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Sample records for 2510p dell latitude

  1. The power of virtual integration: an interview with Dell Computer's Michael Dell. Interview by Joan Magretta.

    PubMed

    Dell, M

    1998-01-01

    Michael Dell started his computer company in 1984 with a simple business insight. He could bypass the dealer channel through which personal computers were then being sold and sell directly to customers, building products to order. Dell's direct model eliminated the dealer's markup and the risks associated with carrying large inventories of finished goods. In this interview, Michael Dell provides a detailed description of how his company is pushing that business model one step further, toward what he calls virtual integration. Dell is using technology and information to blur the traditional boundaries in the value chain between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. The individual pieces of Dell's strategy--customer focus, supplier partnerships, mass customization, just-in-time manufacturing--may be all be familiar. But Michael Dell's business insight into how to combine them is highly innovative. Direct relationships with customers create valuable information, which in turn allows the company to coordinate its entire value chain back through manufacturing to product design. Dell describes how his company has come to achieve this tight coordination without the "drag effect" of ownership. Dell reaps the advantages of being vertically integrated without incurring the costs, all the while achieving the focus, agility, and speed of a virtual organization. As envisioned by Michael Dell, virtual integration may well become a new organizational model for the information age.

  2. Streaking into Middle School Science: The Dell Streak Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Susan Eudy

    2012-01-01

    A case study is conducted implementing the Dell Streak seven-inch android device into eighth grade science classes of one teacher in a rural middle school in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of the Dell Streaks would increase student achievement on standardized subject testing, if the…

  3. High Latitude Polygons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows polygonal patterned ground on a south high-latitude plain. The outlines of the polygons, like the craters and hills in this region, are somewhat enhanced by the presence of bright frost left over from the previous winter. On Earth, polygons at high latitudes would usually be attributed to the seasonal freezing and thawing cycles of ground ice. The origin of similar polygons on Mars is less certain, but might also be an indicator of ground ice.

    Location near: 75.3oS, 113.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  4. High Latitude Ionospheric Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    CADI are a mixture of ionograms and ‘fixed’ frequency. The fixed frequency is chosen so as to get continuous ionospheric echoes throughout the day...because of the very dynamic ionospheric behaviour at high latitudes. Ionograms (interleaved with the fixed frequency observations) are at less frequent...intervals, typically each minute. In general it is easier to identify structures on the fixed frequency recordings. Ionograms are mainly useful when

  5. Mid-latitude Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    7 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark sand dunes on the floor of a southern mid-latitude impact crater. Craters are commonly the site of sand dunes, as sand may become trapped in these topographic depressions. In this case, the winds responsible for the dunes generally blew from the south/southeast (bottom/lower right),

    Location near: 51.8oS, 105.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  6. Mid-latitude Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of south mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall. Gullies such as these may have formed by runoff of liquid water.

    Location near: 38.0oS, 167.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  7. Liven up Your Student Dramatics with Commedia dell' Arte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan

    1980-01-01

    Suggests using the ancient Commedia dell' Arte technique of establishing characters and a plot and then allowing the actors to create their own play. Indicates that this improves student performances even in more traditional plays. (TJ)

  8. Solar Diameter Latitude Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Laclare, F.

    The observing programs of the Sun for determining the fundamental system of reference enable, as a by-product, to measure the apparent solar diameter (Poppe, P.C.R. et al. 1996; Leister et al. 1996; Laclare et al. 1991). The diameter obtained at the Calern Observatory (φ = 43-circ 44' 55''.9; λ = -0h 27m 42s.44) and at Abrahao de Moraes Observatory (OAM) (φ = -23-circ 00'6''.0; λ = 3h 07m 52s.22) was analyzed searching for periodicity evidences. For this we utilized the temporal methods CLEAN and CLEANEST. The analysis in function of heliographic latitude shows a dependence that may be correlated to mode of pulsation non-radial gravity. A discussion is made in terms of physical parameters like temperature luminosity and magnetic field involving the solar radius (Emilio M. 1997; Laclare et al. 1996).

  9. Ulysses breaks latitude record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    Ulysses is gathering important new information concerning the Sun and its environment. Its prime mission objective is to carry out the first systematic exploration of the inner part of the heliosphere - the region of space carved out of the interstellar medium by the solar wind - at all latitudes from the solar equator to the poles. The spacecraft, launched by the space shuttle Discovery on 6 October 1990 in the framework of an ESA-NASA collaborative venture, underwent a gravity assist manoeuvre at Jupiter in February 1992 and is now in a highly inclined solar orbit that will bring it over the south pole of the Sun in September 1994. At that time, Ulysses will establish a new record as it climbs to its maximum latitude of just over 80 degrees. The spacecraft and its scientific instruments are in excellent condition and the data coverage since launch has been consistently close to 100% thanks to the dedicated efforts of the joint ESA-NASA Mission Operations Team and NASA's Deep Space Network. Although the most exciting phase of the mission - the study of the Sun's polar regions - will only begin in mid-1994, Ulysses has already produced a wealth of new scientific results. These include : * - The first direct detection of neutral helium atoms arriving from interstellar space. * - The measurement of micron-sized dust grains arriving from interstellar space. * - The first measurement of singly-charged H, N, O and Ne ions which entered the heliosphere as interstellar neutral atoms and were then ionised. * - The highest-resolution measurements to date of the isotopic composition of cosmic ray nuclei (e.g. C, N, O, Ne, Si and Mg). In addition to the above, the traversal of Jupiter's magnetosphere at the time of the fly-by enabled the Ulysses investigators to acquire new and highly valuable data concerning this very complex and dynamic plasma environment. Among the more exciting results to emerge are the possible entry into the polar cap of Jupiter's magnetosphere near the

  10. Playing Funny: An Introduction to "Commedia dell' Arte."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Barry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of "Commedia," a way of performing inspired by the historical "Commedia dell' Arte." Notes that it has proved a fertile source of inspiration for all types of physical and stylized theatre and a useful training tool for performers in many fields. Presents a series of exercises designed to introduce the student to Commedia…

  11. Implementing an ROI Measurement Process at Dell Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesoro, Ferdinand

    1998-01-01

    This return-on-investment (ROI) evaluation study determined the business impact of the sales negotiation training course to Dell Computer Corporation. A five-step ROI measurement process was used: Plan-Develop-Analyze-Communicate-Leverage. The corporate sales information database was used to compare pre- and post-training metrics for both training…

  12. 75 FR 28657 - Dell Products LP-Parmer North Location, a Subsidiary of Dell, Inc., Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital, MagRabbit, Manpower and Spherion Corporation; Round Rock, TX; Dell Products LP--Parmer North One...., including on-site leased workers from Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates Inc., Integrated...

  13. Analysis of daily latitude variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The daily latitude measurements of the International Polar Motion Service are analyzed. The annual oscillation in the data was modeled by separate oscillations in each observatory's latitude data. The separate oscillations varied in amplitude from 0.05 sec to 0.15 sec with standard deviations of about 0.007 sec. Within the resolution of the latitude residuals (150 cm), there is no indication of the sharp changes which might be associated with earthquake effects. Then, applying Schuster's test to a periodogram of the residuals indicates that there are probably several processes occurring at amplitudes between 0.007 sec and 0.03 sec whose solution awaits a more precise measurement technique.

  14. Latitudes: new Indian transnational cinema.

    PubMed

    Villarejo, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This article examines films and video art that speak to conditions of exile and displacement, including the work of Mona Hatoum, Sonali Gulati, and Onir. It proposes the term "latitude" to interrogate the aesthetic and formal properties of these artworks, seeking to understand how lesbian and same-sex eroticism and identities are central to their efficacy.

  15. Joule heating at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. C.; St.-Maurice, J.-P.; Abreu, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations based on simultaneous observations of the electric field magnitude, and individual measurements of ion drift velocity and particle precipitation, over the lifetime of the AE-C satellite, are used to determine high latitude Joule heating. Conductivities produced by an averaged seasonal illumination were included with those calculated from particle precipitation. It is found that high latitude Joule heating occurs in an approximately oval pattern, and consists of dayside cleft, dawn and dusk sunward convection, and night sector heating regions. On average, heating in the cleft and dawn-dusk regions contributes the largest heat input, and there is no apparent difference between hemispheres for similar seasons. Joule heat input is 50 percent greater in summer than in winter, due primarily to the greater conductivity caused by solar production.

  16. Titan's Mid-latitude Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Henry G.; Schaller, E. L.; Trujillo, C. A.; Brown, M. E.

    2007-10-01

    In the first few years of spatially resolved observations of Titan's tropospheric methane clouds (2001-2003) all of the clouds were clustered in the south polar region. This time period coincided with the southern summer solstice (October 2002) and these south polar clouds are almost certainly a seasonal phenomenon. Starting in December 2003 we began seeing clouds in a narrow latitude range centered at 40°S latitude. In Roe et al. (2005a) we published this initial discovery and speculated that the clouds might be due either to changes in the seasonal circulation pattern or a process linked to surface geography. Further observations soon revealed that the clouds were significantly clustered over one region of longitude (near 350°W), strongly suggesting a geographically controlled origin (Roe et al. 2005b), although Cassini observations suggest a circulation-induced convergence origin (Griffith et al. 2005). The actual answer is most likely a combination of geographic surface effects with the atmospheric circulation. We report here on our continuing ground-based observation campaign, including observations on 65 nights in the 2006-2007 apparition with the Gemini 8-m telescope. With two more years of observations since the data shown in Roe et al. (2005b) we now have much firmer conclusions with respect to the spatial distribution and temporal characteristics of the mid-latitude clouds. We will present our latest understanding of Titan's mid-latitude clouds given the entire dataset now available to us. References Griffith, C.A., & 26 co-authors 2005. Science, 310, 474. Roe, H.G., A.H. Bouchez, C.A. Trujillo, E.L. Schaller, & M.E. Brown 2005a. ApJL, 618, 49. Roe, H.G., M.E. Brown, E.L. Schaller, A.H. Bouchez, & C.A. Trujillo 2005b. Science, 310, 477. This work is supported by NASA under Grant #NNX07AK74G issued through the Planetary Astronomy Program.

  17. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care. PMID:22389841

  18. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  19. High Latitude Mottling on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The familiar banded appearance of Jupiter at low and middle latitudes gradually gives way to a more mottled appearance at high latitudes in this striking true color image taken Dec. 13, 2000, by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    The intricate structures seen in the polar region are clouds of different chemical composition, height and thickness. Clouds are organized by winds, and the mottled appearance in the polar regions suggests more vortex-type motion and winds of less vigor at higher latitudes.

    The cause of this difference is not understood. One possible contributor is that the horizontal component of the Coriolis force, which arises from the planet's rotation and is responsible for curving the trajectories of ocean currents and winds on Earth, has its greatest effect at high latitudes and vanishes at the equator. This tends to create small, intense vortices at high latitudes on Jupiter. Another possibility may lie in that fact that Jupiter overall emits nearly as much of its own heat as it absorbs from the Sun, and this internal heat flux is very likely greater at the poles. This condition could lead to enhanced convection at the poles and more vortex-type structures. Further analysis of Cassini images, including analysis of sequences taken over a span of time, should help us understand the cause of equator-to-pole differences in cloud organization and evolution.

    By the time this picture was taken, Cassini had reached close enough to Jupiter to allow the spacecraft to return images with more detail than what's possible with the planetary camera on NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. The resolution here is 114 kilometers (71 miles) per pixel. This contrast-enhanced, edge-sharpened frame was composited from images take at different wavelengths with Cassini's narrow-angle camera, from a distance of 19 million kilometers (11.8 million miles). The spacecraft was in almost a direct line between the Sun and Jupiter, so the solar illumination on

  20. Enabling Customization through Web Development: An Iterative Study of the Dell Computer Corporation Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chang; Mackie, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the last decade, companies have increased their investment in electronic commerce (EC) by developing and implementing Web-based applications on the Internet. This paper describes a class project to develop a customized computer website which is similar to Dell Computer Corporation's (Dell) website. The objective of this project is to…

  1. A Literary and Linguistic Analysis of Scott O'Dell's "The Captive".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewig, John Warren

    This paper carefully examines the literary elements Scott O'Dell uses in his children's novel "The Captive," that so successfully engage even a reluctant reader. The paper explores the writer's style and subtle use of detail and foreshadowing. Quoting specific examples, the paper points out O'Dell's imaginative syntax and his ability to…

  2. When Poetry became Ethnography and Other Flying Pig Tales in Honor of Dell Hymes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2011-01-01

    Cahnmann-Taylor remembers her first encounter with Dell Hymes at an open mic event at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association. She puzzles his complex stance on the role ethnographic poems might play in one's ethnographic project. In Dell Hymes's honor, she shares a poetic rendering of a speech event from her bilingual…

  3. Streaking into middle school science: The Dell Streak pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Susan Eudy

    A case study is conducted implementing the Dell Streak seven-inch android device into eighth grade science classes of one teacher in a rural middle school in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of the Dell Streaks would increase student achievement on standardized subject testing, if the Streak could be used as an effective instructional tool, and if it could be considered an effective instructional resource for reviewing and preparing for the science assessments. A mixed method research design was used for the study to analyze both quantitative and qualitative results to determine if the Dell Streaks' utilization could achieve the following: 1. instructional strategies would change, 2. it would be an effective instructional tool, and 3. a comparison of the students' test scores and benchmark assessments' scores would provide statistically significant difference. Through the use of an ANOVA it was determined a statistically significant difference had occurred. A Post Hoc analysis was conducted to identify where the difference occurred. Finally a T-test determined was there was no statistically significance difference between the mean End-of-Grade tests and four quarterly benchmark scores of the control and the experimental groups. Qualitative research methods were used to gather results to determine if the Streaks were an effective instructional tool. Classroom observations identified that the teacher's teaching styles and new instructional strategies were implemented throughout the pilot project. Students had an opportunity to complete a questionnaire three times during the pilot project. Results revealed what the students liked about using the devices and the challenges they were facing. The teacher completed a reflective questionnaire throughout the pilot project and offered valuable reflections about the use of the devices in an educational setting. The reflection data supporting the case study was drawn

  4. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North..., Dell Logistics Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under...

  5. Analysis of daily latitude variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The daily latitude measurements of the International polar motion service are analyzed. The results indicate that the annual polar oscillation is probably due to local phenomena with amplitudes varying from 0.05 to 0.15 min. Within the resolution of the residuals (150 cm), there is no indication of the sharp changes which might be associated with earthquake effects. Then, applying Schuster's test to a periodogram of the residuals indicates that there are probably several processes occurring at amplitudes between 0.007 and 0.03 min whose solution awaits a more precise measurement technique.

  6. Latitude and longitude vertical disparity

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparity expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position – gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment – can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  7. South Mid-latitude Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows deep gullies cut into the wall of a south mid-latitude crater. Erosion has exposed layers in the upper wall of the crater; it is possible that groundwater seeping through a layer or layers in the wall led to the genesis of the gullies. The banked nature of the gully channels suggests that a liquid was involved.

    Location near: 35.5oS, 194.8oW Image width: width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  8. Low-latitude ionospheric effects on SBAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, J.; Sardón, E.; Sainz, A.; Ochoa, B.; Magdaleno, S.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) provide augmentation to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) users in three areas: (1) broadcasting accurate corrections to GNSS satellite ephemeris, (2) providing a real-time empirical ionospheric model in the service area, and (3) providing integrity information in the form of estimates of the confidence of the ephemeris corrections and ionospheric delays. Ionospheric effects on SBAS are twofold: (a) the input data used by the SBAS will be affected by ionospheric effects, and (b) the more perturbed the ionosphere is, the more difficult it will be to provide accurate and reliable ionospheric information to the users. The ionosphere at low latitudes presents larger variability and more intense phenomena than at midlatitudes. Therefore, SBAS providing service to low-latitude regions will be more affected than those at other latitudes. From the different low-latitude ionospheric effects, this paper will focus on those having the largest impact on SBAS, which are total electron content temporal and spatial gradients, ionospheric scintillations, and depletions. This paper will present the impact of these effects on EGNOS (European Global Navigation Overlay System), the European SBAS. Although EGNOS can be considered as a midlatitude SBAS, it has to provide coverage down to rather low latitudes, so sometimes low-latitude ionospheric effects are observed in the EGNOS data. It will be shown how EGNOS performs under nominal conditions and how its performance is degraded when low-latitude ionospheric phenomena occur. Real EGNOS data affected by low-latitude ionospheric phenomena will be used.

  9. Surviving Rescue: A Feminist Reading of Scott O'Dell's "Island of the Blue Dolphins"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecker, Diann L.

    2007-01-01

    Scott O'Dell's "Island of the Blue Dolphins" tells the archetypal story of the young, virgin, orphan girl who is vulnerable to either debauchery or rescue. That such a girl must succumb to either one or the other is a necessary element of the archetype. In O'Dell's work--one intended, after all, for children--the heroine is rescued by a…

  10. Low latitude electrodynamic plasma drifts - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics and driving mechanisms of low latitude ExB plasma drifts and electric fields particularly at F-region heights are reviewed. It is concluded that the general characteristics of the quiet-time plasma can be explained as resulting from E- and F-region dynamo and interhemispheric coupling processes. The disturbance dynamo effects are found to be responsible for the drift perturbations following the periods of enhanced magnetic activity. The prompt penetration of high-latitude electric fields to lower latitudes produces large perturbations on the upward/poleward drifts, but has no significant effect on the low-latitude and the equatorial zonal drifts. Detailed low-latitude and global numerical models for studying the characteristics of plasma drifts are capable of reproducing the latitudinal variation of the perturbation electric fields and their diurnal variations.

  11. ``Polar'' and ``high-latitude'' substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despirak, Irina; Lubchich, Andris; Kleimenova, Natalia

    All substorms observed at high latitudes can be divided into 2 types - "polar" (observed only at > 70º latitudes in the absence of substorms at <70º latitudes during the day) and "high-latitude" substorms (propagating from auroral (<70º) to polar (> 70º) geomagnetic latitudes). The aim of this study was to compare solar wind conditions during these two types of substorms. For this purpose, we used the data of IMAGE magnetometers and OMNI solar wind data for 1995, 2000, 2006-2011 periods. There were selected 105 "polar" and 55 "high-latitude" substorms. It is shown that "polar" substorms observed during the late recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm, after passing of the high speed stream of the solar wind (when the velocity is reduced from high to low values). "High-latitude" substorms, on the contrary, are observed during passing of the recurrent high-speed stream of the solar wind, increased values of the southward B _{Z }component of the IMF and E _{Y} component of the electric field, increased temperature and pressure of the solar wind. Also, it is noted that variability of these solar wind parameters for the “high-latitude” substorms is stronger than for “polar” substorms.

  12. Jupiter's Temperatures--Broad Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is one of the highest resolution images ever recorded of Jupiter's temperature field. It was obtained by NASA's Galileo mission, with its Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) experiment, during the seventh of its 10 orbits around Jupiter to date. This map, shown in the left panel, indicates the forces powering Jovian winds, and differentiates between areas of strongest upwelling and downwelling winds in the upper part of the atmosphere. A Hubble Space Telescope Planetary Camera color composite of this same region, taken within 10 hours of the PPR map, is shown in the right panel for the same region, as a reference to the visual clouds. An outline of the region mapped by the PPR is also shown.

    This atmospheric observation covered a broad latitude region, and it shows that the visually dark regions generally have warmer temperatures than the visually light ones, indicating that they are regions of downwelling, dry air which clear out cloud condensate particles. The 'little red spot' at the northernmost part of this image is colder than its surroundings, consistent with it being a region of upwelling and cooling gas. The smaller spots to its southeast (lower right) and other lighter spots in the HST image are all colder than their surroundings, consistent with regions of upwelling and cooling gas. The northern half of the brightest band in the map is brighter than the southern half, and it reveals some detailed structure, down to the 1900- kilometer (1200-mile) resolution of the PPR, which is not always readily correlated with variations of the visual cloud field.

    One surprise of this temperature map involved temperatures near the dark blue-gray feature in the map, an area like the one into which the Probe descended. While large regions of downwelling wind heat the local area elsewhere in Jupiter, this region of vigorous downwelling appears close to being thermally neutral. The drying, downwelling winds may be deeper in the atmosphere than sensed by the PPR

  13. Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    flows distribution with respect the Earth's hemispheres in first caused by eccentric position of the Earth core with respect to the mantle (displaced in present geological epoch in direction to Brasil). Of course the asymmetric distribution of heat loss is a long-term phenomenon in the geological history. But in present epoch due to drift of the core to the North we must observe some increasing of the heat flow of the Northern hemisphere and decreasing of the heat flow of the Southern hemisphere. In reality mentioned changes of heat flows are contrast (asymmetrical) and can have general tendency of increasing heat flows in both hemispheres (due to activization of relative oscillations of the core and mantle relatively polar axis). Contrast secular warming of Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth in present epoch. Dependence of warming from latitude. And warm flows are asymmetrically, more intensively warm is redistributed in northern hemisphere of the Earth and less intensively in a southern hemisphere. From here it follows, that the phenomenon of more intensive warming up of northern hemisphere, rather than southern in present period should be observed. Data of climatic observations (in first temperature trends for various latitude belts). More detailed analysis shows, that the phenomenon of warming in different form is shown in various latitudinal belts of the Earth. This phenomenon is more clearly shown in latitudinal belts further situated on latitude from South Pole, i.e. in high northern latitudes. Really, the trend of increase of temperature in northern hemisphere is characterized by greater rate, than a trend of temperature in a southern hemisphere. And not only trend components of temperatures increase with increasing of latitudes from southern pole to northern pole, but also amplitudes of decade fluctuations of temperature in high northern breadthes are more bigger than in southern hemisphere. Thus again it is necessary to expect a contrast and

  14. Electrodynamics of the high-latitude mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of apparent large (V/m) electric fields within the mesosphere suggests that this region is more active electrically than originally suspected. High-latitude observations have been particularly productive in developing new concepts regarding mesospheric electrodynamics. Several high-latitude observations of large mesospheric fields have been made under both quiet and aurorally active conditions but always below heights where enhanced ionizing radiations could significantly penetrate. Two measurements from Andoya, Norway, have also produced an anticorrelation of horizontal electric field directions with neutral wind velocities, leading to the theoretical description of a newly defined mechanism for V/m electric field generation involving wind-induced separation of charged aerosols. Evidence for mesospheric aerosols and winds exists at all latitudes but is most evident at high latitudes during the appearance of noctilucent and/or polar mesospheric clouds.

  15. Low Latitude Aurora: Index of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekli, M. R.; Aissani, D.; Chadou, I.

    2010-10-01

    Observations of aurora borealis at low latitudes are rare, and are clearly associated with high solar activity. In this paper, we analyze some details of the solar activity during the years 1769-1792. Moreover, we describe in detail three low latitude auroras. The first event was reported by ash-Shalati and observed in North Africa (1770 AD). The second and third events were reported by l'Abbé Mann and observed in Europe (1770 and 1777 AD).

  16. Tracer exchange between tropics and middle latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard; Douglass, Anne; Weaver, Clark

    1992-01-01

    The interaction between the tropics and middle latitudes is studied using a tracer emitted at 50 hPa along a great circle route between Los Angeles, USA and Sydney, Australia. Though designed to examine the impact of stratospheric aircraft, the study more generally addresses the transport between tropics and middle latitudes for a three month period from January through March 1989. The results show that air is transported from the tropics to middle latitudes by planetary scale and tropospheric cyclonic scale waves. Except for intrusions by these wave events, the tropics are substantially isolated throughout the lower stratosphere. These waves draw material out of the tropics which ends up in the middle latitude westerly jets, with little material entering the winter polar latitudes prior to the springtime transition. The summer Southern Hemisphere is characterized by tracer being drawn out in streamers that extend from north and west to south and east. The material in the tropics is zonally asymmetric. The material that reaches the troposphere comes down in the synoptic scale eddies and is concentrated in the middle latitude jet stream. These characteristics are similar to those observed during the dispersion of volcanic clouds.

  17. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; McKenna-Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  18. 76 FR 27366 - CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Employment and Training Administration CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North... Logistics Division, Winston-Salem, North Carolina who were adversely affected as a supplier of...

  19. An Unintentional System of Gaps: A Phenomenological Reading of Scott O'Dell's "Island of the Blue Dolphins."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, C. Anita

    1997-01-01

    Argues that, in "Island of the Blue Dolphins," Scott O'Dell offers a skeleton main character (Karana). Contends that O'Dell has sketched Karana as a stereotype and that readers complete her characterization, filling out the skeleton by perpetuating the stereotypes. Points out this trading of stereotype for true character development in…

  20. Interplanetary causes of middle latitude ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Echer, Ezequiel; Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.

    The solar and interplanetary causes of major middle latitude ionospheric disturbances are reviewed. Solar flare photons can cause abrupt (within ˜5 min), 30% increases in ionospheric total electron content, a feature that can last for tens of minutes to hours, depending on the altitude of concern. Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejection sheath fields and magnetic clouds can cause intense magnetic storms if the field in either region is intensely southward for several hours or more. If the field conditions in both regions are southward, "double storms" will occur. Multiple interplanetary fast forward shocks "pump up" the sheath magnetic field, leading to conditions that can lead to superstorms. Magnetic storm auroral precipitation and Joule heating cause pressure waves that propagate from subauroral latitudes to middle and equatorial latitudes. Shocks can create middle latitude dayside auroras as well as trigger nightside subauroral supersubstorms. Solar wind ram pressure increases after fast shocks can lead to the formation of new radiation belts under proper conditions. Prompt penetration electric fields can cause a dayside ionospheric superfountain, leading to plasma transport from the equatorial region to middle latitudes. The large amplitude Alfvén waves present in solar wind high-speed streams cause sporadic magnetic reconnection, plasma injections, and electromagnetic chorus wave generation. Energetic electrons interacting with chorus (and PC5) waves are accelerated to hundreds of keV up to MeV energies.

  1. ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, J. E. G.; Schiminovich, David

    2013-07-01

    In order to study the properties and effects of high Galactic latitude dust, we present an analysis of 373,303 galaxies selected from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Explorer All-Sky Data Release. By examining the variation in aggregate ultraviolet colors and number density of these galaxies, we measure the extinction curve at high latitude. We additionally consider a population of spectroscopically selected galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure extinction in the optical. We find that dust at high latitude is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively consistent with standard reddening laws. Extinction in the FUV and NUV is {approx}10% and {approx}35% higher than expected, with significant variation across the sky. We find that no single R{sub V} parameter fits both the optical and ultraviolet extinction at high latitude, and that while both show detectable variation across the sky, these variations are not related. We propose that the overall trends we detect likely stem from an increase in very small silicate grains in the interstellar medium.

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Latitude and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney-Burelle, Jean; McGivney, Raymond J.; McGivney, Katherine G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an engaging, data-gathering activity that allows students to explore relationships between latitude and average monthly temperatures of cities in the Western Hemisphere. This data-gathering activity covered interesting and important mathematical ground and engaged students from the start. While students searched for their…

  3. Higher Education in the High Latitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    2002-01-01

    Describes how colleges in 16 countries have joined in a network to serve the educational and research needs of the circumpolar region; the University of the Arctic is a band of high-latitude colleges which seeks to serve indigenous people and preserve a fragile environment. (EV)

  4. Preferred latitudes of the intertropical convergence zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane E.; Somerville, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    The latitude preference of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is examined on the basis of observations, theory, and a modeling analysis. Observations show that convection is enhanced at latitudes of about 4 deg to 10 deg relative to the equator, even in regions where the sea surface temperature (SST) is maximum on the equator. Both linear shallow-water theory and a moist primitive equation model suggest a new explanation for the off-equatorial latitude preference of the ITCZ that requires neither the existence of zonally propagating disturbances nor an off-equatorial maximum in SST. The shallow-water theory indicates that a finite-width, zonally oriented, midtropospheric heat source (i.e., an ITCZ) produces the greatest local low-level convergence when placed a finite distance away from the equator. This result suggests that an ITCZ is most likely to be supported via low-level convergence of moist energy when located at these "preferred" latitudes away from the equator. For a plausible range of heating widths and damping parameters, the theoretically predicted latitude is approximately equal to the observed position (s) of the ITCZ (s). Analysis with an axially symmetric, moist, primitive equation model indicates that when the latent heating field is allowed to be determined internally, a positive feedback develops between the midtropospheric latent heating and the low-level convergence, with the effect of enhancing the organization of convection at latitudes of about 4 deg to 12 deg. Numerical experiments show that (1) two peaks in convective precipitation develop straddling the equator when the SST maximum is located on the equator; (2) steady ITCZ-like structures form only when the SST maximum is located away from the equator; and (3) peaks in convection can develop away from the maximum in SST, with a particular preference for latitudes of about 4 deg to 12 deg, even in the ('cold') hemisphere without the SST maximum. The relationship between this

  5. Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship and Legacy in Anthropology and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's…

  6. Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

    2011-01-01

    This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

  7. Reflections--Dell C. Kjer: A Pioneer Teacher Educator and Association Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Reflects upon the role of Dell C. Kjer, a leader in teacher education and president of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) from 1965-1967. Describes his early years in Wisconsin, military duties and student life at George Peabody, his contributions to teacher education, and his contributions to ACEI and other professional…

  8. Wind induced composition effects at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature and compositional structure of the upper atmosphere are discussed in relation to the impacts of wind-induced diffusion processes. Seasonal variations in thermospheric temperature and composition are explained by energy and mass transport from the summer to the winter hemisphere induced by preferential heating, with the winter oxygen bulge participating in a feedback mechanism which acts to dampen wind velocities and increase temperature contrast. Changes in the eddy diffusion coefficient are considered as a complementary mechanism of producing the seasonal anomalies. The role of winds induced by high-latitude heating by particles and Joule dissipation during magnetic storms and substorms in accounting for thermospheric density increases and N2 and Ar enhancements and O and He depletions at high latitudes are discussed, and the rather weak compositional signature of E x B momentum coupling is distinguished from the effects of Joule dissipation.

  9. Mid-latitude hiss and plasmaspheric notch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, A.; Inan, U.; Laakso, H.; Décréau, P.; Santolik, O.

    2004-12-01

    A newly identified whistler mode ELF/VLF emission, observed by the Cluster satellites, will be presented. In the vicinity of the plasmapause, around the geomagnetic equator, the four Cluster satellites often observe banded hiss-like electromagnetic emissions (BHE). Their frequency bandwidth is always in between the lower hybrid resonance and the electron gyrofrequency, from 2 kHz to 10 kHz. Based on two years of data measured by three waves experiments on Cluster (WHISPER, STAFF and WBD), the following properties of the BHE waves have been deduced: (i) their location is strongly correlated with the position of the plasmapause, (ii) no MLT dependence has been found, (iii) their spectral width is generally 1 to 2 kHz, and (iv) the central frequency of their emission band varies from 2 kHz to 10 kHz. All these features suggest that BHE are in fact mid-latitude hiss emissions (MLH). MLH have been rarely observed on a regular basis at such altitude. Based on this survey, the central frequency of mid-latitude hiss is shown to be correlated with the Kp index. This suggests either that these banded emissions are generated in a given f/fce range, or that there is a Kp dependent Doppler shift between the satellites and a possible moving source of the MLH Mid-latitude hiss case events observed within density depletion known as plasmaspheric notch (observed by the EUV instrument on IMAGE) will be presented. A recent study showed that plasmaspheric notch plays a crucial role in the generation of higher frequency emissions such as kilometric continuum. The role of plasmaspheric notch in the generation and/or the amplification of mid-latitude hiss will be addressed.

  10. Recurrent pulsations in Saturn's high latitude magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Carbary, J. F.; Bunce, E. J.; Radioti, A.; Badman, S. V.; Pryor, W. R.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of about 6 h on Day 129, 2008, the UV imaging spectrograph (UVIS) on the Cassini spacecraft observed a repeated intensification and broadening of the high latitude auroral oval into the polar cap. This feature repeated at least 5 times with about a 1 h period, as it rotated in the direction of corotation, somewhat below the planetary rotation rate, such that it moved from noon to post-dusk, and from roughly 77° to 82° northern latitudes during the observing interval. The recurring UV observation was accompanied by pronounced ∼1 h pulsations in auroral hiss power, magnetic perturbations consistent with small-scale field aligned currents, and energetic ion conics and electrons beaming upward parallel to the local magnetic field at the spacecraft location. The magnetic field and particle events are in phase with the auroral hiss pulsation. This event, taken in the context of the more thoroughly documented auroral hiss and particle signatures (seen on many high latitude Cassini orbits), sheds light on the possible driving mechanisms, the most likely of which are magnetopause reconnection and/or Kelvin Helmholtz waves.

  11. Spacecraft design project: High latitude communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josefson, Carl; Myers, Jack; Cloutier, Mike; Paluszek, Steve; Michael, Gerry; Hunter, Dan; Sakoda, Dan; Walters, Wes; Johnson, Dennis; Bauer, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The spacecraft design project was part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The project was intended to provide experience in the design of all major components of a satellite. Each member of the class was given primary responsibility for a subsystem or design support function. Support was requested from the Naval Research Laboratory to augment the Naval Postgraduate School faculty. Analysis and design of each subsystem was done to the extent possible within the constraints of an eleven week quarter and the design facilities (hardware and software) available. The project team chose to evaluate the design of a high latitude communications satellite as representative of the design issues and tradeoffs necessary for a wide range of satellites. The High-Latitude Communications Satellite (HILACS) will provide a continuous UHF communications link between stations located north of the region covered by geosynchronous communications satellites, i.e., the area above approximately 60 N latitude. HILACS will also provide a communications link to stations below 60 N via a relay Net Control Station (NCS), which is located with access to both the HILACS and geosynchronous communications satellites. The communications payload will operate only for that portion of the orbit necessary to provide specified coverage.

  12. Environmental harshness, latitude and incipient speciation.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T

    2014-02-01

    Are rates of evolution and speciation fastest where diversity is greatest - the tropics? A commonly accepted theory links the latitudinal diversity gradient to a speciation pump model whereby the tropics produce species at a faster rate than extra-tropical regions. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Botero et al. () test the speciation pump model using subspecies richness patterns for more than 9000 species of birds and mammals as a proxy for incipient speciation opportunity. Rather than using latitudinal centroids, the authors investigate the role of various environmental correlates of latitude as drivers of subspecies richness. Their key finding points to environmental harshness as a positive predictor of subspecies richness. The authors link high subspecies richness in environmental harsh areas to increased opportunities for geographic range fragmentation and/or faster rates of trait evolution as drivers of incipient speciation. Because environmental harshness generally increases with latitude, these results suggest that opportunity for incipient speciation is lowest where species richness is highest. The authors interpret this finding as incompatible with the view of the tropics as a cradle of diversity. Their results are consistent with a growing body of evidence that reproductive isolation and speciation occur fastest at high latitudes.

  13. Seismic refraction studies at the Painter Street bridge site, Rio Dell, California

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of seismic refraction P- and S-wave measurements, at the site of the Painter Street bridge, in Rio Dell, California. The bridge is spanning highway US 101, 4 miles south of Fortuna, in northwestern California. This study was performed to provide an estimate of material properties for the foundation of the bridge, in support of a seismic stability analysis of the bridge performed at LLNL by D. McCallen. The Rio Dell region is seismically active and the Painter Street bridge is one of only 2 bridges of its type in California, instrumented for strong motion recordings. Measurements were made using a 12-channel Geometric/Nimbus ES 1210 Signal Enhancement Seismograph. 3 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mid-Latitude Sedimentary Rock: Spallanzani Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Although most of the best examples of layered sedimentary rock seen on Mars are found at equatorial and sub-tropical latitudes, a few locations seen at mid- and high-latitudes suggest that layered rocks are probably more common than we can actually see from orbit. One extremely good example of these 'atypical' layered rock exposures is found in the 72 km-diameter (45 miles) crater, Spallanzani (58.4oS, 273.5oW). Located southeast of Hellas Planitia, the crater is named for the 18th Century Italian biologist, Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799). Picture A presents a composite of the best Viking orbiter image (VO2-504B55) of the region with 4 pictures obtained June 1999 through January 2001 by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). Each MOC narrow angle image is 3 km across. Taken in the MOC's 'survey mode,' all four images were acquired at roughly 12 meters (39 ft) per pixel. Picture B zooms-in on the portion of the composite image that includes the 4 MOC images (the 100%-size view is 20 m (66 ft) per pixel). Other craters in the region near Spallanzani show features--at Viking Orbiter scale--that are reminiscent of the layering seen in Spallanzani. Exactly what these layers are made of and how they came to be where we see them today are mysteries, but it is possible that they are similar to the materials seen in the many craters and chasms of the equatorial latitudes on Mars.

  15. Electrodynamics of the high latitude middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric electrodynamics is reviewed. The discovery of apparent large (V/m) electric fields within the mesosphere invites the possibility for this region to be electrically active. Observations of the V/m field were made at high latitudes even under active conditions, but always below heights where significant enhancements in electrical conductivity are found to occur. Two measurements at Andoya (Norway) show anticorrelation of horizontal field directions with wind directions, suggesting a mechanism which involves mechanical separation of charged aerosols. Reported evidence for such aerosols makes this concept more viable. Noctilucent clouds and mesospheric turbulence, and their influence on the local electrical environment are mentioned.

  16. The role of latitude in mobilism debates

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the continental displacement theory of Wegener, latitude studies of Köppen and Wegener, and Argand's ideas on mountain building led to the first mobilistic paleogeography. In the 1930s and 1940s, many factors caused its general abandonment. Mobilism was revived in the 1950s and 1960s by measurements of long-term displacement of crustal blocks relative to each other (tectonic displacement) and to Earth's geographic pole (latitudinal displacement). Also, short-term or current displacements can now be measured. I briefly outline the categories of tectonic and current displacement and focus on latitudinal displacement. Integration of tectonic and latitudinal displacement in the early 1970s completed the new mobilistic paleogeography, in which the transformation of rock magnetization directions into paleopoles and latitudes and the finite rotation of spherical plates about pivot points play complementary roles; this new synthesis now provides a quantitative basis for studying long-term evolution of Earth's surface features and climate, the changing environments in which life evolves. PMID:15684058

  17. Transient magnetic field signatures at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    We survey GOES 2/5/6 geosynchronous and Huancayo, Peru, ground magnetometer observations at the times of 70 transient (2-10 min) events recorded at South Pole Station, Antarctica. The simultaneous observations indicate that most South Pole events correspond to sudden sharp variations in the equatorial magnetospheric and low-latitude ground magnetic field. The exceptions occur when the South Pole events have weak amplitudes and/or Huancayo and GOES 2/5/6 are far from local noon. The corresponding features observed at GOES 5 and GOES 6 are generally similar, with a lag indicating antisunward motion. A similar antisunward motion may be inferred from the ground observations themselves. On a case-by-case and statistical basis, the characteristics of the events observed in South Pole ground magnetograms resemble those previously interpreted as sudden impulse and sudden storm commencement signatures at other high-latitude stations. These observations suggest that the transient events at South Pole form part of the magnetospheric and ionospheric response to a sudden change in the fraction of the solar wind dynamic pressure applied to the magnetosphere.

  18. Transient magnetic field signatures at high latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Sibeck, D.G. )

    1993-01-01

    We survey GOES 2/5/6 geosynchronous and Huancayo, Peru, ground magnetometer observations at the times of 70 transient (2-10 min) events recorded at South Pole Station, Antarctica. The simultaneous observations indicate that most South Pole events correspond to sudden sharp variations in the equatorial magnetospheric and low-latitude ground magnetic field. The exceptions occur when the South Pole events have weak amplitudes and/or Huancayo and GOES 2/5/6 are far from local noon. The corresponding features observed at GOES 5 and GOES 6 are generally similar, with a lag indicating antisunward motion. A similar antisunward motion may be inferred from the ground observations themselves. On a case-by-case and statistical basis, the characteristics of the events observed in South Pole ground magnetograms resemble those previously interpreted as sudden impulse and sudden storm commencement signatures at other high-latitude stations. These observations suggest that the transient events at South Pole form part of the magnetospheric and ionospheric response to a sudden change in the fraction of the solar wind dynamic pressure applied to the magnetosphere. 57 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Characteristics of High Latitude Ionosphere Scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.

    2012-12-01

    As we enter a new solar maximum period, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers, especially the ones operating in high latitude and equatorial regions, are facing an increasing threat from ionosphere scintillations. The increased solar activities, however, also offer a great opportunity to collect scintillation data to characterize scintillation signal parameters and ionosphere irregularities. While there are numerous GPS receivers deployed around the globe to monitor ionosphere scintillations, most of them are commercial receivers whose signal processing mechanisms are not designed to operate under ionosphere scintillation. As a result, they may distort scintillation signal parameters or lose lock of satellite signals under strong scintillations. Since 2008, we have established and continuously improved a unique GNSS receiver array at HAARP, Alaska. The array contains high ends commercial receivers and custom RF front ends which can be automatically triggered to collect high quality GPS and GLONASS satellite signals during controlled heating experiments and natural scintillation events. Custom designed receiver signal tracking algorithms aim to preserve true scintillation signatures are used to process the raw RF samples. Signal strength, carrier phase, and relative TEC measurements generated by the receiver array since its inception have been analyzed to characterize high latitude scintillation phenomena. Daily, seasonal, and solar events dependency of scintillation occurrence, spectral contents of scintillation activities, and plasma drifts derived from these measurements will be presented. These interesting results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our experimental data collection system in providing insightful details of ionosphere responses to active perturbations and natural disturbances.

  20. Magnetospheric imaging of high latitude ion outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrido, D. E.; Robinson, R. M.; Chiu, Y. T.; Collin, H. L.; Smith, R. W.; Swift, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    High latitude ion outflows mostly consist of upward streaming O(+) and He(+) emanating from the ionosphere. At heights above 1000 km, these flows consist of cold and hot components which resonantly scatter solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, however, the ion populations respond differently to Doppler shifting resulting from the large relative velocities between the ions and the Sun. The possibility of optical detection of the Doppler effect on the scattering rate will be discussed for the O(+) (83.4 nm) ions. We have contrasted the EUV solar resonance images of these outflows by simulations of the 30.4 nm He(+) and 83.4 nm O(+) emissions for both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Input data for the 1000 km level has been obtained from the EICS instrument aboard the Dynamics Explorer (DE) satellite. Our results show emission rates of 50 and 56 milli-Rayleighs at 30.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions and 65 and 75 milli-Rayleighs at 83.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions, respectively, obtained for a polar orbiting satellite and viewing radially outward. We also find that an imager at an equatorial distance of 9 R(sub E) or more is in a favorable position for detecting ion outflows, particularly when the plasmapause is depressed in latitude. However, an occultation disk is necessary to obscure the bright plasmaspheric emissions.

  1. Paleogeographic implications of high latitude and middle latitude affinities of the ammonoid Uraloceras

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. ); Nassichuk, W.W. ); Snyder, W.S.

    1991-02-01

    The ammonoid genus Uraloceras characterized a Lower Permian Boreal paleogeographic realm. Reported Lower Permian Pangaean uraloceras occurrences have a Boreal or high-latitude distribution. Additional Lower Permian occurrences in Alaska, dominated by Boreal species, are compatible with and reinforce the Boreal distribution of the genus. In contrast, a new Uraloceras species from Nevada and from the Yukon, as well as representatives of the genus form Nei Monggol, inhabited regions of lower latitudes. The latter ammonoid faunas, geographically and paleoecologically transitional between boreal and equatorial realms, include the genus Uraloceras as well as abundant other ammonoid taxa and representatives of equatorial perinitid ammonoids. The lower assemblage of Wrangellia terrane in eastern Alaska, consisting of the Lower Permian Mankomen Group (Slana Spur and Eagle Creek formations), contains abundant Uraloceras and Paragastrioceras of high-latitude affinities. Published paleomagnetic data indicate that the Nikolai Greenstone is of equatorial origin, with paleolatitudes 10 to 17{degree}. The Nikolai Greenstone seems to have a far-traveled history incompatible with ammonoid evidence suggesting cool-water setting on the Pangaean continental shelf. A reinterpretation for the origin of Wrangellia or its magnetic signature may be in order. Alternative hypotheses suggest that the Eagle Creek Uraloceras-Paragastrioceras Boreal fauna was scraped off the craton at higher latitudes (possible 30-45{degree}) and carried with Wrangellia to its present location.

  2. A high-latitude, low-latitude boundary layer model of the convection current system

    SciTech Connect

    Siscoe, G.L. ); Lotko, W.; Sonnerup, B.U.O. )

    1991-03-01

    Observations suggest that both the high- and low-latitude boundary layers contribute to magnetospheric convection, and that their contributions are linked. In the interpretation pursued here, the high-latitude boundary layer (HBL) generates the voltage while the low-latitude boundary layer (LBL) generates the current for the part of the convection electric circuit that closes through the ionosphere. This paper gives a model that joins the high- and low-latitude boundary layers consistently with the ionospheric Ohm's law. It describes an electric circuit linking both boundary layers, the region 1 Birkeland currents, and the ionospheric Pedersen closure currents. The model works by using the convection electric field that the ionosphere receives from the HBL to determine two boundary conditions to the equations that govern viscous LBL-ionosphere coupling. The result provides the needed self-consistent coupling between the two boundary layers and fully specifies the solution for the viscous LBL-ionosphere coupling equations. The solution shows that in providing the current required by the ionospheric Ohm's law, the LBL needs only a tenth of the voltage that spans the HBL. The solution also gives the latitude profiles of the ionospheric electric field, parallel currents, and parallel potential. It predicts that the plasma in the inner part of the LBL moves sunward instead of antisunward and that, as the transpolar potential decreases below about 40 kV, reverse polarity (region 0) currents appear at the poleward border of the region 1 currents. A possible problem with the model is its prediction of a thin boundary layer ({approximately}1000 km), whereas thicknesses inferred from satellite data tend to be greater.

  3. EGRET sources at intermediate galactic latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the abstracts of four papers (using ROSAT data) that are submitted to refereed journals during the current reporting period. The papers are: (1) Extreme x-ray variability in the narrow-line QSO PHL 1092; (2) The Geminga pulsar (soft x-ray variability and an EUVE observation); (3) a broad-band x-ray study of the geminga pulsar; and (4) Classification of IRAS-selected x-ray galaxies in the ROSAT all-sky survey. The abstracts of these papers are given in the next four sections of this report, and their status is given in the Appendix. Finally, two new projects (De-identifying a non-AGN and EGRET sources at intermediate galactic latitude) for which ROSAT data were recently received are currently being studied under this grant. A summary of work in progress on these new projects is given in the last two sections of this report.

  4. High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.

  5. Electrodynamics of ionospheric weather over low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic state of the ionosphere at low latitudes is largely controlled by electric fields originating from dynamo actions by atmospheric waves propagating from below and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction from above. These electric fields cause structuring of the ionosphere in wide ranging spatial and temporal scales that impact on space-based communication and navigation systems constituting an important segment of our technology-based day-to-day lives. The largest of the ionosphere structures, the equatorial ionization anomaly, with global maximum of plasma densities can cause propagation delays on the GNSS signals. The sunset electrodynamics is responsible for the generation of plasma bubble wide spectrum irregularities that can cause scintillation or even disruptions of satellite communication/navigation signals. Driven basically by upward propagating tides, these electric fields can suffer significant modulations from perturbation winds due to gravity waves, planetary/Kelvin waves, and non-migrating tides, as recent observational and modeling results have demonstrated. The changing state of the plasma distribution arising from these highly variable electric fields constitutes an important component of the ionospheric weather disturbances. Another, often dominating, component arises from solar disturbances when coronal mass ejection (CME) interaction with the earth's magnetosphere results in energy transport to low latitudes in the form of storm time prompt penetration electric fields and thermospheric disturbance winds. As a result, drastic modifications can occur in the form of layer restructuring (Es-, F3 layers etc.), large total electron content (TEC) enhancements, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) latitudinal expansion/contraction, anomalous polarization electric fields/vertical drifts, enhanced growth/suppression of plasma structuring, etc. A brief review of our current understanding of the ionospheric weather variations and the

  6. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  7. Faint high-latitude carbon stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul Jonathan

    We have undertaken a wide area survey to search for faint high latitude carbon (FHLC) stars. Carbon giants are ideal for study of the structure and kinematics of the outer galactic halo. We use two color photometric selection with large format charge-coupled devices (CCD's) to cover 52 deg2 of sky to a depth of about V = 18. Below this limit, we find good (approximately less than 20 percent) agreement between our object counts as a function of magnitude and the galactic models of Bahcall and Soneira at a variety of latitudes and longitudes. Our spectroscopic followup began with low-resolution spectra of 19 unconfirmed C star candidates from the Case objective-prism photographic survey of Sanduleak and Pesch. Four of these we find to be M stars. The 15 C stars we classify on the two-parameter Keenan-Morgan system as warm (color class less than 3). Of 94 faint C star candidates from our own CCD survey, one highly ranked V = 17 candidate was found to have strong carbon and CN bands. We estimate that to a depth of V = 18, the surface density FHLC stars is 0.019+0.044-.016 deg-2. We identify two FHLC stars with previously catalogued high proper motion objects. These objects are thus inferred to be dwarf carbon (dC) stars, supplementing the one previously known case, G77-61. Not all dC stars will have detectable proper motions, so other luminosity/distance indicators are needed: we find that C dwarfs all have similar JHK colors, and possibly an unusually strong lambda-6191 bandhead of carbon. By comparing positions in the HST Guide Star Catalog and the original Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, we detect proper motions in two additional FHLC stars. Our proper motion survey, spanning a 30 year baseline, thus identifies two new dC's, and provides proper motion upper limits for another 44 FHLC stars. Kinematic simulations suggest that virtually all Population 2 dC's will have detectable proper motions in a survey as sensitive as our own, and that to a limit of V approximately

  8. Faint High-Latitude Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul J.

    1992-10-01

    Since carbon giants are ideal for study of the structure and kinematics of the outer galactic halo, we have undertaken a wide-area survey to search for faint high-latitude carbon (FHLC) stars. We use two-color photometric selection with large format CCDs to cover 52 deg^2 of sky to a depth of about V=18. Below this limit, we find good (< 20%) agreement between our object counts as a function of magnitude and the galactic models of Bahcall and Coneira (1984) at a variety of latitudes and longitudes. Our spectroscopic followup began with low-resolution spectra of 19 unconfirmed C-star candidates from the Case objective-prism photographic survey of Sanduleak and Pesch (1988). Four of these we find to be M stars. The 15 C stars we classify on the two-parameter Keenan-Morgan (1941) system as warm (color class < 4), with moderate to weak carbon band strengths (C class < 3). Of 94 faint C-star candidates from our own CCD survey, one highly ranked V=17 candidate was found to have strong carbon and CN bands. We estimate that to a depth of V=18, the surface density of FHLC stars is 0.019^0.044_-0.016 deg^-2. We identify two FHLC stars with previously cataloged high-proper-motion objects. These objects are thus inferred to be dwarf carbon (dC) stars, supplementing the one previously known case, G 77-61. Not all dC stars will have detectable proper motions, so other luminosity/distance indicators are needed: we find that C dwarfs all have similar JHK colors, and possibly an unusually strong lambda-6191 bandhead of carbon. By comparing positions of the HST Guide Star Catalog and the original Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, we detect proper motions in two additional FHLC stars. Our proper-motion survey, spanning a 30-yr base line, thus identifies four new dC's, and provides proper-motion upper limits for another 44 FHLC stars. Kinematic simulations suggest that virtually all Population II dCs will have detectable proper motions in a survey as sensitive as our own, and that to a

  9. Bayesian Image Classification At High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgin, Claire E.; Eastwood, Steinar; Merchant, Chris J.

    2013-12-01

    The European Space Agency created the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) to maximize the usefulness of Earth Observations to climate science. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is an essential climate variable to which satellite observations make a crucial contribution, and is one of the projects within the CCI program. SST retrieval is dependent on successful cloud clearing and identification of clear-sky pixels over ocean. At high latitudes image classification is more difficult due to the presence of sea-ice. Newly formed ice has a temperature close to the freezing point of water and a dark surface making it difficult to distinguish from open ocean using data at visible and infrared wavelengths. Similarly, melt ponds on the sea-ice surface make image classification more difficult. We present here a three- way Bayesian classifier for the AATSR instrument classifying pixels as ‘clear-sky over ocean', ‘clear-sky over ice' or ‘cloud' using the 0.6, 1.6, 11 and 12 micron channels. We demonstrate the ability of the classifier to successfully identify sea-ice and consider the potential for generating an ice surface temperature record from AATSR which could be extended using data from SLSTR.

  10. Mountains and arid climates of middle latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Manabe, S.; Broccoli, A.J. )

    1990-01-12

    Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these areas in the absence of orography. The experiments suggest that these interior regions are dry because general subsidence and relatively infrequent storm development occur upstream of orographically induced stationary wave troughs. Downstream of these troughs, precipitation-bearing storms develop frequently in association with strong jet streams. In contrast, both atmospheric circulation and precipitation were more zonally symmetric in the experiment without mountains. In addition, orography reduces the moisture transport into the continental interiors from nearby oceanic sources. The relative soil wetness of these regions in the experiment without mountains is consistent with paleoclimatic evidence of less aridity during the late Tertiary, before substantial uplift of the Rocky Mountains and Tibetan Plateau is believed to have occurred.

  11. Low latitude middle atmosphere ionization studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassi, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Low latitude middle atmosphere ionization was studied with data obtained from three blunt conductivity probes and one Gerdien condenser. An investigation was conducted into the effects of various ionization sources in the 40 to 65 Km altitude range. An observed enhancement of positive ion conductivity taking place during the night can be explained by an atmsopheric effect, with cosmic rays being the only source of ionization only if the ion-ion recombination coefficient (alpha sub i) is small(10 to the -7 power cu cm/s) and varies greatly with altitude. More generally accepted values of alpha sub i ( approximately equal to 3x10 to the -7 power cu cm/s) require an additional source of ionization peaking at about 65 Km, and corresponding approximately to the integrated effect of an X-ray flux measured on a rocket flown in conjunction with the ionization measurements. The reasonable assumption of an alpha sub i which does not vary with altitude in the 50-70 Km range implies an even greater value alpha sub i and a more intense and harder X-ray spectrum.

  12. Empirical models of high latitude electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Model cross sections of the high latitude dawn-dusk electric field based on OGO-6 data are presented for the signature profiles, most frequently encountered for both + and -Y orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Line integrals give a total potential of 76 keV in each case. To illustrate extremes, examples of model cross-sections with total potentials of 23 keV and 140 keV are also given. Model convection patterns are also presented utilizing OGO-6 data on boundary locations at other magnetic local times. When this information is combined with characteristic field geometries in the region of the Harang discontinuity, and is supplemented by data from Ba+ cloud motions in the polar cap, it becomes possible to construct realistic convection patterns on the nightside which deviate from the usual sun-aligned patterns. The observational models presented are of limited applicability as a consequence of the variability of observed distributions. These limitations are emphasized with particular attention given to several types of recurrent deviations which have not previously been discussed.

  13. Latitude: How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    First longitude, now latitude. From Latitude's title we cannot help thinking of Dava Sobel's recent bestseller, Longitude. I suppose it's unlikely to be such a moneymaker, but this delightful new book by Bill and Merri Sue Carter, a father and daughter team, is similar to Sobel's book. Both are physically small, with short chapters, which makes for a quick read. And both have a clear hero: John Harrison and his chronometers for longitude; and Seth Carlo Chandler Jr. and his almucantar for latitude. Both books eschew academic-style footnoting, although Latitude does list a few useful sources for each chapter and provides a comprehensive list of Chandler's astronomical publications. Chandler's name is known to most AGU members for its association with the 14-month wobble of the Earth's pole. He also discovered the slightly smaller annual wobble, and an argument can be made that he was the principal discoverer of polar motion, or latitude variation, in general.

  14. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari.

  15. Carbon cycling in high-latitude ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Alan; Frolking, Stephen; Holland, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    The carbon-rich soils and peatlands of high-latitude ecosystems could substantially influence atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in a changing climate. Currently, cold, often waterlogged conditions retard decomposition, and release of carbon back to the atmosphere may be further slowed by physical protection of organic matter in permafrost. As a result, many northern ecosystems accumulate carbon over time (Billings et al., 1982; Poole and Miller, 1982), and although such rates of accumulation are low, thousands of years of development have left Arctic ecosystems with an extremely high soil carbon content; Schlesinger's (1984) average value of 20.4 kg C/m(sup 2) leads to a global estimate of 163 x 10(exp 15) g C. All GCM simulations of a doubled CO2 climate predict the greatest warming to occur in the polar regions (Dickinson, 1986; Mitchell, 1989). Given the extensive northern carbon pools and the strong sensitivity of decomposition processes to temperature, even a slight warming of the soil could dramatically alter the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems. If warming accelerates rates of decomposition more than rates of primary production, a sizeable additional accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere could occur. Furthermore, CH4 produced in anaerobic soils and peatlands of the Arctic already composes a good percentage of the global efflux (Cicerone and Oremlund, 1988); if northern soils become warmer and wetter as a whole, CH4 emissions could dramatically rise. A robust understanding of the primary controls of carbon fluxes in Arctic ecosystems is critical. As a framework for a systematic examination of these controls, we discussed a conceptual model of regional-scale Arctic carbon turnover, including CH4 production, and based upon the Century soil organic matter model.

  16. Ulysses observations of latitude gradients in the heliospheric magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Balogh, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Neugebauer, M.; Phillips, J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    Several parameters measured by Ulysses as it traveled southward to heliographic latitudes of -50 deg are presented and analyzed. The radial component of the magnetic field, averaged over 5 deg latitude increments and extrapolated back to 1 AU, is found to agree with baseline measurements provided by IMP-8. There is little, if any, evidence of a latitude gradient, a result consistent with the dominance of the magnetic field associated with the heliospheric current sheet and with recent models which include the effect of the current sheet as well as of source surface fields. Thus far, the spiral angle agrees with the Parker spiral assuming a rate of rotation of the field lines at the Sun equal to the equatorial value. No evidence is seen of either a change in rotation rate with latitude or an unwinding of the spiral as suggested by a recent analysis. Hourly variances in the field magnitude and in the sum of the variances in the components, normalized to the square of the observed field strenght, show the former to be independent of latitude while the latter shows a strong increase with latitude. These two observations are shown to be associated with Alfven waves that are continuously present at high latitudes. The waves have large amplitudes, extend to long periods, and have important implications for galactic cosmic rays and the solar wind.

  17. Reach a New Threshold of Freedom and Control with Dell's Flexible Computing Solution: On-Demand Desktop Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to IT, there has always been an important link between data center control and client flexibility. As computing power increases, so do the potentially crippling threats to security, productivity and financial stability. This article talks about Dell's On-Demand Desktop Streaming solution which is designed to centralize complete…

  18. Viewing Indians: Native Encounters with Power, Tourism, and the Camera in the Wisconsin Dells, 1866-1907

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoelscher, Steven

    2003-01-01

    In the winter of 1883, the photographer H. H. Bennett decided to spice up his descriptive catalogue of stereo views with something new. Several years earlier, a simple listing of his photographs--mostly landscape views of the area surrounding the Wisconsin River Dells--brought the small-town studio photographer considerable renown and enhanced…

  19. Transionospheric HF Propagation Experiments at Auroral Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. G.; Benson, R. F.

    2004-05-01

    High-frequency (HF) propagation experiments are planned as part of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) satellite mission to be launched for the Canadian Space Agency in 2007. Ground transmitters such as the CADI ionosondes and the SuperDARN radars will be operated collaboratively to emit waves for detection by the Radio Receiver Instrument of ePOP during passes in the vicinity. The scientific goals include improved understanding of F-region morphology and dynamics, wave scattering and microphysical plasma processes. Partly as preparation for ePOP, transionospheric HF propagation data recorded by the receivers of the ISIS-I and ISIS-II spacecraft are being analyzed. The measurements were made in spring-summer 1978. A ground transmitter was built in Ottawa especially for the project. Some of the ISIS data were obtained in digital form from http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/isis/isis-status.html. These digital data are being surveyed in an attempt to establish repeatable propagation characteristics. From these characteristics, the goal is to understand the processes experienced by waves passing through the ionosphere. Several tens of ISIS-II passes recorded at a fixed frequency of 9.303 MHz have been examined. Swept-frequency ionograms interleaved with these fixed-frequency measurements allow two-dimensional electron density distributions to be modeled in altitude and latitude. Computer code has been developed for three-dimensional ray tracing. The computed latitudinal extent of the zone irradiated at the ISIS-II altitude is approximately as observed. Within this "iris" of accessibility, the peak intensity of waves recorded at the spacecraft is within about 10 dB of what is computed with a link calculation. This calculation is based on a model for the 1-kW transmitter, a radiant-transfer calculation that follows the focusing/defocusing of rays using a three-ray pencil between ground and the satellite, and the orientation of the sounder receiving dipole. Poleward

  20. Effect of high latitude filtering on NWP skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, E.; Takacs, L. L.; Hoffman, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    The high latitude filtering techniques commonly employed in global grid point models to eliminate the high frequency waves associated with the convergence of meridians, can introduce serious distortions which ultimately affect the solution at all latitudes. Experiments completed so far with the 4 deg x 5 deg, 9-level GLAS Fourth Order Model indicate that the high latitude filter currently in operation affects only minimally its forecasting skill. In one case, however, the use of pressure gradient filter significantly improved the forecast. Three day forecasts with the pressure gradient and operational filters are compared as are 5-day forecasts with no filter.

  1. Alternative Coordinate Systems for High Latitude Ionospheric Plasma Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    altitude nuclear tests were conducted at magnetic L-shells of ahout two or less, mid latitudes because of the location of CrOIls). The scope of current...AL-AIS 851 ALTERNATIVE COORDINATE SYSTEMS FOR HIGH LATITUDE IONOSPHERIC PLASMA STUDI.. U| MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA MARBARA CA D J MALOOF ET AL. IS...5 𔄁 r1 AD-A156 851 r DNA-TR-84-56 ALTERNATIVE COORDINATE SYSTEMS FOR HIGH LATITUDE IONOSPHERIC PLASMA STUDIES D.J. Maloof W.W. White Mission

  2. Quiet geomagnetic field representation for all days and latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.; Schiffmacher, E.R.; Arora, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a technique for obtaining the quiet-time geomagnetic field variation expected for all days of the year and distribution of latitudes from a limited set of selected quiet days within a year at a discrete set of locations. A data set of observatories near 75??E longitude was used as illustration. The method relies upon spatial smoothing of the decomposed spectral components. An evaluation of the fidelity of the resulting model shows correlation coefficients usually above 0.9 at the lower latitudes and near 0.7 at the higher latitudes with variations identified as dependent upon season and field element. -from Authors

  3. Widespread Low-Latitude Diurnal CO2 Frost on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, S.; Kleinböhl, A.; Hayne, P. O.; Heavens, N. G.; Kass, D. M.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Shirley, J. H.

    2016-09-01

    We map and characterize MCS nighttime surface temperature observations consistent with the occurrence of CO2 frost on Mars. Low-latitude nighttime CO2 frost is widespread, with potential implications for the physical nature of the surface layer.

  4. High-latitude E and F region ionospheric predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, R. D.; Allen, R.; Argo, P. E.; Babcock, R.; Bakshi, P.; Lund, D.; Matsushita, S.; Smith, G.; Shirochkov, A. V.; Wortham, G.

    1979-01-01

    The physical processes and morphology of the high latitude E and F layers are discussed. The existence and adequacy of models, and features to be included are examined, as well as reliability of ionospheric predictions.

  5. The Active Latitudes of HAT-P-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brett; Hebb, Leslie; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Transiting planets map the brightness of their host stars, as the flux lost during exoplanet transits is proportional to the integrated flux occulted by the planet. We analyze four years of Kepler short-cadence photometry of HAT-P-11 - an active K4 dwarf with a 29 day rotation period, orbited by a hot-Neptune. Due to its highly-misaligned orbit, the planet occults most stellar latitudes during each transit, and the latitude distribution of spots is encoded in the transit light curves. We model each spot occultation in transit to create a spot map of HAT-P-11, which reveals two active latitudes near ±17 degrees. We investigate whether the spot distribution changes in time, and we compare the spot latitude distributions of HAT-P-11 and the Sun throughout the solar activity cycle.

  6. Shallow water simulations of Saturn's giant storms at different latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Melendo, E.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow water simulations are used to present a unified study of three major storms on Saturn (nicknamed as Great White Spots, GWS) at different latitudes, polar (1960), equatorial (1990), and mid-latitude (2010) (Sánchez-Lavega, 2004; Sánchez-Lavega et al., 2011). In our model, the three GWS are initiated by introducing a Gaussian function pulse at the latitude of the observed phenomena with controlled horizontal size and amplitude. This function represents the convective source that has been observed to trigger the storm. A growing disturbance forms when the pulse reacts to ambient winds, expanding zonally along the latitude band of the considered domain. We then compare the modeled potential vorticity with the cloud field, adjusting the model parameters to visually get the closest aspect between simulations and observations. Simulations of the 2010 GWS (planetographic latitude ∼+40º, zonal velocity of the source ∼-30 m s-1) indicate that the Coriolis forces and the wind profile structure shape the disturbance generating, as observed, a long region to the east of the convective source with a high speed peripheral anticyclonic circulation, and a long-lived anticyclonic compact vortex accompanied by strong zonal advection on the southern part of the storm forming a turbulent region. Simulations of the equatorial 1990 GWS (planetographic latitude +12º-+5º, zonal velocity of the source 365-400 m s-1) show a different behavior because of the intense eastward jet, meridional shear at the equatorial region, and low latitude dynamics. A round shaped source forms as observed, with the rapid growth of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the north side of the source due to advection and to the strong meridional wind shear, whereas at the storm latitude the disturbance grows and propagates eastward. The storm nucleus is the manifestation of a Rossby wave, while the eastward propagating planetary-scale disturbance is a gravity-Rossby wave trapped around the equator

  7. Cosmology with the WFIRST High Latitude Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Olivier

    Cosmic acceleration is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades. Testing and distinguishing among possible explanations requires cosmological measurements of extremely high precision that probe the full history of cosmic expansion and structure growth. The WFIRST-AFTA mission, as described in the Science Definition Team (SDT) reports (Spergel 2013, 2015), has the ability to improve these measurements by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to the current state of the art, while simultaneously extending their redshift grasp, greatly improving control of systematic effects, and taking a unified approach to multiple probes that provide complementary physical information and cross-checks of cosmological results. We have assembled a team with the expertise and commitment needed to address the stringent challenges of the WFIRST dark energy program through the Project's formulation phase. After careful consideration, we have elected to address investigations A (Galaxy Redshift Survey) and C (Weak Lensing and Cluster Growth) of the WFIRST SIT NRA with a unified team, because the two investigations are tightly linked at both the technical level and the theoretical modeling level. The imaging and spectroscopic elements of the High Latitude Survey (HLS) will be realized as an integrated observing program, and they jointly impose requirements on instrument and telescope performance, operations, and data transfer. The methods for simulating and interpreting weak lensing and galaxy clustering observations largely overlap, and many members of our team have expertise in both areas. The team PI, Olivier Dore, is a cosmologist with a broad expertise in cosmic microwave background and large scale structures. Yun Wang and Chris Hirata will serve as Lead Co-Investigators for topics A and C, respectively. Many members of our team have been involved with the design and requirements of a dark energy space mission for a decade or more, including the Co-Chair and three

  8. Dependence of the charge exchange lifetimes on mirror latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. H.; Bewtra, N. K.

    1976-01-01

    The dependence of the charge exchange lifetimes on the mirror latitude for ions mirroring off the geomagnetic equator was re-computed using the improved hydrogen distribution models. The Chamberlain model was used to define the spatial distribution of the neutral hydrogen environment through which the ring current ions traverse. The resultant dependence of the charge exchange lifetime on mirror latitude is best fitted by the approximation that contains the charge exchange lifetime for equatorial particles.

  9. Very low latitude (L = 1.08) whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Cohen, Morris B.; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Veenadhari, B.; Kumar, Sushil; Pant, P.; Said, Ryan K.; Inan, Umran S.

    2012-12-01

    For decades, whistlers observed on the ground at mid and high latitudes have been used for diagnostics of Earth's plasmasphere. Whistlers have also been observed at low latitudes however, the propagation characteristics of low latitude whistlers are poorly understood thus they have not been used effectively as a diagnostic for the low latitude ionosphere. One key limitation with past studies has been lack of knowledge of the whistler source lightning location. Here we present the first cases of low latitude ground whistlers most likely linked with their causative lightning discharges in the conjugate zone. The Global Lightning Dataset 360 (GLD360) detected lightning discharges were found to be located close to the conjugate location of the recording stations, providing direct evidence of inter-hemispheric propagation at the low latitudes. A total of 864 whistlers were observed at Allahabad, India (Geomag. lat. 16.05°N Geomag. long. 155.34°E L = 1.08) during the night of 26 January 2011. Using GLD360 network data, we show the occurrence of thunderstorm activity between 200 and 450 km from the conjugate point of Allahabad. We also report the distribution of peak currents of whistler-producing lightning, which demonstrate a cutoff at 30 kA.

  10. Polar and high latitude substorms and solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despirak, I. V.; Lyubchich, A. A.; Kleimenova, N. G.

    2014-09-01

    All substorm disturbances observed in polar latitudes can be divided into two types: polar, which are observable at geomagnetic latitudes higher than 70° in the absence of substorms below 70°, and high latitude substorms, which travel from auroral (<70°) to polar (>70°) geomagnetic latitudes. The aim of this study is to compare conditions in the IMF and solar wind, under which these two types of substorms are observable on the basis of data from meridional chain of magnetometers IMAGE and OMNI database for 1995, 2000, and 2006-2011. In total, 105 polar and 55 high latitude substorms were studied. It is shown that polar substorms are observable at a low velocity of solar wind after propagation of a high-speed recurrent stream during the late recovery phase of a magnetic storm. High latitude substorms, in contrast, are observable with a high velocity of solar wind, increased values of the Bz component of the IMF, the Ey component of the electric field, and solar wind temperature and pressure, when a high-speed recurrent stream passes by the Earth.

  11. 77 FR 10800 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALTERNATE LATITUDE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... LATITUDE; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... applicant the intended service of the vessel ALTERNATE LATITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of...

  12. Storm time plasma transport at middle and high latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    Associated with the large-scale enhancement of the ionospheric convection electric field during disturbed geomagnetic conditions, solar-produced F region plasma is transported to and through the noontime cleft from a source region at middle and low latitudes in the afternoon sector. As a result of the offset between the geomagnetic and geographic poles, the afternoon sector region of strong sunward convection is shifted to increasingly lower geographic latitude throughout the interval between 12 UT and 24 UT. A snowplow effect occurs in which the convection cell continually encounters fresh corotating ionospheric plasma along its equatorward edge, producing a latitudinally narrow region of storm-enhanced plasma density (SED) and increased total electron content which is advected toward higher latitudes in the noon sector. The Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar regularly observes SED as a spatially continuous, large-scale feature spanning local times between noon and midnight and at latitudes between the polar cap and its mid- or low-latitude source region. For local times away from noon, the latitude of most probable SED occurrence moves equatorward by 6[degrees] for an increase of 2 in the Kp index. During strong disturbances the topside SED is observed to be convecting sunward at [approximately]750 m s[sup [minus]1] with a flux of 10[sup 14] m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]. This feature accounts for the pronounced enhancement of ionospheric density near dusk at middle latitudes observed during the early stages of magnetic storms (called the dusk effect) and constitutes a source for the enhanced F region plasma observed in the polar cap during disturbed conditions. 34 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Space weather and myocardial infarction diseases at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey; Kleimenova, Natalia; Petrova, Palmira

    The relationship of the number of calls for the emergency medical care in Yakutsk (subauroral latitudes) in connection with myocardial infarction diseases during years near the maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) of the 11-year geomagnetic disturbance cycle to space weather parameters has been studied. It is found that at subauroral latitudes, the increase of geomagnetic activity, namely, the occurrence of night magnetospheric substorms, plays the important role in the exacerbation of myocardial infarctions. Substorms are accompanied by Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations with periods of (0.5-3.0) Hz, coinciding with heart rhythms of a human being, thus, these waves can be a biotropic factor negatively influencing on the occurrence of myocardial infarctions. The comparison of seasonal change of the number of calls for emergency medical care to patients at subauroral latitudes with a simultaneous seasonal change of fatal endings because of an infarction at low latitudes (Bulgaria) has shown their essential difference. Thus, in Bulgaria the maximum of infarctions have been marked in winter, and minimum - in summer, and in Yakutsk a few maxima coinciding with the sharp and considerable increases of the level of the planetary geomagnetic disturbances have been observed. In this case, in Bulgaria the infarctions could be connected with availability of the Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations. Thus, the stable quasi-sinusoidal Pc1 pulsations can be a biotropic factor influencing on the development of myocardial infarctions at middle latitudes and the Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations, which do not propagate to the lower latitudes, could be a biotropic factor at subauroral latitudes.

  14. High-latitude dust in the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gassó, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; McKenna-Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-06-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (≥50°N and ≥40°S) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 km2 and contribute at least 80-100 Tg yr-1 of dust to the Earth system (~5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  15. Solar correlates of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, Ronald E.

    2002-06-01

    Atmospheric circulation in the southern mid-latitudes is dominated by strong circum-Antarctic zonal west winds (ZWW) over the latitude range of 35 to 60°S. These winds exhibit coherent seasonal and interannual variability, which has been related both to Antarctic (e.g. polar ice) and low-latitude climate (e.g. El Niño-southern oscillation) parameters. Historical and recent studies suggest that, at its northern margins, variability in the ZWW also has a marked quasi-decadal component. Analysis of sea-level pressure and rainfall data for the Australian region, South Africa and South America confirms frequent indications of quasi-decadal variability in parameters associated with the ZWW, which appears to be in phase around the hemisphere. This variation broadly correlates with the sunspot cycle, and specifically appears to reflect sunspot-correlated, seasonally modulated shifts in the latitude range each year of the sub-tropical ridge over eastern Australia. Sunspot-correlated variability in the southern mid-latitudes is likely to have substantial effects on temperate climate and ecology and is consistent with recent models of solar effects on upper atmospheric climate, though the mechanisms that link these to winds and rainfall at sea level remain obscure.

  16. AN ABSENCE OF FAST RADIO BURSTS AT INTERMEDIATE GALACTIC LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect

    Petroff, E.; Van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F.; Johnston, S.; Bates, S. D.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Tiburzi, C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D.; Ng, C.; Levin, L.; and others

    2014-07-10

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (–15° latitudes. A revised rate estimate or another strong and heretofore unknown selection effect in Galactic latitude would provide closer agreement between the surveys' detection rates. The dearth of detections at low Galactic latitude disfavors a Galactic origin for these bursts.

  17. Global analysis of thermal tolerance and latitude in ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Sunday, Jennifer M; Bates, Amanda E; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2011-06-22

    A tenet of macroecology is that physiological processes of organisms are linked to large-scale geographical patterns in environmental conditions. Species at higher latitudes experience greater seasonal temperature variation and are consequently predicted to withstand greater temperature extremes. We tested for relationships between breadths of thermal tolerance in ectothermic animals and the latitude of specimen location using all available data, while accounting for habitat, hemisphere, methodological differences and taxonomic affinity. We found that thermal tolerance breadths generally increase with latitude, and do so at a greater rate in the Northern Hemisphere. In terrestrial ectotherms, upper thermal limits vary little while lower thermal limits decrease with latitude. By contrast, marine species display a coherent poleward decrease in both upper and lower thermal limits. Our findings provide comprehensive global support for hypotheses generated from studies at smaller taxonomic subsets and geographical scales. Our results further indicate differences between terrestrial and marine ectotherms in how thermal physiology varies with latitude that may relate to the degree of temperature variability experienced on land and in the ocean.

  18. Map of Martian Thorium at Mid-Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This gamma ray spectrometer map of the mid-latitude region of Mars is based on gamma-rays from the element thorium. Thorium is a naturally radioactive element that exists in rocks and soils in extremely small amounts. The region of highest thorium content, shown in red, is found in the northern part of Acidalia Planitia (50 degrees latitude, -30 degrees longitude). Areas of low thorium content, shown in blue, are spread widely across the planet with significant low abundances located to the north of Olympus Mons (near 55 degrees latitude, -155 degrees longitude), to the east of the Tharsis volcanoes (-10 degrees latitude, -80 degrees longitude) and to the south and east of Elysium Mons (20 degrees latitude, 160 degrees longitude). Contours of constant surface elevation are also shown. The long continuous contour line running from east to west marks the approximate separation of the younger lowlands in the north from the older highlands in the south.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The gamma ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona, Tucson. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Operational high latitude surface irradiance products from polar orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godøy, Øystein

    2016-12-01

    It remains a challenge to find an adequate approach for operational estimation of surface incoming short- and longwave irradiance at high latitudes using polar orbiting meteorological satellite data. In this presentation validation results at a number of North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean high latitude stations are presented and discussed. The validation results have revealed that although the method works well and normally fulfil the operational requirements, there is room for improvement. A number of issues that can improve the estimates at high latitudes have been identified. These improvements are partly related to improved cloud classification using satellite data and partly related to improved handling of multiple reflections over bright surfaces (snow and sea ice), especially in broken cloud conditions. Furthermore, the availability of validation sites over open ocean and sea ice is a challenge.

  20. Star Formation in High-Latitude Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnus McGehee, Peregrine

    2015-08-01

    Galactic star formation preferentially occurs within the dense molecular clouds that reside primarily near the disk mid-plane and are thus seen in projection against the Milky Way. A population of molecular clouds are seen at higher Galactic latitude although distance determinations are required in order to identify those that are actually in extraplanar environments.We review the known high-latitude star formation regions (MBM 12, LDN 1642, and HRK 81.4-77.8) and discuss the nature and environment of other high-latitude molecular clouds. Distances to each of these structures are deduced from optical reddening profiles derived from analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. In particular, we examine those molecular clouds found within the complex of intermediate and high velocity HI clouds that span the Northern 2nd Galactic Quadrant: the Draco clouds, the IVC pair at (l+b) = 135+51 and 135+54, and IREC 306.

  1. On the Origins of the High-latitude Hα Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Adolf N.; Gold, Benjamin; Barnes, Frank S., III; DeRoo, Casey T.; Vijh, Uma P.; Madsen, Gregory J.

    2010-12-01

    The diffuse high-latitude Hα background is widely believed to be predominantly the result of in situ recombination of ionized hydrogen in the warm interstellar medium of the Galaxy. Instead, we show that both a substantial fraction of the diffuse high-latitude Hα intensity in regions dominated by Galactic cirrus dust and much of the variance in the high-latitude Hα background are the result of scattering by interstellar dust of Hα photons originating elsewhere in the Galaxy. We provide an empirical relation, which relates the expected scattered Hα intensity to the IRAS 100 μm diffuse background intensity, applicable to about 81% of the entire sky. The assumption commonly made in reductions of cosmic microwave background observations, namely that the observed all-sky map of diffuse Hα light is a suitable template for Galactic free-free foreground emission, is found to be in need of reexamination.

  2. CORAL REEFS. Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Groves B; Davies, Sarah W; Aglyamova, Galina A; Meyer, Eli; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2015-06-26

    As global warming continues, reef-building corals could avoid local population declines through "genetic rescue" involving exchange of heat-tolerant genotypes across latitudes, but only if latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance is heritable. Here, we show an up-to-10-fold increase in odds of survival of coral larvae under heat stress when their parents come from a warmer lower-latitude location. Elevated thermal tolerance was associated with heritable differences in expression of oxidative, extracellular, transport, and mitochondrial functions that indicated a lack of prior stress. Moreover, two genomic regions strongly responded to selection for thermal tolerance in interlatitudinal crosses. These results demonstrate that variation in coral thermal tolerance across latitudes has a strong genetic basis and could serve as raw material for natural selection.

  3. Theory of the low-latitude boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. OE.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional steady state fluid mechanical model is developed of the low-latitude plasma boundary layer inside the dawn and dusk magnetopause. Momentum transfer in the layer is produced by viscosity and/or mass diffusion. Coupling to the ionosphere is achieved via field-aligned currents, the magnitude of which is limited by parallel potential drops. These currents flow into and out of the ionosphere in the manner described by Iijima and Potemra. The higher-latitude (region 1) currents are associated with the boundary layer proper, while the lower-latitude (region 2) ones are associated with a region of sunward return flow adjacent to the boundary layer. The parallel potential drops have a magnitude of typically 2-3 kV and a north-south extent of 100-200 km. The calculated potential profile corresponds reasonably well to observed inverted V precipitation events.

  4. Understanding the Relation between Attitude Involvement and Response Latitude Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Christopher J.; Withrow, Scott; Zickar, Michael J.; Wood, Nicole L.; Dalal, Dev K.; Bochinski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Adapting the original latitude of acceptance concept to Likert-type surveys, response latitudes are defined as the range of graded response options a person is willing to endorse. Response latitudes were expected to relate to attitude involvement such that high involvement was linked to narrow latitudes (the result of selective, careful…

  5. Equivalent Latitude Computation Using Regions of Interest (ROI)

    PubMed Central

    Añel, Juan A.; Allen, Douglas R.; Sáenz, Guadalupe; Gimeno, Luis; de la Torre, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel algorithm to compute equivalent latitude by applying regions of interest (ROI). The technique is illustrated using code written in Interactive Data Language (IDL). The ROI method is compared with the “piecewise-constant” method, the approach commonly used in atmospheric sciences, using global fields of atmospheric potential vorticity. The ROI method is considerably more accurate and computationally faster than the piecewise-constant method, and it also works well with irregular grids. Both the ROI and piecewise-constant IDL codes for equivalent latitude are included as a useful reference for the research community. PMID:24086267

  6. Energy sources of the high latitude upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodynamic (Joule) dissipation and plasma wave heating are reviewed as sources of energy for the upper atmosphere at high latitudes. Electrodynamic heating in the thermosphere is described by a generalized energy balance equation taking into account a variety of inelastic processes and energy losses, and the use of height-integrated values of the Joule heating rate to estimate the importance of electrodynamic heating at high latitudes is discussed. Observations of electrons between 95 and 115 km altitude that are up to 1000 K hotter than the neutral atmosphere is presented as evidence for atmospheric heating due to unstable plasma waves arising from the Farley-Buneman modified two-stream instability.

  7. Effect of high latitude filtering on NWP skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, E.; Hoffman, R.; Takacs, L. L.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the extent to which polar filtering may seriously affect the skill of latitude-longitude NWP models, such as the U.S. Navy's NOGAPS, or the GLAS fourth-order model. The limited experiments which have been completed to date with the 4 x 5-deg, 9-level version of the latter model indicate that the high latitude filter currently in operation affects its forecasting skill very little, with only one exception in which the use of the PG filter significantly improved forecasting.

  8. Comparison of IRI model predictions with low latitude ionospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, J. A.; Chryssafidis, M.

    During a period of high solar activity (1979/1980), IRI-predicted electron density profiles were compared with measurements made at Fortaleza (Brazil), 2 degrees off the dip equator. A few discrepancies were found. They are attributed mainly to dynamical effects associated with low latitude E x B electromagnetic plasma drifts and thermospheric neutral winds that are not correctly reproduced in the CCIR numerical maps and in the IRI profile shapes as well. In particular, the dependence on the magnetic declination angle, which strongly affects the electrodynamical plasma motions at low latitudes, is not satisfactorily considered in the models.

  9. High latitude regulation of low latitude thermocline ventilation and planktic foraminifer populations across glacial-interglacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Philip F.; Norris, Richard D.

    2011-11-01

    One of the earliest discoveries in palaeoceanography was the observation in 1935 that the (sub)tropical planktic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii became absent or extremely rare in the Atlantic Ocean during glacials of the late Pleistocene. Yet a mechanistic explanation for G. menardii's extraordinary biogeographic behaviour has eluded palaeoceanographers for 75 years. Here we show that modern G. menardii, along with two other species that also suffer Atlantic population collapses during glacials, track poorly ventilated waters globally in their thermocline habitats. The ventilation states of low latitude thermoclines are 'set', to a first order, by intermediate water masses originating at high latitudes. In the modern Atlantic this control on low latitude thermocline ventilation is exerted by relatively poorly ventilated, southern-sourced Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and sub-Antarctic Mode Water (SAMW). We suggest that the glacial Atlantic foraminifer population collapses were a consequence of a low latitude thermocline that was better ventilated during glacials than it is today, in line with geochemical evidence, and driven primarily by a well-ventilated, northern-sourced intermediate water mass. A ventilation mechanism driving the glacial population collapses is further supported by our new constraints on the precise timing of these species' Atlantic proliferation during the last deglaciation — occurring in parallel with a wholesale, bipolar reorganisation of the Atlantic's thermocline-to-abyssal overturning circulation. Our findings demonstrate that a bipolar seesaw in the formation of high latitude intermediate waters has played an important role in regulating the population dynamics of thermocline-dwelling plankton at lower latitudes.

  10. Working Model of a Foucault Pendulum at Intermediate Latitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Francis W.

    1969-01-01

    Describes a working model of a Foucault pendulum at intermediate latitudes constructed of a steel drill rod with a steel ball attached at one end. The rod makes an angle of 45 degrees with the rotation axis of a horizontal turntable. The vibrating system is the same as that which led Foucault to construct his first gravity pendulum. (LC)

  11. Mapping High Latitude Gravity Wave Amplitudes over Antarctica during Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badenhausen, P.; Millan, R. M.; Gerrard, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Appropriate inclusion of gravity wave amplitudes into general circulation models is required to get accurate atmospheric circulation characteristics. However, high latitude gravity wave amplitudes are particularly difficult to obtain due to the challenging experimental and logistical constraints in these regions. In this study, we present gravity wave climatology of high latitudes during austral summer conditions over the Antarctic continent. These data were obtained using high-resolution GPS measurements aboard long duration high altitude balloon flights that were flown as part of the NASA Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) mission in December 2013-February 2014 and December 2012-February 2013. The results show increased gravity wave activity along the coast of the Antarctic continent, particularly over the Peninsula and Halley Bay, whereas at higher latitudes, particularly over regions near the South Pole, gravity wave amplitudes decrease substantially. Through use of horizontal winds data, we obtained measurements of the vertical transport of horizontal momentum fluxes, which were unusually high for the summer high latitude lower stratosphere. Such unique measurements as these are immediately applicable to understanding of upwelling in the summer middle atmosphere as well as to the formation of overlaying mesospheric clouds formation.

  12. Tropical and mid-latitude forcing of continental Antarctic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, C. S. M.; Fogwill, C. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; van Ommen, T. D.; Curran, M. A. J.; Moy, A. D.; Palmer, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Future changes in atmospheric circulation and associated modes of variability are a major source of uncertainty in climate projections. Nowhere is this issue more acute than across the mid-latitudes to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH), which over the last few decades have experienced extreme and regionally variable trends in precipitation, ocean circulation and temperature, with major implications for Antarctic ice melt and surface mass balance. Unfortunately there is a relative dearth of observational data, limiting our understanding of the driving mechanism(s). Here we report a new 130-year annually resolved record of δD - a proxy for temperature - from the geographic South Pole where we find a significant influence from extratropical pressure anomalies which act as "gatekeepers" to the meridional exchange of air masses. Reanalysis of global atmospheric circulation suggests these pressure anomalies play a significant influence on mid- to high-latitude SH climate, modulated by the tropical Pacific Ocean. This work adds to a growing body of literature confirming the important roles of tropical and mid-latitude atmospheric circulation variability on Antarctic temperatures. Our findings suggest that future increasing tropical warmth will strengthen meridional circulation, exaggerating current trends, with potentially significant impacts on Antarctic surface mass balance.

  13. A solar cycle timing predictor - The latitude of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A 'Spoerer butterfly' method is used to examine solar cycle 22. It is shown from the latitude of active regions that the cycle can now be expected to peak near November 1989 + or - 8 months, basically near the latter half of 1989.

  14. Simulation of nose whistlers: An application to low latitude whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kalpana; Singh, R. P.; Kumar Singh, Abhay; Singh, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Simulation technique for whistler mode signal propagating through inhomogeneous plasma using WKB approximation has been developed (Singh, K., Singh, R.P., Ferencz, O.E., 2004. Simulation of whistler mode propagation for low latitude stations. Earth Planet Space 56, 979-987). In the present paper, we have used it for the analysis of recorded signals at low latitudes and estimated the nose frequency, which is not observed on the dynamic spectra. At low latitudes nose frequency is ˜100 kHz or more and therefore it is absent in the dynamic spectra due to attenuation of the signal at higher frequencies. The importance of nose frequency is in determining the exact path of propagation, which is required in probing of ambient medium. It is shown that the method permits to study the nose frequency variation, it can be used to deduce physical parameters as the global electric field. A case study permits to get a reasonable value of the electric field, which up to now could not be done at very low latitude.

  15. Earth-Sun Relationships: Latitude, Longitude and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    High school students learn about the sun's effects on the earth by examining the concepts of latitude and longitude, seasons, and time. Each of these topics is treated in a separate, but similarly organized, unit. Relevant vocabulary is introduced, and complex terms are clarified with diagrams and illustrations. In the unit on time, potentially…

  16. Seasonal dependence of the substorm overshielding at the subauroral latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, K. K.; Kikuchi, T.

    2012-12-01

    We have shown that the equatorial counter electrojet (CEJ) is observed on the dayside when the overshielding electric field is dominant at subauroral latitudes on the dusk during substorm expansion phase. In this study, we examine if all the equatorial CEJs are accompanied by overshielding at subauroral latitudes by using ground magnetometer networks, IMAGE and INTERMAGNET during the period from 2000 to 2003. We selected 469 CEJ events from magnetometer data at Huancayo in Peru observed with the positive bay at Kakioka, Japan on the nightside. Overshielding was observed at subauroral stations of the IMAGE for 263 CEJ events, while it was not observed for 206 events. We found that the occurrence of the overshielding at subauroral latitudes significantly depends on the season; they tend to occur in the winter period from November to February. On the other hand, the convection electric field is dominant at the subauroral latitude during the northern summer period from April to August. Overshielding electric field that causes the CEJ during the northern summer should be originated from the southern hemisphere. Our results suggest that the overshielding electric field is stronger in winter than in summer if the convection electric field does not depend on the season. These features would be explained by assuming that the dynamo for the Region-1 field-aligned currents (R1 FACs) is the voltage generator, while that for the R2 FACs is the current generator.

  17. The Interchange Instability in High-Latitude Plasma Blobs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-30

    identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB- GROUP Ionospheric structure, Radio scintillation mechanism Interchange instability High latitude ionosphere...become important. We present Fome sImple analytical expressions for the growth rate of The E* B Instability "or the above three cases in Appendix B. It

  18. Multifractal analysis of low-latitude geomagnetic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzan, M. J. A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sahai, Y.

    2009-02-01

    The technique of large deviation multifractal spectrum has shown that the high-latitude (77.5° N, 69.2° W) geomagnetic fluctuations can be described from direct dissipation process or loading-unloading regimes of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. In this paper, we analyze the H-component of low-latitude (22.4° S, 43.6° W) geomagnetic field variability observed during the month of July 2000 at the Geomagnetic Observatory, Vassouras, RJ, Brazil. The variability pattern during this period is a mixture of quiet and disturbed days including the Bastille Day intense geomagnetic storm on 15 July. Due to the complexity of this data, we pursue a detailed analysis of the geomagnetic fluctuations in different time scales including a multifractal approach using the singular power spectrum deviations obtained from the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM). The results suggest, as observed from high-latitude data, the occurrence of low-latitude multifractal processes driving the intermittent coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere and geomagnetic field variations. On finer scales possible physical mechanisms in the context of nonlinear magnetosphere response are discussed.

  19. Lateral ventricle morphology analysis via mean latitude axis.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Lyall, Amanda; Berger, Jean-Baptiste; Vachet, Clement; Hamer, Robert M; Woolson, Sandra; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John; Styner, Martin

    2013-03-29

    Statistical shape analysis has emerged as an insightful method for evaluating brain structures in neuroimaging studies, however most shape frameworks are surface based and thus directly depend on the quality of surface alignment. In contrast, medial descriptions employ thickness information as alignment-independent shape metric. We propose a joint framework that computes local medial thickness information via a mean latitude axis from the well-known spherical harmonic (SPHARM-PDM) shape framework. In this work, we applied SPHARM derived medial representations to the morphological analysis of lateral ventricles in neonates. Mild ventriculomegaly (MVM) subjects are compared to healthy controls to highlight the potential of the methodology. Lateral ventricles were obtained from MRI scans of neonates (9-144 days of age) from 30 MVM subjects as well as age- and sex-matched normal controls (60 total). SPHARM-PDM shape analysis was extended to compute a mean latitude axis directly from the spherical parameterization. Local thickness and area was straightforwardly determined. MVM and healthy controls were compared using local MANOVA and compared with the traditional SPHARM-PDM analysis. Both surface and mean latitude axis findings differentiate successfully MVM and healthy lateral ventricle morphology. Lateral ventricles in MVM neonates show enlarged shapes in tail and head. Mean latitude axis is able to find significant differences all along the lateral ventricle shape, demonstrating that local thickness analysis provides significant insight over traditional SPHARM-PDM. This study is the first to precisely quantify 3D lateral ventricle morphology in MVM neonates using shape analysis.

  20. Redefining the Longitude/Latitude Experience with a Scaffolded Geocache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Thomas; Bozdin, Alec M.; Stanlick, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Latitude and longitude are foundational concepts for geography education, yet they are typically poorly understood by students and receive indifferent attention from instructors and publishers' materials. Social studies teachers can take advantage of increasingly ubiquitous geolocating devices such as Global Positions Systems (GPS) to provide…

  1. Teaching Latitude and Longitude in the Upper Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Peter C.; Gondesen, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the desirability of teaching latitude and longitude concepts to upper elementary students. Includes a four-lesson unit on the topics. Employs hurricane tracking information available from the National Hurricane Center. Provides a foundation for future lessons on Middle and North American geography. (SG)

  2. Joule heating in the high-latitude mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    The contribution made by Joule dissipation to heating of the daytime high-latitude upper mesosphere is discussed. During solar proton precipitation events in regions of large electric fields, Joule dissipation can be substantially larger than the local solar heating rate. Altitude profiles of Joule dissipation are presented for the polar cleft region for the August 4, 1972, solar proton event.

  3. More about the structure of the high latitude Jovian aurorae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallier, Laurent; Prangé, Renée

    2001-08-01

    This study is based on the determination of a 'reference' main oval for Jupiter's aurora from a series of high-resolution images taken with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope in the H 2 Lyman bands centered near 1550 Å. We have taken advantage of the visibility of the northern auroral oval over a large range of longitudes on June 24, 1994, especially for longitudes smaller than 170° where it is generally very faint and thus undetectable. In the south, where there is no such problem, we combined images taken from various points of view between June 1994 and September 1996. We find that the northern main oval is consistent in size and in general aspect with the footprint locus, in the Connerney (1998)'s VIP4 model, of magnetic field lines crossing the equator near 20 RJ. However, the precise shape of this oval differs from the model (and from previous 'reference' main ovals) in that it exhibits a 'bean-like' aspect with excursions toward lower latitudes in the SIII longitude range 190-240° (an already reported feature), and toward higher latitudes in the poorly documented 120-150° range. In the south, our reference oval covers an area about that of the 30 RJ VIP4 model. As in the north, it is shifted from a VIP4 model oval, toward lower latitudes from 110 to 200° and toward higher latitudes from 310 to 100°. The accurate definition of these (magnetically conjugate) oval loci puts additional strong constraints on magnetic field models at high latitude. Based on our reference main oval, we have then extrapolated still higher latitude ovals. Very interestingly, we find that we can fit (i) the highest latitude arc of oval detected well inside the main oval at longitudes greater than 170°, and (ii) the high latitude edge of what we had previously named the 'transpolar emission' at longitudes less than 170° (both also detected on images taken at other dates), by a single empirical oval. We suggest that this oval indicates the location of

  4. Monitoring and Forecasting Ionospheric Scintillation at High Latitudes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, P.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Chadwick, R.; Kelly, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric scintillation (rapid signal amplitude fading and phase fluctuation) poses a threat to reliable and safe operation of modern technology that relies on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Ionospheric scintillation of GNSS signal severely degrades positional accuracy, causes cycle slips leading to loss of lock that affects performance of radio communication and navigation systems. At high latitudes, the scintillation is caused by ionospheric irregularities produced through coupling between solar wind plasma and the magnetosphere. Climatology of GPS scintillation at high latitudes in both hemispheres shows that phase scintillation occurs predominantly on the dayside in the cusp and in the nightside auroral oval. Solar wind disturbances, in particular the co-rotating interaction regions (CIR) on the leading edge of high-speed streams (HSS) and interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME), have been closely correlated with the occurrence of scintillation at high latitudes. These results demonstrated a technique of probabilistic forecast of high-latitude phase scintillation occurrence relative to arrival times of HSS and ICME. The Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) has been monitoring GPS ionospheric scintillation and total electron content (TEC) since November 2007. One-minute amplitude and phase scintillation indices from L1 GPS signals and TEC from L1 and L2 GPS signals are computed from amplitude and phase data sampled at 50 Hz. Since 2012, significant expansion of CHAIN has begun with installation of new receivers, each capable of tracking up to 30 satellites including GLONASS and Galileo. The receivers log the raw phase and amplitude of the signal up to a 100-Hz rate for scintillation measurements. We briefly review observations of ionospheric scintillation and highlight new results from CHAIN, including the climatology of scintillation occurrence, collocation with aurora and HF radar backscatter, correlation with CIRs and ICMEs

  5. Changing climate cues differentially alter zooplankton dormancy dynamics across latitudes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Natalie T; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal climates, dormancy is a common strategy that structures biodiversity and is necessary for the persistence of many species. Climate change will likely alter dormancy dynamics in zooplankton, the basis of aquatic food webs, by altering two important hatching cues: mean temperatures during the ice-free season, and mean day length when lakes become ice free. Theory suggests that these changes could alter diversity, hatchling abundances and phenology within lakes, and that these responses may diverge across latitudes due to differences in optimal hatching cues and strategies. To examine the role of temperature and day length on hatching dynamics, we collected sediment from 25 lakes across a 1800 km latitudinal gradient and exposed sediment samples to a factorial combination of two photoperiods (12 and 16 h) and two temperatures (8 and 12 °C) representative of historical southern (short photoperiod, warm) and northern (long photoperiod, cool) lake conditions. We tested whether sensitivity to these hatching cues varies by latitudinal origin and differs among taxa. Higher temperatures advanced phenology for all taxa, and these advances were greatest for cladocerans followed by copepods and rotifers. Although phenology differed among taxa, the effect of temperature did not vary with latitude. The latitudinal origin of the egg bank influenced egg abundance and hatchling abundance and diversity, with these latter effects varying with taxa, temperature and photoperiod. Copepod hatchling abundances peaked at mid-latitudes in the high temperature and long photoperiod treatments, whereas hatchling abundances of other zooplankton were greatest at low latitudes and high temperature. The overall diversity of crustacean zooplankton (copepods and cladocerans) also reflected distinct responses of each taxa to our treatments, with the greatest diversity occurring at mid-latitudes (~56 °N) in the shorter photoperiod treatment. Our results demonstrate that hatching cues

  6. Geographic control of Titan's mid-latitude clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, H. G.; Brown, M. E.; Schaller, E. L.; Bouchez, A. H.; Trujillo, C. A.

    2005-08-01

    Observations of tropospheric clouds (1-6) and the recent Huygens images of channels show that Titan has an active methane hydrological cycle. Titan's south polar clouds are now well known (3-5) and thought to be driven by small seasonal variations in surface temperature (3). The recent discovery (6) and continued observations (7) of significant cloud activity at 40oS latitude led to the suggestion that these mid-latitude clouds are the result of either seasonally evolving global circulation or surface geography (6). We report here further observations of Titan that clearly link the formation of the mid-latitude clouds to a region of Titan's surface centered at ˜350oW longitude, ˜40oS latitude. Analysis of the complete dataset does not support the earlier suggestion (6) that these clouds are a new phenomenon related to seasonal change. The strong link between geographic location and cloud formation along with the lack of evidence for seasonal change in the mid-latitude clouds leads to the conclusion that a geological mechanism is responsible for the formation of these clouds. We propose that geysers or cryovolcanism are sporadically active near ˜350oW longitude, ˜40oS latitude. The implied rate of volatile release would easily supply enough methane to balance the loss to photolytic chemistry in the upper atmosphere. 1. Griffith, C.A., Owen, T., Miller, G.A., Geballe, T., Nature 395, 575-578 (1998). 2. Griffith, C.A., Hall, J.L., Geballe, T.R., Science 290, 509-513 (2000). 3. Brown, M.E., Bouchez, A.H., Griffith, C.A., Nature 420, 795-797 (2002). 4. Roe, H.G., de Pater, I., Macintosh, B.A., McKay, C.P., ApJ 581, 1399-1406 (2002). 5. Bouchez, A.H., Brown, M.E., ApJ 618, L53-L56 (2005). 6. Roe, H.G., Bouchez, A.H., Trujillo, C.A., Schaller, E.L., Brown, M.E., ApJ 618, L49-L52 (2005). 7. Porco, C.C., et al., Nature 434, 159-168 (2005). HGR is supported by an NSF Astronomy & Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship (NSF AST-0401559). ELS is supported by an NSF Graduate

  7. Assessment of Plasma Transport and Convection at High Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The high-latitude ionosphere is strongly coupled to the thermosphere and magnetosphere. The magnetospheric coupling occurs via electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle precipitation. Owing to the interaction of the shocked solar wind with the geomagnetic field, an electric potential difference is generated across the tail of the magnetosphere, with the resulting electric field pointing from dawn to dusk. Energetic particle precipitation from the magnetosphere in the auroral region leads to the creation of ionization and to electron, ion, and neutral gas heating. In order to assess the current understanding of plasma transport and convection at high latitudes, it is necessary to take account of the strong coupling between the ionosphere, thermosphere, and magnetosphere.

  8. Orbital control of low-latitude seasonality during the Eemian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, A.; Paul, A.; Nyberg, J.; Oba, T.; Lundberg, J.; Schrag, D.; Taggart, B.

    2003-01-01

    We used Sr/Ca and stable isotope data from well dated and preserved corals from the northeastern Caribbean to determine the seasonal environmental conditions for four continuous years during the Eemian, the last time the Earth was in a prolonged warm phase. We determined that the seasonal range in SST during the Eemian was 25??-30?? C. This is ???1-2?? larger than at present and caused primarily by winter cooling and, only to a small degree, by summer warming. As climate modeling studies indicate, the bias towards colder winters can be explained by changes in low latitude insolation induced by altered orbital parameters, modulated by atmospheric CO2 levels that were lower than today. Milankovitch forcing at higher latitudes was probably less important.

  9. Determination and analysis of local seasonal terms of latitude variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloducha, Barbara

    1991-03-01

    Local seasonal terms of latitude variations were determined on the basis of phi data of 17 BIH/IMPS stations and x, y, z data of the BIH global solution during the years 1967-1978. Some models for local corrections R to the latitude introduced by the BIH are created. The corrections R obtained from the least squares adjustment from one year data appear to be the best. The present study shows that it is necessary to determine these more frequently than once a year or to compute them for all stations simultaneously with the ERP. This will be particularly important in view of the future re-reduction of past astrometric data.

  10. Maritime User Requirements at High Latitudes - the MARENOR Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behlke, R.

    2014-12-01

    The ionosphere at high latitudes is characterised by a great variety of spatial and temporal variations that influence radio signals. In addition to navigation solutions that are based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), satellite communication systems also suffer from ionospheric degradation. This is worsened by harsh weather conditions, insufficient coverage by geostationary satellites and the absence of land-based augmentation infrastructure. Climate change will lead to a decrease in sea ice extent and thus to an increased use of trans-polar shipping routes, presence of gas and oil industries in the High Arctic and higher focus on Search-and-Rescue (SAR) as well as sovereignty issues. These moments usually require navigation and communication solutions that are accurate and reliable. We describe requirements presented by industrial operators on and around Svalbard. In addition, we present the MARENOR project that aims on evaluating navigation and communication systems at high latitudes including first results

  11. High-Latitude Ionospheric Dynamics During Conditions of Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes operating during conditions of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), in situ measurements from the Dynamics Explorer-2 (low altitude) polar satellite and simultaneous observations from the auroral imager on the Dynamics Explorer-1 (high altitude) satellite were used to investigate the relationships between optical emissions, particle precipitation, and convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere. Field aligned current and convective flow patterns during IMF north include polar cap arcs, the theta aurora or transpolar arc, and the 'horse-collar' aurora. The initial part of the study concentrated on the electrodynamics of auroral features in the horse-collar aurora, a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread to very high latitudes, while the latter part focused on the evolution of one type of IMF north auroral pattern to another, specifically the quiet-time horse-collar pattern to a theta aurora.

  12. Spectral variability of the Martian high latitude surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, F.; Langevin, Y.; Boubin, G.; Jouglet, D.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2008-10-01

    We report the surface distributions of some minerals in the high latitude (>50°) regions of Mars using the OMEGA/MEx observations in the near-infrared wavelength domains (1-2.5 μm). Mafic minerals (pyroxene and olivine) are observed in the low albedo terrains. The identification of these minerals is consistent with the presence of volcanic features identified by geologic mappings. Water-bearing minerals identified on the basis of the 1.9 μm band cover the surfaces of latitudes larger than 60°. The presence of this hydration is likely the result of diffusive exchange of water between the sub-surface ice, the pore space of the regolith and the atmosphere, rather than chemically bound water resulting from hydrous alteration during the formation of the minerals. These observations will allow for comprehensive, coordinated analyses of data from the orbital and Phoenix platforms.

  13. Ulysses - The first high-latitude heliospheric mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.; Marsden, R. G.; Page, D. E.; Smith, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Ulysses mission will, for the first time, explore the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes, thereby providing the first characterization of the uncharted third dimension. Highly sophisticated scientific instrumentation carried on board the spacecraft is designed to measure the properties of the solar wind, the sun/wind interface, the heliospheric magnetic field, solar radio bursts and plasma waves, solar X-rays, solar and galactic cosmic rays, and interplanetary/interstellar neutral gas and dust. This collaborative ESA/NASA mission, scheduled for launch in October 1990, will use a Jupiter gravity-assist to achieve a trajectory extending to high solar latitudes /1,2/.

  14. An energy principle for high-latitude electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model for mid- and high-latitude electric fields and currents is constructed using Fourier analysis methods. A two-dimensional planar ionosphere with an enhanced conductivity auroral belt and field-aligned currents at the edges is employed. The postulate that the electric field and currents adjust self-consistently to minimize the global Joule dissipation rate defines a theoretical relation between the primary and secondary field-aligned currents. This so-called minimal dissipation configuration is examined using several input field-aligned current models, and graphical solutions for the electric field and ionospheric current are shown. A detailed discussion and interpretation of the solutions with relation to diverse observations and high-latitude phenomenology are included.

  15. Uranus' Vertical Haze Structure and its Variation with Latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasko, Martin

    1997-07-01

    We propose to image Uranus in 27 filters between 220 and 2100 nm wavelength. The wide wavelength range allows determination of aerosol sizes and spectral characteristics superior to previous work. Some of the filters are in methane absorption bands with methane absorption coefficients spanning a factor of 1000, which probe very different altitude layers in Uranus' atmosphere. HST's spatial resolution gives accurate canter-to -limb information for each latitude band, which strongly constrains models of Uranus' vertical haze structure. Our analyzed images of Uranus of Cycle 5 show high albedo contrasts in latitude, but the wavelength coverage of these images was not sufficient. These observations yielded unexpected results on the photometric properties of Uranian rings and satellites. Open questions about the phase function of these objects near zero degree and about their spectral characteristics over an expanded wavelength region can be answered by the proposed observations.

  16. CO observations of southern high-latitude clouds. [In Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Keto, E.R.; Myers, P.C.

    1986-05-01

    Results from a survey of 2.6 mm emission in the J = 1 to 0 transition of CO of clouds are reported for 15 high Galactic latitude clouds and three clouds located on the fringe of a large molecular cloud in the Chameleon dark cloud complex. The line widths, excitation temperatures, sizes, and n(CO)/N(H2) ratio of these clouds are similar to those seen in dark clouds. The densities, extinctions, and masses of the high-latitude clouds are one order of magnitude less than those found in dark clouds. For its size and velocity dispersion, the typical cloud has a mass of at least 10 times less than that needed to bind the cloud by self-gravity alone. External pressures are needed to maintain the typical cloud in equilibrium, and these values are consistent with several estimates of the intercloud pressure. 32 references.

  17. Arctic Amplification and Potential Mid-Latitude Weather Linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures and other changes continued in the Arctic over the last decade, even though the rate of global warming has decreased in part due to a cool Pacific Ocean. Thus Arctic temperatures have increased at least 3 times the rate of mid-latitude temperatures. Credibility for persistent Arctic change comes from multiple indicators which are now available for multiple decades. Further, the spatial pattern of Arctic Amplification differs from patterns of natural variability. The role of the Arctic in the global climate system is based on multiple interacting feedbacks represented by these indicators as a causal basis for Arctic Amplification driven by modest global change. Many of these processes act on a regional basis and their non-linear interactions are not well captured by climate models. For example, future loss of sea ice due to increases in CO2 are demonstrated by these models but the rates of loss appear slow. It is reasonable to suspect that Arctic change which can produce the largest temperature anomalies on the planet and demonstrate recent extremes in the polar vortex could be linked to mid-latitude weather, especially as Arctic change will continue over the next decades. The meteorological community remains skeptical, however, in the sense of "not proven." Natural variability in chaotic atmospheric flow remains the main dynamic process, and it is difficult to determine whether Arctic forcing of a north-south linkage is emerging from the most recent period of Arctic change since 2007. Nonetheless, such a hypothesis is worthy of investigation, given the need to further understand Arctic dynamic atmospheric processes, and the potential for improving mid-latitude seasonal forecasts base on high-latitude forcing. Several AGU sessions and other forums over the next year (WWRP, IASC,CliC) address this issue, but the topic is not ready for a firm answer. The very level of controversy indicates the state of the science.

  18. The High Latitude D Region During Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargreaves, J. K.; Collis, P. N.; Korth, A.

    1984-01-01

    The fluxes of energetic electrons entering the high-latitude atmosphere during auroral radio absorption events and their effect on the electron density in the auroral D region are discussed. An attempt was made to calculate the radio absorption during precipitation events from the fluxes of energetic electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit, and then to consider the use of absorption measurements to indicate the magnetospheric particle fluxes, the production rates, and electron densities in the D region.

  19. Magnetic field maxima in the low latitude boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B.; Paschmann, G.; Phan, T.-D.; Luehr, H.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic field often exhibits a maximum in the earth's low-latitude boundary layer. Examples of this behavior are shown using data from the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft, and it is argued that two fundamentally distinct causes exist for the excess field: (1) a depression, within the layer, of the population of medium-energy ions of magnetospheric origin and (2) field curvature effects associated with undulations of the magnetopause itself.

  20. Ulysses at high latitudes: An overview of recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Smith, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    After its fly-by of the planet Jupiter in February 1992, the Ulysses spacecraft is now in a highly inclined heliocentric orbit that will bring it above the south polar regions of the Sun in September 1994. The high-latitude phenomena observed to date have been strongly influenced by the near-minimum solar activity conditions encountered during this phase of the mission. In late April 1993, when Ulysses was at approximately 29 deg S heliographic latitude, the recurrent high speed solar wind stream that had been observed at the location of the spacecraft for 11 consecutive solar rotation underwent a dramatic change. The wind speed in the valleys between successive peaks increased in a single step from approximately 420 km/s to aopproximately 560 km/s. This change in solar wind flow was accompanied by the disappearance at the spacecraft of the magnetic sector structure that had been observed until then. Both these finding are consistent with Ulysses having climbed beyond the latitude of the coronal streamer belt in which is embedded the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). In its subsequent poleward journey, no further evidence for an encounter with the HCS has been seen at Ulysses. Other phenomena observed include the evolution with latitude of corotating interaction region (CIRs) and their influence on the acceleration of energetic particles, and the characteristics of the solar wind flows emanating from the south polar coronal hole. In this paper, we present details of the above observations. Finally, while the polar passes of the prime mission will take place near solar minimum, an extended mission will bring Ulysses back over the poles near the maximum of the next cycle. A summary of scientific goals for Ulysses at solar maximum is given.

  1. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 210 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 210 degrees. Toward the top, the lowland plains of Elysium and Utopia Planitiae are separated from the darker heavily cratered highlands by a broad escarpment. The far bottom left is marked by the large light-colored ancient Hellas impact basin. The permanent south polar residual ice cap is located near the bottom.

  2. Magnetospheric effects in atmospheric electricity at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilov, O. I.; Kasatkina, E. A.; Frank-Kamenetsky, A. V.; Raspopov, O. M.; Vasiljev, A. N.; Struev, A. G.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the vertical atmospheric electric field (Ez) made at auroral station Apatity (geomagnetic latitude: 63.8) and polar cap station Vostok, Antarctica (geomagnetic latitude: -89.3) in 2001-2002 have been analyzed. The measurements were made by a high-latitude computer-aided complex installed at Apatity in 2001. It consists of three spatially placed microbarographs for measurements of atmospheric waves, a device for air conductivity measurement and a device for measurement of vertical component of the atmospheric electric field. The computer-aided system permits to get information with a frequency of five times per second. The ground level atmospheric electric field was found to have systematic local diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal variations of atmospheric potential gradient were found to have a departure from the Carnegie curve. A distinct difference in the diurnal variation of atmospheric electric field has been observed also between disturbed (Kp>30) and extremely quiet (Kp<5) geomagnetic conditions. These high-latitude electric field variations appear to be the result of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Besides, we have found the similarity between the diurnal course of the atmospheric electric field under the quiet geomagnetic conditions and the diurnal variation of galactic cosmic rays. These results have been explained in terms of calculated effective Bz component of the interpalnetary magnetic field arising due to variation of the geomagnetic dipole axis inclination during the Earth's rotation. The results of analysis of the influence of extreme weather conditions (rain, snow, snowstorm, stormclouds, thunderstorms, lightning) on atmospheric electricity (electric field and conductivity) are also discussed. This work was supported by EC (grant INTAS 97-31008) and RFBR (grant 01-05-64850).

  3. Canadian Space Launch: Exploiting Northern Latitudes For Efficient Space Launch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    launch. As such, it should be advantageous to move farther away from the equator. Plane changes which alter the orbital inclination of a...a plane change will not be as efficient as others. Launches Between the Equator and 45 o Launches for orbital inclinations which are less than the...highly inclined orbits (HIOs). Compared to launches which take place from facilities at lower latitudes, it is more efficient to launch HIOs from

  4. Effects of ionospheric disturbances on high latitude radio wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T. R.

    The effects of anomalous high-latitude ionization on radio wave propagation are described for the main types of disturbances, that is, sudden ionospheric disturbances, relativistic electron events, magnetic storms, auroral disturbances, and polar cap events. Examples of radio wave characteristics for such conditions are given for the frequencies between the very low (3-3000 Hz) and high (3-30 MHz) frequency domains.

  5. Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    regions of the global ocean. It focuses on high latitudes because: (1) they are primary sites for surface conditioning of deep waters that drive the...measure the associated mixing processes, and assess the impacts of these processes on water mass modification; ● Document and quantify the generation at...their dynamics and impact on adjacent basin waters ; ● Acquire quantitative, field-based information on seawater equation-of-state processes, such as

  6. Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation.

    PubMed

    Swann, Abigail L S; Fung, Inez Y; Chiang, John C H

    2012-01-17

    We show in climate model experiments that large-scale afforestation in northern mid-latitudes warms the Northern Hemisphere and alters global circulation patterns. An expansion of dark forests increases the absorption of solar energy and increases surface temperature, particularly in regions where the land surface is unable to compensate with latent heat flux due to water limitation. Atmospheric circulation redistributes the anomalous energy absorbed in the northern hemisphere, in particular toward the south, through altering the Hadley circulation, resulting in the northward displacement of the tropical rain bands. Precipitation decreases over parts of the Amazon basin affecting productivity and increases over the Sahel and Sahara regions in Africa. We find that the response of climate to afforestation in mid-latitudes is determined by the amount of soil moisture available to plants with the greatest warming found in water-limited regions. Mid-latitude afforestation is found to have a small impact on modeled global temperatures and on global CO(2), but regional heating from the increase in forest cover is capable of driving unintended changes in circulation and precipitation. The ability of vegetation to affect remote circulation has implications for strategies for climate mitigation.

  7. Ionospheric signatures of cusp latitude Pc 3 pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Rosenberg, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica during selected days in March and April 1986 are compared. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low IMF cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light at 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. The observations suggest that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. These particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.

  8. USGS research on three mid-latitude glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, J.R.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Naftz, D.L.; Schuster, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Low- and mid-latitude regions of the earth are home to 80 to 90 percent of the world's population. Because of this, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a research program to study the geochemistry of precipitation, snow, ice, and runoff samples from mid-latitude glaciers in Kyrghyzstan, Nepal, and the United States, Areas of research, such as ground-water studies, reconstructing paleoclimate records, describing anthropogenic input of chemicals to the environment, and modeling global climate, are important to the well being of the worlds' population and can be supplemented by the collection and chemical analysis of snow and ice cores. Nearly all the constituents that compose snow and ice-core samples contribute vital information, whether it be the microbial communities that flourish in snow, radionuclides present in various amounts in all the samples, or location-specific deposits of mercury and nitrate. This work is hastened by the fact that mid-latitude glaciers, and the information preserved in them, are rapidly disappearing as a result of global warming. Research collaboration for this project includes 12 national and 7 international universities, and 4 government agencies. Funding is provided by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the USGS.

  9. Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Abigail L. S.; Fung, Inez Y.; Chiang, John C. H.

    2012-01-01

    We show in climate model experiments that large-scale afforestation in northern mid-latitudes warms the Northern Hemisphere and alters global circulation patterns. An expansion of dark forests increases the absorption of solar energy and increases surface temperature, particularly in regions where the land surface is unable to compensate with latent heat flux due to water limitation. Atmospheric circulation redistributes the anomalous energy absorbed in the northern hemisphere, in particular toward the south, through altering the Hadley circulation, resulting in the northward displacement of the tropical rain bands. Precipitation decreases over parts of the Amazon basin affecting productivity and increases over the Sahel and Sahara regions in Africa. We find that the response of climate to afforestation in mid-latitudes is determined by the amount of soil moisture available to plants with the greatest warming found in water-limited regions. Mid-latitude afforestation is found to have a small impact on modeled global temperatures and on global CO2, but regional heating from the increase in forest cover is capable of driving unintended changes in circulation and precipitation. The ability of vegetation to affect remote circulation has implications for strategies for climate mitigation. PMID:22190490

  10. Electrodynamic structure of the morning high-latitude trough region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A.; Voiculescu, M.; Juusola, L.; Nygrén, T.; Kuula, R.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the electrodynamics of a postmidnight, high-latitude ionospheric trough, observed with the European Incoherent Scatter radar in northern Scandinavia on 24-25 June 2003 around 22:00-02:30 UT during quiet conditions. The UHF radar made meridian scans with a 30 min cadence resulting in nine cross sections of ionospheric parameters. The F region electric field was also determined with the tristatic system. Ionospheric equivalent currents, calculated from ground magnetometer data, mostly show an electrojet-like current that is reasonably uniform in the longitudinal direction. Combined analysis of the conductances and equivalent current with a local Kamide-Richmond-Matsushita (KRM) method yields the ionospheric electric field and field-aligned current (FAC) in a 2-D (latitude-longitude) area around the radar. We conclude that the most likely scenario is one where the trough is initially created poleward of the auroral oval by downward FAC that evacuates the F region, but as the trough moves to lower latitudes during the early morning hours, it becomes colocated with the westward electrojet. There the electron density further decreases due to increased recombination caused by enhanced ion temperature, which in turn is brought about by a larger convection speed. Later in the morning the convection speed decreases and the trough is filled by increasing photoionization.

  11. High-latitude space weather monitoring in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulich, Th.

    2009-04-01

    Today, space weather is of important concern in many respects. Space weather phenomena are subject of extensive scientific research programmes and the consequences of space weather events are of great operational concern for a number of technologies including satellites, humans in space, and global positioning and communications. Due to the Earth's magnetic field, the high latitudes are most strongly affected by space weather phenomena. Naturally, monitoring and understanding of the high-latitude space environment is important for forecasting and modelling operational conditions. The Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO) was established as a magnetic observatory in 1913. With the sole exception of a year at the end of WWII, the record of geomagnetic field variations is continuous. Since the IGY in 1957, many other routine measurements have been added to the observatory's operations and today SGO is a highly versatile observatory. Here we will present examples of high-latitude space weather data from a selection of instruments including the Sodankylä ionosonde, the Finnish Riometer Chain, and the Tomography (GNSS) receiver chain. We invite collaboration and use of our data products. We will further outline the current EU Framework VII "Access to Research Infrastructures" project of SGO "LAPBIAT2."

  12. Diversity-stability relationship varies with latitude in zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Arnott, Shelley E; Hillebrand, Helmut; Longmuir, Allyson; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette; Winder, Monika; Yan, Norman D

    2007-02-01

    Analyses of temporal patterns of diversity across a wide range of taxa have found that more diverse communities often show smaller compositional changes over time. This generality indicates that high diversity is associated with greater temporal stability in species composition. We examined patterns of diversity and community stability in zooplankton time series data from 36 lakes sampled over a combined 483 years. The species-time relationship was flatter in more species-rich lakes in the temperate zone. However, high-latitude lakes had both low richness and low turnover. These patterns were consistent for turnover both within and among years. Daily, annual and long-term richness were all higher in large lakes while turnover was unaffected by the surface area. Richness on all time scales, as well as turnover within and among years, all declined at high latitude. Species-area relations and latitudinal gradients in richness therefore reflect different temporal components of diversity. Our results suggest that diversity shows strong associations with compositional stability that vary qualitatively across biogeographical provinces. Community stability increases with diversity among lakes in the temperate zone; however, the two are negatively correlated across latitudinal gradients. These patterns indicate that either the direct effects of diversity on stability or their covariance with environmental fluctuations vary with latitude.

  13. Atmospheric river landfall-latitude changes in future climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    2016-08-01

    The latitude of landfall for atmospheric rivers (ARs) is examined in the fully coupled half-degree version of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) for warm future climate simulations. Two regions are examined: U.S. West Coast/North Pacific ARs and United Kingdom/North Atlantic ARs. Changes in AR landfall-latitude reflect changes in the atmospheric steering flow. West Coast U.S. ARs are projected to push equatorward in response to the subtropical jet climate change. UK AR response is dominated by eddy-driven jets and is seasonally dependent. UK simulated AR response is modest in the winter with the largest relative changes occurring in the seasonal transition months. Precipitation associated with ARs is also projected to increase in intensity under global warming. CCSM4 projects a marked shift to higher rainfall rates for Southern California. Small to modest rainfall rates may increase for all UK latitudes, for the Pacific Northwest, and central and northern California.

  14. Mid-latitude lidar observations of large sporadic sodium layers

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.C.; Collins, R.L.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1989-07-01

    During the early morning of October 31, 1988 two large sporadic Na (Na{sub s}) layers were observed near the mesopause above Urbana, IL (40{degree}N, 88{degree}W) with a Na lidar system. The layers began forming near 102 km at 0026 LST and 0110 LST and moved downward with vertical velocities as high as 4 ms{sup {minus}1} before dissipating between 94 and 96 km. The duration of each layer was approximately 80 min. The layers were narrow ({approximately} 1 km FWHM) and dense with maximum densities approaching 7,800 cm{sup {minus}3}. The characteristics of these two Na{sub s} layers are very similar to those of similar phenomena observed recently at Andoya, Norway and Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Lidar observations of the mesospheric Na layer have been conducted routinely by several groups at mid-latitudes for almost 20 years. Although large Na{sub s} layers now appear to be relatively common at low- and high-latitudes, to our knowledge the two layers described in this letter are only the second observation of this puzzling phenomenon at mid-latitudes.

  15. Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Curtis A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Huey, Raymond B.; Sheldon, Kimberly S.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Haak, David C.; Martin, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic climate change on terrestrial organisms is often predicted to increase with latitude, in parallel with the rate of warming. Yet the biological impact of rising temperatures also depends on the physiological sensitivity of organisms to temperature change. We integrate empirical fitness curves describing the thermal tolerance of terrestrial insects from around the world with the projected geographic distribution of climate change for the next century to estimate the direct impact of warming on insect fitness across latitude. The results show that warming in the tropics, although relatively small in magnitude, is likely to have the most deleterious consequences because tropical insects are relatively sensitive to temperature change and are currently living very close to their optimal temperature. In contrast, species at higher latitudes have broader thermal tolerance and are living in climates that are currently cooler than their physiological optima, so that warming may even enhance their fitness. Available thermal tolerance data for several vertebrate taxa exhibit similar patterns, suggesting that these results are general for terrestrial ectotherms. Our analyses imply that, in the absence of ameliorating factors such as migration and adaptation, the greatest extinction risks from global warming may be in the tropics, where biological diversity is also greatest. PMID:18458348

  16. Modeling Suspersonic Flow in the High-Latitude Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demars, H. G.; Schunk, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    Supersonic flow has been observed in the high-latitude thermosphere via DE-2 satellite measurements. The supersonic flow events were observed to occur most frequently in the dawn sector at high magnetic latitudes and in the altitude range from about 300-600 km. To gain theoretical insight into these supersonic flow events, we used a high-resolution model of the global thermosphere to study the geophysical conditions that give rise to supersonic flow. In particular, we considered the dependence of the neutral wind on IMF orientation, magnetic activity level, convection pattern shape, solar activity level, season, and universal time. We also studied the extent to which narrow plasma convection channels can induce supersonic neutral winds. We found that the predominant factor controlling the thermospheric wind speed at high latitudes is the magnitude of the cross- polar-cap potential, indicating that interaction with the convecting ionosphere can drive the thermosphere to supersonic speeds. The region of supersonic flow predicted by the model corresponds closely to the region where supersonic flow events were most frequently observed by the DE satellite.

  17. Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of hominid-bearing deposits in the Caverna delle Fate, Ligure, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgueres, Christophe; Yokoyama, Yuji; Bibron, Roland

    1990-07-01

    Stalagmitic floors interstratified with Mousterian deposits from the Caverna delle Fate (Italy) have been dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. Three samples dated fall between 60,000 and 74,000 yr and indicate the age of the Mousterian deposits. They are in good agreement with ages determined by nondestructive γ-ray spectrometry of the human remains from 231Pa/ 235U and 230Th /234U ratios, which are, respectively, 75,000 -14,000+21,000 and 82,000 -25,000+36,000 yr. These dates are consistent with the morphological characteristics of the bones as Neanderthal remains.

  18. Microphysical Ice Crystal Properties in Mid-Latitude Frontal Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlage, Romy; Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Weigel, Ralf; Molleker, Sergej; Klingebiel, Marcus; Borrmann, Stephan; Luebke, Anna; Krämer, Martina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schäfler, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds modulate the climate by reflection of shortwave solar radiation and trapping of longwave terrestrial radiation. Their net radiative effect can be positive or negative depending on atmospheric and cloud parameters including ice crystal number density, size and shape. Latter microphysical ice crystal properties have been measured during the mid-latitude cirrus mission ML-CIRRUS with a set of cloud instruments on the new research aircraft HALO. The mission took place in March/April 2014 with 16 flights in cirrus formed above Europe and the Atlantic. The ice clouds were encountered at altitudes from 7 to 14 km in the typical mid-latitude temperature range. A focus of the mission was the detection of frontal cirrus linked to warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Within WCBs, water vapor is transported in the warm sector of an extra-tropical cyclone from the humid boundary layer to the upper troposphere. Cirrus cloud formation can be triggered in the WCB outflow region at moderate updraft velocities and additionally at low updrafts within the high pressure system linked to the WCB. Due to their frequent occurrence, WCBs represent a major source for regions of ice supersaturation and cirrus formation in the mid-latitudes. Here, we use data from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with detection for POLarization (CAS-POL) and the Cloud Combination Probe (CCP), combining a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and a greyscale Cloud Imaging Probe (CIPgs) to investigate the ice crystal distribution in the size range from 0.5 µm to 1 mm. We derive microphysical cirrus properties in mid-latitude warm front cirrus. Further, we investigate their variability and their dependence on temperature and relative humidity. Finally, we compare the microphysical properties of these frontal cirrus to cirrus clouds that formed at low updrafts within high pressure systems or at high updraft velocities in lee waves. We quantify statistically significant differences in cirrus properties formed in these

  19. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  20. Titan's stratospheric condensibles at high northern latitudes during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan’s stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 cm-1. Until recently, this feature that we have termed ‘the haystack,’ has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini. The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring. In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 cm-1, CIRS extends down to 10 cm-1, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features. Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan’s lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 cm-1, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85°N to 60°S. The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N. The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 km in altitude in Titan’s lower stratosphere. The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan’s tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan’s lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although in significantly larger

  1. Stable isotope variations in the Quaternary epithermal calcite-fluorite deposit at Monte delle Fate near Cerveteri (Latium, central Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masi, U.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotope variations have been measured in samples from the epithermal fluorite vein deposit at Monte delle Fate, Latium. The ranges in ?? 13C and ??18O of calcite are -1.3 to 3.4 and 9.5 to 17.3, respectively. ??D values of water extracted from fluid inclusions are -49 to -39 for calcite and -41 to -34 for fluorite. Fluid inclusion filling temperatures (225??-240??C) and salinites (3.75) are nearly the same for both fluorite and sparry calcite. An elongated form of calcite, of minor abundance, precipitated at lower temperatures. The data indicate that (1) the CO2 involved in the mineralization was provided by the local marine limestones, (2) the waters were meteoric in origin and underwent an 18O shift of ??? 10 permil by exchange with marine country rocks, and (3) all geochemical features can be explained by the action of two hydrothermal fluids. Hot brines recently discovered in the Cesano geothermal area, 30 km to the east, have temperatures and some chemical characteristics similar to the hydrothermal fluids at Monte delle Fate. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Geophysical investigations at the Paleolitic site Grotta delle Veneri near Parabita (Lecce, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrozzo, M. T.; Leucci, G.; Negri, S.; Nuzzo, L.

    2003-04-01

    The human presence in Apulia (southern Italy) is documented since 80.000 years before present. In 1966 near Parabita (Lecce, Italy) in a cave subsequently named "Grotta delle Veneri" human remains belonging to Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis (Neanderthal) and Homo Sapiens-Sapiens (Cro-Magnon) were recovered together with two small statues of pregnant women ("Veneri") referable to 12.000--10.000 b.C. The local Archaeological Superintendence was interested in assessing the possibility to reconstruct by means of geophysical methods the planimetric position of the cave and further development of its burrows beyond those accessible to speleologists and reported in the underground topographic survey. Both electromagnetic (EM) and electric methods were tested using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with 200 and 500 MHz antennas, GEM300 multi-frequency EM induction device and 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Despite the rough surface and the presence of numerous obstacles (trees, stone walls and stone piles) limiting the accessible survey area and often preventing a good ground-coupling, the GPR survey successfully located the top of the karstic cave and identified zones of high density of diffraction hyperbolas, interpreted as highly fractured and karstified limestone, in a layer ranging from about 2 m to 6 m below ground. Zones characterised by high density of diffractions due to presence of voids were found also outside the known development of the cave. By means of the GEM 300, both in-phase and quadrature components of the induced EM signal were simultaneously collected at 8 frequencies, from 2025 to 19975 Hz, respectively related to the magnetic susceptibility and apparent conductivity of the soil down to a depth decreasing as the frequency increase. A presumable low contrast in the sought parameter between the highly fractured rock and karstic voids or refilled cavities as well as the presence of metallic debris on the ground allowed a difficult identification

  3. Analysis of zenith tropospheric delay in tropical latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskyj, Fedir; Zablotska, Alexandra

    2010-05-01

    The paper studies some peculiarities of the nature of zenith tropospheric delay in tropical latitudes. There are shown the values of dry and wet components of zenith tropospheric delay obtained by an integration of the radiosonde data at 9 stations: Guam, Seyshelles, Singapore, Pago Pago, Hilo, Koror, San Cristobal, San Juan and Belem. There were made 350 atmospheric models for the period from 11th to 20th of January, April, July and October 2008 at 0h and 12h UT (Universal Time). The quantities of the dry dd(aer) and wet dw(aer) components of zenith tropospheric delay were determined by means of the integration for each atmospheric model. Then the quantities of the dry dd(SA), dd(HO) and wet dw(SA), dw(HO) components of zenith tropospheric delay (Saastamoinen and Hopfield analytical models) were calculated by the surface values of the pressure P0, temperature t0, relative air humidity U0 on the height H0 and by the geographic latitude φ. It must be point out the following from the analysis of the averaged quantities and differences δdd(SA), δdd(HO), δdw(SA), δdw(HO) between the correspondent components of zenith tropospheric delay obtained by the radiosonde data and by the analytical models: zenith tropospheric delay obtained by the radiosonde data amounts to considerably larger value in the equatorial zone, especially, at the expense of the wet component, in contrast to high and middle latitudes. Thus, the dry component of zenith tropospheric delay is equal at the average 2290 mm and the wet component is 290 mm; by the results of the analysis of Saastamoinen and Hopfield models the dry component differences δdd(SA) and δdd(HO) are negative in all cases and average -20 mm. It is not typical neither for high latitudes nor for middle ones; the differences between the values of the wet components obtained from radiosonde data and of Saastamoinen and Hopfield models are positive in general. Therewith the δdw(HO) values are larger than the correspondent

  4. Ionospheric signatures of cusp latitude Pc 3 pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Engebretson, M.J.; Anderson, B.J. ); Cahill, L.J. Jr. ); Arnoldy, R.L. ); Rosenberg, T.J. ); Carpenter, D.L. ); Gail, W.B. ); Eather, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The authors have compared search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica, during selected days in March and April 1986. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the daysie cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light a 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. When Pc 3 pulsations are present, they exhibit nearly identical frequencies, proportional to the magnitude of the IMF, in magnetometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver signals at South Pole Station and in magnetometer signals at McMurdo. Singals from the 30-MHz riometer at South Pole are modulated in concert with the magnetic and optical variations during periods of broadband pulsation activity, but no riometer variations are noted during periods of narrow-band activity. Because riometers are sensitive to electrons of auroral energies (several keV and above), while the 427.8-nm photometer is sensitive to precipitation with much lower energies, they interpret these observatons as showing that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons (with energies {le} 1 keV) at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. They suggest that these particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.

  5. Storm time heavy ion outflow at mid-latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Local ionospheric observations with the Millstone Hill incoherent scatterradar reveal an upward ion bulk velocity in excess of 3 km s{sup {minus} 1} at 1,000 km altitude during the very large magnetic storm on February 8, 1986. The upward flux of O{sup +} ions exceeded 3 {times} 10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at 42{degree} geodetic latitude (55{degree} {Lambda}) for a 3-hour period around 18 MLT during the event. Frictinal ion heating with ion temperatures in excess of 4,000 K at 500 km altitude was observed by the radar in the vicinity of the ion outflow event. Satellite observations place the ion outflow event within a region of intense ion and electron precipitation on field lines associated with the storm-perturbed ring current. For a one-dimensional analysis of the observed plasma profiles, continuity considerations indicate a region of intense O{sup +} production (200 cm{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}) as well as significant upward acceleration (5-10 m s{sup {minus}2}) in the region between 600 km and 800 km altitude where the outflow approaches supersonic speed. Ionizing collisions involving fast backsplash neutral O atoms (Torr et al., 1974) produced by ring current heavy ion precipitation can provide sufficient upward momentum to account for the acceleration in the observed outflowing thermal O{sup +} fluxes. Alternatively, the outflow event can be explained in terms of a time-dependent diffusion process triggered by a sudden change in the frictional heating rate in the collision-dominated F region (St.-Maurice, 1989). The concurrence of rapid ion convection and energetic ring current precipitation is unique at mid-latitudes during intense magnetic storms. Under these conditions, the observations indicate that the mid-latitude ionosphere constitutes a significant source of upflowing thermal O{sup +} fluxes to the overlying magnetosphere.

  6. Low-latitude mountain glacier evidence for abrupt climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Lin, P.; Davis, M. E.; Mashiotta, T. A.; Brecher, H. H.

    2004-12-01

    Clear evidence that a widespread warming of Earth's climate system is now underway comes from low latitude mountain glaciers. Proxy temperature histories reconstructed from ice cores, and the rapidly accelerating loss of both the total ice area and ice volume on a near global scale suggest that these glaciers responding to increasing rates of melting. In situ observations reveal the startling rates at which many tropical glaciers are disappearing. For example, the retreat of the terminus of the Qori Kalis Glacier in Peru is roughly 200 meters per year, 40 times faster than its retreat rate in 1978. Similarly, in 1912 the ice on Mount Kilimanjaro covered 12.1 km2, but today it covers only 2.6 km2. If the current rate of retreat continues, the perennial ice fields may disappear within the next few decades, making this the first time in the past 11,700 years that Kilimanjaro will be devoid of the ice that shrouds its summit. Tropical glaciers may be considered ``the canaries in the coal mine'' for the global climate system as they integrate and respond to key climatological variables, such as temperature, precipitation, cloudiness, humidity, and incident solar radiation. A composite of the decadally-averaged oxygen isotopic records from three Andean and three Tibetan ice cores extending back over the last two millennia shows an isotopic enrichment in the 20th century that suggests a large-scale warming is underway at lower latitudes. Multiple lines of evidence from Africa, the Middle East, Europe and South America indicate an abrupt mid-Holocene climate event in the low latitudes. If such an event were to occur now with a global human population of 6.3 billion people, the consequences could be severe. Clearly, we need to understand the nature and cause of abrupt climate events.

  7. Thermospheric Density Model Including High-Latitude Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, O. K.; Moe, M. M.

    2006-12-01

    As was predicted long ago by Sydney Chapman, there is a major contribution to thermospheric energy from the magnetosphere at all times. The contribution of this magnetospheric energy source produces a neutral density bulge at high latitudes even during geomagnetically quiet times. We present an analytical, semi- empirical model of the global neutral density at such quiet times. The total density is expressed as the sum of two terms: The first term describes the combined effects of the solar ultra-violet heating and various other contributions like the semi-annual variation; the second term gives the contribution to the density associated with particle precipitation and joule heating coming from magnetospheric sources during times of low geomagnetic activity. The region of density enhancement at high latitudes is associated with the locations of the dayside cusps. Therefore the model produces a density distribution which depends on universal time as well as on altitude, latitude, local time, and the usual solar UV energy source. The numerical values of the parameters in the empirical model were originally determined 30 years ago from density data collected by the Bell-MESA accelerometer on the LOGACS satellite and the pressure gauge on the SPADES satellite. As an example of the model output, we show a Mercator projection of the global density distribution at 400 km altitude at 12 hours GMT in late May at a time of moderate solar activity and low geomagnetic activity. The parameters in the model can now be substantially improved by using recent advances like the latest description of the semi-annual variation and by incorporating the precise density measurements made by the accelerometers on board the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. In the original model, density values at times of high geomagnetic activity were included in the second density term. The parameters in that term can also be improved as accurate storm-time densities become available.

  8. Computer model of high-latitude scintillation. [WBMOD program

    SciTech Connect

    Fremouw, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The DNA Wideband satellite experiment provided extensive data on scintillation produced in high-altitude structured plasmas. A computer program, WBMOD, is being developed to summarize those data in an applications-oriented way. The program contains the phase-screen scattering theory of Rino and a morphological description of ionospheric irregularities (thus far only at auroral latitudes) based on Wideband observations. It permits a user to compute scintillation indices for both phase and intensity as a function of system operating parameters and solar-ionospheric disturbance level. Correction is made for multiple scatter, and the user may choose either one-way (communication) or two-way (radar) propagation.

  9. [Total Elbow Replacement - Implantation of the Latitude Prosthesis (Tornier)].

    PubMed

    Hackl, M; Wegmann, K; Leschinger, T; Ries, C; Burkhart, K J; Müller, L

    2015-10-01

    Due to technical progress, the indication for total elbow arthroplasty could be expanded in recent years. As a result, the demand regarding functionality and mobility of the replaced joint has risen as well. Elbow arthroplasty has to be considered as technically demanding. Only with detailed knowledge of this surgical procedure and its possible intraoperative pitfalls can one provide the best possible results. In this instructional video we explain the implantation of the Latitude elbow prosthesis (Tornier) putting emphasis on the correct approach as well as implantation of the prosthesis and subsequent wound closure.

  10. A new high-latitude low-surface brightness SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, P.; Kothes, R.; Foster, T.; Reich, W.

    2016-06-01

    We have discovered a new SNR in the Galactic Anticentre at a Galactic latitude of about 10 degrees with the DRAO synthesis telescope at 21-cm. Here we report on follow-up Effelsberg observations at 6-cm. This shell-type SNR is almost circular with a diameter of about 1.5 degrees. Its radio surface brightness is extremely low and it is highly linearly polarized. High-velocity HI-gas from the anti-centre shell seems associated, which places the SNR at a distance between 0.5 kpc and 2.5 kpc.

  11. Double-peaked sodium layers at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Zahn, U.; Goldberg, R. A.; Stegman, J.; Witt, G.

    1989-01-01

    Na lidar observations indicate that at high latitudes in summer the neutral Na layer frequently attains a double-peaked structure. The main layer with a maximum near 90 km altitude is supplemented by a secondary, narrow layer near 95 km altitude. Results are presented concerning secondary sodium layers. It appears likely that the formation of secondary Na layers observed frequently above the lidar site is not solely a 'sodium phenomenon', but part of a more comprehensive layering process for metal atoms and ions. Na(+)/Na density ratios close to 0.5 near the peaks of both the main and secondary layers are derived.

  12. Anomalous astronomical time-latitude residuals: a potential earthquake precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Su, You-Jin; Gao, Yi-Fei; Wang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    The geophysical mechanism behind astronomical time-latitude residuals (ATLR) are discussed. The photoelectric astrolabe at Yunnan Observatory (YO) observed apparent synchronous anomalous ATLR before the Wenchuan M8.0 earthquake (EQ) in May 12, 2008 and the Lushan M7.0 EQ n April 20, 2013. We compared the ATLR from the YO photoelectric astrolabe and EQ data since 1976. Anomalous ATLR was observed before several strong EQs in the Yunnan Province. We believe the photoelectric astrolabe can be used to predict strong EQs and the anomalous ATLR are a potential EQ precursor.

  13. Planetary radio emissions from low magnetic latitudes - Observations and theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dyfrig

    Recent observations of planetary radiations from low magnetic latitudes are reviewed. At Earth a major source of nonthermal continuum is Terrestrial Myriametric Radiation (TMR) from the equatorial plasmapause and from the magnetopause. The theories proposed for the production of TMR are listed and their predictions are compared with satellite observations. The application of the theories to Jovian Kilometric Radiation (KOM), the radio emission at Jupiter which has been suggested to be the analogue of TMR, is reviewed. The implications of the TMR and KOM results for radiations observed at Saturn and Uranus are briefly considered.

  14. High latitude helical surge of May 22, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okten, Adnan; Cakmak, Hikmet

    1990-08-01

    A helical surge (S 72, W 90) was recorded by a monochromatic filter at the University Observatory of Istanbul. It is a significant one at a very high latitude and without any center of activity. A sequence of the filtergrams showed some condensed points from which the motions of the plasma are traced. Different velocities were determined on each of the branches of the helical surge during its evolution. The surge reached its maximum height of 298,000 km, and the maximum velocity of this upper region was 250 km/s.

  15. Pathways of high-latitude dust in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddock, Matthew C.; Mockford, Tom; Bullard, Joanna E.; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of mineral dust from high-latitude sources has remained an under-examined feature of the global dust cycle. Dust events originating at high latitudes can provide inputs of aeolian sediment to regions lying well outside the subtropical dust belt. Constraining the seasonal variability and preferential pathways of dust from high-latitude sources is important for understanding the potential impacts that the dust may have on wider environmental systems, such as nearby marine or cryospheric domains. This study quantifies dust pathways from two areas exhibiting different emission dynamics in the north and south of Iceland, which is a prominent Northern Hemisphere dust source. The analysis uses air parcel trajectory modelling, and for the first time for high-latitude sources, explicitly links all trajectory simulations to time-specific (meteorological) observations of suspended dust. This approach maximises the potential for trajectories to represent dust, and illustrates that trajectory climatologies not limited to dust can grossly overestimate the potential for dust transport. Preferential pathways emerge that demonstrate the role of Iceland in supplying dust to the Northern Atlantic and sub-Arctic oceans. For dust emitted from northern sources, a dominant route exists to the northeast, into the Norwegian, Greenland and Barents Seas, although there is also potential for delivery to the North Atlantic in summer months. From the southern sources, the primary pathway extends into the North Atlantic, with a high density of trajectories extending as far south as 50°N, particularly in spring and summer. Common to both southern and northern sources is a pathway to the west-southwest of Iceland into the Denmark Strait and towards Greenland. For trajectories simulated at ≤500 m, the vertical development of dust plumes from Iceland is limited, likely due to the stable air masses of the region suppressing the potential for vertical motion. Trajectories rarely

  16. High Latitude Gravity Wave Forcing by the Disturbed Polar Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, D.; Gerrard, A. J.; Ebihara, Y.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We present mesopause gravity wave observations from 589-nm Na all-sky data taken by a multiwavelength all-sky imager located at South Pole, Antarctica. Focusing on gravity waves observed during the 2003 and 2004 austral winter seasons, we investigate possible sources of observed waves using linear gravity wave ray-tracing. By comparing wave ray paths with the structure of the polar vortex obtained from the ECMWF operational model, we show that a unique generator of gravity waves that then propagate into the high latitude mesospause is the disturbance of the polar vortex near 40-km altitude due to the formation of baroclinic instabilities.

  17. How Altitude and Latitude Control Dune Morphometry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Gall, A.; Hayes, A.; Ewing, R.; Janssen, M. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Encrenaz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dune fields are one of the dominant landforms and represent the largest known organic reservoir on Titan. SAR-derived topography show that Titan's dune terrains tend to occupy the lowest altitude areas in equatorial regions occurring at mean elevations between approx.-400 and 0 m. In elevated dune terrains, there is a definite trend towards a smaller dune to interdune ratio, interpreted as due to limited sediment availability. A similar linear correlation is observed with latitude, suggesting that the quantity of windblown sand in the dune fields tends to decrease as one moves farther north. These findings place important constraints on Titan's geology and climate.

  18. Ionospheric storm effects at subauroral latitudes - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proelss, G. W.; Brace, L. H.; Mayr, H. G.; Carignan, G. R.; Killeen, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt is made to classify ionospheric storm effects at subauroral latitudes according to their presumed origin. The storm of December 7/8, 1982, serves as an example. It is investigated using ionosonde, electron content, and DE 2 satellite data. The following effects are distinguished: (1) positive storm effects caused by traveling atmospheric disturbances, (2) positive storm effects caused by changes in the large-scale thermospheric wind circulation, (3) positive storm effects caused by the expansion of the polar ionization enhancement, (4) negative storm effects caused by perturbations of the neutral gas composition, and (5) negative storm effects caused by the equatorward displacement of the trough region.

  19. Ionospheric storm effects at subauroral latitudes: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Proelss, G.W. ); Brace, L.H.; Mayr, H.G. ); Carignan, G.R.; Killeen, T.L. ); Klobuchar, J.A. )

    1991-02-01

    An attempt is made to classify ionospheric storm effects at subauroral latitudes according to their presumed origin. The storm of December 7/8, 1982, serves as an example. It is investigated using ionosonde, electron content, and DE 2 satellite data. The following effects are distinguished: (1) positive storm effects caused by traveling atmospheric disturbances, (2) positive storm effects caused by changes in the large-scale thermospheric wind circulation, (3) positive storm effects caused by the expansion of the polar ionization enhancement, (4) negative storm effects caused by perturbations of the neutral gas composition, and (5) negative storm effects caused by the equatorward displacement of the trough region.

  20. Analysis of star pair latitudes. [for polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Star pair latitude observations form the basis for the pole positions reported by the International Polar Motion Service (IMPS). The IPMS processes these observations to produce a mean pole position. However, the time series of observations contains high-frequency information which is lost in the calculation of the mean pole. In this study, 2931 star pair observations are analyzed. A possible large excitation at one cycle per solar day is observed. The average power level in the frequency band of the tesseral tides is seen to be high, although the peaks cannot be conclusively identified as tidal phenomena.

  1. Neutral winds above 200Km at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Motion from multiple chemical releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from 4 high latitude locations are analyzed. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic altitudes or = 65 deg suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. This conclusion is based on both the agreement between ion and neutral drift directions, and the fact that there are distinct changes in the wind associated with (a) the reversal in east-west ion drift at the Harang discontinuity, and (b) the transition from auroral belt, sunward ion drift and polar cap, anti-solar ion drift.

  2. The brightest high-latitude 12-micron IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, P.; Beichman, C.; Chester, T.; Neugebauer, G.; Emerson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source catalog was searched for sources brighter than 28 Jy (0 mag) at 12 microns with absolute galactic latitude greater than 30 deg excluding the Large Magellanic Cloud. The search resulted in 269 sources, two of which are the galaxies NGC 1068 and M82. The remaining 267 sources are identified with, or have infrared color indices consistent with late-type stars some of which show evidence of circumstellar dust shells. Seven sources are previously uncataloged stars. K and M stars without circumstellar dust shells, M stars with circumstellar dust shells, and carbon stars occupy well-defined regions of infrared color-color diagrams.

  3. Can evolutionary constraints explain the rarity of nitrogen-fixing trees in high-latitude forests?

    PubMed

    Menge, Duncan N L; Crews, Timothy E

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1195 I. 1195 II. 1196 III. 1196 IV. 1200 1200 References 1200 SUMMARY: The rarity of symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees in temperate and boreal ('high-latitude') forests is curious. One explanation - the evolutionary constraints hypothesis - posits that high-latitude N-fixing trees are rare because few have evolved. Here, we consider traits necessary for high-latitude N-fixing trees. We then use recent developments in trait evolution to estimate that > 2000 and > 500 species could have evolved from low-latitude N-fixing trees and high-latitude N-fixing herbs, respectively. Evolution of N-fixing from nonfixing trees is an unlikely source of diversity. Dispersal limitation seems unlikely to limit high-latitude N-fixer diversity. The greater number of N-fixing species predicted to evolve than currently inhabit high-latitude forests suggests a greater role for ecological than evolutionary constraints.

  4. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  5. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil of a Natural Reserve (Isola delle Femmine) (Italy) located in front of a plant for the production of cement.

    PubMed

    Orecchio, Santino

    2010-01-15

    Isola delle Femmine Natural Reserve is a very little isle about 15 km from the centre of Palermo, in front of a plant for the production of cement and about 600 m from coast. In the present research, profiles soil PAHs were obtained for 16 sites within the reserve and for 8 stations on the rural soil taken as reference. summation Sigma PAHs, in the soil of investigated area, ranged from 35 to 545 microg/kg. With the aim to find the origin of PAHs in the soil of Isola delle Femmine, we compare the distribution of single analytes in the investigated area with those of the reference rural area (Monte Raffo Rosso), with those of atmospheric urban particulate collected at Palermo along with reported of emissions of some cement plants. The island's investigated area showed a high amount of 4- and 5-rings PAHs, whereas 3-ring PAHs are present mainly in the emission of cement plants (from literature). The percentage of 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-rings PAHs determined in samples of Isola delle Femmine are similar to those of the reference rural soils and to those of urban atmospheric particulate. Cement plant activity has a negligible weight on the presence of PAHs in the soil of Isola delle Femmine.

  6. Simulating Children's Retrieval Errors in Picture-Naming: A Test of Foygel and Dell's (2000) Semantic/Phonological Model of Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether Foygel and Dell's (2000) interactive two-step model of speech production could simulate the number and type of errors made in picture-naming by 68 children of elementary-school age. Results showed that the model provided a satisfactory simulation of the mean error profile of children aged five, six, seven, eight and…

  7. Assessing Values in Historical Fiction Written for Children: A Content Analysis of the Winners of the Scott O'Dell Historical Fiction Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, William D.; Brabham, Edna Greene; Frost, Jami Bice

    1999-01-01

    Considers how teachers engage children in character education and analyzes core values in books winning the Scott O'Dell Historical Fiction Award. Finds that these books are rich sources for examples of core values that are common features of character-education programs. Observes many teachers using short stories and picture books to insert…

  8. RIVER DELL CENTER FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE HUMANITIES. PROGRESS REPORT ON PRINTED INFORMATION, CONFERENCES AND VISITATIONS TO NOVEMBER 30, 1966. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    River Dell Regional Schools, Oradell, NJ.

    THIS REPORT CITES THE PROGRESS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE RIVER DELL CENTER. INFORMATION IS PRESENTED OF (1) PRINTED RELEASES, (2) CONTACTS MADE, (3) ON INSERVICE COURSE OFFERED, (4) DISSEMINATION OF COURSE INFORMATION, (5) VISITATIONS, AND (6) IN-PROGRESS ACTIVITIES. TWO REGIONAL SCHOOL NEWSLETTERS ALONG WITH CORRESPONDENCE LETTERS TO THE NEW…

  9. The ionospheric storms in the American sector and their longitudinal dependence at the northern middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjing; Xu, Liang; Xiong, Chao; Xu, Jisheng

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of the total electron content (TEC) observations from Madrigal database, we have made a statistical analysis of the ionospheric response during 217 geomagnetic storms from the year 2001 to 2015, including observations at 6 different latitude zones along one meridian in the American sector and 4 different longitudes at the middle latitude zone. Our results show that the ionospheric storm has prominent latitudinal dependence, with negative storm prevailing at high latitudes and positive storm at lower latitudes. The maximum ratio of positive to negative storms is observed at around 30°N magnetic latitude. The ionospheric response depends also on the phases of the storm. The occurrence of positive storm decreases during recovery phase when compared to that during main phase, while the negative storm presents opposite pattern. However, the occurrence of positive storm increases at equatorial and low latitudes during recovery phase. Additionally, during main phase, the occurrence of negative storm is higher at equatorial and low latitudes than that at middle latitudes. The local time dependences of the ionospheric storm onsets are quite different for different latitudes. The negative storm mainly occurs from post-middle night to morning hours and the positive storm mainly occurs during daytime at middle latitudes; while both the positive and negative storms mainly occur during nighttime at equatorial latitude. For all latitudes, the typical time delay between the main phase onset and the onset time of ionospheric negative storm is longer than 10 h, while it is shorter than 10 h for positive storm (expect at low and equatorial latitudes). We further check the longitudinal dependence of the ionospheric storm at middle latitude, and find that the occurrence of positive storm is higher in American and Asian sectors than that in European sector, and the non-significant storm is mostly observed in European sector. The 'forbidden time interval' of negative storm

  10. Map of Martian Potassium at Mid-Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This gamma ray spectrometer map of the mid-latitude region of Mars is based on gamma-rays from the element potassium. Potassium, having the chemical symbol K, is a naturally radioactive element and is a minor constituent of rocks on the surface of both Mars and Earth. The region of highest potassium content, shown in red, is concentrated in the northern part of Acidalia Planitia (centered near 55 degrees N, -30 degrees). Several areas of low potassium content, shown in blue, are distributed across the mid-latitudes, with two significant low concentrations, one associated with the Hellas Basin (centered near 35 degrees S, 70 degrees) and the other lying southeast of Elysium Mons (centered near 10 degrees N, 160 degrees). Contours of constant surface elevation are also shown. The long continuous line running from east to west marks the approximate separation of the younger lowlands in the north from the older highlands in the south.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The gamma ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona, Tucson. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Latitude delineates patterns of biogeography in terrestrial Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Doroghazi, James R; Buckley, Daniel H

    2016-12-01

    The biogeography of Streptomyces was examined at regional spatial scales to identify factors that govern patterns of microbial diversity. Streptomyces are spore forming filamentous bacteria which are widespread in soil. Streptomyces strains were isolated from perennial grass habitats sampled across a spatial scale of more than 6000 km. Previous analysis of this geographically explicit culture collection provided evidence for a latitudinal diversity gradient in Streptomyces species. Here the hypothesis that this latitudinal diversity gradient is a result of evolutionary dynamics associated with historical demographic processes was evaluated. Historical demographic phenomena have genetic consequences that can be evaluated through analysis of population genetics. Population genetic approaches were applied to analyze population structure in six of the most numerically abundant and geographically widespread Streptomyces phylogroups from our culture collection. Streptomyces population structure varied at regional spatial scales, and allelic diversity correlated with geographic distance. In addition, allelic diversity and gene flow are partitioned by latitude. Finally, it was found that nucleotide diversity within phylogroups was negatively correlated with latitude. These results indicate that phylogroup diversification is constrained by dispersal limitation at regional spatial scales, and they are consistent with the hypothesis that historical demographic processes have influenced the contemporary biogeography of Streptomyces.

  12. The Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network: The Initial Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, P. H.; Valladares, C. E.; Carrano, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) is a distributed observatory designed to provide regional coverage in South America and high-temporal resolution measurements to diagnose the initiation and development of plasma structures and the state and dynamics of the low latitude ionosphere. It combines inexpensive GPS receivers and state-of-the-art radars such as the Vertical Incidence Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR) ionosondes and magnetometers. This paper describes the characteristics of the LISN distributed observatory and discusses the results of the first two campaigns. LISN will be comprised of nearly 70 GPS receivers with the capability to measure Total Electron Content (TEC), amplitude and phase scintillation and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). LISN will also include 5 ionosondes able to measure nighttime E-region densities and 5 collocated magnetometers that will be placed along the same magnetic meridian. The first campaign was dedicated to detect medium-scale (~100 km) TIDs and was conducted at Huancayo, Peru in July 2008 using 3 GPS receivers spaced by 4-5 km arranged in a triangular configuration. TEC data corresponding to 3 consecutive days indicate that the TIDs phase velocity was close to 120 m/s and directed northward during the early evening hours. The second campaign was conducted in February 2009 using 3 GPS receivers installed near Ancon and coordinated with the VIPIR ionosonde running in an interferometer mode. We will discuss the implications of these new results within the frame of the current theories of plasma bubble onset.

  13. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.

  14. Structure of High Latitude Currents in Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltberger, M.; Rigler, E. J.; Merkin, V.; Lyon, J. G.

    2017-03-01

    Using three resolutions of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetosphere-ionosphere model (LFM) and the Weimer 2005 empirical model we examine the structure of the high latitude field-aligned current patterns. Each resolution was run for the entire Whole Heliosphere Interval which contained two high speed solar wind streams and modest interplanetary magnetic field strengths. Average states of the field-aligned current (FAC) patterns for 8 interplanetary magnetic field clock angle directions are computed using data from these runs. Generally speaking the patterns obtained agree well with results obtained from the Weimer 2005 computing using the solar wind and IMF conditions that correspond to each bin. As the simulation resolution increases the currents become more intense and narrow. A machine learning analysis of the FAC patterns shows that the ratio of Region 1 (R1) to Region 2 (R2) currents decreases as the simulation resolution increases. This brings the simulation results into better agreement with observational predictions and the Weimer 2005 model results. The increase in R2 current strengths also results in the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) pattern being concentrated in higher latitudes. Current-voltage relationships between the R1 and CPCP are quite similar at the higher resolution indicating the simulation is converging on a common solution. We conclude that LFM simulations are capable of reproducing the statistical features of FAC patterns.

  15. Seedling mortality from litterfall increases with decreasing latitude.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Len N

    2016-02-01

    Global patterns in ecology need to be identified and interpreted if macroecological processes are to be fully understood. Facilitating effects on seedlings such as that of nurse plants and competitive effects such as allelopathy have been well recognized but the importance of plants acting as killers through physical damage by the litterfall they produce has received relatively little attention. Here I examine latitudinal patterns of physical disturbance to seedlings (microdisturbance) due to litterfall and discuss the macroecological implications in light of current research. Analyses of results from published studies show that both the risk of litterfall disturbance, as measured using artificial model seedlings, and the proportion of seedling mortalities due to litterfall decrease significantly with increasing latitude. Patterns of microdisturbance appear to be driven by the dynamic interaction between macro-litterfall, safe sites with protective overhead vegetation, topography, and animal activity. However, we are informed on this subject by few studies. There is evidence, again from a limited number of studies, for considerable spatial heterogeneity in microdisturbance intensity and for seedling resilience to litterfall damage to differ substantially among species. Therefore, differential survival among microsites may produce regeneration niche diversity. However, more focused studies are required across a range of forest types and latitudes before these results can be generalized. Therefore, there is fertile ground for researchers to use comparable multifactorial methods to investigate the implications of microdisturbance at macro-ecological scales.

  16. Ionosonde observations of daytime spread F at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Yang, Guobin; Liu, Jing; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Komolmis, Tharadol; Song, Huan; Lan, Ting; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Yuannong; Zhao, Zhengyu

    2016-12-01

    Spread F on ionograms has been considered to be a phenomenon mainly occurred at nighttime. This study presented a case study of daytime spread F observed by the ionosonde installed at Puer (PUR; 22.7°N, 101.05°E; dip latitude 12.9°N), where daytime spread F that lasted for more than 2 h (about 08:30 LT 10:45 LT) was observed on 14 November 2015. To investigate the possible mechanism, ionograms recorded at PUR and Chiang Mai (18.76°N, 98.93°E; dip latitude 9.04°N) were used in this study. We found that traveling ionospheric disturbances were observed before the occurrence of daytime spread F. Meanwhile, the movement of the peak height of the ionosphere was downward. We suggested that downward vertical neutral winds excited by traveling atmospheric disturbances/atmospheric gravity waves might play a significant role in forming daytime spread F over PUR during geomagnetic storms.

  17. Comparison of mesospheric sodium layers at different latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingjie

    With the support of the Chinese Meridional project in the eastern hemisphere, two brand new sodium fluorescence lidars with the same configuration were respectively set up at Yanqing (40.46(°) N, 115.98(°) E) and Haikou (20.04(°) N, 110.34(°) E) in April, 2010. Based on the observations obtained from 2010 to 2012, comparison of the Na layer at these two latitudes was performed. It reveals a strong correlation in the topside layer between these two sites. Independently of their seasonal characteristics at lower altitudes, they both show an extension to 120 km and above, predominantly during summer. Simultaneous observations at these two sites show that the correlation above 102 km is remarkable in contrast to their different seasonal characteristics below 98 km. It indicates that different processes dominate different height ranges in the Na layer. Meanwhile, it indicates that the topside extension effect is global, combined with the observations at other latitudes. Besides, when the topside layer has an extension, the bottom side layer extends slightly downward, too. Comparison with known meteor showers shows that most of these extensions correspond well to one or more meteor showers, although not one by one. Meteor showers with velocities less than 35 km/s appear to have more influence on these extensions.

  18. {sup 36}Cl bomb fallout at mid latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Synal, H.A.; Beer, J.; Gaeggeler, H.

    1995-12-01

    Large amounts of {sup 36}Cl have been produced during the atmospheric test of nuclear weapons in the late fifties and early sixties. During this time the {sup 36}Cl fallout was about three orders of magnitudes larger than during previous times. The well defined {sup 36}Cl pulse has a great potential for hydrological investigations, especially as a tracer for groundwater studies. Detailed measurements of bomb produced {sup 36}Cl were carried out earlier on ice cores from Dye-3 (Greenland). To adopt the {sup 36}Cl pulse measured in Greenland as an input function to other locations its latitude dependence has to be known. So far, atmospheric transport models and the measured distribution of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs fallout are used to estimate the latitude dependence of meteoric and bomb produced {sup 36}Cl fallout. In this contribution, {sup 36}Cl measurements on an ice core from an Alpine Glacier (Fiescher Horn, Switzerland) are presented. The results are compared with earlier measurements from a Greenland ice core and implications for the global {sup 36}Cl transport are discussed.

  19. Evapotranspiration Cycles in a High Latitude Agroecosystem: Potential Warming Role

    PubMed Central

    Ruairuen, Watcharee

    2015-01-01

    As the acreages of agricultural lands increase, changes in surface energetics and evapotranspiration (ET) rates may arise consequently affecting regional climate regimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate summertime ET dynamics and surface energy processes in a subarctic agricultural farm in Interior Alaska. The study includes micrometeorological and hydrological data. Results covering the period from June to September 2012 and 2013 indicated consistent energy fractions: LE/Rnet (67%), G/Rnet (6%), H/Rnet (27%) where LE is latent heat flux, Rnet is the surface net radiation, G is ground heat flux and H is the sensible heat flux. Additionally actual surface evapotranspiration from potential evaporation was found to be in the range of 59 to 66%. After comparing these rates with those of most prominent high latitude ecosystems it is argued here that if agroecosystem in high latitudes become an emerging feature in the land-use, the regional surface energy balance will significantly shift in comparison to existing Arctic natural ecosystems. PMID:26368123

  20. Postmidnight ionospheric troughs in summer at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voiculescu, M.; Nygrén, T.; Aikio, A. T.; Vanhamäki, H.; Pierrard, V.

    2016-12-01

    In this article we identify possible mechanisms for the formation of postmidnight ionospheric troughs during summer, in sunlit plasma. Four events were identified in measurements of European Incoherent Scatter and ESR radars during CP3 experiments, when the ionosphere was scanned in a meridional plan. The spatial and temporal variation of plasma density, ion, and electron temperatures were analyzed for each of the four events. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network plasma velocity measurements were added, when these were available. For all high-latitude troughs the ion temperatures are high at density minima (within the trough), at places where the convection plasma velocity is eastward and high. There is no significant change in electron temperature inside the trough, regardless of its temporal evolution. We find that troughs in sunlit plasma form in two steps: the trough starts to form when energetic electron precipitation leads to faster recombination in the F region, and it deepens when entering a region with high eastward flow, producing frictional heating and further depleting the plasma. The high-latitude plasma convection plays an important role in formation and evolution of troughs in the postmidnight sector in sunlit plasma. During one event a second trough is identified at midlatitudes, with different characteristics, which is most likely produced by a rapid subauroral ion drift in the premidnight sector.

  1. Recent low-latitude freeze thaw on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, David P.

    2007-07-01

    Outside polar latitudes, features corresponding to surface thaw have yet to be identified on Mars. The youthful gully landforms observed at mid-high latitude [Malin, M., Edgett, K., 2000. Science 288, 2330-2335] are the nearest candidate, but the source (and nature) of the gully carving agent remains controversial [e.g., Musselwhite, D.S., Swindle, T.D., Lunine, J.I., 2001. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1283-1285; Mellon, M.T., Phillips, R.J., 2001. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1-15; Knauth, L.P., Burt, D.M., 2002. Icarus 158, 267-271; Costard, F., Forget, F., Mangold, N., Peulvast, J.P., 2002. Science 295, 110-113; Christensen, P.R., 2003. Nature 422, 45-48; Treiman, A.H., 2003. J. Geophys. Res. 108]. At higher obliquity than the present epoch, near-surface ground ice should be present globally [Mellon, M.T., Jakosky, B.M., 1995. J. Geophys. Res. 100 (E6), 11781-11799], populated by condensation of atmospheric water vapour in the top few metres of the regolith, or emplaced as dusty ice sheets reaching down towards the equator. The latitudinal restriction of these gullies to regions poleward of ±30° appears to argue against a thaw component to their formation—since ground ice is present and stable at all latitudes at high obliquity, the current (low) obliquity regime should result in ground ice thaw at low latitudes, where insolation and daytime temperatures are currently greatest, and this is not observed. A previously undescribed meltwater sequence in the Cerberus plains, at 20° N/187° E, shows that comparable, but much more continuous, and mappable melting and surface runoff have occurred in the geologically recent past at near-equatorial latitudes on Mars. Polygonal ground in the Cerberus plains is seen by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) to suffer sequential, regional-scale volatile-loss consistent with thaw of near-surface ground ice under periglacial conditions. This degradation is continuously sampled by a single MOC strip, showing an icy

  2. Ionospheric vertical drift response at a mid-latitude station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouba, Daniel; Koucká Knížová, Petra

    2016-07-01

    Vertical plasma drift data measured at a mid-latitude ionospheric station Pruhonice (50.0 ° N, 14.6 ° E) were collected and analysed for the year 2006, a year of low solar and geomagnetic activity. Hence these data provide insight into the drift behaviour during quiet conditions. The following typical diurnal trend is evident: a significant decay to negative values (downward peak) at dawn; generally less pronounced downward peak at dusk hours. Magnitude of the downward drift varies during the year. Typically it reaches values about 20 ms-1 at dawn hours and 10 ms-1 at dusk hours. Maximum dawn magnitude of about 40 ms-1 has been detected in August. During daytime the vertical drifts increases from the initial small downward drifts to zero drift around noon and to small upward drifts in the afternoon. Night-time drift values display large variability around a near zero vertical drift average. There is a significant trend to larger downward drift values near dawn and a less pronounced decrease of the afternoon upward vertical drifts near sunset. Two regular downward peaks of the drift associated with the dawn and dusk are general characteristics of the analysed data throughout the year 2006. Their seasonal course corresponds to the seasonal course of the sunrise and sunset. The duration of prevailing negative drift velocities forming these peaks and thus the influence of the dawn/dusk on the drift velocity is mostly 1.5-3 h. The dawn effect on vertical drift tends to be larger than the effect of the dusk. The observed magnitude of the sunrise and sunset peaks show significant annual course. The highest variability of the magnitude is seen during winter. High variability is detected till March equinox and again after September equinox. Around solstice, both peaks reaches lowest values. After that, the magnitudes of the drift velocity increase smoothly till maxima in summer (August). The vertical drift velocity course is smooth between June solstice and September

  3. A Mid-Latitude Geomorphologic Map of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Malaska, Michael; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Solomonidou, Anezina; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Radebaugh, Jani; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the geologic history of Titan through mapping and analyzing the distribution of observed geomorphic features using a combination of Cassini data collected by RADAR, VIMS, and ISS. Determining the spatial and superposition relationships between geomorphologic units on Titan leads to an understanding of the likely time evolution of the landscape and gives insight into the process interactions that drive its evolution. We have used all available datasets to extend the mapping initially done by Lopes et al. [1]. We now have the mid-latitudes (60N to 60S) of Titan mapped at 1:800,000 scale in all areas covered by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). A map of the polar regions has been done by Birch et al. [2]. For the mid-latitudes, we have defined five broad classes of terrains following Malaska et al. [3], largely based on prior mapping [1]. These broad classes are: craters, hummocky/mountainous, labyrinth, plains, and dunes. We have found that the hummocky/mountainous terrains are the oldest units on the surface and appear radiometrically cold, indicating icy materials [5]. Dunes are the youngest units and appear radiometrically warm, indicating organic sediments. VIMS analysis shows that compositional variations can also exist within the same class of unit [6, 7]. Future work aims to combine the polar maps of Birch et al. [2] with the mid-latitude maps presented here and harmonize the units at the 60 degrees boundaries. We also plan to extend the map in regions not covered by SAR to produce a 1:1,500,000 scale map compatible with USGS standards.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: Icarus, 205, 540-588, 2010; [2] Birch et al., submitted to Icarus. [3] Malaska, M., et al.: Icarus, 270, 130-161, 2016; [4] Barnes, J., et al.: Pl. Scie., 2:1, 2013; [5] Janssen et al., 2016 Icarus 270, 443-459, 2016. [6] Solomonidou, A., et al. : DPS abstract, 2016. [7] Lopes, R.M.C., et al, Icarus, 270, 162-182, 2016.

  4. Climatology of GNSS ionospheric scintillation at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spogli, L.; Alfonsi, L.; de Franceschi, G.; Romano, V.; Aquino, M.; Dodson, A.; Mitchell, C. N.

    2009-12-01

    Under perturbed conditions caused by intense solar wind magnetosphere coupling, the ionosphere may become highly turbulent and irregularities, typically enhancements or depletions of the electron density embedded in the ambient ionosphere, can form. Such irregularities cause diffraction effects, mainly due to the random fluctuations of the refractive index of the ionosphere, on the satellites signals passing through them and consequent perturbations may cause GNSS navigation errors and outages, abruptly corrupting its performance. Due to the morphology of the geomagnetic field, whose lines are almost vertical at high latitude, polar areas are characterized by the presence of significant ionospheric irregularities having scale sizes ranging from hundreds of kilometers down to a few centimeters and with highly dynamic structures. The understanding of the effect of such phenomena is important, not only in preparation for the next solar cycle (24), whose maximum is expected in 2012, but also for a deeper comprehension of the dynamics of the high-latitude ionosphere. We analyze the fluctuations in the carrier frequency of the radio waves received on the ground, commonly referred to as ionospheric amplitude and phase scintillations, to investigate the physical processes causing them. The phase scintillations on GNSS signals are likely caused by ionospheric irregularities of scale size of hundreds of meters to few kilometers. The amplitude scintillations on GNSS signals are caused by ionospheric irregularities of scale size smaller than the Fresnel radius, which is of the order of hundreds of meters for GNSS signals, typically embedded into the patches. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG) of the University of Nottingham manage the same kind of GISTM (GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitor) receivers over the European high and mid latitude regions and over Antarctica. The

  5. Interconnect Performance Evaluation of SGI Altix 3700 BX2, Cray X1, Cray Opteron Cluster, and Dell PowerEdge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatoohi, Rod; Saini, Subbash; Ciotti, Robert

    2006-01-01

    We study the performance of inter-process communication on four high-speed multiprocessor systems using a set of communication benchmarks. The goal is to identify certain limiting factors and bottlenecks with the interconnect of these systems as well as to compare these interconnects. We measured network bandwidth using different number of communicating processors and communication patterns, such as point-to-point communication, collective communication, and dense communication patterns. The four platforms are: a 512-processor SGI Altix 3700 BX2 shared-memory machine with 3.2 GB/s links; a 64-processor (single-streaming) Cray XI shared-memory machine with 32 1.6 GB/s links; a 128-processor Cray Opteron cluster using a Myrinet network; and a 1280-node Dell PowerEdge cluster with an InfiniBand network. Our, results show the impact of the network bandwidth and topology on the overall performance of each interconnect.

  6. Seasonal affective disorder in college students: prevalence and latitude.

    PubMed

    Low, K G; Feissner, J M

    1998-11-01

    The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to evaluate a convenience sample of college students in northern New England for winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subsyndromal SAD. Seventy-six students filled out the questionnaire and the inventory in mid-fall, then completed the inventory again in mid-February. The students who had moved from southern latitudes to northern New England were the most likely to experience increased depression in winter. Prevalence rates for SAD and sub-SAD combined (winter 13.2 and 19.7%, respectively) were slightly higher than those reported in previous research. The prevalence of SAD was also higher in female students, which was consistent with findings in previous research.

  7. Characterizing the Spatio-Temporal Response of High Latitude Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneback, R.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude convection is a highly variable system in time influenced by multiple processes, presenting a significant challenge when trying to isolate the response to only one of these inputs. We will present a data based method that can isolate systematic variations within the incomplete convection information provided by SuperDARN and DMSP as well as measurements of space weather parameters in time over an 11 year solar cycle. These variations are condensed into a limited set of basis functions with corresponding amplitudes in time that best reproduce the long term data set, in effect producing an estimate of convection at all locations ever measured by SuperDARN or DMSP and at all times over the solar cycle.

  8. Anisotropy of high-latitude nighttime F region irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.C.; Rino, C.L.; Owen, J.; Tsunoda, R.T.

    1982-12-01

    The anisotropy of intermediate-scale, F region irregularities in the nighttime auroral zone is described. The study is based upon spaced-receiver phase scintillation measurements made with the Wideband satellite at Poker Flat, Alaska. A systematic dependence of irregularity anisotropy with local time and magnetic latitude is observed, suggesting convective control. Sheetlike irregularities are confined to the zone of east-west drift near the equatorward boundary of the auroral zone, and at the flow reversal, or Harang discontinuity, the cross-field extension of the sheets is reduced. The extension of rodlike irregularities, which are observed poleward of the zonal convection boundary, also shows apparent convection dominance. Mechanisms for convection control of the anisotropy are discussed.

  9. High-latitude geomagnetic studies (22-23 millihertz)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A. City Univ. of New York, Brooklyn ); Lanzerotti, L.J.; Maclennan, C.C.; Medford, L.V. )

    1988-01-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements were initiated at Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay) in the Northwest Territories of Canada during July 1985 (Wolfe et al. 1986). This site was selected because it was calculated to be in the conjugate area to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station where extensive geomagnetic research has been conducted. The principal scientific objectives are to study the conjugacy of high-latitude magnetic fluctuations observed at Iqaluit and South Pole (L{approximately}13). In this report, the authors extend the previous report of Wolfe et al. (1987) and comment upon the conjugacy of the stations for magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc3 (22-33 millihertz) hydromagnetic regime and upon the penetration of hydromagnetic energy deeper into the magnetosphere on the local dayside.

  10. Do wintering Harlequin Ducks forage nocturnally at high latitudes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, D.J.; Esler, Daniel; Roby, D.D.; Jarvis, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    We monitored radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to determine whether nocturnal feeding was part of their foraging strategy during winter in south-central Alaska. Despite attributes of our study site (low ambient temperatures, harsh weather, short day length) and study species (small body size, high daytime foraging rates) that would be expected to favor nocturnal foraging, we found no evidence of nocturnal dive-feeding. Signals from eight radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks never exhibited signal loss due to diving during a total of 780 minutes of nocturnal monitoring. In contrast, the same eight birds exhibited signal loss during 62 ± 7% (SE) of 5-minute diurnal monitoring periods (total of 365 minutes of monitoring). Our results suggest that Harlequin Ducks in south-central Alaska face a stringent time constraint on daytime foraging during midwinter. Harlequin Ducks wintering at high latitudes, therefore, may be particularly sensitive to factors that increase foraging requirements or decrease foraging efficiency.

  11. Ozone maxima over Southern Africa: A mid-latitude link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsby, Jane; Diab, Roseanne D.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between patterns of total ozone and day-to-day weather was explored over South Africa for the period 1987 to 1988. Generally, there was a fairly poor relationship (variance less than 20 percent) between total ozone and the heights of the 100, 300 and 500 hPa geopotential heights at 5 South African stations. However, over a shorter period, October to December 1988, fluctuations in the height of the 300 hPa surface accounted for 53 percent of the variance in total ozone at Cape Town. High ozone amounts are associated with the lowering of the 300 hPa surface in the presence of an upper-air trough. The role of the mid-latitude westerly waves in this respect is discussed.

  12. A mathematical model of the middle and high latitude ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    A time-dependent three-dimensional model of the middle and high latitude ionosphere is described. The density distributions of six ion species NO(+), O(2+), N(2+), O(+), N(+), He(+), and the electron and ion temperatures are obtained from a numerical solution of the appropriate continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The equations are solved as a function of height for an inclined magnetic field at E and F region altitudes. The three-dimensional nature of the model is obtained by following flux tubes of plasma as they convect or corotate through a moving neutral atmosphere. The model takes account of field-aligned diffusion, cross-field electrodynamic drifts, thermospheric winds, polar wind escape, energy-dependent chemical reactions, neutral composition changes, ion production due to solar EUV radiation and auroral precipitation, thermal conduction, diffusion-thermal heat flow and local heating and cooling processes. The model also takes account of the offset between the geomagnetic and geographic poles.

  13. The Ulysses mission in the high latitude heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, D. E.; Marsden, R. G.; Smith, E. J.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    1990-01-01

    Ulysses, a joint ESA/NASA mission launched in October 1990, will be the first to explore the high latitude heliosphere. Launch will be from the Shuttle and a Jupiter gravity assist will be used to send the spacecraft first over the southern solar pole approximately three and one half years after launch and then over the northern solar pole one year later. Instruments will be carried to study the solar wind, the heliospheric magnetic field, energetic solar particles, galactic cosmic rays, solar X-rays, cosmic gamma rays, cosmic dust and interstellar neutral helium. The radio signals used to track and transmit spacecraft data will be used also to sound the corona and to search for gravitational waves.

  14. Mid-latitude VLF emissions observed in the topside ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondoh, T.; Murakami, T.

    1975-01-01

    Narrow-band VLF emissions observed on different days by Alouette-2 are described. It is found that narrow-band VLF hiss (3.5-7.0 kHz) occurs at midlatitudes (at 54 to 64 deg) in the topside ionosphere during both the geomagnetically disturbed and quiet periods, although the hiss region moves towards the auroral zone during the disturbed period. It is likely that the midlatitude hiss at around 5 kHz is the origin of the narrow-band hiss (5 plus or minus 1 kHz) often observed at ground stations at low latitudes, since no VLF emissions above 2 kHz appear in the auroral zone. The midlatitude VLF hiss observed in the topside ionosphere may be generated by the transverse (electron cyclotron) resonance instability in the magnetosphere.

  15. Altitude and latitude dependence of the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Cole, K. D.

    1988-07-01

    A self-consistent and high-resolution dynamo model is used to investigate the effects of day-to-day or seasonal variation of altitude and latitude profiles of the E-plasma density in the equatorial ionosphere on equatorial electrojet (EEJ) structure. Variations in the E-layer peak altitude and amplitude are shown to significantly affect EEJ structure. The results indicate that, for any shape, the EEJ peak appears at or below the E-layer peak altitude. Distinct double peaks occur in the EEJ structure if the E-layer peak is above 105 km or if the gradient is large. The effect of the latitudinal variation of the integrated conductivities of ionospheric field lines upon the amplitude and altitude of the EEJ peak is discussed.

  16. Ion properties of the high-latitude middle-atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Brink, R. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations of high-latitude, middle-atmosphere ion properties have been conducted using rocket probe techniques. Electrodynamics studies have addressed: mesospheric dynamics and small-scale structure (the MAC/EPSILON Campaign during October-November 1977); ionization effects associated with highly energetic greater than or equal to 1 MeV) precipitating electrons (the MAC/REP Program during May 1990); and the characteristics of noctilucent cloud (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echo (PMSE) regions (the NLC-91 Campaign during July-August 1991). Recent developments in Gerdien condenser probe theory, using computational fluid dynamics to model ion collection, have resulted in more accurate evaluation of the ion mobilities and number densities. Measurements of very small ion mobilities are thought to indicate an aerosol ion presence in the upper mesosphere.

  17. Wintertime density perturbations near 50 km in relation to latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Standard and reference atmospheres which depict the horizontal distribution of air density in the stratosphere and mesosphere are not realistic in that they do not provide information on the large departures from standard that may occur during a given month, nor on the time- and space-scales of atmospheric perturbations responsible for these departures. In the present paper, it is shown how this information can be obtained from a special analysis of satellite radiance measurements. Plots of the mean zonal radiance, obtained with the VTPR instrument, and the corresponding 50-km density show not only the expected strong poleward gradient of density, but also a strong density surge from late December to early January, affecting all latitudes.

  18. Seasonal variation in human illumination exposure at two different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Cole, R J; Kripke, D F; Wisbey, J; Mason, W J; Gruen, W; Hauri, P J; Juarez, S

    1995-12-01

    The authors measured ambient illumination exposure in healthy volunteers in San Diego, California (latitude 32 degrees 43' N, n = 30), and Rochester, Minnesota (latitude 44 degrees 1' N, n = 24), during each of the four quarters of the year, which were centered on the solstices and equinoxes. Subjects wore photosensors on their wrists and lapels (or foreheads while in bed) 24 h per day for an average of 5-6 days per quarter. The maximum of the two illumination readings was stored each minute. Annual average time spent per day in outdoor illumination (> or = 1000 lux) was significantly higher in San Diego than it was in Rochester (p < .04). Daily durations of illumination at or exceeding thresholds of 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 lux were highly seasonal in the sample as a whole (p < .01 at 1 lux, p < .0001 at other thresholds). Seasonal variation in outdoor illumination was far more pronounced in Rochester than it was in San Diego (interaction p < .001) but remained significant in San Diego (p < or = .03). Seasonal variation in indoor illumination was generally similar in the two cities. The median Rochester subject experienced illumination > or = 1000 lux for 2 h 23 min per day during summer and 23 min per day during winter. The corresponding times in San Diego were 2 h 10 min and 1 h 20 min. Neither age nor gender predicted illumination duration at any level. Both season and geographic location strongly influenced human illumination exposure, and behavior (choice of indoor vs. outdoor environment) was the most important mediating factor.

  19. On the surface composition of Triton's southern latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, B. J.; Young, L. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Olkin, C. B.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of an investigation to determine the longitudinal (zonal) distributions and temporal evolution of ices on the surface of Triton. Between 2002 and 2014, we obtained 63 nights of near-infrared (0.67-2.55 μ m) spectra using the SpeX instrument at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Triton has spectral features in this wavelength region from N2, CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O. Absorption features of ethane (C2H6) and 13CO are coincident at 2.405 μ m, a feature that we detect in our spectra. We calculated the integrated band area (or fractional band depth in the case of H2O) in each nightly average spectrum, constructed longitudinal distributions, and quantified temporal evolution for each of the chosen absorption bands. The volatile ices (N2, CO, CH4) show significant variability over one Triton rotation and have well-constrained longitudes of peak absorption. The non-volatile ices (CO2, H2O) show poorly-constrained peak longitudes and little variability. The longitudinal distribution of the 2.405 μ m band shows little variability over one Triton rotation and is 97 ± 44 ° and 92 ± 44 ° out of phase with the 1.58 μ m and 2.35 μ m CO bands, respectively. This evidence indicates that the 2.405 μ m band is due to absorption from non-volatile ethane. CH4 absorption increased over the period of the observations while absorption from all other ices showed no statistically significant change. We conclude from these results that the southern latitudes of Triton are currently dominated by non-volatile ices and as the sub-solar latitude migrates northwards, a larger quantity of volatile ice is coming into view.

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of high-latitude scintillation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Alex; Forte, Biagio; Deshpande, Kshitija; Bust, Gary; Mitchell, Cathryn

    2016-07-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System signals exhibit rapid fluctuations at high and low latitudes as a consequence of propagation through drifting ionospheric irregularities. We focus on the high-latitude scintillation problem, taking advantage of a conjunction of European Incoherent Scatter Radar (EISCAT) observations and a GPS scintillation monitor viewing the same line of sight. Just after 20:00 UT on 17 October 2013, an auroral E region ionization enhancement occurred with associated phase scintillations. This investigation uses the scintillation observations to estimate the ionospheric electron density distribution beyond the spatial resolution of EISCAT (5-15 km along the line of sight in this case). Following the approach of Deshpande et al. (2014), signal propagation is modeled through a specified density distribution. A multiple phase screen propagation algorithm is applied to irregularities conforming to the description of Costa and Kelley (1977) and constrained to match the macroscopic conditions observed by EISCAT. A 50-member ensemble of modeled outputs is approximately consistent with the observations according to the standard deviation of the phase (σp). The observations have σp = 0.23 rad, while the ensemble of modeled realizations has σp = 0.23 + 0.04-0.04. By comparison of the model output with the scintillation observations, we show that the density fluctuations cannot be a constant fraction of the mean density. The model indicates that E region density fluctuations whose standard deviation varies temporally between 5 and 25% of the mean (EISCAT-observed) density are required to explain the observed phase scintillations.

  1. Comparison of high latitude thermospheric meridional neutral wind climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Eoghan Michael

    The combination of the long term databases of measurements from the Kiruna Fabry-Perot Interferometer and the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, both covering more than a solar cycle of data, allows a unique comparison of the thermospheric meridional component of the neutral wind as observed by different experimental techniques. This allows the climatological behaviour of the neutral wind at high latitudes to be investigated, including the influence of both solar activity and season. Two techniques are applied to derive winds from the EISCAT database, one from previous work using the standard technique for incoherent scatter radars, and a new dataset derived using the Meridional Wind Model implementation of servo theory with the EISCAT data as input. The latter technique also uses contemporaneous EISCAT electric field data for correction to the equivalent servo winds. Alongside the local measurements from experiment, model predictions of the behaviour of the winds can also be compared. These have been included and use both empirical sources as in the Horizontal Wind Model and Meridional Wind Model with International Reference Ionosphere input, and also the results from a first principles theoretical model, the UCL Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere Model. Comparisons are made between the results from these techniques for each of eight categories corresponding to the four seasons, centred around the equinoxes and solstices, and for two solar activity levels. The detailed comparisons in each case and the implications of the results for the ability of the models to predict the long term behaviour of the winds and also for the degree of agreement between the techniques based on local measurements are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude and the possibilities for further work to improve both experimental and modelling efforts.

  2. Speciation, Ecological Opportunity, and Latitude (American Society of Naturalists Address).

    PubMed

    Schluter, Dolph

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses to explain the greater numbers of species in the tropics than the temperate zone include greater age and area, higher temperature and metabolic rates, and greater ecological opportunity. These ideas make contrasting predictions about the relationship between speciation processes and latitude, which I elaborate and evaluate. Available data suggest that per capita speciation rates are currently highest in the temperate zone and that diversification rates (speciation minus extinction) are similar between latitudes. In contrast, clades whose oldest analyzed dates precede the Eocene thermal maximum, when the extent of the tropics was much greater than today, tend to show highest speciation and diversification rates in the tropics. These findings are consistent with age and area, which is alone among hypotheses in predicting a time trend. Higher recent speciation rates in the temperate zone than the tropics suggest an additional response to high ecological opportunity associated with low species diversity. These broad patterns are compelling but provide limited insights into underlying mechanisms, arguing that studies of speciation processes along the latitudinal gradient will be vital. Using threespine stickleback in depauperate northern lakes as an example, I show how high ecological opportunity can lead to rapid speciation. The results support a role for ecological opportunity in speciation, but its importance in the evolution of the latitudinal gradient remains uncertain. I conclude that per capita evolutionary rates are no longer higher in the tropics than the temperate zone. Nevertheless, the vast numbers of species that have already accumulated in the tropics ensure that total rate of species production remains highest there. Thus, tropical evolutionary momentum helps to perpetuate the steep latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

  3. Comparing High-latitude Ionospheric and Thermospheric Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Ramirez, U.; Flores, F.; Okic, D.; Datta-Barua, S.

    2015-12-01

    Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) are invisible boundaries in time varying flow fields that may be subject to mixing and turbulence. The LCS is defined by the local maxima of the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE), a scalar field quantifying the degree of stretching of fluid elements over the flow domain. Although the thermosphere is dominated by neutral wind processes and the ionosphere is governed by plasma electrodynamics, we can compare the LCS in the two modeled flow fields to yield insight into transport and interaction processes in the high-latitude IT system. For obtaining thermospheric LCS, we use the Horizontal Wind Model 2014 (HWM14) [1] at a single altitude to generate the two-dimensional velocity field. The FTLE computation is applied to study the flow field of the neutral wind, and to visualize the forward-time Lagrangian Coherent Structures in the flow domain. The time-varying structures indicate a possible thermospheric LCS ridge in the auroral oval area. The results of a two-day run during a geomagnetically quiet period show that the structures are diurnally quasi-periodic, thus that solar radiation influences the neutral wind flow field. To find the LCS in the high-latitude ionospheric drifts, the Weimer 2001 [2] polar electric potential model and the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 [3] are used to compute the ExB drift flow field in ionosphere. As with the neutral winds, the Lagrangian Coherent Structures are obtained by applying the FTLE computation. The relationship between the thermospheric and ionospheric LCS is analyzed by comparing overlapping FTLE maps. Both a publicly available FTLE solver [4] and a custom-built FTLE computation are used and compared for validation [5]. Comparing the modeled IT LCSs on a quiet day with the modeled IT LCSs on a storm day indicates important factors on the structure and time evolution of the LCS.

  4. Improved fire radiative energy estimation in high latitude ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchiorre, A.; Boschetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists, land managers, and policy makers are facing new challenges as fire regimes are evolving as a result of climate change (Westerling et al. 2006). In high latitudes fires are increasing in number and size as temperatures increase and precipitation decreases (Kasischke and Turetsky 2006). Peatlands, like the large complexes in the Alaskan tundra, are burning more frequently and severely as a result of these changes, releasing large amounts of greenhouse gases. Remotely sensed data are routinely used to monitor the location of active fires and the extent of burned areas, but they are not sensitive to the depth of the organic soil layer combusted, resulting in underestimation of peatland greenhouse gas emissions when employing the conventional 'bottom up' approach (Seiler and Crutzen 1980). An alternative approach would be the direct estimation of the biomass burned from the energy released by the fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) (Wooster et al. 2003). Previous works (Boschetti and Roy 2009; Kumar et al. 2011) showed that the sampling interval of polar orbiting satellite systems severely limits the accuracy of the FRE in tropical ecosystems (up to four overpasses a day with MODIS), but because of the convergence of the orbits, more observations are available at higher latitudes. In this work, we used a combination of MODIS thermal data and Landsat optical data for the estimation of biomass burned in peatland ecosystems. First, the global MODIS active fire detection algorithm (Giglio et al. 2003) was modified, adapting the temperature thresholds to maximize the number of detections in boreal regions. Then, following the approach proposed by Boschetti and Roy (2009), the FRP point estimations were interpolated in time and space to cover the full temporal and spatial extent of the burned area, mapped with Landsat5 TM data. The methodology was tested on a large burned area in Alaska, and the results compared to published field measurements (Turetsky et al. 2011).

  5. Search for fine scale structures in high latitude solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livi, S.; Parenti, S.; Poletto, G.

    1995-01-01

    About 25 years ago, E. Parker suggested that, as a consequence of the inhomogeneous structure of the corona, the solar wind might consist of adjacent structures with different physical conditions. Since that suggestion was made, the solar wind plasma characteristics have been measured in situ through many experiments, but little has been done to check whether the solar wind shows any evidence for fine scale structures, and, in the affirmative, how far from the Sun these structures persist. A previous work on this subject, by Thieme, Marsch and Schwenn (1990), based on Helios data, lead these authors to claim that the solar wind, between 0.3 and 1 AU, is inhomogeneous on a scale consistent with the hypothesis that the plume-interplume plasmas, at those distances, still retain their identity. In this work we present preliminary results from an investigation of the solar wind fine structure from Ulysses high latitude observations. To this end, we have analyzed data over several months, during 1994, at times well after Ulysses's last encounter with the Heliospheric Current Sheet, when the spacecraft was at latitudes above 50 degrees. These data refer to high speed wind coming from southern polar coronal holes and are best suited for plume-interplume identification. We have performed a power spectra analysis of typical plasma parameters, to test whether the wind plasma consist of two distinct plasma populations. We also examined data to check whether there is any evidence for an horizontal pressure balance over the hypothesized distinct structures. Our results are discussed and compared with previous findings.

  6. Recent changes in surface water extent over the Northern latitudes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, F.; Prigent, C.; Rossow, W. B.

    2009-04-01

    All climate scenarios agree on the high sensitivity of the northern regions to global change, with a stronger warming at these latitudes than globally. Continued warming will likely have profound consequences for many continental systems throughout the region. In particular, an increase in air temperature is expected to intensify the Arctic hydrological cycle. As a key parameter of the global biogeochemical and hydrological cycles, terrestrial surface waters (rivers, lakes, man-made reservoirs, wetlands and episodically inundation) are of a particular importance because they interact directly with the ocean and atmosphere. Using a multi-satellite method, including passive microwave land surface emissivities, along with active microwave, visible and near infrared observations developed to estimate inundated area at global scale, we present here the recent changes observed in surface water extent in Northern latitudes over the period 1993-2004. Over these regions, results show a decline in surface water extent with large geographical contrasts between Eurasia and America, between the different large river basins and between the regions underlain or not by permafrost. For six major basins located in Eurasia and North America, we analyze theses changes in comparison with precipitation, temperature and in-situ river discharge variations. The Yenissey and the Lena river basins, which are largely underlain by permafrost, show the largest changes in surface water extent especially in July/August with a decline of about 1-2% per year. Our results support the idea that more deeply thawed permafrost, due to temperature increase in the Boreal regions, would promote increased soil infiltration and a possible shift of water storage from the surface/near surface to the subsurface. The implications of these results in term of energy, biochemical and water cycles will be discussed.

  7. Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim

    2013-04-01

    Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).

  8. Low- and mid-latitude ionospheric electric fields during the January 1984 GISMOS campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Kelley, M. C.; Senior, C.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; Lepping, R.

    1990-01-01

    The electrical coupling between the high-, middle-, and low-latitude ionospheres during January 17-19, 1984 is examined, using interplanetary and high-latitude magnetic field data together with F region plasma drift measurements from the EISCAT, Sondre Stromfjord, Millstone Hill, Saint-Santin, Arecibo, and Jicamarca incoherent scatter radars. The penetration both the zonal and meridional electric field components of high-latitude origin into the low-latitude and the equatorial ionospheres are studied. The observations in the postmidnight sector are used to compare the longitudinal variations of the zonal perturbation electric field with predictions made from global convection models. The results show that the meridional electric field perturbations are considerably more attenuated with decreasing latitude than the zonal fluctuations. It is concluded that variations in the meridional electric field at low latitudes are largely due to dynamo effects.

  9. ROTATION RATE DIFFERENCES OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS BETWEEN ±60° LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X. J.; Xie, J. L.

    2015-04-15

    Based on a cross-correlation analysis of the Carrington synoptic maps of solar photospheric magnetic fields from Carrington Rotations Nos. 1625 to 2135 (from 1975 February to 2013 March), the sidereal rotation rates of the positive and negative magnetic fields in the latitude range of ±60° are obtained, and the rotation rate differences between them are investigated. The time–latitude distribution of the rate differences is shown, which looks like a butterfly diagram at the low and middle latitudes. For comparison, the time–latitude distribution of the longitudinally averaged photospheric magnetic fields is shown. We conclude that the magnetic fields having the same polarity as the leading sunspots at a given hemisphere rotate faster than those exhibiting the opposite polarity at low and middle latitudes. However, at higher latitudes, the magnetic fields having the same polarity as the leading sunspots at a given hemisphere do not always rotate faster than those with the opposite polarity. Furthermore, the relationship between the rotation rate differences and solar magnetic fields is studied through a correlation analysis. Our result shows that the correlation coefficients between them reach maximum values at 13° (14°) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere, and change sign at 28° latitude in both hemispheres, then reach their minimum values at 58° (53°) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere.

  10. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  11. High latitude hydrological changes during the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Srinath; Pagani, Mark; Huber, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy

    2014-10-01

    -enriched signals at the base of the event, including (1) intense local drying and cooling leading to evaporative 2H-enrichment; (2) changes in frequency/intensity of storm events and its impact on high latitude amount effects; and (3) changes in low-latitude temperatures. Evidence for hydrological shifts at the base of both hyperthermals suggests that hydrological change or the factors promoting hydrological change played a role in triggering the release of greenhouse gases. Generation of similar high-resolution isotopic- and temperature records at other latitudes is crucial for understanding the causal links between temperature and hydrological changes and may help constrain the source and mechanism of carbon release that triggered the early Eocene hyperthermals.

  12. Exposed Ice in the Northern Mid-Latitudes of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2007-01-01

    Ice-Rich Layer: Polygonal features with dimensions of approximately 100 meters, bounded by cracks, are commonly observed on the martian northern plains. These features are generally attributed to thermal cracking of ice-rich sediments, in direct analogy to polygons in terrestrial polar regions. We mapped polygons in the northern mid-latitudes (30 to 65 N) using MOC and HiRISE images. Polygons are scattered across the northern plains, with a particular concentration in western Utopia Planitia. This region largely overlaps the Late Amazonian Astapus Colles unit, characterized by polygonal terrain and nested pits consistent with periglacial and thermokarst origins. Bright and Dark Polygonal Cracks: An examination of all MOC images (1997 through 2003) covering the study area demonstrated that, at latitudes of 55 to 65 N, most of the imaged polygons show bright bounding cracks. We interpret these bright cracks as exposed ice. Between 40 and 55 N, most of the imaged polygons show dark bounding cracks. These are interpreted as polygons from which the exposed ice has been removed by sublimation. The long-term stability limit for exposed ice, even in deep cracks, apparently lies near 55 N. Bright and Dark Spots: Many HiRISE and MOC frames showing polygons in the northern plains also show small numbers of bright and dark spots, particularly in western Utopia Planitia. Many of the spots are closely associated with collapse features suggestive of thermokarst. The spots range from tens to approximately 100 meters in diameter. The bright spots are interpreted as exposed ice, due to their prevalence on terrain mapped as ice rich. The dark spots are interpreted as former bright spots, which have darkened as the exposed ice is lost by sublimation. The bright spots may be the martian equivalents of pingos, ice-cored mounds found in periglacial regions on Earth. Terrestrial pingos from which the ice core has melted often collapse to form depressions similar to the martian dark spots

  13. Autonomous, continuously recording broadband seismic stations at high-latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B.; Parker, T.; Bonnett, B.; Tytgat, G.; Anderson, K.; Fowler, J.

    2009-04-01

    IRIS PASSCAL is in the third year of an NSF funded development and acquisition effort to establish a pool of cold-hardened seismic stations specifically for high-latitude broadband deployments. We have two complete years of field trials and have successfully recorded continuous seismic data during both years with data recovery rates of ~90%. Our design is premised on a 2W autonomous system recording to local media, capable of lasting two years without service. The system is composed of four new design elements: a heavily insulated station enclosure; a state-of-health (SOH) Iridium modem; a light weight, easily deployed solar panel mount; and a power system that includes power switching between primary (Lithium Thionyl Chloride) and secondary batteries. The station enclosures have proved most critical in keeping our data acquisition systems operating within manufacturer specifications and primary batteries within a 50-70% efficiency range. Enclosures with 2.5cm-thick vacuum panels and 5cm of foam insulation have kept interior enclosure temperatures 25-30°C above background (typically below -50°C). This austral summer we are deploying version three of our enclosures. Significant changes in the design include thicker vacuum panels (5cm), more robust construction, and simplified cable routing. An important aspect of our station design is easy installation and minimal weight. To simplify installation our station enclosures are packed with datalogger, SOH communications and batteries in the lab or base camp, so that access to the internal components is not necessary at the remote site. Bulkhead connectors allow a user to fully interact with the system without ever having to open the enclosure. Solar panel mounts are also fully constructed prior to deployment. Once on site, digging two large holes (one for the enclosure and one for the broadband seismometer) and constructing the site takes roughly 2 hours. A station designed to record continuously for 12-14 months is

  14. Numerical modeling of Atlantic hurricanes moving into the middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, Christopher T.

    Hurricanes that form over the Atlantic Ocean very frequently migrate into the middle latitudes where they encounter very different oceanic and atmospheric conditions than in the tropics. Cool sea surface temperatures (SSTs) cause these storms to weaken and become thermodynamically decoupled from the ocean, while baroclinic atmospheric environments often cause them to transform into extratropical storms---a process known as extratropical transition (ET). The changing structure of these storms in the middle latitudes presents many unique forecasting challenges related to the increasing asymmetry in moisture and wind fields, and their potentially destructive nature. An examination of three such events over Eastern Canada---using a combination of observations and a numerical model---forms the foundation of this work, with an emphasis on applying the research to weather forecasting. The case studies include Hurricane Michael (2000), Hurricane Karen (2001) and Hurricane Juan (2003). Hurricane Michael intensified in a strongly-baroclinc environment and evolved into an intense extratropical storm over Newfoundland. Karen also underwent ET, but weakened quickly during its approach to Nova Scotia, while Hurricane Juan struck the province as a category-two hurricane, experiencing only marginal weakening over anomalously warm SSTs. In essence, these cases represent a cross section of the behavior of many tropical cyclones in this part of the world. Hindcast simulations are conducted for each event using the Canadian Mesoscale Compressible Community (MC2) model with a synthetic, observationally-consistent hurricane vortex used in the model's initial conditions. Sensitivity experiments are run for each case by modifying initial specifications of the vortex, model physics parameterizations, and surface boundary conditions like SST. In the case of Hurricane Juan, it is determined that the anomalously-warm SSTs played a significant role in the landfall intensity, while Hurricane

  15. Paleoclimate records at high latitude in Arctic during the Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salpin, Marie; Schnyder, Johann; Baudin, François; Suan, Guillaume; Labrousse, Loïc; Popescu, Speranta; Suc, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Paleoclimate records at high latitude in Arctic during the Paleogene SALPIN Marie1,2, SCHNYDER Johann1,2, BAUDIN François1,2, SUAN Guillaume3, LABROUSSE Loïc1,2, POPESCU Speranta4, SUC Jean-Pierre1,4 1: Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7193, Institut des Sciences de la Terre Paris (iSTeP), F 75005, Paris, France 2: CNRS, UMR 7193, Institut des Sciences de la Terre Paris (iSTeP), F 75005 Paris, France 3: UCB Lyon 1, UMR 5276, LGLTPE, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France 4: GEOBIOSTRATDATA.CONSULTING, 385 Route du Mas Rillier 69140 Rillieux la Pape, France The Paleogene is a period of important variations of the Earth climate system either in warming or cooling. The climatic optima of the Paleogene have been recognized both in continental and marine environment. This study focus on high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, in the Arctic Basin. The basin has had an influence on the Cenozoic global climate change according to its polar position. Is there a specific behaviour of the Arctic Basin with respect to global climatic stimuli? Are there possible mechanisms of coupling/decoupling of its dynamics with respect to the global ocean? To answer these questions a unique collection of sedimentary series of Paleogene age interval has been assembled from the Laurentian margin in Northern Yukon (Canada) and from the Siberian margin (New Siberian Islands). Selected continental successions of Paleocene-Eocene age were used to study the response of the Arctic system to known global events, e.g. the climatic optima of the Paleogene (the so-called PETM, ETM2 or the Azolla events). Two sections of Paleocene-Eocene age were sampled near the Mackenzie delta, the so-called Coal Mine (CoMi) and Caribou Hills (CaH) sections. The aim of the study is to precise the climatic fluctuations and to characterise the source rock potential of the basin, eventually linked to the warming events. This study is based on data of multi-proxy analyses: mineralogy on bulk and clay

  16. Study of the seasonal ozone variations at European high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, R.; Stebel, K.; Hansen, H. G.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Gausa, M.; Kivi, R.; von der Gathen, P.; Orsolini, Y.; Kilifarska, N.

    2011-02-01

    The geographic area at high latitudes beyond the polar circle is characterized with long darkness during the winter (polar night) and with a long summertime insolation (polar day). Consequentially, the polar vortex is formed and the surrounding strong polar jet is characterized by a strong potential vorticity gradient representing a horizontal transport barrier. The ozone dynamics of the lower and middle stratosphere is controlled both by chemical destruction processes and transport processes.To study the seasonal ozone variation at high latitudes, ozone vertical distributions are examined, collected from the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) (69.3°N, 16.0°E,) station at Andenes and from the stations at Sodankylä (67.4°N, 26.6°E) and at Ny-Ålesund (78.9°N, 11.9°E). The data sets cover the time period from 1994 until 2004. We find a second ozone maximum near 13-15 km, between the tropopause and the absolute ozone maximum near 17-20 km. The maximum is built up by the combination of air mass transport and chemical ozone destruction, mainly caused by the NOx catalytic cycle, which begins after the polar night and intensifies with the increasing day length. Formation of a troposphere inversion layer is observed. The inversion layer is thicker and reaches higher altitudes in winter rather than in summer. However, the temperature inversion during summer is stronger. The formation of an enhanced ozone number density is observed during the spring-summer period. The ozone is accumulated or becomes poor by synoptic weather patterns just above the tropopause from spring to summer. In seasonal average an ozone enhancement above the tropopause is obtained.The stronger temperature inversion during the summer period inhibits the vertical stratosphere-troposphere exchange. The horizontal advection in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is enforced during summer. The combination of these mechanisms generates a layer with a very low

  17. Types of case series--the anatomically based approach: commentary on M. F. Schwartz & G. S. Dell: case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Shallice, Tim; Buiatti, Tania

    2011-10-01

    The paper addresses a weakness in the Schwartz and Dell paper (2010)-namely, its discussion of the inclusion criteria for case series. The paper distinguishes the different types that exist and how they constrain the theoretical conclusions that one can draw about the organization of the normal cognitive system. Four different types of inclusion criteria are considered. Two are those treated by Schwartz and Dell-namely, theoretically derived clinical criteria, such as the example of semantic dementia, and broad clinical criteria such as the presence of aphasia. In addition, in the present paper two different types of anatomically based criteria are assessed-those using anatomical regions selected a priori and also regions selected as a result of an anatomical group study analysis. Putative functional syndromes are argued to be the empirical building blocks for cognitive neuropsychology. Anatomically based case series can aid in their construction or in their fractionation.

  18. Analysis of the atmospheric upward radiation in low latitude area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiying; Wu, Zhensen; Lin, Leke; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing using THz wave has irreplaceable advantage comparing to the microwave and the infrared waves, and study on the THz remote sensing become more and more popular in recent years. The major applications of the remote sensing in THz wavelengths are the retrieval of the atmospheric parameters and the microphysical information of the ice cloud. The remote sensing of the atmosphere is based on the radiation of THz wave along the earth-space path of which the most significant part is the upward radiation of the atmosphere. The upward radiation of the atmosphere in sunny day in the low latitude area is computed and analyzed in this paper. The absorption of THz wave by the atmosphere is calculated using the formulations illustrated in the Recommendation ITU-R P.676 to save machine hour, the frequency range is then restricted below 1THz. The frequencies used for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water content are usually a few hundred GHz, at the lower end of THz wavelengths, so this frequency range is sufficient. The radiation contribution of every atmospheric layer for typical frequencies such as absorption window frequencies and peak frequencies are analyzed. Results show that at frequencies which absorption is severe, information about lower atmosphere cannot reach the receiver onboard a satellite or other high platforms due to the strong absorption along the path.

  19. Sun position calculator (SPC) for Landsat imagery with geodetic latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Jeong C.

    2015-12-01

    Landsat imagery comes with sun position information such as azimuth and sun elevation, but they are available only at the center of a scene. To aid in the use of Landsat imagery for various solar radiation applications such as topographic correction, solar power, urban heat island, agriculture, climate and vegetation, it is necessary to calculate the sun position information at every pixel. This research developed a PC application that creates sun position data layers in ArcGIS at every pixel in a Landsat scene. The SPC program is composed of two major routines - converting universal transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates to geographic longitudes and latitudes, and calculating sun position information based on the Meeus' routine. For the latter, an innovative method was also implemented to account for the Earth's flattening on an ellipsoid. The Meeus routine implemented in this research showed about 0.2‧ of mean absolute difference from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) routine when solar zenith and azimuth angles were tested with every 30 min data at four city locations (Fairbanks, Atlanta, Sydney and Rio Grande) on June 30, 2014. The Meeus routine was about ten times faster than the SPA routine. Professionals who need the Sun's position information for Landsat imagery will benefit from the SPC application.

  20. A polarised fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Emily; SUPERB Collaboration; HESS Collaboration; ANTARES Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a growing population of transients detected with radio telescopes which are thought to originate outside the Milky Way. Fewer than 20 sources exist in the literature and the majority of bursts have been found away from the plane of the Galaxy or where the Galactic contribution to the total electron column density is low. Here we report on the discovery of a new burst, FRB 150215, discovered with the Parkes radio telescope in real-time in February 2015. The burst was found to be 43±5% linearly polarised with an imprecisely determined rotation measure (RM) consistent with zero. The burst was followed-up with 9 telescopes to search for radio, optical, X-ray, γ-ray and neutrino emission from the location of the burst. No transient or variable emission was found to be associated with the burst and no repeat pulses have been observed in nine hours of Parkes observations. Radio images of the field were obtained following the FRB but would not have been sensitive enough to pick up a signal like the one emanating from WISE J071634.59-190039.2 following FRB150418 if it had been present. The sightline to the burst is close to the Galactic plane and the Galactic RM foreground may approach a null along this sightline, corresponding to a decreased total electron column density from the Milky Way. This might explain why this burst was detectable at low latitude whereas previous searches have been relatively unsuccessful.

  1. DISCOVERY OF AN APPARENT HIGH LATITUDE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fesen, Robert A.; Neustadt, Jack M. M.; Black, Christine S.; Koeppel, Ari H. D.

    2015-10-10

    Deep Hα images of a faint emission complex 4.°0 × 5.°5 in angular extent and located far off the Galactic plane at l = 70.°0, b = −21.°5 reveal numerous thin filaments suggestive of a supernova remnant’s (SNR’s) shock emission. Low dispersion optical spectra covering the wavelength range 4500–7500 Å show only Balmer line emissions for one filament while three others show a Balmer dominated spectrum along with weak [N i] 5198, 5200 Å, [O i] 6300, 6364 Å, [N ii] 6583 Å, [S ii] 6716, 6731 Å, and in one case [O iii] 5007 Å line emission. Many of the brighter Hα filaments are visible in near-UV GALEX images presumably due to C iii] 1909 Å line emission. ROSAT All Sky Survey images of this region show a faint crescent-shaped X-ray emission nebula coincident with the portion of the Hα nebulosity closest to the Galactic plane. The presence of long, thin Balmer dominated emission filaments with associated UV emission and coincident X-ray emission suggests this nebula is a high latitude Galactic SNR despite a lack of known associated nonthermal radio emission. Relative line intensities of the optical lines in some filaments differ from commonly observed [S ii]/Hα ≥ 0.4 radiative shocked filaments and typical Balmer filaments in SNRs. We discuss possible causes for the unusual optical SNR spectra.

  2. Latitude, elevational climatic zonation and speciation in New World vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Kozak, Kenneth H.; Gómez, Juan Pablo; Parra, Juan Luis; McCain, Christy M.; Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Carnaval, Ana C.; Moritz, Craig; Rahbek, Carsten; Roberts, Trina E.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Schneider, Christopher J.; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Graham, Catherine H.

    2012-01-01

    Many biodiversity hotspots are located in montane regions, especially in the tropics. A possible explanation for this pattern is that the narrow thermal tolerances of tropical species and greater climatic stratification of tropical mountains create more opportunities for climate-associated parapatric or allopatric speciation in the tropics relative to the temperate zone. However, it is unclear whether a general relationship exists among latitude, climatic zonation and the ecology of speciation. Recent taxon-specific studies obtained different results regarding the role of climate in speciation in tropical versus temperate areas. Here, we quantify overlap in the climatic distributions of 93 pairs of sister species of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles restricted to either the New World tropics or to the Northern temperate zone. We show that elevational ranges of tropical- and temperate-zone species do not differ from one another, yet the temperature range experienced by species in the temperate zone is greater than for those in the tropics. Moreover, tropical sister species tend to exhibit greater similarity in their climatic distributions than temperate sister species. This pattern suggests that evolutionary conservatism in the thermal niches of tropical taxa, coupled with the greater thermal zonation of tropical mountains, may result in increased opportunities for allopatric isolation, speciation and the accumulation of species in tropical montane regions. Our study exemplifies the power of combining phylogenetic and spatial datasets of global climatic variation to explore evolutionary (rather than purely ecological) explanations for the high biodiversity of tropical montane regions. PMID:21632626

  3. Latitude, elevational climatic zonation and speciation in New World vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Kozak, Kenneth H; Gómez, Juan Pablo; Parra, Juan Luis; McCain, Christy M; Bowie, Rauri C K; Carnaval, Ana C; Moritz, Craig; Rahbek, Carsten; Roberts, Trina E; Sanders, Nathan J; Schneider, Christopher J; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Zamudio, Kelly R; Graham, Catherine H

    2012-01-07

    Many biodiversity hotspots are located in montane regions, especially in the tropics. A possible explanation for this pattern is that the narrow thermal tolerances of tropical species and greater climatic stratification of tropical mountains create more opportunities for climate-associated parapatric or allopatric speciation in the tropics relative to the temperate zone. However, it is unclear whether a general relationship exists among latitude, climatic zonation and the ecology of speciation. Recent taxon-specific studies obtained different results regarding the role of climate in speciation in tropical versus temperate areas. Here, we quantify overlap in the climatic distributions of 93 pairs of sister species of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles restricted to either the New World tropics or to the Northern temperate zone. We show that elevational ranges of tropical- and temperate-zone species do not differ from one another, yet the temperature range experienced by species in the temperate zone is greater than for those in the tropics. Moreover, tropical sister species tend to exhibit greater similarity in their climatic distributions than temperate sister species. This pattern suggests that evolutionary conservatism in the thermal niches of tropical taxa, coupled with the greater thermal zonation of tropical mountains, may result in increased opportunities for allopatric isolation, speciation and the accumulation of species in tropical montane regions. Our study exemplifies the power of combining phylogenetic and spatial datasets of global climatic variation to explore evolutionary (rather than purely ecological) explanations for the high biodiversity of tropical montane regions.

  4. Habitable periglacial landscapes in martian mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, M.; Wagner, D.; Hauber, E.; de Vera, J.-P.; Schirrmeister, L.

    2012-05-01

    Subsurface permafrost environments on Mars are considered to be zones where extant life could have survived. For the identification of possible habitats it is important to understand periglacial landscape evolution and related subsurface and environmental conditions. Many landforms that are interpreted to be related to ground ice are located in the martian mid-latitudinal belts. This paper summarizes the insights gained from studies of terrestrial analogs to permafrost landforms on Mars. The potential habitability of martian mid-latitude periglacial landscapes is exemplarily deduced for one such landscape, that of Utopia Planitia, by a review and discussion of environmental conditions influencing periglacial landscape evolution. Based on recent calculations of the astronomical forcing of climate changes, specific climate periods are identified within the last 10 Ma when thaw processes and liquid water were probably important for the development of permafrost geomorphology. No periods could be identified within the last 4 Ma which met the suggested threshold criteria for liquid water and habitable conditions. Implications of past and present environmental conditions such as temperature variations, ground-ice conditions, and liquid water activity are discussed with respect to the potential survival of highly-specialized microorganisms known from terrestrial permafrost. We conclude that possible habitable subsurface niches might have been developed in close relation to specific permafrost landform morphology on Mars. These would have probably been dominated by lithoautotrophic microorganisms (i.e. methanogenic archaea).

  5. Equatorial and Low-Latitudes Ionospheric Reaction to Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoli Candido, C. M.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Paula, E. R.; Takahashi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons are responsible for ionizing the terrestrial atmosphere and create the ionosphere. During solar flares, a fast increase in the electron density at different altitude regions takes place due to the abrupt enhance of the X-ray and EUV fluxes reaching Earth. With these changes in the ionosphere, radio communication and navigation can be drastically affected. The magnitudes of these Space Weather events can be related to the X-ray peak brightness and duration, which drive the intensity of the ionosphere response when the associated electromagnetic wave hit the sunlit side of the Earth's atmosphere. Other aspects defining these changes in a particular region are the local time, the solar zenith angle, and the position of the flare in the solar disc for each event. In order to improve the understand of radio signal degradation and loss in the Brazilian sector due to solar abrupt electromagnetic emissions, total electron content (TEC) data obtained by a GPS network formed by tents of dual-frequency receivers spread all over Brazilian territory were analyzed. It was observed different ionospheric local changes during several X-ray events identified by GOES satellite regarding the 0.1-0.8 nm range, and some case studies were ponder for a more detailed analysis of these effects. Considering the results, we have made an estimation of the ionospheric disturbances range for a particular event with great chance to affect space based communications in the equatorial and low-latitude regions.

  6. Environmental conditions for alternative tree cover states in high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abis, Beniamino; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Previous analysis of the vegetation cover from remote sensing revealed the existence of three alternative modes in the frequency distribution of boreal tree cover: a sparsely vegetated treeless state, a savanna-like state, and a forest state. Identifying which are the regions subject to multimodality, and assessing which are the main factors underlying their existence, is important to project future change of natural vegetation cover and its effect on climate. We study the impact on the forest cover fraction distribution of seven globally-observed environmental factors: mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, growing degree days above 0, permafrost distribution, soil moisture, wildfire occurrence frequency, and thawing depth. Through the use of generalised additive models, regression trees, and conditional histograms, we find that the main factors determining the forest distribution in high latitudes are: permafrost distribution, mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, soil moisture, and wildfire frequency. Additionally, we find differences between regions within the boreal area, such as Eurasia, Eastern North America, and Western North America. Furthermore, using a classification based on these factors, we show the existence and location of alternative tree cover states under the same climate conditions in the boreal region. These are areas of potential interest for a more detailed analysis of land-atmosphere interactions.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of meroplankton in a high-latitude fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Helena Kling; Svensen, Camilla; Reigstad, Marit; Nilssen, Einar Magnus; Pedersen, Torstein

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on the seasonal timing and composition of pelagic larvae of many benthic invertebrates, referred to as meroplankton, is limited for high-latitude fjords and coastal areas. We investigated the seasonal dynamics of meroplankton in the sub-Arctic Porsangerfjord (70°N), Norway, by examining their seasonal changes in relation to temperature, chlorophyll a and salinity. Samples were collected at two stations between February 2013 and August 2014. We identified 41 meroplanktonic taxa belonging to eight phyla. Multivariate analysis indicated different meroplankton compositions in winter, spring, early summer and late summer. More larvae appeared during spring and summer, forming two peaks in meroplankton abundance. The spring peak was dominated by cirripede nauplii, and late summer peak was dominated by bivalve veligers. Moreover, spring meroplankton were the dominant component in the zooplankton community this season. In winter, low abundances and few meroplanktonic taxa were observed. Timing for a majority of meroplankton correlated with primary production and temperature. The presence of meroplankton in the water column through the whole year and at times dominant in the zooplankton community, suggests that they, in addition to being important for benthic recruitment, may play a role in the pelagic ecosystem as grazers on phytoplankton and as prey for other organisms.

  8. Inner Plasma Structure of the Low-Latitude Reconnection Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Q.-H.; Dunlop, M. W.; Lockwood, M.; Lavraud, B.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Hasegawa, H.; Yang, H. -G.; Liu, R. -Y.; Hu, H. -Q.; Zhang, B. -C.; Pu, Z. -Y.; Yang, Z. -W.; Wang, J.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Berchem, J.; Constantinescu, D.; Volwerk, M.; Frey, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Shen, C.; Shi, J. -K.; Sibeck, D.; Escoubet, P.; Wild, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clear transition through a reconnection layer at the low-latitude magnetopause which shows a complete traversal across all reconnected field lines during northwestward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The associated plasma populations confirm details of the electron and ion mixing and the time history and acceleration through the current layer. This case has low magnetic shear with a strong guide field and the reconnection layer contains a single density depletion layer on the magnetosheath side which we suggest results from nearly field-aligned magnetosheath flows. Within the reconnection boundary layer, there are two plasma boundaries, close to the inferred separatrices on the magnetosphere and magnetosheath sides (Ssp and Ssh) and two boundaries associated with the Alfvén waves (or Rotational Discontinuities, RDsp and RDsh). The data are consistent with these being launched from the reconnection site and the plasma distributions are well ordered and suggestive of the time elapsed since reconnection of the field lines observed. In each sub-layer between the boundaries the plasma distribution is different and is centered around the current sheet, responsible for magnetosheath acceleration. We show evidence for a velocity dispersion effect in the electron anisotropy that is consistent with the time elapsed since reconnection. In addition, new evidence is presented for the occurrence of partial reflection of magnetosheath electrons at the magnetopause current layer.

  9. Paleoclimatic significance of high-latitude loess deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Beget, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    Loess deposits reflect changing environmental conditions in terrestrial regions, and contain long paleoclimatic records analogous to those found in marine sediments, lacustrine sediments, and ice sheets. Alaskan loess was deposited at rates of ca. 0.05-0.5 mm yr-l during the last 2-3 x 106 years; loess deposits contain some of the longest and most complete proxy climate records yet found. New analytical methods are used to reconstruct changes in climate and atmospheric regime including wind intensity, storminess, temperature, and precipitation. Loess also contains a history of permafrost and paleosol formation, volcanic eruptions, and paleoecologic changes in high latitude regions, as well as Quaternary fossils and early man sites and artifacts. Time-series analysis of proxy climate data from loess supports the astronomic model of climate change, although some transient climate events recorded in loess records are too short to be explained by orbital insolation forcing, and may instead correlate with rapid, short-term changes in atmospheric C02 and CH4 content.

  10. The Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN): Initial Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladares, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics and illustrates the early measurements of the first distributed observatory that is being installed in the South American region to study the low-latitude ionosphere and upper atmosphere. The LISN distributed observatory will be comprised of nearly 70 GPS receivers with the capability to measure Total Electron Content (TEC), amplitude and phase scintillation and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The network will include 5 ionosondes able to measure nighttime E-region densities and 5 collocated magnetometers that will be placed along the same magnetic meridian. This network of GPS receivers and ionospheric sensors span from north to south in the South American continent west of the 55o West meridian. In addition to introducing the present capabilities of the LISN network, this paper will present the results of the first LISN campaign dedicated to detect medium-scale (~100 km) TIDs that was conducted at Huancayo using 3 closely-spaced GPS receivers. This paper also presents initial calculations of the vertical drift velocity using 3 magnetometers, two of them placed off the equator in opposite hemispheres and a detailed description of the measurements of the first LISN ionosonde that is presently operating near the magnetic equator.

  11. The tropopause at southern extratropical latitudes: Argentine operational rawinsonde climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Susana A.; Canziani, Pablo O.; Yuchechen, Adrián E.

    2007-02-01

    Argentine operational rawinsonde records spanning a 30-year period (1968-1997) were used to study the climatology of the tropopause from the subtropics to the southern mid-latitudes, approximately along the 60°W meridian. The thermal tropopause annual cycle as well as its variability was analyzed at three sites: Resistencia (RES), Ezeiza (EZE), and Comodoro Rivadavia (CRD). Single and double tropopause observations were studied, given the comparatively frequent occurrence of double tropopause events at all three sites. The tropopause behavior at RES and CRD is distinct, whereas at EZE it shows a winter evolution similar to the one at CRD and a summer evolution closer to the one at RES, in agreement with the annual evolution of the subtropical jet. The tropopause evolution is discussed under the light of the dynamic climatology of southern South America. In the presence of double tropopause events and in terms of potential temperature, it should be noted that the upper tropopause temperature is close to the 380 K isentropic, i.e. the tropical tropopause layer. Moreover, the lower tropopause and single tropopause events are fairly close together, i.e. coincident with the lowermost stratosphere. Considering previous research and results from the present analysis, a definition of Extratropical Tropopause Layer (ExTL) is introduced in this work. It is proposed that the lowermost stratosphere should be regarded as the ExTL.

  12. Surface changes in mid-latitude regions on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, A.; Coustenis, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Hirtzig, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Stephan, K.; Sotin, C.; Drossart, P.; Lawrence, K.; Le Mouélic, S.; Bratsolis, E.; Jaumann, R.; Brown, R. H.; Malaska, M.

    2014-04-01

    We present a study focused on the mid-latitude and close to the equator surface regions on Titan that present an interest on their spectral behavior and/or morphology. These are regions where spectroscopic anomalies have been reported in the evolution of the brightness and several interpretations have been proposed (cryovolcanic candidates, evaporates, lacustrine, etc [1;2;5]). Also in our work here we have included analysis of some undifferentiated plains (also referred to as 'blandlands'), which are vast expanses of terrains that appear bland in the radar data [3]. By applying a Radiative transfer code [4;2] we have analyzed these regions to look for evolution with time through their spectral behavior. We use as reference point and calibration tool the surface albedo retrieval of the Huygens Landing site (Titan's ground truth) and we also check the variability of the surface albedo of these regions against areas that are not expected to change with time (e.g. dune fields), by retrieving their albedo differences at all wavelengths [2]. We report here surface albedo changes with time for some of these regions of interest that imply connection to exogenic and/or endogenic processes.

  13. Ionospheric mid-latitude response to solar wind discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Costel; Mosna, Zbysek; Kouba, Daniel; Echim, Marius

    2013-04-01

    We have compiled a database of 356 discontinuities detected by both the Advanced Composition Explorer ACE) and Cluster satellites in the solar wind between 2001-2012 and analyzed their ionospheric response. Each discontinuity of the data base is defined by a change of at least 5 nT in less than 5 min in one or more components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The discontinuities are observed in January-April every year, when Cluster enters the solar wind. The ionospheric effects of solar wind discontinuities are investigated by checking the variations of critical frequencies foF2, the heights of the F layer and the ionospheric plasma dynamics recorded using ground measurement with a time resolution of 15 minutes from mid-latitude digisondes located in Czech Republic. The time delay between solar wind input and the ionospheric response is analyzed using the characteristics and the shape of the ionograms. The geoeffectiveness of the solar wind discontinuities is expressed as correlation between key plasma parameters (e,g, the solar wind velocity, magnetic jump across the discontinuity) and the ionospheric variations. Solar cycle effects are also discussed.

  14. Mathematical modeling of plasma drifts over equatorial low latitude regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, S.; Nageswara Rao, B.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to simulate ionospheric plasma drifts at equatorial low latitude regions by coupling of E- and F-regions. The governing non-linear differential equations (of elliptic and parabolic nature) are solved numerically through finite-difference schemes and obtained neutral winds and electric fields. The temperature and electron density profiles are generated utilizing MSIS-86 atmospheric model. The continuity equation is employed to obtain night-time E-region density profile using measured ionograms at Trivandrum (India). The computed vertical and zonal plasma drifts are comparable with measured Jacamarca plasma drifts with little variations during noon and evening times. The plasma drifts at Trivandrum (8.5° N, 76.5° E, dip 0.5° N) are compared with those of Jicamarca (12° S, 76.9° W, dip 2° N). Neutral wind simulations of present model agree well with those of horizontal wind model (HWM-93). The post-sunset enhancement and its reversal are also discussed.

  15. IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, M.W.; Lu, N.Y.; Houck, J.R.; Salpeter, E.E.; Lewis, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths. 16 references.

  16. IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, M. W.; Lu, N. Y.; Houck, J. R.; Salpeter, E. E.; Lewis, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths.

  17. Map of Martian Iron at Mid-Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This gamma ray spectrometer map of the mid-latitude region of Mars is based on gamma-rays from the element iron. Iron, having the chemical symbol Fe, is among of the most abundant elements on the surface of both Mars and Earth. It is responsible for the red color on the surface of Mars. Regions of highest iron content, shown in red, are concentrated in the area spanning from Utopia Planitia to Amazonis Planitia (right and left sides of the map) and within Acidalia Planitia (just left of center). Contours of constant surface elevation are also shown. The long continuous contour line running from east to west marks the approximate separation of the younger lowlands in the north from the older highlands in the south.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The gamma ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona, Tucson. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. The mid-latitude total ozone trends in the northern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Varotsos, C.; Flynn, L.E.

    1996-03-01

    The authors compare trends in column ozone measurements in mid latitudes measured from Nimbus-7 with predictions of 2D photochemical models. They find that the measurements show a larger trended decrease than is predicted by the 2D model. The data shows considerable variability at mid latitudes with longitudinal location.

  19. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, A.D.; Wirth, C.; Apps, M.; Beringer, J.; Clein, J.; Epstein, H.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Bhatti, J.; Chapin, F. S.; De Groot, B.; Efremov, D.; Eugster, W.; Fukuda, M.; Gower, T.; Hinzman, L.; Huntley, B.; Jia, G.J.; Kasischke, E.; Melillo, J.; Romanovsky, V.; Shvidenko, A.; Vaganov, E.; Walker, D.

    2002-01-01

    The responses of high latitude ecosystems to global change involve complex interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water and energy exchange. These responses may have important consequences for the earth system. In this study, we evaluated how vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange are related to environmental variation spanned by the network of the IGBP high latitude transects. While the most notable feature of the high latitude transects is that they generally span temperature gradients from southern to northern latitudes, there are substantial differences in temperature among the transects. Also, along each transect temperature co-varies with precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation, which are also variable among the transects. Both climate and disturbance interact to influence latitudinal patterns of vegetation and soil carbon storage among the transects, and vegetation distribution appears to interact with climate to determine exchanges of heat and moisture in high latitudes. Despite limitations imposed by the data we assembled, the analyses in this study have taken an important step toward clarifying the complexity of interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange in high latitude regions. This study reveals the need to conduct coordinated global change studies in high latitudes to further elucidate how interactions among climate, disturbance, and vegetation distribution influence carbon dynamics and water and energy exchange in high latitudes.

  20. Investigation of High-Latitude Phenomena Using Polar Data and Global Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Hoffman, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this one-year project was to use data from the Polar satellite in conjunction with global simulations of Earth's magnetosphere to investigate phenomena in the high-latitude magnetosphere. Specifically, we addressed reconnection at the cusp during periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and the effects of substorms on the high-latitude magnetosphere.

  1. Occurrence climatology of the electron density irregularities in the mid-latitude E region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Yang, T.; Kil, H.

    2013-12-01

    Electron density irregularities in the ionosphere interrupt the propagation of electromagnetic waves and are problematic for navigation and communication systems. For this practical importance, significant efforts have been made to establish information on the occurrence climatology of such irregularities, to understand the onset conditions of such irregularities, and to predict or avoid the impact of these irregularities on the society. While the irregularities occur in all latitudes, less attention has been paid to the irregularities in middle latitudes. This may be because the irregularities in middle latitudes are not as severe as those in other latitude regions. However, middle latitudes are also the place where various forms of irregularities occur. A 40.8 MHz VHF radar was built at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude) in South Korea aiming at continuous monitoring of the behavior of the middle-latitude electron density irregularities in the Far East Asian sector. The radar has been continuously operated by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) since December 2009. Using the Daejeon VHF radar data acquired since December 2009, we examine the occurrence types of the irregularities and the dependence of the irregularities on geophysical conditions (local time, altitude, season, solar cycle, and magnetic activity). These results can be used as a tool for investigating the onset conditions of the middle-latitude irregularities.

  2. Ulyssis Observations of Differential Streaming Between Protons and Alphas at High Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Smith, E. J.; Feldman, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    Reported are observations from the Ulysses SWOOPS experiment which provided measurements of the differential streaming between protons and alphas as a function of heliocentric distance and latitude. The data reported are of observations for those periods when Ulysses sampled only the flows from the solar polar coronal holes. All of the high-latitude results differ from the outbound, in-ecliptic data.

  3. Germ Cell Testicular Cancer Incidence, Latitude and Sunlight Associations in the United States and Australia.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Robert J; Baade, Peter D; Sun, Jiandong; Brandon, Lindsay E; Kimlin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    International patterns suggest germ cell testicular cancer (GCTC) incidence may be lower in lower latitudes. To investigate this possibility, we examined GCTC incidence by latitude (population centroid in 2000) for men ≥15 years within two reasonably homogeneous countries, the United States and Australia. In the United States, we examined age-adjusted incidence/latitude trends using data from states (2001-2010) and local-area registries (1980-2011). In Australia, we evaluated incidence/latitude trends in 61 Statistical Divisions (2000-2009). In U.S. White men (68 566 cases), state incidences increased by latitude, rising 5.74% (4.45-7.05%) per 5°North latitude increment. Similar trends were found for seminoma and nonseminoma subtypes (P < 0.001). In U.S. Black men (2256 cases), the association was also seen (4.9%; 0.2-9.7%). In local U.S. data, similar increases in incidence with latitude were present in each of the last three decades. In Australia (6042 cases), the incidence increased by 4.43% (95% CI: 1.54-7.39%) per 5°South, and trends for subtypes were similar. Thus, we found that incidence of GCTC in both White and Black men increased significantly with distance from the equator, approximately 1% per degree within the range of latitudes studied.

  4. "Michael Jackson World Tour:" Maps and Globes--Latitude and Longitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benscoter, Gloria Dee

    1988-01-01

    Presents a mapping activity which helps students understand the purpose of latitude and longitude lines. Gives students an opportunity to use longitude and latitude in a meaningful way by asking them to plan a world concert tour for a rock star. Includes a reproducible activity page. (LS)

  5. Equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric response due to 2009 sudden stratospheric warming, South American sector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Gende, Mauricio; De Jesus, Rodolfo; Goncharenko, Larisa; Coster, Anthea; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; De Abreu, Alessandro; Pillat, ValdirGil; Pezzopane, Michael

    The equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere/thermosphere system is permanently disturbed by waves (MSTIDs, tides, and planetary waves), which are generated in the lower atmosphere or in situ, as well as electric fields and TIDs produced by geomagnetic storm and UV, EUV, and X-ray solar radiation. Until recently it was thought, that during geomagnetic quiet conditions the equatorial and low-latitude F-layer was mainly perturbed by waves that were generated not far away from the observed location or electric fields generated by electroject. On the contrary during geomagnetic storms when the energy sources are in high latitudes the waves (TIDs) travel a very long distance from high latitude to equatorial region and electric fields can be mapped via magnetic field lines. However, recently an unexpected coupling between high latitude, -mid latitude, and -equatorial/low-latitude was discovered during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW). The exploration of all aspects involved in this process must be investigated in order to improve our knowledge about the Earth's atmosphere. This investigation, studies the consequences of the vertical coupling from lower to upper atmosphere during a major Northern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming, which took place in January 2009, on the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere in the Southern Hemisphere. Using 16 ground-based GPS stations over the Brazilian sector, spanning from latitude 2.8N to 30.1S and longitude 62.0W to 37.7W, it was possible to notice that the ionosphere was disturbed by SSW from the Equator to low latitude. The TEC at all 16 stations was severely disturbed during several days after the SSW temperature peak.

  6. Mid-latitude mesospheric clouds and their environment from SOFIE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Gerding, Michael; Stevens, Michael H.; Stockwell, Robert; Bailey, Scott M.; Russell, James M.; Stober, Gunter

    2016-11-01

    Observations from the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite are used to examine noctilucent clouds (NLC) and their environment at middle latitudes ( 56°N and 52°S). Because SOFIE is uniquely capable of measuring NLC, water vapor, and temperature simultaneously, the local cloud environment can be specified to examine what controls their formation at mid-latitudes. Compared to higher latitudes, mid-latitude NLCs are less frequent and have lower ice mass density, by roughly a factor of five. Compared to higher latitudes at NLC heights, mid-latitude water vapor is only 12% lower while temperatures are more than 10 K higher. As a result the reduced NLC mass and frequency at mid-latitudes can be attributed primarily to temperature. Middle and high latitude NLCs contain a similar amount of meteoric smoke, which was not anticipated because smoke abundance increases towards the equator in summer. SOFIE indicates that mid-latitude NLCs may or may not be associated with supersaturation with respect to ice. It is speculated that this situation is due in part to SOFIE uncertainties related to the limb measurement geometry combined with the non-uniform nature of NLCs. SOFIE is compared with concurrent NLC, temperature, and wind observations from Kühlungsborn, Germany (54°N) during the 2015 summer. The results indicate good agreement in temperature and NLC occurrence frequency, backscatter, and height. SOFIE indicates that NLCs were less frequent over Europe during 2015 compared to other longitudes, in contrast to previous years at higher latitudes that showed no clear longitude dependence. Comparisons of SOFIE and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) indicate good agreement in average ice water column (IWC), although differences in occurrence frequency were often large.

  7. Exposed Ice in the Northern Mid-Latitudes of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. C.

    2007-12-01

    Ice-Rich Layer: Polygonal features with dimensions of approximately 100 meters, bounded by cracks, are commonly observed on the martian northern plains. These features are generally attributed to thermal cracking of ice-rich sediments, in direct analogy to polygons in terrestrial polar regions [1,2]. We mapped polygons in the northern mid-latitudes (30 to 65 N) using MOC and HiRISE images [3]. Polygons are scattered across the northern plains, with a particular concentration in western Utopia Planitia. This region largely overlaps the Late Amazonian Astapus Colles unit, characterized by polygonal terrain and nested pits consistent with periglacial and thermokarst origins [4]. Bright and Dark Polygonal Cracks: An examination of all MOC images (1997 through 2003) covering the study area demonstrated that, at latitudes of 55 to 65 N, most of the imaged polygons show bright bounding cracks. We interpret these bright cracks as exposed ice. Between 40 and 55 N, most of the imaged polygons show dark bounding cracks [5]. These are interpreted as polygons from which the exposed ice has been removed by sublimation. The long-term stability limit for exposed ice, even in deep cracks, apparently lies near 55 N. Bright and Dark Spots: Many HiRISE and MOC frames showing polygons in the northern plains also show small numbers of bright and dark spots, particularly in western Utopia Planitia. Many of the spots are closely associated with collapse features suggestive of thermokarst. The spots range from tens to approximately 100 meters in diameter. The bright spots are interpreted as exposed ice, due to their prevalence on terrain mapped as ice rich. The dark spots are interpreted as former bright spots, which have darkened as the exposed ice is lost by sublimation. The bright spots may be the martian equivalents of pingos, ice-cored mounds found in periglacial regions on Earth [6,7,8,9, 10]. Terrestrial pingos from which the ice core has melted often collapse to form depressions

  8. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  9. High northern latitude temperature extremes, 1400-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, M. P.; Huybers, P.; Hughen, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    There is often an interest in determining which interval features the most extreme value of a reconstructed climate field, such as the warmest year or decade in a temperature reconstruction. Previous approaches to this type of question have not fully accounted for the spatial and temporal covariance in the climate field when assessing the significance of extreme values. Here we present results from applying BARSAT, a new, Bayesian approach to reconstructing climate fields, to a 600 year multiproxy temperature data set that covers land areas between 45N and 85N. The end result of the analysis is an ensemble of spatially and temporally complete realizations of the temperature field, each of which is consistent with the observations and the estimated values of the parameters that define the assumed spatial and temporal covariance functions. In terms of the spatial average temperature, 1990-1999 was the warmest decade in the 1400-1999 interval in each of 2000 ensemble members, while 1995 was the warmest year in 98% of the ensemble members. A similar analysis at each node of a regular 5 degree grid gives insight into the spatial distribution of warm temperatures, and reveals that 1995 was anomalously warm in Eurasia, whereas 1998 featured extreme warmth in North America. In 70% of the ensemble members, 1601 featured the coldest spatial average, indicating that the eruption of Huaynaputina in Peru in 1600 (with a volcanic explosivity index of 6) had a major cooling impact on the high northern latitudes. Repeating this analysis at each node reveals the varying impacts of major volcanic eruptions on the distribution of extreme cooling. Finally, we use the ensemble to investigate extremes in the time evolution of centennial temperature trends, and find that in more than half the ensemble members, the greatest rate of change in the spatial mean time series was a cooling centered at 1600. The largest rate of centennial scale warming, however, occurred in the 20th Century in

  10. HIGH ECLIPTIC LATITUDE SURVEY FOR SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Terai, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Jun; Itoh, Yoichi

    2013-11-01

    Main-belt asteroids have been continuously colliding with one another since they were formed. Their size distribution is primarily determined by the size dependence of asteroid strength against catastrophic impacts. The strength scaling law as a function of body size could depend on collision velocity, but the relationship remains unknown, especially under hypervelocity collisions comparable to 10 km s{sup –1}. We present a wide-field imaging survey at an ecliptic latitude of about 25° for investigating the size distribution of small main-belt asteroids that have highly inclined orbits. The analysis technique allowing for efficient asteroid detections and high-accuracy photometric measurements provides sufficient sample data to estimate the size distribution of sub-kilometer asteroids with inclinations larger than 14°. The best-fit power-law slopes of the cumulative size distribution are 1.25 ± 0.03 in the diameter range of 0.6-1.0 km and 1.84 ± 0.27 in 1.0-3.0 km. We provide a simple size distribution model that takes into consideration the oscillations of the power-law slope due to the transition from the gravity-scaled regime to the strength-scaled regime. We find that the high-inclination population has a shallow slope of the primary components of the size distribution compared to the low-inclination populations. The asteroid population exposed to hypervelocity impacts undergoes collisional processes where large bodies have a higher disruptive strength and longer lifespan relative to tiny bodies than the ecliptic asteroids.

  11. Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisshak, M.; Schönberg, C. H. L.; Form, A.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure ( pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg m-2 year-1. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

  12. Kinematics and chemistry of faint high latitude dwarf carbon stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jinmi; Beers, Timothy C.; Dietz, Sarah; Lee, Young Sun; Placco, Vinicius M.

    2017-01-01

    The diffuse halo system of the Milky Way is complex, and has been shown to comprise at least two main components: a near-zero net rotation inner-halo and a more rapidly rotating outer-halo component. Studies of the ancient, very metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo system are crucial for understanding its early formation history. The so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are an important subset of the stars in the halo system, which exhibit distinctive kinematic and chemical signatures that can be used to constrain the star-formation histories and assembly of the various Galactic components.We have examined the sample of main-sequence dwarf and other faint high Galactic latitude carbon-enhanced stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey studied by Green (2013). As noted by Green, many of these starsexhibit high proper motions, which have been later claimed to be related to possible binary ejection models Plant et al. (2016). By use of the CEMP sub-classification approach of Yoon et al. (2016), we investigate whether the kinematics of these stars might instead result from their membership in the inner/outer halo populations of the Galaxy.ReferencesGreen, P. 2013, ApJ, 765, 12Plant, K. et al. 2016, AAS 227.34115Yoon, J. et al. 2016, ApJ, in pressAcknowledgementThis work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements).

  13. Mid-Latitude Circulation and Extremes in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang

    2016-08-04

    Mid-latitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage. Yet large uncertainties remain in climate model projections of heat waves, droughts, and heavy rain/snow events on regional scales, limiting our ability to effectively use these projections for climate adaptation and mitigation. These uncertainties can be attributed to both the lack of spatial resolution in the models, and to the lack of a dynamical understanding of these extremes. The approach of this project is to relate the fine-scale features to the large scales in current climate simulations, seasonal re-forecasts, and climate change projections in a very wide range of models, including the atmospheric and coupled models of ECMWF over a range of horizontal resolutions (125 to 10 km), aqua-planet configuration of the Model for Prediction Across Scales and High Order Method Modeling Environments (resolutions ranging from 240 km – 7.5 km) with various physics suites, and selected CMIP5 model simulations. The large scale circulation will be quantified both on the basis of the well tested preferred circulation regime approach, and very recently developed measures, the finite amplitude Wave Activity (FAWA) and its spectrum. The fine scale structures related to extremes will be diagnosed following the latest approaches in the literature. The goal is to use the large scale measures as indicators of the probability of occurrence of the finer scale structures, and hence extreme events. These indicators will then be applied to the CMIP5 models and time-slice projections of a future climate.

  14. Study of the low latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.

    Following previous works from Molchanov et al 2002a 2002b 2004a 2004b and Hobara et al 2005 data bases dedicated to the systematic analysis of the power and spectral indices of the electric field have been elaborated Two data bases are considered one for the survey mode and the other for the burst mode For the survey mode estimations of the turbulence parameters are performed from the 8 first Fourier components of the averaged power spectra 0-150 Hz frequency band A single slope power law model f - alpha is assumed A quality factor allows to test that hypothesis For the burst mode the power spectra are derived from the waveforms One and two slope models are systematically tested Results are presented and the possibility to use these data bases for correlation with seismic activity is discussed Y Hobara F Lefeuvre M Parrot and O A Molchanov Low-latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by Aureol-3 satellite Annales Geophysicae 23 1259--1270 2005 Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A and Mareev E A Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric equatorial anomaly from data of IK-24 satellite 1 Search for idea of seismo-ionosphere coupling Seismo Electromagnetics Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling edited by Hayakawa M and Molchanov O A TERRAPUB Tokyo 275--285 2002a Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A Mareev E A and Trakhtengerts V Yu Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric

  15. Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling in Jupiter's Low Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, T.; Melin, H.; Johnson, R.; O'Donoghue, J.; Moore, L.; Miller, S.; Tao, C.; Achilleos, N. A.; Smith, C.; Ray, L. C.; Yates, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    One of the leading problems in our understanding of Jupiter's atmosphere, known colloquially as the 'energy crisis', is that the upper atmosphere has global temperatures far in excess of that predicted by solar heating. Unlike the Earth, solar heating has only a small effect on the thermosphere, varying little in temperature with local time, and with equatorial neutrals co-rotating with the planet due to meridional advection. Within the auroral region, ionosphere-thermosphere coupling produces strong flows and results in huge Joule Heating from auroral currents. In this region, the temperature excess can be explained, but Jupiter's fast rotation means that Coriolis forces prevent energy in the poles from transferring equatorward, so there remains no explanation of why low latitudes are overheated by a factor of 3-5 over that predicted by solar heating alone.Despite this anomaly, although the past twenty years has seen a wealth of new data and results in Jupiter's auroral region, studies of the equatorial region have been somewhat limited. This lack of investigation comes partly from the apparent uniform nature of the equatorial region, and partly from the difficulty in observing this region. It is only in the past three years that observers begun to re-examine this region, revealing evidence of complex interactions between the thermosphere and ionosphere, including what appears to be thermospheric weather patterns at a fixed planetary longitudes, stable over two decades; perhaps caused by continuous flows from the auroral region. Here, we introduce our recent research, in order to compare and contrast what has been observed at Jupiter with the more well understood interactions between Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. We hope that this will open a discussion between the communities that will improve our understanding of the underlying physical processes, as they occur at both planets.

  16. DHIGLS: DRAO H i Intermediate Galactic Latitude Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagrave, K.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Kothes, R.; Stil, J. M.; Miville-Deschênes, M. A.; Lockman, Felix J.; Taylor, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of Galactic H i gas for seven targeted regions at intermediate Galactic latitude are presented at 1\\prime angular resolution using data from the DRAO Synthesis Telescope (ST) and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DHIGLS data are the most extensive arcminute-resolution measurements of the diffuse atomic interstellar medium beyond those in the Galactic plane. The acquisition, reduction, calibration, and mosaicking of the DRAO ST data and the cross calibration and incorporation of the short-spacing information from the GBT are described. The high quality of the resulting DHIGLS products enables a variety of new studies in directions of low Galactic column density. We analyze the angular power spectra of maps of the integrated H i emission (column density) from the data cubes for several distinct velocity ranges. In fitting power-spectrum models based on a power law, but including the effects of the synthesized beam and noise at high spatial frequencies, we find exponents ranging from ‑2.5 to ‑3.0. Power spectra of maps of the centroid velocity for these components give similar results. These exponents are interpreted as being representative of the three-dimensional density and velocity fields of the atomic gas, respectively. We find evidence for dramatic changes in the H i structures in channel maps over even small changes in velocity. This narrow line emission has counterparts in absorption spectra against bright background radio sources, quantifying that the gas is cold and dense and can be identified as the cold neutral medium phase. Fully reduced DHIGLS H i data cubes and other data products are available at www.cita.utoronto.ca/DHIGLS.

  17. Statistical Characterization of Stormtime Ionospheric Redistribution At Mid-Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, P. J.; Foster, J. C.; Miskin, M. Z.; Beroz, F.; Rideout, W.

    2009-12-01

    During major geomagnetic disturbances, dramatic redistribution of ionospheric plasma can occur in the mid-latitude plasmasphere boundary layer, driven by a complex set of interlocked dynamics involving photoionization, magnetospheric influence, ionospheric feedback mechanisms, and the background magnetic field direction. Large amounts of ionospheric material are seen to stream from the dusk sector sunward to the polar cap cusp region, as mesoscale plumes of storm enhanced density (SED) move under the influence of the sub-auroral polarization stream (SAPS) electric field in regions magnetically linked to the region 2 currents associated with the asymmetric ring current. Studies over the last decade have shown that these several degree wide SAPS flow channels, with sunward fluxes delivering over 1E14 ions/m^2/sec to the noontime cusp, are the signatures of processes which can deplete an entire L shell of plasmaspheric material in one hours' time for particularly intense storms. Ground based ionospheric radar measurements of these features lend considerable insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes and dynamics. We discuss a statistical study of SAPS/SED region sunward ionospheric flux in the dusk magnetic local time sector using a database of over 1000 Millstone Hill ionospheric radar scans during Kp >= 3 disturbances from 1979-2001. We highlight several persistent features of ionospheric F region velocity and SAPS ion flux magnitude. In particular, sunward F region ion flux is relatively insensitive to magnetic local time and the passage of the dusk solar terminator. Potential explanations focus on the interplay between poleward perpendicular electric field and ionospheric height-integrated Pedersen conductance in the E and F regions as the thermosphere and ionosphere change state from day to night.

  18. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  19. Comparative sequence stratigraphy of low-latitude versus high-latitude lacustrine rift basins: Seismic data examples from the East African and Baikal rifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholz, C.A.; Moore, T.C.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Golmshtok, A. Ja; Klitgord, Kim D.; Kurotchkin, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Lakes Baikal, Malawi and Tanganyika are the world's three largest rift valley lakes and are the classic modem examples of lacustrine rift basins. All the rift lakes are segmented into half-graben basins, and seismic reflection datasets reveal how this segmentation controls the filling of the rift basins through time. In the early stages of rifting, basins are fed primarily by flexural margin and axial margin drainage systems. At the climax of syn-rift sedimentation, however, when the basins are deeply subsided, almost all the margins are walled off by rift shoulder uplifts, and sediment flux into the basins is concentrated at accommodation zone and axial margin river deltas. Flexural margin unconformities are commonplace in the tropical lakes but less so in high-latitude Lake Baikal. Lake levels are extremely dynamic in the tropical lakes and in low-latitude systems in general because of the predominance of evaporation in the hydrologic cycle in those systems. Evaporation is minimized in relation to inflow in the high-latitude Lake Baikal and in most high-latitude systems, and consequently, major sequence boundaries tend to be tectonically controlled in that type of system. The acoustic stratigraphies of the tropical lakes are dominated by high-frequency and high-amplitude lake level shifts, whereas in high-latitude Lake Baikal, stratigraphic cycles are dominated by tectonism and sediment-supply variations.

  20. Is There a Relationship between Fish Cannibalism and Latitude or Species Richness?

    PubMed Central

    Keppeler, Friedrich Wolfgang; Agostinho, Angelo Antonio; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    2017-01-01

    Cannibalism has been commonly observed in fish from northern and alpine regions and less frequently reported for subtropical and tropical fish in more diverse communities. Assuming all else being equal, cannibalism should be more common in communities with lower species richness because the probability of encountering conspecific versus heterospecific prey would be higher. A global dataset was compiled to determine if cannibalism occurrence is associated with species richness and latitude. Cannibalism occurrence, local species richness and latitude were recorded for 4,100 populations of 2,314 teleost fish species. Relationships between cannibalism, species richness and latitude were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Species richness was an important predictor of cannibalism, with occurrences more frequently reported for assemblages containing fewer species. Cannibalism was positively related with latitude for both marine and freshwater ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere, but not in the Southern Hemisphere. The regression slope for the relationship was steeper for freshwater than marine fishes. In general, cannibalism is more frequent in communities with lower species richness, and the relationship between cannibalism and latitude is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, weaker latitudinal gradients of fish species richness may account for the weak relationship between cannibalism and latitude. Cannibalism may be more common in freshwater than marine systems because freshwater habitats tend to be smaller and more closed to dispersal. Cannibalism should have greatest potential to influence fish population dynamics in freshwater systems at high northern latitudes. PMID:28122040

  1. Preservation of layered paleodeposits in high-latitude pedestal craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, Seth J.; Head, James W.

    2011-06-01

    An outstanding question in Mars' climate history is whether or not pedestal craters represent the armored remnants of ice-rich paleodeposits. We address this question using new high-resolution images; in a survey of several hundred high-latitude pedestal craters, we have identified 12 examples in which visible and/or topographically expressed layers are exposed on the marginal scarp of the pedestal. One example, located on the south polar layered deposits, preserves ice-rich layers that have otherwise been completely removed from the polar cap. These observations provide empirical evidence that the pedestal crater formation mechanism is capable of armoring and preserving ice-rich layered paleodeposits. Although layered exposures have not yet been observed in mid-latitude pedestal craters, high-latitude instances of discontinuous, partially covered layers suggest that layers can be readily concealed, likely through mantling and/or mass wasting processes along the marginal scarp. This interpretation is supported by the observation that high-latitude pedestals with exposed layers along their margins are, on average, taller than mid-latitude examples, and have larger, steeper marginal scarps, which may help to maintain layer exposures. These observations favor the interpretation that mid- to high-latitude pedestal craters represent the armored remnants of ice- and dust-rich paleodeposits, which occurred transiently due to changes in the climate regime. Preservation of fine-scale layering of ice and dust at these latitudes implies that the climate change did not involve regional melting conditions.

  2. Does greater thermal plasticity facilitate range expansion of an invasive terrestrial anuran into higher latitudes?

    PubMed Central

    Winwood-Smith, Hugh S.; Alton, Lesley A.; Franklin, Craig E.; White, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has pervasive effects on physiological processes and is critical in setting species distribution limits. Since invading Australia, cane toads have spread rapidly across low latitudes, but slowly into higher latitudes. Low temperature is the likely factor limiting high-latitude advancement. Several previous attempts have been made to predict future cane toad distributions in Australia, but understanding the potential contribution of phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to future range expansion remains challenging. Previous research demonstrates the considerable thermal metabolic plasticity of the cane toad, but suggests limited thermal plasticity of locomotor performance. Additionally, the oxygen-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis predicts that reduced aerobic scope sets thermal limits for ectotherm performance. Metabolic plasticity, locomotor performance and aerobic scope are therefore predicted targets of natural selection as cane toads invade colder regions. We measured these traits at temperatures of 10, 15, 22.5 and 30°C in low- and high-latitude toads acclimated to 15 and 30°C, to test the hypothesis that cane toads have adapted to cooler temperatures. High-latitude toads show increased metabolic plasticity and higher resting metabolic rates at lower temperatures. Burst locomotor performance was worse for high-latitude toads. Other traits showed no regional differences. We conclude that increased metabolic plasticity may facilitate invasion into higher latitudes by maintaining critical physiological functions at lower temperatures. PMID:27293695

  3. Does greater thermal plasticity facilitate range expansion of an invasive terrestrial anuran into higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Winwood-Smith, Hugh S; Alton, Lesley A; Franklin, Craig E; White, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has pervasive effects on physiological processes and is critical in setting species distribution limits. Since invading Australia, cane toads have spread rapidly across low latitudes, but slowly into higher latitudes. Low temperature is the likely factor limiting high-latitude advancement. Several previous attempts have been made to predict future cane toad distributions in Australia, but understanding the potential contribution of phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to future range expansion remains challenging. Previous research demonstrates the considerable thermal metabolic plasticity of the cane toad, but suggests limited thermal plasticity of locomotor performance. Additionally, the oxygen-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis predicts that reduced aerobic scope sets thermal limits for ectotherm performance. Metabolic plasticity, locomotor performance and aerobic scope are therefore predicted targets of natural selection as cane toads invade colder regions. We measured these traits at temperatures of 10, 15, 22.5 and 30°C in low- and high-latitude toads acclimated to 15 and 30°C, to test the hypothesis that cane toads have adapted to cooler temperatures. High-latitude toads show increased metabolic plasticity and higher resting metabolic rates at lower temperatures. Burst locomotor performance was worse for high-latitude toads. Other traits showed no regional differences. We conclude that increased metabolic plasticity may facilitate invasion into higher latitudes by maintaining critical physiological functions at lower temperatures.

  4. A computer program for converting rectangular coordinates to latitude-longitude coordinates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    A computer program was developed for converting the coordinates of any rectangular grid on a map to coordinates on a grid that is parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. Using this program in conjunction with groundwater flow models, the user can extract data and results from models with varying grid orientations and place these data into grid structure that is oriented parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. All cells in the rectangular grid must have equal dimensions, and all cells in the latitude-longitude grid measure one minute by one minute. This program is applicable if the map used shows lines of equal latitude as arcs and lines of equal longitude as straight lines and assumes that the Earth 's surface can be approximated as a sphere. The program user enters the row number , column number, and latitude and longitude of the midpoint of the cell for three test cells on the rectangular grid. The latitude and longitude of boundaries of the rectangular grid also are entered. By solving sets of simultaneous linear equations, the program calculates coefficients that are used for making the conversion. As an option in the program, the user may build a groundwater model file based on a grid that is parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. The program reads a data file based on the rectangular coordinates and automatically forms the new data file. (USGS)

  5. Extrapair paternity rates vary with latitude and elevation in emberizid sparrows.

    PubMed

    Bonier, Frances; Eikenaar, Cas; Martin, Paul R; Moore, Ignacio T

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems can vary among species and populations and thus influence evolutionary trajectories, ecological traits, and population demography. The siring of offspring by an extrapair male, or extrapair paternity (EPP), is a widespread and varied phenomenon in all vertebrate classes. However, we do not understand all of the factors associated with variation in EPP rates. The breeding synchrony hypothesis suggests that EPP rates should increase with latitude and elevation, whereas the paternal care hypothesis predicts that EPP rates should decrease with elevation. To address these hypotheses, we investigated how population EPP rates vary over elevation and latitude in emberizid sparrows. In comparative analyses including the effects of phylogeny, the relationship between EPP rates and elevation depended on latitude. EPP rates were greater in higher-latitude populations. But within higher-latitude populations, EPP rates decreased with increasing elevation. These findings provide support for both the breeding synchrony and paternal care hypotheses, suggesting that in lower-latitude, higher-elevation populations, the need for male parental care does not outweigh the benefits of seeking extrapair fertilizations in populations with relatively synchronous breeding. In contrast, at higher-latitude, higher-elevation sites, the need for male parental care is greater and might drive lower rates of extrapair mating despite highly synchronous breeding.

  6. Is There a Relationship between Fish Cannibalism and Latitude or Species Richness?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Larissa Strictar; Keppeler, Friedrich Wolfgang; Agostinho, Angelo Antonio; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2017-01-01

    Cannibalism has been commonly observed in fish from northern and alpine regions and less frequently reported for subtropical and tropical fish in more diverse communities. Assuming all else being equal, cannibalism should be more common in communities with lower species richness because the probability of encountering conspecific versus heterospecific prey would be higher. A global dataset was compiled to determine if cannibalism occurrence is associated with species richness and latitude. Cannibalism occurrence, local species richness and latitude were recorded for 4,100 populations of 2,314 teleost fish species. Relationships between cannibalism, species richness and latitude were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Species richness was an important predictor of cannibalism, with occurrences more frequently reported for assemblages containing fewer species. Cannibalism was positively related with latitude for both marine and freshwater ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere, but not in the Southern Hemisphere. The regression slope for the relationship was steeper for freshwater than marine fishes. In general, cannibalism is more frequent in communities with lower species richness, and the relationship between cannibalism and latitude is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, weaker latitudinal gradients of fish species richness may account for the weak relationship between cannibalism and latitude. Cannibalism may be more common in freshwater than marine systems because freshwater habitats tend to be smaller and more closed to dispersal. Cannibalism should have greatest potential to influence fish population dynamics in freshwater systems at high northern latitudes.

  7. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  8. Intercomparison of mid latitude storm diagnostics (IMILAST) - project update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, Urs

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of the occurrence of mid-latitude storms is of great socio-economical interest due to their vast and destructive impacts. However, a unique definition of cyclones is missing, and therefore the definition of what a cyclone is as well as quantifying its strength contains subjective choices. Existing automatic cyclone identification and tracking algorithms are based on different definitions and use diverse characteristics. These methods generally differ in the following aspects: data transformation (e.g., grid transformation, smoothing, etc.), metrics used for cyclone identification (e.g. sea level pressure or vorticity), cyclone identification procedures, different tracking methods (e.g. near neighborhood search), and elimination criteria (e.g., requiring a certain pressure minimum or minimum life time). The different choices made in these algorithms can lead to substantial differences in cyclone climatologies, temporal trends of the frequency, strength, or other characteristics of cyclones. The project IMILAST systematically compares different cyclone detection and tracking methods (currently 15 different algorithms), with the aim to comprehensively assess systematic uncertainties in mid-latitudinal storm identification and tracking. IMILAST uses the ERA-interim reanalysis data set as a common data basis in all studies. The first two intercomparison experiments focused on differences between the methods with respect to number, track density, life cycle characteristics, and trend patterns on the one hand and potential differences of the long-term climate change signal of cyclonic activity between the methods on the other hand. For current analysis activities, the intercomparison period is extended to a 30 year period from 1979 to 2009 and focuses on more specific aspects, such as parameter sensitivities, the comparison of automated to manual tracking sets, regional analysis (regional trends, Arctic and Antarctic cyclones, cyclones in the Mediterranean

  9. [Peculiarities of circadian rhythms in plants from different geographical latitudes].

    PubMed

    Mayer, W

    1966-09-01

    1 Two species of plants (Taraxacum arcticum and Arnica angustifolia), collected in Spitsbergen (geogr. latitude 76-80 degrees) exhibit endogenous circadian leaf movements but also movements with shorter periods. Astragalus frigidus, A. alpinus and Hedysarum hedysaroides, collected in arctic regions of continental Europe, also show endogenous diurnal leaf movements. 2. In most of the species tested, there was no difference in the length of the free running periods of plants from arctic and Central-European regions. This is also the case when individuals of the same species collected in different regions are compared. However, in Taraxacum arcticum the period is shorter than in T. officinale In general, under constant conditions the circadian oscillations of arctic plants persist for a shorter period than those of other plants. 3. The free running periods of several of the investigated species from tropical regions are much longer than 24 hours, i.e., much longer than those of species from Central-European and arctic regions. 4. The free running periods of several tropical species are temperature-independent (Erythrina senegalensis, Albizzia lophanta, Rhynchosia memmonia, Vigna catjang, Phaseolus multiflorus). In other tropical species, however, the periods decrease rather strongly with increasing temperature (Phaseolus mungo, Canavalia obtusifolia, Clitoria ternatea, Dolichos lablab, Vigna sesquipedalis, Dolichos zebra). The temperature does not influence the amplitudes in Phaseolus mungo and Vigna sesquipedalis, but it strongly influences the amplitudes in Erythrina senegalensis, in LD-cycles as well as in continuous light. 5. The arctic plant Astragalus frigidus still shows free running oscillations at 12°C, whereas several tropical species oscillate only at temperatures above 17°C. 6. The differences in the periods of tropical and non-tropical species (see under [3]) disappear if the plants are compared not at the same temperature but at temperatures which are

  10. New Findings on Ice Nucleation in Mid-latitude Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lawson, P.; Baker, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent GCM simulations (CESM1) show a global aerosol indirect effect of -1.39 W m-2 with -2.02 W m-2 from shortwave and +0.63 W m-2 from longwave cloud forcing, the longwave being due to homogeneous nucleation of ice crystals. However, the extent of homogeneous nucleation in ice clouds is poorly understood. This study uses results from a recent field campaign, SPARTICUS (Small PARTicles In CirrUS), to evaluate the impact of homogeneous nucleation on the ice particle size distribution (PSD) shape, as well as ice particle concentration, shape, PSD effective size and fall speed. While earlier measurements were difficult to evaluate for ice nucleation effects due to the problem of ice particle shattering, recent in-situ measurements using the 2 dimensional-stereo (2D-S) probe have greatly reduced this problem resulting in provocative findings for both synoptic and anvil cirrus sampled during SPARTICUS. For mid-latitude synoptic and anvil cirrus around -40°C, these new measurements show that clear changes in the ice PSD and its properties occur regarding (1) PSD shape, (2) total number concentration-to-ice water content ratio (N/IWC), (3) PSD mean size, (4) PSD mean area ratio and (5) the mass-weighted fall velocity (Vm). These changes are consistent with a change in ice nucleation mechanism, with heterogeneous nucleation processes active at temperatures warmer than -40°C and homogeneous freezing nucleation at temperatures colder than -40°C. The change in Vm implies that cirrus colder than -40°C will have longer lifetimes and greater cloud coverage than warmer cirrus clouds, all other relevant factors remaining equal. The increase in N/IWC with colder temperatures (T < -40°C) appears consistent with homogeneous nucleation theory. Figure 1 shows normalized frequency distribution of PSD area ratios for temperatures above and below -40°C. Area ratios (ice particle projected area/area of circle defined by particle maximum dimension) are a measure of ice particle shape

  11. Reconnection at the high and low latitude magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Malcolm; Zhang, Qinghe; Yulia, Bogdanova; Zuyin, Pu; Hiroshi, Hasegawa; Karlheinz, Trattner; Chao, Shen; Jun, Zhong; Matthew, Taylor; Jean, Berchem; Jiankui, Shi; Benoit, Lavraud; Jonathen, Eastwood; Jiansen, He; Martin, Volwerk; Andrew, Fazakerley; David, Sibeck; Dragos, Constantinescu; Harald, Frey; Philippe, Escoubet

    2013-04-01

    Recent investigations have renewed the debate on the occurrence and location of magnetic reconnection (MR) on the Earth's dayside magnetopause, where evidence exists for predominantly component driven X-line regions, independent of guide field conditions, and extending across a wide range of preferred, and often multiple, locations. Recent findings in active sites of MR have also increased the theoretical understanding of the detailed structure within the ion diffusion region surrounding the magnetic X-line or null field, although direct measurements of this small region are still relatively rare. Nevertheless, investigations have benefitted from an unprecedented growth in complexity of multi-scale and multi-point, in situ measurements, on the small and meso-scale, from, for example, the Cluster and THEMIS space missions. Furthermore, during April to July 2007 a combination of 10 spacecraft (Cluster, THEMIS and Double Star TC-1) provided simultaneous monitoring of the dayside magnetopause across a wide range of local times. Here, we first investigate repeated sampling of the ion diffusion region and associated null magnetic field of a high-latitude reconnection site by the four Cluster spacecraft flying in formation to interpret the plasma structures surrounding the X-line, which is located on initially closed field-lines and where the magnetic field orientations inside and outside the magnetopause are close to anti-parallel. The plasma populations confirm details of the ion and electron mixing, time history and acceleration through the current layer. We secondly investigate the plasma distributions near X-line structures for key conjunctions of the Cluster, THEMIS and TC-1 spacecraft around the magnetopause, showing the operation of MR at wide locations along the expected sub-solar merging line. The results are also consistent with the occurrence of reconnection activity, simultaneously across the sub-solar and flank magnetopause, linked to the (large

  12. High-Latitude Ionospheric Structuring at Kilometer Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bust, G. S.; Datta-Barua, S.; Su, Y.; Deshpande, K.; Hampton, D.

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric observations in the polar and auroral zones have been made regularly with radar chains and optical imaging at larger spatio-temporal cadence. However, the observation of kilometer scale variations at sub-second cadence has not been practically realizable until recently. Quantifying the irregularities at these sizes and scales is necessary for an understanding of the dynamics leading to fine scale phenomena in the high latitude environment. We present measurements of kilometer-scale plasma variations made at the northern auroral zone using an array of specialized Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. These 6 CASES receivers (plus 1 from ASTRA, LLC) are sited at the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, and have been collecting data since late 2013. The array monitors for ionospheric scintillations, fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the GPS L-band signals received due to ionospheric variations. The array spans 2 km east-west and about 1 km north-south, with a variety of intermediate baseline lengths down to about 200 m. In addition to measuring amplitude and phase scintillation with the S4 and sigma_phi indices at 100-s cadence, these receivers also record 100 Hz raw power and phase measurements from GPS baseband signal processing. These low-rate data are publicly available for download through a web portal at http://apollo.tbc.iit.edu/~spaceweather/ with high rate available upon request. A detailed case study is presented from the December 8, 2013, 0300-0400 UT time period. During this period several interesting scintillation periods were observed. We use array cross-correlation processing methods to first estimate direct ground parameters of the array including a) estimate the 2D drift velocity on the ground; b) estimate a de-correlation (or turbulent) speed; and c) parameters of correlation elliptical coordinates (axial ratio and tilt angle). We then use these results and cross-correlation measurements to derive the ground 2D spatial spectrum of

  13. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  14. In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Tin, P.; Wilson, J. C.; Jonsson, H. H.; Dye, J. E.; Baumgardner, D.; Borrmann, S.; Toohey, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    In situ measurements of stratospheric sulphate aerosol, reactive nitrogen and chlorine concentrations at middle latitudes confirm the importance of aerosol surface reactions that convert active nitrogen to a less active, reservoir form. This makes mid-latitude stratospheric ozone less vulnerable to active nitrogen and more vulnerable to chlorine species. The effect of aerosol reactions on active nitrogen depends on gas phase reaction rates, so that increases in aerosol concentration following volcanic eruptions will have only a limited effect on ozone depletion at these latitudes.

  15. Modeling the effects of snowpack on heterotrophic respiration across northern temperate and high latitude regions: Comparison with measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide in high latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, A.D.; Melillo, J.M.; Randerson, J.T.; Parton, W.J.; Heimann, Martin; Meier, R.A.; Clein, J.S.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Sauf, W.

    2000-01-01

    Simulations by global terrestrial biogeochemical models (TBMs) consistently underestimate the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at high latitude monitoring stations during the nongrowing season. We hypothesized that heterotrophic respiration is underestimated during the nongrowing season primarily because TBMs do not generally consider the insulative effects of snowpack on soil temperature. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared the performance of baseline and modified versions of three TBMs in simulating the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 at high latitude CO2 monitoring stations; the modified version maintained soil temperature at 0 ??C when modeled snowpack was present. The three TBMs include the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), Century, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). In comparison with the baseline simulation of each model, the snowpack simulations caused higher releases of CO2 between November and March and greater uptake of CO2 between June and August for latitudes north of 30??N. We coupled the monthly estimates of CO2 exchange, the seasonal carbon dioxide flux fields generated by the HAMOCC3 seasonal ocean carbon cycle model, and fossil fuel source fields derived from standard sources to the three-dimensional atmospheric transport model TM2 forced by observed winds to simulate the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 at each of seven high latitude monitoring stations, in comparison to the CO2 concentrations simulated with the baseline fluxes of each TBM, concentrations simulated using the snowpack fluxes are generally in better agreement with observed concentrations between August and March at each of the monitoring stations. Thus, representation of the insulative effects of snowpack in TBMs generally improves simulation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations in high latitudes during both the late growing season and nongrowing season. These simulations highlight the global importance of biogeochemical processes during the

  16. Preference and performance in plant-herbivore interactions across latitude--a study in U.S. Atlantic salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chuan-Kai; Pennings, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude plants are often more palatable to herbivores than low-latitude conspecifics. Does increased plant palatability lead to better herbivore performance? Our field and laboratory work investigated (A) whether high-latitude plants have traits indicating that they should be higher-quality foods for herbivores; (B) whether geographic differences in plant quality are more important than local adaptation of herbivores. We studied 3 plant species and 6 invertebrate herbivores in U.S. Atlantic Coast. Past studies had shown high-latitude individuals of these plants are more palatable than low-latitude conspecifics. We documented plant traits and herbivore performance (body size) in the field across latitude. We collected individuals from different latitudes for factorial (plant region x herbivore region) laboratory experiments, examining how herbivore performance was affected by plant region, herbivore region, and their interaction (i.e., local adaptation). Field surveys suggested high-latitude plants were likely of higher quality to herbivores. Leaf nitrogen content in all plant species increased toward high latitudes, consistent with lower leaf C/N and higher leaf chlorophyll content at high latitudes. Furthermore, leaf toughness decreased toward higher latitudes in 1 species. The body size of 4 herbivore species increased with latitude, consistent with high-latitude leaves being of higher quality, while 2 grasshopper species showed the opposite pattern, likely due to life-history constraints. In the laboratory, high-latitude plants supported better performance in 4 herbivore species (marginal in the 5th). The geographic region where herbivores were collected affected herbivore performance in all 6 species; however, the pattern was mixed, indicating a lack of local adaptation by herbivores to plants from their own geographic region. Our results suggest that more-palatable plants at high latitudes support better herbivore growth. Given that geographic origin of

  17. High prevalence and no latitude gradient of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    PubMed

    Berg-Hansen, P; Moen, S M; Harbo, H F; Celius, E G

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing, and the presence of a latitude gradient for MS risk is still discussed. We present the first nationwide prevalence estimates for Norway, spanning the latitudes from 58-71 degrees North, in order to identify a possible latitude gradient. Information from the Oslo MS Registry and the Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was combined with data from the Norwegian Patient Registry, the Norwegian Prescription Database and Statistics Norway. We estimated a crude prevalence of 203/100,000 on 1 January 2012. The prevalence in the Northern and Southern regions were not significantly different. MS prevalence in Norway is among the highest reported worldwide. We found no evidence of a latitude gradient.

  18. A simplified indexing of F-region geophysical noise at low latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S.; Lakshmi, D. R.; Reddy, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    A simple method of deriving an F-region index that can warn the prediction users at low latitudes as to the specific months when they have to be more careful in using the long term predictions is described.

  19. Radiative Forcing of the Pinatubo Aerosol as a Function of Latitude and Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Russell, P. B.; Bauman, J. J.; Minnis, P.

    1996-01-01

    We present calculations of the radiative forcing of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as a function of latitude and time after the eruption and compare the results with GOES satellite data. The results from the model indicate that the net effect of the aerosol was to cool the earth-atmosphere system with the most significant radiative effect in the tropics (corresponding to the location of the tropical stratospheric reservoir) and at latitudes greater than 60 deg. The high-latitude maximum is a combined effect of the high-latitude peak in optical depth (Trepte et al 1994) and the large solar zenith angles. The comparison of the predicted and measured net flux shows relatively good agreement, with the model consistently under predicting the cooling effect of the aerosol.

  20. Mesopheric Temparature Inversions Observed in Long-Term Lidar Measurements at Mid- and Low-Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Keckhut, P.; Hauchecorne, A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of an investigation of mesospheric temperature inversion layers using long-term lidar measurements at mid- and low-latitudes are reported. In this paper, new results from different lidar observations of the invasion layers will be presented.

  1. The latitude dependencies of the solar wind. [of interplanetary magnetic field polarity and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, R. L.; Winge, C. R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The motion of spacecraft following the earth's orbit occurs within the solar latitude range of 7 deg 15 min N on approximately September 7 to 7 deg 15 min S on approximately March 6. The latitude dependencies so far detected within this range have shown that the photospheric dipole-like field of the sun makes very important contributions to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observed near the ecliptic. Changes in geomagnetic activity from even to odd numbered 11-year solar cycles are related to changes in the sun's dipolar field. The north-south IMF component and meridional, nonradial flow are important to a complete understanding of steady-state solar wind dynamics. Coronal conditions must be latitude-dependent in a way that accounts for the observed latitude dependence of the velocity and density of the solar wind.

  2. Plasma density features associated with strong convection in the winter high-latitude F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Raitt, W. J.; Schunk, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    A single plasma convection model was combined with an ionospheric-atmospheric composition model to study plasma density features associated with string convection in the winter high-latitude F region. Time dependent, three-dimensional, ion density distributions for NO(+), O2(+), N2(+), O(+) and He(+) were produced, and the ionosphere above 42 deg N magnetic latitude was covered for 24 hours. The study found that for strong and weak convection, electron density exhibited a variation with altitude, latitude, longitude and universal time. Ionospheric features were evident for strong convection, but modified in comparison with those found for slow convection. Also found for strong convection was a more pronounced tongue of ionization, the appearance of a new polar hole in the polar cap, and a midlatitude electron density trough that was not as deep as found for a weak convection. In addition, good agreement was found between predictions and Atmosphere Explorer measurements of ion composition variation with latitude and local time.

  3. Calculated nighttime eastward plasma drift velocities at low latitudes and their solar cycle dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Heelis, R. A.; Mcclure, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    After calculating ambient electron densities as a function of altitude, latitude and local time, a simplified expression is used to calculate F-region eastward plasma drifts given a zonal neutral wind model. The derived eastward plasma drift on a magnetic flux tube is examined as a function of the flux tube apex height. If the neutral wind is assumed to be independent of latitude the plasma drift maximizes along the flux tube which intercepts the F-region peak concentration at the Appleton anomaly. Above this altitude the velocity decreases to reflect a decrease in the flux tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity. For a latitude dependent wind the plasma drift tends to maximize along the flux tube which intercepts the F-peak at the dip equator. Above this altitude the drift decreases to reflect the latitude distribution of the wind.

  4. Unambiguous evidence of HF pump-enhanced airglow at auroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brändström, B. U. E.; Leyser, T. B.; Steen, Å.; Rietveld, M. T.; Gustavsson, B.; Aso, T.; Ejiri, M.

    1999-12-01

    Simultaneous observations by up to three low-light imaging stations belonging to the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) have provided the first strong evidence of high-frequency (HF) pump-enhanced airglow at auroral latitudes. The airglow was enhanced by an ordinary mode 4.04 MHz electromagnetic wave with an effective radiated power (ERP) of about 210 MW that was transmitted from the EISCAT-Heating facility near Tromsø, Norway. While often observed at low or mid-latitudes, and despite numerous earlier experiments, no unambiguous observations of pump-enhanced airglow have been reported at auroral latitudes. On February 16, 1999, the first successful results were obtained, and this paper concentrates on discussing optical data from this event. Triangulated estimations of the altitude and position of the enhanced airglow are also presented. Auroral-latitude observations of HF pump-enhanced airglow are important in order to better understand the underlying excitation mechanisms.

  5. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  6. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites: implications for convergence across northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Prevéy, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Rüger, Nadja; Hollister, Robert D; Bjorkman, Anne D; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Elmendorf, Sarah C; Clark, Karin; Cooper, Elisabeth J; Elberling, Bo; Fosaa, Anna M; Henry, Gregory H R; Høye, Toke T; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Klanderud, Kari; Lévesque, Esther; Mauritz, Marguerite; Molau, Ulf; Natali, Susan M; Oberbauer, Steven F; Panchen, Zoe A; Post, Eric; Rumpf, Sabine B; Schmidt, Niels M; Schuur, Edward A G; Semenchuk, Phillip R; Troxler, Tiffany; Welker, Jeffrey M; Rixen, Christian

    2017-01-11

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering was more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence in flowering times and therefore an increase in gene flow across latitudes as the climate warms.

  7. High-latitude ionospheric model - First step towards a predictive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Raitt, W. J.; Sojka, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the plasma density features associated with both weak and strong convection in the winter high-latitude F-region, a simple plasma convection model was combined with an ionospheric-atmospheric composition model. In a model calculation, a field tube of plasma is followed as it moves along a convection trajectory through a moving, neutral atmosphere. The altitude profiles of the ion densities are obtained by solving the appropriate continuity, momentum and energy equations, including many high-latitude processes. The result of following many such plasma field tubes is a time-dependent, three-dimensional ion density distribution for the ions NO(+), O2(+), O(+), N(+), and He(+). The high-latitude ionosphere is covered over one complete day above 42 deg N magnetic latitude, at altitudes of 160-800 km.

  8. Understanding the Latitude Structure of Nitric Oxide in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller-Rowell, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to understand the latitude structure of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The problem was portrayed by a clear difference between predictions of the nitric oxide distribution from chemical/dynamical models and data from observations made by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SMEE) in the early to mid eighties. The data exhibits a flat latitude structure of NO, the models tend to produce at equatorial maximum. The first task was to use the UARS-HALOE data to confirm the SME observations. The purpose of this first phase was to verify the UARS-NO structure is consistent with the SME data. The next task was to determine the cause of the discrepancy between modeled and observed nitric oxide latitude structure. The result from the final phase indicated that the latitude structure in the Photo-Electron (PE) production rate was the most important.

  9. HIGH-LATITUDE SOLAR TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS DURING PHASES OF CHANGING MAGNETIC CYCLE AMPLITUDE

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, M.

    2012-05-01

    Torsional oscillations are variations of the solar differential rotation that are strongly linked to the magnetic cycle of the Sun. Helioseismic inversions have revealed significant differences in the high-latitude branch of torsional oscillations between cycle 23 and cycle 24. Here we employ a non-kinematic flux-transport dynamo model that has been used previously to study torsional oscillations and simulate the response of the high-latitude branch to a change in the amplitude of the magnetic cycle. It is found that a reduction of the cycle amplitude leads to an increase in the amplitude of differential rotation that is mostly visible as a drop in the high-latitude rotation rate. Depending on the amplitude of this adjustment the high-latitude torsional oscillation signal can become temporarily hidden due to the unknown changing mean rotation rate that is required to properly define the torsional oscillation signal.

  10. Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Fagerlind Ståhl, Anna-Carin; Gustavsson, Maria; Karlsson, Nadine; Johansson, Gun; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    The effect of lean production on conditions for learning is debated. This study aimed to investigate how tools inspired by lean production (standardization, resource reduction, visual monitoring, housekeeping, value flow analysis) were associated with an innovative learning climate and with collective dispersion of ideas in organizations, and whether decision latitude contributed to these associations. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in public, private, production and service organizations (n = 4442). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used. Use of lean tools and decision latitude were positively associated with an innovative learning climate and collective dispersion of ideas. A low degree of decision latitude was a modifier in the association to collective dispersion of ideas. Lean tools can enable shared understanding and collective spreading of ideas, needed for the development of work processes, especially when decision latitude is low. Value flow analysis played a pivotal role in the associations.

  11. Bringing feedback and resilience of high-latitude ecosystems into the corporate boardroom.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Gail; Forbes, Bruce C; Niemelä, Jari; Chapin, F Stuart

    2004-08-01

    This paper discusses the role of companies in high-latitude regions, which are conceptualized as socially and economically mediated ecosystems, and identifies a number of important social actors within the business environment. We present three examples of corporate activity at high latitudes and discuss a variety of common threads. Notably, we argue that business theory and practice needs to move beyond a narrow social or economic concept of organizational resilience and embrace the ecological resilience of high-latitude regions as a business management goal. We also suggest that regional ecosystem resilience needs to become a meaningful measure of sustainable corporate governance, one that corporate boards of directors can review and commit to. The paper concludes with a call for a detailed research agenda on the role of transnational and national companies within high-latitude regions.

  12. Are lower-latitude plants better defended? Palatability of freshwater macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Wendy E; Hay, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Increased herbivory at lower latitudes is hypothesized to select for more effective plant defenses. Feeding assays with seaweeds and salt marsh plants support this hypothesis, with low-latitude plants experiencing greater damage in the field and being less palatable than higher-latitude plants. We tested this hypothesis for freshwater macrophytes because they offered an independent plant lineage and habitat type for testing this general hypothesis and because the patchiness of consumer occupancy across isolated water bodies might produce local variance in herbivory that would override geographic variance and produce different results for this habitat type. When we fed eight congeneric pairs of live plants from four sites in Indiana vs. four sites in South Florida (-215 and 0 frost days/yr respectively) to three species of crayfishes and one species of snail, three of the four herbivores significantly preferred high-latitude to low-latitude plants. For two crayfishes that differed in feeding on live plants (one favoring high-latitude plants and one not), we retested feeding using foods composed of freeze-dried and finely ground plants, thus removing structural characteristics while retaining most chemical/nutritional traits. In this assay, both herbivores strongly preferred high-latitude plants, suggesting that lower-latitude plants had been selected for more deterrent chemical traits. When we collected 22 pairs of congeneric plants from 9 sites throughout Indiana vs. 13 sites in Central Florida (-215 and -95 frost days/yr respectively) and tested these in feeding assays with three crayfishes using dried, ground, and reconstituted plant material, we found a significant effect of latitude for only one of three species of herbivore. Overall, our results suggest a preference for high-latitude plants, but the strength of this relationship varied considerably across small scales of latitude that differed considerably in numbers of frost-free days. The difference in

  13. THE LATITUDE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC ELEMENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, C. L.; Wang, J. X. E-mail: wangjx@nao.cas.cn

    2012-01-20

    With the unique data set from full-disk observations provided by Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in the interval embodying solar cycle 23, we have found that the cyclic variations of numbers and total flux of these small-scale magnetic elements covering fluxes of (2.9-32.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} Mx and (4.27-38.01) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx show anticorrelation and correlation with sunspots, respectively. In this study, the time-latitude distributions of these anticorrelated and correlated elements are analyzed. The following results are disclosed: (1) for the correlated elements, the cyclic variations of the total flux in low-latitude and middle-latitude regions show a longer duration of cyclic maximum phase than that of an active region (AR) in the corresponding latitude region; the total flux of these elements shows the accordant south-north asymmetry with that of AR; the time-latitude distribution of their number displays a similar butterfly diagram but with a latitude distribution that is twice as wide as that of sunspots. (2) For the anticorrelated elements, the time-latitude distribution of number shows a solar cycle variation different from the sunspot butterfly diagram; in each latitude, the distribution of anticorrelated elements always shows the anticorrelated variation with that of sunspots; during solar cycle 23, the average speed of the peak latitudinal migration for anticorrelated elements reaches 7.5 deg year{sup -1}, almost three times that for sunspots. These results seem to imply that the correlated elements are the debris of decayed sunspots, and the anticorrelated elements have a different source but are affected or modulated by sunspot magnetic field.

  14. Variational electric fields at low latitudes and their relation to spread-F and plasma irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtet, J. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Heppner, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In situ measurements of variational electric fields at low latitudes, taken by OGO 6 satellite instruments, are analyzed. The observations are compared with other data on F region and spread-F structures. Conformity of the electric field fluctuations with the overall picture of low-latitude irregularities is examined empirically and theoretically, and candidate processes for generation of the observed irregularities are considered. Three distinct types of irregularities are delineated and compared.

  15. Far-ultraviolet studies. VII - The spectrum and latitude dependence of the local interstellar radiation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. C.; Anderson, R. C.; Fastie, W. G.

    1980-01-01

    A direct measurement has been made of the spectrum (1180-1680 A) and Gould-latitude dependence of the local interstellar radiation field, over about one-third of the sky. The result is corrected to give expected values for the entire sky. The average local 1180-1680 A energy density is 5.8 x 10 to the -17th ergs/cu cm A. The surface brightness falls off toward high latitudes much more steeply than published models predict.

  16. The Multipath and Fading Profile of the High Latitude Meteor Burst Communication Channel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    APPROVED: j~ ~ e. c ALLAN C. SCHELL Chief, Electromagnetic Sciences Division FOR THE COMMANDER: [ JOHN A. RITZ - Plans and Programs Division *, If your...multipath measurement VHF propagation / 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse ,f necessary and identify by block number) ------ ------ .. tion High...latitude propagation phenomenon such as scatter from the aurora and sporadic-E propagation can alter the communication characteristics of the high latitude

  17. Effect of diffusion-thermal processes on the high-latitude topside ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Raitt, W. J.; Nagy, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The extent to which diffusion-thermal heat flow affects H(+) temperatures in the high-latitude topside ionosphere is studied. Such a heat flow occurs whenever there are H(+)-O(+) relative drifts. From our study we have found that at high-latitudes, where H(+) flows up and out of the topside ionosphere, diffusion-thermal heat flow acts to reduce H(+) temperatures by 500-600 K at altitudes above about 900 km.

  18. Ionospheric Plasma Drift and Structure Studies at High and Mid- Latitudes. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    oblique ionograms measured at Goose Bay for propagation path from Argentia to Goose Bay. On this day a trough developed and moved over both stations...1993). At high latitudes the magnetospheric solar wind induced electric fields map into the ionosphere along the open and dosed field lines driving the...and Winter velocities for these high latitude stations has not been investigated. The seasonal variation at first suggests that neutral winds may be

  19. Latitudinal TEC gradients over polar ionosphere using high latitude GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Tepenitsyna, Nadezhda; Yakimova, Galina; Ephishov, I. I.

    The GPS observations of Greenland network were used to analyze the latitudinal variations of TEC at the high-latitudes ionosphere. This network provides unique opportunity to monitor TEC variability in polar ionosphere on a regular base. GPS stations are arranged along the latitude over the range 60-83°N (65°-87° Corrected Geomagnetic Latitude) near of 30°-40° longitudes. More than 20 GPS stations are located closely with one another along latitude. The distance between stations is about 1°-2°.Such spatial resolution provides the possibility to analyze the detailed structure of latitudinal TEC profiles. The standard procedure of processing GPS observations was used for TEC estimation. On this base it was obtained the diurnal TEC variations over all Greenland stations. The TEC data is used to form latitudinal profiles (TEC section) covered subauroral, auroral and polar ionosphere. In the report the observations of TEC for quiet and disturbed ionosphere during several geomagnetic storms occurred in September 2011 are presented. During quiet conditions in the night-time TEC profiles demonstrated invariable values about of 4-6 TECU in latitudinal region of 60°-75°N; then it presented THE increase towards the higher latitude and reached the value of 10 TECU near 80°N. The daytime profiles revealed TEC decrease toward high latitude in keeping with 0.8 TECU/degree. During storm the structure of latitudinal TEC profiles was essentially changed with agreement to the development of geomagnetic storm. The positive effect was observed at subauroral and auroral latitudes, negative effect was prevailed at the polar region. During the night time the ionospheric trough can be observed. In the report features of the behavior of latitudinal profiles at high-latitude ionosphere for September 2011 events were discussed.

  20. Performance Statistics Bulletin High Latitude Meteor Scatter Propagation February, March, April, May 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-02

    High Latitude Meteor Scatter Performance Statistics 1. INTRODUCTION This bulletin presents a summary of results obtained from the Phillips Laboratory...on a common scale. "**Earlier practice displayed noise at all frequencies on a common linear scale, resulting in occasional confusion from overlapping...plots presenting data at 35 and 45 MHz. since E. propagation may frequently dominate at polar cap latitudes, resulting in gaps in the data that are

  1. Potential for Expansion of Coral Reefs into Higher Latitudes due to Climate Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    SEP 2003 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential for Expansion of Coral Reefs into Higher Latitudes due to...ANSI Std Z39-18 0-933957-31-9 P2745 Potential for Expansion of Coral Reefs into Higher Latitudes due to Climate...investigate if there have been any effects on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) at geographical margins of coral reefs . It is generally accepted that

  2. MITHRAS: A Program of Simultaneous Radar Observations of the High-Latitude Auroral Zone.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    CHATANIKA AND MILL - STONE HILL. The vertical arrow indicates local midnight. 29 electron densities. The nighttime minima are not as well reproduced by the... Nuit de Haute Latitude," Proceedings of GRECO Conference, Grenoble, France (September 1982). Senior, C., P. Bauer, C. Taieb, and Michel Petit, "Le R61e...Alignis, Precipitations Diffuses et Electrojets dans le Secteur Nuit de Haute Latitude," C. Senior, Proceedings of GRECO Conference, Grenoble, 1982. 0"On

  3. Evidence for magma recharge and cumulate assimilation within the Fossa delle Felci (Salina Island, Italy) volcanic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, A. M.; Bohrson, W. A.; Hunt, R.; Creamer, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Integrating plagioclase in situ chemical and textural analyses with MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack 1995) provides quantitative information about magma chamber processes such as recharge (R), assimilation (A) and fractional crystallization (FC) and constrains variables such as pressure, temperature and water content. Studies on Salina Island have documented volcanic sequences ranging from basalt to rhyolite that erupted between ~500-13 ka (Gertisser & Keller 2000). In the Fossa delle Felci sequence, basalts to basaltic andesites (herein called basalt) are the lowest units in the series followed upsection by dacite, andesite and basaltic andesite. Thirteen samples were chosen for whole rock major and trace element and Sr isotope analysis with a subset of six representative samples chosen for in situ textural and chemical analysis. The basalt shows the least complex plagioclase textures, as documented by Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast imaging. Textural complexity increases with increasing whole rock SiO2. No overlap occurs in core and rim anorthite (An mol%) values for the basalt, with varying degrees of overlap in core and rim An values for the remaining samples. The An range for all crystals is 93-39. Whole rock major and trace elements show systematic trends suggesting differentiation controlled by FC. The basalt displays anomalously high Al2O3, CaO and low MgO. For most samples, whole rock Sr behaves compatibly, but two andesites have anomalously high [Sr]. Overall, in situ plagioclase [Sr] range from 918-2312 ppm with the lowest values in the basalt and the highest in the dacite. Whole rock 87Sr/86Sr range from 0.70475-0.70433. Basaltic andesites are the least radiogenic, and andesites are the most radiogenic; thus, there are no simple correlations with indices of differentiation. Preliminary in situ LA-ICPMS analyses of one andesite yield 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70439-0.70408 with values decreasing rimward; all in situ values are lower than the whole rock value

  4. How much does latitude modify temperature-mortality relationship in 13 eastern US cities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianpeng; Peng, Ji; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Tao; Rutherford, Shannon; Lin, Hualiang; Qian, Zhengmin; Huang, Cunrui; Luo, Yuan; Zeng, Weilin; Chu, Cordia; Ma, Wenjun

    2015-03-01

    Although several studies have documented that latitude might be an effect modifier of the association between temperature and mortality, little is known about how much latitude modifies the temperature-mortality relationship. In this study, we examined this research question using a distributed lag non-linear model and meta-regression analysis based on data from 13 large cities of eastern US from the US National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. We found that cold effects lasted about 1 month while hot effects were acute and short-term. Meta-regression analysis showed that latitude modified both the cold and hot effects with statistical significance. The cold effect decreased with the latitude increment, with -0.11 % change of mortality effect for 1° increment, while the hot effect increased with the latitude increment, with 0.18 % change of mortality effect for 1° increment. This finding indicates the importance of latitude on temperature-related mortality risk, which is helpful for city to develop localized effective adaptation strategy in the context of climate change.

  5. Characteristics of the Afternoon E-region Plasma Density Irregularities in Middle Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y. S.; Yang, T. Y.; Kil, H.; Otsuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In middle latitudes, radar probing of E-region ionospheric electron density irregularities has been carried out for several decades. However, no the afternoon (i.e., from noon to pre-sunset time) E-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in middle latitude have been reported yet. On the other hand, a 40.8 MHz VHF radar operated continuously since December 2009 at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude) in South Korea has often observed the E-region FAIs in the afternoon. In this presentation, therefore, we report firstly the afternoon observations of the mid-latitude E-region FAIs made by the Daejeon radar. We present the characteristics and statistical morphology of the mid-latitude afternoon E-region FAIs based on the continuous and long-term radar observations. And also, to investigate the afternoon E-region FAIs - Sporadic E (Es) relationship, the FAIs have been also compared with Es parameters based on observations made from an ionosonde located at Icheon (37.14°N, 127.54°E, 27.7°N dip latitude), which is 100 km north of Daejeon.

  6. The effect of space weather on human heart diseases in subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, S. N.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Petrova, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this work the relationship between emergency medical calls for myocardial infarction in Yakutsk (subauroral geomagnetic latitudes) and parameters of the space weather near maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) geomagnetic activity is studied. The comparison of the seasonal behavior of the number of calls with the simultaneous seasonal behavior of deaths from myocardial infarctions at low latitudes (Bulgaria) exhibited significant differences. Namely, in Bulgaria, the maximum and minimum of infarctions were observed in winter and in summer, respectively; in Yakutsk, several observed maximums coincided with the sharp and considerable increase in planetary geomagnetic activity. An analysis of experimental results made it possible to suppose that, in subauroral latitudes, unlike low latitudes, a major role in the increase in the number of infarctions is played by the increase in geomagnetic activity, namely, by the appearance of night magnetospheric substorms, which are also observed in subauroral latitudes in magnetically disturbed times. Substorms are always accompanied by irregular geomagnetic Pi1 pulsations with periods of 0.5-3 Hz. These pulsations can be biotropic, like stable quasi-sinusoidal geomagnetic Pc1 pulsations in middle and low latitudes.

  7. The effect of latitude on photoperiodic control of gonadal maturation, regression and molt in birds.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Alistair

    2013-09-01

    Photoperiod is the major cue used by birds to time breeding seasons and molt. However, the annual cycle in photoperiod changes with latitude. Within species, for temperate and high latitude species, gonadal maturation and breeding start earlier at lower latitudes but regression and molt both occur at similar times at different latitudes. Earlier gonadal maturation can be explained simply by the fact that considerable maturation occurs before the equinox when photoperiod is longer at lower latitudes - genetic differences between populations are not necessary to explain earlier breeding at lower latitudes. Gonadal regression is caused either by absolute photorefractoriness or, in some species with long breeding seasons, relative photorefractoriness. In either case, the timing of regression and molt cannot be explained by absolute prevailing photoperiod or rate of change in photoperiod - birds appear to be using more subtle cues from the pattern of change in photoperiod. However, there may be no difference between absolute and relative photorefractory species in how they utilise the annual cycle in photoperiod to time regression.

  8. How much does latitude modify temperature-mortality relationship in 13 eastern US cities?

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianpeng; Peng, Ji; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Tao; Rutherford, Shannon; Lin, Hualiang; Qian, Zhengmin; Huang, Cunrui; Luo, Yuan; Zeng, Weilin; Chu, Cordia; Ma, Wenjun

    2015-03-01

    Although several studies have documented that latitude might be an effect modifier of the association between temperature and mortality, little is known about how much latitude modifies the temperature-mortality relationship. In this study, we examined this research question using a distributed lag non-linear model and meta-regression analysis based on data from 13 large cities of eastern US from the US National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. We found that cold effects lasted about 1 month while hot effects were acute and short-term. Meta-regression analysis showed that latitude modified both the cold and hot effects with statistical significance. The cold effect decreased with the latitude increment, with -0.11 % change of mortality effect for 1° increment, while the hot effect increased with the latitude increment, with 0.18 % change of mortality effect for 1° increment. This finding indicates the importance of latitude on temperature-related mortality risk, which is helpful for city to develop localized effective adaptation strategy in the context of climate change.

  9. Cantico Delle Creature: A microtonal original composition for soprano and string quartet to a text by St. Francis of Assisi, including analytical commentary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabol, Jason A.

    Cantico delle Creature is an original piece of music for soprano and string quartet composed in 72 tone per octave equal temperament, dividing each semitone into six equal parts called twelfth-tones. This system of tuning makes it possible to combine just intonation and spectral principles based on the harmonic series with real imitation, modulation, and polyphony. Supplemental text discusses several aspects of microtonal structure and pedagogy, including the representation of the first 64 partials of the harmonic series in 72 tone equal temperament, performance of natural string harmonics, the relationship between interval size and vibration ratio, pitch to frequency conversion, and analysis of several passages in the musical score.

  10. Observations of ionospheric convection from the Wallops SuperDARN radar at middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Greenwald, R. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Oksavik, K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Paxton, L. J.; Hairston, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    During geomagnetic storms the ability of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) to measure ionospheric convection becomes limited when the radars suffer from absorption and the auroral disturbance expands equatorward of the radar sites. To overcome these shortcomings, it was decided to construct a SuperDARN radar at middle latitudes on the grounds of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. This paper presents the first comprehensive analysis of Doppler measurements from the Wallops radar, which commenced operations in May 2005. Wallops measurements are compared with the Goose Bay radar during the onset of a geomagnetic storm on 31 August 2005: Goose Bay measured the onset of geomagnetic activity at high latitude while Wallops monitored the expansion of convection to middle latitudes. Average convection patterns binned by the Kp geomagnetic index are also presented. During weak-moderate geomagnetic activity (Kp ≤ 3) the Wallops radar observes ionospheric irregularities between 50° and 60° magnetic latitude drifting westward across much of the nightside. When these measurements are incorporated into the calculation of an average SuperDARN convection pattern, the streamlines of polar cap outflow on the nightside become kinked in a manner reminiscent of the Harang discontinuity. This morphology arises quite naturally when the two-cell convection at high latitudes merges with the prevailing westward convection at middle latitudes. During increased geomagnetic activity (Kp ≥ 3), Wallops is able to measure the expansion of auroral electric fields to middle latitudes and the average SuperDARN cross-polar cap potential is increased by 25%.

  11. Relative Contributions of Heating and Momentum Forcing to High-Latitude Lower Thermospheric Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y. S.; Richmond, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    At high latitudes the thermospheric dynamics are gov­erned by various heat and momentum sources. Recently several modeling studies have been attempt­ed to understand the physical process that control the high-latitude lower thermospheric dynamics. Kwak and Richmond [2007] and Kwak et al. [2007] studied the momentum forcing bal­ance that are mainly responsible for maintaining the high-latitude lower thermospheric wind system by using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermo­sphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIE-GCM). Kwak and Richmond [2014] analyzed the divergence and vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the lower thermosphere during the south­ern summertime. In this study, we extend previous works by Kwak and Rich­mond [2007, 2014] and Kwak et al. [2007], which helped to better understand the physical processes maintaining thermospheric dynamics at high latitudes, and here perform a "term analysis of the potential vorticity equation" for the high-latitude neu­tral wind field in the lower thermosphere, on the basis of numerical simulations using the NCAR TIE-GCM. These analyses can provide insight into the relative strength of the heating and the momentum forcing responsible for driving rotational winds at the high-latitude lower thermosphere. The heating is the net heat including the heat transfer by downward molecular and eddy heat conduction, the absorption of solar ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ra­diation, auroral heating by particles, Joule dissipation of ionospheric currents, release of chemical energy by the atomic oxygen recombination, and radiative CO2, NO and O infrared emissions. The momentum forcing is associated with the viscous force and the frictional drag force from convecting ions.

  12. The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter temperature changes over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di

    2016-04-01

    Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded temperature dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter temperature changes over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean temperature within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter temperature decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the temperature spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that temperature was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after tropical volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the temperature decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport,therefore winter temperature increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that temperature decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the temperature of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height

  13. The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter temperature changes over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Hao, Z.; Zheng, J.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded temperature dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter temperature changes over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean temperature within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter temperature decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the temperature spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that temperature was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after equatorial volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the temperature decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport therefore winter temperature increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that temperature decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the temperature of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height

  14. On the NH3 absorption depression observable at Northern low latitudes of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejfel, Victor G.; Vdovichenko, Vladimir D.; Lysenko, Peter G.; Karimov, Alibek M.; Kirienko, Galina A.; Bondarenko, Natalya N.; Kharitonova, Galina

    2016-10-01

    From February to April of 2016, we carried out a special series of spectrophotometric observations of Jupiter to study the current behavior of the ammonia absorption at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere, where in 2004 we have found a well-defined depression of the 787 nm NH3 absorption band intensity (V.Tejfel et al., Bull.AAS, 2005, Vol. 37, p.682). In subsequent years, an existence of this depression was annually confirmed by spectral observations, although we were noticing its variable character. During observations of 2016 we obtained more than 2,500 CCD-spectrograms, including the spectra of the central meridian, the GRS, and 12 scans of Jovian disk on different dates (70 zonal spectra in each scan). The 787 nm NH3 absorption band was extracted with using of ratios of the Jovian spectra to the Saturn's disk spectrum that was taken as a reference. The depression of absorption in this band begins almost from the equator, and its maximum occurs at the planetographic latitude of 100N then the absorption increases again approaching to the latitude of 200N. The equivalent bandwidths corresponding to these latitudes are equal to 18.7 ± 1.4 A, 14.4 ± 1.0 A and 17.8 ± 0.8A. The 645 nm NH3 absorption band also shows depletion at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere, but it is less pronounced. At the temperate latitudes of the Northern hemisphere this band's absorption is systematically lower than the Southern Hemisphere's ones. We will continue research in this direction, especially because recently a significant depletion of gaseous NH3 has also been found with using of the VLA with high resolution (I. de Pater et al., Science, 2016, Vol. 352, Issue 6290, p.1290-1294) at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere in the region of the NEB.

  15. Responses of arthropod populations to warming depend on latitude: evidence from urban heat islands.

    PubMed

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2017-04-01

    Biological effects of climate change are expected to vary geographically, with a strong signature of latitude. For ectothermic animals, there is systematic latitudinal variation in the relationship between climate and thermal performance curves, which describe the relationship between temperature and an organism's fitness. Here, we ask whether these documented latitudinal patterns can be generalized to predict arthropod responses to warming across mid- and high temperate latitudes, for taxa whose thermal physiology has not been measured. To address this question, we used a novel natural experiment consisting of a series of urban warming gradients at different latitudes. Specifically, we sampled arthropods from a single common street tree species across temperature gradients in four US cities, located from 35.8 to 42.4° latitude. We captured 6746 arthropods in 34 families from 111 sites that varied in summer average temperature by 1.7-3.4 °C within each city. Arthropod responses to warming within each city were characterized as Poisson regression coefficients describing change in abundance per °C for each family. Family responses in the two midlatitude cities were heterogeneous, including significantly negative and positive effects, while those in high-latitude cities varied no more than expected by chance within each city. We expected high-latitude taxa to increase in abundance with warming, and they did so in one of the two high-latitude cities; in the other, Queens (New York City), most taxa declined with warming, perhaps due to habitat loss that was correlated with warming in this city. With the exception of Queens, patterns of family responses to warming were consistent with predictions based on known latitudinal patterns in arthropod physiology relative to regional climate. Heterogeneous responses in midlatitudes may be ecologically disruptive if interacting taxa respond oppositely to warming.

  16. Rethinking the polar cap: Eccentric dipole structuring of ULF power at the highest corrected geomagnetic latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Kevin D.; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Weatherwax, Allan T.

    2016-09-01

    The day-to-day evolution and statistical features of Pc3-Pc7 band ultralow frequency (ULF) power throughout the southern polar cap suggest that the corrected geomagnetic (CGM) coordinates do not adequately organize the observed hydromagnetic spatial structure. It is shown that that the local-time distribution of ULF power at sites along CGM latitudinal parallels exhibit fundamental differences and that the CGM latitude of a site in general is not indicative of the site's projection into the magnetosphere. Thus, ULF characteristics observed at a single site in the polar cap cannot be freely generalized to other sites of similar CGM latitude but separated in magnetic local time, and the inadequacy of CGM coordinates in the polar cap has implications for conjugacy/mapping studies in general. In seeking alternative, observationally motivated systems of "polar cap latitudes," it is found that eccentric dipole (ED) coordinates have several strengths in organizing the hydromagnetic spatial structure in the polar cap region. ED latitudes appear to better classify the local-time ULF power in both magnitude and morphology and better differentiate the "deep polar cap" (where the ULF power is largely UT dependent and nearly free of local-time structure) from the "peripheral polar cap" (where near-magnetic noon pulsations dominate at lower and lower frequencies as one increases in ED latitude). Eccentric local time is shown to better align the local-time profiles in the magnetic east component over several PcX bands but worsen in the magnetic north component. It is suggested that a hybrid ED-CGM coordinate system might capture the strengths of both CGM and ED coordinates. It is shown that the local-time morphology of median ULF power at high-latitude sites is dominantly driven by where they project into the magnetosphere, which is best quantified by their proximity to the low-altitude cusp on the dayside (which is not necessarily quantified by a site's CGM latitude), and that

  17. Solar activity and human health at middle and low geomagnetic latitudes in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Sánchez de La Peña, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    The study of the possible effect of solar variability on living organisms is one of the most controversial issues of present day science. It has been firstly and mainly carried on high latitudes, while at middle and low latitudes this study is rare. In the present review we focused on the work developed at middle and low geomagnetic latitudes of America. At these geomagnetic latitudes the groups consistently dedicated to this issue are mainly two, one in Cuba and the other in Mexico. The Cuban and Mexican studies show that at such latitudes there are biological consequences to the solar/geomagnetic activity, coinciding in four points: (1) the male population behave differently from the female population, (2) the most vulnerable age group to geomagnetic perturbations is that of ⩾65 years old, (3) there is a tendency for myocardial infarctions (death or occurrence) to increase one day after a geomagnetic Ap index large value or during the day of the associated Forbush decrease, and (4) the myocardial infarctions (death or occurrence) increase as the geomagnetic perturbation increases. Additionally, the Cuban group found seasonal periodicities from their data, and also that increases of female myocardial infarctions occurred before and after the day of the geomagnetic disturbance. The Mexican group found that the male sex is more vulnerable to geomagnetic perturbations and that the myocardial infarction deaths present the conspicuous cycle of ˜7 days.

  18. Observations of mid-latitude planetary waves in the lower atmosphere over America and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Ping, Jinsong

    The characteristics of mid-latitude planetary waves (PWs) in the troposphere and lower strato-sphere (TLS) are studied by both statistical and case studies with the data from radiosonde observations at three middle latitude stations (Miramar Nas, 32.9N, 117.2W; Santa Teresa, 31.9N, 106.7W; Fort Worth, 32.8N, 97.3W) in America and Wuhan (30.5N, 114.4E) in China. It is found that mid-latitude PWs exist in two regions. One is in the troposphere, and the other is in the stratosphere. In the troposphere, the amplitudes of the mid-latitude PWs reach maximum round the center of the subtropical jet stream. The subtropical jet stream may be one of the PW excitation sources. However, in the stratosphere, only the lower frequency PWs remain in winter, with the zonal component strongest. Moreover, the PW activities are rather intermittent, and their lifetimes are not longer than two months. In the case study of the 2000/2001 winter, it is found that the quasi 16-day wave in Wuhan around the subtropical jet stream is probable the same quasi 16-day wave at the three American stations, which steadily propagates around the latitude.

  19. Mid-latitude Ionospheric Disturbances Due to Geomagnetic Storms at ISS Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minow, J. I.; Willis, E. M.; Parker, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    Spacecraft charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is dominated by the interaction of the high voltage US solar arrays with the F2-region ionospheric plasma environment. We are working to fully understand the charging behavior of the ISS solar arrays and determine how well future charging behavior can be predicted from in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature. One aspect of this work is a need to characterize the magnitude of electron density and temperature variations that may be encountered at ISS orbital altitudes (~400 km), the latitudes over which they occur, and the time periods for which the disturbances persist. We will present preliminary results from a study of ionospheric disturbances in the "mid-latitude" region defined as the ~30 degree to ~60 degree extra-equatorial magnetic latitudes sampled by ISS. The study is focused on geomagnetic storm periods because they are well known drivers for disturbances in the high-latitude and mid-latitude ionospheric plasma. Changes in the F2 peak electron density obtained from ground based ionosonde records are compared to in-situ electron density and temperature measurements from the CHAMP and ISS spacecraft at altitudes near, or above, the F2 peak. Results from a number of geomagnetic storms will be presented and their potential impact on ISS charging will be discussed.

  20. Large-scale energy transformations in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kung, E. C.; Masters, S. E.; Corte-Real, J. A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic energy balance and kinetic energy sources are studied for high latitudes north of 55 deg N with twice daily upper air observations during a seven-year period from 1973 to 1979. Energy variables are presented for 5 deg latitudinal zones from 55 to 75 deg N and for the polar cap north of 75 deg N. Spatial distributions of important energy variables are also presented. The upper level maximum of the cross-isobaric generation in high latitudes is observed in th lower stratosphere above the tropopause level in the winter and becomes insignificant during the summer. The flux convergence of potential energy from the source in lower latitudes is identified as the single major source for kinetic energy in higher latitudes. The contribution of the baroclinic conversion is minor. Examination during the First GARP Global Experiment winter indicates that the cold air outbreaks of the Asian winter monsoon are associated with noticeable changes in the hemispherical distributions of the fields of vertical motion and energetics in the high latitudes.

  1. Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Disturbances Due to Geomagnetic Storms at ISS Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is dominated by the interaction of the high voltage US solar arrays with the F2-region ionospheric plasma environment. We are working to fully understand the charging behavior of the ISS solar arrays and determine how well future charging behavior can be predicted from in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature. One aspect of this work is a need to characterize the magnitude of electron density and temperature variations that may be encountered at ISS orbital altitudes (approximately 400 km), the latitudes over which they occur, and the time periods for which the disturbances persist. We will present preliminary results from a study of ionospheric disturbances in the "mid-latitude" region defined as the approximately 30 - 60 degree extra-equatorial magnetic latitudes sampled by ISS. The study is focused on geomagnetic storm periods because they are well known drivers for disturbances in the high-latitude and mid-latitude ionospheric plasma. Changes in the F2 peak electron density obtained from ground based ionosonde records are compared to in-situ electron density and temperature measurements from the CHAMP and ISS spacecraft at altitudes near, or above, the F2 peak. Results from a number of geomagnetic storms will be presented and their potential impact on ISS charging will be discussed.

  2. Spectral characteristics of geomagnetic field variations at low and equatorial latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Geomagnetic field spectra from eight standard observations at geomagnetic latitudes below 30?? were studied to determine the field characteristics unique to the equatorial region. Emphasis was placed upon those variations having periods between 5 min and 4 hr for a selection of magnetically quiet, average, and active days in 1965. The power spectral density at the equator was about ten times that the near 30?? latitude. The initial manifestation of the equatorial electrojet as evidenced by the east-west alignment of the horizontal field or the change in vertical amplitudes occurred below about 20?? latitude. Induced current effects upon the vertical component from which the Earth conductivity might be inferred could best be obtained at times and latitudes unaffected by the electrojet current. Values of about 1.6 ?? 103 mhos/m for an effective skin depth of 500-600 km were determined. The spectral amplitudes increased linearly with geomagnetic activity index, Ap. The spectral slope had a similar behavior at all latitudes. The slope changed systematically with Ap-index and showed a diurnal variation, centered on local noon, that changed form with geomagnetic activity.

  3. Decelerated Magnetoshealth Plasma Flow at High Latitudes Behind the Cusp Region: Interball Tail Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avanov, L. A.; Chandler, M. O.; Smirnov, V. N.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2002-01-01

    On May 25, 1996 the Interball Tail spacecraft was moving through the northern hemisphere of the high-latitude magnetosphere on its outbound trajectory. It successively crossed lobe field lines followed by the high latitude magnetopause, then entering the magnetoshealth proper near the cusp region covering magnetic local time from 8h20m to 9h30m at magnetic latitudes of about 770. IMF observed by WIND was northward during the time interval of interest and favorable for reconnection at high latitude magnetopause. The well-defined De Hoffmann Teller frame and stress balance indicate that the magnetopause was a rotational discontinuity with ongoing reconnection. After the magnetopause crossing, the spacecraft observed decelerated magnetoshealth flow in the sub-Alvinic regime. A gradually increasing of the flow velocity is observed and the plasma flow regime changed from sub-Alfvnic through Alfinic to super-Alfvnic one. We explain these results by direct passing of the Interball Tail through the secondary stagnation point, which has been predicted by theoretical and semiempirical models of the high latitude magnetopause.

  4. Spectroscopic Detection of COClF in the Tropical and Mid-Latitude Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Nassar, Ray; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter; Chiou, Linda; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Zander, Rodolphe

    2007-01-01

    We report retrievals of COClF (carbonyl chlorofluoride) based on atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE) solar occultation spectra recorded at tropical and mid-latitudes during 2004-2005. The COClF molecule is a temporary reservoir of both chlorine and fluorine and has not been measured previously by remote sensing. A maximum COClF mixing ratio of 99.7+/-48.0 pptv (10(exp -12) per unit volume, 1 sigma) is measured at 28km for tropical and subtropical occultations (latitudes below 20deg in both hemispheres) with lower mixing ratios at both higher and lower altitudes. Northern hemisphere mid-latitude mixing ratios (30-50degN) resulted in an average profile with a peak mixing ratio of 51.7+/-32.1 pptv, 1 sigma, at 27 km, also decreasing above and below that altitude. We compare the measured average profiles with the one reported set of in situ lower stratospheric mid-latitude measurements from 1986 and 1987, a previous two-dimensional (2-D) model calculation for 1987 and 1993, and a 2-D-model prediction for 2004. The measured average tropical profile is in close agreement with the model prediction; the northern mid-latitude profile is also consistent, although the peak in the measured profile occurs at a higher altitude (2.5-4.5km offset) than in the model prediction. Seasonal average 2-D-model predictions of the COClF stratospheric distribution for 2004 are also reported.

  5. Weapon allometry varies with latitude in the New Zealand giraffe weevil.

    PubMed

    Painting, C J; Buckley, T R; Holwell, G I

    2014-12-01

    Animal body size commonly shows a relationship with latitude to the degree that this phenomenon is one of the few 'rules' discussed in evolutionary ecology: Bergmann's rule. Although exaggerated secondary sexual traits frequently exhibit interesting relationships with body size (allometries) and are expected to evolve rapidly in response to environmental variation, the way in which allometry might interact with latitude has not been addressed. We present data showing latitudinal variation in body size and weapon allometry for the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis). Males display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during fights for access to females. Consistent with Bergmann's rule, mean body size increased with latitude. More interestingly, weapon allometry also varied with latitude, such that lower latitude populations exhibited steeper allometric slopes between weapon and body size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a latitudinal cline in weapon allometry and is therefore a novel contribution to the collective work on Bergmann's rule and secondary sexual trait variation.

  6. Spectroscopic Detection of COCLF in the Tropical and Mid-Latitude Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Nassar, Ray; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter; Chiou, Linda; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Zander, Rodolphe

    2006-01-01

    We report retrievals of COClF (carbonyl chlorofluoride) based on atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE) solar occultation spectra recorded at tropical and mid-latitudes during 2004-2005. The COClF molecule is a temporary reservoir of both chlorine and fluorine and has not been measured previously by remote sensing. A maximum COClF mixing ratio of 99.7+/- 48.0 pptv per unit volume, (10 (exp -12)I sigma) is measured at 28km for tropical and subtropical occultations (latitudes below 20 degrees in both hemispheres) with lower mixing ratios at both higher and lower altitudes. Northern hemisphere mid-latitude mixing ratios (30-50 degrees N) resulted in an average profile with a peak mixing ratio of 51.7 +/1 32.1 pptv, 1 sigma, at 27 km, also decreasing above and below that altitude. We compare the measured average profiles with the one reported set of in situ lower stratospheric mid-latitude measurements from 1986 and 1987, a previous two-dimensional (2-D) model calculation for 1987 and 1993, and a 2-D-model prediction for 2004. The measured average tropical profile is in close agreement with the model prediction; the northern mid-latitude profile is also consistent, although the peak in the measured profile occurs at a higher altitude (2.5-4.5km offset) than in the model prediction. Seasonal average 2-D-model predictions of the COClF stratospheric distribution for 2004 are also reported.

  7. Low-Latitude Auroras: The Magnetic Storm of 14-15 May 1921

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, S. M.; Cliver, E. W.

    2001-01-01

    We review solar geophysical data relating to the great magnetic storm of 14-15 May 1921, with emphasis on observations of the low-latitude visual aurora. From the reports we have gathered for this event the lowest geomagnetic latitude of definite overhead aurora (coronal form) was 40 deg and the lowest geomagnetic latitude from which auroras were observed on the poleward horizon in the northern hemisphere was 30 deg. For comparison, corresponding overhead/low-latitude values of 48 deg/32 deg and 41 deg/20 deg were reported for the great auroras on 28-29 August and 1-2 September 1859, respectively. However for the 1921 event, there is a report of aurora from Apia, Samoa, in the southern hemisphere, within 13 deg of the geomagnetic equator. This report by professional observers appears to be credible, based on the aurora description and timing, but is puzzling because of the discrepancy with the lowest latitude of observation in the northern hemisphere and the great implied aurora height (approximately 2000 km, assuming overhead aurora at Auckland, New Zealand). We discuss various possibilities that might account for this observation.

  8. Post-Storm Middle and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Electric Fields Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Blanc, M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere undergoes large and complex perturbations during and after geomagnetic storms. Thermospheric winds driven by enhanced energy and momentum due to geomagnetic activity generate large disturbance electric fields, plasma drifts and currents with a broad range of temporal and spatial scales from high to equatorial latitudes. This disturbance dynamo mechanism plays a fundamental role on the response of the middle and low-latitude ionosphere to geomagnetic activity. In this review, we initially describe the early evidence for the importance of this process and the first simulation study which already was able to explain its main effects on the electrodynamics of the middle and low-latitude ionosphere. We then describe the results of more recent simulations and the extensive experimental work that highlights the importance of this mechanism for ionospheric space weather studies extending to post-storms periods, and present some suggestions for future studies.

  9. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18.6-year nodal tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royer, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Water column temperature variations which indicate that the upper ocean is responding to 18.6-yr tidal forcing are presented. An enhanced high-latitude response to this forcing is predicted by equilibrium tide theory, and it should be most evident at latitudes poleward of about 50 deg. Critical information on regional climate variations might be found in the subsurface waters of the North Pacific and possibly other high-latitude oceans. The 18.6-yr nodal tidal cycle must be considered in circulation models of the ocean and atmosphere that examine time scales of decades or longer. Because the temperature range associated with the cycle is 0.5-1 C, short-term climate and biological populations could be affected.

  10. Green house gas flux at high latitudes - constraints and susceptibility to a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude boreal forests and peatlands contribute importantly to the land-atmosphere exchange of both carbon dioxide and methane. High latitude biomes are also identified as most vulnerable to changing climate. High latitudes are characterized by a strong seasonality in incoming solar radiation, weather conditions and biogeochemical processes. The strong seasonality in incoming solar radiation, not to change in response to a changing climate, constitute firm constraints on how changes in air temperature, evapotranspiration and precipitation will affect biogeochemical processes underlying the land atmosphere exchange of green house gases. Timing of the soil frost thaw and plant phenology thus constitutes two master controls on how fluxes of both CO2 and CH4 will be affected by weather conditions. In addition also the wintertime conditions importantly affect GHG fluxes both during winter time as well as during the succeeding summer. Examples will primarily be given for peatlands and coniferous forests.

  11. Solar wind entry into the high-latitude terrestrial magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet times.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q Q; Zong, Q-G; Fu, S Y; Dunlop, M W; Pu, Z Y; Parks, G K; Wei, Y; Li, W H; Zhang, H; Nowada, M; Wang, Y B; Sun, W J; Xiao, T; Reme, H; Carr, C; Fazakerley, A N; Lucek, E

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the transport of solar wind plasma into and throughout the terrestrial magnetosphere is crucial to space science and space weather. For non-active periods, there is little agreement on where and how plasma entry into the magnetosphere might occur. Moreover, behaviour in the high-latitude region behind the magnetospheric cusps, for example, the lobes, is poorly understood, partly because of lack of coverage by previous space missions. Here, using Cluster multi-spacecraft data, we report an unexpected discovery of regions of solar wind entry into the Earth's high-latitude magnetosphere tailward of the cusps. From statistical observational facts and simulation analysis we suggest that these regions are most likely produced by magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause, although other processes, such as impulsive penetration, may not be ruled out entirely. We find that the degree of entry can be significant for solar wind transport into the magnetosphere during such quiet times.

  12. Effect on atmospheric CO2 from seasonal variations in the high latitude ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1989-01-01

    Data from the North Pacific gyre, Bering Sea, and North Atlantic show large seasonal fluctuations in the pCO2 of surface waters. The seasonal variation in these latitudes apparently has a generic pattern: higher surface water pCO2 in winter and lower in summer. Satellite data will eventually help decipher the relative effects of temperature and biological production in the seasonal carbon cycle, but as yet little work has been done on what possible role the seasonality of pCO2 in the high latitudes might have on the average value of atmospheric pCO2. A model is developed that shows the average value for atmospheric pCO2 depends upon the ratio of the rates at which the ocean/atmosphere system moves toward equilibrium values during the summer and winter conditions of the high latitude ocean.

  13. Post-Storm Middle and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Electric Fields Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Blanc, M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere undergoes large and complex perturbations during and after geomagnetic storms. Thermospheric winds driven by enhanced energy and momentum due to geomagnetic activity generate large disturbance electric fields, plasma drifts and currents with a broad range of temporal and spatial scales from high to equatorial latitudes. This disturbance dynamo mechanism plays a fundamental role on the response of the middle and low-latitude ionosphere to geomagnetic activity. In this review, we initially describe the early evidence for the importance of this process and the first simulation study which already was able to explain its main effects on the electrodynamics of the middle and low-latitude ionosphere. We then describe the results of more recent simulations and the extensive experimental work that highlights the importance of this mechanism for ionospheric space weather studies extending to post-storms periods, and present some suggestions for future studies.

  14. On the Connection Between Solar Activity and Low-Latitude Aurorae in the Period 1715 - 1860

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Curto, J. J.

    2006-11-01

    Observations of aurorae borealis at low latitudes are very rare and are clearly associated with strong geomagnetic storms. Morphologically, they are characterized by a diffuse red colour with no rapid motions. The main aim of this paper is to analyse two hitherto ignored aurorae that were observed at two low-latitude sites, Tenerife (28°N 18°W) and Mexico City (19°N 99°W), in 1770 and 1789, respectively. These observations can give supplementary information about the level of solar activity at those times where direct solar observations were rather scarce. Studying also the behaviour of the heliosphere during this period using different proxies, we find that the open magnetic field better describes auroral occurrences. The variation over time in geomagnetic latitude at the two sites is also calculated.

  15. In-situ measurements of nitric oxide in the high latitude upper stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, J. J.; Frederick, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical profiles of nitric acid were measured over Poker Flat, Alaska, in August 1984 and January and February 1985 using a rocket-launched parachute-deployed chemiluminescence sensor. Results for the altitude range 35-45 km indicate a large seasonal variation, with wintertime mixing ratios being a factor of two above summer values. The winter profiles contain sharp positive vertical gradients persisting through the highest altitudes observed. Above the stratopause, the mixing ratio observed in February increases rapidly and between 52 and 53 km reaches 148.9 ppbv, an order of magnitude greater than typical mid-latitude values measured with this instrument. Such behavior is consistent with the idea that nitric oxide produced at greater altitudes reaches the high-latitude upper stratosphere or lower mesosphere in winter. The results support the existence of a vertical coupling between diverse regions of the atmosphere in the high-latitude winter.

  16. Seasonal Variations of Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Trough Structure Observed with DEMETER and COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyjasiak, Barbara; Przepiórka, Dorota; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-12-01

    The mid-latitude ionospheric trough is a depleted region of ionospheric plasma observed in the topside ionosphere. Its behavior can provide useful information about the magnetospheric dynamics, since its existence is sensitive to magnetospherically induced motions. Mid-latitude trough is mainly a night-time phenomenon. Both, its general features and detailed characteristics strongly depend on the level of geomagnetic disturbances, time of the day, season, and the solar cycle, among others. Although many studies provide basic information about general characteristics of the main ionospheric trough structure, an accurate prediction of the trough behavior in specific events is still understood poorly. The paper presents the mid-latitude trough characteristics with regard to the geomagnetic longitude and season during a solar activity minimum, as based on the DEMETER in situ satellite measurements and the data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements.

  17. Effect of Latitude and Seasonal Variation on Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Jeung, Ye Sul; Kim, Choon-Mee; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Seok-Won; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Dong-Min

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, scrub typhus is one of the most common rickettsial diseases. The number of scrub typhus patients has increased in South Korea, a total of 69,210 cases were reported from 2001 to 2013. The seasonality and relation of scrub typhus cases to latitude were analyzed in this article using data obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System website of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence of scrub typhus tended to increase in the later months of the year, especially in October-December. In general, lower latitudes were associated with a later peak incidence. Our results suggest for the first time that the monthly observed incidence tended to increase in the later months of the year as the latitude decreased, and on a yearly basis in Korea.

  18. On transpolar arc formation correlated with solar wind entry at high latitude magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailyan, B. G.; Shi, Q.; Maggiolo, R.; Zong, Q.; Fu, S.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, Z.; Sun, W.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, Cluster observations revealed the existence of new regions of solar wind plasma entry at the high latitudes of the Earth's magnetosphere, at the lobes tailward of the cusp region, mostly during periods of northward IMF. Such periods of northward IMF are associated with the presence of transpolar arcs. Observations from Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) instrument onboard TIMED spacecraft are used to investigate a possible link between solar wind entry in the high latitude magnetosphere and the formation of transpolar arcs. Data from IMAGE and DMSP spacecraft are also used to investigate the time evolution and particle characteristics of the transpolar arc.We present a case study of a theta aurora correlated with the solar wind entry. The observations show a simultaneous occurrence of aurora activity at the magnetotail and high latitudes, suggesting two-part structure of the apparent continuous band of the transpolar arc.

  19. Quantifying Transport Between the Tropical and Mid-Latitude Lower Stratosphere

    PubMed

    Volk; Elkins; Fahey; Salawitch; Dutton; Gilligan; Proffitt; Loewenstein; Podolske; Minschwaner; Margitan; Chan

    1996-06-21

    Airborne in situ observations of molecules with a wide range of lifetimes (methane, nitrous oxide, reactive nitrogen, ozone, chlorinated halocarbons, and halon-1211), used in a tropical tracer model, show that mid-latitude air is entrained into the tropical lower stratosphere within about 13.5 months; transport is faster in the reverse direction. Because exchange with the tropics is slower than global photochemical models generally assume, ozone at mid-latitudes appears to be more sensitive to elevated levels of industrial chlorine than is currently predicted. Nevertheless, about 45 percent of air in the tropical ascent region at 21 kilometers is of mid-latitude origin, implying that emissions from supersonic aircraft could reach the middle stratosphere.

  20. Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, C.M.; Dutton, G.S.; Gilligan, J.M.

    1996-06-21

    Airborne in situ observations of molecules with a wide range of lifetimes (methane, nitrous oxide, reactive nitrogen, ozone, chlorinated halocarbons, and halon-1211), used in a tropical tracer model, show that mid-latitude air is entrained into the tropical lower stratosphere within about 13.5 months; transport is faster in the reverse direction. Because exchange with the tropics is slower than global photochemical models generally assume, ozone at mid-latitudes appears to be more sensitive to elevated levels of industrial chlorine than is currently predicted. Nevertheless, about 45 percent of air in the tropical ascent region at 21 kilometers is of mid-latitude origin, implying that emissions from supersonic aircraft could reach the middle stratosphere. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  1. The effect of solar wind dynamic pressure changes on low and mid-latitude magnetic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Ginskey, M.; Petrinec, S.; Le, G.

    1992-06-01

    Magnetic records from low- and mid-latitude stations have been examined to determine their response to solar wind pressure changes. The best correlation between ground level changes and the change in the square root of the solar wind dynamic pressure occurs for stations at latitudes from 15 to 30 deg such as Tahiti, Honolulu, San Juan and Midway. The horizontal component of the field changes on average 16.5 nT for each change of 1(nPa) exp 1/2 of the square root of dynamic pressure. This is 50 percent greater than the vacuum model of Tsyganenko would predict for a nonconducting earth and therefore what would be expected for a perfectly conducting interior. Thus, low- and mid-latitude ground level response to solar wind pressure changes is dominated by the variation of the strength and location of the magnetopause current system and the corresponding induced currents within the earth rather than ionospheric current sources.

  2. Artificial periodic irregularities in the high-latitude ionosphere excited by the HAARP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.; Shindin, A. V.; Milikh, G. M.; Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; McCarrick, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present results of the new observations of artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) in the ionosphere using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility carried out in late May and early June 2014.The objective of this work is to detect API using high-latitude facility and analyze possible differences of the temporal and spatial variations of the API echoes in the high (HAARP) and middle (Sura) latitudes. Irregularities were created by the powerful wave of X mode and were sounded using the short probing pulses signals of X mode. API echoes were observed in the D, E, and F regions of the ionosphere. Amplitudes and characteristic times of the API echoes were measured. The API growth and decay times at HAARP (high latitudes) observed were similar to those at the Sura heating facility (midlatitudes).

  3. Impacts of solar activity on performance of the IRI-2012 model predictions from low to mid latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Tan, Eng Leong; Murti, Dhimas Sentanu

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the impacts of solar activity on the performance of the latest release of International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model version 2012 (IRI-2012) predictions during the ascending phase of solar activity from 2009 to 2013. The study is based on the data of total electron content (TEC) retrieved from the Global Positioning System (GPS) at Singapore (NTUS) (geographic latitude 01.34°N, longitude 103.67°E, geomagnetic latitude 8.4°S), Thailand (CUSV) (geographic latitude 13.73°N, longitude 100.54°E, geomagnetic latitude 3.96°N), China (KUNM) (geographic latitude 25.02°N, longitude 102.79°E, geomagnetic latitude 15.15°N), Mongolia (ULAB) (geographic latitude 47.67°N, longitude 107.05°E, geomagnetic latitude 37.73°S), and Russia (IRKM) (geographic latitude 52.21°N, 104.31°E, geomagnetic latitude 42.28°S). The GPS-TEC has been compared with the IRI-2012 model TEC for three different options, namely, IRI-NeQ, IRI01-corr, and IRI-2001, for topside Ne over all the above five stations lying at different latitudes from equatorial-equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) to mid-latitude regions but at around the same longitude line (104° ± 3°E). The study showed that the IRI model predictions for different topside options are different and significant in low-latitude region but insignificant in mid-latitude regions (except during winter season of high solar activity year 2012). During the period from 2009 to 2013, upon moving from low to high solar activity, the prediction nature (overestimation/underestimation) of IRI-2012 model changes significantly at EIA station KUNM of low-latitude region. The discrepancy in IRI-2012 model TEC as compared to GPS-TEC in low-latitude region is found to be larger and significant than in mid-latitude region (Mongolia and Russia). The discrepancy in the IRI-2012 model TEC with IRI-2001 topside is found to be maximum at equatorial station CUSV (RMSD 99%) during the solar minimum year 2009 and decreases moving

  4. Solar activity dependence of low-and mid-latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiding; Liu, Libo; Wan, Weixing

    Solar activity dependence of low-and mid-latitude ionosphere is investigated using ionosonde and the ROCSAT-1 satellite (600 km) observations. The pattern in the solar activity varia-tion of the electron density shows significant local time, seasonal, latitudinal, and altitudinal dependences. Noontime NmF2 saturates with F107 in all seasons in low-latitude regions, while it saturates with F107 in equinoxes and local summer and linearly increases with F107 in local winter in mid-latitude regions. Nighttime NmF2 nearly increases with F107 linearly in equinox seasons and saturates with F107 in local summer, what is peculiar is that there is an amplifica-tion trend of nighttime NmF2 with F107 in local winter. We discussed the possible mechanisms which affect the solar activity variation trend of NmF2 and argued that the changes of neutral atmosphere and ionospheric dynamics are important for the solar activity variation trend of NmF2. Solar activity variations of the plasma density at 600 km present three kinds of patterns (linearity, amplification, and saturation), the pattern depends on local time, season, and lati-tude. That is different from the case at higher altitudes, e.g., 800 km, where the amplification trend prevails. In particular, saturation effect is found in the dip equator region at equinox sunset. Latitudinal distribution of the plasma density at 600 km also depends on local time, season, and solar activity level. Around sunset, a profound double-peak structure is found in the latitudinal distribution of the plasma density in solar maximum equinox and December solstice months. Solar activity dependence of the low-latitude topside ionosphere at 600 km is strongly related to the low-latitude dynamics processes.

  5. Export of Ozone-Poor Air from the Lower Tropical Stratosphere to Mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, J. R.; Weinstock, E. M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of ozonesonde profiles shows a decline in ozone of 7 to 9%/decade during the past 20 to 30 years in the northern mid-latitude lower stratosphere [Logan et al., 1999], exposing the large population at these latitudes to increased health risks. Heterogeneous processing leading to halogen-catalyzed ozone loss is not expected to occur in the mid-latitude lower stratosphere because in situ measurements indicate the air is consistently undersaturated and low in ClO in this region [Smith et al., 2001]. Furthermore, in situ measurements acquired aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft during SOLVE (SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment) suggest that equatorward mixing of ozone-depleted air from the Arctic vortex does not contribute significantly to declines in mid-latitude lower stratospheric ozone. Instead, tracer-tracer correlations from SOLVE indicate that rapid isentropic transport from the lower tropical stratosphere coupled with diabatic descent in mid-latitudes delivers very young, ozone-poor air to the lowermost stratosphere (θ < 380 K) during northern winter. Given this result, we hypothesize that the seasonal and interannual variability in the strength of this transport from the lower tropical stratosphere modulates mid-latitude lower stratospheric ozone. We investigate methods of using in situ observations to test this hypothesis. Logan, J.A., et al., Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone: A comparison of two analyses of ozonesonde data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 26373-26399, 1999. Smith, J.B., et al., Mechanisms for midlatitude ozone loss: Heterogeneous chemistry in the lowermost stratosphere?, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 1297-1309, 2001.

  6. Mid-Latitude Dayside Ionospheric Response to Storm-Time Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    One way in which a geomagnetic storm may impact the ionosphere is through an expansion of the magnetospheric electric field to mid-latitudes. This mechanism was explored in detail by Heelis et al [2009], where it was shown that an electric field with a magnitude of just 1 mV/m at mid-latitudes is sufficient to produce a large increase in TEC on the dayside. This effect is brought about by the lifting of the ionosphere as dayside plasma is transported poleward under the influence of the eastward component of the expanded electric field; the lifting occurs because of the inclination of the magnetic field lines. At the time the above-mentioned article was written, the authors lacked a physics-based modeling capability for the behavior of the storm-time electric field at mid-latitudes, so a simple modified form of the Volland 2-cell model was used. In the present work we use the University of Michigan’s Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) electric field model, along with the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM). The HEIDI model provides electric potential distributions spanning the northern mid-latitudes with a cadence of 30 minutes; these are used to drive the TDIM in carrying out mid-latitude simulations. The results are compared with model runs for the quiet-time ionosphere, as well as observations from ionosondes and ground-based GPS TEC receivers. ----------------- Heelis, R. A., J. J. Sojka, M. David, and R. W. Schunk (2009), Storm time density enhancements in the middle-latitude dayside ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A03315, doi:10.1029/2008JA013690.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of aurora-related, irregular magnetic pulsations at northern and southern high latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoldy, R.L.; Rajashekar, R. ); Cahill, L.J. Jr. ); Engebretson, M.J. ); Rosenberg, T.J. ); Mende, S.B. )

    1987-11-01

    A dominant feature of high-latitude magnetic pulsations is large-amplitude irregular pulsations (Pi) which are closely correlated with the movement of the observing station under particle precipitation, producing the dayside auroral and the high-latitude expansion of nightside aurora. The dayside Pi-1 pulsation maximum centered about local magnetic noon has no strong seasonal dependence, indicating that the dayside aurora illuminates both hemispheres independent of the latitude of the subsolar point. The summer noon pulsation maximum has, however, a greater longitudinal extent than the winter noon maximum, as measured at 74{degree}-75{degree} invariant latitude. The nightside magnetic pulsations are bursts of Pi (PiB) having an average duration of 15 min. From Defense Meteorological Satellite Program photos the auroral forms related to the high-latitude PiB can be identified as the poleward discrete arc generally having a large longitudinal extent. If the auroral forms are very similar in both hemispheres, then the large longitudinal extent coupled with movement of the auroral could explain why 85% of the PiB events have onsets within 10 min at opposite hemisphere sites (South Pole, Antarctica, and Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland) separated in local magnetic time by about 1.5 hours. There is no seasonal dependence in the statistical occurrence of PiB, nor in its simultaneity in opposite hemispheres. Apparently, the seasonal distortion of the tail plasma sheet has little effect on the acceleration of high-latitude auroral beams. The actual several minute time difference in opposite hemisphere onsets of PiB is probably due to the westward/poleward motion of the longitudinally extended aurora.

  8. The effect of latitude on the risk and seasonal variation in hip fracture in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Odén, Anders; Kanis, John A; McCloskey, Eugene V; Johansson, Helena

    2014-10-01

    Although the optimal requirement of vitamin D for skeletal health in the general community is controversial, vitamin D deficiency impairs bone mineralization and increases bone turnover via secondary hyperparathyroidism, thus accelerating bone loss and increasing fracture risk. Support for a role of vitamin D deficiency in the epidemiology of hip fracture is found in the seasonal variation of hip fracture incidence that is reported in several studies. If the association were causal, then the incidence and amplitude of the seasonal variation in hip fracture risk should vary by latitude. We addressed this hypothesis by examining the incidence of hip fracture in men and women aged 50 years or more from Sweden (latitudes 55 to 69°) between 1987 and 2009. In order to reduce double counting, only one fracture in a period of a year was counted per individual. Men contributed 104,888 fractures in 33,313,065 person years and women 264,362 fractures in 38,387,660 person years. The effects of season and latitude were examined by Poisson regression. As expected, hip fracture rates were higher in women than in men. After adjustment for age, season and population density, hip fracture incidence increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 2.7-3.2%) per degree increase in latitude for men and by 1.9% (95% CI: 1.8-2.1%) for women. There was a marked seasonal variation of hip fracture with the highest risk in February and lower by 37.5% in men and by 23.5% women during the summer. There were significant interactions of amplitude of the seasonal variation with latitude (p < 0.001 for both men and women), indicating that seasonal variation during the year was more pronounced in the north of Sweden than in the south. The associations found with latitude and season is consistent with a role of vitamin D in hip fracture causation.

  9. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high

  10. Geomagnetic activity that corresponds to the median of the F2-layer critical frequency at various latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deminov, M. G.; Deminova, G. F.

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of the F2-layer critical frequency foF2 for the noon at some European stations for 1958-2005, it is found that the geomagnetic activity corresponding to the foF2 median is systematically lower than that averaged over the month; the difference increases with an increase in latitude. Moreover, the dispersion of geomagnetic activity for the foF2 median at relatively high latitudes is lower than at middle latitudes. These regularities are related to the fact that high geomagnetic activity usually leads to a distinct deviation of foF2 from the typical average value, i.e., from the foF2 median, and such deviation is more substantial at relatively high latitudes. That is why the geomagnetic activity for the foF2 median is lower at relatively high latitudes than at middle latitudes.

  11. Patterns of cold-air drainage and microclimate in mid-latitude versus high-latitude mountains: contrasts and implications for climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, N. C.

    2009-12-01

    Predictions of current spatial patterns of climate are difficult in areas of complex relief in all parts of the world, because of the interweaving influences of topography, elevation and aspect. These influences vary temporally as a result of the seasonal and diurnal cycles in radiation balance. In periods of negative energy balance, surface decoupling can occur as cold air drainage develops low-level temperature inversions, and the surface temperature regime beneath the inversion becomes divorced from free atmospheric forcing. Both the spatial scale and temporal persistence of this decoupling vary according to latitude, and although the physical processes that influence inversion formation are similar in polar areas and mid-latitude mountains, the contrasting seasonal and diurnal forcings make the end results very different. Examples are contrasted from detailed field temperature measurements (~50 sites per field area) taken over several years in areas of complex relief in the eastern Pyrenees (~42.5 deg N), the Oregon Cascades (also ~42.5 deg N) and Finnish Lapland (70 deg N and above the Arctic circle). In the former two locations decoupling is mostly diurnally driven, and small-scale topography is important in mediating the effects. Summer decoupling is brief and spatially limited, whereas winter decoupling can be more spatially extensive. There are strong relationships between synoptic conditions, as measured by objective flow indices at the 700 mb level (derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis fields) and the patterns of decoupling, which allow us to assess the effects of past and potential future circulation change on spatial patterns of future climate warming. In Finnish Lapland the decoupling regime most clearly approaches the mid-latitude pattern around the equinoxes when there are clear day and night periods. In winter and summer however (the polar night and polar day) with the muting of the diurnal cycle, processes are more poorly understood. Winter cold

  12. Observational study on the upper tropospheric cold lows in Brazilian south and west Atlantic subtropical latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, M. A.

    1983-03-01

    Upper tropospheric cold lows in the subtropics are studied. From satellite imagery it is observed that the moist lows (those having significant cloudiness) form in the period of May to September. The formation of these cyclones is preceded by the intensification of a ridge to the southwest. The cold lows are observed to move eastward when they are embedded in the mid latitude flow. When they are cut off from this flow, the advection of planetary vorticity dominates and, therefore, the cold lows drift to the west. A possible explanation for their maintenance is the infusion of cold air from upper air troughs at higher latitudes.

  13. Present-day Exposures of Water Ice in the Northern Mid-latitudes of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Kanner, Lisa C.

    2007-01-01

    Water ice is exposed in the martian north polar cap, but is rarely exposed beyond the cap boundary. Orbital gamma ray spectrometry data strongly imply the presence of water ice within meters of the surface at latitudes north of approximately 60deg. We have examined mid-latitude areas of the northern plains displaying residual ice-rich layers, and report evidence of present-day surface exposures of water ice. These exposures, if confirmed, could con-strain the latitudinal and temporal stability of surface ice on Mars.

  14. High-Latitude Filtering in a Global Grid-Point Model Using Model Normal Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, L. L.; Navon, I. M.; Kalnay, E.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of high-latitude filtering in the vicinity of the poles is to avoid the excessively short time steps imposed on an explicit time-differencing scheme by linear stability due to fast moving inertia-gravity waves near the poles. The model normal mode expansion toward the problem of high-latitude filtering in a global shallow water model using the same philosophy as that used by Daley for the problem for large timesteps in P.E. models with explicit time integration schemes was applied.

  15. Particle and field characteristics of the high-latitude plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, G. K.; Mccarthy, M.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Etcheto, J.; Anderson, K. A.; Lin, R. P.; Anderson, R. R.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Particle and field data obtained by eight ISEE spacecraft experiments are used to define more precisely the characteristics of the high-latitude boundary region of the plasma sheet. A region immediately adjacent to the high-latitude plasma sheet boundary has particle and field characteristics distinctly different from those observed in the lobe and deeper in the central plasma sheet. Electrons over a broad energy interval are 'field-aligned' and bidirectional, whereas in the plasma sheet the distributions are more isotropic. The region supports intense ion flows, large-amplitude electric fields, and enhanced broad-band electrostatic noise.

  16. Numerical errors in the real-height analysis of ionograms at high latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Titheridge, J.E.

    1987-10-01

    A simple dual-range integration method for maintaining accuracy in the analysis of real-height ionograms at high latitudes up to a dip angle of 89 deg is presented. Numerical errors are reduced to zero for the start and valley calculations at all dip angles up to 89.9 deg. It is noted that the extreme errors which occur at high latitudes can be alternatively reduced by using a decreased value for the dip angle. An expression for the optimun dip angle for different integration orders and frequency intervals is given. 17 references.

  17. Nonlinear response of mid-latitude weather to the changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Dethloff, Klaus; Francis, Jennifer A.; Hall, Richard J.; Hanna, Edward; Kim, Seong-Joong; Screen, James A.; Shepherd, Theodore G.; Vihma, Timo

    2016-11-01

    Are continuing changes in the Arctic influencing wind patterns and the occurrence of extreme weather events in northern mid-latitudes? The chaotic nature of atmospheric circulation precludes easy answers. The topic is a major science challenge, as continued Arctic temperature increases are an inevitable aspect of anthropogenic climate change. We propose a perspective that rejects simple cause-and-effect pathways and notes diagnostic challenges in interpreting atmospheric dynamics. We present a way forward based on understanding multiple processes that lead to uncertainties in Arctic and mid-latitude weather and climate linkages. We emphasize community coordination for both scientific progress and communication to a broader public.

  18. Multi-Year Radar Observations of Planetary Waves at High Conjugate Latitudes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, D. C.; Iimura, H.; Janches, D.; Mitchell, N. J.; Singer, W.

    2013-12-01

    Meteor radars at nearly conjugate latitudes from ~54o to 68o S and N are enabling multi-year studies of planetary wave (PW) structure and seasonal, interannual, and inter-hemispheric variability. The various PWs exhibit dramatically different seasonal and inter-hemispheric variability, strongly variable amplitude and phase structures with altitude, latitude, and time, and episodic maxima in E-P flux components. This talk will review these features defined with meteor radars at Rothera Station and Ferraz Base (62 and 68 S), on Tierra del Fuego (54 S), and at Juliusruh, Germany and Esrange, Sweden (55 and 68 N).

  19. Inverting x,y grid coordinates to obtain latitude and longitude in the vanderGrinten projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The latitude and longitude of a point on the Earth's surface are found from its x,y grid coordinates in the vanderGrinten projection. The latitude is a solution of a cubic equation and the longitude a solution of a quadratic equation. Also, the x,y grid coordinates of a point on the Earth's surface can be found if its latitude and longitude are known by solving two simultaneous quadratic equations.

  20. Teorie Dinamiche Dell' Ala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, Bruno

    Non è facile rendersi conto del birzarro comportamento dei fluidi poco viscosi, quali l'aria e l'acqua, deducendolo logicamente e matematicamente, come è nello spirito della fisica matematica, da poche proposizioni generali tratte dall'esperienza. Ciò perchè le schematizzazioni più semplici suggerite dal senso comune, in virtù del quale piccole cause non possono produrre che piccoli effetti, e facenti capo a campi cinetici ovunque regolari, portano a risultati paradossali sconcertanti, quali il paradosso di d'Alembert.

  1. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  2. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18.6-year nodal tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Thomas C.

    1993-03-01

    Ocean temperatures in the upper 250 m in the northern North Pacific (60°N, 149°W) increased by more than 1°C from 1972 to 1986 but are now decreasing. Subsurface temperature anomalies are well correlated (˜0.58) with the air temperature anomalies at Sitka, Alaska; hence the coastal air temperatures can be used as a proxy data set to extend the ocean temperature time series back to 1828. Up to 30% of the low-frequency variance can be accounted for with the 18.6-year nodal signal. Additionally, spectral analysis of these air temperature variations indicates a significant low-frequency peak in the range of the 18.6-year signal. Similar low-frequency signals have been reported for Hudson Bay air temperatures since 1700, for sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic from 1876 to 1939, and for sea level in the high-latitude southern hemisphere. The water column temperature variations presented here are the first evidence that the upper ocean is responding to this very long period tidal forcing. An enhanced high-latitude response to the 18.6-year forcing is predicted by equilibrium tide theory, and it should be most evident at latitudes poleward of about 50°. These low-frequency ocean-atmosphere variations must be considered in high-latitude assessments of global climate change, since they are of the same magnitude as many of the predicted global changes.

  3. Latitude as a co-driver of human gut microbial diversity?

    PubMed

    Dikongué, Emma; Ségurel, Laure

    2017-03-01

    The human gut microbial diversity has been reported to be lower in industrialized populations as compared to non-industrialized ones. Since it is also reduced in individuals with some metabolic and inflammatory diseases as compared to healthy ones, this "loss" of diversity in industrialized populations is currently considered to be a public health issue. However, little is known on the mechanisms that are causing this pattern. Is it due to differences in diet, sanitation, medication, host genetics, and/or other unidentified factors? In this review, we propose that part of this decrease in diversity is driven by latitude, as all studied industrialized countries are in higher latitudes than non-industrialized ones, and latitude is known to correlate with species diversity. Reanalyzing available data, we find that part of the gut microbial diversity is significantly correlated with latitude, which might therefore exacerbate the effect of lifestyle. Intriguingly, the observation of a higher diversity in industrialized countries has not been replicated in other human microbiomes.

  4. Rapid sympatry explains greater color pattern divergence in high latitude birds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2010-02-01

    Latitudinal variation in patterns of evolution has fascinated biologists for over a century, but our understanding of latitudinal differences in evolutionary processes-such as selection and drift-remains limited. Here, we test for, and find, accelerated evolution of color patterns in bird taxa that breed at higher latitudes compared with those breeding in the tropics, analyzing data from seven diverse avian families. Most important, we show that the extent of overlap of species' breeding ranges (degree of sympatry) explains the elevated rate of color pattern evolution at higher latitudes. We suggest that the dynamic shifts in breeding ranges that accompanied climatic changes during the last 3 million years (Milankovitch Oscillations) resulted in more rapid and more frequent secondary contact at high latitudes. We argue that sympatry among diverging clades causes greater divergence of color traits in birds at higher latitudes through sexual, social, or ecological character displacement that accelerate rates of evolution, and through the selective elimination of weakly differentiated lineages that hybridize and fuse in sympatry (differential fusion).

  5. The dynamics of ecosystems, biodiversity management and social institutions at high northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Elmqvist, Thomas; Berkes, Fikret; Folke, Carl; Angelstam, Per; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Niemelä, Jari

    2004-08-01

    Ecosystems at high latitudes are highly dynamic, influenced by a multitude of large-scale disturbances. Due to global change processes these systems may be expected to be particularly vulnerable, affecting the sustained production of renewable wood resources and abundance of plants and animals on which local cultures depend. In this paper, we assess the implications of new understandings of high northern latitude ecosystems and what must be done to manage systems for resilience. We suggest that the focus of land management should shift from recovery from local disturbance to sustaining ecosystem functions in the face of change and disruption. The role of biodiversity as insurance for allowing a system to reorganize and develop during the disturbance and reorganization phases needs to be addressed in management and policy. We emphasize that the current concepts of ecological reserves and protected areas need to be reconsidered to developp dynamic tools for sustainable management of ecosystems in face of change. Characteristics of what may be considered as customary reserves at high latitudes are often consistent with a more dynamic view of reserves. We suggest new directions for addressing biodiversity management in dynamic landscapes at high latitudes, and provide empirical examples of insights from unconventional perspectives that may help improve the potential for sustainable management of biodiversity and the generation of ecosystem services.

  6. Latitude-related changes in the amplitude of annual mortality rhythm. The biological equator in man.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S; Rawles, J

    1999-03-01

    There is extensive literature describing the effect of season on mortality rates, especially in cardiovascular and respiratory disease. This study compares latitude with the extent of seasonal variation of monthly deaths from all causes. In developed countries, there is a peak of deaths in winter and a trough in summer. Monthly numbers of deaths were established in 89 countries in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Using cosinor analysis, the extent of seasonal variation (amplitude) was established and correlated with latitude. The amplitude of seasonality was greatest in mid-latitude around 35 degrees, but low or absent near the equator and subpolar regions. The amplitude can differ at the same latitude. The weather in equatorial regions and in habitations near the Arctic Circle is very different, but death has a similar seasonal rhythm. The purpose is to record this epidemiological finding even though no simple explanation is provided. Weather alone cannot explain it, and it is possible that day length (photoperiod) has an important, but complex, underlying role.

  7. GNSS Phase Scintillation and Cycle Slips Occurrence at High Latitudes: Climatology and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Paul; Jayachandran, Periyadan T.; Chadwick, Richard; Kelly, Todd D.

    2014-05-01

    Space weather impacts the operation of modern technology that relies on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Ionospheric scintillation (rapid fluctuation of radio wave amplitude and phase) degrades GPS positional accuracy and causes cycle slips leading to loss of lock that affects performance of radio communication and navigation systems. At high latitudes, GPS scintillation and total electron content has been monitored by the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN). GPS phase scintillation and cycle slips, as a function of magnetic latitude and local time, occur on the dayside in the ionospheric cusp, in the nightside auroral oval, and in the polar cap. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions on the leading edge of high-speed streams are closely correlated with the occurrence of scintillation at high latitudes. Results of a superposed epoch analysis of time series of phase scintillation and cycle slips occurrence keyed by arrival times of high speed solar wind streams and interplanetary coronal mass ejections are presented. Based on these results, a method of probabilistic forecasting of high-latitude phase scintillation occurrence is proposed.

  8. Flight phenology of male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different latitudes in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term trapping studies of the invasive moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) were conducted at various latitudes from Puerto Rico to South Carolina. Three flight periods per year were identified at the five temperate sties studied, which covered the majority of the insects’ mainland United States i...

  9. Calculation of Latitude and Longitude for Points on Perimeter of a Circle on a Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Heidi E.

    2015-08-14

    This document describes the calculation of the Earth-Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) coordinates for points lying on the perimeter of a circle. Here, the perimeter of the circle lies on the surface of the sphere and the center of the planar circle is below the surface. These coordinates are converted to latitude and longitude for mapping fields on the surface of the earth.

  10. Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitude.

    PubMed

    Clement, Bradford M

    2004-04-08

    An important constraint on the processes governing the geodynamo--the flow in the outer core responsible for generating Earth's magnetic field--is the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals; that is, how long it takes for Earth's magnetic field to reverse. It is generally accepted that Earth's magnetic field strength drops to low levels during polarity reversals, and the field direction progresses through a 180 degrees change while the field is weak. The time it takes for this process to happen, however, remains uncertain, with estimates ranging from a few thousand up to 28,000 years. Here I present an analysis of the available sediment records of the four most recent polarity reversals. These records yield an average estimate of about 7,000 years for the time it takes for the directional change to occur. The variation about this mean duration is not random, but instead varies with site latitude, with shorter durations observed at low-latitude sites, and longer durations observed at mid- to high-latitude sites. Such variation of duration with site latitude is predicted by simple geometrical reversal models, in which non-dipole fields are allowed to persist while the axial dipole decays through zero and then builds in the opposite direction, and provides a constraint on numerical dynamo models.

  11. Evaluating light-based geolocation for estimating demersal fish movements in high latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, Andrew C; Norcross, Brenda L.; Wilson, Derek; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated light-based geolocation estimates from pop-up satellite tags in high latitudes because some of the largest fisheries in the world are in areas where this technique has not been assessed. Daily longitude and latitude were estimated by using two Wildlife Computers software programs: 1) Argos Message Processor (AMP), which summarizes light intensity data transmitted to satellites, and 2) Time Series Processor (TSP), which uses more detailed data obtained from retrieved tags. Three experiments were conducted in the northern Gulf of Alaska using tags placed on 1) Pacific halibut in outdoor aquaria, 2) a fixed mooring line at various depths and 3) wild Pacific halibut. TSP performed better than AMP because the percentage of days with geolocation estimates was greater and the mean error magnitude and bias were smaller for TSP and increased with depth for both programs; however, latitude errors were much greater than longitude errors at all depths. Light-based geolocation enabled us to discern basin-scale movements and showed that the Pacific halibut in our study remained within the Gulf of Alaska. We conclude that this technique provides a feasible method for inferring large-scale population structure for demersal fishes in high latitudes

  12. Source Region Identification for Low Latitude Whistlers (L=1.08)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokani, S. A.; Singh, R.; Maurya, A. K.; Bhaskara, V.; Cohen, M.; Kumar, S.; Lichtenberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Though whistlers are known and studied from past one century, the scientific community still strives to understand the generation and propagation mechanism of whistlers in very low latitude region. One of the solutions comes from locating the causative lightning discharges and source region of low latitude whistlers. In the present study, ~ 2000 whistlers recorded during period of one year (Dec, 2010 to Jan, 2011) at Allahabad (Geomag. lat. 16.79o N; L=1.08), India are correlated with lightning activity detected by World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) at and around conjugate region. About 63% of whistlers are correlated with the lightning strikes around conjugate region. Further to confirm this correlation, arrival azimuths of causative sferics are determined and the obtained azimuths points towards conjugate region of Allahabad. The characteristics of thunder cloud generating these whistlers are examined and found that the clouds with South-East alignment are more prone to trigger whistler waves. The seasonal and diurnal variation of whistler parameters such as occurrence rate, power spectral density and dispersion are also studied and explained on the basis of ionospheric conditions in low latitudes. The results obtained open a new window to look for the propagation mechanism of low latitude whistlers.

  13. Latitude dependence of the solar granulation during the minimum of activity in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, R.; Hanslmeier, A.; Utz, D.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Knowledge of the latitude variation of the solar granulation properties (contrast and scale) is useful to better understand interactions between magnetic field, convection, differential rotation, and meridional circulation in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We investigated the latitude dependence of the contrast and scale of the solar granulation, with the help of HINODE/SOT blue continuum images taken in the frame of the HOP 79 program, along the central meridian and along the equator on a monthly basis in 2009 during the last solar minimum of activity. Methods: We selected the sharpest images in latitude and longitude intervals. The selected images in all the N-S and E-W scans taken in 2009 were combined to get statistically reliable results. Results: The contrast of the solar granulation decreases towards the poles and the scale increases, but not regularly since a perturbation occurs at around 60° where both quantities return close to their values at the disk center. Conclusions: Such a latitude variation in a period of minimum of activity (2009), is probably not due to magnetic field, neither the quiet magnetic field at the surface, nor the strong magnetic flux tubes associated with active regions, which could be embedded more or less deeply in the convection zone before they reach the surface. The decrease in contrast and increase in scale towards the pole seem to be related to the differential rotation and the perturbation around 60° to the meridional circulation.

  14. Solar Radiation Disinfection of Drinking Water at Temperate Latitudes: Inactivation rates for an optimized reactor configuration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar radiation-driven inactivation of bacteria, virus and protozoan pathogen models was quantified in simulated drinking water at a temperate latitude (34°S). The water was seeded with Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium sporogenes spores, and P22 bacteriophage, each at ca 1 x 10...

  15. Tritium in precipitation of Vostok (Antarctica): conclusions on the tritium latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Detlef

    2011-09-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 1985 near the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok, firn samples for tritium measurements were obtained down to a depth of 2.40 m. The results of the tritium measurements are presented and discussed. Based on this and other data, conclusions regarding the tritium latitude effect are derived.

  16. Evolution and Persistence of 5-um Hot Spots at the Galileo Probe entry Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study on the longtudinal locations, morphology and evolution of the 5-um hot spots at 6.5 deg. N latitude (planetocentric), from an extensive IRTF-NSFCAM data set spanning more that 3 years, which includes the date of the Galileo Probe entry.

  17. The domination of Saturn's low-latitude ionosphere by ring 'rain'.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, J; Stallard, T S; Melin, H; Jones, G H; Cowley, S W H; Miller, S; Baines, K H; Blake, J S D

    2013-04-11

    Saturn's ionosphere is produced when the otherwise neutral atmosphere is exposed to a flow of energetic charged particles or solar radiation. At low latitudes the solar radiation should result in a weak planet-wide glow in the infrared, corresponding to the planet's uniform illumination by the Sun. The observed electron density of the low-latitude ionosphere, however, is lower and its temperature higher than predicted by models. A planet-to-ring magnetic connection has been previously suggested, in which an influx of water from the rings could explain the lower-than-expected electron densities in Saturn's atmosphere. Here we report the detection of a pattern of features, extending across a broad latitude band from 25 to 60 degrees, that is superposed on the lower-latitude background glow, with peaks in emission that map along the planet's magnetic field lines to gaps in Saturn's rings. This pattern implies the transfer of charged species derived from water from the ring-plane to the ionosphere, an influx on a global scale, flooding between 30 to 43 per cent of the surface of Saturn's upper atmosphere. This ring 'rain' is important in modulating ionospheric emissions and suppressing electron densities.

  18. Enhanced antisunward convection and F region scintillations at mid-latitudes during storm onset

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C. ); Aarons, J. )

    1988-10-01

    Millstone Hill radar observations over a wide span of latitudes detail the onset of 300 m/s antisunward (westward) convection at mid and low latitudes in the morning sector as a region of storm-enhanced sunward convection retreats poleward. Ring current observations reported by Lui et al. (1987) suggest that the magnetospheric shielding layer was coincident with the observed reversal between sunward and antisunward convection. A strong southward component of the F region neutral wind is observed at latitudes equatorward of the convection reversal. These observations are in agreement with the model of Spiro et al. (1988), who find that storm-enhanced neutrral winds at latitudes equatorward of the shielding layer can generate a long-lived perturbation electric field in the inner magnetosphere. The observations show the growth of the subauroral electric field as the shielding boundary moves poleward. They observe 136-MHz scintillations in both the auroral sunwarrd convection region and the region of subauroral antisunward convection when the convection electric fields exceed 5 mV/m.

  19. Relocation, high-latitude warming and host genetic identity shape the foliar fungal microbiome of poplars.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Miklós; Bartha, László; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Otte, Jürgen; Pfenninger, Markus; Robertson, Amanda L; Tiffin, Peter; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Micro-organisms associated with plants and animals affect host fitness, shape community structure and influence ecosystem properties. Climate change is expected to influence microbial communities, but their reactions are not well understood. Host-associated micro-organisms are influenced by the climate reactions of their hosts, which may undergo range shifts due to climatic niche tracking, or may be actively relocated to mitigate the effects of climate change. We used a common-garden experiment and rDNA metabarcoding to examine the effect of host relocation and high-latitude warming on the complex fungal endophytic microbiome associated with leaves of an ecologically dominant boreal forest tree (Populus balsamifera L.). We also considered the potential effects of poplar genetic identity in defining the reactions of the microbiome to the treatments. The relocation of hosts to the north increased the diversity of the microbiome and influenced its structure, with results indicating enemy release from plausible pathogens. High-latitude warming decreased microbiome diversity in comparison with natural northern conditions. The warming also caused structural changes, which made the fungal communities distinct in comparison with both low-latitude and high-latitude natural communities, and increased the abundance of plausible pathogens. The reactions of the microbiome to relocation and warming were strongly dependent on host genetic identity. This suggests that climate change effects on host-microbiome systems may be mediated by the interaction of environmental factors and the population genetic processes of the hosts.

  20. Effects of substorm electrojet on declination along concurrent geomagnetic latitudes in the northern auroral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsen, Inge; Johnsen, Magnar G.; Løvhaug, Unni P.

    2016-10-01

    The geomagnetic field often experiences large fluctuations, especially at high latitudes in the auroral zones. We have found, using simulations, that there are significant differences in the substorm signature, in certain coordinate systems, as a function of longitude. This is confirmed by the analysis of real, measured data from comparable locations. Large geomagnetic fluctuations pose challenges for companies involved in resource exploitation since the Earth's magnetic field is used as the reference when navigating drilling equipment. It is widely known that geomagnetic activity increases with increasing latitude and that the largest fluctuations are caused by substorms. In the auroral zones, substorms are common phenomena, occurring almost every night. In principle, the magnitude of geomagnetic disturbances from two identical substorms along concurrent geomagnetic latitudes around the globe, at different local times, will be the same. However, the signature of a substorm will change as a function of geomagnetic longitude due to varying declination, dipole declination, and horizontal magnetic field along constant geomagnetic latitudes. To investigate and quantify this, we applied a simple substorm current wedge model in combination with a dipole representation of the Earth's magnetic field to simulate magnetic substorms of different morphologies and local times. The results of these simulations were compared to statistical data from observatories and are discussed in the context of resource exploitation in the Arctic. We also attempt to determine and quantify areas in the auroral zone where there is a potential for increased space weather challenges compared to other areas.

  1. Bat and bird diversity along independent gradients of latitude and tree composition in European forests.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Yohan M; Barbaro, Luc; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Ampoorter, Evy; Nezan, Julien; Verheyen, Kris; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Species assemblages are shaped by local and continental-scale processes that are seldom investigated together, due to the lack of surveys along independent gradients of latitude and habitat types. Our study investigated changes in the effects of forest composition and structure on bat and bird diversity across Europe. We compared the taxonomic and functional diversity of bat and bird assemblages in 209 mature forest plots spread along gradients of forest composition and vertical structure, replicated in 6 regions spanning from the Mediterranean to the boreal biomes. Species richness and functional evenness of both bat and bird communities were affected by the interactions between latitude and forest composition and structure. Bat and bird species richness increased with broadleaved tree cover in temperate and especially in boreal regions but not in the Mediterranean where they increased with conifer abundance. Bat species richness was lower in forests with smaller trees and denser understorey only in northern regions. Bird species richness was not affected by forest structure. Bird functional evenness increased in younger and denser forests. Bat functional evenness was also influenced by interactions between latitude and understorey structure, increasing in temperate forests but decreasing in the Mediterranean. Covariation between bat and bird abundances also shifted across Europe, from negative in southern forests to positive in northern forests. Our results suggest that community assembly processes in bats and birds of European forests are predominantly driven by abundance and accessibility of feeding resources, i.e., insect prey, and their changes across both forest types and latitudes.

  2. LOCATION AND MAGNETOSPHERIC MAPPING OF SATURN'S MID-LATITUDE INFRARED AURORAL OVAL

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, Tom; Melin, Henrik; Cowley, Stanley W. H.; Miller, Steve; Lystrup, Makenzie B.

    2010-10-10

    Previous observations of Saturn's infrared aurorae have shown that a mid-latitude aurora exists significantly equatorward of the main auroral oval. Here, we present new results using data from four separate observing runs in 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2010. When combined, these provide a view of the mid-latitude aurora under a considerable range of viewing conditions, allowing the first calculation of the latitudinal position of this aurora to be made. This has shown that the mid-latitude aurora is located at the magnetic footprint of the region within the magnetosphere where the initial breakdown in corotation occurs, between 3 R {sub S} and the orbit of Enceladus ({approx}3.95 R {sub S}). We also confirm that this aurora is a continuous stable feature over a period of more than a decade and that an oval morphology is likely. When combined, these results indicate that the mid-latitude auroral oval is formed by currents driven by the breakdown process within the magnetosphere, in turn caused by mass loading from the torus of Enceladus, analogous with the volcanic moon Io's dominant role in the formation of Jupiter's main auroral oval.

  3. Adaptation of Circadian Neuronal Network to Photoperiod in High-Latitude European Drosophilids.

    PubMed

    Menegazzi, Pamela; Dalla Benetta, Elena; Beauchamp, Marta; Schlichting, Matthias; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2017-03-20

    The genus Drosophila contains over 2,000 species that, stemming from a common ancestor in the Old World Tropics, populate today very different environments [1, 2] (reviewed in [3]). We found significant differences in the activity pattern of Drosophila species belonging to the holarctic virilis group, i.e., D. ezoana and D. littoralis, collected in Northern Europe, compared to that of the cosmopolitan D. melanogaster, collected close to the equator. These behavioral differences might have been of adaptive significance for colonizing high-latitude habitats and hence adjust to long photoperiods. Most interestingly, the flies' locomotor activity correlates with the neurochemistry of their circadian clock network, which differs between low and high latitude for the expression pattern of the blue light photopigment cryptochrome (CRY) and the neuropeptide Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) [4-6]. In D. melanogaster, CRY and PDF are known to modulate the timing of activity and to maintain robust rhythmicity under constant conditions [7-11]. We could partly simulate the rhythmic behavior of the high-latitude virilis group species by mimicking their CRY/PDF expression patterns in a laboratory strain of D. melanogaster. We therefore suggest that these alterations in the CRY/PDF clock neurochemistry might have allowed the virilis group species to colonize high-latitude environments.

  4. Sex differences in lizard escape decisions vary with latitude, but not sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Møller, Anders Pape; Blumstein, Daniel T; Stankowich, Theodore; Cooper, William E

    2015-04-22

    Sexual selection is a powerful evolutionary mechanism that has shaped the physiology, behaviour and morphology of the sexes to the extent that it can reduce viability while promoting traits that enhance reproductive success. Predation is one of the underlying mechanisms accounting for viability costs of sexual displays. Therefore, we should expect that individuals of the two sexes adjust their anti-predator behaviour in response to changes in predation risk. We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 studies (42 species) of sex differences in risk-taking behaviour in lizards and tested whether these differences could be explained by sexual dichromatism, by sexual size dimorphism or by latitude. Latitude was the best predictor of the interspecific heterogeneity in sex-specific behaviour. Males did not change their escape behaviour with latitude, whereas females had increasingly reduced wariness at higher latitudes. We hypothesize that this sex difference in risk-taking behaviour is linked to sex-specific environmental constraints that more strongly affect the reproductive effort of females than males. This novel latitudinal effect on sex-specific anti-predator behaviour has important implications for responses to climate change and for the relative roles of natural and sexual selection in different species.

  5. THE ROTATION PROFILE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS BETWEEN {+-}60 Degree-Sign LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X. J.; Xie, J. L.

    2013-08-10

    Through a cross-correlation analysis of the Carrington synoptic maps of solar photospheric magnetic fields from Carrington Rotation Nos. 1625 to 2129 (from 1975 February to 2012 October), the sidereal rotation rates of solar magnetic fields between {+-}60 Degree-Sign latitudes are investigated. It seems that the temporal variation of rotation rates should be related to the solar cycle phase. The rotation profile of magnetic fields is obtained: the sidereal rotation rates decrease from the equator to mid-latitude and reach their minimum values of about 13.16 deg day{sup -1} (13.17 deg day{sup -1}) at 53 Degree-Sign (54 Degree-Sign ) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere, then increase toward higher latitudes. This rotation profile is different from the differential rotation law obtained by Snodgrass from a cross-correlation analysis of daily magnetograms, in which the rotation rates show a steep decrease from the equator to the poles. However, it is much closer to the quasi-rigid rotation law derived by Stenflo from an auto-correlation analysis of daily magnetograms. Some possible interpretations are discussed for the resulting rotation profile.

  6. Ames collaborative study of cosmic-ray neutrons. 2: Low- and mid-latitude flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, L. D.; Mccaslin, J. B.; Smith, A. R.; Thomas, R. H.; Hewitt, J. E.; Hughes, L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress of the study of cosmic ray neutrons is described. Data obtained aboard flights from Hawaii at altitudes of 41,000 and 45,000 feet, and in the range of geomagnetic latitude 17 N less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to 21 N are reported. Preliminary estimates of neutron spectra are made.

  7. Suicide and Homicide Rates: Their Relationship to Latitude and Longitude and to the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1986-01-01

    Explored variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.…

  8. Latitude, Energy, and Time Variations of Energetic Neutral Atom Spectral indices Measured by IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Mihir; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; McComas, David; Funsten, Herbert; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Zank, Gary; Schwadron, Nathan; Fuselier, Stephen; Allegrini, Frederic; Dayeh, Maher A.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the latitude, energy, and time variations of the globally distributed 0.5-6 keV energetic neutral atom (ENA) spectra measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) during the first 5 years of the mission. Our previous results based on the first 3 years of IBEX observations showed that the ENA spectral indices at the two lowest energies (0.89 and 1.47 keV) exhibit no clear trend with ecliptic latitude θ, while those at ˜2.29 and ˜3.41 keV exhibit a clear latitudinal pattern; flatter spectra occur above 60° latitude and steeper spectra occur within ±30° of the equator. While these results confirmed the previously reported latitudinal organization of the ENA spectra and their remarkable similarity to that of the solar wind (SW) speed observed by Ulysses in the inner heliosphere, we also showed that, unlike previous reports, the ˜0.5-6 keV globally distributed ENA spectral indices could not be represented as single power laws over much of the sky, and that they depend on energy and latitude. In this paper we extend the above results to include years 4 and 5 of IBEX observations and investigate if the spectral indices vary as a function of time. Finally, we discuss implications of our results on models and simulations that seek to map the IBEX ENA observations back to the latitudinal profile of the SW speed structure observed in the inner heliosphere.

  9. Ungulate Reproductive Parameters Track Satellite Observations of Plant Phenology across Latitude and Climatological Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, David C.; Sexton, Joseph O.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Bernales, Heather H.; Edwards, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climatically-driven plant phenology on mammalian reproduction is one key to predicting species-specific demographic responses to climate change. Large ungulates face their greatest energetic demands from the later stages of pregnancy through weaning, and so in seasonal environments parturition dates should match periods of high primary productivity. Interannual variation in weather influences the quality and timing of forage availability, which can influence neonatal survival. Here, we evaluated macro-scale patterns in reproductive performance of a widely distributed ungulate (mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) across contrasting climatological regimes using satellite-derived indices of primary productivity and plant phenology over eight degrees of latitude (890 km) in the American Southwest. The dataset comprised > 180,000 animal observations taken from 54 populations over eight years (2004–2011). Regionally, both the start and peak of growing season (“Start” and “Peak”, respectively) are negatively and significantly correlated with latitude, an unusual pattern stemming from a change in the dominance of spring snowmelt in the north to the influence of the North American Monsoon in the south. Corresponding to the timing and variation in both the Start and Peak, mule deer reproduction was latest, lowest, and most variable at lower latitudes where plant phenology is timed to the onset of monsoonal moisture. Parturition dates closely tracked the growing season across space, lagging behind the Start and preceding the Peak by 27 and 23 days, respectively. Mean juvenile production increased, and variation decreased, with increasing latitude. Temporally, juvenile production was best predicted by primary productivity during summer, which encompassed late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. Our findings offer a parsimonious explanation of two key reproductive parameters in ungulate demography, timing of parturition and mean annual production

  10. Latitude gradient influences the age of onset of rheumatoid arthritis: a worldwide survey.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    The age of onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an important outcome predictor. Northern countries report an age of RA onset of around 50 years, but apparently, variability exists across different geographical regions. The objective of the present study is to assess whether the age of onset of RA varies across latitudes worldwide. In a proof-of-concept cross-sectional worldwide survey, rheumatologists from preselected cities interviewed 20 consecutive RA patients regarding the date of RA onset (RAO, when the patient first noted a swollen joint). Other studied variables included location of each city, rheumatologist settings, latitudes (10° increments, south to north), longitudes (three regions), intracountry consistency, and countries' Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). Data from 2481 patients (82% females) were obtained from 126 rheumatologists in 77 cities of 41 countries. Worldwide mean age of RAO was 44 ± 14 years (95% CI 44-45). In 28% of patients, RA began before age 36 years and before age 46 years in 50% of patients. RAO was 8 years earlier around the Tropic of Cancer when compared with northern latitudes (p < 0.001, 95% CI 3.5-13). Multivariate analysis showed that females, western cities, and latitudes around the Tropic of Cancer are associated with younger age of RAO (R (2) 0.045, p < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between the age of RAO and IHDI (r = 0.7, p < 0.01, R (2) 0.5). RA often begins at an early age and onset varies across latitudes worldwide. We postulate that countries' developmental status and their geographical and geomagnetic location influence the age of RAO.

  11. Interaction of mid-latitude air masses with the polar dome area during RACEPAC and NETCARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Koellner, Franziska; Kunkel, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, Andre; Leaitch, Richard; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Thomas, Jennie; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories as well as Flexpart particle dispersion modeling we analyze the transport regimes of mid-latitude air masses traveling to the high Arctic prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014, NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014). In general more northern parts of the high Arctic (Lat > 75°N) were relatively unaffected from mid-latitude air masses. In contrast, regions further south are influenced by air masses from Asia and Russia (eastern part of Canadian Arctic and European Arctic) as well as from North America (central and western parts of Canadian Arctic). The transition between the mostly isolated high Arctic and more southern regions indicated by tracer gradients is remarkably sharp. This allows for a chemical definition of the Polar dome based on the variability of CO and CO2 as a marker. Isentropic surfaces that slope from the surface to higher altitudes in the high Arctic form the polar dome that represents a transport barrier for mid-latitude air masses to enter the lower troposphere in the high Arctic. Synoptic-scale weather systems frequently disturb this transport barrier and foster the exchange between air masses from the mid-latitudes and polar regions. This can finally lead to enhanced pollution levels in the lower polar troposphere. Mid-latitude pollution plumes from biomass burning or flaring entering the polar dome area lead to an enhancement of 30% of the observed CO mixing ratio within the polar dome area.

  12. Climate Effects on High Latitude Daphnia via Food Quality and Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Przytulska, Anna; Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Rautio, Milla; Dufresne, France; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is proceeding rapidly at high northern latitudes and may have a variety of direct and indirect effects on aquatic food webs. One predicted effect is the potential shift in phytoplankton community structure towards increased cyanobacterial abundance. Given that cyanobacteria are known to be a nutritionally poor food source, we hypothesized that such a shift would reduce the efficiency of feeding and growth of northern zooplankton. To test this hypothesis, we first isolated a clone of Daphnia pulex from a permafrost thaw pond in subarctic Québec, and confirmed that it was triploid but otherwise genetically similar to a diploid, reference clone of the same species isolated from a freshwater pond in southern Québec. We used a controlled flow-through system to investigate the direct effect of temperature and indirect effect of subarctic picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus) on threshold food concentrations and growth rate of the high latitude clone. We also compared the direct effect of temperature on both Daphnia clones feeding on eukaryotic picoplankton (Nannochloropsis). The high latitude clone had a significantly lower food threshold for growth than the temperate clone at both 18 and 26°C, implying adaptation to lower food availability even under warmer conditions. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in the picoeukaryote but not the cyanobacterium, confirming the large difference in food quality. The food threshold for growth of the high latitude Daphnia was 3.7 (18°C) to 4.2 (26°C) times higher when fed Synechococcus versus Nannochloropsis, and there was also a significant negative effect of increased temperature and cyanobacterial food on zooplankton fatty acid content and composition. The combined effect of temperature and food quality on the performance of the high latitude Daphnia was greater than their effects added separately, further indicating the potentially strong indirect effects of climate warming on aquatic food web processes. PMID

  13. Chandler wobble in variations of the Pulkovo latitude for 170 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. O.

    2011-08-01

    The work studies the Chandler component of polar motion, obtained from variations in the Pulkovo latitude over 170 years (1840-2009). To extend the time series of variations in the Pulkovo latitude back into the past until 1840, we used the first Pulkov observations on the basis of the Reynolds transit instrument in the prime vertical and on the basis of large vertical Ertel circle. We employed different methods of analysis of nonstationary time series, such as wavelet analysis, methods of bandpass filtering, singular spectral analysis, and Fourier and Hilbert transforms. Changes in the Pulkovo latitude from 1904-2006, as inferred from ZTF-135 observations and as calculated from international data, were compared. It was shown that time changes in the amplitude and phase of Chandler polar motion can be studied based on long-term observation time series of latitude at a single observatory, even if these observation records have gaps. We were the first to study the changes in the Chandler wobble for that long time series of variations in the Pulkovo latitude with the help of different methods. The long observation record and the methods of analysis of nonstationary time series had allowed us to identify two similar structures, both well apparent during the periods of 1845-1925 and 1925-2005 in the time variations of phase and amplitude. The presence of this structure indicates that low-frequency regularities may be present in the Chandler polar motion, and one of the manifestations of this may be the well known feature in the region of 1925. The superimposed epoch method was used to estimate the period of variations in the amplitude with a simultaneous change of phase of this oscillation, which was found to be 80 years. In addition, advantages of singular spectral analysis for studying the long-period time series with involved structure are demonstrated.

  14. Latitude-Dependent Effects in the Stellar Wind of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nathan; Davidson, Kris; Gull, Theodore R.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Hillier, D. John

    2002-01-01

    The Homunculus reflection nebula around eta Carinae provides the rare opportunity to observe the spectrum of a star from more than one direction. In the case of eta Car, the nebula's geometry is known well enough to infer how wind profiles vary with latitude. We present STIS spectra of several positions in the Homunculus, showing directly that eta Car has an aspherical and axisymmetric stellar wind. P Cygni absorption in Balmer lines depends on latitude, with relatively high velocities and strong absorption near the polar axis. Stronger absorption at high latitudes is surprising, and it suggests higher mass flux toward the poles, perhaps resulting from equatorial gravity darkening on a rotating star. Reflected profiles of He I lines are more puzzling, and offer clues to eta Car's wind geometry and ionization structure. During eta Car's high-excitation state in March 2000, the wind had a fast, dense polar wind, with higher ionization at low latitudes. Older STIS data obtained since 1998 reveal that this global stellar-wind geometry changes during eta Car's 5.5 year cycle, and may suggest that this star s spectroscopic events are shell ejections. Whether or not a companion star triggers these outbursts remains ambiguous. The most dramatic changes in the wind occur at low latitudes, while the dense polar wind remains relatively undisturbed during an event. The apparent stability of the polar wind also supports the inferred bipolar geometry. The wind geometry and its variability have critical implications for understanding the 5.5 year cycle and long-term variability, but do not provide a clear alternative to the binary hypothesis for generating eta Car s X-rays.

  15. Latitude-independent Pc5 Geomagnetic Pulsations Associated With Field Line Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, S.; Kim, K.; Lee, D.; Cattell, C. A.; Andre, M.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2004-12-01

    The latitude-independent Pc5 pulsations with a spectral peak at ˜2.8 mHz were observed with IMAGE and SAMNET magnetometer array in the morning sector (0700-1000 local time) on April 29 (Day 119), 2001. The spectral amplitude had a local peak at ˜67° geomagnetic latitude, where a sudden phase change of ˜180° appeared. A vortical equivalent ionospheric current structure centered at latitude between 67° and 71° was observed during the Pc5 pulsations and the rotational sense of the current vortex was reversed for one cycle of the pulsation. During the interval of the enhancement of the Pc5 pulsations, the POLAR spacecraft in the morning side crossed near the magnetic shell (L ˜ 8) corresponding to the latitude where the spectral amplitude was maximum, and observed ˜2.8 mHz pulsations in the radial electric field and compressional magnetic field components. Since the toroidal mode Alfvén waves in the magnetosphere are characterized by an electric field perturbation in the radial direction, the simultaneous presence of the pulsations in both components indicates that a field line resonance (FLR) was driven by compressional Pc5 pulsations. Using solar wind data, we conformed that the compressional Pc5 pulsations at POLAR occurred during an interval of enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. From the analysis of the ground magnetometer data and POLAR data, we suggest that latitude independent ground magnetic perturbations are caused by the vortical equivalent current generated by FLR-associated field-aligned currents.

  16. Tracking Jupiter’s Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation and Mid-Latitude Zonal Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Fletcher, Leigh N.; DeWitt, Curtis N.; Cosentino, Rick; Richter, Matthew J.; Lacy, John H.

    2014-11-01

    We report on initial results of a long term observational study to track the temporal and 3-dimensional evolution of the Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) and the propagation and evolution of mid-latitude zonal waves in Jupiter’s stratosphere. These wave-driven phenomena affect variations in Jupiter’s vertical and horizontal temperature field, which can be inferred by measuring methane emission in the thermal infrared at 1245 cm-1. Using TEXES, the Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph, mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility we observed high-spectral resolution (R=75,000) scan maps of Jupiter’s mid-latitudes in January and October 2012, February 2013, and February 2014. These initial datasets were taken using several different observing strategies in an attempt to optimize efficiency and mapping accuracy in preparation for our prime study period (2014-2019). We will present the zonally averaged inferred thermal structure over ±30° latitude and between 10 and 0.01 mbar, showing the QQO’s downward progression along with inferred 3-dimensional thermal maps (latitude, longitude, pressure) displaying a multitude of vertically isolated waves and eddies. These results set the stage for an unprecedented dataset that will: 1) significantly improve the determination of the period and vertical descent velocity of Jupiter’s QQO and map its 3-dimensional spatial structure; 2) measure the zonal wavenumbers, vertical wavelengths, zonal group velocities and lifetimes of transient mid-latitude waves that are impossible to obtain from historic mid-infrared imaging datasets due to their lack of vertical resolution; and 3) record the thermal state of Jupiter’s stratosphere in detail prior to, during, and after Juno’s prime mission to assist in analysis of Juno Mission observations from the Waves, JIRAM, and UVS instruments.

  17. Constraining the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes using satellite observations

    DOE PAGES

    Terai, C. R.; Klein, S. A.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-08-26

    The increase in cloud optical depth with warming at middle and high latitudes is a robust cloud feedback response found across all climate models. This study builds on results that suggest the optical depth response to temperature is timescale invariant for low-level clouds. The timescale invariance allows one to use satellite observations to constrain the models' optical depth feedbacks. Three passive-sensor satellite retrievals are compared against simulations from eight models from the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This study confirms that the low-cloud optical depth response is timescale invariant in the AMIPmore » simulations, generally at latitudes higher than 40°. Compared to satellite estimates, most models overestimate the increase in optical depth with warming at the monthly and interannual timescales. Many models also do not capture the increase in optical depth with estimated inversion strength that is found in all three satellite observations and in previous studies. The discrepancy between models and satellites exists in both hemispheres and in most months of the year. A simple replacement of the models' optical depth sensitivities with the satellites' sensitivities reduces the negative shortwave cloud feedback by at least 50% in the 40°–70°S latitude band and by at least 65% in the 40°–70°N latitude band. Furthermore, based on this analysis of satellite observations, we conclude that the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes is likely too negative in climate models.« less

  18. Constraining the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes using satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Terai, C. R.; Klein, S. A.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-08-26

    The increase in cloud optical depth with warming at middle and high latitudes is a robust cloud feedback response found across all climate models. This study builds on results that suggest the optical depth response to temperature is timescale invariant for low-level clouds. The timescale invariance allows one to use satellite observations to constrain the models' optical depth feedbacks. Three passive-sensor satellite retrievals are compared against simulations from eight models from the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This study confirms that the low-cloud optical depth response is timescale invariant in the AMIP simulations, generally at latitudes higher than 40°. Compared to satellite estimates, most models overestimate the increase in optical depth with warming at the monthly and interannual timescales. Many models also do not capture the increase in optical depth with estimated inversion strength that is found in all three satellite observations and in previous studies. The discrepancy between models and satellites exists in both hemispheres and in most months of the year. A simple replacement of the models' optical depth sensitivities with the satellites' sensitivities reduces the negative shortwave cloud feedback by at least 50% in the 40°–70°S latitude band and by at least 65% in the 40°–70°N latitude band. Furthermore, based on this analysis of satellite observations, we conclude that the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes is likely too negative in climate models.

  19. Climate Effects on High Latitude Daphnia via Food Quality and Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Przytulska, Anna; Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Rautio, Milla; Dufresne, France; Vincent, Warwick F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is proceeding rapidly at high northern latitudes and may have a variety of direct and indirect effects on aquatic food webs. One predicted effect is the potential shift in phytoplankton community structure towards increased cyanobacterial abundance. Given that cyanobacteria are known to be a nutritionally poor food source, we hypothesized that such a shift would reduce the efficiency of feeding and growth of northern zooplankton. To test this hypothesis, we first isolated a clone of Daphnia pulex from a permafrost thaw pond in subarctic Québec, and confirmed that it was triploid but otherwise genetically similar to a diploid, reference clone of the same species isolated from a freshwater pond in southern Québec. We used a controlled flow-through system to investigate the direct effect of temperature and indirect effect of subarctic picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus) on threshold food concentrations and growth rate of the high latitude clone. We also compared the direct effect of temperature on both Daphnia clones feeding on eukaryotic picoplankton (Nannochloropsis). The high latitude clone had a significantly lower food threshold for growth than the temperate clone at both 18 and 26°C, implying adaptation to lower food availability even under warmer conditions. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in the picoeukaryote but not the cyanobacterium, confirming the large difference in food quality. The food threshold for growth of the high latitude Daphnia was 3.7 (18°C) to 4.2 (26°C) times higher when fed Synechococcus versus Nannochloropsis, and there was also a significant negative effect of increased temperature and cyanobacterial food on zooplankton fatty acid content and composition. The combined effect of temperature and food quality on the performance of the high latitude Daphnia was greater than their effects added separately, further indicating the potentially strong indirect effects of climate warming on aquatic food web processes.

  20. Ungulate Reproductive Parameters Track Satellite Observations of Plant Phenology across Latitude and Climatological Regimes.

    PubMed

    Stoner, David C; Sexton, Joseph O; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Bernales, Heather H; Edwards, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climatically-driven plant phenology on mammalian reproduction is one key to predicting species-specific demographic responses to climate change. Large ungulates face their greatest energetic demands from the later stages of pregnancy through weaning, and so in seasonal environments parturition dates should match periods of high primary productivity. Interannual variation in weather influences the quality and timing of forage availability, which can influence neonatal survival. Here, we evaluated macro-scale patterns in reproductive performance of a widely distributed ungulate (mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) across contrasting climatological regimes using satellite-derived indices of primary productivity and plant phenology over eight degrees of latitude (890 km) in the American Southwest. The dataset comprised > 180,000 animal observations taken from 54 populations over eight years (2004-2011). Regionally, both the start and peak of growing season ("Start" and "Peak", respectively) are negatively and significantly correlated with latitude, an unusual pattern stemming from a change in the dominance of spring snowmelt in the north to the influence of the North American Monsoon in the south. Corresponding to the timing and variation in both the Start and Peak, mule deer reproduction was latest, lowest, and most variable at lower latitudes where plant phenology is timed to the onset of monsoonal moisture. Parturition dates closely tracked the growing season across space, lagging behind the Start and preceding the Peak by 27 and 23 days, respectively. Mean juvenile production increased, and variation decreased, with increasing latitude. Temporally, juvenile production was best predicted by primary productivity during summer, which encompassed late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. Our findings offer a parsimonious explanation of two key reproductive parameters in ungulate demography, timing of parturition and mean annual production, across

  1. The Oweniidae (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with the description of two new species of Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844.

    PubMed

    Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan

    2015-09-18

    Study of the Oweniidae specimens (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) stored at the Australian Museum, Sydney and newly collected in August 2013 revealed the presence of three species, namely Galathowenia quelis Capa et al., 2012 and two new species belonging to the genus Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844. Owenia dichotoma n. sp. is characterised by a very short branchial crown of about 1/3 of thoracic length which bears short, dichotomously-branched tentacles provided with the major division close to the base of the crown. Owenia picta n. sp. is characterised by a long branchial crown of about 4/5 of thoracic length provided with no major divisions, ventral pigmentation on thorax and the presence of deep ventro-lateral groove on the first thoracic chaetiger. A key of Owenia species hitherto described or reported in South East Asia and Australasia regions is provided based on characters of the branchial crown.

  2. "Parco Archeologico Storico Naturale delle Chiese Rupestri del Materano": geomorphological fragility and slope instability in a rupestrian-heritage rich area (Basilicata, south Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francioso, R.; Sdao, F.; Tropeano, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research financed a research project about the study and the control of hydrogeological hazard of some sites belonging to the "Parco Archeologico Storico Naturale delle Chiese Rupestri del Materano"; the Park and the old city of Matera ("Sassi di Matera") was inserted in the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1993. The studied sites ("Belvedere Chiese Rupestri" and "Iazzo dell'Ofra" localities) are located along the top of the walls of the deep canyon (locally called "Gravina di Matera" and deeper than 100 m) which characterizes the area. Several valuable medieval rupestrian hand-hewn rock churches and sanctuaries are present along the canyon walls. The canyon cut weak rocks (Plio-Pleistocene calcarenites, in which churches and sanctuaries are excavated) and the underlying well-stratified limestones (Cretaceous calcilutites). Both rocks are abundantly and strongly fractured and disjointed by several different joint sets, and, on the left wall of the "Gravina di Matera" canyon, they are characterized by a mainly dipping-slope attitude. Consequently, rock blocks of different sizes formed (up to some tens of m^3 in volume), and are characterized by low stability condition. The considerable acclivity of the walls and the defects and intense fracturing state of rocks, especially along the edge, cause rapid falls, topples and rockslides of the blocks. This geomorphological fragility, confirmed by wide-spread signs of potential instability and by several rock blocks fell in the stream, causes the diffuse and significant structural-failures processes that involve most of the very fine rupestrian heritages. Our study, after the geological and geomorphological description of the sites and the editing of thematic maps, concentrates on the determination the present-day slope instability conditions. Moreover, the study demonstrated the notable genetic relationship between jointing, slope instability and failure type of carbonate

  3. On the LiDAR contribution for landscape archaeology and palaeoenvironmental studies: the case study of Bosco dell'Incoronata (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, R.; Lanorte, A.; Lasaponara, R.

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on the potential of the latest generation of Airborne laser scanning (ALS) for the detection and the spatial characterization of microtopographic relief linked to ancient landscapes and palaeoenvironmental features. ALS is an optical measurement technique for obtaining high-precision information about the Earth's surface including basic terrain mapping (Digital terrain model, bathymetry, corridor mapping), vegetation cover (forest assessment and inventory), coastal, and urban areas. Recent studies examined the possibility of using ALS in archaeological investigations to identify earthworks, although the ability of ALS measurements in this context has not yet been studied in detail. In this study, the investigations based on ALS survey and aerial photos were carried out for the natural protected area, Bosco dell'Incoronata in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). The investigated area is an important site from the naturalistic, historic and archaeological point of view. It is an ancient lowland forest, still present in the medieval time, which has been characterized by a long and intensive human activity from Neolithic to Middle Ages. The LiDAR based analysis allowed us to identify features not visible from ground or from optical data set because hidden by forest canopy and dense understory. The DTM enabled us to identify some microtopographic relief linked to traces of past landscapes, as in the case of the Cervaro paleaoriverbed. It is quite interesting to note that the river changed many times from North to South side compared to the present stream, and traces of past human activities can be still evident close to the diverse paleaoriverbeds. Nevertheless, intensive and systematic study of the ancient landscapes of the Bosco dell'Incoronata is just beginning and so far questions tend to be raised rather than answered. The current study emphasizes the potential of aerial LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) survey for detecting surface

  4. Investigating fossil hydrothermal systems by means of fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in banded travertine: an example from Castelnuovo dell'Abate (southern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Marco; Boschi, Chiara; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo; Liotta, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    Southern Tuscany (Italy) hosts geothermal anomalies with associated widespread CO2 gas-rich manifestations and active travertine-deposing thermal springs. Geothermal anomalies have been active since the Late Miocene and have led to the formation of widespread Late Miocene-Pleistocene travertine deposits and meso- and epithermal mineralizations. This study investigates the travertine deposit exposed in the Castelnuovo dell'Abate area of southern Tuscany. Here, a fissure-ridge type travertine deposit and its feeding conduits, currently filled with banded calcite veins (i.e. banded travertine), represent a spectacular example of fossil hydrothermal circulation in the peripheral area of the exploited Monte Amiata geothermal field. The Castelnuovo dell'Abate travertine deposit and associated calcite veins were analysed to establish the characteristics of the parent hydrothermal fluids, and the age of this circulation. The focus of the study was on fluid inclusions, rarely considered in travertine studies, but able to provide direct information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the original fluid. Uranium-thorium geochronological data provided further constraints on the: (1) age of tectonic activity; (2) age of the hydrothermal circulation; and (3) evolution of the Monte Amiata geothermal anomaly. Results indicate that brittle deformation (NW- and SE-trending normal to oblique-slip faults) was active during at least the Middle Pleistocene and controlled a hydrothermal circulation mainly characterized by fluids of meteoric origin, and as old as 300-350 ka. This is the oldest circulation documented to date in the Monte Amiata area. The fluid chemical composition is comparable to that of fluids currently exploited in the shallow reservoir of the Monte Amiata geothermal field, therefore suggesting that fluid composition has not changed substantially over time. These fluids, however, have cooled by about 70 °C in the last 300-350 ka, corresponding to a cooling rate

  5. Upper mesospheric lunar tides over middle and high latitudes during sudden stratospheric warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Hoffmann, P.; Pedatella, N. M.; Matthias, V.; Stober, G.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years there have been a series of reported ground- and satellite-based observations of lunar tide signatures in the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere/thermosphere around sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. This lower atmosphere/ionosphere coupling has been suggested to be via the E region dynamo. In this work we present the results of analyzing 6 years of hourly upper mesospheric winds from specular meteor radars over a midlatitude (54°N) station and a high latitude (69°N) station. Instead of correlating our results with typical definitions of SSWs, we use the definition of polar vortex weaking (PVW) used by Zhang and Forbes. This definition provides a better representation of the strength in middle atmospheric dynamics that should be responsible for the waves propagating to the E region. We have performed a wave decomposition on hourly wind data in 21 day segments, shifted by 1 day. In addition to the radar wind data, the analysis has been applied to simulations from Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model Extended version and the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model. Our results indicate that the semidiurnal lunar tide (M2) enhances in northern hemispheric winter months, over both middle and high latitudes. The time and magnitude of M2 are highly correlated with the time and associated zonal wind of PVW. At middle/high latitudes, M2 in the upper mesosphere occurs after/before the PVW. At both latitudes, the maximum amplitude of M2 is directly proportional to the strength of PVW westward wind. We have found that M2 amplitudes could be comparable to semidiurnal solar tide amplitudes, particularly around PVW and equinoxes. Besides these general results, we have also found peculiarities in some events, particularly at high latitudes. These peculiarities point to the need of considering the longitudinal features of the polar stratosphere and the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere regions. For

  6. Toward improving the representation of the water cycle at High Northern Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahoz, William; Svendby, Tove; Hamer, Paul; Blyverket, Jostein; Kristiansen, Jørn; Luijting, Hanneke

    2016-04-01

    The rapid warming at northern latitude regions in recent decades has resulted in a lengthening of the growing season, greater photosynthetic activity and enhanced carbon sequestration by the ecosystem. These changes are likely to intensify summer droughts, tree mortality and wildfires. A potential major climate change feedback is the release of carbon-bearing compounds from soil thawing. These changes make it important to have information on the land surface (soil moisture and temperature) at high northern latitude regions. The availability of soil moisture measurements from several satellite platforms provides an opportunity to address issues associated with the effects of climate change, e.g., assessing multi-decadal links between increasing temperatures, snow cover, soil moisture variability and vegetation dynamics. The relatively poor information on water cycle parameters for biomes at northern high latitudes make it important that efforts are expended on improving the representation of the water cycle at these latitudes. In a collaboration between NILU and Met Norway, we evaluate the soil moisture observations over Norway from the ESA satellite SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) using in situ ground based soil moisture measurements, with reference to drought and flood episodes. We will use data assimilation of the quality-controlled SMOS soil moisture observations into a land surface model and a numerical weather prediction model to assess the added value from satellite observations of soil moisture for improving the representation of the water cycle at high northern latitudes. This presentation provides first results from this work. We discuss the evaluation of SMOS soil moisture data (and from other satellites) against ground-based in situ data over Norway; the performance of the SMOS soil moisture data for selected drought and flood conditions over Norway; and the first results from data assimilation experiments with land surface models and numerical

  7. A High-Latitude Winter Continental Low Cloud Feedback Suppresses Arctic Air Formation in Warmer Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, T.; Tziperman, E.; Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude continents have warmed much more rapidly in recent decades than the rest of the globe, especially in winter, and the maintenance of warm, frost-free conditions in continental interiors in winter has been a long-standing problem of past equable climates. It has also been found that the high-latitude lapse rate feedback plays an important role in Arctic amplification of climate change in climate model simulations, but we have little understanding of why lapse rates at high latitudes change so strongly with warming. To better understand these problems, we study Arctic air formation - the process by which a high-latitude maritime air mass is advected over a continent during polar night, cooled at the surface by radiation, and transformed into a much colder continental polar air mass - and its sensitivity to climate warming. We use a single-column version of the WRF model to conduct two-week simulations of the cooling process across a wide range of initial temperature profiles and microphysics schemes, and find that a low cloud feedback suppresses Arctic air formation in warmer climates. This cloud feedback consists of an increase in low cloud amount with warming, which shields the surface from radiative cooling, and increases the continental surface air temperature by roughly two degrees for each degree increase of the initial maritime surface air temperature. The time it takes for the surface air temperature to drop below freezing increases nonlinearly to ~10 days for initial maritime surface air temperatures of 20 oC. Given that this is about the time it takes an air mass starting over the Pacific to traverse the north American continent, this suggests that optically thick stratus cloud decks could help to maintain frost-free winter continental interiors in equable climates. We find that CMIP5 climate model runs show large increases in cloud water path and surface cloud longwave forcing in warmer climates, consistent with the proposed low-cloud feedback

  8. Behavior of zonal ion drifts in low and middle latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Sasmita

    The Earth's environment consists of a neutral and an ionized atmosphere. The neutral atmosphere can be divided by its temperature profile into the troposphere (0-12 km), the stratosphere (12-45 km), the mesosphere (45-85 km), the thermosphere (85-1000 km) and exosphere (>1000 km). The Earth's ionized atmosphere is typically divided by density and composition into the ionosphere (70-1000 km), the plasmasphere (1000 km to 4 Re for MLAT less than 60°), and the magnetosphere extending to nearly 8 Re on the dayside and to approximately 1000 Re on the nightside. The Earth's ionosphere does not get direct energy from the solar wind because it is shielded by its magnetic field. The region of geospace is dominated by Earth's magnetic field is called the magnetosphere and outermost edge of the magnetosphere, called the magnetopause is maintained by the charged particles from the solar wind flowing along the boundary. The largest energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere is driven by an electric field directed dawn to dusk. This limited study shows that during large magnetic storms, ion drifts driven by the magnetosphere penetrate to latitudes as low as the dip equator on the dusk side and extend a few degrees equatorward of the auroral zone on the dawn side. A description of the evolution of the auroral precipitation and the zonal ion drifts at high latitudes during times of extreme storm activity is produced by applying some quantitative definitions that allow us to identify the expansion and penetration of the high-latitude zonal ion drifts to middle and low latitudes in the ionosphere. Times are identified when ion drifts driven from the magnetosphere exist at latitudes inside the plasmasphere and when regions below the auroral zone may be influenced by a disturbance dynamo. The resolved boundaries in the ion drifts and the electron precipitation allow us to distinguish penetration events from sub-auroral polarization fields. This limited study also shows

  9. High and Low Latitude types of the Downstream Influences of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J.

    2013-12-01

    Using reanalysis data, we find that the downstream-propagating quasi-stationary Rossby wave train associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) generally propagates along a high (low)-latitude pathway during warm (cold) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) boreal winters. Consistent with the different propagation directions of the NAO-related downstream wave train, during the warm (cold) ENSO winters, the NAO is associated with significant 300 hPa geopotential height anomalies over eastern Siberia (the Arabian Sea, the east coast of Asia at around 40N, and the North Pacific), and the near-surface air temperature (SAT) perturbations associated with the NAO over the high latitudes of Asia are relatively strong (weak). Based on these differences, we argue that the NAO has two distinct types of downstream influence: a high-latitude type and a low-latitude type. Furthermore, we argue that the two types of NAO's downstream influence are modulated by the intensity of the subtropical potential vorticity (PV) meridional gradient over Africa. When this gradient is weak (strong), as in the warm (cold) ENSO winters, the NAO's downstream influence tends to be of the high (low)-latitude type. These results are further supported by analysis of intraseasonal NAO events. We separate NAO events into two categories in terms of the intensity of the subtropical PV gradient over Africa. Composites of the NAO events accompanied by a weak (strong) subtropical PV gradient show that the NAO-related downstream wave train tends to propagate along a high (low)-latitude pathway. Fig. 1 Regressed monthly anomalous meridional wind at 300 hPa (V 300hPa, thin contours, interval is 1 m/s) onto the monthly NAO index and the corresponding stationary wave activity fluxes (vectors, unit is m2s-2) during a) the warm ENSO winters and b) cold ENSO winters. Solid (dashed) contours represent positive (negative) values and the zero contours are omitted. The regressed results at the 95% confidence level

  10. A FUSE Survey of Interstellar Molecular Hydrogen toward High-Latitude AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmon, Kristen; Shull, J. Michael; Tumlinson, Jason; Danforth, Charles

    2006-01-01

    We report results from a Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen (H2) along 45 sight lines to AGNs at high Galactic latitudes (b>20deg). Most (39 out of 45) of the sight lines show detectable Galactic H2 absorption from Lyman and Werner bands between 1000 and 1126 Å, with column densities ranging from NH2=1014.17 to 1019.82 cm-2. In the northern Galactic hemisphere, we identify many regions of low NH2 (<=1015 cm-2) between l=60deg and 180° and at b>54deg. These ``H2 holes'' provide valuable, uncontaminated sight lines for extragalactic UV spectroscopy, and a few may be related to the ``Northern Chimney'' (low Na I absorption) and the ``Lockman Hole'' (low NHI). A comparison of high-latitude H2 with 139 OB star sight lines surveyed in the Galactic disk suggests that high-latitude and disk H2 clouds may have different rates of heating, cooling, and UV excitation. For rotational states J=0 and 1, the mean excitation temperature at high latitude, =124+/-8 K, is somewhat higher than that in the Galactic disk, =86+/-20 K. For J>=2, the mean =498+/-28 K, and the column-density ratios, N(3)/N(1), N(4)/N(0), and N(4)/N(2), indicate a comparable degree of UV excitation in the disk and low halo for sight lines with NH2>=1018 cm-2. The distribution of molecular fractions at high latitude shows a transition at lower total hydrogen column density (logNhlH~20.38+/-0.13) than in the Galactic disk (logNdiskH~20.7). If the UV radiation fields are similar in disk and low halo, this suggests an enhanced H2 (dust-catalyzed) formation rate in higher density, compressed clouds, which could be detectable as high-latitude, sheetlike infrared cirrus.

  11. The middle and high latitude winter ionosphere at the Ariel 4 satellite altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulunay, Y. K.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The electron (0+) density variations over the northern and southern winter high latitude ionosphere are comprehensively analyzed using the technique of Brinton et al. (1978). Two-hour Magnetic Local Time (MLT) arithmetic means of electron densities are studied in terms of invariant magnetic latitude and in terms of magnetic activity as classified by the three-hour planetary magnetic activity index. It is found that the southern hemisphere densities are significantly lower than those in the northern hemisphere. Further, the maximum electron densities observed in the northern hemisphere are located in a MLT range symmetrical about the 14-02 MLT meridian, whereas in the southern hemisphere the maxima are observed about the noon midnight magnetic meridian. A deep localized ionization hole on the nightside of the polar cap is not observed although the polar cavity is apparent.

  12. Polar stratospheric clouds: A high latitude warming mechanism in an ancient greenhouse world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, L. Cirbus; Pollard, D.

    The presence of water vapor clouds in the stratosphere produces warming in excess of tropospheric greenhouse warming, via radiative warming in the lower stratosphere. The stratospheric clouds form only in regions of very low temperature and so the warming produced by the clouds is concentrated in polar winter regions. Results from a paleoclimate modeling study that includes idealized, prescribed polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) show that the clouds cause up to 20°C of warming at high latitude surfaces of the winter hemisphere, with greatest impact in oceanic regions where sea ice is reduced. The modeled temperature response suggests that PSCs may have been a significant climate forcing factor for past time intervals associated with high concentrations of atmospheric methane. The clouds and associated warming may help to explain long-standing discrepancies between model-produced paleotemperatures and geologic proxy temperature interpretations at high latitudes, a persistent problem in studies of ancient greenhouse climates.

  13. Radar sounding evidence for buried glaciers in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars.

    PubMed

    Holt, John W; Safaeinili, Ali; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Head, James W; Phillips, Roger J; Seu, Roberto; Kempf, Scott D; Choudhary, Prateek; Young, Duncan A; Putzig, Nathaniel E; Biccari, Daniela; Gim, Yonggyu

    2008-11-21

    Lobate features abutting massifs and escarpments in the middle latitudes of Mars have been recognized in images for decades, but their true nature has been controversial, with hypotheses of origin such as ice-lubricated debris flows or glaciers covered by a layer of surface debris. These models imply an ice content ranging from minor and interstitial to massive and relatively pure. Soundings of these deposits in the eastern Hellas region by the Shallow Radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal radar properties entirely consistent with massive water ice, supporting the debris-covered glacier hypothesis. The results imply that these glaciers formed in a previous climate conducive to glaciation at middle latitudes. Such features may collectively represent the most extensive nonpolar ice yet recognized on Mars.

  14. Empirical evidence for latitude dependence and asymmetry of geomagnetic spatial variation in mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shikun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xihai; Liu, Daizhi; Wang, Xiqin

    2016-05-01

    Spatiotemporal geomagnetic variation is a significant research topic of geomagnetism and space physics. Generated by convection and flows within the fluid outer core, latitude dependence and asymmetry, as the inherent spatiotemporal properties of geomagnetic field, have been extensively studied. We apply and modify an extension of existing method, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is an efficient tool for modeling the statistical properties of time series. Based on ground magnetic measurement data set in mainland China, first, we find the parameters of HMM can be used as the geomagnetic statistical signature to represent the spatiotemporal geomagnetic variations for each site. The results also support the existence of the geomagnetic latitude dependence more apparently. Furthermore, we provide solid empirical evidence for geomagnetic asymmetry relying on such ground magnetic measurement data set.

  15. High latitude f-region drift studies. Technical report, October 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, B.W.; Buchau, J.; Weber, E.J.; Dozois, C.G.; Bibl, K.

    1986-12-01

    The large-scale, high-latitude ionospheric-convection pattern is driven by the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field with the earth's magnetosphere. Ground-based digital ionosondes, with spaced receiving antennas, have been developed and deployed at the high latitude stations of Thule, Greenland and Goose Bay, Labrador. Results from these stations demonstrate that the ionospheric convection can be measured for the bottomside ionosphere. Data from Thule consistently show the predominant antisunward convection. The data from Goose Bay indicate the sunward return flows of the polar plasma convection and the switch over when the station rotates from the dusk into the dawn cell. These data also illustrate the potential for systematic study of the convection patterns that is possible with a network of ground-based digital ionosondes.

  16. High-Latitude Dust Over the North Atlantic: Inputs from Icelandic Proglacial Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Bullard, Joanna E.; Hodgkins, Richard

    2012-03-01

    Mineral aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere-ocean climate system. Research has focused almost exclusively on sources in low-latitude arid regions, but here we show that there are substantial sources in cold, higher latitudes. A 6-year record of measurements made on Heimaey, an island south of Iceland, reveals frequent dust events with concentrations exceeding 20 micrograms per cubic meter. Much of this potentially iron-rich dust is transported southward and deposited in the North Atlantic. Emissions are highest in spring and spatially and temporally associated with active glacial outwash plains; large dust events appear to be associated with glacial outburst floods. In response to global warming, ice retreat on Iceland and in other glacierized areas is likely to increase dust emissions from these regions.

  17. High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms.

    PubMed

    Prospero, Joseph M; Bullard, Joanna E; Hodgkins, Richard

    2012-03-02

    Mineral aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere-ocean climate system. Research has focused almost exclusively on sources in low-latitude arid regions, but here we show that there are substantial sources in cold, higher latitudes. A 6-year record of measurements made on Heimaey, an island south of Iceland, reveals frequent dust events with concentrations exceeding 20 micrograms per cubic meter. Much of this potentially iron-rich dust is transported southward and deposited in the North Atlantic. Emissions are highest in spring and spatially and temporally associated with active glacial outwash plains; large dust events appear to be associated with glacial outburst floods. In response to global warming, ice retreat on Iceland and in other glacierized areas is likely to increase dust emissions from these regions.

  18. High and Mid-Latitude Wetlands, Climate Change, and Carbon Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy

    2000-01-01

    Pollen and macrofossil stratigraphy from wetlands associated with AMS chronology provides a vegetational and climatic history over thousands of years. From these records we establish a record of climate change which can be compared with independent records of carbon accumulation rates in these same wetlands. In this way, inferences can be made concerning carbon storage during different climatic regimes. One focus of our research has been high-latitude regions such as Alaskan and Siberian tundra, from which we have paleorecords which span the last 10,000 years. We will present records from the Malaspina Glacier region, Alaska and the Pur-Taz region of Western Siberia. A second focus of our research is in mid-latitude eastern North America. We will present paleorecords from wetlands in Vermont, New York, and Virginia showing the relationship between carbon accumulation rates and climatic changes since the late Pleistocene.

  19. Tropical to mid-latitude snow and ice accumulation, flow and glaciation on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, J.W.; Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Hiesinger, H.; Hauber, E.; Carr, M.; Masson, P.; Foing, B.; Hoffmann, H.; Kreslavsky, M.; Werner, S.; Milkovich, S.; Van Gasselt, S.

    2005-01-01

    Images from the Mars Express HRSC (High-Resolution Stereo Camera) of debris aprons at the base of massifs in eastern Hellas reveal numerous concentrically ridged lobate and pitted features and related evidence of extremely ice-rich glacier-like viscous flow and sublimation. Together with new evidence for recent ice-rich rock glaciers at the base of the Olympus Mons scarp superposed on larger Late Amazonian debris-covered piedmont glaciers, we interpret these deposits as evidence for geologically recent and recurring glacial activity in tropical and mid-latitude regions of Mars during periods of increased spin-axis obliquity when polar ice was mobilized and redeposited in microenvironments at lower latitudes. The data indicate that abundant residual ice probably remains in these deposits and that these records of geologically recent climate changes are accessible to future automated and human surface exploration.

  20. E- and F- region incoherent scatter radar spectral measurements at mid and low-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeki, Erhan; Milla, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In this talk we will contrast and compare incoherent scatter radar spectral measurements conducted using the Arecibo, ALTAIR, and Jicamarca incoherent scatter radars at ionospheric heights ranging from E-region into the topside F-region. Arecibo measurements from mid-latitudes exemplify high SNR ISR techniques utilized with large magnetic aspect angles. Low-latitude measurements at ALTAIR and Jicamarca make use of and combine large and small magnetic aspect angle techniques. Examples presented will include both natural and naturally enhanced electron and ion lines detected in the lower F region near the geomagnetic equator as well as the results of search for proton gyro-resonance peaks in the Jicamarca topside spectra.

  1. SAS-2 observations of gamma rays from the galactic plane. [noting longitude and latitude observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary data are given for the SAS-2 high energy galactic gamma ray observation. These data include both latitude and longitude distributions. The longitude distribution shows a high density region. The latitude distributions toward the center and the anti-center are markedly different, the former showing a two-component structure of half-widths of approximately 3 and 6 deg. The energy spectrum in the range 35 to 200 MeV is hard, consistent with cosmic ray interactions with interstellar matter, including neutral pions decay and emission from energetic electron interactions. The data is consistent with an interpretation in terms of the confinement of the cosmic rays in the spiral arms.

  2. Geologic isolation of nuclear waste at high latitudes: the role of ice sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, M.; McIntosh, J.; Iverson, N.; Neuzil, C.E.; Bense, V.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste from the biosphere requires special consideration in countries at high latitudes (>40°N) owing to the possibility of future episodes of continental glaciation (Talbot 1999). It is now widely recognized that Pleistocene continental glaciations have had a profound effect on rates of sediment erosion (Cuffey & Paterson 2010) and deformation including tectonic thrusting (Pedersen 2005) as well as groundwater flow (Person et al. 2007; Lemieux et al. 2008a,b,c). In addition, glacial mechanical loads may have generated anomalous, or fossil, pore pressures within certain clay-rich confining units (e.g. Vinard et al. 2001). Because high-level nuclear wastes must be isolated from the biosphere as long as 1 million years (McMurry et al. 2003), the likelihood of one or more continental ice sheets overrunning high-latitude sites must be considered.

  3. Anomalies of astronomical time-latitude residuals at YAO before Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Vondrák, J.; Su, Y. J.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate optical astrometric observations of variations of the local vertical contain rich geophysical information. These may be used not only in the astronomical research, but also can provide important information for the earthquake forewarning (Li et al. 1978, Zhang 1981, Han et al. 1987, Hu et al. 1989, Hu et al. 2003, Han et al. 2007) . In the paper we analyze astronomical time-latitude residuals observed at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory in 2008ñ2009, and find that significant anomalies appeared before the earthquake of magnitude 8.0 that occurred in Wenchuan on May 12, 2008. The results obtained make us believe that the observed anomalies of time-latitude variations may provide an important warning sign before strong earthquakes and thus deserves further research.

  4. Transpolar arc observation after solar wind entry into the high-latitude magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailyan, B.; Shi, Q. Q.; Kullen, A.; Maggiolo, R.; Zhang, Y.; Fear, R. C.; Zong, Q.-G.; Fu, S. Y.; Gou, X. C.; Cao, X.; Yao, Z. H.; Sun, W. J.; Wei, Y.; Pu, Z. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, Cluster observations have revealed the presence of new regions of solar wind plasma entry at the high-latitude magnetospheric lobes tailward of the cusp region, mostly during periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field. In this study, observations from the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) experiment on board the TIMED spacecraft and Wideband Imaging Camera imager on board the IMAGE satellite are used to investigate a possible link between solar wind entry and the formation of transpolar arcs in the polar cap. We focus on a case when transpolar arc formation was observed twice right after the two solar wind entry events were detected by the Cluster spacecraft. In addition, GUVI and IMAGE observations show a simultaneous occurrence of auroral activity at low and high latitudes after the second entry event, possibly indicating a two-part structure of the continuous band of the transpolar arc.

  5. Long-term observations of the solar wind speed from the high latitude geomagnetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova, Renata; Kozlovsky, Alexander

    Solar wind speed is an important driver of the magnetospheric dynamics. The solar wind high speed streams (HSSs) affects the ionosphere and even the neutral atmosphere. Analysis of the geomagnetic secular variation at polar and auroral latitudes reveals a signal of the HSS as a significant deflection of the observatory annual means in the corresponding secular variation. A major reduction of the horizontal geomagnetic component at auroral latitudes and to a notable strengthening of the vertical component in both polar caps indicates an extreme intensity in the westward substorm auroral electrojet (WEJ) current detected in the strongest HSS years during the declining phase of each solar cycle. The near polar cap boundary observatories in Antarctic show the largest effect. The longest available time series from Godhavn and Sodankyla observatories allows monitoring the WEJ intensity during the last 100 years and makes it possible to associate the WEJ intensity with the extreme HSS.

  6. A Three-Dimensional Look at the High Galactic Latitude Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGehee, Peregrine M.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of and relationship between ISM structures seen at high Galactic latitude is explored with the aid of distances determined from optical reddening profiles obtained from analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR9 photometric catalog. This three-dimensional map contains high latitude molecular clouds, dust associated with intermediate velocity (-100 km/s < vlsr < -30 km/s) HI gas, and the ubiquitous Galactic cirrus. The distances and errors in the distances for the extinction layers due to the presence of interstellar dust are computed via a Monte Carlo algorithm. The reliability of the distance determination method is characterized as a function of the far-IR based extinction values predicted by Schlegel, Finkbeiner, and Davis (1998). The limiting performance of this technique is found in the results for the "blank field" regions defined by A_r < 0.05, whose reddening profiles are dominated by measurement noise and astrophysical scatter.

  7. Tropical to mid-latitude snow and ice accumulation, flow and glaciation on Mars.

    PubMed

    Head, J W; Neukum, G; Jaumann, R; Hiesinger, H; Hauber, E; Carr, M; Masson, P; Foing, B; Hoffmann, H; Kreslavsky, M; Werner, S; Milkovich, S; van Gasselt, S

    2005-03-17

    Images from the Mars Express HRSC (High-Resolution Stereo Camera) of debris aprons at the base of massifs in eastern Hellas reveal numerous concentrically ridged lobate and pitted features and related evidence of extremely ice-rich glacier-like viscous flow and sublimation. Together with new evidence for recent ice-rich rock glaciers at the base of the Olympus Mons scarp superposed on larger Late Amazonian debris-covered piedmont glaciers, we interpret these deposits as evidence for geologically recent and recurring glacial activity in tropical and mid-latitude regions of Mars during periods of increased spin-axis obliquity when polar ice was mobilized and redeposited in microenvironments at lower latitudes. The data indicate that abundant residual ice probably remains in these deposits and that these records of geologically recent climate changes are accessible to future automated and human surface exploration.

  8. Tropospheric ozone and aerosol variability observed at high latitudes with an airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Kooi, Susan A.; Grant, William B.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale summertime (July-August) distributions of O3 and aerosols were observed in a broad range of atmosphere conditions over the tundra, ice, and ocean regions near Alaska in 1988 and over the lowlands and boreal forests of Canada in 1990. The tropospheric O3 budget in the high-latitude regions was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions, and deposition at the surface was found to be the main sink for O3 in the troposphere. Enhanced levels of O3 were observed in plumes from fires in Alaska and Canada. This paper discusses the large-scale variability of O3 and aerosols observed in the high-latitude regions during these field experiments.

  9. Effect of sudden solar wind dynamic pressure changes at subauroral latitudes: Change in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Le, G.; Russell, C.T.; Petrinec, S.M.; Ginskey, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The observations obtained during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) from the magnetometers of the IGS network extending from Cambridge, England, to Tromso, Norway, are used to study the response of subauroral current systems to sudden changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. Observations show that the response is very strong at subauroral latitudes. The preliminary response in the H component is a brief, small increase in the dayside moring sector and a decrease in the afternoon and night sectors. The main response in the horizontal field (the H and D components) is toward the pole except in the dayside morning sector. The inferred ionospheric current is mainly a circulatory system flowing counterclockwise when viewed form the north pole everywhere at subauroral latitudes except the dayside morning sector. 29 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Ionospheric frequency spread and its relationship with range spread in mid-latitude regions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, G.G. )

    1991-06-01

    The distinction between range spread and frequency spread as seen on mid-latitude ionograms is discussed. A classification of these two types of spread F is proposed in terms of different arrangements of the duplicate traces which provide the basic trace structures of mid-latitude spread F ionograms. Experimental results are presented to support the idea that frequency spread results from multiple ray paths (associated with a shallow ripple structure in the isoionic contours) close to the direction of the zenith position, so that each ray path has a range approximately equal to that of its neighbor. Furthermore, a horizontal gradient of maximum electron density is an additional requirement to create frequency spread. Atmospheric conditions (involving ionospheric F{sub 2} region heights and upper atmosphere neutral particle densities) which seem to favor the generation of frequency spread are discussed.

  11. Moisture transports and budgets of 'moisture bursts'. [of oceanic areas of tropical and subtropical latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. H.; Mcguirk, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses moisture fluxes and budgets associated with a pair of 'moisture bursts' in the eastern North Pacific Ocean area, described by Smith et al. (1985). The moisture fluxes were calculated using data obtained during the first Special Observing Period (SOP-1) of the FGGE. The area specifically examined extended from the equator to the latitude 20 deg N and from longitude 180 deg to 100 deg W, with concentration on the region south and southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. From the comparison of the calculations based on dropwindsonde and radiosonde data and reports from commercial and military aircraft, it is concluded that the calculations of water vapor flow across latitude lines probably provide a fair representation of reality, especially when based on the dropwindsonde data. However, water vapor flow out of small volumes is not well represented by the results from either data.

  12. Antagonistic interaction networks are structured independently of latitude and host guild.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rebecca J; Gripenberg, Sofia; Lewis, Owen T; Roslin, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    An increase in species richness with decreasing latitude is a prominent pattern in nature. However, it remains unclear whether there are corresponding latitudinal gradients in the properties of ecological interaction networks. We investigated the structure of 216 quantitative antagonistic networks comprising insect hosts and their parasitoids, drawn from 28 studies from the High Arctic to the tropics. Key metrics of network structure were strongly affected by the size of the interaction matrix (i.e. the total number of interactions documented between individuals) and by the taxonomic diversity of the host taxa involved. After controlling for these sampling effects, quantitative networks showed no consistent structural patterns across latitude and host guilds, suggesting that there may be basic rules for how sets of antagonists interact with resource species. Furthermore, the strong association between network size and structure implies that many apparent spatial and temporal variations in network structure may prove to be artefacts.

  13. An Investigation of the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer at Mid-Altitudes in the Cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael O.; Avanov, Levon A.

    2006-01-01

    We have begun an investigation of the nature of the low-latitude boundary layer in the mid-altitude cusp region using data from the Polar spacecraft. This region has been routinely sampled for about three months each year for the periods 1999-2001 and 2004-2006. The low-to-mid-energy ion instruments frequently observed dense, magnetosheath-like plasma deep (in terms of distance from the magnetopause and in invariant latitude) in the magnetosphere. We seek to understand the morphology of the LLBL as it projects from the sub-solar region into the cusp and determine the influences on this morphology. An initial survey of the data is ongoing and we present here an overview of our intended study and some preliminary results.

  14. Model of Semidiurnal Pseudo Tide in the High-Latitude Upper Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talaat, E. R.; Mayr, H. G.

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical results for the m = 1 meridional winds of semi diurnal oscillations in the high-latitude upper mesosphere, which are generated in the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) without solar excitations of the tides. Identified with heuristic computer runs, the pseudo tides attain amplitudes that are, at times, as large as the non-migrating tides produced with standard solar forcing. Under the influence of parameterized gravity waves, the nonlinear NSM generates internal oscillations like the quasi-biennial oscillation, that are produced with periods favored by the dynamical properties of the system. The Coriolis force would favor at polar latitudes the excitation of the 12-hour periodicity. This oscillation may help explain the large non-migrating semidiurnal tides that are observed in the region with ground-based and satellite measurements.

  15. Direct observation of closed magnetic flux trapped in the high-latitude magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Fear, R C; Milan, S E; Maggiolo, R; Fazakerley, A N; Dandouras, I; Mende, S B

    2014-12-19

    The structure of Earth's magnetosphere is poorly understood when the interplanetary magnetic field is northward. Under this condition, uncharacteristically energetic plasma is observed in the magnetotail lobes, which is not expected in the textbook model of the magnetosphere. Using satellite observations, we show that these lobe plasma signatures occur on high-latitude magnetic field lines that have been closed by the fundamental plasma process of magnetic reconnection. Previously, it has been suggested that closed flux can become trapped in the lobe and that this plasma-trapping process could explain another poorly understood phenomenon: the presence of auroras at extremely high latitudes, called transpolar arcs. Observations of the aurora at the same time as the lobe plasma signatures reveal the presence of a transpolar arc. The excellent correspondence between the transpolar arc and the trapped closed flux at high altitudes provides very strong evidence of the trapping mechanism as the cause of transpolar arcs.

  16. Multi-Year Lags between Forest Browning and Soil Respiration at High Northern Latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bunn, Andrew G.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2012-11-26

    High-latitude northern ecosystems are experiencing rapid climate changes, and represent a large potential climate feedback because of their high soil carbon densities and shifting disturbance regimes. A significant carbon flow from these ecosystems is soil respiration (RS, the flow of carbon dioxide, generated by plant roots and soil fauna, from the soil surface to atmosphere), and any change in the high-latitude carbon cycle might thus be reflected in RS observed in the field. This study used two variants of a machine-learning algorithm and least squares regression to examine how remotely-sensed canopy greenness (NDVI), climate, and other variables are coupled to annual RS based on 105 observations from 64 circumpolar sites in a global database. The addition of NDVI roughly doubled model performance, with the best-performing models explaining ~62% of observed RS variability

  17. CO J = 3-2 observations of translucent and high-latitude molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Van DDishoeck, E.F.; Phillips, T.G.; Black, J.H.; Gredel, R. Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ European Southern Observatory, Garching )

    1991-01-01

    Measurements were carried out on the CO J = 3-2 emission line at 345 GHz from a number of translucent and high-latitude molecular clouds, as well as on the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines of both the (C-12)O and (C-13)O. It is shown that the physical conditions in the high-latitude clouds are very similar to those in the translucent clouds. The densities derived from measured (C-12)O 1-0/3-2 ratios were often found to be higher than those based on the C2 excitation, while densities derived from measured 3-2/(C-13)O 1-0 ratios were similar to those based on C2. 70 refs.

  18. CO J = 3-2 observations of translucent and high-latitude molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Phillips, T. G.; Black, John H.; Gredel, R.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements were carried out on the CO J = 3-2 emission line at 345 GHz from a number of translucent and high-latitude molecular clouds, as well as on the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines of both the (C-12)O and (C-13)O. It is shown that the physical conditions in the high-latitude clouds are very similar to those in the translucent clouds. The densities derived from measured (C-12)O 1-0/3-2 ratios were often found to be higher than those based on the C2 excitation, while densities derived from measured 3-2/(C-13)O 1-0 ratios were similar to those based on C2.

  19. HF Radar Observations of Space Weather Effects in the Low and Mid-latitude Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menk, F. W.

    2015-12-01

    The ionosphere is dynamically coupled to the magnetosphere and hence diurnal and seasonal processes in the ionosphere are strongly influenced by space weather effects. These may vary the electron density distribution and cause changes in the reflection and absorption of HF radio signals. Other consequences include the formation of enhanced convective flows and irregularity features which may contribute to Doppler clutter. While there has been much discussion on the ionospheric signatures of magnetic storms at high latitudes, this presentation focuses on effects detected using mid- and low-latitude HF radars which examine field lines mapping to the vicinity of the ring current. Characteristic features include travelling ionospheric disturbances, high velocity flows and sustained irregular and quasi-sinusoidal 5 - 20 mHz waves recorded near the plasmapause. Such observations provide new insight on complex M-I coupling dynamics.

  20. Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves, and air-sea feedback in the middle latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankignoul, C.

    1985-01-01

    Current analytical models for large-scale air-sea interactions in the middle latitudes are reviewed in terms of known sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The scales and strength of different atmospheric forcing mechanisms are discussed, along with the damping and feedback processes controlling the evolution of the SST. Difficulties with effective SST modeling are described in terms of the techniques and results of case studies, numerical simulations of mixed-layer variability and statistical modeling. The relationship between SST and diabatic heating anomalies is considered and a linear model is developed for the response of the stationary atmosphere to the air-sea feedback. The results obtained with linear wave models are compared with the linear model results. Finally, sample data are presented from experiments with general circulation models into which specific SST anomaly data for the middle latitudes were introduced.

  1. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna.

  2. The influence of geomagnetic activity on mesospheric summer echoes in middle and polar latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, O.; Bremer, J.

    2009-02-01

    The dependence of mesospheric VHF radar echoes during summer months on geomagnetic activity has been investigated with observation data of the OSWIN radar in Kühlungsborn (54° N) and of the ALWIN radar in Andenes (69° N). Using daily mean values of VHF radar echoes and of geomagnetic activity indices in superimposed epoch analyses, the comparison of both data sets shows in general stronger radar echoes on the day of the maximum geomagnetic activity, the maximum value one day after the geomagnetic disturbance, and enhanced radar echoes also on the following 2-3 days. This phenomenon is observed at middle and polar latitudes and can be explained by precipitating particle fluxes during the ionospheric post storm effect. At polar latitudes, the radar echoes decrease however during and one day after very strong geomagnetic disturbances. The possible reason of this surprising effect is discussed.

  3. Improvement of Accuracy of Proper Motions of Hipparcos Catalogue Stars Using Optical Latitude Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damljanovic, G.

    2009-09-01

    Commission 19 (Earth Rotation) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) established the Working Group on Earth Rotation in the Hipparcos Reference Frame (WG ERHRF) in 1995 to collect the optical observations of latitude and universal time variations, made during 1899.7 -- 1992.0 in line with the Earth orientation programmes (to derive Earth Orientation Parameters -- EOP), with Dr. Jan Vondrák (Astronomical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague) as the head of WG ERHRF. We participated in this international project using Belgrade Visual Zenith -- Telescope (BLZ) latitude data for the period 1949.0 -- 1986.0, after a new reduction of BLZ data made in my MSc thesis, finished in 1997 at the Faculty of Mathematics of University of Belgrade. Dr. Vondrák collected 4.4 million optical observations of latitude/universal time variations made at 33 observatories. The data were used for the EOP investigations, Hipparcos satellite Catalogue -- radio sources connection, etc. Nowadays, it is customary to correct the positions and proper motions of stars of Hipparcos Catalogue (as an optical reference frame) using ground -- based observations of some Hipparcos stars. In this PhD thesis we use the latitude observations made with several types of classical astrometric instruments: visual (ZT) and floating zenith -- telescope (FZT), visual zenith tube (VZT) and photographic zenith tube (PZT); 26 different instruments located at many observatories all over the world (used in the programs of monitoring the Earth orientation during the 20th century). We received the data from Dr. Vondrák via private communication. The observatories and instruments are: International Latitude Service -- ILS (Carloforte -- CA ZT, Cincinnati -- CI ZT, Gaithersburg -- GT ZT, Kitab -- KZ ZT, Mizusawa -- MZZ ZT, Tschardjui -- TS ZT and Ukiah -- UK ZT), Belgrade (BLZ ZT), Blagoveschtschensk (BK ZT), Irkutsk (IRZ ZT), Poltava (POL ZT), Pulkovo (PU and PUZ ZT), Varsovie (VJZ ZT

  4. Characteristics of High-latitude and Equatorial Ionospheric Scintillation of GNSS Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.; Jiao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, several years of multi-constellation global navigation satellite scintillation data collected at Alaska, Peru, and Ascension Island are analyzed to characterize scintillation features observed at high latitude and equatorial locations during the current solar maximum. Recognizing that strong scintillation data are often lost due to the lack of robustness in conventional GPS receivers used for ionosphere scintillation monitoring (ISM), an autonomous event driven scintillation data collection system using software-defined raw RF sampling devices have been developed deployed at a number of strategically selected high latitude and equatorial locations since 2009. This unique scintillation data recording system is triggered by indicators computed from a continuously operating ISM receiver and the raw RF data is post processed using advanced receiver signal processing algorithms designed to minimize carrier phase cycle slips and loss of lock of signals during strong scintillations. Based on scintillation events extracted from the raw data, several statistical distributions are established to characterize the intensity, duration and occurrence frequency of scintillation. Results confirm that scintillation at low latitudes is generally more intense and longer lasting, while high-latitude scintillation is milder and usually dominated by phase fluctuations. Results also reveal the impacts of solar activity, geomagnetic activity and seasons on scintillation in different areas. Combining measurements from a co-located geo-magnetometer and corresponding global geomagnetic activities, qualitative and quantitative correlations between scintillation and both local and global geomagnetic activities have been obtained. Results show that in Alaska, the occurrence frequency and intensity of scintillation, especially phase fluctuations, have strong correlations with geomagnetic field intensity disturbances, while in equatorial stations, the correlation is not obvious.

  5. Analysis of low latitude Noctilucent Cloud occurrences using satellite data and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; Rong, P.; Hervig, M. E.; Bailey, S. M.; Gumbel, J.; Lambert, A.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous NLC sightings have occurred in recent years at latitudes as low as ~ 40N in the skies over Chicago, Illinois, Boulder, Colorado, Omaha, Nebraska, Logan, Utah, Seattle, Washington, Calar Alto, Spain and Paris, France. While no confirming evidence has come forth thus far, such sightings raise the natural question about whether there are systematic NLC increases occurring at these low latitudes. This question is investigated using observations of temperature made by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite over the 2002 to 2011 time period, a 7-year water vapor climatology developed from data collected by the MLS instrument on the Aura satellite for 2005 to 2011, and Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) measurements made by the OSIRIS instrument on the Odin satellite for the 2002 to 2011 period. These data are used in conjunction with a 0-D thermodynamic equilibrium model [Hervig et al., 2009] that assumes mesospheric ice is in equilibrium with available water vapor. The 0-D model has proven to be effective in reproducing variations of the observed ice mass density, ice layer centroid height [Russell et al., 2010], and daily PMC occurrence frequency on intra-seasonal scales. Inter-annual and decadal scale variations in the northern PMC season are examined in this paper. All analyses were performed on the 0.00464 hPa surface or ~ 84 km, which is the northern hemisphere mean cloud height. Both MLS 0-D and OSIRIS measured PMCs agree well with the SABER 0-D results for 2005 to 2011. Results show a statistically significant upward trend in the number of 0-D derived PMCs per season in the latitude range 40-55N for 2002 - 201l. The long-term increases in cloud number are accompanied by temperature decreases over the same time period. Analysis of temperature and cloud number anomaly data indicates that the low latitude cloud number changes are driven by temperature. Solar cycle effects have not yet been considered in this analysis.

  6. Widespread persistent near-surface ozone depletion at northern high latitudes in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Wang, Yuhang; Chance, Kelly; Browell, Edward V.; Ridley, Brian A.; Atlas, Elliot L.

    2003-12-01

    Springtime near-surface ozone depletion has been observed at northern high latitudes. Due to limited observations, the spatial and temporal extent of low O3 concentrations near the surface is still unknown. A regional 3-D chemistry and transport model is applied to simulate surface O3 depletion catalyzed by bromine radicals at northern high latitudes in March and April 2000. Satellite observations of BrO column by the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) were processed to specify the BrO concentrations in the lower troposphere. In view of the GOME measurement and model uncertainties, the model results show an adequate agreement with the O3 depletion events observed at two surface sites, Alert, Canada (82.5°N, 62.3°W) and Barrow, Alaska (71.3°N, 156.6°W), and by airborne in situ and DIAL instrument during the TOPSE experiments at northern high latitudes. Low O3 events at Alert appear to be mostly driven by transport of O3-poor air from high BrO regions. Model results indicate that low O3 concentrations (<20 ppbv) near the surface cover ~60% of the northern high latitudes and that the depleted O3 concentrations (<10 ppbv) cover ~20% of the region in April. The high BrO events tend to be large-scale and persistent (1-2 weeks). We find that they are correlated with low temperature, a condition conducive for heterogeneous reactions on frozen snow or aerosol surfaces.

  7. Synoptic-scale circulation patterns during summer derived from tree rings in mid-latitude Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seim, Andrea; Schultz, Johannes A.; Leland, Caroline; Davi, Nicole; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Xiaochun; Beck, Christoph; Linderholm, Hans W.; Pederson, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Understanding past and recent climate and atmospheric circulation variability is vital for regions that are affected by climate extremes. In mid-latitude Asia, however, the synoptic climatology is complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dominant synoptic-scale circulation patterns during the summer season using a multi-species tree-ring width (TRW) network comprising 78 sites from mid-latitude Asia. For each TRW chronology, we calculated an atmospheric circulation tree-ring index (ACTI), based on 1000 hPa geopotential height data, to directly link tree growth to 13 summertime weather types and their associated local climate conditions for the period 1871-1993. Using the ACTI, three groups of similarly responding tree-ring sites can be associated with distinct large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns: 1. growth of drought sensitive trees is positively affected by a cyclone over northern Russia; 2. temperature sensitive trees show positive associations to a cyclone over northwestern Russia and an anticyclone over Mongolia; 3. trees at two high elevation sites show positive relations to a zonal cyclone extending from mid-latitude Eurasia to the West Pacific. The identified synoptic-scale circulation patterns showed spatiotemporal variability in their intensity and position, causing temporally varying climate conditions in mid-latitude Asia. Our results highlight that for regions with less pronounced atmospheric action centers during summer such as the occurrence of large-scale cyclones and anticyclones, synoptic-scale circulation patterns can be extracted and linked to the Northern Hemisphere circulation system. Thus, we provide a new and solid envelope for climate studies covering the past to the future.

  8. High-Southern Latitudes Sulfur Cycle in an Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosme, E.; Genthon, C.; Martinerie, P.; Boucher, O.; Pham, M.

    2002-05-01

    This modeling study (Cosme et al., Sulfur cycle in the high southern latitudes in the LMD-ZT General Circulation Model, submitted to JGR) was motivated by the recent publication of annual time-scale records of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in Antarctica, completing the available series of sulfate and methanesulfonic acid (MSA). Sulfur chemistry has been incorporated in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), LMD-ZT, with high resolution and improved physics in the high-southern latitudes. The model predicts the concentration of 6 major sulfur species through emissions, transport, wet and dry deposition and chemistry in both gaseous and aqueous phases. Model results are broadly realistic when compared with measurements in air and snow or ice, and to results of other modeling studies, at high- and mid- southern latitudes. Although not corrected in this work, defects are identified and discussed: Atmospheric MSA concentrations are underestimated and DMSO concentrations are overestimated in summer, reflecting the lack of a DMSO sink leading to MSA; the deposition scheme used in the model may not be adapted to polar regions; DMS concentrations are underestimated in winter, and the model does not adequately reproduces interannual variability. Oceanic DMS sources appear deciding for the description of the sulfur cycle in these regions. The model suggests that ground atmospheric DMS concentrations are higher in winter than in summer, in a large part of central Antarctica. In the high-southern latitudes, high loads of DMS and DMSO are found and the main chemical sink of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is aqueous oxidation by ozone (O3), whereas oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dominates at the global scale.

  9. High-latitude ionospheric drivers and their effects on wind patterns in the thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, L. R.; Ridley, A. J.; Perlongo, N. J.; Mitchell, E. J.; Conde, M.; Hampton, D. L.; Bristow, W. A.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Winds in the thermosphere are highly important for transporting mass, momentum, and energy over the globe. In the high-latitude region, observations show that ion and neutral motions are strongly coupled when the aurora is present but the coupling is less evident when there is no aurora. In this study, we investigate the ability of the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) to simulate the mesoscale wind structure over Alaska during a substorm. Thirteen distinct numerical simulations of a substorm event that occurred between 02:00 and 17:00 Universal Time on 24 November 2012 have been performed. Distinct drivers considered include the Weimer and SuperDARN potential patterns and the OVATION Prime and OVATION-SME auroral models. The effects of the boundary between the neutral wind dynamo calculation and the high-latitude imposed electric potential were also considered. Neutral wind velocities and thermospheric temperatures measured by the Scanning Doppler Imager instruments located at three locations in Alaska were compared to GITM simulation results, and electron densities within GITM were compared to data from the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar. It was found that the different drivers used between multiple simulations lead to various amounts of momentum coupling within the simulation, affecting the accuracy of the modeled neutral and ion flow patterns and the strength of electron precipitation at high latitudes. This affirms that better observations of auroral precipitation and electric fields are required to accurately understand and consistently reproduce the mesoscale neutral wind flow patterns and temperature structure in the high-latitude thermosphere.

  10. Impacts of high-latitude volcanic eruptions on ENSO and AMOC

    PubMed Central

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Chafik, Leon; Caballero, Rodrigo; Battisti, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Large volcanic eruptions can have major impacts on global climate, affecting both atmospheric and ocean circulation through changes in atmospheric chemical composition and optical properties. The residence time of volcanic aerosol from strong eruptions is roughly 2–3 y. Attention has consequently focused on their short-term impacts, whereas the long-term, ocean-mediated response has not been well studied. Most studies have focused on tropical eruptions; high-latitude eruptions have drawn less attention because their impacts are thought to be merely hemispheric rather than global. No study to date has investigated the long-term effects of high-latitude eruptions. Here, we use a climate model to show that large summer high-latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere cause strong hemispheric cooling, which could induce an El Niño-like anomaly, in the equatorial Pacific during the first 8–9 mo after the start of the eruption. The hemispherically asymmetric cooling shifts the Intertropical Convergence Zone southward, triggering a weakening of the trade winds over the western and central equatorial Pacific that favors the development of an El Niño-like anomaly. In the model used here, the specified high-latitude eruption also leads to a strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in the first 25 y after the eruption, followed by a weakening lasting at least 35 y. The long-lived changes in the AMOC strength also alter the variability of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). PMID:26504201

  11. Impacts of high-latitude volcanic eruptions on ENSO and AMOC.

    PubMed

    Pausata, Francesco S R; Chafik, Leon; Caballero, Rodrigo; Battisti, David S

    2015-11-10

    Large volcanic eruptions can have major impacts on global climate, affecting both atmospheric and ocean circulation through changes in atmospheric chemical composition and optical properties. The residence time of volcanic aerosol from strong eruptions is roughly 2-3 y. Attention has consequently focused on their short-term impacts, whereas the long-term, ocean-mediated response has not been well studied. Most studies have focused on tropical eruptions; high-latitude eruptions have drawn less attention because their impacts are thought to be merely hemispheric rather than global. No study to date has investigated the long-term effects of high-latitude eruptions. Here, we use a climate model to show that large summer high-latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere cause strong hemispheric cooling, which could induce an El Niño-like anomaly, in the equatorial Pacific during the first 8-9 mo after the start of the eruption. The hemispherically asymmetric cooling shifts the Intertropical Convergence Zone southward, triggering a weakening of the trade winds over the western and central equatorial Pacific that favors the development of an El Niño-like anomaly. In the model used here, the specified high-latitude eruption also leads to a strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in the first 25 y after the eruption, followed by a weakening lasting at least 35 y. The long-lived changes in the AMOC strength also alter the variability of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  12. Empirical model of plasma convection at latitudes of the main ionization trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, V. M.

    1984-06-01

    The proposed empirical model is based on measurements of plasma drift velocity using the short-baseline diversity reception technique at Zhigansk (L = 4) and Iakutsk (L = 3). Results obtained with the model indicate that the principal mechanism for the formation of the main trough is weak plasma convection at subauroral latitudes in conditions of the absence of ionization sources and the 'impoverishment' of F-region plasma due to the usual recombination processes.

  13. Why Do Model Tropical Cyclones Intensify More Rapidly at Low Latitudes?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    radial gradient above the boundary layer at the lower latitude. These differences, in conjunction with the convectively induced convergence of absolute...These differences in conjunction with the convectively induced convergence of absolute angular momentum, greatly surpass the effects of rotational...similar to that of DeMaria and Pickle (1988), but formulated in s coordinates and with a different repre- sentation of deep convection . In the first

  14. Local genetic adaptation generates latitude-specific effects of warming on predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    De Block, Marjan; Pauwels, Kevin; Van Den Broeck, Maarten; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2013-03-01

    Temperature effects on predator-prey interactions are fundamental to better understand the effects of global warming. Previous studies never considered local adaptation of both predators and prey at different latitudes, and ignored the novel population combinations of the same predator-prey species system that may arise because of northward dispersal. We set up a common garden warming experiment to study predator-prey interactions between Ischnura elegans damselfly predators and Daphnia magna zooplankton prey from three source latitudes spanning >1500 km. Damselfly foraging rates showed thermal plasticity and strong latitudinal differences consistent with adaptation to local time constraints. Relative survival was higher at 24 °C than at 20 °C in southern Daphnia and higher at 20 °C than at 24 °C, in northern Daphnia indicating local thermal adaptation of the Daphnia prey. Yet, this thermal advantage disappeared when they were confronted with the damselfly predators of the same latitude, reflecting also a signal of local thermal adaptation in the damselfly predators. Our results further suggest the invasion success of northward moving predators as well as prey to be latitude-specific. We advocate the novel common garden experimental approach using predators and prey obtained from natural temperature gradients spanning the predicted temperature increase in the northern populations as a powerful approach to gain mechanistic insights into how community modules will be affected by global warming. It can be used as a space-for-time substitution to inform how predator-prey interaction may gradually evolve to long-term warming.

  15. An analysis on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth using transionospheric VHF signals

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Zhen; Roussel-dupre, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An analysis was perfonned on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth (Fcoh) using transionospheric VHF signal data. The data include 1062 events spanning from November 1997 to June 2002. Each event records FORTE satellite received VHF signals from LAPP located at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Fcohs were derived to study scintillation characteristics on diurnal and seasonal variations, as well as changes due to solar and geomagnetic activities. Comparisons to the VHFIUHF coherence frequency bandwidth studies previously reported at equatorial and mid-latitude regions are made using a 4th power frequency dependence relationship. Furthennore, a wideband ionospheric scintillation model, WBMOD, was used to estimate Fcohs and compared with our VHF Fcoh values. Our analysis indicates mid-latitude scintillation characteristics that are not previously revealed. At the VHF bottom frequency range (3035 MHz), distinguished smaller Fcohs are found in time period from sunset to midnight, in wann season from May to August, and in low solar activity years. The effects of geomagnetic storm activity on Fcoh are characterized by a sudden transition at a Kp index of 50-60. Comparisons with median Fcohs estimated from other studies validated our VHF Fcohs for daytime while an order of magnitude larger Fcohs are found for nighttime, implying a time-dependent issue in applying the 4th order power relationship. Furthermore, comparisons with WBMOD-estimated Fcohs indicated generally matched median scintillation level estimates while differences do exist for those events undergoing high geomagnetic stonn activity which may imply underestimates of scintillation level by the WBMOD in the mid-latitude regions.

  16. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Ivany, Linda C.; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sijp, Willem P.; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10–17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570

  17. Long-term trends in the East Australian Current separation latitude and eddy driven transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetina-Heredia, P.; Roughan, M.; van Sebille, E.; Coleman, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    An observed warming of the Tasman Sea in recent decades has been linked to a poleward shift of the maximum wind stress curl, and a strengthening of the poleward flow along the coast of southeastern Australia. However, changes in the East Australian Current (EAC) separation latitude, as well as in the contribution of the EAC, the EAC extension and its eddy field to the total southward transport due to such a strengthening remain unknown. This study uses 30 years (1980-2010) of the Ocean Forecast for the Earth Simulator (OFES) sea surface height and velocity outputs to obtain a three decade long-time series of (i) the EAC separation latitude, (ii) the southward transport along the coast of southeastern Australia (28°S-39°S), and (iii) the southward transport across the EAC separation latitude. A Lagrangian approach is implemented and the spin parameter Ω is used to provide a quantitative distinction between the transports occurring outside and inside (cyclonic and anticyclonic) eddies. Significant positive trends of the low pass southward transports indicate that the intensification of the poleward flow has occurred both within the EAC and in the EAC extension. In addition, a significant increase in southward transport inside and outside eddies is found. Importantly, the contribution of eddy driven transport has a large temporal variability and shows a sharp increase from 2005 onward. Finally our results show that the EAC has not penetrated further south but it has separated more frequently at the southernmost latitudes within the region where it typically turns eastward.

  18. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  19. Changes in the High-latitude Ocean as Possible Causes of Atmospheric CO2 Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegenthaler, U.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements on air enclosed in old polar ice have indicated that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was ca. 50 to 70 ppm lower in late glacial times than during the Holocene. Similar measurements performed on samples from a Greenland ice core, dating ca. 30,000 to 40,000 B.P., and have yielded evidence of several CO2 oscillations with an amplitude of ca. 50 ppm. Each change lasted on the order of a few centuries. A mechanism by which circulation changes in the high-latitude ocean could lead to rapid variations in atmospheric CO2 is proposed. In the Antarctic Ocean a slowing down of the vertical mixing would imply a smaller upward flux of sigma CO2 and nutrients. Assuming constant productivity, sigma CO2 and nutrients would be more completely used which would imply lower CO2 in these high-latitude surface waters. In areas with a warm surface, a slowing down of the circulation would not have a direct impact on CO2 because productivity would automatically decrease by the same factor as the upwelling rate of nutrients. Studies with a simple box model of the ocean-atmosphere system suggest that a suddent decrease by a factor of 2 of the water exchange between the surface and deep sea in high latitudes could lead to a CO2 decrease of ca. 40 to 50 ppm with a time constant of ca. 200 years. Deep-sea sediment studies indicate rapid changes in the high-latitude surface conditions of the North Atlantic and the Antarctic Oceans at the end of the last glaciation. Studies of carbon isotope ratios should help ascertain whether this proposed mechanism was indeed responsible for the CO2 variation.

  20. A Comparison of High-Latitude Ionosphere Propagation Predictions from AMBCOM with Measured Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    radar . The point-to-point mode performs raytracing from a transmitter to a receiver and was used for this thesis. RIAYTRA co,-,putes grokil times... RADAR C and AMBCOM....... 9 3. Thc Naval Postgraduate School Studies ......................... 9 II. THE AMBIENT COMMUNICATIONS MO0DEL (AMBCOM...the transpolar path such as the a communications blackout on 12 November 1986. [Ref. 11] 2. Hi2h-Latitude HF Predictions From RADAR C and AMBCOM

  1. Ionospheric effects of the March 13, 1989, magnetic storm at low and equatorial latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, I.S.; De Paula, E.R.; Abdu, M.A.; Trivedi, N.B. ); Greenspan, M.E. )

    1991-08-01

    The great geomagnetic storm of March 13, 1989 caused severely anomalous behavior in the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere in the Brazilian longitude sector. The ionograms over Fortaleza indicated F region upward plasma drifts exceeding 200 m s{sup {minus}1} at 1,830 LT as compared to normal values of 40 m s{sup {minus}1} for this epoch. Large negative phases were observed in foF2 over Fortaleza and Cachoeira Paulista and in total electron content measured over Sao Jose dos Campos. The equatorial ionization anomaly was totally absent either because of its anomalous expansion to higher latitudes or because of inhibition of its development on the two nights following the storm. Many anomalous variations in F region peak density and height, occurring simultaneously with sharp variations on H component of magnetic field over Fortaleza and with auroral substorms, give strong evidence of penetration of magnetospheric electric fields to equatorial and low latitudes. Auroral type sporadic E and night E layers are observed after 1,830 LT over Cachoeira Paulista, the latter showing peak electron density of about 6 {times} 10{sup 4} el cm{sup {minus}3}, therefore comparable to the E layer peak density in the morning hours at that station. The Fortaleza ionograms show the presence of the F1 layer at night, a phenomenon that has never been observed over our two stations before. The role played by electric fields penetrating from high to low latitudes, particle precipitation, and composition changes in explaining the observations is discussed.

  2. High latitude cusp signature observations for southward IMF B sub Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Per

    1993-03-01

    High latitude coherent and incoherent radar systems have given much new information about the physical processes at auroral latitudes. This report presents observational features of the Cusp, situated close to magnetic noon at 70-75 degrees inv. latitude, when the Interplanetary Magnetic Field of the Solar Wind is southward and staying southward for more than half a day. For this condition, the observations of the convectional flow pattern comply with the two-cell model of the global convectional flow at auroral and polar cap latitudes. During moderate disturbed magnetic conditions, the temporal extent of the Cusp can be defined by an increased F-region electron density, while the E-region density decreases or stays constant for mostly northward convectional flow in the magnetic noon sector. The temporal extent of this condition is observed to be up to two hours. When the Cusp is overhead of the radars in Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland, the ionograms show enhanced spread-F condition, a phenomenon associated to electron density enhancements in a turbulent plasma, which flows into the polar cap. Ionogram oblique F-region traces are observed in conjunction with drifting patches. Patches drift through the Cusp region, but they are also observed before and after the defined Cusp and seem not to be confined by the latter. Spectral analysis of F-region electron density variations in the noon sector has been performed. Periods down to the Pc5 range are observed more frequently in the northward convectional flow regime near noon than in the adjacent time sectors. The same analysis of the magnetic pulsations from the Greenland Magnetometer Chain give periods of 10 minutes in the whole dawn sector until the time when the Cusp is observed by the radars.

  3. Role of Geomagnetic Disturbances on VLF Whistler Wave Activity at Low Latitudes (P32)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. P.; Singh, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2006-11-01

    rppatel123@rediffmail.com The disturbances on solar surfaces lead to the enhanced injection of energetic charged particles in to the inner magnetosphere, which modifies the electrodynamic features of ionosphere and magnetosphere. The electrodynamic properties control the generation and propagation characteristics of VLF waves. At Varanasi station, which is one of the low latitude stations in India, we have recorded VLF waves from 1992 onwards. The source of VLF wave is natural lightning discharges. Whistler activity varies with latitude having maximum around 500 geomagnetic latitude. The occurrence rate is low at low latitudes and also depends on the solar and geomagnetic conditions. In this paper, we report the results derived from the statistical analysis of whistler waves recorded at Varanasi during the period January 1990 December 1999. The monthly occurrence rate is obtained which shows maximum during January to March. Seasonal variation of the occurrence rate is also studied. In order to study the role of geomagnetic disturbances on the occurrence rate, we have used Kp index and its variation. It is observed that the occurrence probability monotonically increases with ∑Kp values. It is observed that when ∑Kp > 10, the occurrence rate is greater than the average value. This tendency is found to be in good agreement with those reported by other workers. In addition, we also present the probability of observation of whistler waves during the weak/intense geomagnetic storm. Detailed result of occurrence of whistler waves during the main phase and recovery phase of geomagnetic storms will also be presented. An attempt will be made to present explanation of these statistical results.

  4. Energetic particles and coronal mass ejections in the high latitude heliosphere: Ulysses-LET observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothmer, V.; Sanderson, T. R.; Marsden, R. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R. J.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The COSPIN Low Energy Telescope (LET) onboard the Ulysses spacecraft measures protons, alphas and heavier ions at energies of approximately 1 to 50 MeV/n. Ulysses measurements offer favorable opportunities to study the effects of solar activity in the out-of-ecliptic regions of the heliosphere. Using LET data, we have investigated the properties of transient energetic ions at high heliographic latitudes when Ulysses was permanently immersed in high speed solar wind and magnetically connected to the Sun on open magnetic field lines. Recurrent increases in the fluxes of energetic ions at high heliographic latitudes at frequencies related to the solar rotation period were found to occur in association with co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs). Here we investigate fluxes of energetic particles that showed no relationship to ClRs. From the investigation of plasma and magnetic held data it is found that all of the transient high latitude particle events were associated with the passage of a coronal mass ejection (CME) over Ulysses. Enhancements in particle fluxes several days prior to the arrival of a CME, but with a significant time delay with respect to the estimated CME-onset at the Sun, were most probably associated with interplanetary shocks driven by fast CMEs. These particle events exhibit unusually high rho/alpha-ratios and are not observed for CMEs not driving a shock. However, not all CMEs that passed Ulysses were associated with a particle event. We find evidence that at high solar latitudes, solar flare particles cannot reach Ulysses on open magnetic field lines, but can reach the spacecraft if particles are injected into magnetic flux-ropes (CMEs) at the Sun. These findings are supported by soft X-ray observations from the Japanese Yohkoh-satellite.

  5. Counter-streaming magnetosheath ions in the dayside low latitude boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Klumpar, D. M.; Shelley, E. G.

    1992-01-01

    Observations in the subsolar low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) during reconnection show counterstreaming suprathermal ions on rare occasions. Composition measurements for one event presented here indicate that the ions are from the magnetosheath although no similar equal energy per charge suprathermal He(2+) and H(+) populations were observed there. Acceleration of magnetosheath ions either across the magnetopause or in the LLBL followed by magnetic mirroring of the initially parallel suprathermal ions best explains these observations.

  6. Analysis of local ionospheric variability based on SVD and MDS at low-latitude GNSS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Devanaboyina, Venkata Ratnam; Kanchumarthi, S. Ramesh

    2016-06-01

    Investigation of ionospheric anomalies during equatorial and low latitude is of major concern for modeling and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) applications. Total electron content (TEC) varies with the ionospheric conditions, which will lead to the errors in the global positioning system (GPS) measurements. It is therefore a method that is necessary to characterize the ionospheric anomalies for satellite-based navigation systems. In this study, characterization of ionospheric variations based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and classical multidimensional scaling (MDS) methods was studied. The yearly and daily variations are decomposed from the GPS-TEC, international reference ionosphere (IRI) 2007 and IRI 2012 models TEC over the three low-latitude GNSS stations located at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU-Guntur), Hyderabad and Bangalore, respectively. From the results, it is found that there is a strong correlation between GPS-TEC and IRI models. The correlation coefficient for the first three singular values is more than 0.86. From this, it is possible to reconstruct more than 85 % of the variability contained in global GPS-derived VTEC data (for year 2013) by using only the first three modes. The semiannual variation has maximum value during March-April and September-October and has minimum value during June-July. It is observed that the annual variations have maximum value in summer and minimum value in winter, and the amplitudes decrease with increasing latitude. Further, opposite latitudinal asymmetry among annual and semiannual variations for three GNSS stations is noticed. SVD and MDS methods clearly show time-varying characteristics and the absence of the winter anomaly at low-latitude GNSS stations.

  7. The Effects of Magnetic Storm Phases on F-Layer Irregularities from Auroral to Equatorial Latitudes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-31

    latitude, longi- tude, and geophysical conditions is in hand, the day to day variations are still difficult to evaluate . The forcing functions for both...lifetime make even the identification of mag- netic conditions difficult to evaluate as to whether they will or will not inhibit the generation of...of scintillations is concerned; these data will be discussed in evaluating the possibility of forecasting irregularities. OPTICAL DEPLETION

  8. Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Disturbances Due to Geomagnetic Storms at ISS Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Neergaard Parker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is dominated by interaction of the US high voltage solar arrays with the F2-region ionosphere plasma environment. ISS solar array charging is enhanced in a high electron density environment due to the increased thermal electron currents to the edges of the solar cells. High electron temperature environments suppress charging due to formation of barrier potentials on the charged solar cell cover glass that restrict the charging currents to the cell edge [Mandell et al., 2003]. Environments responsible for strong solar array charging are therefore characterized by high electron densities and low electron temperatures. In support of the ISS space environmental effects engineering community, we are working to understand a number of features of solar array charging and to determine how well future charging behavior can be predicted from in-situ plasma density and temperature measurements. One aspect of this work is a need to characterize the magnitude of electron density and temperature variations that occur at ISS orbital altitudes (approximately 400 km) over time scales of days, the latitudes over which significant variations occur, and the time periods over which the disturbances persist once they start. This presentation provides examples of mid-latitude electron density and temperature disturbances at altitudes relevant to ISS using data sets and tools developed for our ISS plasma environment study. "Mid-latitude" is defined as the extra-tropical region between approx. 30 degrees to approx. 60 degrees magnetic latitude sampled by ISS over its 51.6 degree inclination orbit. We focus on geomagnetic storm periods because storms are well known drivers for disturbances in the ionospheric plasma environment.

  9. Empirical linkages between Arctic sea ice extents and northern hemisphere, mid-latitude column ozone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marko, J.R.; Fissel, D.B.

    1993-01-08

    Statistically significant correlations are demonstrated between annual mean column ozone data collected at mid-latitude sites and mean annual and winter sea ice extents east of Greenland and in the Barents and Kara Seas. These results are discussed with reference to the locations of the correlated parameters relative to the Basic Pattern of stratosphere-solar flux correlations. Possibilities for underlying linkage mechanisms are considered and related to recent decreasing hemispheric ozone level trends. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Soil-frost-enabled soil-moisture-precipitation feedback over northern high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, Stefan; Blome, Tanja; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. The currently observed global warming is most pronounced in the Arctic region and is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input. This warming will certainly have effects on the ecosystems of the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of such effects, however, is still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, including several feedback mechanisms between land and atmosphere. In this study we contribute to increasing our understanding of such land-atmosphere interactions using an Earth system model (ESM) which includes a representation of cold-region physical soil processes, especially the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water on thermal and hydrological states and processes. The coupled atmosphere-land models of the ESM of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, MPI-ESM, have been driven by prescribed observed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without newly implemented cold-region soil processes. Results show a large improvement in the simulated discharge. On the one hand this is related to an improved snowmelt peak of runoff due to frozen soil in spring. On the other hand a subsequent reduction in soil moisture enables a positive feedback to precipitation over the high latitudes, which reduces the model's wet biases in precipitation and evapotranspiration during the summer. This is noteworthy as soil-moisture-atmosphere feedbacks have previously not been the focus of research on the high latitudes. These results point out the importance of high-latitude physical processes at the land surface for regional climate.

  11. Temporal variation in population size of European bird species: effects of latitude and marginality of distribution.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, José J; Møller, Anders P

    2013-01-01

    In the Northern Hemisphere, global warming has been shown to affect animal populations in different ways, with southern populations in general suffering more from increased temperatures than northern populations of the same species. However, southern populations are also often marginal populations relative to the entire breeding range, and marginality may also have negative effects on populations. To disentangle the effects of latitude (possibly due to global warming) and marginality on temporal variation in population size, we investigated European breeding bird species across a latitudinal gradient. Population size estimates were regressed on years, and from these regressions we obtained the slope (a proxy for population trend) and the standard error of the estimate (SEE) (a proxy for population fluctuations). The possible relationships between marginality or latitude on one hand and slopes or SEE on the other were tested among populations within species. Potentially confounding factors such as census method, sampling effort, density-dependence, habitat fragmentation and number of sampling years were controlled statistically. Population latitude was positively related to regression slopes independent of marginality, with more positive slopes (i.e., trends) in northern than in southern populations. The degree of marginality was positively related to SEE independent of latitude, with marginal populations showing larger SEE (i.e., fluctuations) than central ones. Regression slopes were also significantly related to our estimate of density-dependence and SEE was significantly affected by the census method. These results are consistent with a scenario in which southern and northern populations of European bird species are negatively affected by marginality, with southern populations benefitting less from global warming than northern populations, thus potentially making southern populations more vulnerable to extinction.

  12. Differential migration and the link between winter latitude, timing of migration, and breeding in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Bradley K; Newman, Amy E M; Turbek, Sheela P; Dossman, Bryant C; Hobson, Keith A; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Mitchell, Greg W; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Norris, D Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Patterns of connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds can have important implications for individual fitness and population dynamics. Using light-level geolocators and stable hydrogen isotopes (δ(2)H) in feathers, we evaluated differential migration of Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding on Kent Island in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada in relation to sex, age, and body size. Based on geolocators recovered from 38 individuals between 2012 and 2014, the winter distribution was centered in North Carolina (median latitude 34°, range 26°-41°), with males overwintering, on average, approximately 275 km further north than females. Based on analyses of tail feather samples collected from 106 individuals from the same population between 2008 and 2012, males and adults had more negative δ(2)H values than females and juveniles, respectively, providing additional evidence that males wintered north of females and that adults wintered north of juveniles. Winter latitude and δ(2)H values within each sex were not found to be related to body size. From geolocator data, males returned to the breeding grounds, on average, 14 days earlier than females. For males, there was some evidence that arrival date on the breeding grounds was negatively correlated with winter latitude and that individuals which arrived earlier tended to breed earlier. Thus, benefits for males of early arrival on the breeding grounds may have contributed to their wintering farther north than females. Social dominance may also have contributed to age and sex differences in winter latitude, whereby dominant males and adults forced subordinate females and juveniles further south.

  13. Diurnal Astronomy: Using Sticks and Threads to Find Our Latitude on Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camino, Nestor; Gangui, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the length and orientation of a shadow cast by a vertical gnomon depends on the time of the day and on the season of the year. But it also depends on the latitude of the site of observation. During the equinoxes, the temporal sequence of the shadows cast by each of the points that form any object follows a straight line from…

  14. A statistical characterization of local mid-latitude total electron content

    SciTech Connect

    Gail, W.B.; Prag, A.B.; Coco, D.S.; Coker, C.

    1993-09-01

    The integrated line-of-slight electron density within the ionosphere, known as the total electron content (TEC), is commonly used to quantify ionospheric propagation effects. In order to extrapolate single-point measurements of TEC to other locations and times, some characterization of the TEC spatiotemporal variation must be available. Using a four-channel receiver tracking coded signals from the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System satellites, estimates of both the mean variation and correlation coefficient have been made for the approximately 1200-km or 1-hour local time radius ionospheric region within view of a mid-latitude station. Results were obtained for morning and midday over a 4-week period near the autumnal equinox in 1989. The derived mean variation was found to be well characterized by linear functions of the local time and latitude separation between the ground site and the ionospheric penetration point of the signal. The correlation coefficient during midday was found to decrease linearly with latitude, longitude, and time separation, with values of about 0.91 for a 1000-km separation and 0.98 for a 1-hour separation. During morning hours the longitude and time coefficients were similar to the midday values, but the latitude coefficient was found to have a nonlinear dependence, with values as small as 0.70. The combined results suggest that the decorrelation is due primarily to longer term TEC fluctuation, such as day-to-day variation in the TEC spatial dependence, rather than to transient effects such as traveling ionospheric disturbances. The analysis provides a spatiotemporal characterization of TEC that can be used to extrapolate TEC values from single-point measurements. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Nutrient conservation increases with latitude of origin in European Pinus sylvestris populations.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J; Reich, P B; Zytkowiak, R; Karolewski, P; Tjoelker, M G

    2003-07-01

    Nutrient availability varies across climatic gradients, yet intraspecific adaptation across such gradients in plant traits related to internal cycling and nutrient resorption remains poorly understood. We examined nutrient resorption among six Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations of wide-ranging origin grown under common-garden conditions in Poland. These results were compared with mass-based needle N and P for 195 Scots pine stands throughout the species' European range. At the common site, green needle N (r(2)=0.81, P=0.01) and P (r(2)=0.58, P=0.08) concentration increased with increasing latitude of population origin. Resorption efficiency (the proportion of the leaf nutrient pool resorbed during senescence) of N and P of Scots pine populations increased with the latitude of seed origin (r(2) > or = 0.67, P < or = 0.05). The greater resorption efficiency of more northerly populations led to lower concentrations of N and P in senescent leaves (higher resorption proficiency) than populations originating from low latitudes. The direction of change in these traits indicates potential adaptation of populations from northern, colder habitats to more efficient internal nutrient cycling. For native Scots pine stands, results showed greater nutrient conservation in situ in cold-adapted northern populations, via extended needle longevity (from 2 to 3 years at 50 degrees N to 7 years at 70 degrees N), and greater resorption efficiency and proficiency, with their greater resorption efficiency and proficiency having genotypic roots demonstrated in the common-garden experiment. However, for native Scots pine stands, green needle N decreased with increasing latitude (r(2)=0.83, P=0.0002), and P was stable other than decreasing above 62 degrees N. Hence, the genotypic tendency towards maintenance of higher nutrient concentrations in green foliage and effective nutrient resorption, demonstrated by northern populations in the common garden, did not entirely compensate for

  16. Mean characteristics of mesosphere winter echoes at mid- and high-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, O.; Zecha, M.; Bremer, J.; Latteck, R.; Singer, W.

    2006-06-01

    VHF radar observations are used to investigate different regions of the Earth's atmosphere. Strong echoes from the mesosphere are mainly observed during summer months at polar latitudes (polar mesosphere summer echoes [PMSE]), and less often at mid-latitudes (mesosphere summer echoes [MSE]). Interestingly, in recent years similar echoes have been observed during winter months ([polar] mesosphere winter echoes (P)MWE). This paper reports on VHF radar measurements between September and April at Andenes (2001 2005) and Kühlungsborn (2003 2005) to determine the mean features of (P)MWE at polar and mid-latitudes. The (P)MWE are a rare phenomenon with mean occurrence rates of about 2.9% in polar and only 0.3% in mid-latitudes, with a maximum occurrence height at 70.5 km for daytime and 77.5 km for nighttime echoes. The diurnal variation is characterised by a maximum near noon and minimum during nighttime. The seasonal variation of (P)MWE is weak with some indication of an increased number of PMWE during mid-winter. The occurrence rate of (P)MWE is positively correlated with the ionisation level of the D region of the ionosphere. Mainly high-energetic proton (and electron) fluxes and enhanced X-ray radiation are important for the existence of (P)MWE. The second factor for the existence of (P)MWE are irregularities of the refraction index of half the radar wavelength (about 3 m for the radars used in this paper). Neutral air turbulence due to breaking gravity waves seems to be an important process. Whether charged aerosol particles or partial reflections of infrasound have additionally to be considered to explain (P)MWE is currently a point of discussion in the literature.

  17. Upper tropospheric water vapour variability at high latitudes - Part 1: Influence of the annular modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, C. E.; Zou, J.; Plummer, D. A.; Boone, C. D.; McElroy, C. T.; Sheese, P. E.; Moeini, O.; Bernath, P. F.

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal and monthly zonal medians of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are calculated for both Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) instruments for the northern and southern high-latitude regions (60-90 and 60-90° S). Chosen for the purpose of observing high-latitude processes, the ACE orbit provides sampling of both regions in eight of 12 months of the year, with coverage in all seasons. The ACE water vapour sensors, namely MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) are currently the only satellite instruments that can probe from the lower stratosphere down to the mid-troposphere to study the vertical profile of the response of UTLS water vapour to the annular modes. The Arctic oscillation (AO), also known as the northern annular mode (NAM), explains 64 % (r = -0.80) of the monthly variability in water vapour at northern high-latitudes observed by ACE-MAESTRO between 5 and 7 km using only winter months (January to March 2004-2013). Using a seasonal timestep and all seasons, 45 % of the variability is explained by the AO at 6.5 ± 0.5 km, similar to the 46 % value obtained for southern high latitudes at 7.5 ± 0.5 km explained by the Antarctic oscillation or southern annular mode (SAM). A large negative AO event in March 2013 produced the largest relative water vapour anomaly at 5.5 km (+70 %) over the ACE record. A similarly large event in the 2010 boreal winter, which was the largest negative AO event in the record (1950-2015), led to > 50 % increases in water vapour observed by MAESTRO and ACE-FTS at 7.5 km.

  18. Upper tropospheric water vapour variability at high latitudes - Part 1: Influence of the annular modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Zou, Jason; Plummer, David A.; Boone, Chris D.; McElroy, C. Thomas; Sheese, Patrick E.; Moeini, Omid; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal and monthly zonal medians of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are calculated for both Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) instruments for the northern and southern high-latitude regions (60-90° N and 60-90° S). Chosen for the purpose of observing high-latitude processes, the ACE orbit provides sampling of both regions in 8 of 12 months of the year, with coverage in all seasons. The ACE water vapour sensors, namely MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) are currently the only satellite instruments that can probe from the lower stratosphere down to the mid-troposphere to study the vertical profile of the response of UTLS water vapour to the annular modes. The Arctic oscillation (AO), also known as the northern annular mode (NAM), explains 64 % (r = -0.80) of the monthly variability in water vapour at northern high latitudes observed by ACE-MAESTRO between 5 and 7 km using only winter months (January to March, 2004-2013). Using a seasonal time step and all seasons, 45 % of the variability is explained by the AO at 6.5 ± 0.5 km, similar to the 46 % value obtained for southern high latitudes at 7.5 ± 0.5 km explained by the Antarctic oscillation or southern annular mode (SAM). A large negative AO event in March 2013 produced the largest relative water vapour anomaly at 5.5 km (+70 %) over the ACE record. A similarly large event in the 2010 boreal winter, which was the largest negative AO event in the record (1950-2015), led to > 50 % increases in water vapour observed by MAESTRO and ACE-FTS at 7.5 km.

  19. A case study of apparent longitudinal effects of spread-F occurrence for two mid-latitude and two low-latitude stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zuo; Huang, Weiquan; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Zhang, Donghe; Hao, Yongqiang

    Spread-F is a widely studied subject due to its significance in understanding physical essen-tials of the ionospheric irregularities and applications in scintillations prediction of radio wave propagation. The occurrence of Spread-F is affected by many factors such as density gradient below the F2 peak, neutral wind, electric field and so on. Among those factors, Acoustic grav-ity wave is very important in seeding Spread-F occurring. Since most of the gravity wave in the ionosphere sourced from the lower atmosphere, there should be some regional features of Spread-F due to the different meteorological or tectonic conditions under the local ionosphere. Many authors discussed the longitudinal variations and concluded that it could be caused by wind or by deference between local geographic and magnetic latitudes. Few investigations have been focused on the tectonic characteristics under the ionosphere. Asian sector in the world has the sharpest contrast of ocean and continent and this provides a favorable condition to investigate whether the lower atmosphere influence the Spread-F greatly. Data covered about one solar cycle from two Chinese stations located at almost exact the same latitude and a 38O separation in longitude are used to make comparisons in detail of Spread-F occurrence between these two stations. The results showed that the total occurrence or percentage occurrence at Changchun station (very near the coast) is always much higher than that at Urumqi station (in the very center of the Europe-Asia continent) under all conditions. The other features on the occurrence at these two stations are in agreement with the existing results by many au-thors, while the great difference of occurrence at the two stations is striking and spectacular. It gives an evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionospheric Spread-F occurrence.. it is particularly evident in the Asian sector of the world. Also, in this article, Spread-F data of the

  20. Tropical rainfall over the last two millennia: evidence for a low-latitude hydrologic seesaw

    PubMed Central

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Rehfeld, Kira; Ridley, Harriet E.; Asmerom, Yemane; Prufer, Keith M.; Marwan, Norbert; Goswami, Bedartha; Kennett, Douglas J.; Aquino, Valorie V.; Polyak, Victor; Haug, Gerald H.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Baldini, James U. L.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of a low- to mid-latitude interhemispheric hydrologic seesaw is apparent over orbital and glacial-interglacial timescales, but its existence over the most recent past remains unclear. Here we investigate, based on climate proxy reconstructions from both hemispheres, the inter-hemispherical phasing of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the low- to mid-latitude teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 2000 years. A clear feature is a persistent southward shift of the ITCZ during the Little Ice Age until the beginning of the 19th Century. Strong covariation between our new composite ITCZ-stack and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) records reveals a tight coupling between these two synoptic weather and climate phenomena over decadal-to-centennial timescales. This relationship becomes most apparent when comparing two precisely dated, high-resolution paleorainfall records from Belize and Scotland, indicating that the low- to mid-latitude teleconnection was also active over annual-decadal timescales. It is likely a combination of external forcing, i.e., solar and volcanic, and internal feedbacks, that drives the synchronous ITCZ and NAO shifts via energy flux perturbations in the tropics. PMID:28378755