters of the participants said they never had their BP measured before and 94.9% of those with hypertension said they were not aware that they had such a medical problem. High prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors calls for the implementation of primary healthcare approaches such as the WHO package for essential non-communicable diseases to promote healthy lifestyles, early detection, treatment and control.

  6. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pestian, John; Nasrallah, Henry; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bennett, Aurora; Leenaars, Antoon

    2010-08-04

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25-34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15-25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient's thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase represents CYP1B1, and not CYP1A1, in human freshly isolated white cells: trimodal distribution of Japanese population according to induction of CYP1B1 mRNA by environmental dioxins.

    PubMed

    Toide, Kenji; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Rikako; Itoh, Keisuke; Iwano, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Shaw; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2003-03-01

    The expression level of mRNAs for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 in freshly prepared white cells from 72 subjects exposed to dioxins at waste incinerators was investigated. The amounts of CYP1B1 mRNA ranged from 0.16 to 671 molecules/10(7) molecules of 18S rRNA, whereas the amounts of CYP1A1 mRNA were <6 molecules/10 ng total RNA, indicating that CYP1A1 was not induced to a detectable level by environmentally exposed dioxins. The inducibility of CYP1B1 mRNA in leukocytes, defined as the ratio of CYP1B1 mRNA to the plasma concentration of dioxins, varied among the subjects. It was found that the subjects showed trimodal distribution according to inducibility: 39 (54.2%), 25 (34.7%), and 8 (11.1%) of 72 subjects were judged as poor, intermediate, and high responders to environmental dioxins, respectively. The amounts of CYP1B1 mRNA in leukocytes of the intermediate and high responders were highly correlated with the plasma concentrations of dioxins (P < 0.05 and <0.01). These results suggest that CYP1B1 with polymorphic inducibility by dioxins is involved in aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities in human lymphocytes.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the

  9. Epidemiology of Occupational Accidents in Iran Based on Social Security Organization Database

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Seifmanesh, Shahdokht; Chavoshi, Farzaneh; Aminian, Omid; Izadi, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Background: Today, occupational accidents are one of the most important problems in industrial world. Due to lack of appropriate system for registration and reporting, there is no accurate statistics of occupational accidents all over the world especially in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study is epidemiological assessment of occupational accidents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Information of available occupational accidents in Social Security Organization was extracted from accident reporting and registration forms. In this cross-sectional study, gender, age, economic activity, type of accident and injured body part in 22158 registered accidents during 2008 were described. Results: The occupational accidents rate was 253 in 100,000 workers in 2008. 98.2% of injured workers were men. The mean age of injured workers was 32.07 ± 9.12 years. The highest percentage belonged to age group of 25-34 years old. In our study, most of the accidents occurred in basic metals industry, electrical and non-electrical machines and construction industry. Falling down from height and crush injury were the most prevalent accidents. Upper and lower extremities were the most common injured body parts. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of accidents in metal and construction industries, engineering controls, the use of appropriate protective equipment and safety worker training seems necessary. PMID:24719699

  10. Hidden homicide increases in the USA, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Webster, Daniel; Baker, Susan P

    2008-07-01

    Prior to 1999, dramatic fluctuations in homicide rates were driven by changes in the rates of firearm homicide among men aged 15-24. Since 2000, the overall homicide rate has appeared stable, masking any changes in population subgroups. We analyzed recent trends in homicide rates by weapon, age, race, gender, state, and urbanization to determine whether the risk of victimization increased substantially during 1999-2005 for demographic subgroups. The analysis of WISQARS data and Wonder data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed no trend in the homicide rate nationally between 1999 and 2005; this obscured large increases in firearm homicide rates among black men aged 25-44 and among white men aged 25-34. Between 1999 and 2005, for ages 25-44 combined, the increase for black men was 31% compared with 12% for white men. Significant increases among men aged 25-44 occurred in Alabama, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington. The firearm homicide rate increased the most in large central metropolitan areas (+32%) and large fringe metropolitan areas (+30%) for men aged 25-44. We conclude that the recent, unrecognized increases in firearm homicide among men aged 25-44, especially black men, in large metropolitan areas merit the attention of policymakers.

  11. Touch perception throughout working life: effects of age and expertise.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Fine motor skills including precise tactile and haptic perception are essential to the manipulation of objects. With increasing age, one's perception decreases; however, little is known about the state of touch perception in middle-aged adults. This study investigated the extent to which the decline in touch perception affects adults throughout their working life. In addition, the influence of work-related expertise on tactile and haptic perception was examined in an attempt to determine whether expertise, in the form of the frequent use of the fingers, affects perception and counters age-related losses. The study was conducted with subjects from three age groups (18-25, 34-46, and 54-65 years) with two levels of expertise. Expertise was classified by the subjects' occupations. Five sensory tasks of touch perception were conducted. The results confirmed age-related changes in tactile perception over the span of one's working life. Older workers were proven to have lower tactile performance than younger adults. However, middle-aged workers were hardly affected by the perception losses and did not differ significantly from younger adults. Work-related expertise was not proven to either affect tactile and haptic perception or counteract age-related declines. We conclude that the age-related decline gets steeper in the late working life and that specific work-related expertise does not lead to generally improved touch perception that would result in lower thresholds and improved performance in non-expertise specific tasks.

  12. [Focus of canine heartworm disease in Marajó Island, North of Brazil: A risk factor for human health].

    PubMed

    Garcez, Lourdes Maria; de Souza, Nazaré Fonseca; Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Dickson, Luís Antonio Jerônimo; Abreu, Wandercleyson Uchoa; Cavalcanti, Vânia de Fátima do Nascimento; Gomes, Patrick Abdala Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of human pulmonary dirofilariasis maintains a relation with the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in the canine population. Several mosquito species are vectors of this nematode. Canine blood samples collected in Pingo d'Agua and União villages, Salvaterra municipality (Marajó Island, Pará), in June, 2004 (n = 34) and April, 2005 (N = 90) were analyzed. Parasitological and immunological (ELISA--kit SNAP(R) 3DX Biobrasil) diagnoses were compared following the examination of 34 samples. The prevalence in the population (N = 90) was evaluated by means of ELISA. ELISA revealed more positive samples (25/34; 73.5%) than thick smears (23/34, 67.6%) or Knott (21/34, 61.8%), but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of D. immitis infection was 58% in dogs ranging from 0-2 years old, whereas in older dogs it was 100%. The prevalence of canine dirofilariasis was high in Pingo d'Agua and Vila União (53.5%), indicating the risk of parasite transmission to the people in this area.

  13. Changes in Socio-Economic Inequality in Neonatal Mortality in Iran Between 1995-2000 and 2005-2010: An Oaxaca Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amini Rarani, Mostafa; Rashidian, Arash; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Arab, Mohammad; Abbasian, Ezatollah; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exploring changes in health inequality and its determinants over time is of policy interest. Accordingly, this study aimed to decompose inequality in neonatal mortality into its contributing factors and then explore changes from 1995-2000 to 2005-2010 in Iran. Methods: Required data were drawn from two Iran’s demographic and health survey (DHS) conducted in 2000 and 2010. Normalized concentration index (CI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality in neonatal mortality. The contribution of various determinants to inequality was estimated by decomposing concentration indices in 1995-2000 and 2005-2010. Finally, changes in inequality were investigated using Oaxaca-type decomposition technique. Results: Pro-rich inequality in neonatal mortality was declined by 16%, ie, the normalized CI dropped from -0.1490 in 1995-2000 to -0.1254 in 2005-2010. The largest contribution to inequality was attributable to mother’s education (32%) and household’s economic status (49%) in 1995-2000 and 2005-2010, respectively. Changes in mother’s educational level (121%), use of skilled birth attendants (79%), mother’s age at the delivery time (25-34 years old) (54%) and using modern contraceptive (29%) were mainly accountable for the decrease in inequality in neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Policy actions on improving households’ economic status and maternal education, especially in rural areas, may have led to the reduction in neonatal mortality inequality in Iran.

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depression among patients with chronic respiratory diseases in eight general hospitals in Jiangsu Province of China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianmei; Li, Jiashu; Gu, Wei; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Yimin; Zhang, Guicai; Ding, Yuanhua; Tang, Yanfen

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety and depression are two common psychological disorders with high morbidity worldwide. Understanding of their prevalence of patients with chronic respiratory diseases is becoming more and more important for clinicians. The current study aims at investigation of the prevalence and potential risk factors of anxiety and depression among patients with chronic respiratory diseases. The psychological status, anxiety and depression, and the relevant risk factors of 1713 patients with chronic respiratory diseases from 8 general hospitals in Jiangsu Province of China were evaluated. The results showed that the patients with chronic respiratory diseases experiencing depression and anxiety accounted for 46.00% and 25.34%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lower body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, limitation of physical activity, and negative life events were significantly associated with an increased risk of both depressive and anxiety symptoms. Poor marital status including divorce, separation and widowerhood was markedly correlated with an increased risk of depression, and chronic pain was with anxiety symptoms, respectively. Collectively, the data demonstrated that depression and anxiety were highly prevalent among the patients with chronic respiratory diseases. It is greatly significant to take specific psychological measures to lower the incidence of depression and anxiety in these patients.

  15. Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Naveed; Saeed, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Raziq, Naila; Halimi, Syed Muhammad Ashhad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (V. betonicifolia). Methods The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer's yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice. Results N-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h) when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation (82.50%) observed at 300 mg/kg i.p. When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test, the 1st stage (Ear and facial twitching) and 2nd stage (Convulsive wave through the body) was 100% protected during 24 h at all the test doses (300, 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.), while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased. The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p., as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure (5th stage) was increased up to 25.34 min. However, n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test. Conclusions In conclusion, phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders. PMID:23620851

  16. Designing tragacanth gum based sterile hydrogel by radiation method for use in drug delivery and wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju; Rajneesh

    2016-07-01

    Present article discusses synthesis and characterization of the sterile and pure hydrogel wound dressings which were prepared through radiation method by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), tragacanth gum (TG) and sodium alginate (SA). The polymer films were characterized by SEM, Cryo-SEM, FTIR, solid state C(13) NMR and XRD, TGA, and DSC. Some important biological properties such as O2 permeability, water vapor transmission rate, microbial permeability, haemolysis, thrombogenic behavior, antioxidant activity, bio-adhesion and mechanical properties were also studied. The hydrogel film showed thrombogenicity (82.43±1.54%), haemolysis (0.83±0.09%), oxygen permeability (6.433±0.058mg/L) and water vapor permeability (197.39±25.34g/m(2)/day). Hydrogel films were found biocompatible and impermeable to microbes. The release of antibiotic drug moxifloxacin occurred through non-Fickian mechanism and release profile was best fitted in Hixson-Crowell model for drug release. Overall, these results indicate the suitability of these hydrogels in wound dressing applications.

  17. Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the association between age cohort and utilization of maternal health care services in India, before and after adjusting for individual, household and contextual factors. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06, women were classified into three distinct age cohorts based on their age at childbirth: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the influence of women's age cohort on receiving full antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance (SBA). The analytical sample included the women who delivered their most recent birth at any time in the 5 years preceding the survey. Women belonging to the younger age cohort were found to be disadvantaged in receiving full ANC, whereas increasing age of women was negatively associated with receiving SBA. Low level of education, low mass media exposure, low autonomy, belonging to deprived social groups, poor economic status and residence in the central region were found to be major constraining factors in receiving full ANC and SBA for women in India. The findings support the need for 'age-sensitive' interventions that tailor programmes and incentives to women's health care needs through the reproductive life-stage. Urgent efforts are needed to ensure that women who are illiterate and those belonging to low autonomy and low socioeconomic groups receive the recommended maternal health care benefits.

  18. The epidemiology of sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, G.; Sharma, O. P.; Naish, P.; Doe, W.; James, D. Geraint

    1969-01-01

    The nationality, social factors, exposures, morbidity, mortality, and hospital discharge notes have been analysed in a series of patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis, and correlated with clinical and radiological features. Compared with the expected prevalence according to the Central London population obtained from the 1961 Census, Irish and West Indians attended the Sarcoidosis Clinic twice as frequently as British, whereas African Negroes are under-represented. Sarcoidosis is slightly commoner in women, particularly those in the childbearing years of life. Mass miniature radiography rates per 100,000 population reveal prevalence rates of twenty overall, forty-three in those aged 25-34 years, and ten in those aged over 45 years. Erythema nodosum, other skin lesions, and ocular involvement occurred twice as often in women. The death-rate of about 1·7/106 population is slightly higher in women and in those living in rural districts. Hospital discharge rates are about three per 100,000 people at risk each year. PMID:5821184

  19. Group structure and physical characteristics of Simakobu monkeys (Simias concolor) on the Mentawai Island of Siberut, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Susilo; Ziegler, Thomas; Hodges, J Keith

    2009-01-01

    We present data on group structure and physical characteristics from free-ranging Simias concolor. Mean group size (n = 3) was 8.7 +/- 1.1 individuals with an average adult male:female sex ratio of 1:3. All individuals were sexed and allocated into three categories (infants, juveniles plus subadults and adults) on the basis of their physical development. Within age categories, head-body lengths ranged from 19.6 to 25, 34 to 44 and 42 to 53 cm. Corresponding body weights ranged from 0.5 to 0.9, 2.35 to 4.4 and 5.2 to 7.85 kg, respectively; on average adult males were 13% larger and 23% heavier than adult females. Results indicate that for S. concolor living in undisturbed habitat (i) group sizes are larger than previously reported and (ii) polygyny is the most likely mating system. Both results support an earlier proposal that group size and social organization in Simakobu monkey are related to the degree of habitat disturbance.

  20. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied.

  1. Emergence of Anisotropy in Flock Simulations and Its Computational Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiguchi, Motohiro; Inoue, Jun-Ichi

    2010-03-01

    In real flocks, it was revealed that the angular density of nearest neighbors shows a strong anisotropic structure of individuals by very recent extensive field studies [Ballerini et al, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105, pp. 1232-1237 (2008)]. In this paper, we show that this structure of anisotropy also emerges in an artificial flock simulation, namely, Boid simulation by Reynolds [C.W. Reynolds, Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model, Computer Graphics, 21, pp. 25-34 (1987)]. To quantify the anisotropy, we evaluate a useful statistics, that is to say, the so-called γ-value which is defined as an inner product between the vector in the direction of the lowest angular density of flocks and the vector in the direction of the flock is moving. Our results concerning the emergence of the anisotropy through the γ-value might enable us to judge whether an optimal flock simulation seems to be realistic or not.

  2. Stigma and Homophobia: Persistent Challenges for HIV Prevention Among Young MSM in Puerto Rico1

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Melissa Marzán; Madera, Sheilla Rodríguez; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the most affected populations by HIV/AIDS. Over the last years an increase of cases has been reported in younger groups. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that stigma and homophobia may have a profound impact on the lives of MSM, and could influence them to engage in HIV risky behaviors. In the U.S and Puerto Rico, an increase in HIV cases among young MSM has been reported. For the period of 2005-2009 an increase of HIV cases was reported with 4.3% in the age group of 13-24 and 55.6% in the age group of 25-34. Understanding the dynamics related HIV risk behaviors among young MSM requires transcending traditional individual behavior oriented perspectives in order to adopt a more comprehensive socio-structural approach. In this manuscript we present a critical analysis of HIV prevention issues among young MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:25678720

  3. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  4. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in polar bears from eastern Russia, North America, Greenland, and Svalbard: Biomonitoring of Arctic pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norstrom, R.J.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, E.W.; Garner, G.W.; Malone, B.; Olpinski, S.; Ramsay, M.A.; Schliebe, S.; Stirling, I.; Sitshov, M.S.; Taylor, M.K.; Wiig, Øystein

    1998-01-01

    DIEL concentrations. In general, concentrations of sigma CHL, DDE, and DIEL were higher in eastern than western regions, suggesting an influence of North American sources. Average sigma PCB concentrations in bears from the Canadian Arctic were similar to those in 1982-84, while average sigma CHL and DDE concentrations were 35-44% lower and DIEL was 90% lower. However, the significance of these temporal trends during the 1980s is not conclusive because of the problems of comparability of data.

  5. GS34-6+65: A Large Galactic Supershell Originating in an Active Star Formation Region and Extending to the Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Witold; Murphy, Edward M.; Lockman, Felix J.; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-03-01

    The Galactic supershell GS34-6+65 (Heiles 1979) was mapped in the H{I}; 21 cm emission line with the NRAO 140 ft radiotelescope. The observations cover galactic longitudes 30(deg) ; to 40(deg) ; and latitudes -1(deg) ; to -15(deg) ; with 10 arcmin spacing in both coordinates. Centered at l=35, b=-5 and v_rad=+56km/s, the supershell consists of an irregular spherical shell about 7(deg) ; in diameter, which reaches 9.5(deg) ; below the galactic plane, and of a well defined, massive cone at low latitudes which connects to the molecular cloud CO[35,44] (Dame et al.1986) through a narrow (20 pc wide) channel of reduced H{I}; emission. On the basis of an investigation of objects near the line of sight to the supershell and information from the galactic rotation curve, we derive a distance of ~ 3.7 kpc, which implies that the shell has a diameter of ~ 450 pc and extends at least 600 pc into the Galactic halo. The distance also indicates that the supershell originates in the Sagittarius arm. The concentration of supernova remnants, star forming regions and H{II}; regions in this direction implies that the supershell is a remnant of multiple supernovae and that strong star formation activity persists in this region of the Galaxy, though the large column density (greater than 10(22) H/cm(2) ) prevents us from seeing the stars. We interpret W48 as a region of star formation induced by a shock wave related to the cone. We consider simple models to take into account geometrical and dynamical effects resulting in observed H{I}; emission at given radial velocity. We estimate the swept up mass in the shell to be 7.3*E(4) Msun ; and the mass in the cone -- 1.3*E(5) Msun ;. The estimated kinetic energy of the supershell, 5.0*E(51) ergs, imposes a minimicrons limit of about 5.0*E(52) ergs on the total energy of the event creating the supershell. REFERENCES: Dame, T. M., Elmegreen, B. G., Cohen, R. S., Thaddeus, P. 1986, Astroph. Journ., 305, 892 Heiles, C. 1979, Astroph. Journ., 229

  6. Correlation of air temperature above water-air sections with the forecasted low level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, N. Sh.; Malikov, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    As a case study approach the development of low clouds forecasting methods in correlation with air temperature transformational variations on the sections "water-air" is surveyed. It was evident, that transformational variations of air temperature mainly depend on peculiarities and value of advective variations of temperature. DT is the differences of initial temperature on section water-air in started area, from contrast temperature of water surface along a trajectory of movement of air masses and from the temperature above water surface in a final point of a trajectory. Main values of transformational variations of air temperature at advection of a cold masses is 0.530C•h, and at advection of warm masses is -0.370C•h. There was dimensionless quantity K determined and implemented into practice which was characterized with difference of water temperature in forecasting point and air temperature in an initial point in the ratio of dew-points deficiency at the forecasting area. It follows, that the appropriate increasing or decreasing of K under conditions of cold and warm air masses advection, contributes decreasing of low clouds level. References: Abramovich K.G.: Conditions of development and forecasting of low level clouds. vol. #78, 124 pp., Hydrometcenter USSR 1973. Abramovich K.G.: Variations of low clouds level // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 5, 30-41, Moscow, 1968. Budiko M.I.: Empirical assessment of climatic changes toward the end of XX century // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. #12, 5-13, Moscow, 1999. Buykov M.V.: Computational modeling of daily evolutions of boundary layer of atmosphere at the presence of clouds and fog // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 4, 35-44, Moscow, 1981. Huseynov N.Sh. Transformational variations of air temperature above Caspian Sea / Proceedings of Conference On Climate And Protection of Environment, 118-120, Baku, 1999. Huseynov N.Sh.: Consideration of advective and transformational variations of air temperature in

  7. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Potential to Improve Tumor Control and Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Nguyen, Dan; Heron, Dwight E.; Chen, Allen M.; Lee, Percy; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Vargo, John A.; Low, Daniel A.; Huq, M. Saiful; Tenn, Stephen; Steinberg, Michael L.; Kupelian, Patrick; Sheng, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefit of 4π radiation therapy in recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic head-and-neck cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with 29 tumors who were treated using SBRT were included. In recurrent disease (n=26), SBRT was delivered with a median 44 Gy (range, 35-44 Gy) in 5 fractions. Three patients with sinonasal mucosal melanoma, metastatic breast cancer, and primary undifferentiated carcinoma received 35 Gy, 22.5 Gy, and 40 Gy in 5 fractions, respectively. Novel 4π treatment plans were created for each patient to meet the objective that 95% of the planning target volume was covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) and 50% dose spillage volumes were compared against the delivered clinical SBRT plans. Local control (LC), late toxicity, tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability were determined. Results: Using 4π plans, mean/maximum doses to all OARs were reduced by 22% to 89%/10% to 86%. With 4π plans, the 50% dose spillage volume was decreased by 33%. Planning target volume prescription dose escalation by 10 Gy and 20 Gy were achieved while keeping doses to OARs significantly improved or unchanged from clinical plans, except for the carotid artery maximum dose at 20-Gy escalation. At a median follow-up of 10 months (range, 1-41 months), crude LC was 52%. The 2-year LC of 39.2% approximated the predicted mean TCP of 42.2%, which increased to 45.9% with 4π plans. For 10-Gy and 20-Gy dose escalation, 4π plans increased TCP from 80.1% and 88.1% to 85.5% and 91.4%, respectively. The 7.4% rate of grade ≥3 late toxicity was comparable to the predicted 5.6% mean normal tissue complication probability for OARs, which was significantly reduced by 4π planning at the prescribed and escalated doses. Conclusions: 4π plans may allow dose escalation with significant and consistent

  8. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  9. Enhanced SOA formation from mixed anthropogenic and biogenic emissions during the CARES campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Shilling, John E.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Alexander, M. L.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Fortner, Edward; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, John T.; Sedlacek, Art; Setyan, Ari; Springston, S.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Zhang, Qi

    2013-02-21

    The CARES campaign was conducted during June, 2010 in the vicinity of Sacramento, California to study aerosol formation and aging in a region where anthropogenic and biogenic emissions regularly mix. Here, we describe measurements from an Aerodyne High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), and trace gas detectors (CO, NO, NOx) deployed on the G-1 research aircraft to investigate ambient gas- and particle-phase chemical composition. AMS measurements showed that the particle phase is dominated by organic aerosol (OA) (85% on average) with smaller concentrations of sulfate (5%), nitrate (6%) and ammonium (3%) observed. PTR-MS data showed that isoprene dominated the biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations (BVOCs), with monoterpene concentrations generally below the detection limit. Using two different metrics, median OA concentrations and the slope of plots of OA vs. CO concentrations (i.e., ΔOA/ΔCO), we contrast organic aerosol evolution on flight days with different prevailing meteorological conditions to elucidate the role of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on OA formation. Airmasses influenced predominantly by biogenic emissions had median OA concentrations of 2.9 μg/m3 and near zero ΔOA/ΔCO. Those influenced predominantly by anthropogenic emissions had median OA concentrations of 4.7 μg/m3 and ΔOA/ΔCO ratios of 35 - 44 μg/m3ppmv. When biogenic and anthropogenic emissions mix, OA levels are dramatically enhanced with median OA concentrations of 11.4 μg/m3 and ΔOA/ΔCO ratios of 77 - 157 μg/m3ppmv. Taken together, our observations show that production of OA is enhanced when anthropogenic emissions from Sacramento mix with isoprene-rich air from the foothills. A strong, non-linear dependence of SOA yield from isoprene is the mechanistic explanation for this enhancement most consistent with both the gas- and particle-phase data. If these observations are found to be robust

  10. Construction of Skin Graft Seams in Burn Patients: A Prospective Randomized Double-Blinded Study.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Kathryn; Umraw, Nisha; Cartotto, Robert

    Prominent scars and contractures may form along the seams between adjacent skin grafts. Seams may be constructed either by approximating the graft edges (AP), or by slightly overlapping the graft edges (OV), but it is not known if one technique creates a less conspicuous seam scar. The purpose of this study was to compare seam scars between seams constructed using the AP and OV techniques. This was a prospective within-patient and within-seam controlled study in adult burn patients treated at an American Burn Association-verified burn center. At skin graft application and seam construction, study seams were divided in half. One half of the seam was made by approximating the graft edges (AP group), while the other half was made by overlapping graft edges (OV group), before identical staple or suture fixation of each half. The AP or OV technique was randomly assigned to the medial or lateral ends of transversely oriented seams or to the proximal and distal ends of longitudinally oriented seams. At 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery, a blinded rater compared the two halves of each study seam scar using the Vancouver Scar Score (VSS). Subjects were also blinded and rated each half of their study seam using a 0 (poor) to 10 (excellent) visual analogue scale. Values are shown as the median (Q1-Q3). There were 44 study seams among 19 subjects (age 51 [36-70] years, with % TBSA burn 10 [7-18], % BSA full-thickness burn 8 [6-15]). Study seams were constructed at 10 (4-15) days post burn. Study seam length was 14.5 (10.3-18.0) cm, with 25% transversely oriented and 75% longitudinally oriented, and with 35/44 seams (80%) between meshed grafts and 9/44 (20%) between sheet grafts. There were no significant differences in any of the individual domain VSS scores (height, pliability, vascularity, and pigmentation) or total VSS score between AP and OV seams at 3, 6, and 12 months. At 12 months, among the 30 study seams that were visible to the subjects, the visual analogue scale

  11. Tooth brushing and utilization of dental services in Fiji (1998).

    PubMed

    King, Temalesi

    2003-03-01

    Utilization of services is considered the presence or absence of care received. The most common measure of utilization is the annual number of dental visits per person. This study aims to determine oral health practices, which were a measure of their oral hygiene status and the use of health care facilities. It also aims to investigate the major problems that exist within the health care system in 1998, which may explain the lack of use of dental services. Fijians and Indo-Fijians were two ethnic groups in the sample, selected by stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. Only two age categories, 15-19 and 35-44 year-olds were selected being the index age for World Health Organization in Oral Health Surveys. A total of 1,000 questionaires were distributed and the completed questionnaires (n = 619) were collected immediately. Thirty one percent of the respondents indicated that they learnt to care for their teeth from dental personnel. Of the individuals who brushed their teeth twice a day, 41% visited the dentist within the last 12 months. Majority of the individuals (65%) who brushed their teeth twice or more daily indicated that they needed dental treatment. Individuals who visited the dentist within the last 12 months reported having a tooth extracted (53%), check-up (29%), filling (8.9%), polishing of teeth (3.7%), gum problem (3.2%) and false teeth (1.8%). Individuals who brushed twice daily did not visit the dentist within the last 12 months because nothing was wrong (63.2%), too busy (9%) and afraid of the dentist (7%). More than 80% of the respondents were satisfied with the current services, but indicated improvement on the waiting time (31.2%), availability of more treatment options in dental clinics (27.5%), dental fees (15.4%), improvement on the facilities for dental care (10.1%), a customer-friendly dental personnel (9.4%) and considerations for infection control (6.4%).

  12. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in particular, android fat distribution.

  13. Relation between serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance profiles of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ground turkey.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Erol, Irfan

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the serotype distribution of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ground turkey using a multiplex PCR assay and to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates using the disc diffusion method. Of 78 isolates, 35 (44.9%), 29 (37.2%), 7 (9.0%), and 7 (9.0%) were identified as serotypes 1/2a (or 3a), 4b (or 4d or 4e), 1/2b (or 3b), and 1/2c (or 3c), respectively. Overall, 63 isolates (80.8%) were resistant to penicillin G, and 53 (67.9%) were resistant to ampicillin. All 1/2c (or 3c) serotype isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and all 1/2b (or 3b) serotype isolates were resistant to penicillin G. In addition, 91.4% (32 of 35) of 1/2a (or 3a), 57.1% (4 of 7) of 1/2b (or 3b), and 37.9% (11 of 29) of 4b (or 4d or 4e) serotype isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and 85.7% (30 of 35) of 1/2a (or 3a) and 65.5% (19 of 29) of 4b (or 4d or 4e) serotype isolates were resistant to penicillin G. In conclusion, most of the L. monocytogenes isolates identified were serotype 1/2a (or 3a) and 4b (or 4d or 4e). Serotype 1/2c (or 3c) isolates were highly resistant to antibiotics compared with isolates of serotypes 1/2a (or 3a), 1/2b (or 3b), and 4b (or 4d or 4e). Increasing resistance of L. monocytogenes to ampicillin and penicillin is an especially serious concern for public health because of the common use of these antibiotics in treatment of human listeriosis cases.

  14. Petrogenesis of lamprophyres from Chhota Udepur area, Narmada rift zone, and its relation to Deccan magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Dharma Rao, C. V.; Das, Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Geological setting, petrology and geochemistry of a new find of lamprophyre dykes, intruding the Precambrian basement gneisses from the Chhota Udepur area, Narmada rift zone, Western India, are presented. Of the three lamprophyre dykes, two of them display E-W trend paralleling that of the Narmada rift, extend up to ˜2.5 km in length and constitute the longest yet recorded lamprophyre dykes from the Indian shield. The Chhota Udepur lamprophyres (CUL) show several overlapping mineralogical and geochemical characteristic features displayed by alkaline- and calc-alkaline lamprophyres and hence it is not straight forward to pigeon-hole them in existing lamprophyre classification schemes. They are porphyritic-panidiomorphic with euhedral to sub-hedral phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of olivine (Fo 78.33-78.42 Fa 21.24-21.37), diopsidic augite to titaniferous augite (Wo 54.83-59.03 En 36.75-41.36 Fs 0.1-5.66), biotite and amphibole (kaersutite). Feldspar (orthoclase perthite and plagioclase) is essentially confined to the groundmass along with accessory phases such as apatite and spinel (ti-magnetite). Rare carbonate ocelli are also present. In terms of major element geochemistry the CUL are nepeheline-normative and predominantly sodic (Na 2O > K 2O); yet their K 2O and SiO 2 contents are sufficiently high to signal traits of calc-alkaline lamprophyres. On the other hand, the CUL exclude negative spikes at Nb-Ta which are considered to be a characteristic of subduction-related (calc-alkaline) magmas, are highly evolved (Mg#: 27.82-55.45), enriched in incompatible trace elements (high La/Nb, Zr/Nb) and have fractionated REE distribution patterns (La/Yb N ratios: 35-44). Post-emplacement alteration and crustal contamination have had little influence on their geochemistry. Th/Yb, Ta/Yb, Nb/U and Ce/Pb ratios of the CUL imply an OIB type-enriched mantle source, similar to that displayed by other Deccan-related lamprophyres. A metasomatised (enriched) garnet lherzolite

  15. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. Methods We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. Results The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. Conclusion We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web

  16. [Progestins and arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Rozenbaum, H

    1985-01-01

    The role of estrogens in the etiology of vascular accidents was identified soon after oral contraceptives (OCs) came into use over 2 decades ago, but the role of progestins was only identified on the basis of systematic study. Reduction in the estrogen dose of OCs was accompained by a steady decline in venous accidents, but the rate of arterial accidents changed little. It is important to remember that the actual occurrence of vascular accidents in OC users is rare. Available statistics indicate that age and smoking are important risk factors for vascular accidents. Among nonsmokers and smokers respectively, the annual risk of death due to vascular accidents is 1 in 77,000 and 1 in 10,000 for women under 35, 1 in 67,000 and 1 in 2000 for women 35-44, and 1 in 2500 and 1 in 500 for women 45 and over. Some isolated cases of arterial vascular accidents in users of progestin only OCs have been published. The death rate from vascular accidents is 3 times as high when the levonorgestrel dose increases from 150 to 250 mcg, and twice as high when the norethisterone acetate dose increases from 1 to 4 mg. It is not known precisely how synthetic progestins can induce an arterial accident, but the factors involved may include elevation of blood pressure by potentiation of the modifications in renin-angiotensin system caused by ethinyl estradiol, reducing the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, impairing glucose tolerance, altering the vascular walls directly, or modifying certain coagulation factors. Little data is available on progestin-caused modifications in coagulation factors, but a recent study reported that the effects of combined OCs on coagulation factors increased with the progestin dose. 2 groups of 19-norsteroids are currently used in contraception, the estranes including norethisterone and some prohormones that metabolize to norethisterone before becoming active, and the gonanes including norgestrel, levonorgestrel, and desogestrel. Early optimism

  17. Effects of calcining temperature on photocatalysis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composites for hydrogen evolution from water

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ailan Xu, Xinmei; Xie, Haolong; Zhang, Yangyu; Li, Yuyu; Wang, Junxian

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} promotes melon to form at 400 °C, whereas it forms at 500 °C for only melamine. • The highest photocatalytic activity was achieved when calcination was performed at 400 °C. • Coordinated N−Ti−N bonds were formed in MA/TiO{sub 2} (400) and disappeared at high temperature. • The surface area decreased and the pore size increased with increasing of temperature. • Only MA/TiO{sub 2} (400) has a narrower band gap than pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: A composite of graphitic carbon nitride and TiO{sub 2} (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2}) with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution capacity was achieved by calcining melamine and TiO{sub 2} sol-gel precursor. Characterization results reveal that heating temperature had a great influence on the structure, surface area and properties of the composites. Compared with the polycondensation of pure melamine, the presence of TiO{sub 2} precursor can promote the formation of melon at a low temperature. The highest photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2}(400) was achieved when the calcination was performed at 400 °C, exhibiting H{sub 2} production rate of 76.25 μmol/h under UV–vis light irradiation (λ > 320 nm) and 35.44 μmol/h under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The highest photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2}(400) can be attributed to: (1) the strong UV–vis light absorption due to the narrow bandgap caused by synergic effect of TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, (2) high surface area and porosity, (3) the effective separation of photo-generated electron-holes owing to the favorable heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}.

  18. AB025. Diseases with temporary disability of the respiratory system at persons working in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, Lidiya; Filippidou, Elisavet-Christina; Chernaeva, Mariya; Tsacheva, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Background This retrospective study carried out during the period 2009–2015, represents an examination of people working in a Multi-profile Hospital of Varna, suffering from temporary disability of the respiratory system, with regard to structure, dynamics and relationship to their working conditions. Methods The status and the trends of health of more than 1,000 medical practitioners and other people working in the field of health were examined. Used methods sociological, electronic health record, patient charts and statistical methods. An inquiry was carried out with the purpose of risk assessment for all the workers in the hospital. Leading biological, chemical and physical risk factors at the place of work have been measured. Results We found out that the lung diseases take the first place in the temporary morbidity of the contingent under survey. The acute infections of the upper respiratory tract result in absence from work: (I) the yearly average of 100 workers shows 17 new cases and 812 days of absence due to acute bronchitis; (II) the yearly average of 100 workers—13 new cases and 1,035 days of absence from work due to pneumonia and COPD; (III) the yearly average of 100 workers—4 new cases and 859 days of absence from work. Thereby the overall indexes characterizing the temporary incapacity of the respiratory system are: frequency—35.44 new cases and frequency of the days—249.71 days of absences due to these diseases. Failure to observe the requirements for healthy and safe work conditions and especially the use of personal protective equipment, as well as the restriction of the vaccination of the employees, are one of the main reasons for the temporary incapacity disease of the respiratory system. Conclusions Our study, conducted for many years, proved that the respiratory system disorders are increasingly becoming one of the most important medical, social and financial problems. Most important measures to control and to reduce the respiratory

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC uncertainty

  20. Optical properties of gold nanoshells on monodisperse silica cores: Experiment and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanadeev, Vitaly A.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoshells (GNSs) on silica cores are widely used in various biomedical applications that need the spectral tunability and controlled absorption/scattering ratio. However, the plasmonic quality of experimental extinction spectra of GNS colloids differs from that predicted by Mie theory. In this work, we fabricated highly monodisperse silica nanospheres to use them further as cores for synthesis of silica/gold nanoshells. Four GNS samples with 116-nm core and gold shell thickness ranging from 16 to 34 nm (116/16, 18, 25, 34) were additionally separated in glycerol gradient solutions to obtain fractions with dominant percentage of single particles or aggregates of various sizes. The separated samples demonstrated extinction spectra with a high extinction maximum to minimum ratio about 3. Optical properties of GNS monomers and aggregates with fixed and random orientations were calculated by Mie theory for polydisperse GNSs, by a generalized multiparticle Mie (GMM) theory for aggregates of separated GNSs, and by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for aggregates of overlapped GNSs. The extinction spectra of upper fractions from 116/25 and 116/34 samples are shown to be well described by Mie theory for GNSs with polydisperse shell thickness. However, for as prepared 116/16 sample this approach fails because of strong near infrared (NIR) contribution from GNS dimers and trimers. The formation of such aggregates is due to coupling of silica cores at early stages of nanoshell synthesis, thus leading to peanut structures with overlapped gold shells. We suggested TEM-based ensemble model with single particles and small dimer and trimer aggregates, which gives satisfactory agreement between measured and FDTD simulated spectra in the vis-NIR region. Thus, the proposed synthetic technology produces high quality gold nanoshells, which remarkable optical properties are in good agreement with electromagnetic simulations based on TEM data.

  1. Transmission of low-intensity vibration through the axial skeleton of persons with spinal cord injury as a potential intervention for preservation of bone quantity and quality

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Pierre; Spungen, Ann M.; Muir, Jesse W.; Rubin, Clinton T.; Bauman, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop marked bone loss from paralysis and immobilization. Low-intensity vibration (LIV) has shown to be associated with improvement in bone mineral density in post-menopausal women and children with cerebral palsy. We investigated the transmissibility of LIV through the axial skeleton of persons with SCI as an initial approach to determine whether LIV may be used as a clinical modality to preserve skeletal integrity. Methods Transmission of a plantar-based LIV signal (0.27 ± 0.11 g; 34 Hz) from the feet through the axial skeleton was evaluated as a function of tilt-table angle (15, 30, and 45°) in seven non-ambulatory subjects with SCI and ten able-bodied controls. Three SCI and five control subjects were also tested at 0.44 ± 0.18 g and 34 Hz. Transmission was measured using accelerometers affixed to a bite-bar to determine the percentage of LIV signal transmitted through the body. Results The SCI group transmitted 25, 34, and 43% of the LIV signal, and the control group transmitted 28, 45, and 57% to the cranium at tilt angles of 15, 30, and 45°, respectively. No significant differences were noted between groups at any of the three angles of tilt. Conclusion SCI and control groups demonstrated equivalent transmission of LIV, with greater signal transmission observed at steeper angles of tilt. This work supports the possibility of the utility of LIV as a means to deliver mechanical signals in a form of therapeutic intervention to prevent/reverse skeletal fragility in the SCI population. PMID:21528627

  2. Outcomes for paediatric Burkitt lymphoma treated with anthracycline-based therapy in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Christopher C; Westmoreland, Kate D; Heimlich, Brett J; El-Mallawany, Nader K; Wasswa, Peter; Mtete, Idah; Butia, Mercy; Itimu, Salama; Chasela, Mary; Mtunda, Mary; Chikasema, Mary; Makwakwa, Victor; Kaimila, Bongani; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Chimzimu, Fred; Kampani, Coxcilly; Dhungel, Bal M; Krysiak, Robert; Montgomery, Nathan D; Fedoriw, Yuri; Rosenberg, Nora E; Liomba, N George; Gopal, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common paediatric cancer in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Anthracyline-based treatment is standard in resource-rich settings, but has not been described in SSA. Children ≤18 years of age with newly diagnosed BL were prospectively enrolled from June 2013 to May 2015 in Malawi. Staging and supportive care were standardized, as was treatment with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) for six cycles. Among 73 children with BL, median age was 9·2 years (interquartile range 7·7-11·8), 48 (66%) were male and two were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Twelve (16%) had stage I/II disease, 36 (49%) stage III and 25 (34%) stage IV. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 17 (25%), and grade 3/4 anaemia in 29 (42%) of 69 evaluable children. Eighteen-month overall survival was 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18-41%) overall. Mortality was associated with age >9 years [hazard ratio [HR] 2·13, 95% CI 1·15-3·94], female gender (HR 2·12, 95% CI 1·12-4·03), stage (HR 1·52 per unit, 95% CI 1·07-2·17), lactate dehydrogenase (HR 1·03 per 100 iu/l, 95% CI 1·01-1·05), albumin (HR 0·96 per g/l, 95% CI 0·93-0·99) and performance status (HR 0·78 per 10-point increase, 95% CI 0·69-0·89). CHOP did not improve outcomes in paediatric BL compared to less intensive regimens in Malawi.

  3. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Oncological outcome analysis from a single-center Indian experience of 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashikant; Agrawal, Vikas; Khatri, Naushad; Sharma, Rajan; Kurien, Abraham; Ganpule, Arvind; Muthu, V.; Sabnis, Ravindra B.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of published data on laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in India. Although the published short-term oncologic outcomes after LRP are encouraging, intermediate and long-term data are lacking. Objective: We analyzed the oncological outcome after LRP based on 6 years of experience and compared it with the other single-center published literature. Materials and Methods: Of the 90 patients who underwent LRP for a clinical T2 localized disease, 73 patients with at least a follow up of one year were analyzed. Patients were classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk D′Amico groups in 22 (30%), 26 (36%), and 25 (34%) of the patient population, respectively. Progression of disease was defined as a PSA of 0.4ng/ml with a confirmatory rise. We used Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates to calculate actuarial 5-year probabilities of biochemical progression-free survival. Univariate analysis of risk factors for biochemical recurrence (BCR) was done. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.3 ± 6.6 years. The average follow-up for patients was 22 (12-72) months. There was no prostatic cancer-specific mortality. Fourteen patients had BCR. The 5-year progression-free probability for men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancers was 91%, 82%, and 58%, respectively. High-risk group, Gleason sum more than 8, extracapsular extension, and positive surgical margin were significantly associated with biochemical progression. Conclusions: LRP provided a similar level of oncological success as reported by the other contemporary single-center published literature PMID:22557714

  4. Influence of Grain Refinement on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Tungsten Carbide/Zirconia Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasser, Ali; Kassem, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Ayman; Gepreel, Mohamed A.; Moniem, Ahmed A.

    2016-11-01

    WC-W2C/ZrO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by pressure-less sintering (PS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) of tungsten carbide/yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia, WC/TZ-3Y. Prior to sintering, WC/TZ-3Y powders were totally ball-milled for 20 and 120 h to obtain targeted nano (N) and nano-nano (N-N) structures, indicated by transmission electron microscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). The milled powders were processed via PS at temperatures of 1773 and 1973 K for 70 min and SPS at 1773 K for 10 min. PXRD as well as SEM-EDS indicated the formation of WC-W2C/ZrO2 composites after sintering. The mechanical properties were characterized via Vicker microhardness and nanoindentation techniques indicating enhancements for sufficiently consolidated composites with high W2C content. The effects of reducing particle sizes on phase transformation, microstructure and mechanical properties are reported. In general, the composites based on the N structure showed higher microhardness than those for N-N structure, except for the samples PS-sintered at 1773 K. For instance, after SPS at 1773 K, the N structure showed a microhardness of 18.24 GPa. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that nanoscale hardness up to 22.33 and 25.34 GPa and modulus of elasticity up to 340 and 560 GPa can be obtained for WC-W2C/ZrO2 nanocomposites synthesized by the low-cost PS at 1973 K and by SPS at 1773 K, respectively.

  5. Sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive people in Tehran, Iran: a mixed-method descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Moazen, Babak; Rezaei, Farimah; Hajizadeh, Shayesteh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Setayesh, Hamid Reza; Mohraz, Minoo; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: People Living with HIV (PLHIV) are highly stigmatized and consequently hard-to-access by researchers and importantly, public health outreach in Iran, possibly due to the existing socio-cultural situation in this country. The present study aimed to evaluate the sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Methods: As a mixed-method descriptive study, this project was conducted in 2012 in Tehran, Iran. In this study, we evaluated and discussed socio-demographic characteristics, family and social support, sexual behaviors, fertility desires and needs, PMTCT services, contraceptive methods, unintended pregnancy and safe abortion, and Pap smear tests among 400 participants referring to the behavioral disorders consulting centers. Results: Of the sample 240 (60%) were male and 160 (40%) were female. About 50% of women and 40% of men were 25-34 years old. More than 60% of men and 96% of women were married, while more than 50% of the participants had HIV-positive spouses at the time of study. According to the results, fertility desire was observed among more than 30% of female and 40% of male participants. Results of the in-depth interviews indicate that the participants are not satisfied with most of the existing services offered to address their sexual and reproductive health needs. Conclusion: Despite the availability of services, most of sexual and reproductive health needs of the PLHIV are overlooked by the health system in Iran. Paying attention to sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Iran not only protects their right to live long and healthy lives, but also may prevent the transmission of HIV from the patients to others within the community. PMID:26340488

  6. Evaluation of functional capacity in individuals with signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal disease: results of the BRAZCO population study (Brazilian COPCORD Study).

    PubMed

    Jennings, Fabio; Sato, Emilia Inoue; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2015-11-01

    The disability caused by the musculoskeletal signs and symptoms affects the quality of life of a population, especially that related to health. The objective of this study is to evaluate the functional capacity of individuals of the Brazilian population who presented musculoskeletal signs and symptoms (MSK-S). The prevalence of MSK-S was evaluated in 5000 individuals (>15 years) in 16 capitals from the five regions of Brazil using the COPCORD Core Questionnaire. Those individuals (n = 2494) that experienced MSK-S and referred some level of disability at the time of the interview were invited to complete the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). The HAQ-DI scores were compared among regions, and subgroups according to gender, age and type of activity. Three hundred ninety-four (7.9 %) participants reported disability at the time of the interview. The average score of HAQ-DI was 1.09 (SD = 0.71), and the Brazilian region with the highest level of disability was the North region. Among individuals without history of trauma, the disability was higher when the duration of MSK-S was longer. Disability was shown to worsen with increasing age, and the group with 25-34 years showed the lowest scores. Females showed worse functional capacity scores compared to males (p = 0.002). Individuals showed higher degrees of difficulty or were incapable of performing the activities walking, reaching, usual activities and dressing. MSK-S reduce the functional capacity of individuals of the Brazilian general population. The reduction in functional capacity was mainly observed in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal complaints not due to trauma, as well as in female gender and in advancing age.

  7. Delayed childbearing in the U.S.: facts and fictions.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W H; Nord, C W

    1984-11-01

    Between 1970-82, the proportion of 1st births in the US to women 25 and older rose from 19-36% and the proportion of women still childless at ages 25-34 increased by 56% at about the same time. Although a sharp contrast with the baby boom era of the 1950s and 1960s, todays's epidemic of delayed childbearing is similar to patterns earlier in the 20th century. As then, much is due to delayed age at marriage, but baby boomers now in the their late 20s and early 30s are also delaying childbirth after marriage. The trend stems in part from their economic difficulties as they compete in a tight job market caused both by their large numbers and a turbulent economy. But it is also related to women's increasing education and, in turn, increasing opportunities in and commitment to the labor force, which can be expected to encourage a delayed childbearing even after prospects brighten for young people. Although a diverse group, most of today's delayed childbearers are white, highly educated, 2-career couples. Adequate daytime care for preschool children is a prime concern. Although more employers now offer childcare assistance and flexible work schedules to working parents, the juggle between jobs and childraising can be a strain. On the plus side are delayed childbearers' greater maturity and generally higher incomes, which can ease potential problems created by parent-child age differences as their children grow up. Businesses have been quick to respond to the new market of older, affluent, 1st-time mothers. New methods of treating of circumventing infertility and prenatal detection of chromosomal birth defects can now help overcome potential biological problems that may concern women who choose to delay childbearing past age 30.

  8. Increasing Diversity in Science and Health Professions: A 21-Year Longitudinal Study Documenting College and Career Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Ned, Judith; Ahn, David; Koehler, Alana; Kennedy, Jeanne D.

    2009-12-01

    Despite decades of precollege science education programs, African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans remain critically underrepresented in science and health professions. This report describes college and career outcomes among graduates of the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program (SMYSP), a 5-week summer residential program for low-income high school students among whom 97% have been followed for up to 21 years. Approximately 24 students are selected annually, with participation limited to low-income students who have faced substantial personal hardships. Undergraduate and medical students provide key program leadership and training. The curriculum is based on science inquiry education and includes hospital internships, anatomy practicums, research projects, faculty lectures, college admissions/standardized test preparation, and long-term college and career guidance. A total of 476 high school students participated between 1988 and 2008, with 61% from underrepresented ethnic minority groups. Overall, 78% of African American, 81% of Latino, and 82% of Native American participants have earned a 4-year college degree (among those admitted to college, and excluding those currently attending college). In contrast, among 25-34-year old California adults, 16% of African Americans, 8% of Latinos, and 10% of Native Americans earn a 4-year college degree. Among SMYSP's 4-year college graduates, 47% are attending or have completed medical or graduate school, and 43% are working as or training to become health professionals. SMYSP offers a model that expands inquiry-based science education beyond the classroom, and recognizes the role of universities as "high school interventionists" to help diversify health professions.

  9. Toxoplasma infection in individuals in central Italy: does a gender-linked risk exist?

    PubMed

    Pinto, B; Mattei, R; Moscato, G A; Cristofano, M; Giraldi, M; Scarpato, R; Buffolano, W; Bruschi, F

    2017-04-01

    An accurate estimate of the impact of toxoplasmosis on the population in Italy is not available. We performed a cross-sectional study on individuals living in Italy to assess: (1) differences in access to Toxo testing and in the prevalence of recent and past Toxoplasma gondii infection according to gender and age, and (2) the clinical impact of disease burden on the male patient subset. Reason for testing, condition of in- or outpatient and clinical data were analysed. Between-gender differences were observed in access to the test. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) prevalence was increased in males in the age range 5-34 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-3.49, p = 0.01), with a peak at 25-34 years. In females, it decreased in the age range 20-39 years (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.32-0.74, p = 0.0008). The attack rate of recent infection was twice as high for males than for females. Estimates pointed out 3.3 and 1.7 events in 1000 at-risk person-years in the male and female cohorts, respectively. Most IgM-positive subjects did not experience severe forms of toxoplasmosis, with 35% having lymphadenopathy. Chorioretinitis, systemic and neurological manifestations were also observed. Our findings suggest that the acute phase of toxoplasmosis is largely unapparent or clinically mild in this area. It is also possible that the disease burden for Toxoplasma infection in Italy is underestimated. Further study should focus on information acquisition and Toxo test access in hospital units for a better estimation of the real burden of mild and severe forms of the disease.

  10. Patterns of smoking in Russia

    PubMed Central

    McKee, M.; Bobak, M.; Rose, R.; Shkolnikov, V.; Chenet, L.; Leon, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tobacco is a leading cause of avoidable death in Russia but there is, as yet, relatively little information in the public domain on who is smoking and how this is changing. This information is important for those seeking to develop effective policies to tackle this issue.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the prevalence of smoking in Russia and its association with sociodemographic factors.
DESIGN—Cross-sectional survey on patterns of tobacco consumption.
SETTING—Data were collected using the New Russia Barometer, a multi-stage stratified-sample survey of the population of the Russian Federation undertaken in the summer of 1996.
PARTICIPANTS—Data were available on 1587 individuals (response rate 65.7%). Respondents differed little from the overall Russian population in terms of age, sex, education, and voting intention.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of current and past smoking.
RESULTS—Smoking is common among males of all ages and in all areas. Of those aged 18-24 years, 65% smoke, rising to 73% in those aged 25-34 and then falling steadily to reach 41% in those aged 65 and older. Among women, smoking is much more common among the young (27% in those aged 18-34) than among the middle-aged and elderly (5% in those aged 55 and older), and more common among those living in urban areas than in rural areas. Smoking is also more common among men and women suffering material deprivation but there is no independent association with education. Among men, but not women, church attendance is inversely associated with smoking. In both sexes, but especially women, heavy drinking and smoking are associated.
CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco poses a major threat to the health of future generations in Russia, especially among women. A robust policy response is required.


Keywords: prevalence; Russia; smoking PMID:9706750

  11. Pathologic Fracture in Chilhood and Adolescent Osteosarcoma: A Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Lindsay; Kaste, Sue C.; Ness, Kirsten K; Wu, Jianrong; Ortega-Laureano, Lucia; Bishop, Michael; Neel, Michael; Rao, Bhaskar; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pathologic fractures occur in 5-10% of pediatric osteosarcoma cases and have historically been considered a contraindication to limb salvage. We purposed to describe the radiographic features of pathologic fracture and examine its impact on local recurrence rates, functional outcomes and overall survival. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients at our institution from 1990-2015 with pathologic fracture at diagnosis or during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We selected a control group of 50 osteosarcoma patients of similar age and gender without pathologic fracture from 1990-2015. Functional outcomes were scored using Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) criteria. Chi square test was used for comparative analysis of groups. Results Thirty-six patients with 37 pathologic fractures form the study cohort. Of patients who received surgery, 18/34 patients with fracture underwent amputation, compared to 8/48 in the non-fracture group (p=0.007). Indications for amputation in fracture patients were tumor size (n=7), neurovascular involvement (n=6), and tumor progression during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n=5). Only one patient (2.9%) in the fracture group who underwent limb salvage suffered local recurrence. Of patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 25/34 fracture patients showed poor histological response, compared to 24/47 non-fracture patients. (p=0.044) There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between the two groups (p=0.96). Functional outcomes were significantly lower in fracture patients (median=17.5) than non-fracture patients (median=24) (p=0.023). Conclusions Radiographic features of pathologic fractures were highly variable in this population. Limb salvage surgery can be performed without increased risk of local recurrence. Patients with pathologic fracture suffer worse functional outcomes, but show no decrease in overall survival. PMID:27897381

  12. Australian vaccine preventable disease epidemiological review series: mumps 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Bag, Shopna K; Dey, Aditi; Wang, Han; Beard, Frank

    2015-03-31

    In 2007, Australia recorded the highest notification rate (2.8 per 100,000) for mumps since it became notifiable, with outbreaks in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the number of cases seen in vaccinated individuals. The aim of this study was to review subsequent epidemiological data. Notification, hospitalisation and mortality data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, the National Hospital Morbidity Database and Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) respectively, from 2008 to 2012 for notifications and 2008 to 2011 for hospitalisations and deaths, were analysed by age, year and jurisdiction. ABS population data were used to calculate rates. National mumps notification rates decreased from 1.3 per 100,000 in 2008 to 0.4 per 100,000 in 2010, but then increased to 0.9 per 100,000 in 2012, predominantly due to increased notifications in New South Wales (1.4 per 100,000). Hospitalisation rates remained stable at 0.4 per 100,000 over the 2008-2011 period. The median age of notified cases was 30 years and for hospitalisations, 27 years. The highest rate of notifications and hospitalisations was in the 25-34 years age group. Completeness of vaccination status ranged from 16% to 39%. The increasing trend in mumps notifications needs to be closely monitored. Improved data quality, in particular on vaccination status, is needed to inform the monitoring of vaccine effectiveness. In March 2014 the World Health Organization certified that Australia had achieved measles elimination. Greater availability of case history (vaccination status and place of acquisition) and genotyping data would facilitate an assessment of Australia's progress in relation to mumps elimination.

  13. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  14. Emission factors for PM2.5, CO, CO2, NOx, SO2 and particle size distributions from the combustion of wood species using a new controlled combustion chamber 3CE.

    PubMed

    Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Toledo, Mario; Vidal, Victor; Guerrero, Fabian; Diaz-Robles, Luis A; Petit-Breuilh, Ximena; Lapuerta, Magin

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this research was to determine emission factors (EF) for particulate matter (PM2.5), combustion gases and particle size distribution generated by the combustion of Eucalyptus globulus (EG), Nothofagus obliqua (NO), both hardwoods, and Pinus radiata (PR), softwood, using a controlled combustion chamber (3CE). Additionally, the contribution of the different emissions stages associated with the combustion of these wood samples was also determined. Combustion experiments were performed using shaving size dried wood (0% humidity). The emission samples were collected with a tedlar bag and sampling cartridges containing quartz fiber filters. High reproducibility was achieved between experiment repetitions (CV<10%, n=3). The EF for PM2.5 was 1.06gkg(-1) for EG, 1.33gkg(-1) for NO, and 0.84gkg(-1) for PR. Using a laser aerosol spectrometer (0.25-34μm), the contribution of particle emissions (PM2.5) in each stage of emission process (SEP) was sampled in real time. Particle size of 0.265μm were predominant during all stages, and the percentages emitted were PR (33%), EG (29%), and NO (21%). The distributions of EF for PM2.5 in pre-ignition, flame and smoldering stage varied from predominance of the flame stage for PR (77%) to predominance of the smoldering stage for NO (60%). These results prove that flame phase is not the only stage contributing to emissions and on the contrary, pre-ignition and in especial post-combustion smoldering have also very significant contributions. This demonstrates that particle concentrations measured only in stationary state during flame stage may cause underestimation of emissions.

  15. Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors Among 15-49-Year-Old Women in Dessie Town, Northeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Fasika; Mitiku, Israel

    2016-04-13

    Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as the most effective approach to reduce incidence and mortality rates from the disease. Nevertheless, there are limited data on the rate of uptake of cervical cancer screening and factors that are related to uptake of screening services in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of uptake of screening and determine associated factors among women of age 15-49 years in Northeast Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 620 women residing in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia. The respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were employed to determine factors associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening service. Overall, 57.7 % of the women had ever heard of cervical cancer, and 51.9 % had sufficient knowledge about the disease. However, only 11 % underwent at least one cervical screening in their lifetime. After adjusting for covariates, knowledge of cervical cancer (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 11.1; 95 % CI 5.0-24.8) and age (being 25-34 years (AOR 5.0; 95 % CI 1.5-16.7) and being within the age group of 34-49 years (AOR 6.0; 95 % CI 1.74-20.8)) were significantly associated with screening service uptake. In this study, uptake of cervical cancer screening service was found to be low. Increasing women's knowledge about cervical cancer, particularly targeting the younger ones, is crucial to enhance uptake of screening.

  16. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  17. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  18. Grazing intensity significantly affects belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guiyao; Zhou, Xuhui; He, Yanghui; Shao, Junjiong; Hu, Zhenhong; Liu, Ruiqiang; Zhou, Huimin; Hosseinibai, Shahla

    2017-03-01

    Livestock grazing activities potentially alter ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland ecosystems. Despite the fact that numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses had been conducted, how grazing, especially its intensity, affects belowground C and N cycling in grasslands remains unclear. In this study, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 115 published studies to examine the responses of 19 variables associated with belowground C and N cycling to livestock grazing in global grasslands. Our results showed that, on average, grazing significantly decreased belowground C and N pools in grassland ecosystems, with the largest decreases in microbial biomass C and N (21.62% and 24.40%, respectively). In contrast, belowground fluxes, including soil respiration, soil net N mineralization and soil N nitrification increased by 4.25%, 34.67% and 25.87%, respectively, in grazed grasslands compared to ungrazed ones. More importantly, grazing intensity significantly affected the magnitude (even direction) of changes in the majority of the assessed belowground C and N pools and fluxes, and C : N ratio as well as soil moisture. Specifically,light grazing contributed to soil C and N sequestration whereas moderate and heavy grazing significantly increased C and N losses. In addition, soil depth, livestock type and climatic conditions influenced the responses of selected variables to livestock grazing to some degree. Our findings highlight the importance of the effects of grazing intensity on belowground C and N cycling, which may need to be incorporated into regional and global models for predicting effects of human disturbance on global grasslands and assessing the climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  19. Episodic acidification and changes in fish diversity in Pennsylvania headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heard, R.M.; Sharpe, W.E.; Carline, R.F.; Kimmel, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Current water chemistry and fish communities in 70 Pennsylvania streams were compared with historical records to determine whether fish species richness had declined and, if so, the possible role of acidification. First-, second-, and third-order streams were selected, and stream sites sampled during the 1961-1971 survey were resampled during May and June 1994 in the Appalachian Plateaus province and during June 1995 in the Valley and Ridge province. Stream-flow was measured and a habitat assessment was completed at each site. Dominant bedrock types influencing the stream sampling site were determined for the Appalachian Plateaus streams. Episodic water chemistry was collected for 39 of the 50 Appalachian Plateaus streams and 14 of the 20 Valley and Ridge streams during the winter and spring of 1996. Thirty-eight (76%) streams of the Appalachian Plateaus province and 13 (65%) streams in the Valley and Ridge province had a loss of fish species since the 1961-1971 sampling period. Habitat scores were not related to losses of fish species. Of the 53 streams sampled during runoff episodes 22 (42%) increased in total dissolved aluminum by more than 50 ??g/L, and 31 (58%) streams decreased in pH by 0.5 units or more. Minnows (Cyprinidae) and darters (Percidae) are sensitive to acidity and were the species most often lost. Streams draining watersheds of the Appalachian Plateaus province dominated by Pottsville bedrock had more acidic water quality during base flow and storm flow sampling periods than streams dominated by Pocono bedrock. The results of this study indicate that many Pennsylvania streams have undergone an alarming reduction in fish diversity during the past 25-34 years. In many of these streams the loss in fish diversity may be attributed to episodic acidification.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B identified in adults with hematological malignancy attending an Irish hospital between 2004 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Salter, Aisling; Laoi, Bairbre Ni; Crowley, Brendan

    2011-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory infection in patients with hematological malignancy, particularly hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. This study investigated the genetic variability of the attachment (G) protein gene among HRSV isolates collected from adult patients with hematological malignancy. Between December 2004 and March 2009, 60 samples collected from 58 adults attending an Irish hospital were positive for HRSV by direct immunofluorescence. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the G gene showed a slightly higher frequency of HRSV subgroup A (52%) than HRSV subgroup B (48%). Genetic variability was higher among subgroup A viruses (up to 13% at nucleotide level) than among subgroup B viruses (up to 4%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed two genotypes of HRSV subgroup A, GA2 and GA5, which cocirculated between 2004/2005 and 2007/2008, although GA2 alone was identified in season 2008/2009. Genotype BA was the only genotype of HRSV subgroup B identified. Genotype-specific amino acid substitutions were identified, with two and seven changes for GA2 and GA5, respectively. Furthermore, one to four potential N-glycosylation sites were found among HRSV subgroup A isolates while two to three were identified in HRSV B isolates. Predicted O-glycosylation sites included 25-34 and 40-43 in HRSV subgroups A and B, respectively. The average synonymous mutation-to-non-synonymous mutation ratios (dS/dN) implied neutral selection pressure on both HRSV subgroup isolates. This study provides data for the first time on the molecular epidemiology of HRSV isolates over five successive epidemic seasons among patients attending an Irish hospital.

  1. Tobacco use in Tunisia: behaviour and awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhfakh, Radhouane; Hsairi, Mohamed; Maalej, Mohsen; Achour, Nourredinne; Nacef, Taoufik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess tobacco use and the awareness of and attitudes towards tobacco and its control in the adult population of Tunisia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1996 of a representative national sample of 5696 subjects aged 25 and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire in Arabic. FINDINGS: Tobacco use was reported by 30.4% of the respondents, of whom 24.6% smoked cigarettes and 5.8% consumed traditional tobacco, i.e. snuff, chewing tobacco and/or water pipe tobacco. Whereas 55.6% of men used tobacco, only 5.2% of women did so. Among men the proportion of tobacco users diminished with age as the rate of cessation increased. Among women, smoking peaked in the 35-54 age group. The proportion of men consuming traditional tobacco alone increased from 2.4% in the 25-34 age group to 20.4% in the 55+ age group; the corresponding values for women were 0.1% and 14.3%. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas and was relatively high among poorly educated men from economically deprived backgrounds. The use of tobacco was believed to be harmful to health by 98.6% of the respondents. Over 90% of the interviewees were aware that tobacco played a part in the development of heart disease. However, there were some gaps in awareness. A fear of cancer was expressed by 85% of the respondents, whereas only 5.6% were fearful of accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Informational and educational campaigns relating to tobacco control should be directed at individuals and communities, taking into account the gaps in awareness of the effects of tobacco on health. PMID:12077609

  2. ρ 0- γ mixing in the neutral channel pion form factor F^{(e)}_{π}(s) and its role in comparing e + e - with τ spectral functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegerlehner, Fred; Szafron, Robert

    2011-05-01

    We study the effect of ρ 0- γ mixing in e + e -→ π + π - and its relevance for the comparison of the square modulus of the pion from-factor |F_{π }^{(e)}(s)|2, as measured in e + e - annihilation experiments, and |F_{π }^{(tau )}(s)|2 the corresponding quantity obtained after accounting for known isospin breaking effects by an isospin rotation from the τ-decay spectra. After correcting the τ data for the missing ρ- γ mixing contribution, besides the other known isospin symmetry violating corrections, the ππ I=1 part of the hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the muon g-2 are fully compatible between τ based and e + e - based evaluations. τ data thus confirm result obtained with e + e - data. Our evaluation of the leading order vacuum polarization contribution, based on all e + e - data including more recent BaBar and KLOE data, yields a_{μ}^{had,LO}[e]=690.75(4.72)× 10^{-10} ( e + e - based), while including τ data we find a_{μ}^{had,LO}[e,tau]=690.96(4.65)× 10^{-10} ( e + e -+ τ based). This backs the ˜3 σ deviation between a_{μ}^{experiment} and a_{μ}^{theory}. For the τ di-pion branching fraction we find B^{CVC}_{ππ0}=25.20±0.17±0.28 from e + e -+CVC, while B_{ππ0}=25.34±0.06±0.08 is evaluated directly from the τ spectra.

  3. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-aged Japanese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Yoshiharu; Maejima, Yuko; Shimomura, Kenju; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Ishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Akuzawa, Masako; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Nakajima, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective Emerging studies have focused on the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to investigate whether NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasonography could predict the risk of future T2DM in a Japanese middle-aged health check population. Methods We conducted a 10-year observational study in a health checkup population of middle-aged Japanese men and women at Hidaka Hospital from 2004 to 2013. We excluded cases with an alcohol intake exceeding 20 g/day and those with impaired glucose tolerance. The remaining 1,544 men and 864 women were classified into fatty liver and non-fatty liver groups based on the findings of abdominal ultrasonography. Both groups were followed for the development of diabetes. A multiple regression analysis was performed for each variable to predict the risk of future diabetes. Results The median age of the participants was 46.0 years at the entry, and the follow-up period was 10 years. The incidence of diabetes in the fatty liver group was 12.5% (29/232) in men and 26.3% (10/38) in women, whereas the incidence of diabetes in the non-fatty liver group was 2.5% (34/1,312) in men and 1.8% (15/826) in women. The relative risk of diabetes associated with fatty liver was 4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-7.8, p<0.0001] in men and 14.5 (95% CI 7.0-30.1, p<0.0001) in women. Conclusion NAFLD was a significant predictor for future diabetes in a Japanese middle-aged health check population, especially in women.

  4. Indoor environmental differences between inner city and suburban homes of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Simons, Elinor; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Buckley, Timothy; Breysse, Patrick; Eggleston, Peyton A

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to compare environmental exposures in suburban homes of children with asthma to exposures in inner city homes of children with asthma, to better understand important differences of indoor pollutant exposure that might contribute to increased asthma morbidity in the inner city. Indoor PM(10), PM(2.5), NO(2), O(3), and airborne and dust allergen levels were measured in the homes of 120 children with asthma, 100 living in inner city Baltimore and 20 living in the surrounding counties. Home conditions and health outcome measures were also compared. The inner city and suburban homes differed in ways that might affect airborne environmental exposures. The inner city homes had more cigarette smoking (67% vs. 5%, p < .001), signs of disrepair (77% vs. 5%, p < .001), and cockroach (64% vs. 0%, p < .001) and mouse (80% vs. 5%, p < .001) infestation. The inner city homes had higher geometric mean (GM) levels (p < .001) of PM(10) (47 vs. 18 microg/m(3)), PM(2.5) (34 vs. 8.7 microg/m(3)), NO(2) [19 ppb vs. below detection (BD)], and O(3) (1.9 vs. .015 ppb) than suburban homes. The inner city homes had lower GM bedroom dust allergen levels of dust mite (.29 vs. 1.2 microg/g, p = .022), dog (.38 vs. 5.5 microg/g, p < .001) and cat (.75 vs. 2.4 microg/g, p = .039), but higher levels of mouse (3.2 vs. .013 microg/g, p < .001) and cockroach (4.5 vs. .42 U/g, p < .001). The inner city homes also had higher GM airborne mouse allergen levels (.055 vs. .016 ng/m(3), p = .002). Compared with the homes of suburban children with asthma, the homes of inner city Baltimore children with asthma had higher levels of airborne pollutants and home characteristics that predispose to greater asthma morbidity.

  5. Surface spin-glass in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, F.; Sarwer, W.; Nadeem, K.; Kamran, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Krenn, H.; Letofsky-Papst, I.

    2016-06-01

    Surface effects in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles dispersed in a silica (SiO2) matrix were studied by using AC and DC magnetization. Nanoparticles with different concentration of SiO2 were synthesized by using sol-gel method. Average crystallite size lies in the range 25-34 nm for different SiO2 concentration. TEM image showed that particles are spherical and elongated in shape. Nanoparticles with higher concentration of SiO2 exhibit two peaks in the out-of-phase ac-susceptibility. First peak lies in the high temperature regime and corresponds to average blocking temperature of the nanoparticles. Second peak lies in the low temperature regime and is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing in these nanoparticles. Low temperature peak showed SiO2 concentration dependence and was vanished for large uncoated nanoparticles. The frequency dependence of the AC-susceptibility of low temperature peak was fitted with dynamic scaling law which ensures the presence of spin-glass behavior. With increasing applied DC field, the low temperature peak showed less shift as compared to blocking peak, broaden, and decreased in magnitude which also signifies its identity as spin-glass peak for smaller nanoparticles. M-H loops showed the presence of more surface disorder in nanoparticles dispersed in 60% SiO2 matrix. All these measurements revealed that surface effects become strengthen with increasing SiO2 matrix concentration and surface spins freeze in to spin-glass state at low temperatures.

  6. Changes in Smoking for Adults with and without Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Longitudinal Evaluation in the U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the smoking cessation and smoking relapse behavior of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs). Objectives The current study used longitudinal data from a representative sample of the U.S. adult population to examine changes in smoking over three years for men and women with and without AUD and DUD diagnoses. Methods Participants were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who completed the Wave 2 assessment three years later (n=11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of AUD and DUD diagnoses on smoking cessation and smoking relapse. Results Wave 1 Current Daily Smokers with a Current AUD (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.55, 0.89), Past AUD (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.60, 0.89), Current DUD (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.31, 0.76), and Past DUD (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.49, 0.79) were less likely to have quit smoking at Wave 2 than those with no AUD or DUD diagnosis. Wave 1 Former Daily Smokers with a Current AUD (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.36, 3.73), Current DUD (OR=7.97, 95% CI=2.51, 25.34), and Past DUD (OR=2.69, 95% CI=1.84, 3.95) were more likely to have relapsed to smoking at Wave 2 than those with no AUD or DUD diagnosis. The gender-by-diagnosis interactions were not significant. Conclusion Current and Past AUDs and DUDs were associated with a decreased likelihood of quitting smoking while Current AUDs, Current DUDs, and Past DUDs were associated with an increased likelihood of smoking relapse. PMID:23721534

  7. Design of specific peptide inhibitors of phospholipase A2: structure of a complex formed between Russell's viper phospholipase A2 and a designed peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Jasti, Jayasankar; Kaur, Punit; Dey, Sharmistha; Srinivasan, A; Betzel, Ch; Singh, T P

    2002-10-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme of the cascade mechanism involved in the production of proinflammatory compounds known as eicosanoids. The binding of phospholipase A(2) to membrane surfaces and the hydrolysis of phospholipids are thought to involve the formation of a hydrophobic channel into which a single substrate molecule diffuses before cleavage. In order to regulate the production of proinflammatory compounds, a specific peptide inhibitor of PLA(2), Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser, has been designed. Phospholipase A(2) from Daboia russelli pulchella (DPLA(2)) and peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS) have been co-crystallized. The structure of the complex has been determined and refined to 2.0 A resolution. The structure contains two crystallographically independent molecules of DPLA(2), with one molecule of peptide specifically bound to one of them. The overall conformations of the two molecules are essentially similar except in three regions; namely, the calcium-binding loop including Trp31 (residues 25-34), the beta-wing consisting of two antiparallel beta-strands (residues 74-85) and the C-terminal region (residues 119-133). Of these, the most striking difference pertains to the orientation of Trp31 in the two molecules. The conformation of Trp31 in molecule A was suitable to allow the binding of peptide LAIYS, while that in molecule B prevented the entry of the ligand into the hydrophobic channel. The structure of the complex clearly showed that the OH group of Tyr of the inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds with both His48 N(delta1) and Asp49 O(delta1), while O(gamma)H of Ser was involved in a hydrogen bond with Trp31. Other peptide backbone atoms interact with protein through water molecules, while Leu, Ala and Ile form strong hydrophobic interactions with the residues of the hydrophobic channel.

  8. On geodynamo integrations conserving momentum flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Roberts, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    The equations governing the geodynamo are most often integrated by representing the magnetic field and fluid velocity by toroidal and poloidal scalars (for example, MAG code [1]). This procedure does not automatically conserve the momentum flux. The results can, particularly for flows with large shear, introduce significant errors, unless the viscosity is artificially increased. We describe a method that evades this difficulty, by solving the momentum equation directly while properly conserving momentum. It finds pressure by FFT and cyclic reduction, and integrates the governing equations on overlapping grids so avoiding the pole problem. The number of operations per time step is proportional to N3 where N is proportional to the number of grid points in each direction. This contrasts with the order N4 operations of standard spectral transform methods. The method is easily parallelized. It can also be easily adapted to schemes such as the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method [2], a flux based procedure based on upwinding that is numerically stable even for zero explicit viscosity. The method has been successfully used to investigate the generation of magnetic fields by flows confined to spheroidal containers and driven by precessional and librational forcing [3, 4]. For spherical systems it satisfies dynamo benchmarks [5]. [1] MAG, http://www.geodynamics.org/cig/software/mag [2] Liu, XD, Osher, S and Chan, T, Weighted Essentially Nonoscillatory Schemes, J. Computational Physics, 115, 200-212, 1994. [3] Wu, CC and Roberts, PH, On a dynamo driven by topographic precession, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 103, 467-501, (DOI: 10.1080/03091920903311788), 2009. [4] Wu, CC and Roberts, PH, On a dynamo driven topographically by longitudinal libration, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, DOI:10.1080/03091929.2012.682990, 2012. [5] Christensen, U, et al., A numerical dynamo benchmark, Phys. Earth Planet Int., 128, 25-34, 2001.

  9. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Assessment of Sandalwood Essential Oil in Human Breast Cell Lines MCF-7 and MCF-10A

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Carmen; Morales, Luisa; Sastre, Miguel; Haskins, William E.; Matta, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Sandalwood essential oil (SEO) is extracted from Santalum trees. Although α-santalol, a main constituent of SEO, has been studied as a chemopreventive agent, the genotoxic activity of the whole oil in human breast cell lines is still unknown. The main objective of this study was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of SEO in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and nontumorigenic breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cells. Proteins associated with SEO genotoxicity were identified using a proteomics approach. Commercially available, high-purity, GC/MS characterized SEO was used to perform the experiments. The main constituents reported in the oil were (Z)-α-santalol (25.34%), (Z)-nuciferol (18.34%), (E)-β-santalol (10.97%), and (E)-nuciferol (10.46%). Upon exposure to SEO (2–8 μg/mL) for 24 hours, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess genotoxicity. SEO exposure induced single- and double-strand breaks selectively in the DNA of MCF-7 cells. Quantitative LC/MS-based proteomics allowed identification of candidate proteins involved in this response: Ku70 (p = 1.37E − 2), Ku80 (p = 5.8E − 3), EPHX1 (p = 3.3E − 3), and 14-3-3ζ (p = 4.0E − 4). These results provide the first evidence that SEO is genotoxic and capable of inducing DNA single- and double-strand breaks in MCF-7 cells. PMID:27293457

  10. Chromosome 17 Centromere Duplication and Responsiveness to Anthracycline-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Tibau, Ariadna; López-Vilaró, Laura; Pérez-Olabarria, Maitane; Vázquez, Tania; Pons, Cristina; Gich, Ignasi; Alonso, Carmen; Ojeda, Belén; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agustí; Escuin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) genes have been proposed as predictive biomarkers of sensitivity to anthracycline chemotherapy. Recently, chromosome 17 centromere enumeration probe (CEP17) duplication has also been associated with increased responsiveness to anthracyclines. However, reports are conflicting and none of these tumor markers can yet be considered a clinically reliable predictor of response to anthracyclines. We studied the association of TOP2A gene alterations, HER2 gene amplification, and CEP17 duplication with response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 140 patients with operable or locally advanced breast cancer. HER2 was tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization and TOP2A and CEP17 by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Thirteen patients (9.3%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR). HER2 amplification was present in 24 (17.5%) of the tumors. TOP2A amplification occurred in seven tumors (5.1%). CEP17 duplication was detected in 13 patients (9.5%). CEP17 duplication correlated with a higher rate of pCR [odds ratio (OR) 6.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-34.29, P = .026], and analysis of TOP2A amplification showed a trend bordering on statistical significance (OR 6.97, 95% CI 0.96-50.12, P = .054). TOP2A amplification and CEP17 duplication combined were strongly associated with pCR (OR 6.71, 95% CI 1.66-27.01, P = .007). HER2 amplification did not correlate with pCR. Our results suggest that CEP17 duplication predicts pCR to primary anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CEP17 duplication, TOP2A amplifications, and HER2 amplifications were not associated with prognosis. PMID:25379022

  11. The effect of active and passive intravenous cocaine administration on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Miszkiel, Joanna; Detka, Jan; Cholewa, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Ewa; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    According to a current hypothesis of learning processes, recent papers pointed out to an important role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in drug addiction. We employed the Western blotting techniques to examine the ERK activity immediately after cocaine iv self-administration and in different drug-free withdrawal periods in rats. To distinguish motivational vs. pharmacological effects of the psychostimulant intake, a "yoked" procedure was used. Animals were decapitated after 14 daily cocaine self-administration sessions or on the 1st, 3rd or 10th extinction days. At each time point the activity of the ERK was assessed in several brain structures, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. Passive, repeated iv cocaine administration resulted in a 45% increase in ERK phosphorylation in the hippocampus while cocaine self-administration did not change brain ERK activity. On the 1st day of extinction, the activity of the ERK in the prefrontal cortex was decreased in rats with a history of cocaine chronic intake: by 66% for "active" cocaine group and by 35% for "yoked" cocaine group. On the 3rd day the reduction in the ERK activity (25-34%) was observed in the hippocampus for both cocaine-treated groups, and also in the nucleus accumbens for "yoked" cocaine group (40%). On the 10th day of extinction there was no significant alteration in ERK activity in any group of rats. Our findings suggest that cortical ERK is involved in cocaine seeking behavior in rats. They also indicate the time and regional adaptations in this enzyme activity after cocaine withdrawal.

  12. Changing patterns in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)and Hodgkin lymphoma association in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dhiab, Myriam Ben; Ziadi, Sonia; Saad, Hanene; Louhichi, Teheni; Trimeche, Mounir

    2016-09-01

    We compared the features of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) association in Tunisia in two periods of time, 1991-2001 (111 cases) and 2002-2012 (122 cases). The investigation of the EBV status by EBER in situ hybridization showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of EBV-positive HL from 69.3 % for the period 1991-2001 to 40.1 % for the 2002-2012 period (p = 0.00001). EBV positivity has decreased in all age groups but was more pronounced among young patients, in the 15-24-year age group (46.1 vs 10.3 %, p = 0.003), in the 25-34-year age group (56.2 vs 25 %, p = 0.04), and among children (88.4 vs 59.2 %, p = 0.01). This decrease in EBV-positive HL over time contrasted with a remarkable increase in EBV-negative HL in young adults aged 15-34 years (51.2 vs 83 %; p = 0.001), especially among women (59.1 vs 91.2 %; p = 0.01). The decrease in EBV-positive HL over time concerns particularly the nodular sclerosis histological subtype (69.2 vs 31.6 %, p = 0.000001). These results indicate that the epidemiology of HL and its association with EBV are changing over time, with a trend toward a Western profile, and point toward the emergence of other environmental causative factors, especially among young women, which remain to be identified.

  13. Declines in marathon performance: Sex differences in elite and recreational athletes.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Tomko, Kelly A; Smoliga, James M

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the age group at which marathon performance declines in top male and female runners and to compare that to the runners of average ability. Another aim of this of this study was to examine the age-related yearly decline in marathon performance between age group winners and the average marathon finisher. Data from the New York (NYC), Boston, and Chicago marathons from 2001-2016 were analyzed. Age, sex, and location were used in multiple linear regression models to determine the rate of decline in marathon times. Winners of each age group were assessed in 5-year increments from 16 through 74 years old (n = 47 per age group). The fastest times were between 25-34 years old, with overall champion males at 28.3 years old, and overall champion females at 30.8 years old (p = 0.004). At 35 years of age up to 74 years of age, female age group winners had a faster yearly decline in marathon finishing times compared to male age group winners, irrespective of marathon location [women = (min:sec) 2:33 per year, n = 336; men = 2:06 per year, n = 373, p < 0.01]. The median times between each age group only slowed beginning at 50 years old, thereafter the decline was similar between both men and women (women = 2:36, n = 140; men = 2:57, n = 150, p = 0.11). The median times were fastest at Boston and similar between Chicago and NYC. In conclusion, the rate of decline at 35 years old up to 74 years old is roughly linear (adjusted r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) with female age group winners demonstrating 27 s per year greater decline per year compared to male age group winners.

  14. Multimodal registration of SD-OCT volumes and fundus photographs using histograms of oriented gradients

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2016-01-01

    With availability of different retinal imaging modalities such as fundus photography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), having a robust and accurate registration scheme to enable utilization of this complementary information is beneficial. The few existing fundus-OCT registration approaches contain a vessel segmentation step, as the retinal blood vessels are the most dominant structures that are in common between the pair of images. However, errors in the vessel segmentation from either modality may cause corresponding errors in the registration. In this paper, we propose a feature-based registration method for registering fundus photographs and SD-OCT projection images that benefits from vasculature structural information without requiring blood vessel segmentation. In particular, after a preprocessing step, a set of control points (CPs) are identified by looking for the corners in the images. Next, each CP is represented by a feature vector which encodes the local structural information via computing the histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) from the neighborhood of each CP. The best matching CPs are identified by calculating the distance of their corresponding feature vectors. After removing the incorrect matches the best affine transform that registers fundus photographs to SD-OCT projection images is computed using the random sample consensus (RANSAC) method. The proposed method was tested on 44 pairs of fundus and SD-OCT projection images of glaucoma patients and the result showed that the proposed method successfully registers the multimodal images and produced a registration error of 25.34 ± 12.34 μm (0.84 ± 0.41 pixels). PMID:28018740

  15. Microscale mapping of alteration conditions and potential biosignatures in basaltic-ultramafic rocks on early Earth and beyond.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Eugene G; McLoughlin, Nicola; Lanari, Pierre; Erambert, Muriel; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Subseafloor environments preserved in Archean greenstone belts provide an analogue for investigating potential subsurface habitats on Mars. The c. 3.5-3.4 Ga pillow lava metabasalts of the mid-Archean Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, have been argued to contain the earliest evidence for microbial subseafloor life. This includes candidate trace fossils in the form of titanite microtextures, and sulfur isotopic signatures of pyrite preserved in metabasaltic glass of the c. 3.472 Ga Hooggenoeg Formation. It has been contended that similar microtextures in altered martian basalts may represent potential extraterrestrial biosignatures of microbe-fluid-rock interaction. But despite numerous studies describing these putative early traces of life, a detailed metamorphic characterization of the microtextures and their host alteration conditions in the ancient pillow lava metabasites is lacking. Here, we present a new nondestructive technique with which to study the in situ metamorphic alteration conditions associated with potential biosignatures in mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation. Our approach combines quantitative microscale compositional mapping by electron microprobe with inverse thermodynamic modeling to derive low-temperature chlorite crystallization conditions. We found that the titanite microtextures formed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies conditions. Two chlorite temperature groups were identified in the maps surrounding the titanite microtextures and record peak metamorphic conditions at 315 ± 40°C (XFe3+(chlorite) = 25-34%) and lower-temperature chlorite veins/microdomains at T = 210 ± 40°C (lower XFe3+(chlorite) = 40-45%). These results provide the first metamorphic constraints in textural context on the Barberton titanite microtextures and thereby improve our understanding of the local preservation conditions of these potential biosignatures. We suggest that this approach may prove to be an important tool in future

  16. Risk of job-related injury among construction laborers with a diagnosis of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Pollack, E S; Franklin, G M; Fulton-Kehoe, D; Chowdhury, R

    1998-06-01

    This study attempts to determine whether a diagnosis of substance abuse among construction laborers is associated with an increased risk of work-related injuries. Records for construction laborers in Washington State who were covered by health insurance through the local union were matched against workers' compensation records in the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries. Using the health insurance records, we identified those who had a diagnosis of substance abuse during the two-year period 1990-1991. Using the workers' compensation records, we were then able to compare injury rates for those with substance abuse diagnoses with the rates for those without such diagnoses. The total cohort consisted of 7,895 laborers. Among the 422 who had a substance abuse diagnosis, the rate of time-loss injuries per 100 full-time equivalent workers was 15.1, compared with 10.9 among the remainder of the cohort. Most of the difference appeared in the 25-34-year age group, in which the rate of injury per 100 full-time equivalent workers was 23.6 for substance abusers, compared with a rate of 12.2 for non-substance abusers, for a statistically significant relative risk of 1.93. The study suggests that younger workers might be an appropriate target for interventions aimed at reducing the level of substance abuse as a way of preventing injuries on the job. Studies by others have indicated some degree of success in this direction through the use of employee assistance programs in which the worker is referred to specific programs or providers for treatment. The state legislature in Washington has recently passed legislation providing incentives for the use of employee assistance programs. More effort is needed, however, to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  17. IMP-3 expression in keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Soddu, S.; Di Felice, E.; Cabras, S.; Castellanos, M.E.; Atzori, L.; Faa, G.; Pilloni, L.

    2013-01-01

    The protein insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP-3) is an important factor for cell migration and adhesion in malignancies. Recent studies have shown a remarkable overexpression of IMP-3 in different human malignant neoplasms and also revealed it as an important prognostic marker in some tumor entities. The purpose of this study is to compare IMP-3 immunostaining in cutaneous squamous cell tumors and determine whether IMP-3 can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. To our knowledge, IMP-3 expression has not been investigated in skin squamous cell proliferations thus far. Immunohi-stochemical staining for IMP-3 was performed on slides organized by samples from 67 patients, 34 with keratoacanthoma (KA) and 33 with primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (16 invasive and 17 in situ). Seventyfour percent of KAs (25/34) were negative for IMP-3 staining, while 57% of SCCs (19/33) were positive for IMP-3 staining. The percentage of IMP-3 positive cells increased significantly in the invasive SCC group (P=0.0111), and particularly in the SCC in situ group (P=0.0021) with respect to the KA group. IMP-3 intensity staining was significantly higher in invasive SCCs (P=0.0213), and particularly in SCCs in situ (P=0.008) with respect to KA. Our data show that IMP-3 expression is different in keratoacanthoma with respect to squamous cell carcinoma. IMP-3 assessment and staining pattern, together with a careful histological study, can be useful in the differential diagnosis between KA e SCC. PMID:23549465

  18. Incremental prognostic utility of coronary CT angiography for asymptomatic patients based upon extent and severity of coronary artery calcium: results from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Iksung; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Shin, Sanghoon; Sung, Ji Min; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Heo, Ran; Berman, Daniel S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Callister, Tracy Q.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Dunning, Allison M.; DeLago, Augustin; Villines, Todd C.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Leipsic, Jonathon; Shaw, Leslee J.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Prior evidence observed no predictive utility of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) over the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and the Framingham risk score (FRS), among asymptomatic individuals. Whether the prognostic value of CCTA differs for asymptomatic patients, when stratified by CACS severity, remains unknown. Methods and results From a 12-centre, 6-country observational registry, 3217 asymptomatic individuals without known coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CACS and CCTA. Individuals were categorized by CACS as: 0–10, 11–100, 101–400, 401–1000, >1000. For CCTA analysis, the number of obstructive vessels—as defined by the per-patient presence of a ≥50% luminal stenosis—was used to grade the extent and severity of CAD. The incremental prognostic value of CCTA over and above FRS was measured by the likelihood ratio (LR) χ2, C-statistic, and continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) for prediction, discrimination, and reclassification of all-cause mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. During a median follow-up of 24 months (25th–75th percentile, 17–30 months), there were 58 composite end-points. The incremental value of CCTA over FRS was demonstrated in individuals with CACS >100 (LRχ2, 25.34; increment in C-statistic, 0.24; NRI, 0.62, all P < 0.001), but not among those with CACS ≤100 (all P > 0.05). For subgroups with CACS >100, the utility of CCTA for predicting the study end-point was evident among individuals whose CACS ranged from 101 to 400; the observed predictive benefit attenuated with increasing CACS. Conclusion Coronary CT angiography provides incremental prognostic utility for prediction of mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction for asymptomatic individuals with moderately high CACS, but not for lower or higher CACS. PMID:25205531

  19. Decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B and a low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infections in the general population of the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, P.; Yersin, C.; Herminie, P.; Lavanchy, D.; Frei, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was carried out on a random sex- and age-stratified sample of 1006 individuals aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles islands. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies were detected using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), followed by a Western blot assay in the case of a positive result for anti-HCV. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HBc antibodies was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-9.9%) and the percentage prevalence among males/females increased from 7.0/3.1 to 19.1/13.4 in the age groups 25-34 to 55-64 years, respectively. Two men and three women were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, with an age-adjusted seroprevalence of 0.34% (95% CI: 0.1-0.8%). Two out of these five subjects who were positive for anti-HCV also had anti-HBc antibodies. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc was significantly higher in unskilled workers, persons with low education, and heavy drinkers. The age-specific seroprevalence of anti-HBc in this population-based survey, which was conducted in 1994, was approximately three times lower than in a previous patient-based survey carried out in 1979. Although there are methodological differences between the two surveys, it is likely that the substantial decrease in anti-HBc prevalence during the last 15 years may be due to significant socioeconomic development and the systematic screening of blood donors since 1981. Because hepatitis C virus infections are serious and the cost of treatment is high, the fact that the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is at present low should not be an argument for not screening blood donors for anti-HCV and eliminating those who are positive. PMID:10612888

  20. Dissociation between blood pressure and heart rate response to hypoxia after bilateral carotid body removal in men with systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Niewinski, Piotr; Janczak, Dariusz; Rucinski, Artur; Tubek, Stanislaw; Engelman, Zoar J; Jazwiec, Przemyslaw; Banasiak, Waldemar; Sobotka, Paul A; Hart, Emma C J; Paton, Julian F R; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    While the ventilatory response to hypoxia is known to be mediated by the carotid bodies, the origin of the haemodynamic alterations evoked by hypoxia is less certain. Bilateral carotid body removal (CBR) performed to treat congestive heart failure may serve as a model to improve our understanding of haemodynamic responses to hypoxia in humans. We studied six congestive heart failure patients before and 1 month after CBR [median (interquartile range): age, 58.5 (56-61) years old; and ejection fraction, 32 (25-34)%]. Peripheral chemosensitivity (hypoxic ventilatory response) was equated to the slope relating lowest oxygen saturation to highest minute ventilation following exposures to hypoxia. Likewise, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) slopes were calculated as slopes relating the lowest oxygen saturations to the highest SBP, DBP and HR responses. We found that CBR reduces the hypoxic ventilatory response (91%, P < 0.05), SBP (71%, P < 0.05) and DBP slopes (59%, P = 0.07). In contrast, the HR slope remained unchanged. The dissociation between the blood pressure and HR responses after CBR shows involvement of a different chemoreceptive site(s) maintaining the response to acute hypoxia. We conclude that carotid bodies are responsible for ventilatory and blood pressure responses, while the HR response might be mediated by the aortic bodies. The significant reduction of the blood pressure response to hypoxia after CBR suggests a decrease in sympathetic tone, which is of particular clinical relevance in congestive heart failure.

  1. Population growth and education development in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, J

    1988-09-01

    Using data from the 1982 national census and the 1982 national 1 per 1000 fertility sampling survey, this paper examines population growth and educational development in China. From 1949-1979, an average of 22 million people were born each year. In 1985, the birth rate was 20.9 and the natural increase rate was 14.9 per 1000. In 1949, the average numbers of students per 10,000 in university, middle school, and primary school were 2.2, 23, and 450, respectively. In 1982, the numbers were 1.4, 465, and 1324, respectively. Rapid population growth impedes educational development either by reducing educational quality to maintain enrollment or by reducing the quantity to maintain educational quality. Among those over age 12, roughly 1/3 were illiterate. Nonetheless, China has made significant progress in education. The illiteracy rate among 12-14 year olds is below 10%, and more than 1/4 of women have a primary school education. Among women ages 25-34, about 3/5 had a primary school education. The illiteracy rate among rural women age 20-44 is 6 times that of their urban counterparts. Women with a primary school education have about 2 times the fertility level of women with a college education, while the general fertility rate for women with a middle school education is about 1/4 lower than those with a primary school education. The higher the educational level, the lower the number of children ever born. Contraceptive use rates among women with a primary school education are significantly higher than those of illiterate women. Without education and development, the family planning program and birth control cannot be successful in China.

  2. Evaluation of carriage and environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Nutman, A; Lerner, A; Schwartz, D; Carmeli, Y

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of surveillance cultures for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in patients and in their environment. Patients with a CRAB-positive clinical culture were sampled within 7 days; the buccal mucosa and rectum were sampled using swabs, and skin was sampled using pre-moistened sterile sponges. Sponges were also used to sample the surrounding environment. Specimens were inoculated onto CHROMagar MDR Acinetobacter plates both directly and after overnight enrichment. CRAB load was scored semi-quantitatively and composite scores for patient colonization and environmental contamination were calculated. Thirty-four patients were included. Screening sensitivity was 28/34 (82%) for buccal mucosa, 30/34 (88%) for skin, and 25/34 (74%) for rectum. Combined sensitivity was 32/34 (94%). Among patients with CRAB-positive respiratory cultures, sensitivity for buccal mucosa was 20/20 (100%). Direct inoculation had excellent sensitivity: 25/28 (89%) for all three sites combined. In the subgroup of patients who did not have a respiratory source for CRAB, direct inoculation sensitivity was lower than among patients with CRAB-positive respiratory cultures: 5/8 (63%) versus 20/20 (100%). The environment of all patients was contaminated with CRAB. There was a positive correlation between the patient colonization score and the environmental contamination score (r = 0.63, p <0.001; r = 0.4, p 0.04 for buccal mucosa, r = 0.7, p <0.001 for skin, and r = 0.46, p 0.14 for rectum). In conclusion, screening for CRAB carriers can be performed by direct plating of skin and buccal mucosa samples. Environmental contamination is common and can be monitored. Implementing screening may facilitate infection control efforts to limit the spread of CRAB.

  3. Devitrite (Na2Ca3Si6O16)—structural, spectroscopic and computational investigations on a crystalline impurity phase in industrial soda-lime glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Girtler, Daniela; Arroyabe, Erik; Kaindl, Reinhard; Többens, Daniel M.

    2010-09-01

    Single crystals of devitrite (Na2Ca3Si6O16) were synthesized as pale-yellow transparent needle shaped crystals using a Na2MoO4-flux. Experiments aiming to prepare the K-equivalent of devitrite from the corresponding K2MoO4-flux were unsuccessful. The crystal structure of devitrite was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (Mo-Kα radiation, 2θmax. = 25.34°, Rint = 2.66%) and refined in space group P bar{1} (no. 2) to R(|F|) = 3.08% using 2,513 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). Unit-cell parameters are: a = 7.2291(8), b = 10.1728(12), c = 10.6727(12) Å, α = 95.669(9), β = 109.792(10), γ = 99.156(9)°, V = 719.19(14) Å3, Z = 2. The structure belongs to the group of multiple chain silicates consisting of dreier quadruple chains, i.e. the crystallochemical formula can be written as {N}{{a}_2}{C}{{a}_3}left\\{ {{mathbf{uB}}{,4}_infty^1} right\\}left[ {^3{S}{{i}_6}} right.left. {{{O}_{16}}} right\\} . Linkage between the bands running along [100] is provided by double chains of edge sharing CaO6-octahedra as well as additional more irregularly coordinated Na- and Ca-cations located in the tunnel-like cavities of the mixed tetrahedral-octahedral framework. Structural investigations were completed by Raman and infrared spectroscopical studies. The allocation of the bands to certain vibrational species was aided by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  4. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  5. Bumetanide decreases canine cerebrospinal fluid production. In vivo evidence for NaCl cotransport in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, S; Wagner, K R

    1993-01-01

    Na/K/2Cl cotransport carrier plays an important role in fluid absorption and secretion in many epithelial tissues. The role of the carrier, however, in mammalian choroidal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production has been controversial. We used ventriculo-cisternal perfusion (VCP) labeled with blue dextran with or without bumetanide and measured choroidal CSF production in anesthetized, and paralyzed, mechanically ventilated dogs. During 3 h of VCP, mean intracerebroventricular and arterial pressures, PaCO2, pH, [HCO3-], and serum osmolality remained normal in both groups (n = 9 in each group). Beginning 90 min after the start of VCP, choroidal CSF production was measured every 15 min. In group I (control group), values for CSF production (means +/- SD) were 49 +/- 20, 49 +/- 21, 51 +/- 21, 51 +/- 23, 48 +/- 20, 56 +/- 24, and 48 +/- 20 microliters/min, at 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. These values did not differ significantly from each other. In group II (bumetanide group), after baseline control CSF production had been determined at 90 and 105 min, bumetanide (10(-4) mol/liter) was added to VCP. Mean values for CSF production were 54 +/- 15 and 52 +/- 17 microliters/min before, and 39 +/- 25, 34 +/- 19, 28 +/- 10, 30 +/- 17, and 30 +/- 18 microliters/min after addition of bumetanide at 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. Comparing the two groups, baseline values for CSF production measured at 90 and 105 min did not differ significantly. After addition of bumetanide (group II), however, decrements in CSF production varied from 30 +/- 27% at 120 min to 47 +/- 14% at 150 min, which were significantly different from changes in group I. The results of this study indicate that NaCl cotransport carrier is involved in secretion of CSF in dogs, and inhibition of the transporter results in approximately 50% reduction in CSF production. PMID:8227341

  6. [Grain filling dynamics and germination characteristics of Bupleurum chinense seeds].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Ren, Bing; Cao, Ai-Nong; Jin, Xiao-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Bupleurum chinense used in the study were cultivated in the experimental fields of Gansu agricultural University for three years. The seeds of B. chinense were collected every 3 days 10 d after the blossom. The result showed that the 1 000-grain fresh weight reached the maximum 43 d after the blossom and then decreased rapidly, at the mature period the fresh weight of seeds were falling to the same level of the dry weight. The dynamic change of the grain dry matter accumulation showed as an S-shape curve, the rapid increase stage was 25-34 d following the flower, and the grain filling was ended 46 d after blossom. Grain filling rate was under the law "fast-slow-fast-slow". And there were two peaks of grain filling rate appeared, after reached the second peak 28 d after the flower the filling rate decreased rapidly and stayed steadily 43 d after flowering. The dehydration rate was also measured at its maximum 43 d following flower. The indexes of seeds all reached the top 52 days following the blossom, when the germination rate reached the peak (34.33%) and water content of seeds was near 10%. The rate of germination and the 1 000-graid weight of seed showed significant positive correlation, while the water content of seeds was found significant negatively correlation with germination percentage. So the best time for harvest should be 52 d after flowering (9 month), the seeds collected at that time showed both high quality and germination rate.

  7. The Lyman-Continuum Photon Production Efficiency ξ ion of z ˜ 4-5 Galaxies from IRAC-based Hα Measurements: Implications for the Escape Fraction and Cosmic Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Smit, R.; Labbé, I.; Franx, M.; Caruana, J.; Oesch, P.; Stefanon, M.; Rasappu, N.

    2016-11-01

    Galaxies represent one of the preferred candidate sources to drive the reionization of the universe. Even as gains are made in mapping the galaxy UV luminosity density to z\\gt 6, significant uncertainties remain regarding the conversion to the implied ionizing emissivity. The relevant unknowns are the Lyman-continuum (LyC) photon production efficiency {ξ }{ion} and the escape fraction f esc. As we show here, the first of these unknowns is directly measurable in z = 4-5 galaxies based on the impact the Hα line has on the observed IRAC fluxes. By computing a LyC photon production rate from the implied Hα luminosities for a broad selection of z = 4-5 galaxies and comparing this against the dust-corrected UV-continuum luminosities, we provide the first-ever direct estimates of the LyC photon production efficiency {ξ }{ion} for the z≥slant 4 galaxy population. We find {{log}}10 {ξ }{ion}/[{Hz} {{erg}}-1] to have a mean value of {25.27}-0.03+0.03 and {25.34}-0.02+0.02 for sub-L* z = 4-5 galaxies adopting Calzetti and SMC dust laws, respectively. Reassuringly, both derived values are consistent with the standard assumed {ξ }{ion}'s in reionization models, with a slight preference for higher {ξ }{ion}'s (by ˜0.1 dex) adopting the SMC dust law. High values of {ξ }{ion} (˜25.5-25.8 dex) are derived for the bluest galaxies (β \\lt -2.3) in our samples, independent of dust law and consistent with results for a z = 7.045 galaxy. Such elevated values of {ξ }{ion} would have important consequences, indicating that f esc cannot be in excess of 13% for standard assumptions about the faint-end cut-off to the LF and the clumping factor.

  8. The impact of women's education, workforce experience, and the One Child Policy on fertility in China: a census study in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Lan, Manyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2016-01-01

    The impact of women's education on fertility is of interest to researchers, particularly in China. However, few studies have provided well-founded assessments of how women's education, workforce experience, and birth control policy jointly affect fertility in China. This study, conducted in Guangdong Province, aimed to analyze how these three factors influenced the timing of births and affected women at different stages of their reproductive lives. We used census data for Guangdong Province (1990, 2000, and 2010) to make cross-sectional age-specific comparisons to examine the effects of women's education and workforce participation on fertility outcomes under China's One Child Policy. We found that: (1) under circumstances of low fertility, women tend to have more children with greater educational attainment; (2) the impact of women's education and workforce experience on fertility varied across age groups, with the effect of education showing a bimodal curve peaking at 25-29 years and 40-44 years, and a workforce experience effect at 25-34 years; and (3) the fertility time-squeeze effect by educational attainment was relatively small, the effect by workforce participation was larger, and the most important effect was birth control policy and its implementation. These results suggest that educational attainment and workforce experience have a substantial effect on women's fertility, and a tradeoff between them is unavoidable. China's 2015 birth control policy adjustment should be considered in planning future services to accommodate anticipated increases in the birth rate. More attention should be directed to the causal mechanism (women's preference and selection effects) behind the factors analyzed in this study.

  9. Prohibitin Is Involved in Patients with IgG4 Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongwu; Shi, Lili; Chen, Peng; Yang, Weikang; Xun, Yiping; Yang, Chunhe; Zhao, Lanqing; Zhou, Yabin; Chen, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic systemic disease involved in many organs and tissues. As only limited autoantigens have been found since the beginning of this century, the aim of this study was to reveal new candidate autoantigens of IgG4-RD. Methods Multiple cell lines including HT-29, EA.hy926, HEK 293 and HepG2 were used to test the binding ability of circulating autoantibodies from IgG4-RD sera. The amino-acid sequence was then analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. After the cloning and expression of recombinant putative autoantigen in a bacterial expression system, the corresponding immuno assay was set up and utilized to observe the prevalence of serum autoantibodies in a large set of confirmed clinical samples. Results One positive autoantigen was identified as prohibitin. ELISA analysis showed that a majority of patients with IgG4-RD have antibodies against prohibitin. Anti-prohibitin antibodies were present in the sera of patients with definite autoimmune pancreatitis (25/34; 73.5%), Mikulicz’s disease (8/15; 53.3%), retroperitoneal fibrosis (6/11; 54.5%), other probable IgG4-RD (26/29; 89.7%) and Sjögren’s syndrome (4/30; 13.3%) but not in apparently healthy donors (1/70; 1.4%). Conclusions An association between prohibitin and patients with some IgG4-RD was observed, although the results were quite heterogeneous among different individuals within autoimmune pancreatitis, Mikulicz’s disease and retroperitoneal fibrosis. PMID:25932630

  10. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31. I. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XIX

    SciTech Connect

    Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella; Garofalo, Alessia; Federici, Luciana E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: alessia.garofalo@studio.unibo.it; and others

    2013-12-10

    We present B, V time-series photometry of Andromeda XIX (And XIX), the most extended (half-light radius of 6.'2) of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal companions, which we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We surveyed a 23' × 23' area centered on And XIX and present the deepest color-magnitude diagram (CMD) ever obtained for this galaxy, reaching, at V ∼ 26.3 mag, about one magnitude below the horizontal branch (HB). The CMD shows a prominent and slightly widened red giant branch, along with a predominantly red HB, which extends to the blue to significantly populate the classical instability strip. We have identified 39 pulsating variable stars, of which 31 are of RR Lyrae type and 8 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). Twelve of the RR Lyrae variables and three of the ACs are located within And XIX's half light radius. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars ((P {sub ab}) = 0.62 days, σ = 0.03 days) and the period-amplitude diagram qualify And XIX as an Oosterhoff-Intermediate system. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars ((V(RR)) = 25.34 mag, σ = 0.10 mag), we determine a distance modulus of (m – M){sub 0} = 24.52 ± 0.23 mag in a scale where the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is 18.5 ± 0.1 mag. The ACs follow a well-defined Period-Wesenheit (PW) relation that appears to be in very good agreement with the PW relationship defined by the ACs in the LMC.

  11. Synthesis, structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of polyol assisted copper ferrite nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavithradevi, S.; Suriyanarayanan, N.; Boobalan, T.

    2017-03-01

    Nanocrystalline copper ferrite CuFe2O4 is synthesized by co-precipitation method in ethylene glycol as chelating agent, using sodium Hydroxide as precipitator at pH 8. The as synthesized CuFe2O4 is annealed at temperatures of 350 °C, 700 °C, and 1050 °C for 2 h respectively. The thermal analysis of the synthesized sample is done by TG technique. It is shown that at 260 °C ethylene glycol has evaporated completely and after 715 °C, spinel ferrite is formed with a cubic structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the reported values. FTIR spectra of CuFe2O4 nano particles are as synthesized and annealed at 1050 °C and recorded between 400 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1. It shows that when the temperature increases ethylene glycol gradually evaporates. Finally, nano crystalline single phase spinel ferrite is obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (EDS) studies show that the sample is indexed as the face centered cubic spinel structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the particles are flaky and spherical with the crystallite size in the range of 25-34 nm. From the dielectric studies, the dielectric constant decreases as the frequency increases. Low value of dielectric loss at higher frequencies suggests that the material is suitable for high frequency applications. AC conductivity increases with frequency. The magnetic properties of the samples are measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature, which shows that the sample exhibited a typical super paramagnetic behavior at low temperature. The saturation magnetization, remanant magnetism, and coercivity increases with applied field.

  12. Suicide prevention evaluation in a Western Athabaskan American Indian Tribe--New Mexico, 1988-1997.

    PubMed

    1998-04-10

    Since 1979, suicide and homicide have alternated as the second and third leading causes of death among young American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). From 1979 through 1992, suicide rates for AI/ANs in all age groups were approximately 1.5 times the rates for the overall U.S. population. During 1991-1993, suicide rates for AI/ANs aged 15-24 and 25-34 years were 31.7 and 26.6 per 100,000 population, respectively; males aged 15-34 years accounted for 64% of all AI/AN suicides. In the overall U.S. population during 1991-1993, the rates for persons in these same age groups were 13.0 and 14.5, respectively. Since 1980, suicide has been either the second or third leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 years in the overall U.S. population. Although knowledge about suicide among AI/ANs has increased, information about the efficacy of suicide prevention and intervention programs in general, and specifically in AI/AN communities, is scarce. In January 1990, following concern raised by tribal officials in 1988 about suicide among youth, a Western Athabaskan tribe in rural New Mexico implemented a suicide prevention and intervention program that targeted tribal members aged 15-19 years. This report summarizes the results of the program through 1997 and indicates that rates of suicide and attempted suicide among this target population decreased substantially after the program was implemented.

  13. Chromosome 17 centromere duplication and responsiveness to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tibau, Ariadna; López-Vilaró, Laura; Pérez-Olabarria, Maitane; Vázquez, Tania; Pons, Cristina; Gich, Ignasi; Alonso, Carmen; Ojeda, Belén; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agustí; Escuin, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) genes have been proposed as predictive biomarkers of sensitivity to anthracycline chemotherapy. Recently, chromosome 17 centromere enumeration probe (CEP17) duplication has also been associated with increased responsiveness to anthracyclines. However, reports are conflicting and none of these tumor markers can yet be considered a clinically reliable predictor of response to anthracyclines. We studied the association of TOP2A gene alterations, HER2 gene amplification, and CEP17 duplication with response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 140 patients with operable or locally advanced breast cancer. HER2 was tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization and TOP2A and CEP17 by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Thirteen patients (9.3%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR). HER2 amplification was present in 24 (17.5%) of the tumors. TOP2A amplification occurred in seven tumors (5.1%). CEP17 duplication was detected in 13 patients (9.5%). CEP17 duplication correlated with a higher rate of pCR [odds ratio (OR) 6.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-34.29, P = .026], and analysis of TOP2A amplification showed a trend bordering on statistical significance (OR 6.97, 95% CI 0.96-50.12, P = .054). TOP2A amplification and CEP17 duplication combined were strongly associated with pCR (OR 6.71, 95% CI 1.66-27.01, P = .007). HER2 amplification did not correlate with pCR. Our results suggest that CEP17 duplication predicts pCR to primary anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CEP17 duplication, TOP2A amplifications, and HER2 amplifications were not associated with prognosis.

  14. Interaction of extended mantle plume head with ancient lithosphere: evidence from deep-seated xenoliths in basalts and lamprophyre diatremes in Western Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2016-04-01

    The Middle Cretaceous lamprophyric diatremes of the Jabel Ansaria Ridge contain xenoliths of ancient lower crustal rocks mainly represented by the suite of partly altered garnet granulite and eclogite-like rocks, which were formed at the expense of ferrogabbros and ferroclinopyroxenites most likely in the course of underplating of Fe-Ti basalt. Garnet (Alm26Grs11Py63) megacrysts and coarse-granular garnet-clinopyroxene intergrowths are most likely the varieties of rocks of this series. Garnet megacrysts are represented by large (up to 10 cm in diameter) round "nodules," often molten from the surface. Garnet is usually fractured, and the kelyphite material similar to that in rocks of the eclogite-granulite series occurs in fractures. In addition, we found several intergrowths of garnet with large (up to 3-5 cm in length) crystals of high-Al augite with the low of Ti and Na contents like in rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite. Coarse-grained garnet-clinopyroxene-hornblende rocks with spinel, as well as megacrysts of Al-Ti augite with kaersutite, form the second group in prevalence. This group is close to mantle xenoliths of the "black series" in alkali Fe-Ti basalt worldwide. Kaersutite in these rocks contains gaseous cavities, which provides evidence for the origin of rocks at the expense of a strongly fluidized melt/fluid. In contrast to rocks of the eclogite-granulite series, these rocks did not undergo alteration. Garnet Alm19-26Grs12-13.5Py59-67.5 usually associates with dark opaque spinel. In contrast, the Late Cenozoic plateaubasalts of the region practically do not contain lower crustal xenoliths, whereas xenoliths of mantle spinel lherzolite (fragments of the upper cooled rim of the plume head) are widely abundant. According to data of mineralogical thermobarometry, rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite were formed at 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths of 45-54 km) and 965-1115°C. Rocks of this suite are typical representatives of the continental lower crust

  15. Influence of Wind and Dissipation on the Modulational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, Julien; Kharif, Christian

    2010-05-01

    numerically by means of a High Order Spectral Method (HOS). The effect of wind is introduced in the model through the Miles mechanism (Touboul et al. (2008)), whereas dissipation is introduced in accordance with Wu, Liu & Yue (2006). The stable/unstable behavior of the wave train in these conditions is observed, and compared to the marginal stability criterium derived by Kharif et al. (2010). References [1] C. Kharif & E. Pelinovsky, "Physical mechanisms of the rogue wave phenomenon", Euro. J. Mech., B/Fluids, 22, 603-634, (2003). [2] H. Segur, D. Henderson, J. Carter, J. Hammack, C.-M. Li, D. Pheiff & K. Socha, "Stabilizing the Benjamin-Feir instability", J. Fluid Mech., 539, 229-271, (2005). [3] G. Wu, Y. Liu & D. K. Yue, "A note on stabilizing the Benjamin-Feir instability", J. Fluid Mech., 556, 45-54, (2006). [4] C. Kharif, R. A. Kraenkel, M. A. Manna & R. Thomas, "The modulational instability in deep water under the action of wind and dissipation", Submitted to J. Fluid Mech., (2010). [5] J. Touboul, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky & J. P. Giovanangeli, "On the interaction of wind and steep gravity wave groups using Miles and Jeffreys mechanisms", Nonlinear Proc. Geophys., 15 (6), 1023-1031, (2008).

  16. Estimation of irrigation requirement for wheat in the southern Spain by using a soil water balance remote sensing driven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Laura; Bodas, Vicente; Espósito, Gabriel; Campos, Isidro; Aliaga, Jerónimo; Calera, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    amount does not respond to the modeled crop irrigation water requirement. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is a valid method for the assessment of irrigation performance and could provide a powerful tool for irrigation recommendations. Further improvements should consider the analysis of irrigation systems efficiency and uniformity. References Allen R. G., Pereira L. S., Raes D., Smith M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, FAO; Rome, 301 pp. Campos, I., Neale, C.M.U., Calera, A., Balbontín, C. and González-Piqueras, J. 2010c. Assesing satellite-based basal crop coefficients for irrigates grapes (Vitis vinífera L.). Agricultural Water Management, 98: 45-54. Sánchez, N., Martínez-Fernández, J., Calera, A., Torres, E. and Pérez-Gutiérrez, C. 2010. Combining remote sensing and in situ soil moisture data for the application and validation of a distributed water balance model (HIDROMORE). Agricultural Water Management, 98: 69-78. Steduto, P., Hsiao, T. C., Fereres, E., Raes, D. 2012. Crop yield response to water. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 66, FAO; Rome, 503 pp.

  17. Abrupt pH Changes of sea Surface Waters in the sub-Equatorial Pacific Ocean at the end of the Younger Dryas (YD): MC-ICPMS Analysis of Boron Isotopes in Reef Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douville, E.; Paterne, M.; Cabioch, G.; Isnard, H.; Chartier, F.; Bouman, C.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Caillon, N.

    2006-12-01

    . Fischer, Evidence for substantial accumulation rate variability in Antarctica during the Holocene, through synchronization of CO2 in the Taylor Dome, Dome C and DML ice cores, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 224, 45-54, 2004. Monnin E., A. Indermühle, A. Dällenbach, J. Flückiger, B. Stauffer, T. F. Stocker, D. Raynaud and J.M. Barnola, Atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last glacial termination, Science, 291, 112-114, 2001. Palmer M.R. and P.N. Person, A 23,000-Year record of surface water pH and pCO2 in the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean, Science, 300, 480-482, 2003.

  18. The pre-Caledonian Large Igneous Province and the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, Christian; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre; Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2016-04-01

    Magmatism of the first known rifting phase of the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle is surprisingly well preserved in the Caledonian nappes of central Scandinavia. The Särv and Seve Nappes are characterised by spectacular dyke complexes originally emplaced into continental sediments along the rifted margin of Iapetus. The intensity and structure of the pre-Caledonian Dyke Complex is comparable to that of the present passive margins of the North Atlantic large igneous province (NALIP) and U-Pb ages of 610-590 Ma suggest magmatism was short-lived. It can be described as a pre-Caledonian large igneous province (CLIP). To constrain the origin of CLIP magmatism we: (1) re-visited the dyke complexes of the Sarek, Kebnekaise and Tornetrask mountains of North Sweden; (2) compiled new and published geochemical data for the more than 950 km long, magma-rich segment of the Scandinavian Caledonides; and (3) extended reconstructions of the paleo-position of Baltica back to 600 Ma. Although the appearance of the dykes ranges from garnet amphibolite gneiss to pristine magmatic intrusions, all bulk rock compositions largely reflect the original magmatic rock. The compiled dataset includes 584 analyses that essentially forms a coherent suite of tholeiitic ferrobasalt (2-12 wt% MgO, 45-54 wt% SiO2; 6-16 wt% FeOtot; 0.7-4.0 wt% TiO2) akin to LIP basalts such as those of NALIP (61-54 Ma). A few samples (<20) are significantly contaminated with crust, but most are largely uncontaminated. The delta Nb value is a proxy for geochemical enrichment based on Nb-Zr-Y systematics and was defined for the present-day North Atlantic system to distinguish enriched Iceland basalts (positive delta Nb) from normal MORB basalts (negative delta Nb). The CLIP dykes are dominantly enriched with positive delta Nb (-0.07 to +0.9) in the central and southern portion, but stretching to more negative values (-0.6 to +0.5) in the northern portion (Sarek, Kebnekaise, Tornetrask). The few available rare earth element

  19. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06 mg QE/g and 7.42 mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71 mg QE/g and 0.29 mg CE/g DW, respectively) (p<0.05). Both DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assays showed that all tested extracts possess free radical scavenging activity, while the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) range values were similar for both assays (2.13-45.54 μg/mL and 1.2-43.82 μg/mL, respectively). All plant extracts showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations. Fruit methanolic (IC50=2.76mg/mL) and aqueous (IC50=2.08 mg/mL) extracts showed higher inhibitory effects than chloroformic (IC50=7.62 mg/mL) and hexanic (IC50=12.93 mg/mL) extracts on egg hatching (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation of total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0

  20. [TUBERCULOSIS ANNUAL REPORT 2013--(3) Case Finding and Condition of Tuberculosis on Diagnosis].

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    In 2013, tuberculosis (TB) case findings from the nationwide TB surveillance data in Japan were reviewed with regard to the mode of detection, symptom at diagnosis, diagnostic delay, proportion of far-advanced cavitary lesions, co-existence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and diabetes mellitus (DM), and drug susceptibility testing (DST). Among the 20,495 new TB cases in 2013, 83.1% were diagnosed when the patients sought medical attention for TB symptoms or attended medical facilities because of other chief complaints. Among the 15,972 patients with pulmonary TB, 26.4% had only respiratory symptoms, 30.5% had respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms, 17.8% had only non-respiratory symptoms, and 24.5% were asymptomatic. The proportion of patient and doctor delays among the 11,933 symptomatic pulmonary TB cases was analyzed. A large proportion--around 30%--of patients aged 45-54 years with symptomatic pulmonary TB exhibited a patient delay of ≥ 2 months. The proportion of patients with a total delay (i.e., the sum of patient and doctor delays) of ≥ 3 months exhibited a similar tendency to that of those with a patient delay. The proportion of patients aged ≥ 65 years with a doctor delay of ≥ 1 month surpassed that of age-matched patients with a patient delay. Among symptomatic smear-positive TB, a patient delay of ≥ 2 months exhibited a bimodal distribution, and its peak was > 35%. The proportion of patient delay in those aged 30-39 years decreased compared to that of recent years. Meanwhile, the proportion of patients--approximately 15%--with a doctor delay of ≥ 1 month was relatively stable across all the age groups. The proportion of patients with pulmonary TB who had far-advanced cavities in the lungs increased from 1.5% in 1975 to approximately 2% and then remained stable from 1985 to 2013. Among the 50 new TB cases with HIV in 2013, 5 occurred in women and 10 in foreigners. From 2007 to 2013, there were 416 patients with newly

  1. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- and barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Jørgensen, H; Tauson, A-H; Poulsen, H D

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₄, InsP₃, and InsP₂) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase or a nonfermented diet with or without microbial phytase. Six barrows fitted with gastric cannulas were used. The experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 pigs fed 3 diets during 3 wk in 2 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 7 d, comprising 3 d of adaptation and 4 d of total collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase units of phytase/kg, as-fed basis; NF-BD + phytase), and the NF-BD + phytase fermented for 17.5 h (F-BD + phytase). Gastric InsP₆-P was not detected at all in pigs fed F-BD + phytase because of complete InsP₆ degradation during fermentation of the feed before feeding. Gastric InsP₆-P decreased over time (P < 0.05) in pigs fed NF-BD and NF-BD + phytase. The decreases were 45, 54, 56, and 61 percentage points greater at 1, 2, 3, and 5 h, respectively, in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase compared with NF-BD. However, substantial amounts of InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase, especially within the first hour (estimated to 17% of InsP₆-P intake). The accumulation of lower inositol phosphates in gastric digesta was very small for all treatments and at all times because of a rapid and almost complete degradation. In conclusion, phytase addition to the nonfermented diet increased the degradation of gastric InsP₆. However, considerable amounts of intact InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine because of a shortage of time for Ins

  2. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-01-01

    . Smokers aged 35 to 44 years were less likely than those aged 18 to 24 years to be recruited via Twitter than panel (35-44: OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.49, P=.01). E-cigarette users who reported a greater number of e-cigarette puffs per day were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel compared to those who reported fewer puffs per day (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.20, P=.001). With each one-unit increase in Twitter usage, e-cigarette users were 9.55 times (95% CI 2.28-40.00, P=.002) and smokers were 4.91 times (95% CI 1.90-12.74, P=.001) as likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel. Conclusions Twitter ads were more time efficient than an online panel in recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers. In addition, Twitter provided access to younger adults, who were heavier users of e-cigarettes and Twitter. Recruiting via social media and online panel in combination offered access to a more diverse population of participants. PMID:27847353

  3. Explaining the variability of Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI): deconvolution of variability related to Light Use Efficiency and Canopy attributes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlier, Elodie; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Soudani, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    . 1992. A narrow-waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency. Remote Sensing of Environment 41, 35-44. Garbulsky MF, Peñuelas J, Gamon J, Inoue Y, Filella I. 2011. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the remote sensing of leaf, canopy and ecosystem radiation use efficiencies: A review and meta-analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 281-297. Hilker T, Coops NC, Hall FG, Black TA, Wulder MA, Nesic Z, Krishnan P. 2008. Separating physiologically and directionally induced changes in PRI using BRDF models. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 2777-2788. Hmimina G, Dufrêne E, Soudani K. 2014. Relationship between PRI and leaf ecophysiological and biochemical parameters under two different water statuses: toward a rapid and efficient correction method using real-time measurements. Plant, Cell & Environment 37, 2, 473-487. Nakaji T, Oguma H, Fujinuma Y. 2006. Seasonal changes in the relationship between photochemical reflectance index and photosynthetic light use efficiency of Japanese larch needles. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27, 493-509. Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran P, Munehiro M, Omasa K. 2012. Relationships between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and plant pigment indices at different leaf growth stages. Photosynthesis Research 113, 261-271.

  4. Comparison of tissue heating between manual and hands-free ultrasound techniques.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Dawn T

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this single-factor repeated-measures design was to examine the effectiveness of tissue heating with a hands-free ultrasound (US) technique compared to a hand-held US transducer using the Rich-Mar AutoSound unit. US is a therapeutic modality often used to provide deep tissue heating. Recently, a "hands-free" US unit was introduced by Rich-Mar Incorporated. This unit allows the clinician to choose the mode of US delivery, using either a handheld (manual) transducer or a hands-free device that pulses the US beam through the transducer. However, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has deemed delivery of US via a hands-free unit to be investigational. Forty volunteers over 18 years of age participated. Treatment was provided at a 3-MHz US frequency. Muscle temperature was measured with 26-gauge, 4-cm Physiotemp thermistors placed in the triceps surae muscle. The depth of thermistor placement was at 1 - and 2-cm deep. One calf was treated with a manual transducer (5-cm(2) US head at three times the effective radiating area [ERA]), and one calf was treated with the hands-free transducer (14-cm(2) [ERA]). Both methods used a 1.5 W/cm(2) intensity for 10 minutes. The manual technique used an overlapping circular method at 4 cm/sec, and the hands-free method used a sequential pulsing at 4 cm/sec. Tissue temperatures were recorded at baseline and every 30 seconds. The hands-free technique resulted in a tissue temperature increase from 33.68 to 38.7 degrees C and an increase from 33.45 to 40.1 degrees C using the manual technique at 1-cm depth. The tissue temperature increase at the 2-cm depth was from 34.95 to 35.44 degrees C for the hands-free device and 34.44 to 38.42 degrees C for the manual device. Thus, there was a significant difference between the hands-free and the manual mode of US delivery for the 3-MHz frequency (5.02 degrees C vs. 6.65 degrees C at 1 cm and 1.49 degrees C vs. 3.98 degrees C at 2 cm). In this study, the "hands

  5. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance): a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG) have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb) extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009) and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor): TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent”) included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”). Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24%) and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session). The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P<0.05); TEAM showed a significant reduction in the difficulties due to bracing (from 8.9 ± 1.4 to 3.5 ± 2.0 in 12 months on a 10-point scale, P<0.05). Pain was perceived by 55% of NOT versus 7% of TEAM (P < 0.05). The populations did not differ at the baseline studied outcomes. The absence of a good team surrounding the patient increases by five times the risk of reduced compliance to

  6. Elastic wave velocities of pyrope-majorite garnets (Py 62Mj 38 and Py 50Mj 50) to 9 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Ganglin; Gwanmesia, Gabriel D.; Liebermann, Robert C.

    2000-06-01

    Polycrystalline specimens of two pyrope-majorite garnets (Py 62Mj 38 and Py 62Mj 38) were synthesized in a 2000-ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) at pressures of 16 GPa and temperatures of 1670 K for run durations of about 2 h using homogeneous glasses as starting materials. Ultrasonic interferometric measurements on these specimens were conducted at pressures up to 9 GPa at room temperature using a 1000-ton uniaxial split-cylinder apparatus (USCA-1000) with Bi as an internal pressure marker. From the measurements of the travel times for compressional (P) and shear (S) waves, the velocities and elastic moduli are calculated using length/density changes determined from the travel-time data. Third-order Eulerian finite strain analysis of these data yield the longitudinal ( L) and shear ( G) moduli and their pressure derivatives [ M0'=(∂ M/∂ P) T]: for Py 62Mj 38, L0=291±6 GPa and L0'=9.1±0.6, G0=90±1 GPa and G0'=1.9±0.2, from which we calculate the values for the adiabatic bulk modulus ( K= L-4/3 G) to be K0=171±5 GPa and K0'=6.2±0.5. These new data for the shear modulus and its pressure derivative are in agreement with the previous values for the same composition (Rigden, S.M., Gwanmesia, G.D., Liebermann, R.C., 1994. Elastic wave velocities of a pyrope-majorite garnet to 3 GPa. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 86, 35-44.), but the P wave velocity, the bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are somewhat higher. For the Py 50Mj 50 composition, these values are L0=289±6 GPa, L0'=9.2±0.7, G0=89±1 GPa, G0'=2.1±0.2, K0=170±5 GPa, and K0'=6.4±0.5. The high-pressure derivatives of K and G for these Py-Mj garnets may be important in explaining the high velocity gradients observed in seismic models of the transition zone of the Earth's mantle. Compositions Mg 2Al 3Si 2O 12-MgSiO 3 form a continuous solid-solution at high pressures and temperatures. The end members are: Mg 2Al 3Si 2O 12-pyrope and MgSiO 3-majorite (abbreviated here and throughout our

  7. Studies on some ternary oxyborates of the Na 2O- Me2O 3-B 2O 3 ( Me=rare earth or aluminum) systems: Synthesis, structure and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshev, P.; Pechev, S.; Nikolov, V.; Gravereau, P.; Chaminade, J.-P.; Binev, D.; Ivanova, D.

    2006-09-01

    Sodium rare-earth oxyborates Na 2RE2O(BO 3) 2 ( RE=Y, Nd, Er) were prepared for the first time in the present study. They were found to be isostructural with phases of the same composition containing Sm, Eu or Gd and reported by Corbel et al. [J. Solid State Chem.144 (1999) 35-44]. It was shown that the yttrium and erbium compounds could be synthesized at 900-1000 °C by a solid-state reaction between oxides in an equimolecular ratio. With both oxyborates melting led to decomposition into a mixture of Y(Er)BO 3, Y 2(Er 2)O 3 and Na 2B 4O 7. Just the opposite was observed during thermal treatment of the oxide mixture containing Nd 2O 3, from which a practically pure phase of Na 2Nd 2O(BO 3) 2 was only obtained after melting. The attempts to synthesize the oxyborate Na 2La 2O(BO 3) 2 showed it to be unstable, this leading to the formation of a mixture containing, in addition to Na 2La 2O(BO 3) 2, also other already known stable phases of the system Na 2O-La 2O 3-B 2O 3 along with an unknown ternary oxide phase. This phase was found to represent a new oxyborate of sodium and lanthanum with the formula Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8, whose single crystals were obtained by flux growth. It was established that synthesis of a polycrystalline material with the same composition was also possible using solid-state interaction between Na 2CO 3, La 2O 3 and H 3BO 3 at 1000-1100 °C. X-ray diffraction experiments on single crystals were used to solve the structure of Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8. The unit cell was found to be hexagonal, space group P62 m (No. 189) with Z=1. The compound can be regarded as the forefather of a second group of oxyborates representing a new family of isostructural compounds, Na 3RE9O 3(BO 3) 8. Such phases were obtained with RE=Nd, Sm and Eu whereas with RE=Y and Gd, the synthesis experiments failed. The concentration and temperature regions of crystallization of the double-oxyborate Na 2Al 2O(BO 3) 2 in the ternary system Na 2O-Al 2O 3-B 2O 3 were determined. This

  8. Studies on some ternary oxyborates of the Na{sub 2}O-Me{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Me=rare earth or aluminum) systems: Synthesis, structure and crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Peshev, P. . E-mail: ppeshev@svr.igic.bas.bg; Pechev, S.; Nikolov, V.; Gravereau, P.; Chaminade, J.-P.; Binev, D.; Ivanova, D.

    2006-09-15

    Sodium rare-earth oxyborates Na{sub 2}RE{sub 2}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Er) were prepared for the first time in the present study. They were found to be isostructural with phases of the same composition containing Sm, Eu or Gd and reported by Corbel et al. [J. Solid State Chem.144 (1999) 35-44]. It was shown that the yttrium and erbium compounds could be synthesized at 900-1000deg. C by a solid-state reaction between oxides in an equimolecular ratio. With both oxyborates melting led to decomposition into a mixture of Y(Er)BO{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}(Er{sub 2})O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. Just the opposite was observed during thermal treatment of the oxide mixture containing Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, from which a practically pure phase of Na{sub 2}Nd{sub 2}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} was only obtained after melting. The attempts to synthesize the oxyborate Na{sub 2}La{sub 2}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} showed it to be unstable, this leading to the formation of a mixture containing, in addition to Na{sub 2}La{sub 2}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, also other already known stable phases of the system Na{sub 2}O-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} along with an unknown ternary oxide phase. This phase was found to represent a new oxyborate of sodium and lanthanum with the formula Na{sub 3}La{sub 9}O{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 8}, whose single crystals were obtained by flux growth. It was established that synthesis of a polycrystalline material with the same composition was also possible using solid-state interaction between Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} at 1000-1100 deg. C. X-ray diffraction experiments on single crystals were used to solve the structure of Na{sub 3}La{sub 9}O{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 8}. The unit cell was found to be hexagonal, space group P62m (No. 189) with Z=1. The compound can be regarded as the forefather of a second group of oxyborates representing a new family of isostructural compounds, Na{sub 3}RE{sub 9}O{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 8}. Such phases were

  9. Toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS patients: a current situation.

    PubMed

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lee, Christopher; Quek, Kia Fatt; Leong, Chee Loon; Mahmud, Rohela; Abdullah, Khairul Anuar

    2004-08-01

    The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among 505 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients was 226 (44.8%; 95% CI 42.64-51.76): 27 (47.4%) and 199 (44.4%) showed Toxoplasma seropositivity with and without toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), respectively (P <0.05). The majority of these patients were in the 25-34 age group (44 versus 39%), male (86 versus 76%), and Chinese (49 versus 53%), though no statistical significance was found between the two. Significant differences between these two groups were noted, however, in terms of marital status, occupation, and present address. The heterosexual exhibited the most frequent behavior at risk for HIV infection, and accounted for 51 and 59% of patients with and without TE, respectively. Only 17/260 (6.5%) and 1/137 (0.7%) of them later acquired TE after receiving primary chemoprophylaxis (cotrimoxazole) and antiretroviral therapy including HAART (P <0.05). Fifty-seven (11.3%) out of those 505 patients were diagnosed with AIDS-related TE. The most common clinical manifestation was headache (56%). The computed tomography scan findings showed most lesions to be multiple (96.4%), hypodense (66.7%), and in the parietal region (39.3%). Twenty-seven (47.4%) patients had chronic (latent) Toxoplasma infection as evidenced by seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma (IgG) antibody. At the time of diagnosis, the range of CD4 cell count was from 0-239 with a median of 25 cells/cumm. We also found that a CD4 count of less than 100 cells/cumm was significantly associated with development of TE (P <0.05). Clinical outcomes showed that among those who survived, 21 (36.8%), 16 (28.1%), and 2 (3.5%) of patients had completed treatment, transferred out, and were lost to follow up, respectively. Unfortunately, 18 (31.6%) of the cases were officially pronounced dead. Overall, 7 (12.3%) patients were detected as recurrent TE in this study.

  10. Two new eimerians (Apicomplexa) from insectivorous mammals in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Couch, Lee; Laakkonen, Juha; Goodman, Steven; Duszynski, Donald W

    2011-04-01

    Fecal samples from 126 insectivorous mammals in Madagascar were collected between spring 1999 and fall 2001. In the Afrosoricida, 21 species in 5 genera were sampled, including 17 species of Microgale (31/96, 32% infected), Hemicentetes semispinosus (1/2, 50%), Oryzorictes hova (1/5, 20%), Setifer setosus (8/13, 61.5%), and Tenrec ecaudatus (5/8, 62.5%); in the Soricomorpha, only Suncus murinus was examined and 1/2 (50%) were infected. Two morphotypes of eimeriid oocysts, representing 2 presumptive new species, were found in 47 (37%) infected animals; only 2 afrosoricid hosts (2% of all hosts, 4% of infected hosts) had both oocyst morphotypes. Sporulated oocysts of the first morphotype, Eimeria tenrececaudata n. sp., are subspheroidal, 18.8 × 17.4 (17-22 × 15-20), with a length∶width ratio (L/W) of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); they lack a micropyle but may contain 0-2 polar granules and a single, small round oocyst residuum, 3 × 2.3. Sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 9.9 × 6.6 (9-11 × 5-8), with a L/W of 1.5 (1.2-2.0); they have a prominent, slightly flattened Stieda body and a substieda body but lack a parastieda body. The sporocyst residuum consists of only a few granules between the sporozoites, which are sausage-shaped and have a large posterior refractile body. Oocysts of the second morphotype, Eimeria setifersetosa n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 30.1 × 28.6 (27-34 × 25-34), with a L/W of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); they lack both micropyle and oocyst residuum, but 1-2 polar granules are usually present. Sporocysts are subspheroidal to broadly ellipsoidal, 9.6 × 7.3 (9-11 × 6-8), with a L/W of 1.3 (1.1-1.7); they have a broad Stieda body, lack sub- and parastieda bodies, and have a residuum of a few granules scattered throughout the sporocyst. Sporozoites were not clearly defined, but what seemed to be a single large refractile body is seen, presumably in each sporozoite.

  11. Body Mass Index at Accession and Incident Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in US Army Soldiers, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Adela; Bulathsinhala, Lakmini; McKinnon, Craig J.; Hill, Owen T.; Montain, Scott J.; Young, Andrew J.; Smith, Tracey J.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals entering US Army service are generally young and healthy, but many are overweight, which may impact cardiometabolic risk despite physical activity and fitness requirements. This analysis examines the association between Soldiers’ BMI at accession and incident cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) using longitudinal data from 731,014 Soldiers (17.0% female; age: 21.6 [3.9] years; BMI: 24.7 [3.8] kg/m2) who were assessed at Army accession, 2001–2011. CRF were defined as incident diagnoses through 2011, by ICD-9 code, of metabolic syndrome, glucose/insulin disorder, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or overweight/obesity (in those not initially overweight/obese). Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI categories at accession and CRF. Initially underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) were 2.4% of Soldiers, 53.5% were normal weight (18.5−<25), 34.2% were overweight (25−<30), and 10.0% were obese (≥30). Mean age range at CRF diagnosis was 24–29 years old, with generally low CRF incidence: 228 with metabolic syndrome, 3,880 with a glucose/insulin disorder, 26,373 with hypertension, and 13,404 with dyslipidemia. Of the Soldiers who were not overweight or obese at accession, 5,361 were eventually diagnosed as overweight or obese. Relative to Soldiers who were normal weight at accession, those who were overweight or obese, respectively, had significantly higher risk of developing each CRF after multivariable adjustment (HR [95% CI]: metabolic syndrome: 4.13 [2.87–5.94], 13.36 [9.00–19.83]; glucose/insulin disorder: 1.39 [1.30–1.50], 2.76 [2.52–3.04]; hypertension: 1.85 [1.80–1.90], 3.31 [3.20–3.42]; dyslipidemia: 1.81 [1.75–1.89], 3.19 [3.04–3.35]). Risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight/obesity in initially underweight Soldiers was 40%, 31%, and 79% lower, respectively, versus normal-weight Soldiers. BMI in early adulthood has important

  12. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    PubMed

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  13. Effectiveness of oral sucrose and simulated rocking on pain response in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C C; Stremler, R L; Stevens, B J; Horton, L J

    1997-08-01

    Feeding and carrying have been interventions used by caregivers throughout history in relieving distress in infants. Recent studies on the food substance sucrose have elucidated the comforting effect of the taste component of feeding while studies of rocking have examined the comforting effect of the vestibular component of carrying. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of sucrose and simulated rocking alone and in combination on diminishing pain response in preterm neonates undergoing routine heelstick procedure in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Preterm infants (n = 85) between 25-34 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA) and 2-10 days postnatal age (PNA) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions for routine heelstick procedure. The conditions were (1) sucrose alone: 0.05 ml of 24% sucrose was placed on the anterior surface of the tongue just prior to the lancing of the heel; (2) simulated rocking alone: 15 min prior to and during the heelstick procedure, the infant was swaddled and put on an oscillating mattress; (3) combination of sucrose and simulated rocking; and (4) placebo: 0.05 ml sterile water administered just prior to heelstick. Physiological (heart rate) and behavioural (facial actions) responses from baseline across 90 s following heelstick were scored second-to-second. Facial actions were analysed with repeated measures MANCOVA and heart rate with repeated measures ANCOVA. Behavioural state and gestational age were covariates. The groups that received sucrose alone or in combination with simulated rocking showed less facial actions indicative of pain than the rocking alone or control group. The addition of rocking to the sucrose condition tended to further blunt the facial expression of pain, but this enhancement did not reach a significant level. Heart rate was not decreased by any intervention compared to the control condition. Although the simulated rocking did promote quiet sleep, which has been reported in

  14. [A study on family types and the employment status of married women in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakano, E; Ikenoue, M; Ishikawa, A

    1982-04-01

    Japanese society post World War II has experienced a largescale transformation in the field of woman's lifestyle, especially in women's labor force participation and role within the household. Many of the studies have pointed out that family structure has changed significantly from being an extended family to becoming a nuclear family and that women's labor force participation rates have increased during middle age. The aims of this study are to identify such general statements and to find out a variation of women's lifestyle and family structure among subpopulations by using sample survey data. We have conducted The Women's Life Style Survey dated June 1980. Samples have been drawn from married women ages 20-59 among 6 Japanese subpopulations. It has been recognized that 2 type of family structure among the middle age population exists in urban and rural areas. There are simple family structures as defined by the nuclear family and there are more complex family structures. The 1st typically appears in urban areas where grown children establish their own independent households. The 2nd, the extended family, is seen typically in the rural areas where the proportion of households with parents is significantly high. It means that 1 of the grown children in the family at least lives with parents after marriage. In looking at the labor force participation for married women, the lowest rates are seen for those age 25-34 and relatively high participation rates for those age 35 and over. The highest labor participation rates appeared among women age 40-44 and 45-49. Age pattern of labor participation is strongly related to the stage of the wife's life cycle as they move away from childbearing and childrearing. The transformed employment status appears mainly in married women in urban areas with a nuclear family structure. On the other hand, higher labor rates of participation appeared in the rural areas where most of the women belong to the household with parents. Moreover

  15. Brain luxury perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in humans. A study of the cerebral blood flow response to changes in CO2, O2, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, L

    1986-06-01

    CBF and related parameters were studied in 68 patients before, during, and following cardiopulmonary bypass. CBF was measured using the intraarterial 133Xe injection method. The extracorporeal circuit was nonpulsatile with a bubble oxygenator administering 3-5% CO2 in the main group of hypercapnic patients (n = 59) and no CO2 in a second group of hypocapnic patients. In the hypercapnic patients, marked changes in CBF occurred during bypass. Evidence was found of a brain luxury perfusion that could not be related to the effect of CO2 per se. Mean CBF was 29 ml/100 g/min just before bypass, 49 ml/100 g/min at steady-state hypothermia (27 degrees C), reached a maximum of 73 ml/100 g/min during the rewarming phase (32 degrees C), fell to 56 ml/100 g/min at steady-state normothermic bypass (37 degrees C), and was 48 ml/100 g/min shortly after bypass was stopped. Addition of CO2 evoked systemic vasodilation with low blood pressure and a rebound hyperemia. The hypocapnic group responded more physiologically to the induced changes in hematocrit (Htc) and temperature, CBF being 25, 23, 25, 34, and 35 ml/100 g/min, respectively, during the five corresponding periods. Carbon dioxide was an important regulator of CBF during all phases of cardiac surgery, the responsiveness of CBF being approximately 4% for each 1-mm Hg change of PaCO2. The level of MABP was important for the CO2 response. At low blood pressure states, the CBF responsiveness to changes in PaCO2 was almost abolished. An optimal level of PaCO2 during hypothermic bypass of approximately 25 mm Hg (at actual temperature) is recommended. A normal autoregulatory response of CBF to changes in blood pressure was found during and following bypass. The lower limit of autoregulation was at pressure levels of approximately 50-60 mm Hg. CBF autoregulation was almost abolished at PaCO2 levels of greater than 50 mm Hg. The degree of hemodilution neither affected the CO2 response nor impaired CBF autoregulation, although, as

  16. Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Goel, Anju

    2016-09-14

    The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs. The aims were to assess the effects of different ventilation settings on in-vehicle PMCs and their comparison during delay conditions at the TIs with those experienced by pedestrians while crossing these TIs. We also estimated the zone of influence (ZoI) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 under different driving conditions and fitted the probability distribution functions to fixed-site data to understand the concentration and exposure dynamics of coarse and fine particles around the studied (3- and 4-way) TIs. The fine particles (PM2.5) showed a strong positive exponential correlation with the air exchange rates under different ventilation settings compared with coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showing an opposite trend. This suggested that the ventilation system of the car was relatively more efficient in removing coarse particles from the incoming outside air. On-road median PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during delays at the TIs were ∼40%, 16% and 17% higher, respectively, compared with free-flow conditions on the rest of the route. About 7% of the average commuting time spent during delay conditions over all the runs at the TIs corresponded to 10, 7 and 8% of the total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The maximum length of the ZoI for PM2.5 and PM1 was highest at the 4-way TI and the maximum length of the ZoI for PM10 was highest at the 3-way TI. The on-road average RDD rate of PM10 inside the cabin when windows were fully open was

  17. Variations in temperature acclimation effects on glycogen storage, hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance with seasonal acclimatization in juvenile Chinese crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether temperature acclimation (10 vs 20 °C) effects on tissue glycogen content, hypoxia tolerance, and swimming performance of Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) varied with seasonal acclimatization (winter vs spring) and potential combined interactions. Both the routine metabolic rate (MO(2rout)) and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)) of the MO(2rout) increased significantly with temperature, whereas the seasonal acclimatization showed no significant effect. Only the high temperature group that acclimatized in spring showed a significantly higher aquatic surface respiration (ASR(crit)) value compared with the other three groups. Fish in spring tended to show ASR behavior at higher oxygen tension compared with those in winter, which might have been caused by a more active lifestyle. Time to show LOE prolonged by 25-34% under low temperature. Spring fish showed 20% shorter LOE duration at 10 °C, whereas the difference tended to vanish at 20 °C. Glycogen contents in both liver and muscle were higher in winter than spring. The liver and muscle glycogen content decreased by 5-42% after exposure to anoxic conditions, whereas the magnitude was much smaller in spring. When fish swam in normoxic conditions, fish in higher temperatures showed higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit) than low temperature (5.49 vs 3.74 BL s(-1) in winter and 4.27 vs 3.21 BL s(-1) in spring), whereas fish in winter also showed higher U(crit) than fish in spring for each temperature. However, when fish swam in hypoxic waters, fish in higher temperatures showed a more profound decrease (52-61%) in U(crit) compared to those in lower temperature (25-27%). Fish in lower temperatures that had acclimatized in winter showed the highest U(crit), which might have been caused by higher glycogen storage. The present study suggested that both glycogen storage and alterations in lifestyle had profound effects on hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, which

  18. Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Review of Outcome among Infertile Women in a Tertiary Hospital in North-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, DC; Nwobodo, EI; Ekele, BA; Sahabi, SM

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital tract malignancy in the developing countries of the world. Interestingly, it has a pre-invasive stage, which can be detected through screening. The etiological organism of the disease is the human papilloma virus (HPV) that is sexually transmitted and sexually transmitted infections play a major role in the causation of infertility in developing countries. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical smear among infertile women at Usmanu Dan-Fodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH) Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of cervical smears taken from infertile women attending the gynecological out-patient clinic of UDUTH sokoto over a 12-month period. cross-sectional study involving the assessment of the cervical smears taken from infertile women attending the gynecological out-patient clinic of UDUTH Sokoto over a 12-month period. Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using the EPI-INFO 3.5.1 (CDC, Atlanta Georgia, USA). Chi square test was used for association at p-value< 0.05 at 95 % confidence interval Results: A total of 162 patients were screened during the study period. Their ages ranged from 15 to 46 years with a mean of 27.9 (6.2) years and modal age of 25-34 years. Majority of the subjects 88/159 (55.4%) were in the lower socio-economic class and 75/159 (47.2%) of the women were nullipara. Out of the 159 subjects with adequate smears, 58/159 (36.8%) were normal while 44/159 (27.8%) had inflammatory lesions. Cervical intraepithelial lesions were observed in 18/159 (11.3%) of the smears while 25 (15.7%) had evidence of HPV infection. Conclusions: Considering the relatively high incidence 18/159 (11.3%) of cervical intraepithelial lesions seen among the subjects, there is the need to integrate cervical smear in the general infertility work-up. PMID:24971213

  19. The Effectiveness of Electronic Screening and Brief Intervention for Reducing Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Robert; Phillips, Thomas; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption, but its effectiveness over time has not been subject to meta-analysis. Objective The current study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine the effectiveness of eSBI over time in nontreatment-seeking hazardous/harmful drinkers. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified through searching the electronic databases PsychINFO, Medline, and EMBASE in May 2013. Two members of the study team independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. Studies reporting data that could be transformed into grams of ethanol per week were included in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in grams of ethanol per week between eSBI and control groups was weighted using the random-effects method based on the inverse-variance approach to control for differences in sample size between studies. Results There was a statistically significant mean difference in grams of ethanol consumed per week between those receiving an eSBI versus controls at up to 3 months (mean difference –32.74, 95% CI –56.80 to –8.68, z=2.67, P=.01), 3 to less than 6 months (mean difference –17.33, 95% CI –31.82 to –2.84, z=2.34, P=.02), and from 6 months to less than 12 months follow-up (mean difference –14.91, 95% CI –25.56 to –4.26, z=2.74, P=.01). No statistically significant difference was found at a follow-up period of 12 months or greater (mean difference –7.46, 95% CI –25.34 to 10.43, z=0.82, P=.41). Conclusions A significant reduction in weekly alcohol consumption between intervention and control conditions was demonstrated between 3 months and less than 12 months follow-up indicating eSBI is an effective intervention. PMID:24892426

  20. STUDY ON BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HETEROTROPHIC MARINE MICROALGA-SCHIZOCHYTRIUM MANGROVEI PQ6 ISOLATED FROM PHU QUOC ISLAND, KIEN GIANG PROVINCE, VIETNAM(1).

    PubMed

    Hong, Dang Diem; Anh, Hoang Thi Lan; Thu, Ngo Thi Hoai

    2011-08-01

    Schizochytrium sp. PQ6, a heterotrophic microalga isolated from Phu Quoc (PQ) Island in the Kien Giang province of Vietnam, contains a high amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). In this study, the culture conditions are developed to maximize biomass and DHA production. Nucleotide sequence analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene from genomic DNA showed that PQ6 has a phylogenetic relationship close to Schizochytrium mangrovei Raghu-Kumar. The highest growth rate and DHA accumulation of this strain were obtained in 6.0% glucose, 1.0% yeast extract, 50% artificial seawater (ASW), and pH 7 at 28°C. In addition, carbon and nitrogen sources could be replaced by glycerol, ammonium acetate, sodium nitrate, or fertilizer N-P-K. Total lipid content reached 38.67% of dry cell weight (DCW), in which DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) contents accounted for 43.58% and 0.75% of the total fatty acid (TFA), respectively. In 5 and 10 L fermenters, the cell density, DCW, total lipid content, and maximum DHA yield were 46.50 × 10(6)  cells · mL(-1) , 23.7 g · L(-1) , 38.56% of DCW, and 8.71 g · L(-1) (in 5 L fermenter), respectively, and 49.71 × 10(6)  cells · mL(-1) , 25.34 g · L(-1) , 46.23% of DCW, and 11.55 g · L(-1) (in 10 L fermenter), respectively. Biomass of PQ6 strain possessed high contents of Na, I, and Fe (167.185, 278.3, and 43.69 mg · kg(-1) DCW, respectively). These results serve as a foundation for the efficient production of PQ6 biomass that can be used as a food supplement for humans and aquaculture in the future.

  1. Knowledge and awareness of children's food safety among school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Md Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-04-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the level of knowledge and awareness regarding children's food safety issues among the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka city. A total of 250 school-based street food vendors were interviewed employing a pre-tested structured questionnaire comprising foodborne illness and food hygiene-related questions. We used a scoring system based on the responses obtained from them, and categorized the overall level of knowledge and awareness into "adequate" and "inadequate." Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between selected sociodemographic characteristics and the level of knowledge and awareness. The most common food item vended by school-based street food vendors was chotpoti/fuchka (37.2%). The median number of schoolchildren customers was 120 per vendor per day. All (100%) vendors were male with a mean age of 30.95±8.8 years, and their mean daily income was 131.16±62.54 Bangladeshi Taka (1.97±0.94 USD). Most (40.1%) of the respondents belonged to the age group 25-34 years, and the majority (43.6%) did not have any formal education. More than two-thirds (68%) vendors could not show adequate level of knowledge and awareness of children's food safety issues. The most common source of obtaining food safety information by vendors was electronic media (91.8%). Elderly (≥45 years) vendors were 17.73 times more likely to have adequate level of knowledge and awareness than the vendors belonging to age group 15-24 years (p<0.001; adjusted OR=17.73; 95% CI=4.38-71.73). Individuals who had an education of higher than primary level were 9.87 times more likely to possess adequate level of knowledge and awareness than those who did not have any formal education (p<0.01; adjusted OR=9.87; 95% CI=2.07-46.93). The majority of school-based street food vendors showed an inadequate level of knowledge and awareness of children's food safety issues.

  2. The Shock Structure of Supernova Remnant IC443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; Higdon, S. J. U.; Burton, M. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We present and discuss ISO observations of IC443, a supernova remnant interacting with a molecular cloud. An SWS spectrum centered on molecular hydrogen clump R10E (RA(2000) = 6 17 7.6, Decl(2000) = 22 25 34.6) is dominated by strong [SiII] (34 microns) emission and the pure rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen ranging from 0-0 S(1) to 0-0 S(13). Fits to these H$-2$ lines imply a large column (approx. 7E19 cm$ {-2)$) of warm (T approx. 700 K) gas and an ortho/para ratio for hydrogen near 3. LWS Fabry-Perot spectra of [OI] (63 microns) and [CII] (158 microns) at positions R10E and C (RA(2000) = 6 17 42.8, Decl(2000) = 22 21 38.1) find broad (approx. 75 km/s), blue-shifted (-40 km/s) line profiles; their similarity strongly suggests a common, shock-generated origin for these two lines. The surprisingly large [CII]/[OI] ratio (approx. 0.1 to 0.2) confirms previous observations with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These [CII] and [OI] line intensities, the [SiII] intensity (above), and LWS grating measurements of OH (119 microns) and [OI] (145 microns) are all readily fit by a single, fast J-shock model. Although the [OI] (63) emission can alternatively be produced by a slow C-shock, this ensemble of lines can not be produced by such a shock and provides strong evidence for the existence of a J-shock. A 24-arcmin strip map shows that this far-infrared line emission is spatially correlated with the H$-2$ 1-0 S(1) emission, which most likely arises in an associated C-shock. In addition to this spatially correlated shock emission, the strip map identifies extended [CII] and [OI] emission with a significantly larger line ratio (approx. 0.6); this 'background' component is compared with current J-shock, C-shock, photo-dissociation region (PDR), and X-ray dissociation region (XDR) models in an effort to explain its origin.

  3. Comparison of high and low dose of cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis patients: a long-term randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mitwalli, Ahmed H; Al Wakeel, Jamal S; Hurraib, Sameer; Aisha, Abu; Al Suwaida, Abdulkaraem; Alam, Awatif; Hammad, Durdana; Sulimani, Fathia; Memon, Nawaz A; Askar, Akram; Al Tuwaijri, Ali; Qudsi, Abdo

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the outcome of low doses of cyclophosphamide (Cyclo) therapy in lupus nephritis (LN) patients, we studied 117 biopsy-proven, de novo LN WHO class IV patients double-blinded and randomized in December 1997 to receive Cyclo in different doses; Group I (n=73) received Cyclo 10 mg/kg monthly for six months then every two months for 12 months. Group II (n=44) received Cyclo 5 mg/kg monthly for six months then every two months for 36 months. The patients were followed-up till January 2007. Six months post-induction values for creatinine clearance were significantly higher in Group I (67.7 ± 28.6 mL/min) compared with Group II (55.1 ± 30.1 mL/min), P = 0.026. Serum C4 and ANA were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). At the mean follow-up of 6.77 ± 3.3 years, the mean creatinine clearance was 44.74 ± 31.7 mL/min in Group I vs. 49.3 ± 38.8 in Group II. Urinary protein was 1.65 ± 1.8 g/dL in Group I vs. 1.02 ± 1.01 in Group II (P = 0.03). The survival curve showed that kidney survival overtime was comparable in both groups (P = 0.2). Complete remission was observed in 25 (34.2%) patients in Group I vs. 11 (25%) in Group II (P = 0.288), while partial remission was similar in both groups; 43 (58.9%) patients in Group I vs. 26 (59%) patients in Group II. End-stage renal disease was observed in 10 (13.7%) patients in Group I vs. 9 (20.4%) patients in Group II (P = 0.359). Side-effects were more frequent in Group I patients than in Group II patients; gonadal toxicity and malignancy were lower in Group II patients (P = 0.0000). Moreover, different infections occurred in 23 (31.3%) patients vs. six (13.6%), digital infarcts occurred in 1.35% vs. 0%, diabetes in 4.1% vs. 2.27%, and vasculitis in 4.1% vs. 2.27% in Group I vs. Group II, respectively. Sustained amenorrhea without pregnancy was observed in both groups; however, significantly more in Group I patients, P ≤ 0.05. We conclude that low-dose Cyclo therapy is sufficiently effective

  4. Defined plant extracts can protect human cells against combined xenobiotic effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollutants representative of common environmental contaminants induce intracellular toxicity in human cells, which is generally amplified in combinations. We wanted to test the common pathways of intoxication and detoxification in human embryonic and liver cell lines. We used various pollutants such as Roundup residues, Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, and five precise medicinal plant extracts called Circ1, Dig1, Dig2, Sp1, and Uro1 in order to understand whether specific molecular actions took place or not. Methods Kidney and liver are major detoxification organs. We have studied embryonic kidney and hepatic human cell lines E293 and HepG2. The intoxication was induced on the one hand by a formulation of one of the most common herbicides worldwide, Roundup 450 GT+ (glyphosate and specific adjuvants), and on the other hand by a mixture of Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, all found in surface waters, feed and food. The prevention and curative effects of plant extracts were also measured on mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, on the entry of radiolabelled glyphosate (in Roundup) in cells, and on cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4 as well as glutathione-S-transferase. Results Clear toxicities of pollutants were observed on both cell lines at very low sub-agricultural dilutions. The prevention of such phenomena took place within 48 h with the plant extracts tested, with success rates ranging between 25-34% for the E293 intoxicated by Roundup, and surprisingly up to 71% for the HepG2. By contrast, after intoxication, no plant extract was capable of restoring E293 viability within 48 h, however, two medicinal plant combinations did restore the Bisphenol-A/Atrazine intoxicated HepG2 up to 24-28%. The analysis of underlying mechanisms revealed that plant extracts were not capable of preventing radiolabelled glyphosate from entering cells; however Dig2 did restore the CYP1A2 activity disrupted by Roundup, and had only a mild preventive effect on the CYP3A4, and no effect

  5. Evaluation of Crossbreeding of Australian Superfine Merinos with Gansu Alpine Finewool Sheep to Improve Wool Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Guo, Jian; Li, Fanwen; Niu, Chune

    2016-01-01

    Crossbreeding of Australian Superfine Merinos (ASMs) with Gansu Alpine Finewool (GAF) sheep and an evaluation of the potential benefits of this genetic cross has not been previously conducted. 13 ASMs were crossbred with GAF sheep over a five year period with backcrossing designed to assess heterosis. Data from 11,178 lambs sired by 189 rams were used in the study. Genotype, birth year, birth type, dam age, sex and/or management group, and record age were fitted as fixed effects and within-genotype sire fitted as a random effect. Crossbreeds of 1/2 ASM expressed the most desirable effects for improving average fiber diameter (AFD), clean fleece weight (CFW), yield, coefficient of variation of AFD (CVAFD), yearling staple length (YSL) to AFD ratio (YSL/AFD), and CFW to metabolic yearling bodyweight (YWT0.75) ratio (CFW/YWT0.75) but showed the least post-weaning average daily gain (powADG) and YWT. Genotype of backcrossing with 1/4 ASM obtained moderate improvements in AFD, CFW, CVAFD, and YSL/AFD but the highest YSL, WWT, and prwADG. Except for yield (-1.42%) and CFW/YWT0.75 (-1%), heterosis estimates were generally low and positive, and ranged from 0.1% for CVAFD to 4% for powADG, which indicates the potential to improve relevant traits through exploiting heterosis to a varying extent. The ASMs sampled in this study were found to be superior to GAFs for AFD, CFW, yield, and CVAFD by 19.82%, 11.68%, 14.47%, and 6.99%, respectively, but inferior for YSL, PowADG, and YWT by 4.36%, 50.97%, and 16.93%, respectively. ASMs also appeared to be more efficient than GAFs in clean wool production (25.34%) and staple length growth (16.17%). The results of our study strongly suggest that an infusion of ASM genes via crossbreeding is an effective and appropriate approach to improve wool microns and wool production from GAF sheep, and we make recommendations to tackle the undesirable traits of YWT and YSL from ASM introduction.

  6. Evaluation of Crossbreeding of Australian Superfine Merinos with Gansu Alpine Finewool Sheep to Improve Wool Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fanwen; Niu, Chune

    2016-01-01

    Crossbreeding of Australian Superfine Merinos (ASMs) with Gansu Alpine Finewool (GAF) sheep and an evaluation of the potential benefits of this genetic cross has not been previously conducted. 13 ASMs were crossbred with GAF sheep over a five year period with backcrossing designed to assess heterosis. Data from 11,178 lambs sired by 189 rams were used in the study. Genotype, birth year, birth type, dam age, sex and/or management group, and record age were fitted as fixed effects and within-genotype sire fitted as a random effect. Crossbreeds of 1/2 ASM expressed the most desirable effects for improving average fiber diameter (AFD), clean fleece weight (CFW), yield, coefficient of variation of AFD (CVAFD), yearling staple length (YSL) to AFD ratio (YSL/AFD), and CFW to metabolic yearling bodyweight (YWT0.75) ratio (CFW/YWT0.75) but showed the least post-weaning average daily gain (powADG) and YWT. Genotype of backcrossing with 1/4 ASM obtained moderate improvements in AFD, CFW, CVAFD, and YSL/AFD but the highest YSL, WWT, and prwADG. Except for yield (-1.42%) and CFW/YWT0.75 (-1%), heterosis estimates were generally low and positive, and ranged from 0.1% for CVAFD to 4% for powADG, which indicates the potential to improve relevant traits through exploiting heterosis to a varying extent. The ASMs sampled in this study were found to be superior to GAFs for AFD, CFW, yield, and CVAFD by 19.82%, 11.68%, 14.47%, and 6.99%, respectively, but inferior for YSL, PowADG, and YWT by 4.36%, 50.97%, and 16.93%, respectively. ASMs also appeared to be more efficient than GAFs in clean wool production (25.34%) and staple length growth (16.17%). The results of our study strongly suggest that an infusion of ASM genes via crossbreeding is an effective and appropriate approach to improve wool microns and wool production from GAF sheep, and we make recommendations to tackle the undesirable traits of YWT and YSL from ASM introduction. PMID:27832155

  7. Effects of Second and Third Generation Oral Contraceptives on Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized Triple-Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh; Pourzeinali-Beilankouh, Samira; Sadrimehr, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have not been shown to have major effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in normal-weight women. However, we have limited information about the effects on women at high risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes due to being overweight and obese. Objectives To evaluate the effects of second and third generation contraceptive pills on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in overweight and obese women. Patients and Methods This triple-blind controlled trial was performed on 137 healthy women aged 18 - 40 years with a body mass index of 25-34.9 (kg/m2) who were referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran from 2014 to 2015. The women were randomly divided into groups who were to take 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol/150 mcg levonorgestrel (EE/LGN) (n = 69) or 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol/150 mcg desogestrel (EE/DSG) (n = 68) with an allocation ratio of 1: 1 for three cycles. As primary outcomes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were assessed; total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and 2-hour plasma glucose in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (2-hour 75-g OGTT) were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results The differences in lipid and carbohydrate parameters were not significant between the two groups, except for HDL-C (Adjusted MD (CI95%) = 7.00 (2.98 to 11.02)). HDL-C decreased with EE/LGN (P = 0.016) and increased with EE/DSG (P = 0.004). LDL-C and TC increased in both groups, whereas TG increased only with EE/DSG (P < 0.05). Compared with the baseline, FPG levels did not differ significantly in both groups, but EE/DSG increased 2-hour 75-g OGTT (P = 0.010). Conclusions We observed no significant differences between the two groups in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, except for HDL-C. Considering the importance of overweight and obese women’s health, studies with longer follow-up periods are recommended in this respect. PMID

  8. Virtual screening with AutoDock Vina and the common pharmacophore engine of a low diversity library of fragments and hits against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase: participation in the SAMPL4 protein-ligand binding challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perryman, Alexander L.; Santiago, Daniel N.; Forli, Stefano; Santos-Martins, Diogo; Olson, Arthur J.

    2014-04-01

    To rigorously assess the tools and protocols that can be used to understand and predict macromolecular recognition, and to gain more structural insight into three newly discovered allosteric binding sites on a critical drug target involved in the treatment of HIV infections, the Olson and Levy labs collaborated on the SAMPL4 challenge. This computational blind challenge involved predicting protein-ligand binding against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase (IN), a viral enzyme for which two drugs (that target the active site) have been approved by the FDA. Positive control cross-docking experiments were utilized to select 13 receptor models out of an initial ensemble of 41 different crystal structures of HIV IN. These 13 models of the targets were selected using our new "Rank Difference Ratio" metric. The first stage of SAMPL4 involved using virtual screens to identify 62 active, allosteric IN inhibitors out of a set of 321 compounds. The second stage involved predicting the binding site(s) and crystallographic binding mode(s) for 57 of these inhibitors. Our team submitted four entries for the first stage that utilized: (1) AutoDock Vina (AD Vina) plus visual inspection; (2) a new common pharmacophore engine; (3) BEDAM replica exchange free energy simulations, and a Consensus approach that combined the predictions of all three strategies. Even with the SAMPL4's very challenging compound library that displayed a significantly lower amount of structural diversity than most libraries that are conventionally employed in prospective virtual screens, these approaches produced hit rates of 24, 25, 34, and 27 %, respectively, on a set with 19 % declared binders. Our only entry for the second stage challenge was based on the results of AD Vina plus visual inspection, and it ranked third place overall according to several different metrics provided by the SAMPL4 organizers. The successful results displayed by these approaches highlight the utility of the computational

  9. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and its essential oil on the PC3 and MCF7 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MEMARIANI, TOKTAM; HOSSEINI, TOKTAM; KAMALI, HOSSEIN; MOHAMMADI, AMENEH; GHORBANI, MARYAM; SHAKERI, ABDOREZA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; SHAHSAVAND, SHABNAM

    2016-01-01

    Cyperus longus is one of the Iranian endemic species. However, to date, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no availale academic reports on the cytotoxicity of this plant. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and essential oil (EO) on MCF7 and PC3 cell lines. The chemical constituents of EO were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and incubated with various concentrations of the plant extract and fractions. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay following 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to (12.5–200 µg/ml) of the methanol extract, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water fractions, as well as the EO of the plant. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The most effective fraction in the MCF7 cell line was the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 25.34±2.01). The EtOAc fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 35.2±2.69) and the methanol extract (IC50 after 48 h, 64.64±1.64) were also found to be effective. The IC50 values obtained for the PC3 cell line were 37.97±3.87, 51.57±3.87 and 70.33±2.36 for the CH2Cl2 fraction, the EtOAc fraction and the methanol extract, respectively. Based on these data and due to the partial polarity of the most effective fraction (the CH2Cl2 fraction), we also examined the cytotoxicity of the plant EO. The IC50 values after 48 h were 22.25±4.25 and 12.55±3.65 in the PC3 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay also confirmed these data. Performing GC-MS analysis for the plant EO revealed that β-himachalene (10.81%), α-caryophyllene oxide (7.6%), irisone (4.78%), β-caryophyllene oxide (4.36%), humulene oxide (12%), viridiflorol (4.73%), aristolone (6.39%) and longiverbenone (6.04%) were the main constituents. Our results

  10. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    ); 3Gronau, J. & Schmidt-Koenig, K., Nature 226, 87-88 (1970); 4Foà, A., Benvenuti, S., Ioalé, P. & Wallraff, H. G., Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 15, 25-34 (1984); 5Landès, M., Ceranna, L., Le Pichon, A. & Matoza, R. S., J. Geophys. Res. 117, D06102, doi:10.1029/2011JD016684 (2012); 6Hagstrum, J. T., J. Exp. Biol. 216, 687-699 (2013).

  11. Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD) predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9) μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl). About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7%) of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67) times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34) and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63) times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74) time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23) times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were not associated to

  12. Body Mass Index at Accession and Incident Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in US Army Soldiers, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Adela; Bulathsinhala, Lakmini; McKinnon, Craig J; Hill, Owen T; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Smith, Tracey J

    2017-01-01

    Individuals entering US Army service are generally young and healthy, but many are overweight, which may impact cardiometabolic risk despite physical activity and fitness requirements. This analysis examines the association between Soldiers' BMI at accession and incident cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) using longitudinal data from 731,014 Soldiers (17.0% female; age: 21.6 [3.9] years; BMI: 24.7 [3.8] kg/m2) who were assessed at Army accession, 2001-2011. CRF were defined as incident diagnoses through 2011, by ICD-9 code, of metabolic syndrome, glucose/insulin disorder, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or overweight/obesity (in those not initially overweight/obese). Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI categories at accession and CRF. Initially underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) were 2.4% of Soldiers, 53.5% were normal weight (18.5-<25), 34.2% were overweight (25-<30), and 10.0% were obese (≥30). Mean age range at CRF diagnosis was 24-29 years old, with generally low CRF incidence: 228 with metabolic syndrome, 3,880 with a glucose/insulin disorder, 26,373 with hypertension, and 13,404 with dyslipidemia. Of the Soldiers who were not overweight or obese at accession, 5,361 were eventually diagnosed as overweight or obese. Relative to Soldiers who were normal weight at accession, those who were overweight or obese, respectively, had significantly higher risk of developing each CRF after multivariable adjustment (HR [95% CI]: metabolic syndrome: 4.13 [2.87-5.94], 13.36 [9.00-19.83]; glucose/insulin disorder: 1.39 [1.30-1.50], 2.76 [2.52-3.04]; hypertension: 1.85 [1.80-1.90], 3.31 [3.20-3.42]; dyslipidemia: 1.81 [1.75-1.89], 3.19 [3.04-3.35]). Risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight/obesity in initially underweight Soldiers was 40%, 31%, and 79% lower, respectively, versus normal-weight Soldiers. BMI in early adulthood has important implications for cardiometabolic

  13. Kinematic Models of Southern California Deformation calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain Energy Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain energy ("TSEM models") represent average deformation rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain energy, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates (< 12 mm/yr) are strongly preferred for the San Gorgonio segment of the SAF. The GPS-constrained, locked model prefers a high slip rate for the Imperial Fault (over 30 mm/yr), though the TSEM models prefer slip rates lower than 30 mm/yr. When slip rates for the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system are restricted to less than 5 mm/yr, GPS-constrained models show a preference for high slip rates on the southern San Jacinto and Palos Verde Faults ( > 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a

  14. Investigation of ethylene dibromide (EDB) in ground water in Seminole County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, James B.; Hicks, D.W.; Lowe, L. E.; Cohen, S.Z.; Jovanovich, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of ground water in Seminole County, Georgia, for ethylene dibromide (EDB) was conducted in August 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Exposure Assessment Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether EDB, which was previously detected in ground-water samples from four neighboring wells, was localized in the vicinity of the wells or was more widespread in the ground-water system. EDB was detected in 6 of 19 wells sampled. Concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 11.8 micrograms per liter. Five of the six samples that contained EDB were collected from irrigation wells, and one was collected from a domestic well. Concentrations of 4.5 and 11.8 micrograms per liter were found in two irrigation wells located near Buck Hole, a sinkhole in a swampy depression in central Seminole County. EDB was not detected in samples from the remaining 10 irrigation and 3 domestic wells and the surface-water site (detection level less than 0.01 microgram per liter). Nine core samples were collected from a borehole near one of the irrigation wells that had high EDB concentrations. EDB was found in a core sample near the surface and in samples from depths of 24 to 25, 34 to 35, and 39 to 40 feet in the residuum. EDB concentrations in the core samples ranged from 0.06 to 2.4 micrograms per kilogram. EDB in the aquifer was found in a 4-square-mile area of the county in the vicinity of Buck Hole. EDB application information and the local hydrogeology indicate that EDB contamination in ground water in Seminole County probably is due to soil fumigation with EDB. Apparently, EDB moves downward through the residuum and, through undetermined pathways, enters the aquifer. However, because the high concentration of EDB in the aquifer seems to be localized in the Buck Hole area, the possibility of contamination from an EDB fumigant spill cannot be disregarded at this time.

  15. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Gerona, Spain, a province with low myocardial infarction incidence. REGICOR Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Masia, R.; Pena, A.; Marrugat, J.; Sala, J.; Vila, J.; Pavesi, M.; Covas, M.; Aubo, C.; Elosua, R.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of main cardiovascular risk factors in the province of Gerona, where the incidence of myocardial infarction is known to be low. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study of prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors conducted on a large random population sample. SETTING: The province of Gerona, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand four hundred and four eligible inhabitants of Gerona aged between 25 and 74 years were randomly selected for a multi-stage sample stratified by age and sex. The following were standardly measured: lipids (total cholesterol, high density, low density, lipoprotein (a) and triglycerides), fibrinogen, basal glycaemia, arterial pressure, anthropometric variables, smoking, history of angina (Rose questionnaire), and a medical history questionnaire. Population measurements were standardised for the world population of 24 to 74 years of age. RESULTS: The participation rate was 72.7% (1748). Total mean cholesterol was 5.69 mmol/l in men and 5.61 mmol/l in women and mean high density cholesterol was 1.22 mmol/l and 1.47 mmol/l, respectively. Median lipoprotein (a) was 0.22 g/l. These three lipids increased significantly with age. Mean fibrinogen was 2.92 g/l in men and 3.09 g/l in women, and was higher in smokers. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic arterial tension > or = 140 mm Hg or diastolic > or = 90 mm Hg or drug treatment) was 31.3% in men and 27.7% in women. The proportion of male smokers was 33.8% and female smokers 22.7%. The proportion of female smokers in the 25-34 year age group exceeded that of the remaining age groups for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Gerona is relatively high for the low myocardial infarction incidence typical of the area, although similar to that of other Spanish areas. The factors that confer sufficient protection to compensate for the effect of the prevalence of these risk factors remain to be elucidated.   PMID

  16. Virtual screening with AutoDock Vina and the common pharmacophore engine of a low diversity library of fragments and hits against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase: participation in the SAMPL4 protein-ligand binding challenge.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Alexander L; Santiago, Daniel N; Forli, Stefano; Santos-Martins, Diogo; Olson, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    To rigorously assess the tools and protocols that can be used to understand and predict macromolecular recognition, and to gain more structural insight into three newly discovered allosteric binding sites on a critical drug target involved in the treatment of HIV infections, the Olson and Levy labs collaborated on the SAMPL4 challenge. This computational blind challenge involved predicting protein-ligand binding against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase (IN), a viral enzyme for which two drugs (that target the active site) have been approved by the FDA. Positive control cross-docking experiments were utilized to select 13 receptor models out of an initial ensemble of 41 different crystal structures of HIV IN. These 13 models of the targets were selected using our new "Rank Difference Ratio" metric. The first stage of SAMPL4 involved using virtual screens to identify 62 active, allosteric IN inhibitors out of a set of 321 compounds. The second stage involved predicting the binding site(s) and crystallographic binding mode(s) for 57 of these inhibitors. Our team submitted four entries for the first stage that utilized: (1) AutoDock Vina (AD Vina) plus visual inspection; (2) a new common pharmacophore engine; (3) BEDAM replica exchange free energy simulations, and a Consensus approach that combined the predictions of all three strategies. Even with the SAMPL4's very challenging compound library that displayed a significantly lower amount of structural diversity than most libraries that are conventionally employed in prospective virtual screens, these approaches produced hit rates of 24, 25, 34, and 27 %, respectively, on a set with 19 % declared binders. Our only entry for the second stage challenge was based on the results of AD Vina plus visual inspection, and it ranked third place overall according to several different metrics provided by the SAMPL4 organizers. The successful results displayed by these approaches highlight the utility of the computational

  17. Data Mining and Machine Learning in Time-Domain Discovery and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Richards, Joseph W.

    2012-03-01

    The changing heavens have played a central role in the scientific effort of astronomers for centuries. Galileo's synoptic observations of the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus starting in 1610, provided strong refutation of Ptolemaic cosmology. These observations came soon after the discovery of Kepler's supernova had challenged the notion of an unchanging firmament. In more modern times, the discovery of a relationship between period and luminosity in some pulsational variable stars [41] led to the inference of the size of the Milky way, the distance scale to the nearest galaxies, and the expansion of the Universe (see Ref. [30] for review). Distant explosions of supernovae were used to uncover the existence of dark energy and provide a precise numerical account of dark matter (e.g., [3]). Repeat observations of pulsars [71] and nearby main-sequence stars revealed the presence of the first extrasolar planets [17,35,44,45]. Indeed, time-domain observations of transient events and variable stars, as a technique, influences a broad diversity of pursuits in the entire astronomy endeavor [68]. While, at a fundamental level, the nature of the scientific pursuit remains unchanged, the advent of astronomy as a data-driven discipline presents fundamental challenges to the way in which the scientific process must now be conducted. Digital images (and data cubes) are not only getting larger, there are more of them. On logistical grounds, this taxes storage and transport systems. But it also implies that the intimate connection that astronomers have always enjoyed with their data - from collection to processing to analysis to inference - necessarily must evolve. Figure 6.1 highlights some of the ways that the pathway to scientific inference is now influenced (if not driven by) modern automation processes, computing, data-mining, and machine-learning (ML). The emerging reliance on computation and ML is a general one - a central theme of this book - but the time

  18. Hyperspectral measurements for estimating biophysical parameters and CO2 exchanges in a rice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Meroni, M.; Manca, G.; Cogliati, S.; Busetto, L.; Picchi, V.; Galvagno, M.; Colombo, R.; Seufert, G.

    2009-04-01

    biophysical parameters and carbon GEP based on aerial and satellite images. References Gamon J.A., Penuelas J., Field C.B. 1992. A Narrow-Waveband Spectral Index That Tracks Diurnal Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency. Remote Sensing of Environment, 41:35-44. Meroni M., Colombo R. 2006. Leaf level detection of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence by means of a subnanometer resolution spectroradiometer. Remote Sensing of Environment, 103:438-448. Plascyk J.A. 1975. The MK II Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD-II) for airborne and orbital remote sensing of solar-stimulated luminescence. Optical Engineering, 14:339-346.

  19. Accouchement du siège par voie basse: étude de la morbi-mortalité maternelle et néonatale

    PubMed Central

    Mukuku, Olivier; Kimbala, Julien; Kizonde, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la fréquence de l'accouchement en présentation du siège aux Cliniques Universitaires de Lubumbashi, décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et obstétricales en rapport avec les accouchées et évaluer la morbi-mortalité maternelle et néonatale liée à l'accouchement du siège par voie basse en comparaison avec l'accouchement du sommet par la même voie. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique portant sur 31 accouchements par voie basse (VB), avec f'tus en présentation du siège, des grossesses monofoetales d’âge gestationnel supérieur à 35 semaines aménorrhées, réalisés au cours de la période allant du 1er janvier 2010 au 30 juin 2011 à la maternité des Cliniques Universitaires de Lubumbashi en RD Congo. Les paramètres sociodémographiques, l'environnement obstétrical et l'issue maternelle et néonatale ont été analysés en comparaison avec ceux des 99 couples Mère-Enfant issus des accouchées eutociques (VB) au cours de la même période. Le seuil de signification a été fixé à p<,05. La fréquence de la présentation du siège est de 2,5% et le siège décomplété est la variété la plus retrouvée (60%). L’âge moyen, la parité moyenne, l’âge gestationnel moyen ainsi que le poids de naissance moyen sont comparables dans les 2 groupes (p=0,3308, p=0,6897, p=0,4420 et p=0,8240). La morbidité maternelle est caractérisée par un taux de 19,3% de lésions des parties molles parmi les accouchées avec foetus en présentation du siège contre 6,1% parmi les accouchées avec foetus en présentation du sommet (p=0,1197). La morbidité périnatale est représentée par un taux de dépression néonatale à la fin de la 1ère minute plus élevé chez les nouveau-nés en présentation du siège (38,7%) que ceux nés en présentation du sommet (5,1%) (p=0,0000) signifiant un risque de dépression néonatale multiplié par près de 12 (OR=11,87 3,35-44

  20. [Monitoring and research on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from sentinel hospital of Zhejiang Province during 2009 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Zheng, S F; Yu, F; Chen, X; Cui, D W; Yang, X Z; Xie, G L; Wang, Y Y; Yu, J X; Li, Z J; Chen, Y

    2016-12-06

    16.86% (1 056 cases) in patients equal or older than 15 years old. Single bacterial infection was highest in age group of 25-34 years old (18.62%, 302 cases) , single virus infection was highest in age group of 1-4 years old (41.12%, 435 cases) , and mixed infections of multiple pathogens were mainly existed in age group of 1-4 years old (7.37%, 78 cases) . Pathogen positive rate were increasing year by year. Pathogen positive rate of patients with acute diarrhea has obvious seasonality, with single bacterial infection being highest during July to September and single virus infection being highest during December to March. Pathogen spectrum of outpatient and emergency patients with acute diarrhea in Zhejiang Province changed a little from 2009 to 2014, mainly rotavirus (22.34% (782/3 500)), norovirus (28.71% (1 005/3 500)), vibrio parahaemolyticus (15.92% (558/3 500)) and Escherichia coli (10.31% (361/3 500)). However, pathogen spectrums in different years owned different features. Conclusion: Common pathogens in outpatient and emergency patients with acute diarrhea in Zhejiang Province were tested with significant seasonal epidemic law. The composition of pathogenic spectrum was variant in different age group. Constitutes of major pathogen spectrum in different years differed a little.

  1. Seismotectonics investigations in the internal Cottian Alps (Italian Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Gianluigi; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano; Cadoppi, Paola; Balestro, Gianni; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Tallone, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    -Early Miocene) is related to transtensive/extensional movements along the LTZ and the development of minor sub-parallel N-S faults. This kinematic evolution fits in a model of dextral-transtension at regional scale. The more recent activity of the LTZ may have caused the development of Pleistocene lacustrine basin, several hundred metres thick, in the Lower Chisone and Pellice valleys, which did not hosted glacial tongues. Along the LTZ, however, Pleistocene deposits showing evidence of brittle deformation were also found. With the aim to better understand the relation between the current seismic activity and faults, an analysis was carried out by selecting the best located earthquakes (location error less than 3 km) recorded by the seismic network of the North Western Italy (RSNI). This selection is made necessary by the relatively small size of the structures under investigations in order to avoid fake attributions. In addition to get qualitative information about the seismogenic source, the focal mechanisms of four earthquakes occurring along the mapped faults were calculated sorting out the best locatable events among those occurred in the area. The good geometric and kinematic agreement between structural and seismological data indicates a possible dependence of the seismicity of the inner Cottian Alps with the current tectonic activity of the LTZ and its associated minor structures. Balestro G. et al. (2009) Ital. J. Geosci., 128(2), 331-339. Bertotti G., Mosca P. (2009) Tectonophysics, 475, 117-127. Eva C. et al. (1990) Atti del Convegno Gruppo Nazionale Difesa dai terremoti, Ed. Ambiente, Pisa, 1, 25-34. Perrone G. et al. (2009) Ital. J. Geosci., 128(2), 541-549.

  2. Shallow Orographic Convection contribution to the water resources in Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godart, Angélique; Anquetin, Sandrine; Leblois, Etienne; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2010-05-01

    convection yields up to 20% of the total rainfall and in some locations can reach 40%. This result encourages the deployment of a specific observation device to better document this type of convection during the HyMeX campaign. References Anquetin S, Miniscloux F, Creutin JD and Cosma S (2003) Numerical simulation of orographic rainbands, J.Geophys.Res.,108:CIP.11 1-13 Godart, A, S.Anquetin, E.Leblois, 2009-a: Rainfall regime associated with banded convection in mountainous area, Meteorology and Atmospheric physics, 103, 25-34, doi: 10.1007/s00703-008-0326-3 Godart, A., E. Leblois, S. Anquetin, and N. Freychet, 2009-b: Analysis of relationship between orographic rainfall and atmospheric properties using factorial discriminant analysis and neural network. J. of Applied Meteo. and Climatology, in press, doi: 10.1175/2009JAMC2217.1 Gysi H (1998) Orographic influence on the distribution of accumulated rainfall with different wind directions, Atmos. Res., 47-48:615-633 Miniscloux F, Creutin JD, Anquetin S, 2001: Geostatistical analysis of orographic rainbands, J.Appl.Meteor, 40:1835-1854 Molinié, G., E. Yates, P. Bois, B. Boudevillain, S. Anquetin and J.-D. Creutin, 2010: A statistical Analysis of extreme rainfalls in a Mountainous Mediterranean region, submitted to J. of Hydrometeorology

  3. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bureš, Vladimír; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Ponce, Daniela; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    -5 scores than females with the cognitive training regimen. Participants with high school education declared leisure activities to increase WHO-5 scores by M = 14.59 ± 5.39, 95% CI [3.85–25.34] compared to individualised cognitive training. Discussion The findings revealed that individualised cognitive training was not directly associated with improvements in well-being. Changes in the control group indicated that involvement in leisure time activities, in which participants were partly free to choose from, represented more favourable stimulation to a self-perceived sense of well-being than individualised cognitive training. Results also supported the fact that gender and education moderated the effect of cognitive training on well-being. Females and participants with high school education were found to be negatively impacted in well-being when performance connected with cognitive training was expected. PMID:28028465

  4. Petrologic Consequences of the Magmatic Death of a Continental Arc: Vanda Dike Swarm, Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpp, K. S.; Christensen, B. C.; Geist, D. J.; Garcia, M. O.

    2005-12-01

    intrusion (Keiller, 1988; Allibone et al., 1993). The high-K calc-alkaline Vanda dike swarm likely represents the last phase of magmatism in a dying continental arc, perhaps accompanied by extension and uplift of the orogen. The relatively alkaline compositions of the dikes may result from lower degrees of melting, as subduction waned. References: Allibone, AH et al., New Zealand J of Geology and Geophysics, 36: 281-297, 1993. Cox, SC et al., New Zealand J of Geology and Geophysics, 43: 501-520, 2000. Encarnacion, J and Grunow, A, Tectonics, 15: 1325-1341, 1996. Keiller, IG, New Zealand Antarctic Record, 8: 25-34, 1988.

  5. [Strategy on control of births by population trend (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kong, S K; Jang, Y S

    1982-12-01

    the target group for the birth control program between 1982-89. The industrialization and urbanization have contributed to population increases in cities. The ratio of eligible urban women vs. rural women was 31:69 in the 1960s but the ratio changed to 48:52 in 1970 and 63:37 in 1980 as a result of rural-urban migration. Abortion has been increasing among the younger people. More fertile women have concentrated themselves in the cities and future birth control programs and campaigns should concentrate there. The focus of the birth control program is for women to want and accept contraceptive services. Since the goal of less than 3 children for 1 couple has been achieved, it has become difficult to decrease the number of children any more. 30% of the women wish to have many children and refuse to use contraception. Future birth control measures should aim at the higher fertility groups of eligible women ages 25-34 and should provide different types of services to different classes of women. Under the circumstances, current birth control policies and programs should receive strong support from the government. Modifications are urgently needed for program management and implementation of the birth control program. (author's modified)

  6. Carboniferous magmatism in the Evora Massif (southwest Portugal, Ossa-Morena Zone): from typical arc calc-alkaline to adakitic-like magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Selma M.; Neiva, Ana M. R.; Ramos, Joao M. F.

    2014-05-01

    the PP and the neighboring plutons are observed. First, the PP has the most primitive Sr-Nd isotopic signature; second, several chemical features (like high Na2O [3.86-5.87 %], Sr [278-939 ppm] and Sr/Y [12.4-192.5], low Y [2.4-19.5 ppm] and K2O/Na2O [0.19-0.75], strongly fractionated REE patterns [LaCN/YbCN = 18-43] and lack of pronounced Eu anomaly) suggest that the PP is chemically distinct from typical calc-alkaline arc rocks and is more similar to Archean TTGs and modern adakites. Using the compositional criteria of [6], an evolution towards 'slab-melts' compositions is observed within the PP, whereas the other Evora Massif plutons clearly represent 'non-slab melts'. Given their close spatial and temporal relation, we believe that the link between these granitic bodies deserves further investigation. [1] Silva and Pereira (2004) Geologische Rundschau 93, 886-896; [2] Moita et al. (2005) Geogaceta 37, 55-58; [3] Antunes et al. (2011) Estudios Geologicos 66, 25-34; [4] Antunes et al. (2011) Hutton Symposium Abstracts 9-10; [5] Lima et al. (2012) Journal of Petrology 53, 1887-1911; [6] Defant and Drummond (1990) Nature 347, 662-665.

  7. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  8. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host

  9. Telling better stories: strengthening the story in story and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2012-12-01

    analysis', which maximizes a quantitative measure of the spread of a set of qualitative scenarios defined by states of driving forces (Carlsen 2009). It could also include a survey of different worldviews, and the qualitative models that they imply, such as that carried out by Sunderlin (Sunderlin 2003). Futures studies has moved forward from the time the SRES was published, and new techniques are now available that can help us to tell better stories of the future. References Alcamo J 2001 Scenarios as Tools for International Environmental Assessments (Cophenhagen: European Environment Agency) Alcamo J 2008 The SAS approach: combining qualitative and quantitative knowledge in environmental scenarios Environmental Futures—The Practice of Environmental Scenario Analysis vol 2, ed J Alcamo (Amsterdam: Elsevier) pp 123-50 Carlsen H 2009 Climate change and the construction of scenario sets that span the range of societal uncertainties Paper for International Studies Association Annual Convention 2009 (New York City, February) Jackson T 2009 Prosperity Without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet (London: Earthscan) Kriegler E, O'Neill B C, Hallegatte S, Kram T, Lempert R J, Moss R H and Wilbanks T 2012 The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: a new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways Glob. Environ. Change 22 807-22 Nakicenovic N and Swart R (eds) 2000 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Raskin P, Monks F, Ribeiro T, van Vuuren D and Zurek M 2005 Global scenarios in historical perspective Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios: Findings of the Scenarios Working Group vol 2, ed S R Carpenter et al (Washington, DC: Island) pp 35-44 Schweizer V J and Kriegler E 2012 Improving environmental change research with systematic techniques for qualitative scenarios Environ. Res. Lett. 7 044011 Sunderlin W D 2003 Ideology, Social Theory, and the Environment (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

  10. Chemical evolution at the coasts of active volcanic islands in a primordial salty ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasdeit, H.; Fox, S.

    2008-09-01

    (salt concentration ca. 4 %; Fig. 1). After one hour of reflux, a water insoluble dark green residue was iso- EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00081, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 lated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparison with an authentic sample proved that the dipyrromethene 3 had been formed. Conclusions We have, for the first time, demonstrated that conditions favorable for the transformation of amino acids into oligopyrroles may have been present on the young Earth. If the hot-volcanic-coast scenario is true, the first oligopyrrole-type photoreceptor and electrontransfer molecules were available quite early in Earth's history. Future experiments will focus on (i) the inclusion of additional relevant materials such as lava rock and prebiotic oxidation reagents for the formation of dipyrromethenes (e. g. nitrite and nitrate [7]), (ii) the formation of oligopyrroles larger than dipyrromethenes, and (iii) metal complexes of oligopyrroles. References [1] Martin, H., Albarède, F., Claeys, P., Gargaud, M., Marty, B., Morbidelli, A. and Pinti, D. L. (2006) Earth Moon Planets, 98, 97-151. [2] Russell, M. J. and Arndt, N. T. (2005) Biogeosciences, 2, 97-111. [3] Knauth, L. P. (1998) Nature, 395, 554-555. [4] Edmonds, M. and Gerlach, T. M. (2006) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 244, 83-96. [5] Pizzarello, S. (2004) Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 34, 25-34. [6] Plankensteiner, K., Reiner, H. and Rode, B. M. (2006) Mol. Diversity, 10, 3-7. [7] Cleaves, H. J., Chalmers, J. H., Lazcano, A., Miller, S. L. and Bada, J. L. (2008) Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 38, 105-115. [8] Huber, C. and Wächtershäuser, G. (2006) Science, 314, 630-632. [9] Miller, S. L. (1987) in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 52, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, 17-27. [10] Blair, S. K., Magnani, L., Brand, J., Wouterloot, J. G. (2008) Astrobiology, 8, 59-73.

  11. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2010-05-01

    archaeological site Emmaus-Nicopolis (central Israel). Proceed. of the 69th EAGE Conference, P118, London, Great Britain, 5 pp. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E., and Khesin, B.E., 2000. Optimization of magnetic investigations in the archaeological sites in Israel. In: Special Issue of Prospezioni Archeologiche 'Filtering, Modeling and Interpretation of Geophysical Fields at Archaeological Objects', 65-92. Eppelbaum, L., Itkis, S., and Khesin, B., 2006a. Detailed magnetic survey unmasks Prehistoric archaeological sites in Israel. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Calgary, Canada, 1366-1373. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Khesin, B.E., 2001. Disturbing factors in geophysical investigations at archaeological sites and ways of their elimination. Trans. of the IV Conf. on Archaeological Prospection, Vienna, Austria, 99-101. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2001b. Prompt magnetic investigations of archaeological remains in areas of infrastructure development: Israeli experience. Archaeological Prospection, 8 (3), 163-185. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2006b. Some peculiarities of geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel. Russian Archaeology, No. 1, 59-70. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2010. Archaeological geophysics in arid environments: Examples from Israel. Journal of Arid Environments, 74, No. 5. Eppelbaum, L.V., Kutasov, I.M. and Barak, G., 2006c. Ground surface temperature histories inferred from 15 boreholes temperature profiles: Comparison of two approaches. Earth Sciences Research Journal, 10, No. 1, 25-34. Finkelstein, M.I. and Eppelbaum, L.V., 1997. Classification of the disturbing objects using interpretation of low-intensive temporary magnetic variations. Trans. of the Conference of Geological Society of America. Salt Lake City, 29, No.6, p. 326. Itkis, S., Khesin, B., Eppelbaum, L., and Khalaily, H., 2003. The Natufian site of Eynan (Hula valley