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Sample records for 252cf-plasma desorption mass

  1. Application of 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry in dental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Lothar; Köhl, Peter; Jungclas, Hartmut; Duschner, Heins

    1993-07-01

    Topically applied fluorides introduced in dental hygiene products elevate the concentration levels of fluoride in oral fluids and thus also affect chemical reactions of enamel de- and remineralisation. The chemical reactions on the surface of tooth enamel still are a subject of controversy. Here 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry and argon ion etching are used to analyse the molecular structure of the upper layes of enamel. The mass spectrum of untreated enamel is characterised by a series of cluster ions containing phosphate. It is evident that under certain conditions the molecular structure of the surface enamel is completely transformed by treatment with fluorides. The result of the degradation and precipitation processes is reflected by a total replacement of the phosphate by fluoride in the measured cluster ion distribution. Stepwise etching of the upper layers by Ar+ ions reveals the transition from a nearly pure CaF2 structure to the unchanged composition of the enamel mineral.

  2. Analusis by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry of Bordetella pertussis endotoxin after nitrous deamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprun, C.; Karibian, D.; Caroff, M.

    1993-07-01

    Endotoxic lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are the major components of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. Like many amphipathic molecules, they pose problems of heterogeneity, purity, solubility, and aggregation. Nevertheless, PDMS has recently have been applied to unmodified endotoxins composed of LPS having uip to five sugar units in their saccharide chain. The B. Pertussis LPSs, most of which have a dodecasaccharide domain, ahve been analysed by classical methods and the masses of the separate lipid and saccharide domains determined after rupture of the bond linking them. However, the acid treatment employed for these and most chemical analyses can also modify structures in the vicinity of the bond. In order to investigate this biologically-important region, the endotoxin was treated to nitrous deamination, which shortens the saccharide chain to five sugars, but preserves the acid-labile region of the LPS. The PDM spectrum of this derivative, which required new conditions for its desorption, confirmed the structure analysis and demonstrated the presence of at least four molecular species.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The application of [sup 252]Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry to analysis of direct coal liquefaction heavy products

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Lapucha, A.R.

    1992-10-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using [sup 252]Cf PDMS, GPC, and MPLC for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble portion of distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. The [sup 252]Cf-PDMS technique was used to determine molecular weight distributions of twenty-five THF-soluble resids. In order to detemine if [sup 252]Cf-PDMS responds differently to different chemical classes of compounds, Lehigh separated five of the samples into chemically distinct fractions by MPLC, then analyzed the parent samples, their fractions, and the re-mixed fractions by [sup 252]Cf-PDMS and GPC. Irreversible alteration of the samples upon separation was noted by Lehigh. This was confirmed by use of gas chromatographic (GC) analyses. The noted irreversible alterations prevented a direct comparison of the remixed materials and the original samples. Thus, the selective response of [sup 252]Cf-PDMS to different chemical classes of compounds could not be confirmed or ruled out. The number average molecular weights (M[sub n]) obtained by [sup 252]Cf-PDMS and GPC agreed well. However, the weight average molecular weights (M[sub w]) obtained by GPC are always higher than the corresponding [sup 252]Cf-PDMS results. Number average molecular weights and weight average molecular weights obtained with [sup 252]Cf-PDMS and GPC were compared with those obtained by field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), previously reported by SRI International for the parent resid samples from which the Lehigh THF-soluble samples were derived.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The application of {sup 252}Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry to analysis of direct coal liquefaction heavy products

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Lapucha, A.R.

    1992-10-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using {sup 252}Cf PDMS, GPC, and MPLC for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble portion of distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. The {sup 252}Cf-PDMS technique was used to determine molecular weight distributions of twenty-five THF-soluble resids. In order to detemine if {sup 252}Cf-PDMS responds differently to different chemical classes of compounds, Lehigh separated five of the samples into chemically distinct fractions by MPLC, then analyzed the parent samples, their fractions, and the re-mixed fractions by {sup 252}Cf-PDMS and GPC. Irreversible alteration of the samples upon separation was noted by Lehigh. This was confirmed by use of gas chromatographic (GC) analyses. The noted irreversible alterations prevented a direct comparison of the remixed materials and the original samples. Thus, the selective response of {sup 252}Cf-PDMS to different chemical classes of compounds could not be confirmed or ruled out. The number average molecular weights (M{sub n}) obtained by {sup 252}Cf-PDMS and GPC agreed well. However, the weight average molecular weights (M{sub w}) obtained by GPC are always higher than the corresponding {sup 252}Cf-PDMS results. Number average molecular weights and weight average molecular weights obtained with {sup 252}Cf-PDMS and GPC were compared with those obtained by field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), previously reported by SRI International for the parent resid samples from which the Lehigh THF-soluble samples were derived.

  5. [An improved method of preparing protein and peptide probes in mass spectrometry with ionization of division fragments by californium-252 (TOF-PDMS)].

    PubMed

    Chivanov, V D; Zubarev, R A; Aksenov, S A; Bordunova, O G; Eremenko, V I; Kabanets, V M; Tatarinova, V I; Mishnev, A K; Kuraev, V V; Knysh, A N; Eremenko, I A

    1996-08-01

    The addition of organic acids (picric, oxalic, citric, or tartaric) to peptide and protein samples was found to significantly increase the yield of their quasi-molecular ions (QMI) in time-of-flight 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The yield of the ions depended on the pKa of the acid added.

  6. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed.

  7. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed. PMID:28337398

  8. Thermal desorption mass spectrometer for mass metrology.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Z; Azouigui, S; Bouhtiyya, S; Macé, S; Plimmer, M D; Pinot, P; Tayeb-Chandoul, F; Hannachi, R

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a device for the study of physisorbed elements on polished surfaces (diameter ⩽56 mm) of the kind used in mass metrology. The technique is based on mass spectrometry of molecules desorbed after heating under vacuum of the analyzed surface. We describe a first application of the device to study current and future mass standards in order to understand how their surface reactivity depends on storage conditions, cleaning processes, and polishing methods. Surface contamination analysis by thermal desorption mass spectrometry to examine the effect of cleaning on pure iridium is given as an example.

  9. 4,5-methylenedithio-4',5'-propylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (MPT) and 4,5-ethylenedithio-4',5'-propylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (EPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Kini, A.M.; Tytko, S.F.; Hunt, J.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The title electron donors, unsymmetrical analogs of Bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, are synthesized. The utility of /sup 252/Cf Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry in the characterization and purity determinations is also reported.

  10. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry to determine molecular weights and structures of proteins and polymers. Outlines theory, instrumentation, and sample preparation commonly used. Gives several examples of resulting spectra. (ML)

  11. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for molecular diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Taranenko, N. I.; Zhu, Y. F.; Allman, S. L.; Tang, K.; Matteson, K. J.; Chang, L. Y.; Chung, C. N.; Martin, Steve; Haff, Lawrence

    1996-04-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used for molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Both 3-base deletion and single-base point mutation have been successfully detected by clinical samples. This new detection method can possibly speed up the diagnosis by one order of magnitude in the future. It may become a new biotechnology technique for population screening of genetic disease.

  12. Mass spectrometric peptide mapping analysis and structural characterization of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, C; Klein, J; Post, K; Suckau, D; Schneider, K; Thomas, H; Oesch, F; Przybylski, M

    1990-01-01

    The direct molecular weight determination and structural analysis of polypeptides and peptide mixtures have become amenable by the recent development of fast atom bombardment (FABMS) and 252Cf-plasma desorption (PDMS) mass spectrometry. FABMS and PDMS peptide mapping, i.e., the direct analysis of peptide mixtures resulting from proteolytic digestion, have been developed as powerful methods for the structural characterization of epoxide-metabolizing isoenzymes. The major advantage of this approach is provided by the selectivity of the endoproteolytic cleavage, combined with the specific and accurate molecular weight determination of complex digest mixtures containing peptides up to several thousands daltons in size. Furthermore, the mass spectrometric peptide mapping analysis can be combined with a range of protein-chemical modification reactions and with sequential degradation such as by carboxypeptidases. Both FABMS and PDMS peptide mapping have already been successfully applied to the structural differentiation of glutathione transferase and epoxide hydrolase isoenzymes in cases where references sequence data for at least one isoenzyme form was available. In the application described here, for a series of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DDH) isoenzymes with hitherto undetermined primary structures, a direct correlation between the structural differentiation from peptide mapping data and differences in their substrate specificities could be demonstrated. The mass spectrometric peptide mapping analysis of isoenzymes proved to be an efficient basis for the elucidation of the structure of one major DDH isoenzyme form; partial sequence data for this protein are reported. PMID:2272334

  13. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detection and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston Chen, C. H.; Sammartano, L. J.; Isola, N. R.; Allman, S. L.

    2001-08-01

    During the past few years, we developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was successfully used to detect DNA fragments with the size larger than 3000 base pairs. It was also successfully used to sequence DNA with both enzymatic and chemical degradation methods to produce DNA ladders. We also developed MALDI with fragmentation for direct DNA sequencing for short DNA probes. Since laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA detection has the advantages of fast speed and no need of labeling, it has a great potential for molecular diagnosis for disease and person identification by DNA fingerprinting. We applied laser desorption mass spectrometry to succeed in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and several other nerve degenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. We also succeeded in demonstrating DNA typing for forensic applications.

  14. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of intact bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to differentiate 7 bacterial species based on their measured DESI-mass spectral profile. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were tested and included Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Enterococcus sp., Bordete...

  15. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds.

  16. Tissue Imaging Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Heath, Brandi S.; Roach, Patrick J.; Cazares, Lisa H.; Semmes, O. John

    2012-01-03

    We present the first results showing the ambient imaging of biological samples in their native environment using nanospray desorption ionization (nanoDESI) mass spectrometry. NanoDESI is an ambient pressure ionization technique that enables precise control of ionization of molecules from substrates. We demonstrate highly sensitive and robust analysis of tissue samples with high spatial resolution (<12 {mu}m) without sample preparation, which will be essential for applications in clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, molecular biology, and biochemistry.

  17. Infrared laser-assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rezenom, Yohannes H; Dong, Jianan; Murray, Kermit K

    2008-02-01

    We have used an infrared laser for desorption of material and ionization by interaction with electrosprayed solvent. Infrared laser-assisted desorption electrospray ionization (IR LADESI) mass spectrometry was used for the direct analysis of water-containing samples under ambient conditions. An ion trap mass spectrometer was modified to include a pulsed Er:YAG laser at 2.94 microm wavelength coupled into a germanium oxide optical fiber for desorption at atmospheric pressure and a nanoelectrospray source for ionization. Analytes in aqueous solution were placed on a stainless steel target and irradiated with the pulsed IR laser. Material desorbed and ablated from the target was ionized by a continuous stream of charged droplets from the electrosprayed solvent. Peptide and protein samples analyzed using this method yield mass spectra similar to those obtained by conventional electrospray. Blood and urine were analyzed without sample pretreatment to demonstrate the capability of IR LADESI for direct analysis of biological fluids. Pharmaceutical products were also directly analyzed. Finally, the role of water as a matrix in the IR LADESI process is discussed.

  18. Characterization of polymer decomposition products by laser desorption mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallix, Joan B.; Lincoln, Kenneth A.; Miglionico, Charles J.; Roybal, Robert E.; Stein, Charles; Shively, Jon H.

    1993-01-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used to characterize the ash-like substances formed on the surfaces of polymer matrix composites (PMC's) during exposure on LDEF. In an effort to minimize fragmentation, material was removed from the sample surfaces by laser desorption and desorbed neutrals were ionized by electron impact. Ions were detected in a time-of-flight mass analyzer which allows the entire mass spectrum to be collected for each laser shot. The method is ideal for these studies because only a small amount of ash is available for analysis. Three sets of samples were studied including C/polysulfone, C/polyimide and C/phenolic. Each set contains leading and trailing edge LDEF samples and their respective controls. In each case, the mass spectrum of the ash shows a number of high mass peaks which can be assigned to fragments of the associated polymer. These high mass peaks are not observed in the spectra of the control samples. In general, the results indicate that the ash is formed from decomposition of the polymer matrix.

  19. Unexpected Analyte Oxidation during Desorption Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    During the analysis of surface spotted analytes using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), abundant ions are sometimes observed that appear to be the result of oxygen addition reactions. In this investigation, the effect of sample aging, the ambient lab environment, spray voltage, analyte surface concentration, and surface type on this oxidative modification of spotted analytes, exemplified by tamoxifen and reserpine, during analysis by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was studied. Simple exposure of the samples to air and to ambient lighting increased the extent of oxidation. Increased spray voltage lead also to increased analyte oxidation, possibly as a result of oxidative species formed electrochemically at the emitter electrode or in the gas - phase by discharge processes. These oxidative species are carried by the spray and impinge on and react with the sampled analyte during desorption/ionization. The relative abundance of oxidized species was more significant for analysis of deposited analyte having a relatively low surface concentration. Increasing spray solvent flow rate and addition of hydroquinone as a redox buffer to the spray solvent were found to decrease, but not entirely eliminate, analyte oxidation during analysis. The major parameters that both minimize and maximize analyte oxidation were identified and DESI-MS operational recommendations to avoid these unwanted reactions are suggested.

  20. LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY ON SILICON NANOWELL ARRAYS

    PubMed Central

    Gulbakan, Basri; Park, Dooho; Kang, Myungchan; Kececi, Kaan; Martin, Charles R.; Powell, David H.; Tan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for fabrication of nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) for laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Porous silicon nanowell arrays were prepared by argon plasma etching through an alumina mask. Porous silicon prepared in this way proved to be an excellent substrate for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectrometry (MS) using adenosine, Pro-Leu-Gly tripeptide and [Des-Arg9]-bradykinin as the model compounds. It also allows the analyses of complex biological samples such as a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin, and a carnitine standard mixture. Nanowell array surfaces were also used for direct quantification of the illicit drug fentanyl in red blood cell extracts. This method also allows full control of the surface features. MS results suggested that the pore depth has significant effect on the ion signals. Significant improvement in the ionization was observed by increasing the pore depth from 10 nm to 50 nm. These substrates are useful for laser desorption ionization in both the atmospheric pressure and vacuum regimes. PMID:20731384

  1. Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry on silicon nanowell arrays.

    PubMed

    Gulbakan, Basri; Park, Dooho; Kang, Myungchan; Kececi, Kaan; Martin, Charles R; Powell, David H; Tan, Weihong

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes a new technique for fabrication of nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) for laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Porous silicon nanowell arrays were prepared by argon plasma etching through an alumina mask. Porous silicon prepared in this way proved to be an excellent substrate for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectrometry (MS) using adenosine, Pro-Leu-Gly tripeptide, and [Des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin as the model compounds. It also allows the analyses of complex biological samples such as a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin and a carnitine standard mixture. Nanowell array surfaces were also used for direct quantification of the illicit drug fentanyl in red blood cell extracts. This method also allows full control of the surface features. MS results suggested that the pore depth has a significant effect on the ion signals. Significant improvement in the ionization was observed by increasing the pore depth from 10 to 50 nm. These substrates are useful for laser desorption ionization in both the atmospheric pressure and vacuum regimes.

  2. Improved Imaging Resolution in Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    Imaging resolution of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was investigated using printed patterns on paper and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate surfaces. Resolution approaching 40 m was achieved with a typical DESI-MS setup, which is approximately 5 times better than the best resolution reported previously. This improvement was accomplished with careful control of operational parameters (particularly spray tip-to-surface distance, solvent flow rate, and spacing of lane scans). Also, an appropriately strong analyte/surface interaction and uniform surface texture on the size scale no larger that the desired imaging resolution were required to achieve this resolution. Overall, conditions providing the smallest possible effective desorption/ionization area in the DESI impact plume region and minimizing the analyte redistribution on the surface during analysis led to the improved DESI-MS imaging resolution.

  3. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA analysis and sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.; Taranenko, N.I.; Tang, K.; Allman, S.L.

    1995-03-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry has been considered as a potential new method for fast DNA sequencing. Our approach is to use matrix-assisted laser desorption to produce parent ions of DNA segments and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer to identify the sizes of DNA segments. Thus, the approach is similar to gel electrophoresis sequencing using Sanger`s enzymatic method. However, gel, radioactive tagging, and dye labeling are not required. In addition, the sequencing process can possibly be finished within a few hundred microseconds instead of hours and days. In order to use mass spectrometry for fast DNA sequencing, the following three criteria need to be satisfied. They are (1) detection of large DNA segments, (2) sensitivity reaching the femtomole region, and (3) mass resolution good enough to separate DNA segments of a single nucleotide difference. It has been very difficult to detect large DNA segments by mass spectrometry before due to the fragile chemical properties of DNA and low detection sensitivity of DNA ions. We discovered several new matrices to increase the production of DNA ions. By innovative design of a mass spectrometer, we can increase the ion energy up to 45 KeV to enhance the detection sensitivity. Recently, we succeeded in detecting a DNA segment with 500 nucleotides. The sensitivity was 100 femtomole. Thus, we have fulfilled two key criteria for using mass spectrometry for fast DNA sequencing. The major effort in the near future is to improve the resolution. Different approaches are being pursued. When high resolution of mass spectrometry can be achieved and automation of sample preparation is developed, the sequencing speed to reach 500 megabases per year can be feasible.

  4. Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry for DNA Sequencing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Taranenko, N. I.; Golovlev, V. V.; Isola, N. R.; Allman, S. L.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid DNA sequencing and/or analysis is critically important for biomedical research. In the past, gel electrophoresis has been the primary tool to achieve DNA analysis and sequencing. However, gel electrophoresis is a time-consuming and labor-extensive process. Recently, we have developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) to achieve sequencing of ss-DNA longer than 100 nucleotides. With LDMS, we succeeded in sequencing DNA in seconds instead of hours or days required by gel electrophoresis. In addition to sequencing, we also applied LDMS for the detection of DNA probes for hybridization LDMS was also used to detect short tandem repeats for forensic applications. Clinical applications for disease diagnosis such as cystic fibrosis caused by base deletion and point mutation have also been demonstrated. Experimental details will be presented in the meeting. abstract.

  5. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for point mutation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Taranenko, N.I.; Chung, C.N.; Zhu, Y.F.

    1996-10-01

    A point mutation can be associated with the pathogenesis of inherited or acquired diseases. Laser desorption mass spectrometry coupled with allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first used for point mutation detection. G551D is one of several mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene present in 1-3% of the mutant CFTR alleles in most European populations. In this work, two different approaches were pursued to detect G551D point mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. The strategy is to amplify the desired region of DNA template by PCR using two primers that overlap one base at the site of the point mutation and which vary in size. If the two primers based on the normal sequence match the target DNA sequence, a normal PCR product will be produced. However, if the alternately sized primers that match the mutant sequence recognize the target DNA, an abnormal PCR product will be produced. Thus, the mass spectrometer can be used to identify patients that are homozygous normal, heterozygous for a mutation or homozygous abnormal at a mutation site. Another approach to identify similar mutations is the use of sequence specific restriction enzymes which respond to changes in the DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry is used to detect the length of the restriction fragments generated by digestion of a PCR generated target fragment. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for point mutation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Taranenko, N.I.; Chung, C.N.; Zhu, Y.F.

    1996-12-31

    A point mutation can be associated with the pathogenesis of inherited or acquired diseases. Laser desorption mass spectrometry coupled with allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first used for point mutation detection. G551D is one of several mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene present in 1-3% of the mutant CFTR alleles in most European populations. In this work, two different approaches were pursued to detect G551D point mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. The strategy is to amplify the desired region of DNA template by PCR using two primers that overlap one base at the site of the point mutation and which vary in size. If the two primers based on the normal sequence match the target DNA sequence, a normal PCR product will be produced. However, if the alternately sized primers that match the mutant sequence recognize the target DNA, an abnormal PCR product will be produced. Thus, the mass spectrometer can be used to identify patients that are homozygous normal, heterozygous for a mutation or homozygous abnormal at a mutation site. Another approach to identify similar mutations is the use of sequence specific restriction enzymes which respond to changes in the DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry is used to detect the length of the restriction fragments by digestion of a PCR generated target fragment. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Multistage Reactive Transmission-Mode Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Kevin C.; Comi, Troy J.; Perry, Richard H.

    2015-09-01

    Elucidating reaction mechanisms is important for advancing many areas of science such as catalyst development. It is often difficult to probe fast reactions at ambient conditions with high temporal resolution. In addition, systems involving reagents that cross-react require analytical methods that can minimize interaction time and specify their order of introduction into the reacting system. Here, we explore the utility of transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI) for reaction monitoring by directing a microdroplet spray towards a series of meshes with micrometer-sized openings coated with reagents, an approach we call multistage reactive TM-DESI (TM n -DESI, where n refers to the number of meshes; n = 2 in this report). Various stages of the reaction are initiated at each mesh surface, generating intermediates and products in microdroplet reaction vessels traveling towards the mass spectrometer. Using this method, we investigated the reactivity of iron porphyrin catalytic hydroxylation of propranolol and other substrates. Our experimental results indicate that TM n -DESI provides the ability to spatially separate reagents and control their order of introduction into the reacting system, thereby minimizing unwanted reactions that lead to catalyst deactivation and degradation products. In addition, comparison with DESI-MS analyses (the Zare and Latour laboratories published results suggesting accessible reaction times <1 ms) of the reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol by L-ascorbic acid suggest that TM 1 -DESI can access reaction times less than 1 ms. Multiple meshes allow sequential stages of desorption/ionization per MS scan, increasing the number of analytes and reactions that can be characterized in a single experiment.

  8. Laser desorption studies of high mass biomolecules in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Solouki, T; Russell, D H

    1992-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization is used to obtain Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra of model peptides (e.g., gramicidin S, angiotensin I, renin substrate, melittin, and bovine insulin). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization yields ions having appreciable kinetic energies. Two methods for trapping the high kinetic energy ions are described: (i) the ion signal for [M+H]+ ions is shown to increase with increasing trapping voltages, and (ii) collisional relaxation is used for the detection of [M+H]+ ions of bovine insulin. Images PMID:1378614

  9. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for fast DNA analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.; Ch`ang, L.Y.; Taranenko, N.I.; Allman, S.L.; Tang, K.; Matteson, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    During the past few years, major effort has been directed toward developing mass spectrometry to measure biopolymers because of the great potential benefit to biomedical research. Hellenkamp and his co-workers were the first to report that large polypeptide molecules can be ionized and detected without significant fragmentation when a greater number of nicotinic acid molecules are used as a matrix. This method is now well known as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Since then, various groups have reported measurements of very large proteins by MALDI. Reliable protein analysis by MALDI is more or less well established. However, the application of MALDI to nucleic acids analysis has been found to be much more difficult. Most research on the measurement of nucleic acid by MALDI were stimulated by the Human Genome Project. Up to now, the only method for reliable routine analysis of nucleic acid is gel electrophoresis. Different sizes of nucleic acids can be separated in gel medium when a high electric field is applied to the gel. However, the time needed to separate different sizes of DNA segments usually takes from several minutes to several hours. If MALDI can be successfully used for nucleic acids analysis, the analysis time can be reduced to less than I millisecond. In addition, no tagging with radioactive materials or chemical dyes is needed. In this work, we will review recent progress related to MALDI for DNA analysis.

  10. Liquid Beam Ion Desorption Mass Spectrometry for Evaluating CASSINI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Ferdinand; Reviol, Rene; Srama, Ralf; Trieloff, Mario; Postberg, Frank; Abel, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus emits plumes of ice particles from an area near its south pole which are detected and chemically analyzed by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on board the CASSINI spacecraft. Studying these ice particles provides unique insights into Enceladus geological properties. Technically the CDA is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer which delivers mass spectra of the particles and their fragments. Since interpretation of the available CDA data is particularly challenging we employ a laboratory experiment to imitate experimental conditions in space. Key part of our experimental setup is a micron-sized water beam in high vacuum. This beam is rapidly heated up by an infrared laser pulse, which is tuned to excite the OH-stretch vibration of water molecules. This causes the water beam to dissipate into small droplets, some of which carry a net charge even though the laser energy is well below the molecular ionisation energy. The charged droplets are then analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. With this experimental setup we successfully simulated the space born ice particles measured at Enceladus. By varying the laser intensity in our experiments, we can vary the amount of energy deposited in the liquid beam, and thus model different particle velocities. Also, variation of solute concentration in the water beam provides valuable information about ice particle composition. Some examples for anorganic solutes studied so far are sodium chloride, ammonia and hydrogen sulfite. A special feature of our experimental technique is that desorption of particles from the liquid beam is particularly soft. This is explained by the fact that all laser energy is absorbed by the water molecules. In this way molecular bonds of solutes stay intact and molecular solutes are transferred into the droplet phase without getting destroyed. This is particularly interesting in the context of analyzing organic compounds - some of which have been detected at Enceladus. Using

  11. Spatially resolved thermal desorption/ionization coupled with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for sub-micron analysis of a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The method includes providing a specimen for evaluation and a thermal desorption probe, thermally desorbing an analyte from a target site of said specimen using the thermally active tip to form a gaseous analyte, ionizing the gaseous analyte to form an ionized analyte, and analyzing a chemical composition of the ionized analyte. The thermally desorbing step can include heating said thermally active tip to above 200.degree. C., and positioning the target site and the thermally active tip such that the heating step forms the gaseous analyte. The thermal desorption probe can include a thermally active tip extending from a cantilever body and an apex of the thermally active tip can have a radius of 250 nm or less.

  12. Feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to monitor urinary steroid metabolites during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kauppila, Tiina J; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, Risto

    2015-06-23

    Steroids have important roles in the progress of pregnancy, and their study in maternal urine is a non-invasive method to monitor the steroid metabolome and its possible abnormalities. However, the current screening techniques of choice, namely immunoassays and gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, do not offer means for the rapid and non-targeted multi-analyte studies of large sample sets. In this study, we explore the feasibility of two ambient mass spectrometry methods in steroid fingerprinting. Urine samples from pregnant women were screened by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The urine samples were processed by solid phase extraction for the DESI measurements and by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid-extraction for DAPPI. Consequently, steroid glucuronides and sulfates were detected by negative ion mode DESI-HRMS, and free steroids by positive ion mode DAPPI-HRMS. In DESI, signals of eleven steroid metabolite ions were found to increase as the pregnancy proceeded, and in DAPPI ten steroid ions showed at least an order of magnitude increase during pregnancy. In DESI, the increase was seen for ions corresponding to C18 and C21 steroid glucuronides, while DAPPI detected increased excretion of C19 and C21 steroids. Thus both techniques show promise for the steroid marker screening in pregnancy.

  13. Surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques for application in forensics.

    PubMed

    Guinan, Taryn; Kirkbride, Paul; Pigou, Paul E; Ronci, Maurizio; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is an excellent analytical technique for the rapid and sensitive analysis of macromolecules (>700 Da), such as peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and synthetic polymers. However, the detection of smaller organic molecules with masses below 700 Da using MALDI-MS is challenging due to the appearance of matrix adducts and matrix fragment peaks in the same spectral range. Recently, nanostructured substrates have been developed that facilitate matrix-free laser desorption ionization (LDI), contributing to an emerging analytical paradigm referred to as surface-assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) MS. Since SALDI enables the detection of small organic molecules, it is rapidly growing in popularity, including in the field of forensics. At the same time, SALDI also holds significant potential as a high throughput analytical tool in roadside, work place and athlete drug testing. In this review, we discuss recent advances in SALDI techniques such as desorption ionization on porous silicon (DIOS), nano-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) and nano assisted laser desorption ionization (NALDI™) and compare their strengths and weaknesses with particular focus on forensic applications. These include the detection of illicit drug molecules and their metabolites in biological matrices and small molecule detection from forensic samples including banknotes and fingerprints. Finally, the review highlights recent advances in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) using SALDI techniques.

  14. A Comparison of Mass Transport Models for Evaluating U(VI) Desorption at the Decimeter Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannappan, R.; Hay, M. B.; Miller, A. W.; Kohler, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Curtis, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Uranium (VI) is a contaminant of concern in aquifers at many former uranium mills and processing facilities. Estimating the time-scale for desorption is important for addressing the long term risk of groundwater contamination. Determination of the rate limiting processes in desorption requires the evaluation of hydrodynamic and chemical conditions at a site along with the nature of the processes themselves. This research compares different mass transport models against the results of a decimeter scale laboratory desorption experiment. Different grain size fractions of contaminated sediments from the Naturita Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Act site were used to create porous media systems with known physical and chemical heterogeneity. The goal is to better understand the mass transport limitations associated with uranium desorption. Two dimensional reactive transport models with no immobile zones, a single immobile zone and multiple immobile zones with a distribution of rate coefficients were compared with observations at selected monitoring locations in the domain and with the flux-averaged concentrations in the effluent. The artificial heterogeneity provided regions with a contrast of desorption rates relative to the adjacent advective rates; flow interruption events showed variable extents of the commonly observed concentration rebound indicative of mass transfer out of immobile zones which were generally reproduced by the model. A comparison of the alternative model results will be used to determine the level of complexity necessary to accurately represent mass transport in the individual breakthrough curves at sampling ports and in the integrated breakthrough curve for the entire experiment.

  15. Laser desorption and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of 29-kDa Au:SR cluster compounds.

    PubMed

    Schaaff, T Gregory

    2004-11-01

    Positive and negative ions generated by laser-based ionization methods from three gold:thiolate cluster compounds are mass analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The three compounds have similar inorganic core masses ( approximately 29 kDa, approximately 145 Au atoms) but different n-alkanethiolate ligands associated with each cluster compound (Au:SR, R = butane, hexane, dodecane). Irradiation of neat films (laser desorption/ionization) and films generated by dilution of the cluster compounds in an organic acid matrix (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) with a nitrogen laser (337 nm) produced distinct ion abundances that are relevant to different structural aspects of the cluster compound. Laser desorption/ionization of neat Au:SR compound films produces ions consistent with the inorganic core mass (i.e., devoid of original hydrocarbon content). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization produces either ions with m/z values consistent with the core mass of the cluster compounds or ions with m/z values consistent with the approximate molecular weight of the cluster compounds, depending on ionization conditions. The ion abundances, and ionization conditions under which they are detected, provide insight into desorption/ionization processes for these unique cluster compounds as well as other analytes typically studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization.

  16. High-Speed Tandem Mass Spectrometric in Situ Imaging by Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Thomas, Mathew; Short, Joshua TL; Carson, James P.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Yang, Pengxiang; Prieto Conaway, Maria C.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-10-15

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high-resolution mass analysis (m/m=17,500 at m/z 200), and rapid spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous imaging and identification of more than 300 molecules from 92 selected m/z windows (± 1 Da) with a spatial resolution of better than 150 um. Uterine sections of implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy were analyzed in the ambient environment without any sample pre-treatment. MS/MS imaging was performed by scanning the sample under the nano-DESI probe at 10 um/s while acquiring higher-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) spectra for a targeted inclusion list of 92 m/z values at a rate of ~6.3 spectra/s. Molecular ions and their corresponding fragments, separated using high-resolution mass analysis, were assigned based on accurate mass measurement. Using this approach, we were able to identify and image both abundant and low-abundance isobaric species within each m/z window. MS/MS analysis enabled efficient separation and identification of isobaric sodium and potassium adducts of phospholipids. Furthermore, we identified several metabolites associated with early pregnancy and obtained the first 2D images of these molecules.

  17. High-speed tandem mass spectrometric in situ imaging by nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lanekoff, Ingela; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin; Thomas, Mathew; Short, Joshua; Carson, James P; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K; Yang, Pengxiang; Prieto Conaway, Maria C; Laskin, Julia

    2013-10-15

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high-resolution mass analysis of the fragment ions (m/Δm = 17 500 at m/z 200), and rapid spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous imaging and identification of a large number of metabolites and lipids from 92 selected m/z windows (±1 Da) with a spatial resolution of better than 150 μm. Mouse uterine sections of implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy were analyzed in the ambient environment without any sample pretreatment. MS/MS imaging was performed by scanning the sample under the nano-DESI probe at 10 μm/s, while higher-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) spectra were acquired for a targeted inclusion list of 92 m/z values at a rate of ∼6.3 spectra/s. Molecular ions and their corresponding fragments, separated by high-resolution mass analysis, were assigned on the basis of accurate mass measurement. Using this approach, we were able to identify and image both abundant and low-abundance isobaric and isomeric species within each m/z window. MS/MS analysis enabled efficient separation and identification of isomeric and isobaric phospholipids that are difficult to separate in full-scan mode. Furthermore, we identified several metabolites associated with early pregnancy and obtained the first 2D images of these molecules.

  18. Derivatization of small biomolecules for optimized matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tholey, Andreas; Wittmann, Christoph; Kang, Min-Jung; Bungert, Ditte; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Heinzle, Elmar

    2002-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) is a powerful tool for the measurement of low molecular mass compounds of biological interest. The limitations for this method are the volatility of many analytes, possible interference with matrix signals or bad ionization or desorption behavior of the compounds. We investigated the application of well-known and straightforward one-pot derivatization procedures to circumvent these problems. The derivatizations tested allow the measurement and the labeling of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, alpha-ketocarboxylic acids and amines.

  19. Recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have attracted great interest over past decades owing to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this article, we review recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS). Various types of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanodots, nanodiamond, nanofibers, nanohorns, and their derivative forms, are involved. The applications of these materials as new matrices or probes in matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI or SELDI MS) are discussed. Finally, we summarize current challenges and give our perspectives on the future of applications of carbon nanomaterials in LDI MS.

  20. Fossil fuel characterization using laser desorption mass spectrometry: Applications and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.E.; Winans, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Laser desorption mass spectroscopy (LDMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) are applicable to the high molecular weight compounds in fossil fuels which resist intact ionization. LD or MALDI of coals and extracts do not show reproducible ion intensity over mass 2000. This paper describes the scope and limitations of LD and MALD in time-of-flight mass spectrometers applied to high molecular weight molecules such as proteins and polymers. Coal was also analyzed. It is concluded that the sample preparation step is perhaps the most important part in MALDI. Observed high mass ions in coal may be from contaminant proteins. Optimal matrices must be found. Finally, the mass spectrum is senstive to number average molecular weight; a low value, however, does not preclude presence of high molecular weight species.

  1. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption - SALDI mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnikov, A. A.; Kubasov, A. E.; Georgieva, V. B.; Borodkov, A. S.; Nikiforov, S. M.; Simanovsky, Ya O.; Alimpiev, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  2. Identification of carbohydrates by matrix-free material-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hashir, Muhammad Ahsan; Stecher, Guenther; Bakry, Rania; Kasemsook, Saowapak; Blassnig, Bernhard; Feuerstein, Isabel; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Bobleter, Ortwin; Bonn, Guenther K

    2007-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a sensitive mass spectrometric technique which utilises acidic materials as matrices for laser energy absorption, desorption and ionisation of analytes. These matrix materials produce background signals particularly in the low-mass range and make the detection and identification of small molecules difficult and nearly impossible. To overcome this problem this paper introduces matrix-free material-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS) for the screening and analysis of small molecules such as carbohydrates. For this purpose, 4,4'-azo-dianiline was immobilised on silica gel enabling the absorption of laser energy sufficient for successful desorption and ionisation of low molecular weight compounds. The particle and pore sizes, the solvent system for suspension and the sample preparation procedures have been optimised. The newly synthesised MELDI material delivered excellent spectra with regard to signal-to-noise ratio and detection sensitivity. Finally, wheat straw degradation products and Salix alba L. plant extracts were analysed proving the high performance and excellent behaviour of the introduced material.

  3. Characterization of nanoparticles by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramalinga, Uma; Clogston, Jeffrey D; Patri, Anil K; Simpson, John T

    2011-01-01

    Determining the molecular weight of nanoparticles can be challenging. The molecular weight characterization of dendrimers, for example, with varying covalent and noncovalent modifications is critical to their use as therapeutics. As such, we describe in this chapter a protocol for the analysis of these molecules by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

  4. Identification of Bacteria Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, Mollie G.; Strunk, Kevin B.; Giaquinto, Lisa M.; Wagner, Jennifer A.; Pollack, Sidney; Patton, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS or simply MALDI) has become ubiquitous in the identification and analysis of biomacromolecules. As a technique that allows for the molecular weight determination of otherwise nonvolatile molecules, MALDI has had a profound impact in the molecular…

  5. Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry for High Throughput DNA Analysis and Its Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, S.L.; Chen, C.H.; Golovlev, V.V.; Isola, N.R.; Matteson, K.J.; Potter, N.T.; Taranenko, N.I.

    1999-01-23

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) has been developed for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and DNA Fingerprinting for forensic applications. With LDMS, the speed of DNA analysis can be much faster than conventional gel electrophoresis. No dye or radioactive tagging to DNA segments for detection is needed. LDMS is emerging as a new alternative technology for DNA analysis.

  6. Laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer DNA analyzer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.W.; Martin, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer DNA analyzer which can be broadly used for biomedical research. Tasks include: pulsed ion extraction to improve resolution; two-component matrices to enhance ionization; and solid phase DNA purification.

  7. Cellular localization of quinolizidine alkaloids by laser desorption mass spectrometry (LAMMA 1000).

    PubMed

    Wink, M; Heinen, H J; Vogt, H; Schiebel, H M

    1984-12-01

    Stem sections of Lupinus polyphyllus and Cytisus scoparius have been analyzed for the distribution of quinolizidine alkaloids by laser desorption mass spectrometry, employing a LAMMA 1000 instrument. Sparteine and lupanine could be recorded and were found to be restricted to the epidermis and probably also to the neighbouring 1 or 2 subepidermal cell layers.

  8. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for high-throughput DNA analysis and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Golovlev, Valeri V.; Taranenko, N. I.; Allman, S. L.; Isola, Narayana R.; Potter, N. T.; Matteson, K. J.; Chang, Linus Y.

    1999-05-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) has been developed for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications. With LDMS, the speed of DNA analysis can be much faster than conventional gel electrophoresis. No dye or radioactive tagging to DNA segments for detection is needed. LDMS is emerging as a new alternative technology for DNA analysis.

  9. Laser desorption mass spectrometry: Technical limitations, fundamentals, and application to coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.E.; Winans, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Objective of this study is to assess scope and limitations of laser desorption (LD) and matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) as applied to coals. LD and MALDI mass spectrometry are increasingly used to detect intact molecular species, such as proteins with masses from 1000 to 100,000 amu and beyond. MALDI is also being used for high molecular weight polymers. A good example, related to coal-type systems, is the report on lignin mass spectrometry by MALDI. The mass spectrum shows a wide molecular distribution of several hundred to larger than 16000, with the center of gravity of the distribution around 2600. Results are interpreted in terms of oligomeric lignin molecules. Thus, if there are indeed large molecular species in a polymeric content in coals or coal extracts, MALDI is an attractive technique.

  10. Graphene matrix for signal enhancement in ambient plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cuilan; Li, Xianjiang; Bai, Yu; Xu, Gege; Feng, Baosheng; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2013-09-30

    In this work, the signal intensity of ambient plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS) was significantly increased with graphene as matrix. The graphene functions as a substrate to trap analytes, absorb energy from the visible laser irradiation and transfer energy to the analytes to facilitate the laser desorption process. The desorbed analytes are further ionized by helium plasma and analyzed by MS. Compared with a traditional organic matrix, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), graphene exhibited much higher desorption efficiency for most of the compounds benefitting from the strong optical absorption at 532nm. The performance has been confirmed by the facile analysis of more than forty compounds with various structures. Additionally, this method was successfully applied to distinguish three kinds of Chinese tea leaves by detecting the endogenous caffeine and theanine, which proved the utility, facility and convenience of this method for rapid screening of main components in real samples.

  11. Remote mass spectrometric sampling of electrospray- and desorption electrospray-generated ions using an air ejector.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R Brent; Bereman, Michael S; Muddiman, David C; Hawkridge, Adam M

    2007-10-01

    A commercial air ejector was coupled to an electrospray ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ) to transport remotely generated ions from both electrospray (ESI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) sources. We demonstrate the remote analysis of a series of analyte ions that range from small molecules and polymers to polypeptides using the AE-LTQ interface. The details of the ESI-AE-LTQ and DESI-AE-LTQ experimental configurations are described and preliminary mass spectrometric data are presented.

  12. Mass-tag enhanced immuno-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of intact protein antigens.

    PubMed

    Lorey, Martina; Adler, Belinda; Yan, Hong; Soliymani, Rabah; Ekström, Simon; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Laurell, Thomas; Baumann, Marc

    2015-05-19

    A new read-out method for antibody arrays using laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) is presented. Small, photocleavable reporter molecules with a defined mass called "mass-tags" are used for detection of immunocaptured proteins from human plasma. Using prostate specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer, as a model antigen, a high sensitivity generic detection methodology based immunocapture with a primary antibody and with a biotin labeled secondary antibody coupled to mass-tagged avidin is demonstrated. As each secondary antibody can bind several avidin molecules, each having a large number of mass-tags, signal amplification can be achieved. The developed PSA sandwich mass-tag analysis method provided a limit of detection below 200 pg/mL (6 pM) for a 10 μL plasma sample, well below the clinically relevant cutoff value of 3-4 ng/mL. This brings the limit of detection (LOD) for detection of intact antigens with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) down to levels comparable to capture by anti-peptide antibodies selected reaction monitoring (SISCAPA SRM) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as 6 pM corresponds to a maximal amount of 60 amol PSA captured on-spot. We propose the potential use of LDI (laser desorption/ionization) with mass-tag read-out implemented in a sandwich assay format for low abundant and/or early disease biomarker detection.

  13. Matrix-assisted laser desorption fourier transform mass spectrometry for biological compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hettich, R.; Buchanan, M.

    1990-01-01

    The recent development of matrix-assisted UV laser desorption (LD) mass spectrometry has made possible the ionization and detection of extremely large molecules (with molecular weights exceeding 100,000 Daltons). This technique has generated enormous interest in the biological community for the direct examination of large peptides and oligonucleotides. Although this matrix-assisted ionization method has been developed and used almost exclusively with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers, research is currently in progress to demonstrate this technique with trapped ion mass spectrometers, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTMS). The potential capabilities of FTMS for wide mass range, high resolution measurement, and ion trapping experiments suggest that this instrumental technique should be useful for the detailed structural characterization of large ions generated by the matrix-assisted technique. We have recently demonstrated that matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption can be successfully used with FTMS for the ionization of small peptides. The objective of this report is to summarize the application and current limitations of matrix-assisted laser desorption FTMS for the characterization of peptides and oligonucleotides at the isomeric level. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonks, James P.; Galloway, Ewan C.; King, Martin O.; Kerherve, Gwilherm; Watts, John F.

    2016-08-01

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  15. Thin-Layer Chromatography/Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Investigation of Goldenseal Alkaloids

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2007-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was investigated as a means to qualitatively identify and to quantify analytes directly from developed normal-phase thin layer chromatography plates. The atmospheric sampling capillary of a commercial ion trap mass spectrometer was extended to permit sampling and ionization of analytes in bands separated on intact TLC plates (up to 10 cm x 10 cm). A surface positioning software package and the appropriate hardware enabled computer-controlled surface scanning along the length of development lanes or at fixed RF value across the plates versus the stationary desorption electrospray emitter. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and related alkaloids and commercial dietary supplements were used as standards and samples. Alkaloid standards and samples were spotted and separated on aluminum- or glass-backed plates using established literature methods. The mass spectral signal levels as a function of desorption spray solvent were investigated with acetonitrile proving superior to methanol. The detection levels (ca. 5 ng each or 14 -28 pmol) in mass spectral full scan mode were determined statistically from the calibration curves (2.5 - 100 pmol) for the standards berberine, palmatine and hydrastinine spotted as a mixture and separated on the plates. Qualitative screening of the major alkaloids present in six different over-the-counter "goldenseal" dietary supplements was accomplished by obtaining full scan mass spectra during surface scans along the development lane in the direction of increasing RF value. In one sample, alkaloids were detected that strongly suggested the presence of at least one additional herb undeclared on the product label. These same data indicated the misidentification of one of the alkaloids in the TLC literature. Quantities of the alkaloids present in two of the samples determined using the mass spectral data were in reasonable agreement with the label values indicating the quantitative ability of

  16. The Application of Ultrafast Laser Pulses to Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yang

    Ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses display exceptional performance for the selective ablation of materials, includes metals, semiconductors, and biological tissues. They do not damage the remaining unablated portion of a sample, which permits the possibility of depth profiling by repeat sampling at the same location. With sufficiently micro-focused fs laser pulse length beam, high lateral resolution mass spectrometry imaging is possible, while sample damage may degrade ultimate lateral resolution in some other methods. Combining imaging and depth profiling could ultimately leads to tomographical mass spectrometry or 3D imaging MS. Laser postionization, a "soft" ionization method, was combined with ultrafast laser desorption for enhanced molecular analysis. A customized femtosecond laser desorption/ablation postionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer was designed and built. The construction and performance of both phases including the VUV source are detailed. Instrument control software was written to operate this instrument, and many automated experiments were successfully demonstrated by this software. Elemental and molecular analysis was carried out on the instrument and demonstrated exceptional performance for fs laser pulse sampling of small areas. Studies demonstrated the imaging and depth profiling capability of fs-LDPI on metals, semiconductors and intact biofilm tissues. Attempts were made to reach the limit of lateral resolution of imaging by fs-LDPI-MS. The results showed similar lateral resolution of <2 mum for both fs 800 nm and 400 nm desorption beams. To improve the repetition rate for high speed imaging application, an alternative LDPI scheme was designed and constructed. The fs 800 beam was tripled to 267 nm and delivered into the ion source as an ionization laser, while a ns 349 nm pulse laser was used for desorption. Preliminary data showed certain intact molecular ions can be detected. Fragmentation tendency was measured against various

  17. Forensic applications of desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude

    2013-03-10

    Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is an emerging analytical technique that enables in situ mass spectrometric analysis of specimens under ambient conditions. It has been successfully applied to a large range of forensically relevant materials. This review assesses and highlights forensic applications of DESI-MS including the analysis and detection of illicit drugs, explosives, chemical warfare agents, inks and documents, fingermarks, gunshot residues and drugs of abuse in urine and plasma specimens. The minimal specimen preparation required for analysis and the sensitivity of detection achieved offer great advantages, especially in the field of forensic science.

  18. The Need for Speed in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Boone M.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has emerged as a powerful analytical tool enabling the direct molecular mapping of many types of tissue. Specifically, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization (MALDI) represents one of the most broadly applicable IMS technologies. In recent years, advances in solid state laser technology, mass spectrometry instrumentation, computer technology, and experimental methodology have produced IMS systems capable of unprecedented data acquisition speeds (>50 pixels/second). In applications of this technology, throughput is an important consideration when designing an IMS experiment. As IMS becomes more widely adopted, continual improvements in experimental setups will be important to address biologically and clinically relevant time scales. PMID:27570788

  19. Pyroelectricity Assisted Infrared-Laser Desorption Ionization (PAI-LDI) for Atmospheric Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanyan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Wei, Zhenwei; Gong, Xiaoyun; Yang, Chengdui; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-08-01

    A new atmospheric pressure ionization method termed pyroelectricity-assisted infrared laser desorption ionization (PAI-LDI) was developed in this study. The pyroelectric material served as both sample target plate and enhancing ionization substrate, and an IR laser with wavelength of 1064 nm was employed to realize direct desorption and ionization of the analytes. The mass spectra of various compounds obtained on pyroelectric material were compared with those of other substrates. For the five standard substances tested in this work, LiNbO3 substrate produced the highest ion yield and the signal intensity was about 10 times higher than that when copper was used as substrate. For 1-adamantylamine, as low as 20 pg (132.2 fmol) was successfully detected. The active ingredient in (Compound Paracetamol and 1-Adamantylamine Hydrochloride Capsules), 1-adamantylamine, can be sensitively detected at an amount as low as 150 pg, when the medicine stock solution was diluted with urine. Monosaccharide and oligosaccharides in Allium Cepa L. juice was also successfully identified with PAI-LDI. The method did not require matrix-assisted external high voltage or other extra facility-assisted set-ups for desorption/ionization. This study suggested exciting application prospect of pyroelectric materials in matrix- and electricity-free atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry research.

  20. Precursor ion scan profiles of acylcarnitines by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Giuseppe; D'Apolito, Oceania; Corso, Gaetano

    2008-12-01

    The fatty acyl esters of L-carnitine (acylcarnitines) are useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of some inborn errors of metabolism analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In this study the acylcarnitines were analyzed by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization using a commercial tandem mass spectrometer (APTDCI-MS/MS). The method is based on the precursor ion scan mode determination of underivatized acylcarnitines desorbed from samples by a hot desolvation gas flow and ionized by a corona pin discharge. During desorption/ionization step the temperature induces the degradation of acylcarnitines; nevertheless, the common fragment to all acylcarnitines [MH-59](+) is useful for analyzing their profile. APTDCI parameters, including angle of collection and incidence, gas flows and temperatures, were optimized for acylcarnitines. The experiments were performed drying 2 microL of an equimolar mixture of acylcarnitine standards on a glass slide. The specificity was evaluated by comparing product ion spectra and the precursor ion spectra of 85 m/z of acylcarnitines obtained by the APTDCI method and by electrospray ionization flow injection analysis (ESI-FIA). The method was also employed to analyze acylcarnitines extracted from a pathological dried blood spot and a control. The method enables analysis of biological samples and recognition of some acylcarnitines that are diagnostic markers of inherited metabolic diseases. The intrinsic high-throughput analysis of the ambient desorption ionization methods offers a new opportunity either for its potential application in clinical chemistry and for the expanded screening of some inborn errors of metabolism.

  1. Brominated Tyrosine and Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Analysis by Laser Desorption VUV Postionization and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Blaze, Melvin M. T.; Takahashi, Lynelle; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Gasper, Gerald; Pleticha, F. Douglas; Hanley, Luke

    2011-03-14

    The small molecular analyte 3,5-dibromotyrosine (Br2Y) and chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) with and without adsorbed Br2Y were analyzed by laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). LDPI-MS using 7.87 eV laser and tunable 8 ? 12.5 eV synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation found that desorption of clusters from Br2Y films allowed detection by≤8 eV single photon ionization. Thermal desorption and electronic structure calculations determined the ionization energy of Br2Y to be ~;;8.3?0.1 eV and further indicated that the lower ionization energies of clusters permitted their detection at≤8 eV photon energies. However, single photon ionization could only detect Br2Y adsorbed within PEMs when using either higher photon energies or matrix addition to the sample. All samples were also analyzed by 25 keV Bi3 + secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), with the negative ion spectra showing strong parent ion signal which complemented that observed by LDPI-MS. The negative ion SIMS depended strongly on the high electron affinity of this specific analyte and the analyte?s condensed phase environment.

  2. In-Situ Organic Compound Analysis of the Meteorite Surface by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraoka, H.; Hashiguchi, M.

    2016-08-01

    It-situ analysis of organic compounds on the meteorite surface was performed by desorption electrospray ionization coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. Indigenous peaks of meteorite origin were discriminated from the background.

  3. Large scale nanoparticle screening for small molecule analysis in laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Yagnik, Gargey B.; Hansen, Rebecca L.; Korte, Andrew R.; ...

    2016-08-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as efficient matrixes for small molecule profiling and imaging by laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), but so far there has been no systematic study comparing different NPs in the analysis of various classes of small molecules. Here, we present a large scale screening of 13 NPs for the analysis of two dozen small metabolite molecules. Many NPs showed much higher LDI efficiency than organic matrixes in positive mode and some NPs showed comparable efficiencies for selected analytes in negative mode. Our results suggest that a thermally driven desorption process is a key factor for metalmore » oxide NPs, but chemical interactions are also very important, especially for other NPs. Furthermore, the screening results provide a useful guideline for the selection of NPs in the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.« less

  4. Development of Laser Desorption Imaging Mass Spectrometry Methods to Investigate the Molecular Composition of Latent Fingermarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Nidia; Dufresne, Martin; Chauhan, Vinita; Chaurand, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    For a century, fingermark analysis has been one of the most important and common methods in forensic investigations. Modern chemical analysis technologies have added the potential to determine the molecular composition of fingermarks and possibly identify chemicals a suspect may have come into contact with. Improvements in analytical detection of the molecular composition of fingermarks is therefore of great importance. In this regard, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption ionization (LDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) have proven to be useful technologies for fingermark analysis. In these analyses, the choice of ionizing agent and its mode of deposition are critical steps for the identification of molecular markers. Here we propose two novel and complementary IMS approaches for endogenous and exogenous substance detection in fingermarks: sublimation of 2-mercaptobenzothiazol (2-MBT) matrix and silver sputtering.

  5. Large scale nanoparticle screening for small molecule analysis in laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yagnik, Gargey B.; Hansen, Rebecca L.; Korte, Andrew R.; Reichert, Malinda D.; Vela, Javier; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-08-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as efficient matrixes for small molecule profiling and imaging by laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), but so far there has been no systematic study comparing different NPs in the analysis of various classes of small molecules. Here, we present a large scale screening of 13 NPs for the analysis of two dozen small metabolite molecules. Many NPs showed much higher LDI efficiency than organic matrixes in positive mode and some NPs showed comparable efficiencies for selected analytes in negative mode. Our results suggest that a thermally driven desorption process is a key factor for metal oxide NPs, but chemical interactions are also very important, especially for other NPs. Furthermore, the screening results provide a useful guideline for the selection of NPs in the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.

  6. Molecular typing of Meningiomas by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Surgical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Norton, Isaiah; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Dunn, Ian F.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2014-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most frequent intracranial tumors. The majority is benign slow-growing tumors but they can be difficult to treat depending on their location and size. While meningiomas are well delineated on magnetic resonance imaging by their uptake of contrast, surgical limitations still present themselves from not knowing the extent of invasion of the dura matter by meningioma cells. The development of tools to characterize tumor tissue in real or near real time could prevent recurrence after tumor resection by allowing for more precise surgery, i.e. removal of tumor with preservation of healthy tissue. The development of ambient ionization mass spectrometry for molecular characterization of tissue and its implementation in the surgical decision-making workflow carry the potential to fulfill this need. Here, we present the characterization of meningioma and dura mater by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to validate the technique for the molecular assessment of surgical margins and diagnosis of meningioma from surgical tissue in real-time. Nine stereotactically resected surgical samples and three autopsy samples were analyzed by standard histopathology and mass spectrometry imaging. All samples indicated a strong correlation between results from both techniques. We then highlight the value of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the molecular subtyping/subgrouping of meningiomas from a series of forty genetically characterized specimens. The minimal sample preparation required for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry offers a distinct advantage for applications relying on real-time information such as surgical decision-making. The technology here was tested to distinguish meningioma from dura mater as an approach to precisely define surgical margins. In addition we classify meningiomas into fibroblastic and meningothelial subtypes and more notably recognize meningiomas with NF2 genetic aberrations. PMID

  7. Ambient Femtosecond Laser Vaporization and Nanosecond Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Paul; Levis, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Recent investigations of ambient laser-based transfer of molecules into the gas phase for subsequent mass spectral analysis have undergone a renaissance resulting from the separation of vaporization and ionization events. Here, we seek to provide a snapshot of recent femtosecond (fs) duration laser vaporization and nanosecond (ns) duration laser desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry experiments. The former employs pulse durations of <100 fs to enable matrix-free laser vaporization with little or no fragmentation. When coupled to electrospray ionization, femtosecond laser vaporization provides a universal, rapid mass spectral analysis method requiring no sample workup. Remarkably, laser pulses with intensities exceeding 1013 W cm-2 desorb intact macromolecules, such as proteins, and even preserve the condensed phase of folded or unfolded protein structures according to the mass spectral charge state distribution, as demonstrated for cytochrome c and lysozyme. Because of the ability to vaporize and ionize multiple components from complex mixtures for subsequent analysis, near perfect classification of explosive formulations, plant tissue phenotypes, and even the identity of the manufacturer of smokeless powders can be determined by multivariate statistics. We also review the more mature field of nanosecond laser desorption for ambient mass spectrometry, covering the wide range of systems analyzed, the need for resonant absorption, and the spatial imaging of complex systems like tissue samples.

  8. Ambient femtosecond laser vaporization and nanosecond laser desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Paul; Levis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of ambient laser-based transfer of molecules into the gas phase for subsequent mass spectral analysis have undergone a renaissance resulting from the separation of vaporization and ionization events. Here, we seek to provide a snapshot of recent femtosecond (fs) duration laser vaporization and nanosecond (ns) duration laser desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry experiments. The former employs pulse durations of <100 fs to enable matrix-free laser vaporization with little or no fragmentation. When coupled to electrospray ionization, femtosecond laser vaporization provides a universal, rapid mass spectral analysis method requiring no sample workup. Remarkably, laser pulses with intensities exceeding 10(13) W cm(-2) desorb intact macromolecules, such as proteins, and even preserve the condensed phase of folded or unfolded protein structures according to the mass spectral charge state distribution, as demonstrated for cytochrome c and lysozyme. Because of the ability to vaporize and ionize multiple components from complex mixtures for subsequent analysis, near perfect classification of explosive formulations, plant tissue phenotypes, and even the identity of the manufacturer of smokeless powders can be determined by multivariate statistics. We also review the more mature field of nanosecond laser desorption for ambient mass spectrometry, covering the wide range of systems analyzed, the need for resonant absorption, and the spatial imaging of complex systems like tissue samples.

  9. Desorption electro-flow focusing ionization of explosives and narcotics for ambient pressure mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Thomas P; Brewer, Tim M; Gillen, Greg

    2013-10-07

    Desorption electro-flow focusing ionization (DEFFI), a desorption-based ambient ion source, was developed, characterized, and evaluated as a possible source for field deployable ambient pressure mass spectrometry (APMS). DEFFI, based on an electro-flow focusing system, provides a unique configuration for the generation of highly charged energetic droplets for sample analysis and ionization. A concentrically flowing carrier gas focuses the liquid emanating from a capillary through a small orifice, generating a steady fluid jet. An electric field is applied across this jet formation region, producing high velocity charged droplets that impinge on an analyte laden surface. This configuration separates the jet charging region from the external environment, eliminating detrimental effects from droplet space charge or target surface charging. The sample desorption and ionization processes operate similar to desorption electrospray ionization (DESI). DEFFI demonstrated strong signal intensities and improved signal-to-noise ratios in both positive and negative mode mass spectrometry for narcotics, i.e., cocaine, and explosives, i.e., cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), respectively. A characterization of DEFFI ionization mechanisms identified operation regimes of both electrospray and corona discharge based analyte ionization, as well as limitations in overall signal. In addition, the DEFFI response was directly compared to DESI-MS under similar operating conditions. This comparison established a wider and more stable optimal operating range, while requiring an order of magnitude lower applied gas pressure and applied potential for DEFFI than DESI. These reductions are due to the physical mode of jet formation and geometric configuration differences between DEFFI and DESI, pointing to a potential benefit of DEFFI-MS for field implementation.

  10. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  11. Identification of Microalgae by Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Multiple Nanomatrices.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lung-Hsiang; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Shih, Chi-Yu; Hsiung, Tung-Ming; Chang, Jeng; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a simple method to identify microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using three different substrates: HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe nanostructures. The fragmentation/ionization processes of complex molecules in algae varied according to the heat absorption and transfer efficiency of the nanostructured matrices (NMs). Therefore, the mass spectra obtained for microalgae showed different patterns of m/z values for different NMs. The spectra contained both significant and nonsignificant peaks. Constructing a Venn diagram with the significant peaks obtained for algae when using HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe NMs in m/z ratio range 100-1000, a unique relationship among the three sets of values was obtained. This unique relationship of sets is different for each species of microalgae. Therefore, by observing the particular relationship of sets, we successfully identified different algae such as Isochrysis galbana, Emiliania huxleyi, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nannochloris sp., Skeletonema cf. costatum, and Tetraselmis chui. This simple and cost-effective SALDI-MS analysis method coupled with multi-nanomaterials as substrates may be extended to identify other microalgae and microorganisms in real samples. Graphical Abstract Identification of microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry coupled with three different mercury-based nanosubstrates.

  12. Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry of antibiotic-treated bacterial biofilms using tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-09-01

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0-12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics and extracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both from neat and intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  13. Imaging of Lipids and Metabolites Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela; Laskin, Julia

    2015-01-17

    In recent years, mass spectroscopy imaging (MSI) has emerged as a foundational technique in metabolomics and drug screening providing deeper understanding of complex mechanistic pathways within biochemical systems and biological organisms. We have been invited to contribute a chapter to a new Springer series volume, entitled “Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Small Molecules”. The volume is planned for the highly successful lab protocol series Methods in Molecular Biology, published by Humana Press, USA. The volume is aimed to equip readers with step-by-step mass spectrometric imaging protocols and bring rapidly maturing methods of MS imaging to life science researchers. The chapter will provide a detailed protocol of ambient MSI by use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization.

  14. Chemical reactivity in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Enjalbal; Sauvagnat; Lamaty; Lazaro; Martinez; Mouchet; Roux; Aubagnac

    1999-01-01

    During the control of a multistep organic synthesis on a soluble polymer (PEG) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, a chemical reactivity was encountered when the matrix was acidic, for the samples where the amino moiety of the anchored compounds was protected as a Schiff base. Such imine hydrolysis was proven to be solely mediated by the acidic matrix during analyses since the expected protected structures were detected when the experiments were duplicated with a non-acidic matrix. Even if MALDI mass spectrometry was found to be more convenient than electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the monitoring of liquid phase organic syntheses, the chemical reactivity imparted by the use of a matrix must be taken into account to avoid erroneous spectra interpretations. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of discrete mass poly(butylene glutarate) oligomers.

    PubMed

    Williams, John B; Chapman, Toby M; Hercules, David M

    2003-07-01

    The mass dependency of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) response has been studied using equimolar mixtures of synthetic discrete mass poly(butylene glutarate) (PBG) oligomers of known structure having degrees of polymerization of 8, 16, 32, and 64. Mass discrimination observed was attributed to choice of matrix and detector saturation caused by higher laser intensity and inclusion of matrix ions in the MALDI spectra. Optimization of sample preparation and instrumental parameters provided uniform response over the mass ranged spanned by these four oligomers. The oligomer mixture was shown to serve as a model of more complex polymer distributions in the mass range 780-6000 Da, and application of the discrete mass oligomers as internal and calibration standards was demonstrated. Inclusion of PBG discrete mass oligomers as an internal standard in a quasi-equimolar mixture with polydispersed poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) indicated that some diminution of response occurred during the analysis of this mixture of materials. Reasons for differences in the corrected molecular weight averages of the polydispersed PBA obtained from measurements using MALDI and GPC were studied using individual discrete mass oligomers as calibration standards for GPC. The data indicated that differences in hydrodynamic volumes of PBG oligomers and PEG standards at similar masses resulted in an overestimation by GPC of the molecular weight averages of the PBA distribution.

  16. Determination of proflavine in rat whole blood without sample pretreatment by laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaxin; Hu, Yongjun; Lu, Qiao; Wang, Pengchao; Zhan, Huaqi

    2017-02-10

    A novel pretreatment-free method involving laser desorption postionization (LDPI) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the monitoring of proflavine level in rat whole blood. It comprises a protocol for dosing via intravenous administration and collection of whole blood, followed by direct LDPI-MS analysis without any sample pretreatment. An intense ion signal at m/z 209 was observed from whole blood without any interference signals, except some background signals below m/z 100. The calibration curve was established with use of 9-phenylacridine as the internal standard for proflavine determination from the plotting of the peak ratios of proflavine to the internal standard, with a correlation coefficient (R (2)) greater than 0.99. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.48 pmol/mm(2) and the quantification range was 0.5-16.5 μg/mL for proflavine. In addition, only a minimal matrix effect was observed, as expected from considerations of the desorption and ionization mechanism. Interday and intraday accuracy and precision were calculated to be within 13% and 82-114%, respectively. Estimated concentrations of proflavine residue in whole blood were also successfully obtained at selected time points after dosing. The proposed method is simple, low cost, and sensitive, and should be seen as a complementary method for monitoring drug levels in blood. Graphical Abstract Monitoring proflavine levels in rat whole blood at different time points using laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS).

  17. Laser desorption mass spectrometry and small angle neutron scattering of heavy fossil materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.E.; Winans, R.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1997-09-01

    The determination of the structural building blocks and the molecular weight range of heavy hydrocarbon materials is of crucial importance in research on their reactivity and for their processing. The chemically and physically heterogenous nature of heavy hydrocarbon materials, such as coals, heavy petroleum fractions, and residues, dictates that their structure and reactivity patterns be complicated. The problem is further complicated by the fact that the molecular structure and molecular weight distribution of these materials is not dependent on a single molecule, but on a complex mixture of molecules which vary among coals and heavy petroleum samples. Laser Desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) is emerging as a technique for molecular weight determination having found widespread use in biological polymer research, but is still a relatively new technique in the fossil fuel area. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provides information on the size and shape of heavy fossil materials. SANS offers the advantages of high penetration power even in thick cells at high temperatures and high contrast for hydrocarbon systems dispersed in deuterated solvents. LDMS coupled with time of flight has the advantages of high sensitivity and transmission and high mass range. We have used LDMS to examine various heavy fossil-derived materials including: long chain hydrocarbons, asphaltenes from petroleum vacuum resids, and coals. This paper describes the application of laser desorption and small angle neutron scattering techniques to the analysis of components in coals, petroleum resids and unsaturated polymers.

  18. Molecular Ionization-Desorption Analysis Source (MIDAS) for Mass Spectrometry: Thin-Layer Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Gregory T.; Wilhide, Joshua A.; LaCourse, William R.

    2016-02-01

    Molecular ionization-desorption analysis source (MIDAS), which is a desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) type source, for mass spectrometry has been developed as a multi-functional platform for the direct sampling of surfaces. In this article, its utility for the analysis of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates is highlighted. Amino acids, which are difficult to visualize without staining reagents or charring, were detected and identified directly from a TLC plate. To demonstrate the full potential of MIDAS, all active ingredients from an analgesic tablet, separated on a TLC plate, were successfully detected using both positive and negative ion modes. The identity of each of the compounds was confirmed from their mass spectra and compared against standards. Post separation, the chemical signal (blue permanent marker) as reference marks placed at the origin and solvent front were used to calculate retention factor (Rf) values from the resulting ion chromatogram. The quantitative capabilities of the device were exhibited by scanning caffeine spots on a TLC plate of increasing sample amount. A linear curve based on peak are, R2 = 0.994, was generated for seven spots ranging from 50 to 1000 ng of caffeine per spot.

  19. Ammonium Bicarbonate Addition Improves the Detection of Proteins by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarvar, Elahe; Venter, Andre R.

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of protein by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is considered impractical due to a mass-dependent loss in sensitivity with increase in protein molecular weights. With the addition of ammonium bicarbonate to the DESI-MS analysis the sensitivity towards proteins by DESI was improved. The signal to noise ratio (S/N) improvement for a variety of proteins increased between 2- to 3-fold relative to solvent systems containing formic acid and more than seven times relative to aqueous methanol spray solvents. Three methods for ammonium bicarbonate addition during DESI-MS were investigated. The additive delivered improvements in S/N whether it was mixed with the analyte prior to sample deposition, applied over pre-prepared samples, or simply added to the desorption spray solvent. The improvement correlated well with protein pI but not with protein size. Other ammonium or bicarbonate salts did not produce similar improvements in S/N, nor was this improvement in S/N observed for ESI of the same samples. As was previously described for ESI, DESI also caused extensive protein unfolding upon the addition of ammonium bicarbonate.

  20. Laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry of vacuum UV photo-processed methanol ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paardekooper, D. M.; Bossa, J.-B.; Linnartz, H.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Methanol in the interstellar medium mainly forms upon sequential hydrogenation of solid CO. With typical abundances of up to 15% (with respect to water) it is an important constituent of interstellar ices where it is considered as a precursor in the formation of large and complex organic molecules (COMs), e.g. upon vacuum UV (VUV) photo-processing or exposure to cosmic rays. Aims: This study aims at detecting novel complex organic molecules formed during the VUV photo-processing of methanol ice in the laboratory using a technique more sensitive than regular surface diagnostic tools. In addition, the formation kinetics of the main photo-products of methanol are unravelled for an astronomically relevant temperature (20 K) and radiation dose. Methods: The VUV photo-processing of CH3OH ice is studied by applying laser desorption post-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDPI TOF-MS), and analysed by combining molecule-specific fragmentation and desorption features. Results: The mass spectra correspond to fragment ions originating from a number of previously recorded molecules and from new COMs, such as the series (CO)xH, with x = 3 and y < 3x-1, to which prebiotic glycerin belongs. The formation of these large COMs has not been reported in earlier photolysis studies and suggests that such complex species may form in the solid state under interstellar conditions.

  1. Revisiting the quantitative features of surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Yi; Lee, Kai-Chieh; Kuo, Yen-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2016-10-28

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is frequently used to analyse small organics owing to its clean background. Inorganic materials can be used as energy absorbers and the transfer medium to facilitate the desorption/ionization of analytes; thus, they are used as SALDI-assisting materials. Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of SALDI-MS in quantitative analysis of small organics. However, some characteristics occurring in SALDI-MS require certain attention to ensure the reliability of the quantitative analysis results. The appearance of a coffee-ring effect in SALDI sample preparation is the primary factor that can affect quantitative SALDI-MS analysis results. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports relating to quantitative SALDI-MS analysis that discuss or consider this effect. In this study, the coffee-ring effect is discussed using nanoparticles and nanostructured substrates as SALDI-assisting materials to show how this effect influences SALDI-MS analysis results. Potential solutions for overcoming the existing problems are also suggested.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  2. Multivariate analysis of progressive thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-09-01

    Thermal decomposition of poly dimethyl siloxane compounds, Sylgard{reg_sign} 184 and 186, were examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. The technique involves sequentially heating a sample of the material of interest with subsequent analysis in a commercial GC/MS system. The decomposition chromatograms were analyzed using multivariate analysis tools including principal component analysis (PCA), factor rotation employing the varimax criterion, and multivariate curve resolution. The results of the analysis show seven components related to offgassing of various fractions of siloxanes that vary as a function of temperature. Thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique for analyzing chemical mixtures. It has great potential in numerous analytic areas including materials analysis, sports medicine, in the detection of designer drugs; and biological research for metabolomics. Data analysis is complicated, far from automated and can result in high false positive or false negative rates. We have demonstrated a step-wise TD/GC-MS technique that removes more volatile compounds from a sample before extracting the less volatile compounds. This creates an additional dimension of separation before the GC column, while simultaneously generating three-way data. Sandia's proven multivariate analysis methods, when applied to these data, have several advantages over current commercial options. It also has demonstrated potential for success in finding and enabling identification of trace compounds. Several challenges remain, however, including understanding the sources of noise in the data, outlier detection, improving the data pretreatment and analysis methods, developing a software tool for ease of use by the chemist, and demonstrating our belief that

  3. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry: In Situ Molecular Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Peggi M.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a relatively new imaging modality that allows mapping of a wide range of biomolecules within a thin tissue section. The technology uses a laser beam to directly desorb and ionize molecules from discrete locations on the tissue that are subsequently recorded in a mass spectrometer. IMS is distinguished by the ability to directly measure molecules in situ ranging from small metabolites to proteins, reporting hundreds to thousands of expression patterns from a single imaging experiment. This article reviews recent advances in IMS technology, applications, and experimental strategies that allow it to significantly aid in the discovery and understanding of molecular processes in biological and clinical samples. PMID:23259809

  4. New sample preparation for quantitative laser desorption mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefliger, Olivier P.; Zenobi, Renato

    1998-04-01

    Several analytical mass spectrometric and optical spectroscopic methods require a step during which a nonvolatile substance is desorbed by a laser pulse. It is, however, very difficult to use these methods for quantitative measurements because an accurate control over the amount desorbed by the laser pulse is generally not possible, especially when mixtures of several substances are used. We report a new fast and convenient sample preparation procedure that solves these problems. A solution of the analytes is mixed with a solution of poly(vinyl chloride) to obtain a homogeneous and vacuum-stable thin polymer membrane after the solvent has evaporated. Laser ablation is then performed directly from this membrane, allowing an accurate control of the amount of ablated analytes and excellent reproducibility. Quantitative laser desorption mass spectrometry over three orders of magnitude as well as optical spectroscopic measurements using this sample preparation method are demonstrated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  5. Rapid determination of drugs and semivolatile organics by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Buchanan, M.V.; Guerin, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Direct thermal desorption of analytes into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is being investigated as a technique for the rapid screening of a wide variety of samples for target semivolatile organic compounds. This includes the direct detection of drugs in physiological fluids, semivolatile organic pollutants in water and waste samples, and air pollutants collected on sorbent cartridges. In order to minimize the analysis time, chromatographic separation is not performed on the sample prior to introduction into the ITMS. Instead, selective chemical ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are used achieve the specificity required for the target analytes. Detection limits are typically 10--50 ppb using a 1 uL aliquot of a liquid sample without preconcentration. Sample turn-around time is 2 to 5 minutes and 3 to 5 target analytes can be quantitatively determined simultaneously. 6 figs.

  6. Cobalt coated substrate for matrix-free analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Talat; Li, Liang

    2009-12-01

    Small molecule analysis is one of the most challenging issues in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. We have developed a cobalt coated substrate as a target for matrix-free analysis of small molecules in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Cobalt coating of 60-70 nm thickness has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. This target facilitates hundreds of samples to be spotted and analyzed without mixing any matrices, in a very short time. This can save a lot of time and money and can be a very practical approach for the analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  7. Detection of Biosignatures by Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (GALDI) Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jill R. Scott; Beizhan Yan; Daphne L. Stoner; J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman

    2007-04-01

    Identification of mineral-associated biosignatures is of significance for retrieving biochemical information from geological records here on Earth and detecting signs of life on other planets, such as Mars. The importance of the geomatrix for identifying amino acids (e.g., histidine, threonine, and cysteine) and small proteins (e.g., gramicidin S) was investigated by laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The investigated geomatrices include analogues of Fe-bearing minerals such as hematite and Na-bearing evaporites (e.g., halite). Samples were prepared by two methods: 1) application of analyte to the geomatrix surface and 2) production of homogenous analyte:geomatrix mixtures. Comparison of the two sample preparation methods revealed that the mixing method produces a better signal/noise ratio than surface application for the analyses of amino acids. The composition of the geomatrix has a profound influence on the detection of biomolecules. Peaks corresponding to the cation-attached biomolecular ions were observed for the Na-bearing evaporite analogue. No detectable peaks for the biomolecular ion species were observed when the biomolecules were associated with Fe-bearing minerals. Instead, only minor peaks were observed that may correspond to ions from fragments of the biomolecules. Depending on the underlying mineral composition, geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization shows promise for directly identifying biosignatures associated with minerals.

  8. Characterization of ballpoint pen inks by thermal and desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bügler, Jürgen H; Buchner, Hans; Dallmayer, Anton

    2005-09-01

    The characterization of ink on paper is of importance for dating and comparing questioned ink entries in forensic document examination. Inks are commonly characterized by their colorant profile that is identified by well-established analytical methods. Numerous ink formulations show identical colorant profiles, though. In order to differentiate inks that are not distinguishable by colorant analysis, a method for the characterization of colorless ink ingredients, namely binders, solvents and additives is necessary. In this paper, we propose a technique for the analysis of colorless compounds in ballpoint inks using direct thermal desorption of the ink on paper followed by chemical analysis of the desorbed volatile compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. As compared to liquid extraction and subsequent analysis of the extracts, the technique avoids possible contamination risks. Sensitivity is very high due to the enrichment of volatile components by thermal desorption. Even from old samples, the chromatograms obtained by the method enable the determination of binder polymers, solvents and additives. Pure binders as used by ink manufacturers were analyzed for unambiguous assignment of analytical results to specific polymers. To prove the practical applicability, we analyzed 121 ballpoint pens, not all having the same colorant profile, and grouped the pens into resin and solvent categories.

  9. Electroless plating of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong; Xu, Ning; Huang, Wen-Yi; Han, Huan-Mei; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2009-03-01

    An improved DIOS (desorption ionization on porous silicon) method for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) by electroless plating of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on porous silicon (PSi) was developed. By addition of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) into the AgNO3 plating solution, the plating speed can be slowed down and simultaneously 4-ATP self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on AgNPs (4-ATP/AgNPs) were formed. Both AgNPs and 4-ATP/AgNPs coated PSi substrates present much higher stability, sensitivity and reproducibility for LDI MS than the un-treated porous silicon ones. Their shelf life in air was tested for several weeks to a month and their mass spectra still displayed the same high quality and sensitivity as the freshly prepared ones. And more 4-ATP SAMs partly play a role of matrix to increase the ionization efficiency. A small organic molecule of tetrapyridinporphyrin (TPyP), oligomers of polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 and 2300), and a peptide of oxytocin were used as examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the silver-plated PSi as a matrix-free-like method for LDI MS. This approach can obtain limits of detection to femtomoles for TPyP, subpicomoles for oxytocin, and picomoles for PEG 400 and 2300, comparable to the traditional matrix method and much better than the DIOS method. It simplifies the sample preparation as a matrix-free-like method without addition of matrix molecules and homogenizes the sample spread over the spot for better and more even mass signals.

  10. Silver nanoparticles on zeolite surface for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of low molecular weight compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mengrui; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2013-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles loaded on NH4+-type zeolite, AgNPs-NH4ZSM5, was developed as an inorganic matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of low molecular weight compounds. It was found that AgNPs-NH4ZSM5 could work as an efficient Ag+ donor to ionize analytes and that zeolite worked as a heat bath to prevent the destruction of AgNPs after the photoexcitation. The AgNPs-NH4ZSM5 was applied to laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of biologically active substances with low molecular weights including acetylsalicylic acid, L-histidine, glucose, urea, cholesterol, and those in human serum.

  11. Isomeric differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using silver nitrate reactive desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Mohammad; Ismail, Ali I.; Zare, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are nonpolar and difficult to detect by desorption electrospray ionization. We present a new detection method based on cationization with silver ions, which has the added advantage of being able to differentiate PAHs with the same mass but different structure. METHODS 9,10-Diphenylanthracene and triptycene, in addition to four different groups of PAH isomers: (1) anthracene and phenanthrene, (2) pyrene and fluoranthene, (3) benz[a]anthracene, benz[b]anthracene (tetracene), and chrysene (4) benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene, were deposited on a paper surface and bombarded with methanol droplets containing silver nitrate. The resulting microdroplets entered a quadruple mass spectrometer for mass analysis. RESULTS The mass spectrum shows [PAH]+, [Ag + OH + PAH]+, and [Ag(PAH)n]+ n (n = 1, 2) (and [PAH + O2]+ in the case of benz[b]anthracene) ions. PAHs having a bay structure, such as phenanthrene, showed a different tendency to interact with silver ions from those PAHs having a linear arrangement of the fused benzene rings, such as anthracene. The ratios of the [PAH]+ peak intensity to that of [Ag–PAH]+, [Ag + OH + PAH]+, [Ag(PAH)2]+, and [PAH + O2]+ were used to differentiate the PAH isomers sharing the same molecular formula with different structures. For isomeric mixtures the [PAH]+ to [Ag + OH + PAH]+ ratio was found to be the most useful parameter. The uncertainty in the mole fraction of an isomeric mixture was ±0.09, 0.13, ±0.25, and ±0.1 for phenanthrene-anthracene, fl benz[a] anthracene-chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene-benzo[k]fluoranthene, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A simple method has been developed for the detection of PAHs in desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry based on Ag(I) cationization. The method showed a capability to differentiate PAHs isomers (having the same molecular mass) in isomeric mixture with an uncertainty in the mole fraction of about 0.1. At high inlet temperature

  12. Desorption chemical ionization and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric studies of the glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine.

    PubMed

    Lay, J O; Korfmacher, W A; Miller, D W; Siitonen, P; Holder, C L; Gosnell, A B

    1986-11-01

    Three glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine succinate were collected in a single fraction using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the urine of dosed male Fischer 344 rats. The metabolites were then separated using an additional HPLC step into fractions containing predominantly a single glucuronide metabolite. Analysis of the metabolites by methane and ammonia desorption chemical ionization, with and without derivatization, revealed fragment ions suggestive of a hydroxylated doxylamine moiety. Identification of the metabolites as glucuronides of doxylamine, desmethyldoxylamine and didesmethyldoxylamine was accomplished, based on determination of the molecular weight and exact mass of each metabolite using fast atom bombardment (FAB) ionization. This assignment was confirmed by the fragmentation observed in FAB mass spectrometric and tandem mass spectrometric experiments. Para-substitution of the glucuronide on the phenyl moiety was observed by 500-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. A fraction containing all three glucuronide metabolites, after a single stage of HPLC separation, was also analysed by FAB mass spectrometry, and the proton- and potassium-containing quasimolecular ions for all three metabolites were observed.

  13. Analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke particulate matter by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Sébastien; Carré, Vincent; Scheffler, Jean-Luc; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LDI-FTICRMS) was used to investigate particulate matter (PM) associated with mainstream (MSS) and sidestream cigarette smokes (SSS). The high mass resolution and the high mass measurement accuracy allowed a molecular formula for each detected signal in the 150-500 m/z range to be assigned. The high number of peaks observed in mass spectra required additional data processing to extract information. In this context, Kendrick maps and Van Krevelen diagrams were drawn. These postacquisition treatments were used to more easily compare different cigarette smokes: (i) MSS from different cigarettes and (ii) MSS and SSS from the same cigarette. In both ion detection modes, most of the detected species were found to be attributed to C(6-31)H(2-35)N(0-7)O(0-9) compounds. The compounds observed in the study of SSS appeared to be more unsaturated and less oxygenated than those observed when MSS of the same cigarette was investigated.

  14. Shotgun Approach for Quantitative Imaging of Phospholipids Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Laskin, Julia

    2014-02-04

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been extensively used for determining spatial distributions of molecules in biological samples, and there is increasing interest in using MSI for quantification. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, or nano-DESI, is an ambient MSI technique where a solvent is used for localized extraction of molecules followed by nanoelectrospray ionization. Doping the nano-DESI solvent with carefully selected standards enables online quantification during MSI experiments. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate this quantification approach can be extended to provide shotgun-like quantification of phospholipids in thin brain tissue sections. Specifically, two phosphatidylcholine (PC) standards were added to the nano-DESI solvent for simultaneous imaging and quantification of 22 PC species observed in nano-DESI MSI. Furthermore, by combining the quantitative data obtained in the individual pixels, we demonstrate quantification of these PC species in seven different regions of a rat brain tissue section.

  15. Effect of sample compositions on chemical analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriemer, David; Dai, Yuqin; Li, Liang

    1996-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is an effective ionization technique for mass spectrometry. It take advantages of some unique properties of certain organic chemicals to provide entrapment, isolation, vaporization, and ionization of the analyte of interest. While the main application of the MALDI technique is currently in the area of biological molecule analysis, it is possible to use this technique for monitoring polymer chemistry such as degradation processes. This is potentially important for studying and developing environmentally degradable polymers. Direct analysis of the analyte in real-world samples is possible with MALDI. However, there is a significant effect of the overall composition of a sample on the detectability and performance of MALDI. Two examples are given to illustrate the positive and negative effects of buffers, salts, and additives on the MALDI sample preparation.

  16. Reconstruction and feature selection for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Zhu, Liangjia; Norton, Isaiah; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2014-03-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) provides a highly sensitive imaging technique for differentiating normal and cancerous tissue at the molecular level. This can be very useful, especially under intra-operative conditions where the surgeon has to make crucial decision about the tumor boundary. In such situations, the time it takes for imaging and data analysis becomes a critical factor. Therefore, in this work we utilize compressive sensing to perform the sparse sampling of the tissue, which halves the scanning time. Furthermore, sparse feature selection is performed, which not only reduces the dimension of data from about 104 to less than 50, and thus significantly shortens the analysis time. This procedure also identifies biochemically important molecules for further pathological analysis. The methods are validated on brain and breast tumor data sets.

  17. Development and Applications of Liquid Sample Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiuling; Chen, Hao

    2016-06-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is a recent advance in the field of analytical chemistry. This review surveys the development of liquid sample DESI-MS (LS-DESI-MS), a variant form of DESI-MS that focuses on fast analysis of liquid samples, and its novel analy-tical applications in bioanalysis, proteomics, and reaction kinetics. Due to the capability of directly ionizing liquid samples, liquid sample DESI (LS-DESI) has been successfully used to couple MS with various analytical techniques, such as microfluidics, microextraction, electrochemistry, and chromatography. This review also covers these hyphenated techniques. In addition, several closely related ionization methods, including transmission mode DESI, thermally assisted DESI, and continuous flow-extractive DESI, are briefly discussed. The capabilities of LS-DESI extend and/or complement the utilities of traditional DESI and electrospray ionization and will find extensive and valuable analytical application in the future.

  18. Detection of dimethylarginines in protein hydrolysates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsilin; Tam, Ming F

    2006-03-01

    We report a method to detect the presence of dimethylarginines on proteins. Peptides with dimethylarginines were hydrolyzed in acid. The hydrolysates were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric analysis using a mixture of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and nitrocellulose as matrix. Both asymmetric omega-N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine and symmetric omega-N(G),N(G')-dimethylarginine give a clear signal at m/z 203. Recombinant Sbp1p modified by Hmt1p in vivo were isolated by affinity chromatography followed by electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel and subjected to acid hydrolysis. MALDI-TOF analysis of the acid hydrolysates confirmed the presence of dimethylarginines. The detection limit of the method is estimated at approximately 1pmol of protein.

  19. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Nancy B. ); Wahl, Jon H. ); Kingsley, Mark T. ); Wahl, Karen L. )

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  20. Laser desorption mass spectrometry. II. Applications to structural analysis. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hercules, D.M.; Day, R.J.; Balasanmugam, K.; Dang, T.A.; Li, C.P.

    1982-02-02

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) is reviewed with focus on application to structural analysis of nonvolatile organic compounds. Models for the ionization-volatilization step are discussed with reference to solid-state vs. 'gas-phase' reactions. General characteristics of LDMS of organic compounds are discussed; for example, classes of compounds that generate M+ ions or (M+H)+ ions. Cationization reactions are considered; organic salts are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on LDMS of high molecular weight compounds such as polysaccharides, polymers and vitamin B12 and its relatives. Problems of ion-molecule reactions complicating spectra are considered, particularly for transition metal coordination compounds. Other topics considered include quantitative analysis, microprobe applications and sample handling.

  1. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples.

  2. Identification of Bacillus Spores by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Demirev, Plamen A.; Ho, Yen-Peng; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Ryzhov, Victor; Sapp, Lisa; Stutler, James; Jackman, Joany; Fenselau, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Unique patterns of biomarkers were reproducibly characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)–mass spectrometry and were used to distinguish Bacillus species members from one another. Discrimination at the strain level was demonstrated for Bacillus cereus spores. Lipophilic biomarkers were invariant in Bacillus globigii spores produced in three different media and in B. globigii spores stored for more than 30 years. The sensitivity was less than 5,000 cells deposited for analysis. Protein biomarkers were also characterized by MALDI analysis by using spores treated briefly with corona plasma discharge. Protein biomarkers were readily desorbed following this treatment. The effect of corona plasma discharge on the spores was examined. PMID:10508053

  3. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  4. Non-traditional applications of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpin, Casey R.

    Seven studies were carried out using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) to develop enhanced methodologies for a variety of analyte systems by investigating analyte chemistries, ionization processes, and elimination of spectral interferences. Applications of LDI and matrix assisted laser/desorption/ionization (MALDI) have been previously limited by poorly understood ionization phenomena, and spectral interferences from matrices. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization MS is well suited to the analysis of proteins. However, the proteins associated with bacteriophages often form complexes which are too massive for detection with a standard MALDI mass spectrometer. As such, methodologies for pretreatment of these samples are discussed in detail in the first chapter. Pretreatment of bacteriophage samples with reducing agents disrupted disulfide linkages and allowed enhanced detection of bacteriophage proteins. The second chapter focuses on the use of MALDI MS for lipid compounds whose molecular mass is significantly less than the proteins for which MALDI is most often applied. The use of MALDI MS for lipid analysis presented unique challenges such as matrix interference and differential ionization efficiencies. It was observed that optimization of the matrix system, and addition of cationization reagents mitigated these challenges and resulted in an enhanced methodology for MALDI MS of lipids. One of the challenges commonly encountered in efforts to expand MALDI MS applications is as previously mentioned interferences introduced by organic matrix molecules. The third chapter focuses on the development of a novel inorganic matrix replacement system called metal oxide laser ionization mass spectrometry (MOLI MS). In contrast to other matrix replacements, considerable effort was devoted to elucidating the ionization mechanism. It was shown that chemisorption of analytes to the metal oxide surface produced acidic adsorbed species which then

  5. Laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry of ultraviolet photo-processed ices

    SciTech Connect

    Paardekooper, D. M. Bossa, J.-B.; Isokoski, K.; Linnartz, H.

    2014-10-01

    A new ultra-high vacuum experiment is described that allows studying photo-induced chemical processes in interstellar ice analogues. MATRI²CES - a Mass Analytical Tool to study Reactions in Interstellar ICES applies a new concept by combining laser desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the ultimate goal to characterize in situ and in real time the solid state evolution of organic compounds upon UV photolysis for astronomically relevant ice mixtures and temperatures. The performance of the experimental setup is demonstrated by the kinetic analysis of the different photoproducts of pure methane (CH₄) ice at 20 K. A quantitative approach provides formation yields of several new species with up to four carbon atoms. Convincing evidence is found for the formation of even larger species. Typical mass resolutions obtained range from M/ΔM ~320 to ~400 for CH₄ and argon, respectively. Additional tests show that the typical detection limit (in monolayers) is ⩽0.02 ML, substantially more sensitive than the regular techniques used to investigate chemical processes in interstellar ices.

  6. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, JN

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  7. Gene analysis using mass spectrometric cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (MS-CAPS) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF).

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometric cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (MS-CAPS) is a method for detecting genes using a combination of short PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). MS-CAPS can identify a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in less than one hour and is suitable for plants, animals, bacteria, and food.

  8. Identification of Fatty Acids, Phospholipids, and Their Oxidation Products Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Christopher W.; Mang, Stephen A.; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) have found increasing application in the analysis of biological samples. Using these techniques to solve problems in analytical chemistry should be an essential component of the training of undergraduate chemists. We…

  9. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis of agrochemicals in food.

    PubMed

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Jackson, Ayanna U; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-01-15

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is applied to the rapid, in situ, direct qualitative and quantitative (ultra)trace analysis of agrochemicals in foodstuffs. To evaluate the potential of DESI mass spectrometry (MS) in toxic residue testing in food, 16 representative multiclass agricultural chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) were selected (namely, ametryn, amitraz, azoxystrobin, bitertanol, buprofezin, imazalil, imazalil metabolite, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, nitenpyram, prochloraz, spinosad, terbuthylazine, thiabendazole, and thiacloprid). The DESI-MS experiments were performed using 3 microL of solution spotted onto conventional smooth poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces, with examination by MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Optimization of the spray solvent led to the use of acetonitrile/water (80:20) (v/v), with 1% formic acid. Most of the compounds tested showed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, approaching that attainable with conventional direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry. To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach in real samples, different experiments were performed including the direct DESI-MS/MS analysis of fruit peels and also of fruit/vegetable extracts. The results proved that DESI allows the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased samples. In addition, MS/MS confirmation of selected pesticides in spiked vegetable extracts was obtained at absolute levels as low as 1 pg for ametryn. Quantitation of imazalil residues was also undertaken using an isotopically labeled standard. The data obtained were in agreement with those from the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) reference method, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values consistently below 15%. The results obtained demonstrate the sensitivity of DESI as they meet the stringent European Union pesticide regulation

  10. Flash Desorption/Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Less- and Nonvolatile Samples Using a Linearly Driven Heated Metal Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek T.; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the important issue of the desorption of less- and nonvolatile compounds with minimal sample decomposition in ambient mass spectrometry is approached using ambient flash desorption mass spectrometry. The preheated stainless steel filament was driven down and up along the vertical axis in 0.3 s. At the lowest position, it touched the surface of the sample with an invasion depth of 0.1 mm in 50 ms (flash heating) and was removed from the surface (fast cooling). The heating rate corresponds to ~104 °C/s at the filament temperature of 500 °C. The desorbed gaseous molecules were ionized by using a dielectric barrier discharge ion source, and the produced ions were detected by a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Less-volatile samples, such as pharmaceutical tablets, narcotics, explosives, and C60 gave molecular and protonated molecule ions as major ions with thermal decomposition minimally suppressed. For synthetic polymers (PMMA, PLA, and PS), the mass spectra reflected their backbone structures because of the suppression of the sequential thermal decompositions of the primary products. The present technique appears to be suitable for high-throughput qualitative analyses of many types of solid samples in the range from a few ng to 10 μg with minimal sample consumption. Some contribution from tribodesorption in addition to thermal desorption was suggested for the desorption processes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, Andrew R

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure-Thermal Desorption (AP-TD)/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Bacillus Spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile co...

  13. Thermal desorption mass spectrometric and x-ray photoelectron studies of etched surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rye, R. R.; Kelber, J. A.

    1987-12-01

    The etching of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Na solutions is known to lead to a loss of F, a loss which is correlated with enhanced adhesion. Subsequent heating partially restores surface F with a concurrent loss of adhesion strength. We have combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas phase mass spectroscopy for in situ measurements of the processes that occur as the fluorocarbon is heated. An array of volatile products, which vary with the specific treatment, desorb from etched PTFE. Among these are: N 2 and low molecular weight fluorocarbons, the amounts of which monotonically decrease with increasing exposure to the etching solution (and probably result from the bulk); species such as CO and CO 2, which in part result from surface impurities; and water and acetone which result from the rinse steps following the etching process. XPS measurements show that etching produces a major loss of surface F and a gain of surface O. The latter probably results from the subsequent rinse steps. Heating produces a substantial recovery in surface F with only a small decrease in the surface O, and the gain in surface F is shown to occur at a higher temperature than the desorption of any species from the surface. Thus, desorption of products from the surface is decoupled, in terms of both the distribution of products and their relative temperatures, from the surface changes as monitored by XPS. This decoupling suggests that the increase in surface F results from diffusion of low molecular weight fluorocarbons from the bulk or a transition region, or from a rearrangement of the sponge-like surface region produced in the etching process.

  14. Personal Information from Latent Fingerprints Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenpeng; Zare, Richard N

    2017-01-17

    Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) was applied to latent fingerprints to obtain not only spatial patterns but also chemical maps. Samples with similar lipid compositions as those of the fingerprints were collected by swiping a glass slide across the forehead of consenting adults. A machine learning model called gradient boosting tree ensemble (GDBT) was applied to the samples that allowed us to distinguish between different genders, ethnicities, and ages (within 10 years). The results from 194 samples showed accuracies of 89.2%, 82.4%, and 84.3%, respectively. Specific chemical species that were determined by the feature selection of GDBT were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. As a proof-of-concept, the machine learning model trained on the sample data was applied to overlaid latent fingerprints from different individuals, giving accurate gender and ethnicity information from those fingerprints. The results suggest that DESI-MSI imaging of fingerprints with GDBT analysis might offer a significant advance in forensic science.

  15. An Automated Platform for High-Resolution Tissue Imaging Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Heath, Brandi S.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Laskin, Julia

    2012-10-02

    An automated platform has been developed for acquisition and visualization of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI). The new system enables robust operation of the nano-DESI imaging source over many hours. This is achieved by controlling the distance between the sample and the probe by mounting the sample holder onto an automated XYZ stage and defining the tilt of the sample plane. This approach is useful for imaging of relatively flat samples such as thin tissue sections. Custom software called MSI QuickView was developed for visualization of large data sets generated in imaging experiments. MSI QuickView enables fast visualization of the imaging data during data acquisition and detailed processing after the entire image is acquired. The performance of the system is demonstrated by imaging rat brain tissue sections. High resolution mass analysis combined with MS/MS experiments enabled identification of lipids and metabolites in the tissue section. In addition, high dynamic range and sensitivity of the technique allowed us to generate ion images of low-abundance isobaric lipids. High-spatial resolution image acquired over a small region of the tissue section revealed the spatial distribution of an abundant brain metabolite, creatine, in the white and gray matter that is consistent with the literature data obtained using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  16. Matrix assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Silvia

    2016-09-06

    The microbiological management of patients with suspected bacterial infection includes the identification of the pathogen and the determination of the antibiotic susceptibility. These traditional approaches, based on the pure culture of the microorganism, require at least 36-48h. A new method, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), has been recently developed to profile bacterial proteins from whole cell extracts and obtain a bacterial fingerprint able to discriminate microorganisms from different genera and species. By whole cell-mass spectrometry, microbial identification can be achieved within minutes from cultured isolate, rather than traditional phenotypic or genotypic characterizations. From the year 2009 an explosion of applications of this technology has been observed with promising results. Several studies have been performed and showed that MALDI-TOF represents a reliable alternative method for rapid bacteria and fungi identification in clinical setting. A future area of expansion is represented by the application of MALDI-TOF technology to the antibiotic susceptibility test. In conclusion, the revision of the literature available up to date demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS represents an innovative technology for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial and fungal isolates in clinical settings. By an earlier microbiological diagnosis, MALDI-TOF MS contributes to a reduced mortality and hospitalization time of the patients and consequently has a significant impact on cost savings and public health.

  17. Rapid Detection of Necrosis in Breast Cancer with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Alessandra; Woolman, Michael; Ventura, Manuela; Bernards, Nicholas; Ganguly, Milan; Gribble, Adam; Shrestha, Bindesh; Bluemke, Emma; Ginsberg, Howard J.; Vitkin, Alex; Zheng, Jinzi; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identification of necrosis in tumors is of prognostic value in treatment planning, as necrosis is associated with aggressive forms of cancer and unfavourable outcomes. To facilitate rapid detection of necrosis with Mass Spectrometry (MS), we report the lipid MS profile of necrotic breast cancer with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging validated with statistical analysis and correlating pathology. This MS profile is characterized by (1) the presence of the ion of m/z 572.48 [Cer(d34:1) + Cl]− which is a ceramide absent from the viable cancer subregions; (2) the absence of the ion of m/z 391.25 which is present in small abundance only in viable cancer subregions; and (3) a slight increase in the relative intensity of known breast cancer biomarker ions of m/z 281.25 [FA(18:1)-H]− and 303.23 [FA(20:4)-H]−. Necrosis is accompanied by alterations in the tissue optical depolarization rate, allowing tissue polarimetry to guide DESI-MS analysis for rapid MS profiling or targeted MS imaging. This workflow, in combination with the MS profile of necrosis, may permit rapid characterization of necrotic tumors from tissue slices. Further, necrosis-specific biomarker ions are detected in seconds with single MS scans of necrotic tumor tissue smears, which further accelerates the identification workflow by avoiding tissue sectioning and slide preparation. PMID:27734938

  18. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma diagnosis by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dória, Maria Luisa; McKenzie, James S.; Mroz, Anna; Phelps, David L.; Speller, Abigail; Rosini, Francesca; Strittmatter, Nicole; Golf, Ottmar; Veselkov, Kirill; Brown, Robert; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Takats, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is highly prevalent among European women, and is the leading cause of gynaecological cancer death. Current histopathological diagnoses of tumour severity are based on interpretation of, for example, immunohistochemical staining. Desorption electrospray mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) generates spatially resolved metabolic profiles of tissues and supports an objective investigation of tumour biology. In this study, various ovarian tissue types were analysed by DESI-MSI and co-registered with their corresponding haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images. The mass spectral data reveal tissue type-dependent lipid profiles which are consistent across the n = 110 samples (n = 107 patients) used in this study. Multivariate statistical methods were used to classify samples and identify molecular features discriminating between tissue types. Three main groups of samples (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, borderline ovarian tumours, normal ovarian stroma) were compared as were the carcinoma histotypes (serous, endometrioid, clear cell). Classification rates >84% were achieved for all analyses, and variables differing statistically between groups were determined and putatively identified. The changes noted in various lipid types help to provide a context in terms of tumour biochemistry. The classification of unseen samples demonstrates the capability of DESI-MSI to characterise ovarian samples and to overcome existing limitations in classical histopathology. PMID:27976698

  19. Study of Electrochemical Reactions Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pengyuan; Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Laskin, Julia; Dewald, Howard D.; Chen, Hao

    2012-07-03

    The combination of electrochemistry (EC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical tool for studying mechanisms of redox reactions, identification of products and intermediates, and online derivatization/recognition of analytes. This work reports a new coupling interface for EC/MS by employing nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), a recently developed ambient ionization method. We demonstrate online coupling of nano-DESI-MS with a traditional electrochemical flow cell, in which the electrolyzed solution emanating from the cell is ionized by nano-DESI for MS analysis. Furthermore, we show first coupling of nano-DESI-MS with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode enabling chemical analysis of electrolyzed samples directly from electrode surfaces. Because of its inherent sensitivity, nano-DESI enables chemical analysis of small volumes and concentrations of sample solution. Specifically, good-quality signal of dopamine and its oxidized form, dopamine ortho-quinone, was obtained using 10 μL of 1 μM solution of dopamine on the IDA. Oxidation of dopamine, reduction of benzodiazepines, and electrochemical derivatization of thiol groups were used to demonstrate the performance of the technique. Our results show the potential of nano-DESI as a novel interface for electrochemical mass spectrometry research.

  20. Thin-layer chromatography/laser-induced acoustic desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Huang, Min-Zong; Shiea, Jentaie

    2009-11-15

    The combination of laser-induced acoustic desorption and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LIAD/ESI/MS) can be used to rapidly characterize chemical compounds separated on a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate. We performed LIAD analysis by irradiating the rear side of an aluminum-based TLC plate with a pulsed infrared (IR) laser. To efficiently generate and transfer acoustic and shock waves to ablate the analyte-containing TLC gels, a glass slide was attached to the rear of the TLC plate and the gap between the glass slide and the TLC plate was filled with a viscous solution (glycerol). Although the diameter of the laser spot created on the rear of the TLC plate was approximately 0.35 mm, the ablated areas on the front sides of the silica gel bed and the C(18) reverse-phase gel bed had diameters of approximately 1.3 and 3 mm, respectively. The ablated analyte molecules were ionized in an ESI plume and then detected by an ion trap mass analyzer. This TLC/LIAD/ESI/MS approach allowed the components in mixtures of dye standards, drug standards, and rosemary essential oil to be separated and rapidly characterized.

  1. Online coupling of electrochemical reactions with liquid sample desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiwen; Dewald, Howard D; Chen, Hao

    2009-12-01

    The combination of electrochemistry (EC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical tool to study redox reactions. This work reports the online coupling of a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell with liquid sample desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and its applications in investigating various electrochemical reactions of biological molecules such as oxidative formation and reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds and online derivatization of peptides/proteins. As a result of the direct sampling nature of DESI, several useful features of such a coupling have been found, including simple instrumentation, fast response time (e.g., 3.6 s in the case of dopamine oxidation), freedom to choose a favorable ionization mode of DESI or traditional electrolysis solvent systems, and the absence of background signal possibly resulting from ionization when the cell is off (e.g., in the case of dopamine oxidation). More importantly, with the use of this new coupling apparatus, three disulfide bonds of insulin were fully cleaved by electrolytic reduction and both the A and B chains of the protein were successfully detected online by DESI-MS. In addition, online tagging of free cysteine residues of peptides/proteins employing electrogenerated dopamine o-quinone can be performed. These revealed characteristics of the coupling along with examined electrochemical reactions suggest that EC/DESI-MS has good potential in bioanalysis.

  2. Detection of trace ink compounds in erased handwritings using electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yi-Ying; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Shiea, Jentaie; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2014-06-01

    Writings made with erasable pens on paper surfaces can either be rubbed off with an eraser or rendered invisible by changing the temperature of the ink. However, trace ink compounds still remain in the paper fibers even after rubbing or rendering. The detection of these ink compounds from erased handwritings will be helpful in knowing the written history of the paper. In this study, electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry was used to characterize trace ink compounds remaining in visible and invisible ink lines. The ink compounds were desorbed from the paper surface by irradiating the handwritings with a pulsed laser beam; the desorbed analytes were subsequently ionized in an electrospray plume and detected by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry mass analyzer. Because of the high spatial resolution of the laser beam, electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry analysis resulted in minimal damage to the sample documents.

  3. Sorption-desorption behavior of phenanthrene elucidated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of soil organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, L.F.; Young, T.M.; Higashi, R.M.

    1999-08-01

    Commonly used partitioning models of hydrophobic organic contaminant sorption in soil, which treat all soil organic matter (SOM) as having identical structure, are unable to explain differences in organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K{sub OC}) among sorbents, isotherm nonlinearity, and sorption-desorption hysteresis. This study relates one index of SOM composition, structural fragments quantified by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to aqueous and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO{sub 2}) sorption-desorption parameters. Results show positive correlations between aqueous K{sub OC}s and hydrocarbon fragment peak areas and negative correlation to N- and O-containing peaks, which is consistent with hypotheses attributing sorption of phenanthrene to hydrophobic sorbent domains. Positive correlation between Freundlich n values in SC CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbon fragments with negative correlation to N- and O-containing fragments suggests that energetic heterogeneity of polar environments controls nonlinearity in this solvent of limited polarity. Aqueous sorption-desorption hysteresis appears to be suppressed by N- and O-containing moieties and correlates with decreased thermal desorption of phenanthrene at 800 C. The SC CO{sub 2} extraction efficiency and, to a lesser degree, the desorption response when methanol is added as a cosolvent indicate that polar functional groups play a role in retarding phenanthrene desorption during SC CO{sub 2} extraction. Organic matter pyrolysis under varying time and temperature conditions indicates that pyrolysis fragments that do not significantly correlated with functional trends likely evolve by a different pyrolytic mechanism and are generally poorly correlated with sorption-desorption properties. The level of structural detail utilized in structure-function correlations in this work exceeds previous efforts to relate sorption behavior to sorbent structure. However, the work reveals that certain sorption

  4. Development of capabilities for imaging mass spectrometry under ambient conditions with desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifa, Demian R.; Wiseman, Justin M.; Song, Qingyu; Cooks, R. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Aspects of the development of mass spectrometry over the past three decades are briefly reviewed and growth points in the subject are identified. Molecular imaging by mass spectrometry is one such growth area. The development of a capability for 2D chemical imaging of surfaces is described, based on the combination of a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) ion source with an automated surface stage capable of x, y translational motion. The lateral resolution of this new system is found to be less than 200 microns, using a test ink pattern. Chemical imaging of surfaces is demonstrated using model examples of organic and biological systems: (i) imaging of a 2D pattern written in different colored inks on photographic paper and (ii) imaging of thin coronal sections of rat brain tissue fixed onto a glass microscope slide. In both cases, full mass spectra are recorded as a function of x,y-position on the surface. In the chemical imaging example, the distributions of the two different inks on the paper surface were mapped by tracking the abundance of the intact organic cation which characterizes each particular ink dye. In the tissue imaging example, distributions of specific lipids in coronal sections of rat brain tissue were followed from the abundance distributions in 2D space of the deprotonated lipid molecules recorded in the negative ion mass spectra. These latter distributions reveal distinct anatomical features of the rat brain. The results of these studies demonstrate the feasibility of performing surface imaging studies using DESI and show that at this stage of its development it has a lateral spatial resolution of a few hundred microns.

  5. Nanostructured solid substrates for efficient laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) of low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2013-12-07

    Analytical applications often require rapid measurement of compounds from complex sample mixtures. High-speed mass spectrometry approaches frequently utilize techniques based on direct ionization of the sample by laser irradiation, mostly by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Compounds of low molecular weight are difficult to analyze by MALDI, however, because of severe interferences in the low m/z range from the organic matrix used for desorption/ionization. In recent years, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) techniques have shown promise for small molecule analysis, due to the unique properties of nanostructured surfaces, in particular, the lack of a chemical background in the low m/z range and enhanced production of analyte ions by SALDI. This short review article presents a summary of the most promising recent developments in SALDI materials for MS analysis of low molecular weight analytes, with emphasis on nanostructured materials based on metals and semiconductors.

  6. Online Investigation of Aqueous-Phase Electrochemical Reactions by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mei; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Martin, Gary E.; Dewald, Howard D.; Chen, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemistry (EC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool for elucidation of electrochemical reaction mechanisms. However, direct online analysis of electrochemical reaction in aqueous phase was rarely explored. This paper presents the online investigation of several electrochemical reactions with biological relevance in the aqueous phase, such as nitrosothiol reduction, carbohydrate oxidation, and carbamazepine oxidation using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). It was found that electroreduction of nitrosothiols [e.g., nitrosylated insulin B (13-23)] leads to free thiols by loss of NO, as confirmed by online MS analysis for the first time. The characteristic mass shift of 29 Da and the reduced intensity provide a quick way to identify nitrosylated species. Equally importantly, upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), the reduced peptide ion produces more fragment ions than its nitrosylated precursor ion (presumably the backbone fragmentation cannot compete with the facile NO loss for the precursor ion), thus facilitating peptide sequencing. In the case of saccharide oxidation, it was found that glucose undergoes electro-oxidation to produce gluconic acid at alkaline pH, but not at neutral and acidic pHs. Such a pH-dependent electrochemical behavior was also observed for disaccharides such as maltose and cellobiose. Upon electrochemical oxidation, carbamazepine was found to undergo ring contraction and amide bond cleavage, which parallels the oxidative metabolism observed for this drug in leucocytes. The mechanistic information of these redox reactions revealed by EC/DESI-MS would be of value in nitroso-proteome research and carbohydrate/drug metabolic studies.

  7. Online Investigation of Aqueous-Phase Electrochemical Reactions by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Martin, Gary E; Dewald, Howard D; Chen, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemistry (EC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool for elucidation of electrochemical reaction mechanisms. However, direct online analysis of electrochemical reaction in aqueous phase was rarely explored. This paper presents the online investigation of several electrochemical reactions with biological relevance in the aqueous phase, such as nitrosothiol reduction, carbohydrate oxidation, and carbamazepine oxidation using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). It was found that electroreduction of nitrosothiols [e.g., nitrosylated insulin B (13-23)] leads to free thiols by loss of NO, as confirmed by online MS analysis for the first time. The characteristic mass shift of 29 Da and the reduced intensity provide a quick way to identify nitrosylated species. Equally importantly, upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), the reduced peptide ion produces more fragment ions than its nitrosylated precursor ion (presumably the backbone fragmentation cannot compete with the facile NO loss for the precursor ion), thus facilitating peptide sequencing. In the case of saccharide oxidation, it was found that glucose undergoes electro-oxidation to produce gluconic acid at alkaline pH, but not at neutral and acidic pHs. Such a pH-dependent electrochemical behavior was also observed for disaccharides such as maltose and cellobiose. Upon electrochemical oxidation, carbamazepine was found to undergo ring contraction and amide bond cleavage, which parallels the oxidative metabolism observed for this drug in leucocytes. The mechanistic information of these redox reactions revealed by EC/DESI-MS would be of value in nitroso-proteome research and carbohydrate/drug metabolic studies.

  8. The dissociation kinetics of NO on Rh(111) as studied by temperature programmed static secondary ion mass spectrometry and desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, H. J.; Reijerse, J. F. C.-J. M.; van Santen, R. A.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature programmed static secondary ion mass spectrometry (TPSSIMS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) have been used to study the kinetics of adsorption, dissociation, and desorption of NO on Rh(111). At 100 K, NO adsorption is molecular and proceeds via mobile precursor state kinetics with a high initial sticking probability. SSIMS indicates the presence of two distinct NO adsorption states, indicative of threefold adsorption at low coverage, and occupation of bridge sites at higher coverages. Three characteristic coverage regimes appear with respect to NO dissociation. At low coverages θNO<0.25 ML, NO dissociates completely at temperatures between 275 and 340 K. If we neglect lateral interactions and assume pure first order dissociation kinetics, we find effective values for the activation barrier and preexponential factor of 40±6 kJ/mol and 106±1 s-1 for the dissociation of 0.15-0.20 ML NO. However, if we assume that a NO molecule needs an ensemble of three to four vacant sites in order to dissociate, the preexponential factor and activation energy are ˜1011 s-1 and 65 kJ/mol, in better agreement with transition state theory expectations. The Nads and Oads dissociation products desorb as N2 and O2, respectively, with desorption parameters Edes=118±10 kJ/mol and νdes=1010.1±1.0 s-1 for N2 in the zero coverage limit. At higher coverages, the desorption kinetics of N2 is strongly influenced by the presence of coadsorbed oxygen. In the medium coverage range 0.25<θNO<0.50 ML, part of the NO desorbs molecularly, with an estimated desorption barrier of 113±10 kJ/mol and a preexponential of 1013.5±1.0 s-1. Dissociation of NO becomes progressively inhibited due to site blocking, the onset shifting from 275 K at 0.25 ML to 400 K, coinciding with the NO desorption temperature, at a coverage of 0.50 ML. The accumulation of nitrogen and oxygen atoms on the highly covered surface causes a destabilization of the nitrogen atoms, which results in an

  9. Approaches for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds with laser desorption/ionization techniques and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Nina; Shevchenko, Denys; Bergquist, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes various approaches for the analysis of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds by different laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry techniques (LDI-MS). It is common to use an agent to assist the ionization, and small molecules are normally difficult to analyze by, e.g., matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) using the common matrices available today, because the latter are generally small organic compounds themselves. This often results in severe suppression of analyte peaks, or interference of the matrix and analyte signals in the low mass region. However, intrinsic properties of several LDI techniques such as high sensitivity, low sample consumption, high tolerance towards salts and solid particles, and rapid analysis have stimulated scientists to develop methods to circumvent matrix-related issues in the analysis of LMW molecules. Recent developments within this field as well as historical considerations and future prospects are presented in this review.

  10. Comparison of sample pre-treatments for laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of Miscanthus x giganteus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Bohn, Paul W; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2010-07-01

    Efforts to further the potential of the large perennial grass Miscanthusxgiganteus as a biofuel feedstock would be aided by the ability to image the chemical species present during the fuel production process. Toward this end, two mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches have been investigated here-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As a first step, cross sections of Miscanthus were subjected to a variety of sample preparation methods to optimize conditions for MSI. For LDI-MS, a thin metal coating (2 nm thick Au) provided high quality signals of saccharide-related ions. The traditional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, also showed high efficiency for the desorption of saccharide-related ions. In contrast, with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix, these ions were nearly absent in the mass spectra. Direct laser ablation of untreated Miscanthus sections was also performed. High resolution images, where the fine structure of the vascular bundle could be clearly visualized, were obtained using SIMS. Although coating the sections with a nanometer thick Au layer can greatly enhance the quality of SIMS images, the coating had limited effect on secondary ion signal enhancement. Using the optimized mass spectrometry approaches described here, information on the spatial distribution of several saccharides was obtained.

  11. Design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic nebulizer chip for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sen, A K; Darabi, J; Knapp, D R

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents design, microfabrication, and test of a microfluidic nebulizer chip for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) in proteomic analysis. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) substrates. The fluidic channels are thermally embossed onto a base substrate using a nickel master and then a top substrate is thermally bonded to seal the channels. Carbon ink embossed into the top COC substrate is used to established electrical connection between the external power supply and the liquid in the channel. The microfluidic chip to external capillary connection is fabricated using Nanoport™ interconnection system. Preliminary leakage test was performed to demonstrate the interconnection system is leak-free and pressure test was performed to evaluate the burst pressure. Finally, the nebulizer chip was used to perform DESI-MS for analyzing peptides (BSA and bradykinin) and reserpine on the nanoporous alumina surface. DESI-MS performance of the microfluidic nebulizer chip is compared with that obtained using a conventional DESI nebulizer. PMID:20161284

  12. Laser-induced acoustic desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J; Owen, Benjamin C; Jin, Zhicheng; Hurt, Matt; Amundson, Lucas M; Madden, Jeremy T; Qian, Kuangnan; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2011-03-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) was successfully coupled to a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LQIT). Model compounds representing a wide variety of different types, including basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, were tested separately and as a mixture. These model compounds were successfully evaporated into the gas phase by using LIAD and then ionized by using APCI with different reagents. From the four APCI reagent systems tested, neat carbon disulfide provided the best results. The mixture of methanol and water produced primarily protonated molecules, as expected. However, only the most basic compounds yielded ions under these conditions. In sharp contrast, using APCI with either neat benzene or neat carbon disulfide as the reagent resulted in the ionization of all the analytes studied to predominantly yield stable molecular ions. Benzene yielded a larger fraction of protonated molecules than carbon disulfide, which is a disadvantage. A similar but minor amount of fragmentation was observed for these two reagents. When the experiment was performed without a liquid reagent (nitrogen gas was the reagent), more fragmentation was observed. Analysis of a known mixture as well as a petroleum cut was also carried out. In summary, the new experiment presented here allows the evaporation of thermally labile compounds, both polar and nonpolar, without dissociation or aggregation, and their ionization to predominantly form stable molecular ions.

  13. Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Laskin, Julia

    2013-01-15

    Imaging mass spectrometry offers simultaneous detection of drugs, drug metabolites and endogenous substances in a single experiment. This is important when evaluating effects of a drug on a complex organ system such as the brain, where there is a need to understand how regional drug distribution impacts function. Nicotine is an addictive drug and its action in the brain is of high interest. Here we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, nano-DESI, imaging to discover the localization of nicotine in rat brain tissue after in vivo administration of nicotine. Nano-DESI is a new ambient technique that enables spatially-resolved analysis of tissue samples without special sample pretreatment. We demonstrate high sensitivity of nano-DESI imaging that enables detection of only 0.7 fmole nicotine per pixel in the complex brain matrix. Furthermore, by adding deuterated nicotine to the solvent, we examined how matrix effects, ion suppression, and normalization affect the observed nicotine distribution. Finally, we provide preliminary results suggesting that nicotine localizes to the hippocampal substructure called dentate gyrus.

  14. Pharmaceutical cleaning validation using non-proximate large-area desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soparawalla, Santosh; Salazar, Gary A; Perry, Richard H; Nicholas, Mark; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is a droplet-based ionization method that is applied to samples in the ambient environment with little or no sample preparation. Its utility for industrial applications is explored here for the case of pharmaceutical cleaning validation. A non-proximate large-area DESI system was built to examine representative areas of the surfaces of reaction vessels used in active product ingredient (API) manufacturing. A large-area sprayer capable of sampling an area of approximately 2.5 cm(2) was coupled with a transport tube to allow sensitive, representative sampling of APIs from a stainless steel surface 1 m away from the mass spectrometer. The system was used to detect the APIs neostigmine, acebutolol, amiloride, amiodarone, ibuprofen, montelukast, potassium clavulanate, and beta-estradiol, at levels as low as 30-10 ng/cm(2), easily satisfying the general acceptable limits set by the pharmaceutical industry. These levels were achieved from surfaces resembling the equipment used in API manufacturing processes at a rate of 30 s per analysis.

  15. Document authentication at molecular levels using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Jia, Bin; Ding, Liying; Hong, Feng; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rui; Zhou, Shumin; Chen, Huanwen; Fang, Xiang

    2013-09-01

    Molecular images of documents were obtained by sequentially scanning the surface of the document using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS), which was operated in either a gasless, solvent-free or methanol vapor-assisted mode. The decay process of the ink used for handwriting was monitored by following the signal intensities recorded by DAPCI-MS. Handwritings made using four types of inks on four kinds of paper surfaces were tested. By studying the dynamic decay of the inks, DAPCI-MS imaging differentiated a 10-min old from two 4 h old samples. Non-destructive forensic analysis of forged signatures either handwritten or computer-assisted was achieved according to the difference of the contour in DAPCI images, which was attributed to the strength personalized by different writers. Distinction of the order of writing/stamping on documents and detection of illegal printings were accomplished with a spatial resolution of about 140 µm. A Matlab® written program was developed to facilitate the visualization of the similarity between signature images obtained by DAPCI-MS. The experimental results show that DAPCI-MS imaging provides rich information at the molecular level and thus can be used for the reliable document analysis in forensic applications.

  16. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  17. Direct analysis of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on concrete by reactive-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, D; Reiller, P E; Lamouroux, C

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of organic ligands such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is today an important challenge due to their ability to increase the mobility of radionuclides and metals. Reactive desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (reactive-DESI-MS) was used for direct analysis of EDTA on concrete samples. EDTA forms complexes and those with Fe(III) ions are among the most thermodynamically favored. This complexing capacity was used to improve the specific detection of EDTA directly on a concrete matrix by doping the solvent spray of DESI with a solution of FeCl3 to selectively create the complex between EDTA and Fe(III). Thus, EDTA sensitivity was largely improved by two orders of magnitude with reactive-DESI-MS experiments thanks to the specific detection of EDTA as a [EDTA-4H+Fe(III)](-) complex. The proof of principle that reactive DESI can be applied to concrete samples to detect EDTA has been demonstrated. Its capacity for semi-quantitative determination and localization of EDTA under ambient conditions and with very little sample preparation, minimizing sample manipulations and solvent volumes, two important conditions for the development of new methodologies in the field of analytical chemistry, has been shown.

  18. Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Tracing origins of complex pharmaceutical preparations using surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinglei; Jia, Bin; Huang, Keke; Hu, Bin; Chen, Rong; Chen, Huanwen

    2010-10-01

    A novel strategy to trace the origins of commercial pharmaceutical products has been developed based on the direct chemical profiling of the pharmaceutical products by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS). Besides the unambiguous identification of active drug components, various compounds present in the matrixes are simultaneously detected without sample pretreatment, providing valuable information for drug quality control and origin differentiation. Four sources of commercial amoxicillin products made by different manufacturers have been successfully differentiated. This strategy has been extended to secerning six sources of Liuwei Dihuang Teapills, which are herbal medicine preparations with extremely complex matrixes. The photolysis status of chemical drug products and the inferior natural herd medicine products prepared with different processes (e.g., extra heating) were also screened using the method reported here. The limit of detection achieved in the MS/MS experiments was estimated to be 1 ng/g for amoxicillin inside the capsule product. Our experimental data demonstrate that DAPCI-MS is a useful tool for rapid pharmaceutical analysis, showing promising perspectives for tracking the entire pharmaceutical supply chain to prevent counterfeit intrusions.

  20. Efficient Methods to Generate Reproducible Mass Spectra in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sung Hee; Park, Kyung Man; Bae, Yong Jin; Kim, Myung Soo

    2013-06-01

    In our previous matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) studies of peptides, we found that their mass spectra were virtually determined by the effective temperature in the early matrix plume, Tearly, when samples were rather homogeneous. This empirical rule allowed acquisition of quantitatively reproducible spectra. A difficulty in utilizing this rule was the complicated spectral treatment needed to get Tearly. In this work, we found another empirical rule that the total number of particles hitting the detector, or TIC, was a good measure of the spectral temperature and, hence, selection of spectra with the same TIC resulted in reproducible spectra. We also succeeded in obtaining reproducible spectra throughout a measurement by controlling TIC near a preset value through feedback adjustment of laser pulse energy. Both TIC selection and TIC control substantially reduced the shot-to-shot spectral variation in a spot, spot-to-spot variation in a sample, and even sample-to-sample variation in MALDI using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrix. Based on the utilization of acquired data, TIC control was more efficient than TIC selection by an order of magnitude. Both techniques produced calibration curves with excellent linearity, suggesting their utility in quantification of peptides.

  1. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Jin, Zhicheng; Hurt, Matt; Amundson, Lucas M.; Madden, Jeremy T.; Qian, Kuangnan; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) was successfully coupled to a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LQIT). Model compounds representing a wide variety of different types, including basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, were tested separately and as a mixture. These model compounds were successfully evaporated into the gas phase by using LIAD and then ionized by using APCI with different reagents. Four APCI reagent systems were tested: the traditionally used mixture of methanol and water, neat benzene, neat carbon disulfide, and nitrogen gas (no liquid reagent). The mixture of methanol and water produced primarily protonated molecules, as expected. However, only the most basic compounds yielded ions under these conditions. In sharp contrast, using APCI with either neat benzene or neat carbon disulfide as the reagent resulted in the ionization of all the analytes studied to predominantly yield stable molecular ions. Benzene yielded a larger fraction of protonated molecules than carbon disulfide, which is a disadvantage. A similar amount of fragmentation was observed for these reagents. When the experiment was performed without a liquid reagent(nitrogen gas was the reagent), more fragmentation was observed. Analysis of a known mixture as well as a petroleum cut was also carried out. In summary, the new experiment presented here allows the evaporation of thermally labile compounds, both polar and nonpolar, without dissociation or aggregation, and their ionization to form stable molecular ions. PMID:21472571

  2. Leidenfrost Phenomenon-assisted Thermal Desorption (LPTD) and Its Application to Open Ion Sources at Atmospheric Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-03-01

    This work describes the development and application of a new thermal desorption technique that makes use of the Leidenfrost phenomenon in open ion sources at atmospheric pressure for direct mass spectrometric detection of ultratrace levels of illicit, therapeutic, and stimulant drugs, toxicants, and peptides (molecular weight above 1 kDa) in their unaltered state from complex real world samples without or with minor sample pretreatment. A low temperature dielectric barrier discharge ion source was used throughout the experiments and the analytical figures of merit of this technique were investigated. Further, this desorption technique coupled with other ionization sources such as electrospray ionization (ESI) and dc corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in open atmosphere was also investigated. The use of the high-resolution `Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer provided unambiguous identification of trace levels of the targeted compounds from complex mixtures and background noise; the limits of detection for various small organic molecules and peptides treated with this technique were at the level of parts per trillion and 10-9 M, respectively. The high sensitivity of the present technique is attributed to the spontaneous enrichment of analyte molecules during the slow evaporation of the solvent, as well as to the sequential desorption of molecules from complex mixtures based on their volatilities. This newly developed desorption technique is simple and fast, while molecular ions are observed as the major ions.

  3. Online Monitoring of Enzymatic Reactions Using Time-Resolved Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Si; Wu, Qiuhua; Xiao, He; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-21

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is powerful for determining enzymatic reaction kinetics because of its soft ionization nature. However, it is limited to use ESI-favored solvents containing volatile buffers (e.g., ammonium acetate). In addition, lack of a quenching step for online ESI-MS reaction monitoring might introduce inaccuracy, due to the possible acceleration of reaction in the sprayed microdroplets. To overcome these issues, this study presents a new approach for online measuring enzymatic reaction kinetics using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). By using DESI-MS, enzymatic reaction products in a buffered aqueous media (e.g., a solution containing Tris buffer or high concentration of inorganic salts) could be directly detected. Furthermore, by adjusting the pH and solvent composition of the DESI spray, reaction can be online quenched to avoid the postionization reaction event, leading to fast and accurate measurement of kinetic constants. Reaction time control can be obtained simply by adjusting the injection flow rates of enzyme and substrate solutions. Enzymatic reactions examined in this study include hydrolysis of 2-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside by β-galactosidase and hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase. Derived Michaelis-Menten constants Km for these two reactions were determined to be 214 μM and 172 μM, respectively, which are in good agreement with the values of 300 μM and 230 μM reported in literature, validating the DESI-MS approach. Furthermore, this time-resolved DESI-MS also allowed us to determine Km and turnover number kcat for trypsin digestion of angiotensin II (Km and kcat are determined to be 6.4 mM and 1.3 s(-1), respectively).

  4. Qualitative analysis of seized cocaine samples using desorption electrospray ionization- mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Stojanovska, Natasha; Tahtouh, Mark; Kelly, Tamsin; Beavis, Alison; Fu, Shanlin

    2015-05-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of compounds found in seized drug material. In this study, DESI-MS was utilized in the screening analysis of illicit cocaine samples. The technique was also applied to the geographical origin determination of these samples. The limit of detection was determined to be 24.3 µg (or 3.47 µg/mm(2) ) and the analysis time was less than 1 minute per sample. The intra-day and inter-day precision for the detection of cocaine was 11 % and 42 %, respectively; therefore the quantitative data provided by DESI-MS was limited in its use for accurate determination of cocaine concentration in a sample. Using the quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer, the presence of cocaine and impurities detected were confirmed by accurate tandem MS data. The qualitative chemical profiles obtained using DESI-MS were compared to two popular analysis techniques, GC-MS and LC-MS. The effects of a range of adulterants including caffeine, procaine, levamisole, lignocaine, paracetamol, and atropine on the detectability of cocaine were also investigated. It was found that the addition of these adulterants in a cocaine sample did not prevent the detection of the analyte itself (there was slight enhancement in some samples), which was useful in drug detection. The detection of truxillines in the seized samples by DESI-MS aided in the preliminary determination of geographical origin, i.e., Bolivian, Peruvian or Colombian leaf origin. The application of DESI-MS to the qualitative analysis and screening of seized cocaine samples demonstrates the potential and applicability of the technique to the fast chemical profiling of illicit samples.

  5. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization mass spectrometry of proteins using a free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, R.; Hillenkamp, F.; Haglund, R.

    1995-12-31

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most promising techniques for spectral fingerprinting large molecules, such as proteins, oligonucleotides and carbohydrates. In the usual implementation of this technique, the analyte molecule is dissolved in an aromatic liquid matrix material which resonantly absorbs ultraviolet laser light. Resonant absorption by {pi}-{pi}* transitions volatilizes the matrix and initiates subsequent charge transfer to the analyte molecules, which are detected by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Recent MALDI-MS studies with Er:YAG (2.94 {mu}m) and CO{sub 2}{sup 4} (9.4-10.6 {mu}m) lasers suggest that them is significant unexplored potential for mass spectrometry of macromolecules, including oligonucleotide, in the mid-infrared. Preliminary experiments show that it is possible to capitalize on the rich rovibronic absorption spectrum of virtually all organics to initiate resonant desorption in matrix material over the entire range of pH values. However, the mechanism of charge transfer is particularly problematic for infrared MALDI because of the low photon energy. In this paper, we report the results of MALI-MS studies on small proteins using the Vanderbilt FEL and several matrix materials. Proteins with masses up to roughly 6,000 amu were detected with high resolution in a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By varying the pulse duration using a broadband Pockels cell, we have been able to compare the results of relatively long (5 {mu}s) and short (0.1 {mu}s) irradiation on the desorption and ionization processes. Compared to uv-MALDI spectra of identical analytes obtained with a nitrogen laser (337 nm) in the same time-of-flight spectrometer, the infrared results appear to show that the desorption and ionization process goes on over a somewhat longer time scale.

  6. Rapid Detection of OXA-48-Producing Enterobacteriaceae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Oviaño, Marina; Barba, Maria José; Fernández, Begoña; Ortega, Adriana; Aracil, Belén; Oteo, Jesús; Campos, José

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive (100%) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect OXA-48-type producers, using 161 previously characterized clinical isolates. Ertapenem was monitored to detect carbapenem resistance, and temocillin was included in the assay as a marker for OXA-48-producers. Structural analysis of temocillin is described. Data are obtained within 60 min. PMID:26677247

  7. Nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: Novel sample preparation methods and nanoparticle screening for plant metabolite imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yagnik, Gargey B.

    2016-02-19

    The main goal of the presented research is development of nanoparticle based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This dissertation includes the application of previously developed data acquisition methods, development of novel sample preparation methods, application and comparison of novel nanoparticle matrices, and comparison of two nanoparticle matrix application methods for MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS imaging.

  8. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air.

  9. Spatially resolved metabolic phenotyping of breast cancer by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Sabine; Muirhead, Laura J; Speller, Abigail V M; Golf, Ottmar; Strittmatter, Nicole; Ramakrishnan, Rathi; Goldin, Robert D; Jones, Emrys; Veselkov, Kirill; Nicholson, Jeremy; Darzi, Ara; Takats, Zoltan

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by varying responses to therapeutic agents and significant differences in long-term survival. Thus, there remains an unmet need for early diagnostic and prognostic tools and improved histologic characterization for more accurate disease stratification and personalized therapeutic intervention. This study evaluated a comprehensive metabolic phenotyping method in breast cancer tissue that uses desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI MSI), both as a novel diagnostic tool and as a method to further characterize metabolic changes in breast cancer tissue and the tumor microenvironment. In this prospective single-center study, 126 intraoperative tissue biopsies from tumor and tumor bed from 50 patients undergoing surgical resections were subject to DESI MSI. Global DESI MSI models were able to distinguish adipose, stromal, and glandular tissue based on their metabolomic fingerprint. Tumor tissue and tumor-associated stroma showed evident changes in their fatty acid and phospholipid composition compared with normal glandular and stromal tissue. Diagnosis of breast cancer was achieved with an accuracy of 98.2% based on DESI MSI data (PPV 0.96, NVP 1, specificity 0.96, sensitivity 1). In the tumor group, correlation between metabolomic profile and tumor grade/hormone receptor status was found. Overall classification accuracy was 87.7% (PPV 0.92, NPV 0.9, specificity 0.9, sensitivity 0.92). These results demonstrate that DESI MSI may be a valuable tool in the improved diagnosis of breast cancer in the future. The identified tumor-associated metabolic changes support theories of de novo lipogenesis in tumor tissue and the role of stroma tissue in tumor growth and development and overall disease prognosis.

  10. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: Imaging drugs and metabolites in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Justin M.; Ifa, Demian R.; Zhu, Yongxin; Kissinger, Candice B.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Kissinger, Peter T.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2008-01-01

    Ambient ionization methods for MS enable direct, high-throughput measurements of samples in the open air. Here, we report on one such method, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), which is coupled to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer and used to record the spatial intensity distribution of a drug directly from histological sections of brain, lung, kidney, and testis without prior chemical treatment. DESI imaging provided identification and distribution of clozapine after an oral dose of 50 mg/kg by: i) measuring the abundance of the intact ion at m/z 327.1, and ii) monitoring the dissociation of the protonated drug compound at m/z 327.1 to its dominant product ion at m/z 270.1. In lung tissues, DESI imaging was performed in the full-scan mode over an m/z range of 200-1100, providing an opportunity for relative quantitation by using an endogenous lipid to normalize the signal response of clozapine. The presence of clozapine was detected in all tissue types, whereas the presence of the N-desmethyl metabolite was detected only in the lung sections. Quantitation of clozapine from the brain, lung, kidney, and testis, by using LC-MS/MS, revealed concentrations ranging from 0.05 μg/g (brain) to a high of 10.6 μg/g (lung). Comparisons of the results recorded by DESI with those by LC-MS/MS show good agreement and are favorable for the use of DESI imaging in drug and metabolite detection directly from biological tissues. PMID:18697929

  11. Age determination of ballpoint pen ink by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bügler, Jürgen H; Buchner, Hans; Dallmayer, Anton

    2008-07-01

    Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating. Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages. As a consequence, this relative amount of solvent released at a certain low temperature, and its decrease with time, can be used to estimate ink age. This age-dependent parameter was studied in 85 different inks ranging in age from 1 week to 1.5 years. It was found that some inks showed a significant decrease of this parameter up to an age of several months, and that the aging process can be monitored within this period. For other inks, however, the age-dependent parameter decreases relatively fast, e.g., within a few days, to a constant level, which can be too fast for casework. Based on these results, a general procedure for assessing the age of ballpoint pen inks on paper was developed.

  12. High-throughput proteomics using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Rainer; Gobom, Johan; Nordhoff, Eckhard

    2005-06-01

    It has become evident that the mystery of life will not be deciphered just by decoding its blueprint, the genetic code. In the life and biomedical sciences, research efforts are now shifting from pure gene analysis to the analysis of all biomolecules involved in the machinery of life. One area of these postgenomic research fields is proteomics. Although proteomics, which basically encompasses the analysis of proteins, is not a new concept, it is far from being a research field that can rely on routine and large-scale analyses. At the time the term proteomics was coined, a gold-rush mentality was created, promising vast and quick riches (i.e., solutions to the immensely complex questions of life and disease). Predictably, the reality has been quite different. The complexity of proteomes and the wide variations in the abundances and chemical properties of their constituents has rendered the use of systematic analytical approaches only partially successful, and biologically meaningful results have been slow to arrive. However, to learn more about how cells and, hence, life works, it is essential to understand the proteins and their complex interactions in their native environment. This is why proteomics will be an important part of the biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future. Therefore, any advances in providing the tools that make protein analysis a more routine and large-scale business, ideally using automated and rapid analytical procedures, are highly sought after. This review will provide some basics, thoughts and ideas on the exploitation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization in biological mass spectrometry - one of the most commonly used analytical tools in proteomics - for high-throughput analyses.

  13. An investigation of liquid secondary ion and laser desorption mass spectroscopy for the analysis of planar chromatograms

    SciTech Connect

    Dunphy, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    In the work described in this dissertation, interfaces between two mass spectrometric methods, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS) and laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LD/FTMS), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and slab gel electrophoresis were developed for bioanalytical applications. In an investigation of direct LSIMS for TLC analysis (TLC/LSIMS), mass spectra of bile acids and bile salts were characterized directly from high-performance TLC plates. The scanning ability of the LSIMS instrument was used to generate spatial profiles of the characteristic bile acid ions in the mass spectra. A procedure for the analysis of bile salts in dog bile was developed involving an extraction step, followed by TLC separation and direct TLC/LSIMS detection and semi-quantitation. For peptides, an experiment called ``selected-sequence monitoring`` was developed to locate target peptides related in structure in complex mixtures developed on TLC plates. Ions characteristic of the bradykinin and enkephalin peptides were used to generate spatial profiles of members of those peptide families on TLC plates. Using a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), a fundamental investigation was conducted into the factors affecting the quality of analytical data obtained using direct laser desorption/ionization to produce mass spectra from TLC plates.

  14. An investigation of liquid secondary ion and laser desorption mass spectroscopy for the analysis of planar chromatograms

    SciTech Connect

    Dunphy, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    In the work described in this dissertation, interfaces between two mass spectrometric methods, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS) and laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LD/FTMS), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and slab gel electrophoresis were developed for bioanalytical applications. In an investigation of direct LSIMS for TLC analysis (TLC/LSIMS), mass spectra of bile acids and bile salts were characterized directly from high-performance TLC plates. The scanning ability of the LSIMS instrument was used to generate spatial profiles of the characteristic bile acid ions in the mass spectra. A procedure for the analysis of bile salts in dog bile was developed involving an extraction step, followed by TLC separation and direct TLC/LSIMS detection and semi-quantitation. For peptides, an experiment called selected-sequence monitoring'' was developed to locate target peptides related in structure in complex mixtures developed on TLC plates. Ions characteristic of the bradykinin and enkephalin peptides were used to generate spatial profiles of members of those peptide families on TLC plates. Using a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), a fundamental investigation was conducted into the factors affecting the quality of analytical data obtained using direct laser desorption/ionization to produce mass spectra from TLC plates.

  15. Chemical analysis of diesel engine nanoparticles using a nano-DMA/thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tobias, H J; Beving, D E; Ziemann, P J; Sakurai, H; Zuk, M; McMurry, P H; Zarling, D; Waytulonis, R; Kittelson, D B

    2001-06-01

    Diesel engines are known to emit high number concentrations of nanoparticles (diameter < 50 nm), but the physical and chemical mechanisms by which they form are not understood. Information on chemical composition is lacking because the small size, low mass concentration, and potential for contamination of samples obtained by standard techniques make nanoparticles difficult to analyze. A nano-differential mobility analyzer was used to size-select nanoparticles (mass median diameter approximately 25-60 nm) from diesel engine exhaust for subsequent chemical analysis by thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry. Mass spectra were used to identify and quantify nanoparticle components, and compound molecular weights and vapor pressures were estimated from calibrated desorption temperatures. Branched alkanes and alkyl-substituted cycloalkanes from unburned fuel and/or lubricating oil appear to contribute most of the diesel nanoparticle mass. The volatility of the organic fraction of the aerosol increases as the engine load decreases and as particle size increases. Sulfuric acid was also detected at estimated concentrations of a few percent of the total nanoparticle mass. The results are consistent with a mechanism of nanoparticle formation involving nucleation of sulfuric acid and water, followed by particle growth by condensation of organic species.

  16. Structural characterization and biological activity of recombinant human epidermal growth factor proteins with different N-terminal sequences.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, M; Bauhofer, A; Schwind, P; Bade, E; Rasched, I; Przybylski, M

    1994-05-18

    The primary structures and molecular homogeneity of recombinant human epidermal growth factors from different suppliers were characterized and their biological activities evaluated by a standard DNA synthesis assay. Molecular weight determinations using 252Cf-plasma-desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry in combination with N- and C-terminal sequence analysis and determination of intramolecular disulfide bridges revealed that one recombinant protein had the correct human-identical structure (54 aa residues; 6347 Da). In contrast, a second recombinant protein (7020 Da) was found to contain a pentapeptide (KKYPR) insert following its N-terminal methionine. This structural variant showed a significant reduction in its capacity to stimulate DNA synthesis.

  17. Few layer graphene matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Donghyun; Hong, Sangsu; Shim, Sangdeok

    2013-08-01

    We present the employment of few layer graphene (FLG) as a matrix for the analysis of low molecular weight polymeric compounds using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The practicality of FLG as a matrix for MALDI experiments is demonstrated by analyzing low molecular weight polymers, polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 1000 Da and nonpolar polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of 650 Da. The high quality MS spectra without low-mass interference signals without any further sampling procedure were acquired.

  18. Rapid identification of pesticides in human oral fluid for emergency management by thermal desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Wei; Su, Hung; Chen, Peng-Yu; Lin, Shiang-Jiun; Shiea, Jentaie; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2016-02-01

    Self-poisoning with pesticides accounts for approximately one-third of all suicides worldwide. To expedite rescue in the emergency department, it is essential to develop a point-of-care analytical method for rapid identification of ingested pesticides. In this study, five of the most common pesticides ingested by self-poisoning patients in Taiwan were analyzed from oral fluid samples. Pesticide-oral fluid mixtures were applied on a cotton swab and then transferred into methanol. A metallic probe was used to sample the methanol solution for subsequent thermal desorption-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Altogether, pesticide sampling, transfer, desorption, ionization, and detection took less than 1 min. The reproducibility of this method (n = 6) was shown in the observed low-relative standard deviation (<7%) in the detection of pesticide in oral fluid. The detection limits of the pesticides in oral fluid obtained from four human subjects by thermal desorption-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were between 1-10 ppb with relative standard deviation 10.7%. Moreover, in this study, linear responses of five pesticides in oral fluid with concentrations between 1 ppb-1 ppm (R2 between 0.9938 and 0.9988) were observed. As the whole analytical process is extremely short, this technique allows for early non-invasive point-of-care identification of pesticides in the oral fluid of self-poisoning patients in the emergency room, providing important toxicological information for decision-making during critical resuscitation.

  19. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine phthalate and organophosphate esters from air samples.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M; Borrull, F; Marcé, R M

    2013-08-16

    A method based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) has been developed to determine four organophosphate esters, seven phthalate esters, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in the gas phase from harbour and urban air samples. The method involves the sampling of 1.5L of air in a Tenax TA sorbent tube followed by thermal desorption (using a Tenax TA cryogenic trap) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD (n=3) is less than 15% and the MQLs are between 0.007μgm(-3) (DMP, TBP, BBP, TPP and DnOP) and 6.7μgm(-3) (DEHP). The method was successfully applied in two areas (urban and harbour) testing two and three points in each one, respectively. Some of these compounds were found in both urban and harbour samples. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was the most abundant compound found in both areas at concentration levels between 6.7μgm(-3) and 136.4μgm(-3). This study demonstrates that thermal desorption is an efficient method for the determination of these semi-volatile compounds in the gas phase fraction of air samples.

  20. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-08-11

    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine.

  1. Characterization of silver ions adsorbed on gold nanorods: surface analysis by using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niidome, Yasuro; Nakamura, Yuki; Honda, Kanako; Akiyama, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Koji; Kawasaki, Hideya; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2009-04-07

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) indicated AgBr2-, which adsorbed on gold nanorod surfaces, was a key material to control the anisotropic growth of gold nanorods.

  2. Screening of gluten avenins in foods by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camafeita, E; Méndez, E

    1998-10-01

    The first procedure capable of analysing gluten avenins in gluten-free food samples aimed at the diet control of coeliac patients is described. The method is based on the direct observation of the characteristic avenin mass pattern, around 20-30 kDa, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS). The mass range where avenin signals appear is free from mass peaks arising from wheat gliadin, barley hordein and rye secalin protein components, which are also toxic to coeliac patients. Therefore, avenins can easily be screened in complex formula food samples elaborated with mixtures of wheat, barley, rye and oats. In addition, a procedure to quantify avenins in food samples is described on the basis of avenin mass area measurement with a detection limit of 0.4 mg of avenins per 100 g of food.

  3. Quantitative analysis of synthetic polymers using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; He, Meiyu; Pei, Jian; He, Haifeng

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative analyses of synthetic polymers were accomplished using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). Many factors have hindered the development of quantitative measurement of polymers via MALDI TOF MS, e.g., laser power, matrix, cation salt, and cocrystallization. By probing the optimal conditions, two sets of polymers were studied. Fair repeatability of the samples ensures acceptable results. In set 1, two poly(ethylene glycols) with different end groups showed equal desorption/ionization efficiencies. Two synthetic polymers in set 2 with different chemical properties resulted in different MALDI responses. Good linearity was achieved by plotting the relationship between the sample concentration ratio and the total signal intensity ratio in both sets.

  4. Black phosphorus-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of low-molecular-weight compounds in biofluids.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Ding, Jun; Yu, Lei; Hussain, Dilshad; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of small molecules by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been a challenging task due to matrix-derived interferences in low m/z region and poor reproducibility of MS signal response. In this study, we developed an approach by applying black phosphorus (BP) as a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) matrix for the quantitative analysis of small molecules for the first time. Black phosphorus-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (BP/ALDI-MS) showed clear background and exhibited superior detection sensitivity toward quaternary ammonium compounds compared to carbon-based materials. By combining stable isotope labeling (SIL) strategy with BP/ALDI-MS (SIL-BP/ALDI-MS), a variety of analytes labeled with quaternary ammonium group were sensitively detected. Moreover, the isotope-labeled forms of analytes also served as internal standards, which broadened the analyte coverage of BP/ALDI-MS and improved the reproducibility of MS signals. Based on these advantages, a reliable method for quantitative analysis of aldehydes from complex biological samples (saliva, urine, and serum) was successfully established. Good linearities were obtained for five aldehydes in the range of 0.1-20.0 μM with correlation coefficients (R (2)) larger than 0.9928. The LODs were found to be 20 to 100 nM. Reproducibility of the method was obtained with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10.4 %, and the recoveries in saliva samples ranged from 91.4 to 117.1 %. Taken together, the proposed SIL-BP/ALDI-MS strategy has proved to be a reliable tool for quantitative analysis of aldehydes from complex samples. Graphical Abstract An approach for the determination of small molecules was developed by using black phosphorus (BP) as a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) matrix.

  5. Discrimination of Penicillium isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Hettick, Justin M; Green, Brett J; Buskirk, Amanda D; Kashon, Michael L; Slaven, James E; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2008-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to generate highly reproducible mass spectral 'fingerprints' for twelve Penicillium species. Prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, eight replicate cultures of each Penicillium species were subjected to three one-minute bead-beating cycles in an acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid solvent. The mass spectra contained abundant peaks in the range of m/z 5000-20 000, and allowed unambiguous discrimination between species. In addition, a biomarker common to all Penicillium mass spectra was observed at m/z 13 900. Discriminant analysis using the MALDI-TOF MS data yielded classification error rates of 0% (i.e. 100% correct identification), indicating that MALDI-TOF MS data may be a useful diagnostic tool for the objective identification of Penicillium species of environmental and clinical importance.

  6. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Sangwon

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  7. Cellular-level mass spectrometry imaging using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) by oversampling.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Milad; Muddiman, David C

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) allows for the direct and simultaneous analysis of the spatial distribution of molecular species from sample surfaces such as tissue sections. One of the goals of MSI is monitoring the distribution of compounds at the cellular resolution in order to gain insights about the biology that occurs at this spatial level. Infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) imaging of cervical tissue sections was performed using a spot-to-spot distance of 10 μm by utilizing the method of oversampling, where the target plate is moved by a distance that is less than the desorption radius of the laser. In addition to high spatial resolution, high mass accuracy (±1 ppm) and high mass resolving power (140,000 at m/z = 200) were achieved by coupling the IR-MALDESI imaging source to a hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Ion maps of cholesterol in tissues were generated from voxels containing <1 cell, on average. Additionally, the challenges of imaging at the cellular level in terms of loss of sensitivity and longer analysis time are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of combined matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry experiments for peptide mass fingerprinting analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, David; Wasselin, Thierry; Carré, Vincent; Chaimbault, Patrick; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Maunit, Benoît; Muller, Jean-François

    2011-07-15

    Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) is still of significant interest in proteomics because it allows a large number of complex samples to be rapidly screened and characterized. The main part of post-translational modifications is generally preserved. In some specific cases, PMF suffers from ambiguous or unsuccessful identification. In order to improve its reliability, a combined approach using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICRMS) was evaluated. The study was carried out on bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest. The influence of several important parameters (the matrix, the sample preparation method, the amount of the analyte) on the MOWSE score and the protein sequence coverage were evaluated to allow the identification of specific effects. A careful investigation of the sequence coverage obtained by each kind of experiment ensured the detection of specific peptides for each experimental condition. Results highlighted that DHB-FTICRMS and DHB- or CHCA-TOFMS are the most suited combinations of experimental conditions to achieve PMF analysis. The association (convolution) of the data obtained by each of these techniques ensured a significant increase in the MOWSE score and the protein sequence coverage.

  9. Filtration efficiency validation of glass wool during thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of fine atmospheric particles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Ding, Kun; Meng, Hu; Yan, Xiaohui; Guan, Yafeng

    2015-02-06

    Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS) technique has been widely used for analysis of semi-violate organic compounds on atmospheric aerosol. To prevent GC column from being damaged by fine solid particles during thermal desorption process, glass wool as filter mat is indispensible. However, the filtration efficiency has never been validated. In this paper, the most penetrating particle size and the minimum packing thickness of glass wool were calculated based on classical filtration theory. According to the calculation results, packing parameters of glass wool were optimized experimentally using silica particles. It is demonstrated that glass wool with a packing thickness of 30 mm, solidity of 0.039 can effectively block these fine solid particles from penetrating at normal thermal desorption conditions (T=300°C, u=0.4-4 cm/s). Finally, the filtration efficiency of glass wool was further confirmed with real PM2.5 samples. Under the validated filtration condition, TD-GC-MS was applied for the analysis of non-polar organic compounds on real PM2.5 samples, and very good results were obtained.

  10. High-Resolution Live-Cell Imaging and Analysis by Laser Desorption/Ionization Droplet Delivery Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Jansson, Erik T; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2016-05-17

    We have developed a new ambient-ionization mass spectrometric technique named laser desorption/ionization droplet delivery mass spectrometry (LDIDD-MS). LDIDD-MS permits high-resolution, high-sensitivity imaging of tissue samples as well as measurements of both single-cell apoptosis and live-cell exocytosis. A pulsed (15 Hz) UV laser beam (266 nm) is focused on a surface covered with target analytes to trigger their desorption and ionization. A spray of liquid droplets is simultaneously directed onto the laser-focused surface region to capture the ionized analytes and deliver them to a mass spectrometer. The approach of rapid and effective capturing of molecules after laser desorption/ionization allows the limit of detection for the amino acid lysine to be as low as 2 amol under ambient ionization conditions. Two-dimensional maps of the desorbed/ionized species are recorded by moving the sample on an XY translational stage. The spatial resolution for imaging with LDIDD-MS was determined to be 2.4 μm for an ink-printed pattern and 3 μm for mouse brain tissue. We applied LDIDD-MS to single-cell analysis of apoptotic HEK cells. Differences were observed in the profiles of fatty acids and lipids between healthy HEK cells and those undergoing apoptosis. We observed upregulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) with a relatively shorter carbon chain length and downregulation of PC with a relatively longer carbon chain length. We also applied LDIDD-MS for a real-time direct measurements of live-cell exocytosis. The catecholamine dopamine and trace amines (phenethylamine and tyramine) were detected from live PC12 cells without damaging them.

  11. [Special application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in clinical microbiological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Erzsébet; Abrók, Marianna; Bartha, Noémi; Bereczki, László; Juhász, Emese; Kardos, Gábor; Kristóf, Katalin; Miszti, Cecilia; Urbán, Edit

    2014-09-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a new possibility for rapid identification of bacteria and fungi revolutionized the clinical microbiological diagnostics. It has an extreme importance in the routine microbiological laboratories, as identification of the pathogenic species rapidly will influence antibiotic selection before the final determination of antibiotic resistance of the isolate. The classical methods for identification of bacteria or fungi, based on biochemical tests, are influenced by many environmental factors. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a rapid method which is able to identify a great variety of the isolated bacteria and fungi based on the composition of conserved ribosomal proteins. Recently several other applications of the method have also been investigated such as direct identification of pathogens from the positive blood cultures. There are possibilities to identify bacteria from the urine samples in urinary tract infection or from other sterile body fluids. Using selective enrichment broth Salmonella sp from the stool samples can be identified more rapidly, too. The extended spectrum beta-lactamase or carbapenemase production of the isolated bacteria can be also detected by this method helping the antibiotic selection in some cases. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based methods are suitable to investigate changes in deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid, to carry out rapid antibiotic resistance determination or other proteomic analysis. The aim of this paper is to give an overview about present possibilities of using this technique in the clinical microbiological routine procedures.

  12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry of gas-phase peptide-metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortal, Ana R.; Hurtado, Paola; Martínez-Haya, Bruno

    2008-12-01

    Cation attachment to a model peptide has been investigated in matrix-assisted laser desorption experiments. Angiotensin I (Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-His-Leu) is chosen as a system for study, and Cu2+ and K+ salts are used as cationizing agents. Three fundamentally different types of samples are investigated: (1) a crystalline sample of Ang I, metal salt and MALDI matrix, prepared with the conventional dried droplet method; (2) a solvent-free fine powder mixture of the same three compounds, and (3) a solution of the angiotensin and the metal salt in an ionic liquid matrix (a molten organic salt that acts as a MALDI active solvent). Effective protonation and cationization of the peptide are achieved with the three methods. The transition metal systematically provides more efficient cationization than the alkali metal. At sufficiently high concentration of the salt, the attachment of up to four copper cations to the angiotensin is observed in the MALDI spectrum. In contrast, only one K+ cation is efficiently bound to the peptide. For a given salt concentration, the highest degree of cationization is obtained in the laser desorption from the ionic liquid matrix. This is attributed to the efficient transfer of free metal cations to the desorption plume, where the complexation takes place.

  13. Gold nanoparticles loaded on zeolite as inorganic matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mengrui; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were loaded on zeolite to produce an inorganic matrix for the laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of low molecular weight compounds. Owing to the strong acidity of zeolite, amino acids were detected as H+- or Na+-adducted species regardless of their isoelectric points. AuNPs on zeolite could also be used as an efficient Au+ supplier. By utilizing Au+ generated by photoexcitation, the ionization of the amino acids mixture, urea, and acetylsalicylic acid by Au+ adduction was demonstrated.

  14. Current status of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jen; Chen, Sharon C A; Dwyer, Dominic E; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) into many clinical microbiology laboratories has revolutionised routine pathogen identification. MALDI-TOF MS complements and has good potential to replace existing phenotypic identification methods. Results are available in a more clinically relevant timeframe, particularly in bacteraemic septic shock. Novel applications include strain typing and the detection of antimicrobial resistance, but these are not widely used. This review discusses the technical aspects, current applications, and limitations of MALDI-TOF MS.

  15. Organic chemical analysis on a microscopic scale using two-step laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, L. J.; Philippoz, J.-M.; Bucenell, J. R.; Zenobi, R.; Zare, R. N.

    1991-04-01

    The distribution of PAHs in the Allende meteorite has been measured using two-step laser desorption and laser multiphoton-ionization mass spectrometry. This method enables in situ analysis (with a spatial resolution of 1 mm or better) of selected organic molecules. Results show that PAH concentrations are locally high compared to the average concentration found by analysis of pulverized samples, and are found primarily in the fine-grained matrix; no PAHs were detected in the interiors of individual chondrules at the detection limit (about 0.05 ppm).

  16. Liquid injection field desorption ionization mass spectrometry of cyclic metal carbonyl complexes with tetra-antimony ligands.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Hans J; Linden, H Bernhard; Moldovan, Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of (norbornadiene)Cr(CO)(4) or cis-(piperidine)(2)Mo(CO)(4) with R(2)Sb-SbR(2), and cyclo-(R'Sb)(n) (R' = Et, n-Pr; n = 4, 5) give the complexes cyclo-[M(CO)(4)(R(2)Sb-SbR'- SbR'-SbR(2))] (1: M = Cr, R = Me, R'= Et; 2: M = Mo, R = Et, R' = Et; 3: M = Mo, R = Et, R' = n-Pr). Not accessible to established characterization methods, the oily, extremely reactive unpurified mixture of 3 with scrambled ligands was characterized by mass spectrometry using liquid injection field desorption ionization (LIFDI).

  17. Detection of trace organics in Mars analog samples containing perchlorate by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Danell, Ryan M; Brinckerhoff, William B; Pinnick, Veronica T; van Amerom, Friso; Arevalo, Ricardo D; Getty, Stephanie A; Mahaffy, Paul R; Steininger, Harald; Goesmann, Fred

    2015-02-01

    Evidence from recent Mars missions indicates the presence of perchlorate salts up to 1 wt % level in the near-surface materials. Mixed perchlorates and other oxychlorine species may complicate the detection of organic molecules in bulk martian samples when using pyrolysis techniques. To address this analytical challenge, we report here results of laboratory measurements with laser desorption mass spectrometry, including analyses performed on both commercial and Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) breadboard instruments. We demonstrate that the detection of nonvolatile organics in selected spiked mineral-matrix materials by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry is not inhibited by the presence of up to 1 wt % perchlorate salt. The organics in the sample are not significantly degraded or combusted in the LDI process, and the parent molecular ion is retained in the mass spectrum. The LDI technique provides distinct potential benefits for the detection of organics in situ on the martian surface and has the potential to aid in the search for signs of life on Mars.

  18. Direct Visualization of Neurotransmitters in Rat Brain Slices by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI - MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Anna Maria A. P.; Vendramini, Pedro H.; Galaverna, Renan; Schwab, Nicolas V.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Augusti, Rodinei; Castilho, Roger F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2016-12-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials. The amino acids γ-aminobutyric (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, serine, as well as acetylcholine, dopamine, and choline were successfully imaged using a commercial DESI source coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The spatial distribution of the analyzed compounds in different brain regions was determined. We conclude that the ambient matrix-free DESI-MSI is suitable for neurotransmitter imaging and could be applied in studies that involve evaluation of imbalances in neurotransmitters levels.

  19. Direct Visualization of Neurotransmitters in Rat Brain Slices by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI - MS).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Anna Maria A P; Vendramini, Pedro H; Galaverna, Renan; Schwab, Nicolas V; Alberici, Luciane C; Augusti, Rodinei; Castilho, Roger F; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2016-12-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials. The amino acids γ-aminobutyric (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, serine, as well as acetylcholine, dopamine, and choline were successfully imaged using a commercial DESI source coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The spatial distribution of the analyzed compounds in different brain regions was determined. We conclude that the ambient matrix-free DESI-MSI is suitable for neurotransmitter imaging and could be applied in studies that involve evaluation of imbalances in neurotransmitters levels. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Rapid extraction and structural characterization of biomolecules in agarose gels by laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dunphy, J.C.; Busch, K.L. ); Hettich, R.L.; Buchanan, M.V. )

    1993-05-15

    A method originally developed for the extraction of biomolecules from agarose gel slices has been utilized as a rapid means of isolating biological compounds from gels for subsequent structural characterization by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI/FTMS). This [open quotes]freeze-squeeze[close quotes] extraction method involves pressure extrusion of fluid from frozen gel slices and provides near 50% recovery of analyte in less than 5 min. Experiments were directed at examining the recovery efficiency of the extraction method using [sup 14]C-labeled adenosine monophosphate and investigating the effect of high buffer concentrations on the laser desorption mass spectra. When coupled with this extraction technique, MALDI/FTMS can be used to detect and identify biomolecules at the low picomole level in agarose gel slices. The accurate mass measurements and MS/MS capabilities of the FTMS were exploited to provide detailed structural information at the isomeric level for oligonucleotides electrophoresed into agarose gels. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode.

  2. Direct Detection of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Aqueous Samples with Thermally-Assisted Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ian S.; Ton, Alain T.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2011-07-01

    An ambient mass spectrometric method based on desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) has been developed to allow rapid, direct analysis of contaminated water samples, and the technique was evaluated through analysis of a wide array of pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) contaminants. Incorporating direct infusion of aqueous sample and thermal assistance into the source design has allowed low ppt detection limits for the target analytes in drinking water matrices. With this methodology, mass spectral information can be collected in less than 1 min, consuming ~100 μL of total sample. Quantitative ability was also demonstrated without the use of an internal standard, yielding decent linearity and reproducibility. Initial results suggest that this source configuration is resistant to carryover effects and robust towards multi-component samples. The rapid, continuous analysis afforded by this method offers advantages in terms of sample analysis time and throughput over traditional hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques.

  3. Tryptic peptide purification using polyvinylidene difluoride membrane for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is extremely sensitive to minor impurities in tryptic peptide digests, resulting in suppression of the signal obtained. Therefore, it becomes necessary to purify the sample, especially those samples that fail to yield good mass spectra. Here, we describe a simple protocol using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane for purifying tryptic peptides prior to mass spectrometric analysis. The tryptic digest is spotted on a PVDF membrane, air-dried, and washed. The membrane is then extracted with trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile and the extract is then subjected to MALDI TOF MS. Using this procedure, we were able to identify a cross-reactive D1 autoantigen on the surface of neutrophils that bound antibodies targeting Ro 60 autoantigen in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  4. Analysis of chlorophylls and their derivatives by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Midonoya, Hitoshi; Shioi, Yuzo

    2009-07-01

    The analysis of chlorophylls and their derivatives by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry is described. Four matrices-sinapinic acid, a-cyano-4-hydroxycinnnamic acid, terthiophene, and 3-aminoquinoline-were examined to determine optimal conditions for analysis of the molecular mass and structure of chlorophyll a as a representative chlorophyll. Among them, terthiophene was the most efficient without releasing metal ions, although it caused fragmentation of the phytol-ester linkage. Terthiophene was useful for the analyses of chlorophyll derivatives as well as porphyrin products such as 8-deethyl-8-vinyl-chlorophyll a, pheophorbide a, pyropheophorbide a, bacteriochlorophyll a esterified phytol, and protoporphyrin IX. The current method is suitable for rapid and accurate determination of the molecular mass and structure of chlorophylls and porphyrins.

  5. Surface analysis using a new plasma assisted desorption/ionisation source for mass spectrometry in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowfield, A.; Barrett, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; Ortori, C. A.; Rutten, F. M.; Salter, T. L.; Gilmore, I. S.; Bradley, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    The authors report on a modified micro-plasma assisted desorption/ionisation (PADI) device which creates plasma through the breakdown of ambient air rather than utilising an independent noble gas flow. This new micro-PADI device is used as an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry to analyse species released from the surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene, and generic ibuprofen and paracetamol tablets through remote activation of the surface by the plasma. The mass spectra from these surfaces compare favourably to those produced by a PADI device constructed using an earlier design and confirm that the new ion source is an effective device which can be used to achieve ambient mass spectrometry with improved spatial resolution.

  6. Thin-layer chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using particle suspension matrices.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anna; Clench, Malcolm R; Richards, Don S; Parr, Vic

    2002-06-07

    Particle suspension matrices have been successfully utilized for the analysis of tetracycline antibiotics by thin-layer chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS). Particles of different materials and sizes have been investigated (Co-UFP, TiN, TiO2, Graphite and Silicon) by applying particle suspensions to eluted TLC plates. Mass spectra and mass chromatograms have been recorded directly from the TLC plates. Strong cationization by sodium and potassium was obtained in the positive ion mode, with [M+Na-NH3]+ ions being the predominant signals. The TLC-MALDI mass spectra recorded from graphite suspensions showed the lowest background noise and the highest peak intensities from the range of suspension matrices studied. The mass accuracy from graphite films was improved by adding the peptide Phe-Phe to the graphite suspensions. This allowed internal recalibration of the TLC-MALDI mass spectra acquired during a run. One major potential advantage of TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS has been demonstrated in the analysis of chlortetracycline and tetracycline in a mixture of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, tetracycline and minocycline. Examination of the TLC plate prior to MALDI analysis showed only an unresolved spot for chlortetracycline and tetracycline. However by investigation of the MALDI mass spectra and plotting of single ion chromatograms separate peaks for chlortetracycline and tetracycline could be obtained.

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry method for selectively producing either singly or multiply charged molecular ions.

    PubMed

    Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D; Herath, Thushani N; McEwen, Charles N

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is noted for its ability to produce primarily singly charged ions. This is an attribute when using direct ionization for complex mixtures such as protein digests or synthetic polymers. However, the ability to produce multiply charged ions, as with electrospray ionization (ESI), has advantages such as extending the mass range on mass spectrometers with limited mass-to-charge (m/z) range and enhancing fragmentation for structural characterization. We designed and fabricated a novel field free transmission geometry atmopsheric pressure (AP) MALDI source mounted to a high-mass resolution Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. We report the ability to produce at will either singly charged ions or highly charged ions using a MALDI process by simply changing the matrix or the matrix preparation conditions. Mass spectra with multiply charged ions very similar to those obtained with ESI of proteins such as cytochrome c and ubiquitin are obtained with low femtomole amounts applied to the MALDI target plate and for peptides such as angiotensin I and II with application of attomole amounts. Single scan acquisitions produce sufficient ion current even from proteins.

  8. Highly Reproducible Laser Beam Scanning Device for an Internal Source Laser Desorption Microprobe Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jill Rennee; Tremblay, Paul Leland

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, mass spectrometry has relied on manipulating the sample target to provide scanning capabilities for laser desorption microprobes. This has been problematic for an internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LD-FTMS) because of the high magnetic field (7 Tesla) and geometric constraints of the superconducting magnet bore. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented a unique external laser scanning mechanism for an internal source LD-FTMS. This mechanism provides adjustable resolution enhancement so that the spatial resolution at the target is not limited to that of the stepper motors at the light source (~5 µm/step). The spatial resolution is now limited by the practical optical diffraction limit of the final focusing lens. The scanning mechanism employs a virtual source that is wavelength independent up to the final focusing lens, which can be controlled remotely to account for focal length dependence on wavelength. A binary index provides an automatic alignment feature. The virtual source is located ~9 ft from the sample; therefore, it is completely outside of the vacuum system and beyond the 50 G line of the fringing magnetic field. To eliminate reproducibility problems associated with vacuum pump vibrations, we have taken advantage of the magnetic field inherent to the FTMS to utilize Lenz's law for vibrational dampening. The LD-FTMS microprobe has exceptional reproducibility, which enables successive mapping sequences for depth-profiling studies.

  9. Highly reproducible laser beam scanning device for an internal source laser desorption microprobe Fourier transform mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, mass spectrometry has relied on manipulating the sample target to provide scanning capabilities for laser desorption microprobes. This has been problematic for an internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LD-FTMS) because of the high magnetic field (7 Tesla) and geometric constraints of the superconducting magnet bore. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented a unique external laser scanning mechanism for an internal source LD-FTMS. This mechanism provides adjustable resolution enhancement so that the spatial resolution at the target is not limited to that of the stepper motors at the light source (˜5 μm/step). The spatial resolution is now limited by the practical optical diffraction limit of the final focusing lens. The scanning mechanism employs a virtual source that is wavelength independent up to the final focusing lens, which can be controlled remotely to account for focal length dependence on wavelength. A binary index provides an automatic alignment feature. The virtual source is located ˜9 ft from the sample; therefore, it is completely outside of the vacuum system and beyond the 50 G line of the fringing magnetic field. To eliminate reproducibility problems associated with vacuum pump vibrations, we have taken advantage of the magnetic field inherent to the FTMS to utilize Lenz's law for vibrational dampening. The LD-FTMS microprobe has exceptional reproducibility, which enables successive mapping sequences for depth-profiling studies.

  10. Solvent Separating Secondary Metabolites Directly from Biosynthetic Tissue for Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, David; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2015-01-01

    Marine bioactive metabolites are often heterogeneously expressed in tissues both spatially and over time. Therefore, traditional solvent extraction methods benefit from an understanding of the in situ sites of biosynthesis and storage to deal with heterogeneity and maximize yield. Recently, surface-assisted mass spectrometry (MS) methods namely nanostructure-assisted laser desorption ionisation (NALDI) and desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) surfaces have been developed to enable the direct detection of low molecular weight metabolites. Since direct tissue NALDI-MS or DIOS-MS produce complex spectra due to the wide variety of other metabolites and fragments present in the low mass range, we report here the use of “on surface” solvent separation directly from mollusc tissue onto nanostructured surfaces for MS analysis, as a mechanism for simplifying data annotation and detecting possible artefacts from compound delocalization during the preparative steps. Water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane selectively extracted a range of choline esters, brominated indoles and lipids from Dicathais orbita hypobranchial tissue imprints. These compounds could be quantified on the nanostructured surfaces by comparison to standard curves generated from the pure compounds. Surface-assisted MS could have broad utility for detecting a broad range of secondary metabolites in complex marine tissue samples. PMID:25786067

  11. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption mass spectrometry of DNA using an infrared free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F., Jr.; Tang, Kai; Hillenkamp, Franz; Chen, C. H. Winston

    1993-07-01

    Sequencing the human genome requires an interdisciplinary approach combining aspects of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering applied at the molecular level. One potentially interesting approach involves the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI-MS), because of its high sensitivity, high speed, great accuracy, and ease of automation. However, while MALDI-MS has been successful in mass analysis of proteins and many large biomolecules, attempts to apply the technique to DNA sequencing have proven notoriously difficult. Because the choice of matrix materials for MALDI-MS is severely constrained by the application of conventional UV and visible laser sources, we are investigating the application of a tunable infrared free-electron laser to test the potential of infrared MALDI-MS for DNA sequencing. We describe the advantages of using tunable IR laser sources to choose matrix materials with optimal desorption, ionization, and thermomechanical properties, while avoiding the photochemical effects induced by ultraviolet and visible lasers. We also show the results of preliminary MALDI-MS experiments on small organic molecules using the Vanderbilt free-electron laser.

  12. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Identification of Neisseria Species

    PubMed Central

    Gudlavalleti, Seshu K.; Sundaram, Appavu K; Razumovski, Jane; Doroshenko, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (AP-MALDI MS) was applied to develop a proteomics-based method to detect and identify Neisseria species. Heat-inactivated clinical isolate cell suspensions of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and strains belonging to five serogroups (A, B, C, W135, and Y) of Neisseria meningitidis were subjected to on-probe protein/peptide extraction and tryptic digestion followed by AP-MALDI tandem MS (MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis. Amino acid sequences derived from three protonated peptides with m/z values of 1743.8, 1894.8, and 1946.8 were identified by AP-MALDI MS/MS and MASCOT proteome database search analysis as belonging to neisserial acyl carrier protein, neisserial-conserved hypothetical protein, and neisserial putative DNA binding protein, respectively. These three peptide masses can thus be potential biomarkers for neisserial species identification by AP-MALDI MS. PMID:19137107

  13. Vitamin D-metabolites from human plasma and mass spectrometric analysis by fast heavy ion induced desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohlman, J.; Peterson, P. A.; Kamensky, I.; Håkansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.

    1982-07-01

    D-vitamin metabolites have been isolated from human serum employing chromatographic techniques. The serum carrier protein for vitamin D (DBP) was first isolated by immunosorbent chromatography. Lipid ligands associated with DBP were then extracted with hexane and separated by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of vitamin D metabolites by their absorbance of ultraviolet light is not sufficiently sensitive to monitor all vitamin D derivatives from a few millilitres of serum. Therefore, further analyses are necessary to quantitate these compounds. We have begun to develop a mass spectrometric method to achieve a reliable, quantitative procedure. As a first step towards this goal a number of pure samples of vitamin D compounds have been studied in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on fast heavy ion induced desorption. All vitamin D compounds examined could be detected and identified by their molecular ion and fragment spectra.

  14. Characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Matthew L.; Owens, James H.; Kelty, Catherine A.

    2000-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to investigate whole and freeze-thawed Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Whole oocysts revealed some mass spectral features. Reproducible patterns of spectral markers and increased sensitivity were obtained after the oocysts were lysed with a freeze-thaw procedure. Spectral-marker patterns for C. parvum were distinguishable from those obtained for Cryptosporidium muris. One spectral marker appears specific for the genus, while others appear specific at the species level. Three different C. parvum lots were investigated, and similar spectral markers were observed in each. Disinfection of the oocysts reduced and/or eliminated the patterns of spectral markers. PMID:11055915

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of covalently cationized polyethylene as a function of sample temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, W. E.; Blair, W. R.

    2007-05-01

    A pre-charged, low molecular mass, low polydispersity linear polyethylene was analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry as a function of sample temperature between 25 °C and 150 °C. This temperature range crosses the polyethylene melting temperature. Buckminsterfullerene (C60) was used as MALDI matrix due to the high volatility of typical MALDI matrices making them unsuitable for heating in vacuum. Starting at 90 °C there is an increase in polyethylene ion intensity at fixed laser energy. By 150 °C the integrated total ion intensity had grown by six-fold indicating that melting did indeed increase ion yield. At 150 °C the threshold laser intensity to produce intact polyethylene ions decreased by about 25%. Nevertheless, significant fragmentation accompanied the intact polyethylene ions even at the highest temperatures and the lowest laser energies.

  16. Methane ice photochemistry and kinetic study using laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry at 20 K.

    PubMed

    Bossa, J-B; Paardekooper, D M; Isokoski, K; Linnartz, H

    2015-07-14

    The ice photochemistry of pure methane (CH4) is studied at 20 K upon VUV irradiation from a microwave discharge H2 flow lamp. Laser Desorption Post-Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (LDPI TOF-MS) is used for the first time to determine branching ratios of primary reactions leading to CH3, CH2, and CH radicals, typically for fluences as expected in space. This study is based on a stable end-products analysis and the mass spectra are interpreted using an appropriate set of coupled reactions and rate constants. This yields clearly different values from previous gas phase studies. The matrix environment as well as the higher efficiency of reverse reactions in the ice clearly favor CH3 radical formation as the main first generation photoproduct.

  17. Photoionization studies on various quinones by an infrared laser desorption/tunable VUV photoionization TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Lidong; Zhang, Taichang; Guo, Huijun; Hong, Xin; Qi, Fei

    2008-12-01

    Photoionization and dissociative photoionization characters of six quinones, including 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ), 9,10-phenanthroquinone (PQ), 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ), benz[a]- anthracene-7,12-dione (BAD) and 1,2-acenaphthylenedione (AND) have been studied with an infrared laser desorption/tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (IR LD/VUV PIMS) technique. Mass spectra of these compounds are obtained at different VUV photon energies. Consecutive losses of two carbon monoxide (CO) groups are found to be the main fragmentation pathways for all the quinones. Detailed dissociation processes are discussed with the help of ab initio B3LYP calculations. Ionization energies (IEs) of these quinones and appearance energies (AEs) of major fragments are obtained by measuring the photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical data.

  18. Determination and imaging of metabolites from Vitis vinifera leaves by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Gregory; Carré, Vincent; Poutaraud, Anne; Maunit, Benoît; Frache, Gilles; Merdinoglu, Didier; Muller, Jean-François

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of grapevine phytoalexins at the surface of Vitis vinifera leaves has been achieved by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToFMS) without matrix deposition. This simple and rapid sampling method was successfully applied to map small organic compounds at the surface of grapevine leaves. It was also demonstrated that the laser wavelength is a highly critical parameter. Both 266 and 337 nm laser wavelengths were used but the 266 nm wavelength gave increased spatial resolution and better sensitivity for the detection of the targeted metabolites (resveratrol and linked stilbene compounds). Mass spectrometry imaging of grapevine Cabernet Sauvignon leaves revealed specific locations with respect to Plasmopara viticola pathogen infection or light illumination.

  19. Automated Sampling and Imaging of Analytes Separated on Thin-Layer Chromatography Plates Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2006-01-01

    Modest modifications to the atmospheric sampling capillary of a commercial electrospray mass spectrometer and upgrades to an in-house developed surface positioning control software package (HandsFree TLC/MS ) were used to enable the automated sampling and imaging of analytes on and/or within large area surface substrates using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Sampling and imaging of rhodamine dyes separated on TLC plates were used to illustrate some of the practical applications of this system. Examples are shown for user-defined spot sampling from separated bands on a TLC plate (one or multiple spots), scanning of a complete development lane (one or multiple lanes), or imaging of analyte bands in a development lane (i.e. multiple lane scans with close spacing). The post data processing and data display aspects of the software system are also discussed.

  20. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry for the Investigation of Proteins and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnum, Kristin E.; Frappier, Sara L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2008-07-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is an excellent technology for molecular imaging because of its high data dimensionality. MS can monitor thousands of individual molecular data channels measured as mass-to-charge (m/z). We describe the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS for the image analysis of proteins, peptides, lipids, drugs, and metabolites in tissues. We discuss the basic instrumentation and sample preparation methods needed to produce high-resolution images and high image reproducibility. Matrix-addition protocols are briefly discussed along with normal operating procedures, and selected biological and medical applications of MALDI imaging MS are described. We give examples of both two- and three-dimensional imaging, including normal mouse embryo implantation, sperm maturation in mouse epididymis, protein distributions in brain sections, protein alterations as a result of drug administration, and protein changes in brain due to neurodegeneration and tumor formation. Advantages of this technology and future challenges for its improvement are discussed.

  1. Rapid analysis of animal drug residues by microcolumn solid-phase extraction and thermal desorption-ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barshick, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1994-11-01

    A new approach was developed for the rapid and quantitative determination of an anthelmintic drug, phenothiazine, in milk. The technique involves a simple extraction procedure using a C{sub 18} microcolumn disc, followed by thermal desorption of the analyte from the disc directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer. The compounds are selectively ionized by isobutane chemical ionization and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. With this approach, 10 ppb detection limits were achieved with as little as 100 {mu}L mild and only 10 min of analysis time. This approach was used to analyze samples of milk taken from a cow administered a one-time therapeutic dose of phenothiazine. The target compound could be detected at 56 post-dosage, corresponding to a concentration of 30 ppb. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Aptamer Conjugated Multifunctional Nanoflowers as a Platform for Targeting, Capture and Detection in Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ocsoy, Ismail; Gulbakan, Basri; Shukoor, Mohammed Ibrahim; Xiong, Xiangling; Chen, Tao; Powell, David H.; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Although many different nanomaterials have been tested as substrates for laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), this emerging field still requires more efficient multifuncional nanomaterials for targeting, enrichment and detection. Here, we report the use of gold-manganese oxide (Au@MnO) hybrid nanoflowers as an efficient matrix for LDI–MS. The nanoflowers were also functionalized with two different aptamers to target cancer cells and capture adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respectively. These nanoflowers were successfully used for metabolite extraction from cancer cell lysates. Thus, in one system, our multifunctional nanoflowers can 1) act as an ionization substrate for mass spectrometry, 2) target cancer cells, and 3) detect and analyze metabolites from cancer cells. PMID:23211039

  3. Aptamer-conjugated multifunctional nanoflowers as a platform for targeting, capture, and detection in laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ocsoy, Ismail; Gulbakan, Basri; Shukoor, Mohammed Ibrahim; Xiong, Xiangling; Chen, Tao; Powell, David H; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-22

    Although many different nanomaterials have been tested as substrates for laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), this emerging field still requires more efficient multifuncional nanomaterials for targeting, enrichment, and detection. Here, we report the use of gold manganese oxide (Au@MnO) hybrid nanoflowers as an efficient matrix for LDI-MS. The nanoflowers were also functionalized with two different aptamers to target cancer cells and capture adenosine triphosphate (ATP). These nanoflowers were successfully used for metabolite extraction from cancer cell lysates. Thus, in one system, our multifunctional nanoflowers can (1) act as an ionization substrate for mass spectrometry, (2) target cancer cells, and (3) detect and analyze metabolites from cancer cells.

  4. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose.

  5. Surface-enhanced transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization: increasing the specificity of ambient ionization mass spectrometric analyses.

    PubMed

    Chipuk, Joseph E; Gelb, Michael H; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication and utilization of mesh materials specifically designed to capture analytes from solution facilitates the direct coupling of affinity capture and ambient ionization mass spectrometry via surface-enhanced transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI). Incorporation of photolabile groups within the linkage between the mesh surface and the covalently modified reactive probe affords facile release of mass tagged analytes directly to mesh surfaces that have been rinsed free of matrix interferences. The approach introduces increased specificity to the already rapid TM-DESI analysis technique, resulting in a powerful tool for high-throughput screening of targeted analytes. Specific capture of thiols is discussed herein, but the surface-enhanced TM-DESI technique can be readily extended to other functional groups by alteration of the capture agent.

  6. Organic ion imaging of biological tissue with secondary ion mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization.

    PubMed

    Todd, P J; Schaaff, T G; Chaurand, P; Caprioli, R M

    2001-04-01

    Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry can be used to produce molecular images of samples. This is achieved through ionization from a clearly identified point on a flat sample, and performing a raster of the sample by moving the point of ionization over the sample surface. The unique analytical capabilities of mass spectrometry for mapping a variety of biological samples at the tissue level are discussed. SIMS provides information on the spatial distribution of the elements and low molecular mass compounds as well as molecular structures on these compounds, while MALDI yields spatial information about higher molecular mass compounds, including their distributions in tissues at very low levels, as well as information on the molecular structures of these compounds. Application of these methods to analytical problems requires appropriate instrumentation, sample preparation methodology, and a data presentation usually in a three-coordinate plot where x and y are physical dimensions of the sample and z is the signal amplitude. The use of imaging mass spectrometry is illustrated with several biological systems.

  7. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  8. Development of a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determining personal care products in air.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Noelia; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2010-06-25

    This study describes the development of a new analytical method for determining 14 personal care products (PCPs) - nine synthetic musks, four parabens and one insect repellent - in air samples. The method is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and is rapid, sensitive and drastically reduces the risk of sample contamination. Three kinds of tubes and traps were tested, those filled with Tenax TA being the most suitable for this study. Method validation showed good repeatability and reproducibility, low detection limits (between 0.03 ng m(-3) for DPMI and 12.5 ng m(-3) for propyl paraben) and good linearity for all compounds. Stability during storage indicated that samples must be kept refrigerated at 4 degrees C and analysed within 1 week of collection. The applicability of the technique to real samples was tested in different indoor and outdoor atmospheres. The total PCP values for indoor air ranged from 135 ng m(-3) in a pharmacy to 2838 ng m(-3) in a hairdresser's, whereas the values for outdoor air ranged from 14 ng m(-3) for a suburban environment to 26 ng m(-3) for an urban environment. In general, the most abundant synthetic musks were galaxolide (5.9-1256 ng m(-3)), musk xylene (1.6-766 ng m(-3)) and tonalide (1.1-138 ng m(-3)). Methyl and ethyl paraben (2.4-313 ng m(-3) and 1.8-117 ng m(-3), respectively) were the most abundant parabens. Although thermal desorption methods have been widely used for determining volatile organic compounds, they are rarely used with semi-volatile compounds. This study thus demonstrates that the thermal desorption method performs well with semi-volatile compounds and, for the first time, that it can be used for determining PCPs.

  9. Detecting Biosignatures Associated with Minerals by Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transorm Mass Spectromety (GALDI-FTMS)

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott

    2008-07-01

    The ability to detect carbon signatures that can be linked to complex, possibly biogenic, organic molecules is imperative in research into the origin and distribution of life in our solar system particularly when used in conjunction with inorganic, mineralogical, and isotopic signatures that provide strong evidence for geochemical influences of living organisms on their environment. Ideally, the method used to detect these signatures must (i) accurately and automatically translate the organic and other information into usable forms, (ii) precisely distinguish such information from alternative compositions, (iii) operate with high spatial resolution coupled with precise location abilities, and (iv) require little to no sample preparation because of the potential for contamination. Geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in conjunction with a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) has been used to determine the presence of bio/organic molecules (BOM) associated with different minerals and mineraloids including oxide, sulfate, carbonate, chloride, and silicate minerals. BOM is defined as an organic structure that can be produced by living organisms or derived from another organic compound made by living organisms (i.e., degradation product). GALDI requires no sample preparation because the mineral matrix assists desorption. Ultimately, however, the detectability of BOM is controlled by the desorption efficiency, ionization efficiency, and the specific experimental conditions. Results from experiments with combinations of known BOM and mineral standards indicated that the detectability of BOM increased with decreasing concentration, contrary to most analytical procedures. Results suggest that BOM when combined with certain minerals is more easily detected than when combined with other minerals. Such conclusions can guide selection of appropriate samples for sample return missions.

  10. High Spatial Resolution Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Organic Layers in an Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yuko; Nakajima, Yoji; Isemura, Tsuguhide; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Takaya; Aoki, Jun; Toyoda, Michisato

    2016-01-01

    To improve the durability of organic materials in electronic devices, an analytical method that can obtain information about the molecular structure directly from specific areas on a device is desired. For this purpose, laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (LDI-MSI) is one of the most promising methods. The high spatial resolution stigmatic LDI-MSI with MULTUM-IMG2 in the direct analysis of organic light-emitting diodes was shown to obtain a detailed mass image of organic material in the degraded area after air exposure. The mass image was observed to have a noticeably improved spatial resolution over typical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, generally used technique in analysis of electronic devices. A prospective m/z was successfully deduced from the high spatial resolution MSI data. Additionally, mass resolution and accuracy using a spiral-orbit TOF mass spectrometer, SpiralTOF, were also investigated. The monoisotopic mass for the main component, N,N′-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N′-diphenyl-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (m/z 588), was measured with a mass resolution of approximately 80,000 and a mass error of about 5 mDa using an external calibrant. This high mass resolution and accuracy data successfully deduced a possible elemental composition of partially remained material in the degraded area, C36H24, which was determined as anthracene, 9-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl-10-(2-naphthalenyl) by combining structural information with high-energy CID data. The high spatial resolution of 1 μm in LDI-MSI along with high mass resolution and accuracy could be useful in obtaining molecular structure information directly from specific areas on a device, and is expected to contribute to the evolution of electrical device durability. PMID:28101440

  11. Identification and Classification of Rhizobia by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui Zong; Zhang, Rong Juan; Wei, Qing; Chen, Wen Feng; Cho, Il Kyu; Chen, Wen Xin; Li, Qing X

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been widely used for specific, sensitive and rapid analysis of proteins and has shown a high potential for bacterial identification and characterization. Type strains of four species of rhizobia and Escherichia coli DH5α were employed as reference bacteria to optimize various parameters for identification and classification of species of rhizobia by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI TOF MS). The parameters optimized included culture medium states (liquid or solid), bacterial growth phases, colony storage temperature and duration, and protein data processing to enhance the bacterial identification resolution, accuracy and reliability. The medium state had little effects on the mass spectra of protein profiles. A suitable sampling time was between the exponential phase and the stationary phase. Consistent protein mass spectral profiles were observed for E. coli colonies pre-grown for 14 days and rhizobia for 21 days at 4°C or 21°C. A dendrogram of 75 rhizobial strains of 4 genera was constructed based on MALDI TOF mass spectra and the topological patterns agreed well with those in the 16S rDNA phylogenetic tree. The potential of developing a mass spectral database for all rhizobia species was assessed with blind samples. The entire process from sample preparation to accurate identification and classification of species required approximately one hour.

  12. Vacuum compatible sample positioning device for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Aizikov, Konstantin; Smith, Donald F.; Chargin, David A.; Ivanov, Sergei; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Heeren, Ron M. A.; O’Connor, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The high mass accuracy and resolving power of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers (FT-ICR MS) make them ideal mass detectors for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), promising to provide unmatched molecular resolution capabilities. The intrinsic low tolerance of FT-ICR MS to RF interference, however, along with typically vertical positioning of the sample, and MSI acquisition speed requirements present numerous engineering challenges in creating robotics capable of achieving the spatial resolution to match. This work discusses a two-dimensional positioning stage designed to address these issues. The stage is capable of operating in ∼1 × 10–8 mbar vacuum. The range of motion is set to 100 mm × 100 mm to accommodate large samples, while the positioning accuracy is demonstrated to be less than 0.4 micron in both directions under vertical load over the entire range. This device was integrated into three different matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) FT-ICR instruments and showed no detectable RF noise. The “oversampling” MALDI-MSI experiments, under which the sample is completely ablated at each position, followed by the target movement of the distance smaller than the laser beam, conducted on the custom-built 7T FT-ICR MS demonstrate the stability and positional accuracy of the stage robotics which delivers high spatial resolution mass spectral images at a fraction of the laser spot diameter. PMID:21639522

  13. Thermally annealed gold nanoparticles for surface-assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry of low molecular weight analytes.

    PubMed

    Pilolli, Rosa; Ditaranto, Nicoletta; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Cioffi, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Metal nanomaterials have an emerging role in surface-assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) providing a useful tool to overcome some limitations intrinsically related to the use of conventional organic matrices in matrix-assisted LDI-MS. In this contribution, the possibility to use a stainless-steel-supported gold nanoparticle (AuNP) film as a versatile platform for SALDI-MS was assessed. A sacrificial anode electrosynthetic route was chosen in order to obtain morphologically controlled core-shell AuNPs; the colloidal AuNPs were, thereafter, drop cast onto a stainless-steel sample plate and the resulting AuNP film was thermally annealed in order to improve its effectiveness as LDI-MS promoter. Spectroscopic characterization of the nanostructured film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was crucial for understanding how annealing induced changes in the surface chemistry and influenced the performance of AuNPs as desorption/ionisation promoter. In particular, it was demonstrated that the post-deposition treatments were essential to enhance the AuNP core/analyte interaction, thus resulting in SALDI-MS spectra of significantly improved quality. The AuNP films were applied to the detection of three different classes of low molecular weight (LMW) analytes, i.e. amino acids, peptides and LMW polymers, in order to demonstrate the versatility of this nanostructured material.

  14. Matrix-Free UV-Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry as a Versatile Approach for Accelerating Dereplication Studies on Lichens.

    PubMed

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Legouin, Béatrice; Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile; Boustie, Joël; Richomme, Pascal

    2015-10-20

    The present study examined the suitability of laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) for the rapid chemical fingerprinting of lichen extracts. Lichens are known to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites. Most of these compounds are unique to the symbiotic condition but some can be found in many species. Therefore, dereplication, that is, the rapid identification of known compounds within a complex mixture is crucial in the search for novel natural products. Over the past decade, significant advances were made in analytical techniques and profiling methods specifically adapted to crude lichen extracts, but LDI-MS has never been applied in this context. However, most classes of lichen metabolites have UV chromophores, which are quite similar to commercial matrix molecules used in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). It is consequently postulated that these molecules could be directly detectable by matrix-free LDI-MS. The present study evaluated the versatility of this technique by investigating the LDI properties of a vast array of single lichen metabolites as well as lichen extracts of known chemical composition. Results from the LDI experiments were compared with those obtained by direct ESI-MS detection as well as LC-ESI-MS. It was shown that LDI ionization leads to strong molecular ion formation with little fragmentation, thus, facilitating straightforward spectra interpretation and representing a valuable alternative to time-consuming LC-MS analysis.

  15. Preparation of porous n-type silicon sample plates for desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS).

    PubMed

    Tuomikoski, S; Huikko, K; Grigoras, K; Ostman, P; Kostiainen, R; Baumann, M; Abian, J; Kotiaho, T; Franssila, S

    2002-11-01

    This study focuses on porous silicon (pSi) fabrication methods and properties for desorption ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS). PSi was prepared using electrochemical etching of n-type silicon in HF-ethanol solution. Porous areas were defined by a double-sided illumination arrangement: front-side porous areas were masked by a stencil mask, eliminating the need for standard photolithography, and backside illumination was used for the backside ohmic contact. Backside illumination improved the uniformity of the porosified areas. Porosification conditions, surface derivatizations and storage conditions were explored to optimize pSi area, pore size and pore depth. Chemical derivatization of the pSi surfaces improved the DIOS-MS performance providing better ionization efficiency and signal stability with lower laser energy. Droplet spreading and drying patterns on pSi were also examined. Pore sizes of 50-200 nm were found to be optimal for droplet evaporation and pore filling with the sample liquid, as measured by DIOS efficiency. With DIOS, significantly better detection sensitivity was obtained (e.g. 150 fmol for midazolam) than with desorption ionization from a standard MALDI steel plate without matrix addition (30 pmol for midazolam). Also the noise that disturbs the detection of low-molecular weight compounds at m/z < 500 with MALDI could be clearly reduced with DIOS. Low background MS spectra and good detection sensitivity at the 100-150 fmol level for pharmaceutical compounds were achieved with DIOS-MS.

  16. Chemometric optimization of a low-temperature plasma source design for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Anastasia; Engelhard, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Low-temperature plasmas (LTPs) are attractive sources for atomic and molecular mass spectrometry (MS). In the past, the LTP probe, which was first described by Harper et al., was used successfully for direct molecular mass spectrometric analysis with minimal sample pretreatment in a variety of applications. Unfortunately, the desorption/ionization source itself is commercially not available and custom-built LTP set-ups with varying geometry and operational configurations were utilized in the past. In the present study, a rapid chemometrics approach based on systematic experiments and multivariate data analysis was used to optimize the LTP probe geometry and positioning relative to the atmospheric-pressure inlet of a mass spectrometer. Several parameters were studied including the probe geometry, electrode configuration, quartz tube dimensions, probe positioning and operating conditions. It was found that the plasma-to-MS-inlet distance, the plasma-to-sample-plate distance, and the angle between the latter are very important. Additional effects on the analytical performance were found for the outer electrode width, the positioning of the electrodes, the inner diameter of the quartz tube, the quartz wall thickness, and the gas flow. All experiments were performed using additional heating of the sample to enhance thermal desorption and maximize the signal (T = 150 °C). After software-assisted optimization, attractive detection limits were achieved (e.g., 1.8 × 10- 7 mol/L for 4-acetamidothiophenol). Moreover, relative standard deviation (RSD) improved from values of up to 30% before optimization to < 15% RSD after the procedure was completed. This chemometrics approach for method optimization is not limited to LTP-MS and considered to be attractive for other plasma-based instrumentation as well.

  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a powerful tool for the mass and sequence analysis of natural and modified oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Pieles, U; Zürcher, W; Schär, M; Moser, H E

    1993-01-01

    We report the analysis and characterization of natural and modified oligonucleotides by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The present technology was highly improved for this class of compounds by using a new matrix, 2,4,6-trihydroxy acetophenone, together with di- and triammonium salts of organic or inorganic acids to suppress peak broadening due to multiple ion adducts. This methodology can be used in combination with time dependent degradation of oligonucleotides by exonucleases as powerful tool to determine sequence compositions. PMID:8341593

  18. Direct analysis of oligomeric tackifying resins in rubber compounds by automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Kim

    1999-01-01

    Two analytical methods, automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), were applied as direct methods for the analysis of oligomeric tackifying resins in a vulcanized rubber. The ATD-GC/MS method, based on discontinuous volatile extraction, was found to be an effective means for direct analysis of the oligomeric tackifying resins contained in a vulcanized rubber. The oligomeric tackifying resins, such as t-octylphenolformaldehyde (TOPF) resin, rosin-modified terpene resin, and cashew resin, could be directly analyzed in vulcanized rubber by ATD-GC/MS. Much simpler total ion chromatograms were obtained by ATD-GC/MS than by flash pyrolysis with a Curie-point pyrolyzer, permitting much easier interpretation. Ions at m/z 206, 135, and 107 were fingerprints in the characteristic mass spectra obtained by ATD-GC/MS for TOPF resin in the vulcanized rubber. 1H-Indene, styrene, and isolongifolene were observed as their characteristic mass spectra in the pyrolyzate of the rosin-modified terpene resin. From the cashew resin, phenol, 3-methylphenol, and 4-(1,1,3, 3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol were obtained as the characteristic pyrolyzates by discontinuous thermal extraction via ATD-GC/MS. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-02-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed.

  20. Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of low vapor pressure chemical particulates collected from a surface.

    PubMed

    Ewing, K J; Gibson, D; Sanghera, J; Miklos, F

    2015-01-01

    The collection of a low vapor pressure chemical simulant triethyl phosphate sorbed onto silica gel (TEP/SG) from a surface with subsequent analysis of the TEP/SG particulates using desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is described. Collection of TEP/SG particulates on a surface was accomplished using a sticky screen sampler composed of a stainless steel screen coated with partially polymerized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). DESI-MS analysis of TEP/SG particulates containing different percentages of TEP sorbed onto silica gel enabled the generation of response curves for the TEP ions m/z 155 and m/z 127. Using the response curves the calculation of the mass of TEP in a 25 wt% sample of TEP/SG was calculated, results show that the calculated mass of TEP was 14% different from the actual mass of TEP in the sample using the m/z 127 TEP ion response curve. Detection limits for the TEP vapor and TEP/SG particulates were calculated to be 4 μg and 6 particles, respectively.

  1. Recent advances in bacteria identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using nanomaterials as affinity probes.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2014-04-28

    Identifying trace amounts of bacteria rapidly, accurately, selectively, and with high sensitivity is important to ensuring the safety of food and diagnosing infectious bacterial diseases. Microbial diseases constitute the major cause of death in many developing and developed countries of the world. The early detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial in preventing, treating, and containing the spread of infections, and there is an urgent requirement for sensitive, specific, and accurate diagnostic tests. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is an extremely selective and sensitive analytical tool that can be used to characterize different species of pathogenic bacteria. Various functionalized or unmodified nanomaterials can be used as affinity probes to capture and concentrate microorganisms. Recent developments in bacterial detection using nanomaterials-assisted MALDI-MS approaches are highlighted in this article. A comprehensive table listing MALDI-MS approaches for identifying pathogenic bacteria, categorized by the nanomaterials used, is provided.

  2. Identification of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bruin, J P; Kostrzewa, M; van der Ende, A; Badoux, P; Jansen, R; Boers, S A; Diederen, B M W

    2014-02-01

    Generally accepted laboratory methods that have been used for decades do not reliably distinguish between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus isolates. H. haemolyticus strains are often incorrectly identified as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). To distinguish H. influenzae from H. haemolyticus we have created a new database on the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) bio-typer 2 and compared the results with routine determination of Haemophilus (growth requirement for X and V factor), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total we have tested 277 isolates, 244 H. influenzae and 33 H. haemolyticus. Using MLST as the gold standard, the agreement of MALDI-TOF MS was 99.6 %. MALDI-TOF MS allows reliable and rapid discrimination between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus.

  3. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ

    DOE PAGES

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young -Jin; Chapman, Kent D.

    2015-11-22

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding tomore » metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation.« less

  4. Liquid Injection Field Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Cyclic Metal Carbonyl Complexes with Tetra-Antimony Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans J.; Linden, H. Bernhard; Moldovan, Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of (norbornadiene)Cr(CO)4 or cis-(piperidine)2Mo(CO)4 with R2Sb-SbR2, and cyclo-(R'Sb)n (R' = Et, n-Pr; n = 4, 5) give the complexes cyclo-[M(CO)4(R2Sb-SbR'- SbR'-SbR2)] ( 1: M = Cr, R = Me, R'= Et; 2: M = Mo, R = Et, R' = Et; 3: M = Mo, R = Et, R' = n-Pr). Not accessible to established characterization methods, the oily, extremely reactive unpurified mixture of 3 with scrambled ligands was characterized by mass spectrometry using liquid injection field desorption ionization (LIFDI). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Recent Advances in Bacteria Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Nanomaterials as Affinity Probes

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Identifying trace amounts of bacteria rapidly, accurately, selectively, and with high sensitivity is important to ensuring the safety of food and diagnosing infectious bacterial diseases. Microbial diseases constitute the major cause of death in many developing and developed countries of the world. The early detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial in preventing, treating, and containing the spread of infections, and there is an urgent requirement for sensitive, specific, and accurate diagnostic tests. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is an extremely selective and sensitive analytical tool that can be used to characterize different species of pathogenic bacteria. Various functionalized or unmodified nanomaterials can be used as affinity probes to capture and concentrate microorganisms. Recent developments in bacterial detection using nanomaterials-assisted MALDI-MS approaches are highlighted in this article. A comprehensive table listing MALDI-MS approaches for identifying pathogenic bacteria, categorized by the nanomaterials used, is provided. PMID:24786089

  6. Detection of Posaconazole by Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Pin-Shiuan; Chang, Sarah Y.

    2015-03-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the detection of posaconazole using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection (SALDI/MS) was developed. After the DLLME, posaconazole was detected using SALDI/MS with colloidal gold and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) as the co-matrix. Under optimal extraction and detection conditions, the calibration curve, which ranged from 1.0 to 100.0 nM for posaconazole, was observed to be linear. The limit of detection (LOD) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 nM for posaconazole. This novel method was successfully applied to the determination of posaconazole in human urine samples.

  7. Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles for laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Lianglan; Mungra, Divyesh C; Xia, Sijing; Zhu, Jin

    2012-05-21

    In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), the analysis capability, especially for small molecules, is often compromised by the addition of organic matrices due to the existence of background signals. Herein we report a new detection method on the utility of core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) as energy transfer structure in LDI-TOF-MS. The LDI-TOF-MS based on gold-silica core-shell nanoparticles with ultrathin silica shell of 2-4 nm (Au@utSiO(2) CSNPs) was effectively applied to the analysis of many compounds, especially for small functional molecules and polymers, which was more promising than MALDI-TOF-MS.

  8. Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry in the study of natural and synthetic melanins. II--Serotonin melanins.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, A; Biasiolo, M; Costa, C; Allegri, G; Elli, G; Seraglia, R; Traldi, P

    1994-07-01

    Various biosynthetic melanins obtained by enzymic oxidation of serotonin with polyphenol oxidase from Psalliota campestris mushroom or potato, and with tyrosinase from Sepia officinalis or from Sigma were studied by means of laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Various oligomeric clusters were evidenced, proving that the examined melanins are composed of sets of different oligomers, the production of which strongly depends on the enzyme reaction. While serotonin melanins obtained with polyphenol oxidase from potato showed wide species distribution with molecular weights ranging from 2008 to 13,000 Da, the same melanins obtained from mushroom showed oligomer distributions from 1505 to 9000 Da. Serotonin melanins prepared with tyrosinase from Sepia showed oligomers from 1636 to 18,000 Da. A dopa-melanin obtained with mushroom polyphenol oxidase showed oligomer species from 1709 to 17,874 Da. Comparison of molecular weight distributions of the various oligomer sets in serotonin melanins with those in tyrosine melanins revealed clear differences, which are investigated and discussed.

  9. Analysis and Quantitation of Glycated Hemoglobin by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattan, Stephen J.; Parker, Kenneth C.; Vestal, Marvin L.; Yang, Jane Y.; Herold, David A.; Duncan, Mark W.

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of glycated hemoglobin is widely used for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of patient samples is used to demonstrate a method for quantitation of total glycation on the β-subunit of hemoglobin. The approach is accurate and calibrated with commercially available reference materials. Measurements were linear (R2 > 0.99) across the clinically relevant range of 4% to 20% glycation with coefficients of variation of ≤ 2.5%. Additional and independent measurements of glycation of the α-subunit of hemoglobin are used to validate β-subunit glycation measurements and distinguish hemoglobin variants. Results obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were compared with those obtained in a clinical laboratory using validated HPLC methodology. MALDI-TOF MS sample preparation was minimal and analysis times were rapid making the method an attractive alternative to methodologies currently in practice.

  10. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ.

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young-Jin; Chapman, Kent D

    2016-02-01

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. It is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding to metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation.

  11. Screening of the Binding of Small Molecules to Proteins by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with Protein Microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenxi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Buqing; He, Dacheng; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bioactive small molecule ligands and proteins is one of the important research areas in proteomics. Herein, a simple and rapid method is established to screen small ligands that bind to proteins. We designed an agarose slide to immobilize different proteins. The protein microarrays were allowed to interact with different small ligands, and after washing, the microarrays were screened by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). This method can be applied to screen specific protein binding ligands and was shown for seven proteins and 34 known ligands for these proteins. In addition, a high-throughput screening was achieved, with the analysis requiring approximately 4 s for one sample spot. We then applied this method to determine the binding between the important protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and 88 small compounds. The molecular docking results confirmed the MS results, demonstrating that this method is suitable for the rapid and accurate screening of ligands binding to proteins.

  12. On plate graphite supported sample processing for simultaneous lipid and protein identification by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia; Palmisano, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous identification of lipids and proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) after direct on-plate processing of micro-samples supported on colloidal graphite is demonstrated. Taking advantages of large surface area and thermal conductivity, graphite provided an ideal substrate for on-plate proteolysis and lipid extraction. Indeed proteins could be efficiently digested on-plate within 15 min, providing sequence coverages comparable to those obtained by conventional in-solution overnight digestion. Interestingly, detection of hydrophilic phosphorylated peptides could be easily achieved without any further enrichment step. Furthermore, lipids could be simultaneously extracted/identified without any additional treatment/processing step as demonstrated for model complex samples such as milk and egg. The present approach is simple, efficient, of large applicability and offers great promise for protein and lipid identification in very small samples.

  13. Developments and Applications of Electrophoresis and Small Molecule Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-sensitive native fluorescence detection of proteins with miniaturized one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was achieved with laser side-entry excitation, which provides both high excitation power and low background level. The detection limit for R-phycoerythrin protein spots in 1-D SDS-PAGE was as low as 15 fg, which corresponds to 40 thousand molecules only. The average detection limit of six standard native proteins was 5 pg per band and the dynamic range spanned more than 3 orders of magnitude. Approximately 150 protein spots from 30 ng of total Escherichia coli extraction were detected on a 0.8 cm x 1 cm gel in two-dimensional separation. Estrogen-DNA adducts as 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N3Ade and 4-OHEI(E2)-2-NacCys were hypothesized as early risk assessment of prostate and breast cancers. Capillary electrophoresis, luminescence/absorption spectroscopy and LC-MS were used to characterize and detect these adducts. Monoclonal antibodies against each individual adduct were developed and used to enrich such compounds from urine samples of prostate and breast cancer patients as well as healthy people. Adduct 4-OHE1-1-N3Ade was detected at much higher level in urine from subjects with prostate cancer patients compared to healthy males. The same adduct and 4-OHEI-2-NacCys were also detected at a much higher level in urine from a woman with breast carcinoma than samples from healthy controls. These two DNA adducts may serve as novel biomarkers for early diagnostic of cancers. The adsorption properties of R-phycoerythrin (RPE), on the fused-silica surface were studied using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and single molecule spectroscopy. The band shapes and migration times were measured in CE. Adsorption and desorption events were recorded at the single-molecule level by imaging of the evanescent-field layer using total internal reflection. The adsorbed RPE molecules on the fused-silica prism surface were

  14. Development of thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a rapid method for ambient particulate characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheya, Sue Anne N.

    A direct thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD GC/MS) method for air particulate matter (PM) analysis of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds was investigated. This technique uses a specially designed microdesorption GC inlet utilizing an inductively heated ferromagnetic foil with a Curie point temperature suitable for desorption, which can accommodate microgram amounts of material deposited on a thin strip of quartz fiber filter. Liquid or solid samples can be rapidly desorbed within 10 s at 315°C, followed by 30--40 min of chromatography time. The results obtained by this technique were found to be statistically equivalent to those obtained by the conventional solvent extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SX GC/MS) method for analysis of aromatic and n alkane standards, single source soot particles, and PM 10 filter samples. Correlations between injecting an extract, desorbing an extract, and desorbing particles averaged R = 0.94, with a three way correlation averaging R = 0.97. High volume sampling conducted at 12 spatially distributed sites located along the US/Mexican border of the El Paso/Juarez metroplex supplied 24h PM 10 filters for an investigation combining thermal desorption with a rapid online chemical derivatization procedure, and multivariate methods of source attribution using principal component and canonical correlation analysis of the resultant chemical markers. Four major combustion related PM emission sources were revealed at these sites: automotive, waste burning, biomass burning and meat cooking. A second investigation conducted in the same area used mediumvolume sampling to collect 2 h timeresolved PM 10 receptor samples for TD GC/MS analysis. Additionally, 2 h samples for inorganic analysis, multichannel particle size distribution measurements, and meteorological data were collected enabling generation of circadian PM multicharacterization profiles. Factor analysis based receptor modeling using

  15. Block microstructural characterization of copolymers formed from fluorinated and non-fluorinated alkyl polyisocyanates using desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guodong; Cooks, R. Graham; Jha, Salil K.; Oupicky, David; Green, Mark M.

    1997-11-01

    Homopolymers and copolymers of 1-isocyanato-4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,9-tridecafluorononane (monomer F) and n-hexylisocyanate (monomer H) were examined by desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DCI-MS) to obtain information on the monomer distribution in the copolymers. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to characterize ions generated by DCI in the mass spectrometer ion source; ammonia and isobutane were selected as chemical ionization (CI) reagent gases. The major peaks in the ammonia DCI mass spectrum of poly(4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,9-tridecafluorononyl)isocyanate (poly (F)) are protonated and ammoniated trimers. This result suggests that on pyrolytic degradation poly (F) forms cyclic trimers as do alkyl isocyanate polymers. The isobutane DCI mass spectra display the characteristic alkene elimination sequence characteristic of poly(n-hexyl)isocyanate and poly(2,6-dimethylheptyl)isocyanate but with additional extensive fragmentation. The major fragment ion is the protonated monomer. The monomer distributions in copolymers comprised of monomer F and monomer H were deduced from the abundances of various protonated and ammoniated trimers in the ammonia DCI mass spectra using Markovian statistics. Both soluble and insoluble copolymer samples were isolated and found to have non-random monomer distributions. The soluble fraction is dominated by monomer H blocks while the insoluble fraction also contains a majority of monomer H blocks but relatively more monomer F blocks. This forms an example in the polyisocyanates, which hitherto exhibited only random copolymerization, of a non-living method of polymerization yielding a block microstructure for a mixture of two monomers with virtually identical polymerizable functions. Mass spectrometry offers information on chain microstructure which would be unavailable by other means.

  16. Furoic and mefenamic acids as new matrices for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-(MALDI)-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2013-10-15

    The present study introduces two novel organic matrices for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the analysis of small molecules. The first matrix is "2-amino-4,5-diphenylfuran-3-carboxylic acid" (also called furoic acid, FA) which was synthesized and then characterized by ultraviolet (UV), infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance NMR ((1)H and (13)C) and mass spectrometry. The compound has organic semiconductor properties and exhibits intense UV-absorption which is suitable for the UV-MALDI laser (N2 laser, 337 nm). The second matrix is mefenamic acid (MA). The two matrices can be successfully applied for various classes of compounds including adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP, 0.5 µL(10.0 nmol)), spectinomycin (spect, 0.5 µL(14.0 nmol)), glutathione (GSH, 0.5 µL(9.0 nmol)), sulfamethazole (SMT, 0.5 µL(2.0 nmol)) and mixture of peptides gramicidin D (GD, 0.5µL (9.0 nmol)). The two matrices can effectively absorb the laser energy, resulting in excellent desorption/ionization of small molecules. The new matrices offer a significant enhancement of ionization, less fragmentation, few interferences, nice reproducibility, and excellent stability under vacuum. Theoretical calculations of the physical parameters demonstrated increase in polarizability, molar volume and refractivity than the conventional organic matrices which can effectively enhance the proton transfer reactions between the matrices with the analyte molecules. While the reduction in density, surface tension and index of refraction can enhance homogeneity between the two new matrices with the analytes. Due to the sublimation energy of mefenamic acid is (1.2 times) higher than that of the DHB, it is more stable to be used in the vacuum.

  17. Droplet dynamics and ionization mechanisms in desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Venter, Andre; Sojka, Paul E; Cooks, R Graham

    2006-12-15

    A droplet pickup and other mechanisms have been suggested for the ionization of biomolecules like peptides and proteins by desorption electrospray ionization. To verify this hypothesis phase Doppler particle analysis was used to study the sizes and velocities of droplets involved in DESI. It was found that impacting droplets typically have velocities of 120 m/s and average diameters of 2-4 microm. Small differences in sprayer construction influence the operating conditions at which droplets of these dimensions are produced. Under these conditions, the kinetic energy per impacting water molecule is less than 0.6 meV and sputtering through momentum transfer during collisions or ionization by other electronic processes is unlikely. Droplets arrive at the surface with velocities well below the speed of sound in common materials, thereby excluding the possibility of ionization by shockwave formation. Some droplets appear to roll along the surface, increasing contact time and presumably the amount of material that is taken up into droplets during conditions typical of the DESI experiment.

  18. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles and Identification of Capping Agent Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Karthick, V; Kumar, V Ganesh; Dhas, T Stalin; Govindaraju, K; Sinha, Sweta; Singaravelu, G

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using leaf extract of Syzygium jambolanum and capping agent has been explored. The synthesized AuNPs have been characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. The AuNPs show intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 528 nm and were found to be spherical and hexagonal in shape with particle size ranging from 20-30 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze the surface morphology of synthesized AuNPs. The capping ligand has been evaluated using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.

  19. Analysis of wastewater samples by direct combination of thin-film microextraction and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Nicole; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Takáts, Zoltán

    2012-09-07

    An analysis method for aqueous samples by the direct combination of C18/SCX mixed mode thin-film microextraction (TFME) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was developed. Both techniques make analytical workflow simpler and faster, hence the combination of the two techniques enables considerably shorter analysis time compared to the traditional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach. The method was characterized using carbamazepine and triclosan as typical examples for pharmaceuticals and personal care product (PPCP) components which draw increasing attention as wastewater-derived environmental contaminants. Both model compounds were successfully detected in real wastewater samples and their concentrations determined using external calibration with isotope labeled standards. Effects of temperature, agitation, sample volume, and exposure time were investigated in the case of spiked aqueous samples. Results were compared to those of parallel HPLC-MS determinations and good agreement was found through a three orders of magnitude wide concentration range. Serious matrix effects were observed in treated wastewater, but lower limits of detection were still found to be in the low ng L(-1) range. Using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, the technique was found to be ideal for screening purposes and led to the detection of various different PPCP components in wastewater treatment plant effluents, including beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and UV filters.

  20. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled to a portable mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Taylor, Stephen; Cooks, R Graham

    2015-02-01

    Desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) is implemented on a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the direct detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl substituted benzenes. The presence of these compounds in the environment poses a significant threat to the health of both humans and wildlife because of their carcinogenic, toxic, and mutagenic properties. As such, instant detection outside of the laboratory is of particular importance to allow in-situ measurement at the source. Using a rapid, high throughput, miniature, handheld mass spectrometer, several alkyl substituted benzenes and PAHs (i.e., 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene, pentamethylbenzene, hexamethylbenzene, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, acenaphthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, 9-ethylfluorene, and 1-benzyl-3-methyl-naphthalene) were identified and characterized using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) from ambient surfaces, in the open air. This method can provide almost instantaneous information while minimizing sample preparation, which is advantageous in terms of both cost and simplicity of analysis. This MS-based technique is applicable to a wide range of environmental organic molecules.

  1. Targeted comparative proteomics by liquid chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Jeremy E; Chisholm, Kenneth A; Pinto, Devanand M

    2006-01-01

    Here we report the first application of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer for targeted proteomics. Employing an amine-specific isotopic labelling approach, the technique was validated using five randomly selected bovine serum albumin peptides differentially labelled at known ratios. An indirect benefit of the isotopic labelling technique is a significant enhancement of the a1 ion in tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of all peptides studied. Therefore, the a1 ion was selected as the fragment ion for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in all cases, eliminating tedious method development and optimization. Accurate quantification was achieved with an average relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5% (n = 5) and a detection limit of 14 amol. The technique was then applied to validate an important virulence biomarker of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which was not accurately quantified using global proteomics experiment employing two-dimensional liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC/ESI)-MS/MS. Using LC/MALDI-MRM analysis of five tryptic peptides, the protein PHR1 was found to be upregulated in the hyphal (pathogenic) form of C. albicans by a factor of 7.7 +/- 0.8.

  2. Direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of cellulose and hemicellulose in Populus tissue.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Kyle Ann; Peter, Gary F; Yost, Richard A

    2011-09-01

    Imaging applied toward lignocellulosic materials requires high molecular specificity to map specific compounds within intact tissue. Although secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with a single stage of MS have been used to image lignocellulosic biomass, the complexity of the plant tissue requires tandem MS, which limits the interpretation of simple MS. MALDI linear ion trap (LIT) tandem MS offers the high molecular specificity needed for lignocellulosic analyses. MALDI-LIT MS analyses of cellulose and xylan (hemicellulose) standards were performed to determine mass-to-charge ratios and fragmentation pathways for identification of these compounds in intact tissue. The MALDI-LIT-MS images of young Populus wood stem showed even distribution of both cellulose and hemicellulose ions; in contrast, the tandem MS images of cellulose and hemicellulose generated by plotting characteristic fragment ions resulted in drastically different images. This demonstrates that isobaric ions are present during MALDI-LIT-MS analyses of wood tissue and tandem MS is necessary to distinguish between isobaric species for selective imaging of carbohydrates in biomass.

  3. High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–imaging mass spectrometry of lipids in rodent optic nerve tissue

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David M. G.; Mills, Daniel; Spraggins, Jeffrey; Lambert, Wendi S.; Calkins, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a method for generating high spatial resolution (10 µm) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) images of lipids in rodent optic nerve tissue. Methods Ice-embedded optic nerve tissue from rats and mice were cryosectioned across the coronal and sagittal axes of the nerve fiber. Sections were thaw mounted on gold-coated MALDI plates and were washed with ammonium acetate to remove biologic salts before being coated in 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid by sublimation. MALDI images were generated in positive and negative ion modes at 10 µm spatial resolution. Lipid identification was performed with a high mass resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Results Several lipid species were observed with high signal intensity in MALDI images of optic nerve tissue. Several lipids were localized to specific structures including in the meninges surrounding the optic nerve and in the central neuronal tissue. Specifically, phosphatidylcholine species were observed throughout the nerve tissue in positive ion mode while sulfatide species were observed in high abundance in the meninges surrounding the optic nerve in negative ion mode. Accurate mass measurements and fragmentation using sustained off-resonance irradiation with a high mass resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer instrument allowed for identification of lipid species present in the small structure of the optic nerve directly from tissue sections. Conclusions An optimized sample preparation method provides excellent sensitivity for lipid species present within optic nerve tissue. This allowed the laser spot size and fluence to be reduced to obtain a high spatial resolution of 10 µm. This new imaging modality can now be applied to determine spatial and molecular changes in optic nerve tissue with disease. PMID:23559852

  4. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for species identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Traglia, Germán; Famiglietti, Angela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Vay, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify 396 Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli clinical isolates was evaluated in comparison with conventional phenotypic tests and/or molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS identified to species level 256 isolates and to genus or complex level 112 isolates. It identified 29 genera including uncommon species.

  5. THE USE OF MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has long been established as a tool by which microorganisms can be characterized and identified. EPA is investigating the potential of using this technology as a way to rapidly identify Aeromonas species fo...

  6. Determination of off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin, in salmon fillets using stir bar sorptive extraction–thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive and solvent-less method for the determination of musty and earthy off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM), in salmon tissue was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction -thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (SBSE -TD -GCMS). M...

  7. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Can Accurately Differentiate between Mycobacterium masilliense (M. abscessus subspecies bolletti) and M. abscessus (Sensu Stricto)

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Shih-Hua; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Meng-Rui; Lee, Tai-Fen; Chien, Kun-Yi; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2013-01-01

    Among 36 Mycobacterium masilliense and 22 M. abscessus isolates identified by erm(41) PCR and sequencing analysis of rpoB and 23S rRNA genes, the rate of accurate differentiation between these two subspecies was 100% by cluster analysis of spectra generated by Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. PMID:23824775

  8. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry is a sensitive and specific method for identification of aerococci.

    PubMed

    Senneby, Erik; Nilson, Bo; Petersson, Ann-Cathrine; Rasmussen, Magnus

    2013-04-01

    Conventional methods for the identification of human-pathogenic aerococci to the species level are not reliable. We show that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry correctly identifies aerococci to the species level and that it can be used to identify aerococci with high specificity in the diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratory.

  9. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Is a Sensitive and Specific Method for Identification of Aerococci

    PubMed Central

    Nilson, Bo; Petersson, Ann-Cathrine; Rasmussen, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Conventional methods for the identification of human-pathogenic aerococci to the species level are not reliable. We show that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry correctly identifies aerococci to the species level and that it can be used to identify aerococci with high specificity in the diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:23390276

  10. Analysis of Phospholipid Mixtures from Biological Tissues by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jurgen; Sub, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to investigate the phospholipid (PL) compositions of tissues and body fluids, often without previous separation of the total mixture into the individual PL classes. Therefore, the questions of whether all PL classes are detectable…

  11. Microfluidic Chip Coupled with Thermal Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Tsung-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic chips have been used as platforms for a diversity of research purposes such as for separation and micro-reaction. One of the suitable detectors for microfluidic chip is mass spectrometry. Because microfluidic chips are generally operated in an open air condition, mass spectrometry coupled with atmospheric pressure ion sources can suit the requirement with minimum compromise. In this study, we develop a new interface to couple a microfluidic chip with mass spectrometry. A capillary tip coated with a layer of graphite, capable of absorbing energy of near-infrared (NIR) light is used to interface microfluidic chip with mass spectrometry. An NIR laser diode (λ=808 nm) is used to irradiate the capillary tip for assisting the generation of spray from the eluent of the microfluidic chip. An electrospray is provided to fuse with the spray generated from the microfluidic chip for post-ionization. Transesterification is used as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of using this interface to couple microfluidic chip with mass spectrometry. PMID:26839753

  12. Imprint Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Monitoring Secondary Metabolites Production during Antagonistic Interaction of Fungi.

    PubMed

    Tata, Alessandra; Perez, Consuelo; Campos, Michel L; Bayfield, Mark A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Ifa, Demian R

    2015-12-15

    Direct analysis of microbial cocultures grown on agar media by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is quite challenging. Due to the high gas pressure upon impact with the surface, the desorption mechanism does not allow direct imaging of soft or irregular surfaces. The divots in the agar, created by the high-pressure gas and spray, dramatically change the geometry of the system decreasing the intensity of the signal. In order to overcome this limitation, an imprinting step, in which the chemicals are initially transferred to flat hard surfaces, was coupled to DESI-MS and applied for the first time to fungal cocultures. Note that fungal cocultures are often disadvantageous in direct imaging mass spectrometry. Agar plates of fungi present a complex topography due to the simultaneous presence of dynamic mycelia and spores. One of the most devastating diseases of cocoa trees is caused by fungal phytopathogen Moniliophthora roreri. Strategies for pest management include the application of endophytic fungi, such as Trichoderma harzianum, that act as biocontrol agents by antagonizing M. roreri. However, the complex chemical communication underlying the basis for this phytopathogen-dependent biocontrol is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the metabolic exchange that takes place during the antagonistic interaction between M. roreri and T. harzianum. Using imprint-DESI-MS imaging we annotated the secondary metabolites released when T. harzianum and M. roreri were cultured in isolation and compared these to those produced after 3 weeks of coculture. We identified and localized four phytopathogen-dependent secondary metabolites, including T39 butenolide, harzianolide, and sorbicillinol. In order to verify the reliability of the imprint-DESI-MS imaging data and evaluate the capability of tape imprints to extract fungal metabolites while maintaining their localization, six representative plugs along the entire M. roreri/T. harzianum

  13. Towards a reliable molecular mass determination of intact glycoproteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Estela; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Different matrices and sample-matrix preparation procedures have been tested in order to study their influence on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of intact glycoproteins, which present different degrees of glycosylation (human transferrin; bovine fetuin; bovine alpha(1)-acid-glycoprotein; recombinant human erythropoietin; and the novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein). Using sinapinic acid (SA) and the fast evaporation method, the studied glycoproteins became susceptible to fragmentation at any laser intensity, suggesting that this 'hot' matrix is unsuitable for a reliable molecular mass determination of glycosylated compounds. In contrast, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and 6-aza-2-thiothymine (ATT), with an adequate sample-matrix preparation, provided improved results. Samples containing DHB after crystallization by vacuum drying demonstrated the best performance because the labile functional groups from the glycoforms were apparently fragmented to a lower extent. The average molecular masses obtained using this methodology were in all cases a better estimation than those values reported in the literature. The results were reproducible, and sensitivity was similar to that obtained with SA and the fast evaporation method. These excellent results suggest that this MALDI-TOF-MS methodology could be useful for an improved determination of the average molecular mass values of microheterogeneous compounds such as glycoproteins, glycosylated compounds or, in general, molecular mass values of molecules with similar labile functional groups.

  14. Desorption/Ionization Fluence Thresholds and Improved Mass Spectral Consistency Measured Using a Flattop Laser Profile in the Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry of Single Bacillus Endospores

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, P T; Srivastava, A; Pitesky, M E; Fergenson, D P; Tobias, H J; Gard, E E; Frank, M

    2004-11-30

    Bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) is being developed to analyze and identify biological aerosols in real-time. Mass spectra of individual Bacillus endospores were measured here with a bipolar aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer in which molecular desorption and ionization were produced using a single laser pulse from a Q-switched, frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser that was modified to have an approximately flattop profile. The flattened laser profile allowed the minimum fluence required to desorb and ionize significant numbers of ions from single aerosol particles to be determined. For Bacillus spores this threshold had a mean value of approximately 1 nJ/{micro}m{sup 2} (0.1 J/cm{sup 2}). Thresholds for individual spores, however, could apparently deviate by 20% or more from the mean. Threshold distributions for clumps of MS2 bacteriophage and bovine serum albumin were subsequently determined. Finally, the flattened profile was observed to increase the reproducibility of single spore mass spectra. This is consistent with the general conclusions of our earlier paper on the fluence dependence of single spore mass spectra and is particularly significant because it is expected to enable more robust differentiation and identification of single bioaerosol particles.

  15. High-Spatial and High-Mass Resolution Imaging of Surface Metabolites of Arabidopsis thaliana by Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Colloidal Silver

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Ji Hyun; Song, Zhihong; Liu, Zhenjiu; Nikolau, Basil J.; Yeung, Edward S.; and Lee, Young Jin

    2010-03-17

    High-spatial resolution and high-mass resolution techniques are developed and adopted for the mass spectrometric imaging of epicuticular lipids on the surface of Arabidopsis thaliana. Single cell level spatial resolution of {approx}12 {micro}m was achieved by reducing the laser beam size by using an optical fiber with 25 {micro}m core diameter in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer and improved matrix application using an oscillating capillary nebulizer. Fine chemical images of a whole flower were visualized in this high spatial resolution showing substructure of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anthers. The LTQ-Orbitrap with a MALDI ion source was adopted to achieve MS imaging in high mass resolution. Specifically, isobaric silver ion adducts of C29 alkane (m/z 515.3741) and C28 aldehyde (m/z 515.3377), indistinguishable in low-resolution LTQ, can now be clearly distinguished and their chemical images could be separately constructed. In the application to roots, the high spatial resolution allowed molecular MS imaging of secondary roots and the high mass resolution allowed direct identification of lipid metabolites on root surfaces.

  16. Characterization of B- and C-type low molecular weight glutenin subunits by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muccilli, Vera; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Foti, Salvatore; Masci, Stefania; Lafiandra, Domenico

    2005-02-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are typically subdivided into three groups, according to their molecular weights and isoelectric points, namely the B-, C-, and D groups. Enriched B- and C-type LMW-GS fractions extracted from the bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directly interfaced with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and HPLC coupled off-line with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, in order to ascertain the number and relative molecular masses of the components present in each fraction and determine the number of cysteine residues. About 70 components were detected in each of the fractions examined by the combined use of these two techniques, with 18 components common to both fractions. Analysis of the fractions after alkylation with 4-vinylpyridine allowed determination of the number of the cysteines present in about 40 subunits. The proteins detected were tentatively classified based on the relative molecular masses and number of cysteine residues. Cross-contamination was found in both B- and C- fractions, along with the presence of D-type LMW-GS. The two fractions also contained unexpected components, probably lipid transfer proteins and omega-gliadins. The presence of extensive microheterogeneity was suggested by the detection of several co-eluting proteins with minor differences in their molecular masses.

  17. Tailored nanopost arrays (NAPA) for laser desorption ionization in mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Vertes, Akos; Walker, Bennett N.; Stolee, Jessica A.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2016-11-08

    The production and use of semiconducting nanopost arrays made by nanofabrication is described herein. These nanopost arrays (NAPA) provide improved laser ionization yields and controllable fragmentation with switching or modulation capabilities for mass spectrometric detection and identification of samples deposited on them.

  18. Phosphopeptide screening using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films as affinity matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization targets in mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niklew, Marie-Luise; Hochkirch, Ulrike; Melikyan, Anna; Moritz, Thomas; Kurzawski, Sandra; Schlüter, Hartmut; Ebner, Ingo; Linscheid, Michael W

    2010-02-01

    The use of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films as affinity targets for the selective isolation and enrichment of phosphopeptides with subsequent analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is described. A strong affinity of phosphopeptides to anatase titanium dioxide surfaces is observed, and a standard protocol for the selective isolation and enrichment of phosphopeptides on titanium dioxide films using a proteolytic digest of alpha- and beta-casein was developed. All washing and elution procedures using these films can be processed directly on the MALDI target, thereby avoiding sample contamination and losses. In addition, the enrichment of the phosphopeptides was improved due to a considerable enlargement of the surface. Several film substrates compatible with routine inlet systems of mass spectrometers, as conductive glass, aluminum, and silicon, have been manufactured and tested. A biological application was examined by the human fibrinogen-thrombin system. For a quantification and comparison of different expression levels of phosphoproteins in biological systems, the peptides were labeled with S-methyl thioimidate reagents. The capability of this method for high-throughput applications make the use of mesoporous titanium dioxide films as an affinity MALDI target a promising tool in phosphoproteomics. A combination of an amidation protocol showed that a quantification of phosphorylated peptides can easily be performed using TiO(2) films.

  19. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled using proximal probe thermal desorption with electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemica lionization

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure proximal probe thermal desorption sampling method coupled with secondary ionization by electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was demonstrated for the mass spectrometric analysis of a diverse set of compounds (dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, explosives and pesticides) separated on various high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates. Line scans along or through development lanes on the plates were carried out by moving the plate relative to a stationary heated probe positioned close to or just touching the stationary phase surface. Vapors of the compounds thermally desorbed from the surface were drawn into the ionization region of a combined electrospray ionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source where they merged with reagent ions and/or charged droplets from a corona discharge or an electrospray emitter and were ionized. The ionized components were then drawn through the atmospheric pressure sampling orifice into the vacuum region of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected using full scan, single ion monitoring, or selected reaction monitoring mode. Studies of variable parameters and performance metrics including the proximal probe temperature, gas flow rate into the ionization region, surface scan speed, read-out resolution, detection limits, and surface type are discussed.

  20. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Fingerprinting for Identification of Acacia Gum in Microsamples from Works of Art.

    PubMed

    Granzotto, Clara; Sutherland, Ken

    2017-03-07

    This paper reports an improved method for the identification of Acacia gum in cultural heritage samples using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharide component. The analytical strategy was optimized using a reference Acacia gum (gum arabic, sp. A. senegal) and provided an unambiguous MS profile of the gum, characterized by specific and recognized oligosaccharides, from as little as 0.1 μg of material. The enhanced experimental approach with reduced detection limit was successfully applied to the analysis of naturally aged (∼80 year) gum arabic samples, pure and mixed with lead white pigment, and allowed the detection of gum arabic in samples from a late painting (1949/1954) by Georges Braque in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. This first application of the technique to characterize microsamples from a painting, in conjunction with analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), provided important insights into Braque's unusual mixed paint media that are also helpful to inform appropriate conservation treatments for his works. The robustness of the analytical strategy due to the reproducibility of the gum MS profile, even in the presence of other organic and inorganic components, together with the minimal sample size required, demonstrate the value of this new MALDI-TOF MS method as an analytical tool for the identification of gum arabic in microsamples from museum artifacts.

  1. Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2012-02-07

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the first time for the analysis of liquid petroleum crude oil samples. The analysis was performed in both positive and negative ionization modes using three solvents one of which (acetonitrile/toluene mixture) is commonly used in petroleomics studies while two other polar solvents (acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures) are generally not compatible with petroleum characterization using mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that nano-DESI analysis efficiently ionizes petroleum constituents soluble in a particular solvent. When acetonitrile/toluene is used as a solvent, nano-DESI generates electrospray-like spectra. In contrast, strikingly different spectra were obtained using acetonitrile/water and methanol/water. Comparison with the literature data indicates that these solvents selectively extract water-soluble constituents of the crude oil. Water-soluble compounds are predominantly observed as sodium adducts in nano-DESI spectra indicating that addition of sodium to the solvent may be a viable approach for efficient ionization of water-soluble crude oil constituents. Nano-DESI enables rapid screening of different classes of compounds in crude oil samples using solvents that are rarely used for petroleum characterization.

  2. The influence of electrospray deposition in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry sample preparation for synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Stephanie J; Guttman, Charles M; Flynn, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    Although electrospray sample deposition in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) sample preparation increases the repeatability of both the MALDI signal intensity and the measured molecular mass distribution (MMD), the electrospray sample deposition method may influence the apparent MMD of a synthetic polymer. The MMDs of three polymers of differing thermal stability, polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), were studied by MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) MS as the electrospray deposition voltage was varied. The MMDs obtained using the electrospray deposition method were compared with those obtained for hand-spotted samples. No change was observed in the measured polymer MMD when the electrospray deposition voltage was varied in the analysis of PS, but those of PEG and PPG changed at higher electrospray voltages due to increased ion fragmentation. It was also shown that the fragmentation in the hand-spotted samples is dependent on the matrix used in sample preparation.

  3. Coupling Laser Diode Thermal Desorption with Acoustic Sample Deposition to Improve Throughput of Mass Spectrometry-Based Screening.

    PubMed

    Haarhoff, Zuzana; Wagner, Andrew; Picard, Pierre; Drexler, Dieter M; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Shou, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The move toward label-free screening in drug discovery has increased the demand for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis. Here we investigated the approach of coupling acoustic sample deposition (ASD) with laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We assessed its use in a cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assay, where a decrease in metabolite formation signifies CYP inhibition. Metabolite levels for 3 CYP isoforms were measured as CYP3A4-1'-OH-midazolam, CYP2D6-dextrorphan, and CYP2C9-4'-OH-diclofenac. After incubation, samples (100 nL) were acoustically deposited onto a stainless steel 384-LazWell plate, then desorbed by an infrared laser directly from the plate surface into the gas phase, ionized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and analyzed by MS/MS. Using this method, we achieved a sample analysis speed of 2.14 s/well, with bioanalytical performance comparable to the current online solid-phase extraction (SPE)-based MS method. An even faster readout speed was achieved when postreaction sample multiplexing was applied, where three reaction samples, one for each CYP, were transferred into the same well of the LazWell plate. In summary, LDTD coupled with acoustic sample deposition and multiplexing significantly decreased analysis time to 0.7 s/sample, making this MS-based approach feasible to support high-throughput screening (HTS) assays.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Organic Aerosol Using Nanospray Desorption/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Liu, Shang; Weber, Robin; Russell, Lynn; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol samples from the CalNex 2010 field study were analyzed using high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) coupled to a nanospray-desorption/electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) source. The samples were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 22-23, 2010. The chemical formulas of over 1300 unique molecular species were detected in the mass range of 50-800 m/z. Our analysis focused on identification of two main groups: compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO only), and nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC). The NOC accounted for 35% (by number) of the compounds observed in the afternoon, and for 59% in the early morning samples. By comparing plausible reactant-product pairs, we propose that over 50% of the NOC in each sample could have been formed through reactions transforming carbonyls into imines. The CHO only compounds were dominant in the afternoon suggesting a photochemical source. The average O:C ratios of all observed compounds were fairly consistent throughout the day, ranging from 0.34 in the early morning to 0.37 at night. We conclude that both photooxidation and ammonia chemistry play important roles in forming the compounds observed in this mixed urban-rural environment.

  5. Detergent enhancement of on-tissue protein analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mainini, Veronica; Angel, Peggi M; Magni, Fulvio; Caprioli, Richard M

    2011-01-15

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is a molecular technology that allows simultaneous investigation of the content and spatial distribution of molecules within tissue. In this work, we examine different classes of detergents, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the nonionic detergents Triton X-100, Tween 20 and Tween 80, and the zwitterionic 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) for use in MALDI IMS of analytes above m/z 4000. These detergents were found to be compatible with MALDI MS and did not cause signal suppression relative to non-detergent applications and did not produce interfering background signals. In general, these detergents enhanced signal acquisition within the mass range m/z 4-40 000. Adding detergents into the matrix was comparable with the separate application of detergent and matrix. Evaluation of spectra collected from organ-specific regions of a whole mouse pup section showed that different detergents perform optimally with different organs, indicating that detergent selection should be optimized on the specific tissue for maximum gain. These data show the utility of detergents towards enhancement of protein signals for on-tissue MALDI IMS analysis.

  6. Proteomic-based prognosis of brain tumor patients using direct-tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sarah A; Weil, Robert J; Thompson, Reid C; Shyr, Yu; Moore, Jason H; Toms, Steven A; Johnson, Mahlon D; Caprioli, Richard M

    2005-09-01

    Clinical diagnosis and treatment decisions for a subset of primary human brain tumors, gliomas, are based almost exclusively on tissue histology. Approaches for glioma diagnosis can be highly subjective due to the heterogeneity and infiltrative nature of these tumors and depend on the skill of the neuropathologist. There is therefore a critical need to develop more precise, non-subjective, and systematic methods to classify human gliomas. To this end, mass spectrometric analysis has been applied to these tumors to determine glioma-specific protein patterns. Protein profiles have been obtained from human gliomas of various grades through direct analysis of tissue samples using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MS). Statistical algorithms applied to the MS profiles from tissue sections identified protein patterns that correlated with tumor histology and patient survival. Using a data set of 108 glioma patients, two patient populations, a short-term and a long-term survival group, were identified based on the tissue protein profiles. In addition, a subset of 57 patients diagnosed with high-grade, grade IV, malignant gliomas were analyzed and a novel classification scheme that segregated short-term and long-term survival patients based on the proteomic profiles was developed. The protein patterns described served as an independent indicator of patient survival. These results show that this new molecular approach to monitoring gliomas can provide clinically relevant information on tumor malignancy and is suitable for high-throughput clinical screening.

  7. A method for high-sensitivity peptide sequencing using postsource decay matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Keough, T.; Youngquist, R. S.; Lacey, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed for de novo peptide sequencing using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. This method will facilitate biological studies that require rapid determination of peptide or protein sequences, e.g., determination of posttranslational modifications, identification of active compounds isolated from combinatorial peptide libraries, and the selective identification of proteins as part of proteome studies. The method involves fast, one-step addition of a sulfonic acid group to the N terminus of tryptic peptides followed by acquisition of postsource decay (PSD) fragment ion spectra. The derivatives are designed to promote efficient charge site-initiated fragmentation of the backbone amide bonds and to selectively enhance the detection of a single fragment ion series that contains the C terminus of the molecule (y-ions). The overall method has been applied to pmol quantities of peptides. The resulting PSD fragment ion spectra often exhibit uninterrupted sequences of 20 or more amino acid residues. However, fragmentation efficiency decreases considerably at amide bonds on the C-terminal side of Pro. The spectra are simple enough that de novo sequence tagging is routine. The technique has been successfully applied to peptide mixtures, to high-mass peptides (up to 3,600 Da) and to the unambiguous identification of proteins isolated from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The PSD spectra of these derivatized peptides often allow far more selective protein sequence database searches than those obtained from the spectra of native peptides. PMID:10377380

  8. Determining enediol compounds in tea using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with titanium dioxide nanoparticle matrices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Hong; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Lin, Zong-Hong; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2007-01-01

    We describe the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) as selective probes and matrices for the determination of catechins using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The interactions between the enediol compounds and TiO2 NPs were evident by the change in color of the TiO2 NP solution from milky white to orange. Through these interactions, the TiO2 NPs could be used to concentrate enediol compounds, including catechins and ascorbic acid. The limits of detection (LODs) for three catechins--catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate--at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.45, 1.85 and 0.65 microM, respectively. The TiO2 NP matrices provide a number of advantages over conventional organic matrices (e.g. 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone), including ease of sample preparation, less background noise in the low-mass region, and high repeatability. The applicability of this method was confirmed through the high reproducibility of the determination of the two catechins in tea samples that had not been subjected to any sample preparation procedures (shot-to-shot variation: <10%).

  9. Improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of glycosaminoglycan disaccharides as cesium salts.

    PubMed

    Laremore, Tatiana N; Linhardt, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (UV-MALDI-MS) analysis of highly acidic, thermally labile species such as glycosaminoglycan-derived oligosaccharides is complicated by their poor ionization efficiency and tendency to fragment through the loss of sulfo groups. We have utilized a systematic approach to evaluate the effect of alkali metal counterions on the degree of fragmentation through SO3 loss from a highly sulfated model compound, sucrose octasulfate (SOS). The lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts of SOS were analyzed by UV-MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF)MS using an ionic liquid matrix, bis-1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. The positive-ion and negative-ion MALDI mass spectra of five alkali metal salts of SOS were compared in terms of the degree of analyte fragmentation through the SO3 loss and the absolute intensity of a molecular ion signal. Experimental results demonstrate that the lithium, sodium, and potassium salts of SOS undergo some degree of fragmentation through the loss of SO3, whereas the fragmentation through the loss of SO3 in the rubidium and cesium salts of SOS is suppressed. A high detection sensitivity associated with the stability of sulfate half-esters was achieved for the cesium salt of SOS using positive-ion detection. Finally, the cesium salt of chondroitin sulfate A disaccharide was successfully analyzed using UV-MALDI-TOFMS.

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry for direct measurement of clozapine in rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yunsheng; Casale, Roger; Fukuda, Elaine; Chen, Jiwen; Knemeyer, Ian; Wingate, Julia; Morrison, Richard; Korfmacher, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization hyphenated with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to directly determine the distribution of pharmaceuticals in rat brain tissue slices which might unravel their disposition for new drug development. Clozapine, an antipsychotic drug, and norclozapine were used as model compounds to investigate fundamental parameters such as matrix and solvent effects and irradiance dependence on MALDI intensity but also to address the issues with direct tissue imaging MS technique such as (1) uniform coating by the matrix, (2) linearity of MALDI signals, and (3) redistribution of surface analytes. The tissue sections were coated with various matrices on MALDI plates by airspray deposition prior to MS detection. MALDI signals of analytes were detected by monitoring the dissociation of the individual protonated molecules to their predominant MS/MS product ions. The matrices were chosen for tissue applications based on their ability to form a homogeneous coating of dense crystals and to yield greater sensitivity. Images revealing the spatial localization in tissue sections using MALDI-QTOF following a direct infusion of (3)H-clozapine into rat brain were found to be in good correlation with those using a radioautographic approach. The density of clozapine and its major metabolites from whole brain homogenates was further confirmed using fast high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) procedures.

  11. Lipid characterization of embryo zones by silica plate laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (SP-LDI-MSI).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mônica S; de Oliveira, Diogo N; Gonçalves, Roseli F; Catharino, Rodrigo R

    2014-01-07

    Lipid pathways play important biological roles in mammalian embryology, directing early developmental pathways to differentiation. Phospholipids and triglycerides, among others, are the main composing lipids of zona pellucida in several embryo species. Lipid analysis in embryos by mass spectrometry usually requires sample preparation and/or matrix application. This novel approach using silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (SP-LDI-MSI) allows direct single-cell imaging and embryo region discrimination with no matrix coating. Its application is herein described for two- and eight-cell embryos. Lipid biomarkers for blastomere and intact zona pellucida are reported and corroborated by both fragmentation reactions (MS/MS) and images. Results obtained in this work are understood to be of great use for further developments on in vitro bovine fertilization. Since much of the processes can be monitored by characteristic biomarkers, it is now possible to precisely identify cell division errors during early embryo stages, as well as evaluate pre-implantation conditions.

  12. Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Conjunctivitis Outbreak Isolates by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry▿

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Yulanda M.; Moura, Hercules; Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.; Carvalho, Maria Da Gloria; Ades, Edwin P.; Carlone, George M.; Sampson, Jacquelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus [Pnc]) is a causative agent of many infectious diseases, including pneumonia, septicemia, otitis media, and conjunctivitis. There have been documented conjunctivitis outbreaks in which nontypeable (NT), nonencapsulated Pnc has been identified as the etiological agent. The use of mass spectrometry to comparatively and differentially analyze protein and peptide profiles of whole-cell microorganisms remains somewhat uncharted. In this report, we discuss a comparative proteomic analysis between NT S. pneumoniae conjunctivitis outbreak strains (cPnc) and other known typeable or NT pneumococcal and streptococcal isolates (including Pnc TIGR4 and R6, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and nonstreptococcal isolates (including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus) as controls. cPnc cells and controls were grown to mid-log phase, harvested, and subsequently treated with a 10% trifluoroacetic acid-sinapinic acid matrix mixture. Protein and peptide fragments of the whole-cell bacterial isolate-matrix combinations ranging in size from 2 to 14 kDa were evaluated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Additionally Random Forest analytical tools and dendrogramic representations (Genesis) suggested similarities and clustered the isolates into distinct clonal groups, respectively. Also, a peak list of protein and peptide masses was obtained and compared to a known Pnc protein mass library, in which a peptide common and unique to cPnc isolates was tentatively identified. Information gained from this study will lead to the identification and validation of proteins that are commonly and exclusively expressed in cPnc strains which could potentially be used as a biomarker in the rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal conjunctivitis. PMID:18708515

  13. Monitoring Toxic Ionic Liquids in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Consuelo J.; Tata, Alessandra; de Campos, Michel L.; Peng, Chun; Ifa, Demian R.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has become an increasingly powerful technique for the direct analysis of biological tissues in the open environment with minimal sample preparation and fast analysis times. In this study, we introduce desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) as a novel, rapid, and sensitive approach to localize the accumulation of a mildly toxic ionic liquid (IL), AMMOENG 130 in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The work demonstrates that DESI-MSI has the potential to rapidly monitor the accumulation of IL pollutants in aquatic organisms. AMMOENG 130 is a quaternary ammonium-based IL reported to be broadly used as a surfactant in commercialized detergents. It is known to exhibit acute toxicity to zebrafish causing extensive damage to gill secondary lamellae and increasing membrane permeability. Zebrafish were exposed to the IL in a static 96-h exposure study in concentrations near the LC50 of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L. DESI-MS analysis of zebrafish gills demonstrated the appearance of a dealkylated AMMOENG 130 metabolite in the lowest concentration of exposure identified by a high resolution hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer as the trimethylstearylammonium ion, [C21H46N]+. With DESI-MSI, the accumulation of AMMOENG 130 and its dealkylated metabolite in zebrafish tissue was found in the nervous and respiratory systems. AMMOENG 130 and the metabolite were capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier of the fish with significant accumulation in the brain. Hence, we report for the first time the simultaneous characterization, distribution, and metabolism of a toxic IL in whole body zebrafish analyzed by DESI-MSI. This ambient mass spectrometry imaging technique shows great promise for the direct analysis of biological tissues to qualitatively monitor foreign, toxic, and persistent compounds in aquatic organisms from the environment.

  14. Monitoring Toxic Ionic Liquids in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI).

    PubMed

    Perez, Consuelo J; Tata, Alessandra; de Campos, Michel L; Peng, Chun; Ifa, Demian R

    2016-10-24

    Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has become an increasingly powerful technique for the direct analysis of biological tissues in the open environment with minimal sample preparation and fast analysis times. In this study, we introduce desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) as a novel, rapid, and sensitive approach to localize the accumulation of a mildly toxic ionic liquid (IL), AMMOENG 130 in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The work demonstrates that DESI-MSI has the potential to rapidly monitor the accumulation of IL pollutants in aquatic organisms. AMMOENG 130 is a quaternary ammonium-based IL reported to be broadly used as a surfactant in commercialized detergents. It is known to exhibit acute toxicity to zebrafish causing extensive damage to gill secondary lamellae and increasing membrane permeability. Zebrafish were exposed to the IL in a static 96-h exposure study in concentrations near the LC50 of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L. DESI-MS analysis of zebrafish gills demonstrated the appearance of a dealkylated AMMOENG 130 metabolite in the lowest concentration of exposure identified by a high resolution hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer as the trimethylstearylammonium ion, [C21H46N](+). With DESI-MSI, the accumulation of AMMOENG 130 and its dealkylated metabolite in zebrafish tissue was found in the nervous and respiratory systems. AMMOENG 130 and the metabolite were capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier of the fish with significant accumulation in the brain. Hence, we report for the first time the simultaneous characterization, distribution, and metabolism of a toxic IL in whole body zebrafish analyzed by DESI-MSI. This ambient mass spectrometry imaging technique shows great promise for the direct analysis of biological tissues to qualitatively monitor foreign, toxic, and persistent compounds in aquatic organisms from the environment. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Comprehensive assignment of mass spectral signatures from individual Bacillus atrophaeus spores in matrix-free laser desorption/ionization bioaerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abneesh; Pitesky, Maurice E; Steele, Paul T; Tobias, Herbert J; Fergenson, David P; Horn, Joanne M; Russell, Scott C; Czerwieniec, Gregg A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Gard, Eric E; Frank, Matthias

    2005-05-15

    We have fully characterized the mass spectral signatures of individual Bacillus atrophaeus spores obtained using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS). Mass spectra of spores grown in unlabeled, 13C-labeled, and 15N-labeled growth media were used to determine the number of carbon and nitrogen atoms associated with each mass peak observed in mass spectra from positive and negative ions. To determine the parent ion structure associated with fragment ion peaks, the fragmentation patterns of several chemical standards were independently determined. Our results confirm prior assignments of dipicolinic acid, amino acids, and calcium complex ions made in the spore mass spectra. The identities of several previously unidentified mass peaks, key to the recognition of Bacillus spores by BAMS, have also been revealed. Specifically, a set of fragment peaks in the negative polarity is shown to be consistent with the fragmentation pattern of purine nucleobase-containing compounds. The identity of m/z = +74, a marker peak that helps discriminate B. atrophaeus from Bacillus thuringiensis spores grown in rich media is [N1C4H12]+. A probable precursor molecule for the [N1C4H12]+ ion observed in spore spectra is trimethylglycine (+N(CH3)3CH2COOH), which produces a m/z = +74 peak when ionized in the presence of dipicolinic acid. A clear assignment of all the mass peaks in the spectra from bacterial spores, as presented in this work, establishes their relationship to the spore chemical composition and facilitates the evaluation of the robustness of "marker" peaks. This is especially relevant for peaks that have been used to discriminate Bacillus spore species, B. thuringiensis and B. atrophaeus, in our previous studies.

  16. A mass spectrometric system for analyzing thermal desorption spectra of ion-implanted argon and cesium in tungsten. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A mass spectrometric system for determining the characteristics of materials used in instrumental development and aerospace applications was developed. The desorption spectra of cesium that was ion-implanted into polycrystalline tungsten and the effects on the spectra of bombardment of the tungsten by low energy (70 eV) electrons were investigated. Work function changes were measured by the retarding potential diode method. Flash desorption characteristics were observed and gas-reaction mechanisms of the surface of heated metal filaments were studied. Desorption spectra were measured by linearly increasing the sample temperature at a selected rate, the temperature cycling being generated from a ramp-driven dc power supply, with the mass spectrometer tuned to a mass number of interest. Results of the study indicate an anomolous desorption mechanism following an electron bombardment of the sample surface. The enhanced spectra are a function of the post-bombardment time and energy and are suggestive of an increased concentration of cesium atoms, up to 10 or more angstroms below the surface.

  17. Time-dependent oxidation during nano-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry: a useful tool for structure determination or a source of possible confusion?

    PubMed

    Pavlásková, Katerina; Strnadová, Marcela; Strohalm, Martin; Havlícek, Vladimír; Sulc, Miroslav; Volný, Michael

    2011-07-15

    This work reports on a new and extremely simple approach for determination of a double bond position by a laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. It is solely based on the catalytic properties of nanostructured surfaces used in nanoassisted laser desorption ionization experiments. These surfaces can induce oxidation of analytes, which results in a mass shift that can be detected by mass spectrometry. If a site of unsaturation is oxidized and cleaved, the m/z difference is diagnostic of the position of a double bond. By demonstrating that the oxidation depends on the analyte surface dwell time, it was proven that it is caused by the surface activity and not by the laser desorption ionization process itself. Control matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) experiment showed only a limited partial oxidation and no time dependency of the process. The ability to determine a position of a double bond was demonstrated on polyunsaturated phospholipids and cyclosporine A. In some other cases, however, the unexpected oxidation could cause confusion, as demonstrated for a glycosphingolipid from a porcine brain extract.

  18. Fuzzy Logic Classification of Imaging Laser Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The fuzzy logic method is applied to classification of mass spectra obtained with an imaging internal source Fourier transform mass spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS). Traditionally, an operator uses the relative abundance of ions with specific mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios to categorize spectra. An operator does this by comparing the spectrum of m/z versus abundance of an unknown sample against a library of spectra from known samples. Automated positioning and acquisition allow the I2LD-FTMS to acquire data from very large grids, which would require classification of up to 3600 spectra per hour to keep pace with the acquisition. The tedious job of classifying numerous spectra generated in an I2LD-FTMS imaging application can be replaced by a fuzzy rule base if the cues an operator uses can be encapsulated. Appropriate methods for assigning fuzzy membership values for inputs (e.g., mass spectrum abundances) and choice of fuzzy inference operators to translate linguistic antecedent into confidence values for the consequence (or in this case the classification) is followed by using the maximum confidence and a necessary minimum threshold for making a crisp decision. This paper also describes a method for gathering statistics on ions, which are not currently used in the rule base, but which may be candidates for making the rule base more accurate and complete or to form new rule bases based on data obtained from known samples. A spatial method for classifying spectra with low membership values, based on neighboring sample classifications, is also presented.

  19. Non-proximate detection of small and large molecules by desorption electrospray ionization and desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry: instrumentation and applications in forensics, chemistry, and biology.

    PubMed

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Mulligan, Christopher C; Cooks, R Graham

    2007-09-15

    Ambient surfaces are examined by mass spectrometry at distances of up to 3 m from the instrument without any prior sample preparation. Non-proximate versions of the desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization experiments are shown to allow rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of trace amounts of active ingredients in pharmaceutical drug formulations, illicit drugs (methamphetamine, cocaine, and diacetylmorphine), organic salts, peptides, chemical warfare agent simulants, and other small organic compounds. Utilizing an ion transport tube to transport analyte ions to the mass spectrometer, nonproximate DESI allows one to collect high-quality, largely interference-free spectra with signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of more than 100. High selectivity is achieved by tandem mass spectrometry and by reactive DESI, a variant experiment in which reagents added into the solvent spray allow bond-forming reactions with the analyte. Ion/molecule reactions were found to selectively suppress the response of mixture components other than the analyte of interest in nonproximate-DESI. Flexible ion transport tubing is also investigated, allowing performance similar to stainless steel tubing in the transport of ions from the sample to the mass spectrometer. Transfer tube temperature effects are examined. A multiple sprayer DESI source capable of analyzing a larger sample area was evaluated to decrease the sampling time and increase sample throughput. Low nanogram detection limits were obtained for the compounds studied from a wide variety of surfaces, even those present in complex matrixes.

  20. Development of a screening method for the analysis of organic pollutants in water using dual stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tölgyessy, Peter; Vrana, Branislav; Krascsenits, Zoltán

    2011-12-15

    The development of a method for screening of organic compounds with a wide range of physico-chemical properties in water, based on dual stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (dual SBSE-TD-GC-MS) is described. The investigated water sample is divided into two aliquots and extracted with stir bar sorptive extraction at two different conditions: using addition of methanol or sodium chloride, respectively. Following extraction, the two stir bars are inserted into the same glass thermal desorption liner and are simultaneously desorbed and analysed by GC-MS. The method optimisation was performed using 45 environmentally harmful substances with different volatilities (boiling point from 193 to 495°C), polarity (logK(ow) from 2.17 to 8.54) and acido-basic properties. The majority of model compounds was selected from the EU list of priority substances in the field of water policy and from the US EPA method 625, respectively. Optimisation was performed for extraction parameters (sample volume, extraction time, stirring rate, addition of modifiers) as well as for the thermal desorption conditions (desorption flow, desorption time, cryofocusing temperature). Performance characteristics (recovery, repeatability, carryover, linearity, limits of detection and quantification) were determined for the optimised method. An example of analysis of a contaminated groundwater sample is presented.

  1. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in skin by imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Josephine; Clench, Malcolm R; Richards, Don S

    2004-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOFMS) has been used to detect and image the distribution of a xenobiotic substance in skin. Porcine epidermal tissue was treated with 'Nizoral', a medicated shampoo containing ketoconazole (+/-)-1-acetyl-4-[p-[[(2R,4S)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy]phenyl]piperazine) as active ingredient. Following incubation for 1 h at 37 degrees C all excess formulation was washed from the surface. A cross-section of the drug-treated tissue was then blotted onto a cellulose membrane, precoated in matrix (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA)), by airspray deposition. In separate experiments the tissue surface was treated with Nizoral within a triangular former, and subsequently blotted onto a matrix-coated membrane. Sample membranes were then mounted into the recess of specialised MALDI targets with adhesive tape. All samples were analysed by MALDI-TOFMS using an Applied Biosystem 'Q-star Pulsar i' hybrid Q-TOF mass spectrometer fitted with an orthagonal MALDI ion source and imaging software. Detection of the protonated molecule was readily achievable by this technique. Treatment of the tissue within a template gave rise to images depicting the expected distribution of the drug, demonstrating that this technique is capable of producing spatially useful data. Ion images demonstrating the permeation of the applied compound into the skin were achieved by imaging a cross-sectional imprint of treated tissue. A calibration graph for the determination of ketoconazole was prepared using the sodium adduct of the matrix ion as an internal standard. This enabled construction of a quantitative profile of drug in skin. Conventional haematoxylin and eosin staining and microscopy methods were employed to obtain a histological image of the porcine epidermal tissue. Superimposing the mass spectrometric and histological images appeared to indicate drug

  2. MIL-101(Cr) as matrix for sensitive detection of quercetin by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Guobin; Zeng, Qiaoling; Jiang, Zhongwei; Xing, Tiantian; Huang, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanfang

    2017-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been proven as a useful and advanced technique in the identification of polymers and proteins. However, MALDI-TOF-MS still has the unavoidable drawback of self-signal interference with traditional organic matrices, which could suppress and overlap with the analyte signals in the low-mass region. In this work, MIL-101(Cr), a kind of metal-organic frameworks which possess high molecular weight, π-conjugated 3-D structure, coordinately unsaturated chromium sites (CUS) and strong absorption in the UV range, was employed to replace traditional organic matrices, and it was found that MIL-101(Cr) can dramatically eliminate the background peaks, showing high signal-to-noise level in the analysis of small molecules. As proof-of-concept, quercetin, daidzein, genistein and naringenin, members of flavonol family which widely exists in food and natural products, were successfully determined by utilizing MIL-101(Cr) as the surface-assisted matrix, and the detection of quercetin was sensitive with good salt tolerance and reproducibility. Under optimal conditions, the mass peak intensity exhibited good linear relationships in the range from 0.25µg/mL-7.00µg/mL for quercetin (R(2)=0.996) with detection limit 2.11ng/mL (3σ/k), making the identification of quercetin in sophora japonica successfully. With this strategy we have demonstrated the potentiality of MIL-101(Cr) nanomaterials as MALDI-MS matrix for the detection of small molecules.

  3. Large-Scale Metabolite Analysis of Standards and Human Serum by Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry from Silicon Nanopost Arrays.

    PubMed

    Korte, Andrew R; Stopka, Sylwia A; Morris, Nicholas; Razunguzwa, Trust; Vertes, Akos

    2016-09-20

    The unique challenges presented by metabolomics have driven the development of new mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques for small molecule analysis. We have previously demonstrated silicon nanopost arrays (NAPA) to be an effective substrate for laser desorption ionization (LDI) of small molecules for MS. However, the utility of NAPA-LDI-MS for a wide range of metabolite classes has not been investigated. Here we apply NAPA-LDI-MS to the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution mass spectra and tandem mass spectra from a collection of metabolite standards covering a range of compound classes including amino acids, nucleotides, carbohydrates, xenobiotics, lipids, and other classes. In untargeted analysis of metabolite standard mixtures, detection was achieved for 374 compounds and useful MS/MS spectra were obtained for 287 compounds, without individual optimization of ionization or fragmentation conditions. Metabolite detection was evaluated in the context of 31 metabolic pathways, and NAPA-LDI-MS was found to provide detection for 63% of investigated pathway metabolites. Individual, targeted analysis of the 20 common amino acids provided detection of 100% of the investigated compounds, demonstrating that improved coverage is possible through optimization and targeting of individual analytes or analyte classes. In direct analysis of aqueous and organic extracts from human serum samples, spectral features were assigned to a total of 108 small metabolites and lipids. Glucose and amino acids were quantitated within their physiological concentration ranges. The broad coverage demonstrated by this large-scale screening experiment opens the door for use of NAPA-LDI-MS in numerous metabolite analysis applications.

  4. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  5. Detection of Non-aromatic Organic Compounds in Meteorites using Imaging Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. R.; Hinman, N. W.; Richardson, C. D.; Mahon, R. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    Our most extensive understanding of extraterrestrial organic matter is based on what has been learned from meteorites that have been delivered naturally to Earth. Meteorites have been analyzed by a variety of techniques ranging from extensive sample preparation with extraction and subsequent chromatography to direct laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS). While extraction studies have reported a variety of organics (e.g., aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, and amino acids), LDMS studies have only reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This is rather surprising considering that Yan et al. (Talanta 2007, 72, 634-641) reported that even a small amount of PAH enables the detection of organics that are not otherwise ionized during the desorption event from minerals. Therefore, we have begun re-investigating meteorites because, regardless of the source of the organic compounds, the presences of PAHs should allow other organic molecules to be observed using imaging laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS). Indeed, we have mapped meteorites (e.g., EETA 79001) and found many mass-to-charge peaks that are non-aromatic as determined by analysis of their mass defects. Mapping also revealed that the distribution of organics is heterogeneous, which necessitates the collection of a mass spectrum from a single laser shot so that minor peaks of interest are not lost in signal averaging. These studies have implications for analyzing future returned samples from Mars or elsewhere with minimal preparation or damage.

  6. Confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in injection sites using imaging desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Rijke, Eva; Hooijerink, Dick; Sterk, Saskia S; Nielen, Michel W F

    2013-01-01

    In this study, desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) was applied for the confirmation and three-dimensional profiling of anabolic steroid esters in an injection site of bovine muscle. The spatial resolution of the DESI-MS(n) was demonstrated by scanning hormone esters and marker ink lines drawn at various distances on a microscopic slide at set distances, using an x-scanner with manual y and z adjustment. Tissue slices of bovine muscle injected with a hormone cocktail were analysed. All anabolic steroid esters could be directly detected in the sample and confirmed on the basis of identification points awarded for selected MS/MS transitions according to the performance criteria given in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Moreover, the injection site could be mapped by two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging MS, showing a horizontal and vertical distribution through the muscle tissue. This DESI approach offers potential for analysis of injection sites of steroid esters from illegally treated animals; moreover, direct analysis by ambient imaging DESI-MS still allows conventional extraction and analysis of the whole tissue for further confirmatory or contra-analysis afterwards.

  7. Effects of Tailored Surface Chemistry on Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: a Surface-Analytical Study by XPS and AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Andrea; Careri, Maria; Spencer, Nicholas D.; Rossi, Antonella

    2015-08-01

    Since it was proposed for the first time, desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been evaluated for applicability in numerous areas. Elucidations of the ionization mechanisms and the subsequent formation of isolated gas-phase ions have been proposed so far. In this context, the role of both surface and pneumatic effects on ion-formation yield has recently been investigated. Nevertheless, the effect of the surface chemistry has not yet been completely understood. Functionalized glass surfaces have been prepared, in order to tailor surface performance for ion formation. Three substrates were functionalized by depositing three different silanes [3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MTES), octyltriethoxysilane (OTES), and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxy-silane (FOTES)] from toluene solution onto standard glass slides. Surface characterization was carried out by contact-angle measurements, tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Morphologically homogeneous and thickness-controlled films in the nm range were obtained, with surface free energies lying between 15 and 70 mJ/m2. These results are discussed, together with those of DESI-MS on low-molecular-weight compounds such as melamine, tetracycline, and lincomycin, also taking into account the effects of the sprayer potential and its correlation with surface wettability. The results demonstrate that ion-formation efficiency is affected by surface wettability, and this was demonstrated operating above and below the onset of the electrospray.

  8. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wade C; Lewis, Charlotte R; Openshaw, Anna P; Farnsworth, Paul B

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Simultaneous imaging of multiple neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances in the brain by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Strittmatter, Nicole; Nilsson, Anna; Källback, Patrik; Alvarsson, Alexandra; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Vallianatou, Theodosia; Svenningsson, Per; Goodwin, Richard J A; Andren, Per E

    2016-08-01

    With neurological processes involving multiple neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, it is important to have the ability to directly map and quantify multiple signaling molecules simultaneously in a single analysis. By utilizing a molecular-specific approach, namely desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI), we demonstrated that the technique can be used to image multiple neurotransmitters and their metabolites (dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, adenosine) as well as neuroactive drugs (amphetamine, sibutramine, fluvoxamine) and drug metabolites in situ directly in brain tissue sections. The use of both positive and negative ionization modes increased the number of identified molecular targets. Chemical derivatization by charge-tagging the primary amines of molecules significantly increased the sensitivity, enabling the detection of low abundant neurotransmitters and other neuroactive substances previously undetectable by MSI. The sensitivity of the imaging approach of neurochemicals has a great potential in many diverse applications in fields such as neuroscience, pharmacology, drug discovery, neurochemistry, and medicine.

  10. Peptide mapping using capillary electrophoresis offline coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Stefan; Bakry, Rania; Huck, Christian W; Polato, Fabio; Corradini, Danilo; Bonn, Günther K

    2011-10-01

    This article reports the results of a study carried out to evaluate the offline hyphenation of capillary zone electrophoresis with matrix-assisted lased desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the analysis of low-abundant complex samples, represented by the tryptic phosphorylated peptides of phosphoproteins, such as α-casein, β-casein, and fetuin. The proposed method employs a latex-coated capillary and consists in the online preconcentration of the tryptic peptides by a pH-mediated stacking method, their separation by capillary zone electrophoresis, and subsequent deposition of the separated analytes onto a MALDI target for their MS analysis. The online preconcentration method allows loading a large sample volume (∼150 nL), which is introduced into the capillary after the hydrodynamic injection of a short plug of 1.0 M ammonium hydroxide solution and is sandwiched between two plugs of the acidic background electrolyte solution (BGE) filling the capillary. The sample spotting of the separated analytes onto the MALDI target is performed either during or postseparation using an automatic spotting device connected to the exit of the separation capillary. The proposed method allows the separation and identification of multiphosphorylated peptides from other peptides and enables their identification at femtomole level with improved efficiency compared with LC approaches hyphenated to MS.

  11. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2015-07-16

    Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils.

  12. Optimization of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis for Bacterial Identification

    PubMed Central

    Khot, Prasanna D.; Couturier, Marc R.; Wilson, Andrew; Croft, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a relatively new addition to the clinical microbiology laboratory. The performance of the MALDI Biotyper system (Bruker Daltonics) was compared to those of phenotypic and genotypic identification methods for 690 routine and referred clinical isolates representing 102 genera and 225 unique species. We systematically compared direct-smear and extraction methods on a taxonomically diverse collection of isolates. The optimal score thresholds for bacterial identification were determined, and an approach to address multiple divergent results above these thresholds was evaluated. Analysis of identification scores revealed optimal species- and genus-level identification thresholds of 1.9 and 1.7, with 91.9% and 97.0% of isolates correctly identified to species and genus levels, respectively. Not surprisingly, routinely encountered isolates showed higher concordance than did uncommon isolates. The extraction method yielded higher scores than the direct-smear method for 78.3% of isolates. Incorrect species were reported in the top 10 results for 19.4% of isolates, and although there was no obvious cutoff to eliminate all of these ambiguities, a 10% score differential between the top match and additional species may be useful to limit the need for additional testing to reach single-species-level identifications. PMID:22993178

  13. Glycine identification in natural jarosites using laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry: implications for the search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kotler, J Michelle; Hinman, Nancy W; Yan, Beizhan; Stoner, Daphne L; Scott, Jill R

    2008-04-01

    The jarosite group minerals have received increasing attention since the discovery of jarosite on the martian surface by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Given that jarosite can incorporate foreign ions within its structure, we have investigated the use of jarosite as an indicator of aqueous and biological processes on Earth and Mars. The use of laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry has revealed the presence of organic matter in several jarosite samples from various locations worldwide. One of the ions from the natural jarosites has been attributed to glycine because it was systematically observed in combinations of glycine with synthetic ammonium and potassium jarosites, Na(2)SO(4) and K(2)SO(4). The ability to observe these organic signatures in jarosite samples with an in situ instrumental technique, such as the one employed in this study, furthers the goals of planetary geologists to determine whether signs of life (e.g., the presence of biomolecules or biomolecule precursors) can be detected in the rock record of terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples.

  14. Acid-catalyzed Reactions in Model Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA): Insights using Desorption-electrospray Ionization (DESI) Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiddler, M. N.; Cooks, R. G.; Shepson, P.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are presently little understood in terms of their sources, formation, and effect on climate forcing, despite their significant impacts on climate change and respiratory health. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which were thought to arise entirely from simple gas-particle partitioning, have recently been found to contain oligomeric species which result from the condensed-phase reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The non-methane VOC with the greatest emission flux, isoprene, is known to produce aerosols through chemistry involving its oxidation products. We selected one of its major oxidation product, methacrolein, to assess its role in oligomeric SOA formation in response to the acidic conditions found in cloud water. Since it has been found that acidified aerosol produces oligomeric species with greater molecular weight and yield, acid-catalyzed oligomerization is likely a significant process in the formation of SOA. Aqueous solutions of methacrolein were acidified with sulfuric acid, and studied using linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LIT-MS) with a home-built desorption-electrospray ionization (DESI) source. An extremely heterogeneous mixture of products was produced in this system, resulting from hydrolysis, acid- catalyzed oxidation, reduction, and organosulfate formation. Evidence for disproportionation and heterocycle formation are proposed as reaction mechanisms hitherto unrecognized in the production of SOA. The proposed structure and formation mechanism for several species, based upon their MS/MS spectra, will also be presented.

  15. Fast analysis of high-energy compounds and agricultural chemicals in water with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Christopher C; MacMillan, Denise K; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

    2007-01-01

    Novel sampling and detection methods using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) are examined in the detection of explosives (RDX, TNT, HMX, and TNB) and agricultural chemicals (atrazine, alachlor and acetochlor) from aqueous matrices and authentic contaminated groundwater samples. DESI allows analysis of solid and liquid compounds directly from surfaces of interest with little or no sample preparation. Significant savings in analysis time and sample preparation are realized. The methods investigated here include (i) immediate analysis of filter paper wetted with contaminated water samples without further sample preparation, (ii) rapid liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and (iii) analyte extraction from contaminated groundwater samples on-site using solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes, followed by direct DESI analysis of the membrane. The wetted filter paper experiment demonstrates the maximum sample throughput for DESI analysis of aqueous matrices but has inadequate sensitivity for some of these analytes. Both the LLE and the SPE methods have adequate sensitivity. The resulting SPE membranes and/or small volume solvent extracts produced in these experiments are readily transported to off-site facilities for direct analysis by DESI. This realizes a significant reduction in the costs of sample shipping compared with those for typical liter-sized samples of groundwater. Total analysis times for these preliminary DESI analyses are comparable with or shorter than those for GC/MS and limits of detection approach environmental action levels for these compounds while maintaining a modest relative standard deviation. Tandem mass spectrometric data is used to provide additional specificity as needed.

  16. Screening of the binding of small molecules to proteins by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chenxi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Buqing; He, Dacheng; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bioactive small molecule ligands and proteins is one of the important research areas in proteomics. Herein, a simple and rapid method is established to screen small ligands that bind to proteins. We designed an agarose slide to immobilize different proteins. The protein microarrays were allowed to interact with different small ligands, and after washing, the microarrays were screened by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). This method can be applied to screen specific protein binding ligands and was shown for seven proteins and 34 known ligands for these proteins. In addition, a high-throughput screening was achieved, with the analysis requiring approximately 4 s for one sample spot. We then applied this method to determine the binding between the important protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and 88 small compounds. The molecular docking results confirmed the MS results, demonstrating that this method is suitable for the rapid and accurate screening of ligands binding to proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry improves appropriateness of antibiotic treatment of bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Vlek, Anne L M; Bonten, Marc J M; Boel, C H Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) allows the identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood culture broths. Use of the MALDI-TOF MS for rapid identification of microorganisms from blood culture broths can reduce the turnaround time to identification and may lead to earlier appropriate treatment of bacteremia. During February and April 2010, direct MALDI-TOF MS was routinely performed on all positive blood cultures. During December 2009 and March 2010 no direct MALDI-TOF MS was used. Information on antibiotic therapy was collected from the hospital and intensive care units' information systems from all positive blood cultures during the study period. In total, 253 episodes of bacteremia were included of which 89 during the intervention period and 164 during the control period. Direct performance of MALDI-TOF MS on positive blood culture broths reduced the time till species identification by 28.8-h and was associated with an 11.3% increase in the proportion of patients receiving appropriate antibiotic treatment 24 hours after blood culture positivity (64.0% in the control period versus 75.3% in the intervention period (p0.01)). Routine implementation of this technique increased the proportion of patients on adequate antimicrobial treatment within 24 hours.

  18. Direct identification of various copper phthalocyanine pigments in automotive paints and paint smears by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Tadashi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Shin-ichirou; Kusatani, Masaru; Nakai, Seita; Honda, Sadao

    2008-01-01

    Direct identification of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and chlorinated CuPcs in paints for discrimination between blue automobile paints by means of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) in the absence of a matrix is reported. The models consisted of eight commercially available CuPc pigments applied to a piece of plain white coating paper. The relationship between the peak intensity at m/z 575 of the CuPc, the number of pulsed laser shots, and laser power was compared to optimize laser abrasion. LDMS analysis of the model paints demonstrated that all characteristic components of the CuPc pigments in the paint films were in good agreement with those in the powder pigments. Further, the chlorinated CuPcs in the paint films could be distinguished. A quantity of 42 blue paint films, representing the paints used for painting Japanese domestic trucks, was examined by LDMS analysis. Results indicate that the paints can be classified into four categories based on the chlorinated CuPc components of the paints. Therefore, LDMS spectra of CuPc pigments would be useful for the identification of paints in forensic investigations. Herein, we report the successful identification of the CuPcs in a paint smear on the frame of a bicycle damaged in a hit-and-run accident, using the LDMS spectra.

  19. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Wade C.; Lewis, Charlotte R.; Openshaw, Anna P.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration.

  20. Rapid differentiation of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Han; So, Pui-Kin; Lo, Samual Chun-Lap; Ng, Eddy Wing Yin; Poon, Terence Chuen Wai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2012-11-13

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)-based method has been developed for rapid differentiation between Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius, two herbal medicines with similar chemical and physical properties but different therapeutic effects. This method required only a small quantity of samples, and the herbal medicines were analyzed by MALDI-MS either after a brief extraction step, or directly on the powder form or small pieces of raw samples. The acquired MALDI-MS spectra showed different patterns of ginsenosides and small chemical molecules between P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius, thus allowing unambiguous differentiation between the two Panax species based on the specific ions, intensity ratios of characteristic ions or principal component analysis. The approach could also be used to differentiate red ginseng or P. quinquefolius adulterated with P. ginseng from pure P. ginseng and pure Panax quinquefolium. The intensity ratios of characteristic ions in the MALDI-MS spectra showed high reproducibility and enabled quantitative determination of ginsenosides in the herbal samples and percentage of P. quinquefolius in the adulterated binary mixture. The method is simple, rapid, robust, and can be extended for analysis of other herbal medicines.

  1. Generation and detection of gaseous W12O41-* and other tungstate anions by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Julius; Braida, Washington; Ogundipe, Adebayo; O'Connor, Gregory; Attygalle, Athula B

    2009-10-01

    The presence of a peak centered near m/z 2862, observed for the first time for the caged dodecatungstate radical-anion, [W12O41]-*, enables distinguishing WO2 from WO3 by Laser Desorption Ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). In addition to WO2, laser irradiation of dry deposits made from aqueous ammonium paratungstate, and calcium and lead orthotungstate also produce the [W12O41]-. In contrast, spectra recorded from deposits made from aqueous Na2WO4, sodium metatungstate, and WO3, or non-aqueous calcium and lead orthotungstate, and ammonium paratungstate, failed to show the m/z 2862 peak cluster. These observations support the hypothesis that polycondensation reactions to form [W12O41]-* occur solely in the presence of water. Although dry spots are irradiated for ionization, the solvent used for sample preparation plays an important role on the chemical composition endowed to ions detected. For example, the m/z 2862 peak seen from deposits made from aqueous ammonium paratungstate, and calcium and lead orthotungstate, is absent in the spectra recorded either from pristine deposits or those derived from solutions made with organic solvents such as acetonitrile or ethanol.

  2. Evaluation of laser diode thermal desorption-tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-MS-MS) in forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bynum, Nichole D; Moore, Katherine N; Grabenauer, Megan

    2014-10-01

    Many forensic laboratories experience backlogs due to increased drug-related cases. Laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) has demonstrated its applicability in other scientific areas by providing data comparable with instrumentation, such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in less time. LDTD-MS-MS was used to validate 48 compounds in drug-free human urine and blood for screening or quantitative analysis. Carryover, interference, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, matrix effect, linearity, precision and accuracy and stability were evaluated. Quantitative analysis indicated that LDTD-MS-MS produced precise and accurate results with the average overall within-run precision in urine and blood represented by a %CV <14.0 and <7.0, respectively. The accuracy for all drugs in urine ranged from 88.9 to 104.5% and 91.9 to 107.1% in blood. Overall, LDTD has the potential for use in forensic toxicology but before it can be successfully implemented that there are some challenges that must be addressed. Although the advantages of the LDTD system include minimal maintenance and rapid analysis (∼10 s per sample) which makes it ideal for high-throughput forensic laboratories, a major disadvantage is its inability or difficulty analyzing isomers and isobars due to the lack of chromatography without the use of high-resolution MS; therefore, it would be best implemented as a screening technique.

  3. Differentiation of blue ballpoint pen inks by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weyermann, Céline; Marquis, Raymond; Mazzella, Williams; Spengler, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The differentiation of inks on a questioned document can highlight a fraudulent insertion and is usually carried out by optical comparison and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) may also be used for the analysis of dyes from ink. This analytical technique was compared with a standard method of high-performance TLC (HPTLC) according to their capacity to differentiate blue ballpoint inks. Ink entries on paper from 31 blue ballpoint pens have been analyzed and their dye ink formulations compared. The pens were classified into 26 classes by LDI-MS against 18 for HPTLC. LDI-MS proved to be a more powerful method for differentiating ink formulations because it provides information about dye structures (molecular weights) and relative quantification of dye classes (peak areas). Sample preparation was minimal and analysis time was short in contrast to the more complex extraction, application, and development steps of the HPTLC method. However, only basic dyes and pigments were identified using positive mode LDI-MS, while HPTLC did yield additional information about acid dyes.

  4. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry applied to virus identification

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Rodighiero, Isabella; Buttrini, Mirko; Gorrini, Chiara; Motta, Federica; Germini, Diego; Medici, Maria-Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Virus detection and/or identification traditionally rely on methods based on cell culture, electron microscopy and antigen or nucleic acid detection. These techniques are good, but often expensive and/or time-consuming; furthermore, they not always lead to virus identification at the species and/or type level. In this study, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was tested as an innovative tool to identify human polioviruses and to identify specific viral protein biomarkers in infected cells. The results revealed MALDI-TOF MS to be an effective and inexpensive tool for the identification of the three poliovirus serotypes. The method was firstly applied to Sabin reference strains, and then to isolates from different clinical samples, highlighting its value as a time-saving, sensitive and specific technique when compared to the gold standard neutralization assay and casting new light on its possible application to virus detection and/or identification. PMID:25354905

  5. Direct analysis of pharmaceutical tablet formulations using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Caroline J; Carolan, Vikki A; Richards, Don S; Clench, Malcolm R

    2010-06-15

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) has been used to directly analyse a range of tablets in order to assess the homogeneity of the active drug compound throughout the excipients contained within the tablets studied. The information gained from the imaging experiments can be used to improve and gain a greater understanding of the manufacturing process; such knowledge will enable improvements in finished product quality to make safer and more efficacious tablet formulations. Commercially available and prescription tablet formulations have been analysed, including aspirin, paracetamol, sildenafil citrate (Viagra(R)) and a batch of tablets in development (tablet X: placebo; 1 mg; 3 mg and 6 mg). MALDI MSI provides semi-quantitative information that is related to ion abundance, therefore Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a multivariate analysis technique, has been used to differentiate between tablets containing different amounts of active drug ingredient. Aspects of sample preparation have also been investigated with regard to tablet shape and texture. The results obtained indicate that MALDI MSI can be used effectively to analyse the spatial distribution of the active pharmaceutical component (API) in pharmaceutical tablet formulations.

  6. Differentiation of microbial species and strains in coculture biofilms by multivariate analysis of laser desorption postionization mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Cui, Yang; Hofstetter, Theresa; Liu, Suet Yi; Bernstein, Hans C; Carlson, Ross P; Ahmed, Musahid; Hanley, Luke

    2013-11-21

    7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups, two "pure" groups, and a mixed region. Furthermore, the "pure" regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA at 7.87 eV photon energies compared to 10.5 eV radiation. This is consistent with the expectation that the 7.87 eV photoionization selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.

  7. Desorption corona beam ionisation (DCBI) mass spectrometry for in-situ analysis of adsorbed phenol in cigarette acetate fiber filter.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen; Tang, Li-Juan; Wen, Jian-Hui; Zhong, Ke-Jun; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Hua; Chen, Bo; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The study of spatial distribution characteristics of the adsorbed compounds for absorbent materials has significant importance in understanding the behaviors of aerosols while they migrating in the absorbent materials. Herein, for the first time, desorption corona beam ionization-mass spectrometry (DCBI-MS) has proposed for direct in-situ analysis of adsorbed aerosol for absorbent materials. DCBI is a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-related technique developed by our group in recent years. It can facilitate accurately localizing sampling by forming a visible thin corona beam and avoid the risk of sample contamination and matrix interference compared with other similar techniques. The advantages of DCBI-MS allow rapid screening of the spatial distribution characteristics of the adsorbed compounds for absorbent materials. The distribution characteristic of phenol in cigarette filter tip filled with cellulose acetate fiber was studied as a model case for demonstrating the feasibility of the developed method. As a comparison, conventional HPLC was also used for the study of the distribution characteristic of phenol. The results revealed DCBI-MS had highly improved assay simplicity in spatial distribution characteristic analysis of phenol for the acetate fiber tip, therefore, exhibiting a great potential for convenient, rapid and cost-efficient analysis of the spatial distribution characteristic investigation of adsorbed compounds for adsorbent materials.

  8. Fast surface acoustic wave-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of cell response from islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Bllaci, Loreta; Kjellström, Sven; Eliasson, Lena; Friend, James R; Yeo, Leslie Y; Nilsson, Staffan

    2013-03-05

    A desire for higher speed and performance in molecular profiling analysis at a reduced cost is driving a trend in miniaturization and simplification of procedures. Here we report the use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer for fast sample handling in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) peptide and protein profiling of Islets of Langerhans, for future type 2 diabetes (T2D) studies. Here the SAW atomizer was used for ultrasound (acoustic) extraction of insulin and other peptide hormones released from freshly prepared islets, stimulated directly on a membrane. A high energy propagating SAW atomizes the membrane-bound liquid into approximately 2 μm diameter droplets, rich in cell-released molecules. Besides acting as a sample carrier, the membrane provides a purification step by entrapping cell clusters and other impurities within its fibers. A new SAW-based sample-matrix deposition method for MALDI MS was developed and characterized by a strong insulin signal, and a limit of detection (LOD) lower than 100 amol was achieved. Our results support previous work reporting the SAW atomizer as a fast and inexpensive tool for ultrasound, membrane-based sample extraction. When interfaced with MALDI MS, the SAW atomizer constitutes a valuable tool for rapid cell studies. Other biomedical applications of SAW-MALDI MS are currently being developed, aiming at fast profiling of biofluids. The membrane sampling is a simplistic and noninvasive collection method of limited volume biofluids such as the gingival fluid and the tearfilm.

  9. Direct Analysis of Triacylglycerols from Crude Lipid Mixtures by Gold Nanoparticle-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jeongjin; Lee, Gwangbin; Cha, Sangwon

    2014-05-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs), essential energy storage lipids, are easily detected by conventional MALDI MS when occurring on their own. However, their signals are easily overwhelmed by other lipids, mainly phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and, therefore, require purification. In order to profile TAGs from crude lipid mixtures without prefractionation, we investigated alternative matrixes that can suppress phospholipid ion signals and enhance cationization of TAGs. We found that an aqueous solution of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with a diameter of 12 nm is a superior matrix for the laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) of TAGs in crude lipid mixtures. The AuNP matrix effectively suppressed other lipid signals such as phospholipids and also provided 100 times lower detection limit for TAGs than 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), the best conventional MALDI matrix for TAGs. The AuNP-assisted LDI MS enabled us to obtain detailed TAG profiles including minor species directly from crude beef lipid extracts without phospholipid interference. In addition, we could detect TAGs at a trace level from a total brain lipid extract.

  10. Direct analysis of triacylglycerols from crude lipid mixtures by gold nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Son, Jeongjin; Lee, Gwangbin; Cha, Sangwon

    2014-05-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs), essential energy storage lipids, are easily detected by conventional MALDI MS when occurring on their own. However, their signals are easily overwhelmed by other lipids, mainly phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and, therefore, require purification. In order to profile TAGs from crude lipid mixtures without prefractionation, we investigated alternative matrixes that can suppress phospholipid ion signals and enhance cationization of TAGs. We found that an aqueous solution of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with a diameter of 12 nm is a superior matrix for the laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) of TAGs in crude lipid mixtures. The AuNP matrix effectively suppressed other lipid signals such as phospholipids and also provided 100 times lower detection limit for TAGs than 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), the best conventional MALDI matrix for TAGs. The AuNP-assisted LDI MS enabled us to obtain detailed TAG profiles including minor species directly from crude beef lipid extracts without phospholipid interference. In addition, we could detect TAGs at a trace level from a total brain lipid extract.

  11. Distinguishing chinese star anise from Japanese star anise using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2009-07-08

    The volatile compounds from the pericarps of Illicium anisatum L., Illicium brevistylum A.C.Sm., Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium henryi Diels, Illicium lanceolatum A.C.Sm., Illicium majus Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium micranthum Dunn, and Illicium verum Hook.f. were examined by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The volatiles desorbed from the pericarps of I. verum (Chinese star anise), the species traded for culinary purposes, were generally characterized by a high proportion of (E)-anethole (57.6-77.1%) and the presence of foeniculin; the latter was otherwise only detected in the pericarps of I. lanceolatum. In the pericarps of all other species analyzed, the percentage composition of (E)-anethole was comparatively lower (

  12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, R; Ball, D; Dolphin, H; Dave, J

    2016-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared with the API NH biochemical method for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in routine clinical samples. A retrospective review of laboratory records for 1090 isolates for which both biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identifications were available was performed. Cases of discrepant results were examined in detail for evidence supportive of a particular organism identification. Of 1090 isolates, 1082 were identified as N. gonorrhoeae by API NH. MALDI-TOF MS successfully identified 984 (91%) of these after one analysis, rising to 1081 (99.9%) after two analyses, with a positive predictive value of 99.3%. For those isolates requiring a repeat analysis, failure to generate an identifiable proteomic signature was the reason in 76% of cases, with alternative initial identifications accounting for the remaining 24%. MALDI-TOF MS identified eight isolates as N. gonorrhoeae that were not identified as such by API NH-examination of these discrepant results suggested that the MALDI-TOF MS identification may be the more reliable. MALDI-TOF MS is at least as accurate and reliable a method of identifying N. gonorrhoeae as API NH. We propose that MALDI-TOF MS could potentially be used as a single method for N. gonorrhoeae identification in routine cases by laboratories with access to this technology.

  13. Development of a stigmatic mass microscope using laser desorption/ionization and a multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazama, Hisanao; Yoshimura, Hidetoshi; Aoki, Jun; Nagao, Hirofumi; Toyoda, Michisato; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Fujii, Kenichi; Tashima, Toshio; Naito, Yasuhide; Awazu, Kunio

    2011-04-01

    A novel stigmatic mass microscope using laser desorption/ionization and a multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG, has been developed. Stigmatic ion images of crystal violet masked by a fine square mesh grid with a 12.7 μm pitch as well as microdot patterns with a 5 μm dot diameter and a 10 μm pitch made with rhodamine B were clearly observed. The estimated spatial resolution was about 3 μm in the linear mode with a 20-fold ion optical magnification. Separating stigmatic ion images according to the time-of-flight, i.e., the mass-to-charge ratio of the ions was successfully demonstrated by a microdot pattern made with two different dyes, crystal violet and methylene blue. Stigmatic ion images of a microdot pattern made with crystal violet were observed after circulation in MULTUM-IMG, and the pattern of the ion image was maintained after ten cycles in MULTUM-IMG. A section of a mouse brain stained with crystal violet and methylene blue was observed in the linear mode, and the stigmatic total ion image of crystal violet and methylene blue agreed well with the optical microphotograph of the hippocampus for the same section.

  14. Identification and differentiation of the red ink entries of seals on document by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Feng; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Yao; Yu, Jing; Xie, Meng-Xia

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of approaches for the differentiation of the ink entries of seals on paper can provide evidence to authenticate the related documents and can play a key role in judicial expertise. The identification and discrimination method for 38 red ink entries of seals on paper has been investigated using laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Six dye components for the ink pastes of seals, Scarlet powder (SP), Bronze Red C (BR), Fast Red R (FR), Basic Violet 3 (BV3), Pigment Red 22 (PR22) and Pigment Red 112 (PR112), have been identified by their LDI-MS spectra, and the results have been confirmed by electrospray ionization quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-ESI-MS/MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The 38 ink entries were classified into six groups based on the presence or the absence of the pigments in their positive and negative LDI-MS spectra, and the discrimination power (DP) was calculated to be about 82%. The ink entries within each group were further differentiated from the relative peak areas (RPA) of the fragments for the pigments and the profile of their LDI-MS spectra, and thus the DP was increased to 98%. All the 38 ink entries could be discriminated (the DP was 100%), if including the contribution of unknown peaks. Compared with the results obtained by the FTIR and Raman methods, the established LDI-MS approach could provide more information of the dye components in the ink entries. The results showed that the developed LDI-MS method is powerful, sensitive and rapid and can directly differentiate the red ink entries of seals from paper substrates, thus offering a novel approach to judge the authenticity of documents.

  15. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) applied to the speciation of arsenic compounds from fern leaves.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Lívia Botelho; Augusti, Rodinei; Schmidt, Lucas; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina

    2013-09-01

    The different chemical forms of arsenic compounds, including inorganic and organic species, present distinct environmental impacts and toxicities. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is an excellent technique for in situ analysis, as it operates under atmospheric pressure and room temperature and is conducted with no/minimal sample pretreatment. Aimed at expanding its scope, DESI-MS is applied herein for the quick and reliable detection of inorganic (arsenate--As(V): AsO4(3-) and arsenite--As(III): AsO2(-)) and organic (dimethylarsinic acid--DMA: (CH3)2AsO(OH) and disodium methyl arsonate hexahydrate: CH3AsO3·2Na·6H2O) arsenic compounds in fern leaves. Operational conditions of DESI-MS were optimized with DMA standard deposited on paper surfaces to improve ionization efficiency and detection limits. Mass spectra data for all arsenic species were acquired in both the positive and negative ion modes. The positive ion mode was shown to be useful in detecting both the organic and inorganic arsenic compounds. The negative ion mode was shown only to be useful in detecting As(V) species. Moreover, MS/MS spectra were recorded to confirm the identity of each arsenic compound by the characteristic fragmentation profiles. Optimized conditions of DESI-MS were applied to the analysis of fern leaves. LC-ICP-MS was employed to confirm the results obtained by DESI-MS and to quantify the arsenic species in fern leaves. The results confirmed the applicability of DESI-MS in detecting arsenic compounds in complex matrices.

  16. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology.

  17. Identification of beer-spoilage bacteria using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wieme, Anneleen D; Spitaels, Freek; Aerts, Maarten; De Bruyne, Katrien; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-08-18

    Applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of beer-spoilage bacteria was examined. To achieve this, an extensive identification database was constructed comprising more than 4200 mass spectra, including biological and technical replicates derived from 273 acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), covering a total of 52 species, grown on at least three growth media. Sequence analysis of protein coding genes was used to verify aberrant MALDI-TOF MS identification results and confirmed the earlier misidentification of 34 AAB and LAB strains. In total, 348 isolates were collected from culture media inoculated with 14 spoiled beer and brewery samples. Peak-based numerical analysis of MALDI-TOF MS spectra allowed a straightforward species identification of 327 (94.0%) isolates. The remaining isolates clustered separately and were assigned through sequence analysis of protein coding genes either to species not known as beer-spoilage bacteria, and thus not present in the database, or to novel AAB species. An alternative, classifier-based approach for the identification of spoilage bacteria was evaluated by combining the identification results obtained through peak-based cluster analysis and sequence analysis of protein coding genes as a standard. In total, 263 out of 348 isolates (75.6%) were correctly identified at species level and 24 isolates (6.9%) were misidentified. In addition, the identification results of 50 isolates (14.4%) were considered unreliable, and 11 isolates (3.2%) could not be identified. The present study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is well-suited for the rapid, high-throughput and accurate identification of bacteria isolated from spoiled beer and brewery samples, which makes the technique appropriate for routine microbial quality control in the brewing industry.

  18. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology. PMID:26999436

  19. Laser-Induced Thermal Desorption and Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Molecular Adsorbates on Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Donald Paul

    The field of surface science is growing rapidly, fueled by the needs to refine petroleum more efficiently, to clean up automobile exhaust, to protect against corrosion and wear, and to shrink the size of electronic components and information storage systems. These are important aspects of daily life, all of which could benefit from a better understanding of the fundamental processes that occur at the interfaces between different phases of matter. For the technologies mentioned, the most important interface is that between the gas and the solid phases. The technique described in this dissertation merges several recently established methods into a powerful instrument for the analysis of the solid-gas interface, yielding information on the chemical nature of species at this interface, relative concentrations, and even reactivities and intermediates. Details of the design and construction of the instrument are followed by a performance evaluation and a presentation of characterization studies for postionization methods, including electron impact ionization, resonance -enhanced multiphoton ionization, and chemical ionization. The use of the technique for the analysis of unknowns on surfaces is then detailed, highlighting the ability to obtain accurate mass measurement using the high resolution capabilities of FTMS. The use of ion storage techniques results in further unique analysis methods via gas-phase charge exchange reactions. This technique opens the door to the study of more complex molecules on surfaces, as well as mixtures of surface species, because FT mass spectrometry is well suited for such analyses. In this dissertation, data is presented for desorption of tens of molecular species encompassing nearly every organic functional group and including species as widely varying as cyanogen, ethylene, cyclohexane, methanol, and even a tetra-peptide. In-depth analyses of the kinetics of ethylene dehydrogenation and the identification of cyclohexene and 1,6-hexa

  20. Two-Step Resonance-Enhanced Desorption Laser Mass Spectrometry for In Situ Analysis of Organic-Rich Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, S. A.; Grubisic, A.; Uckert, K.; Li, X.; Cornish, T.; Cook, J. E.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    A wide diversity of planetary surfaces in the solar system represent high priority targets for in situ compositional and contextual analysis as part of future missions. The planned mission portfolio will inform our knowledge of the chemistry at play on Mars, icy moons, comets, and primitive asteroids, which can lead to advances in our understanding of the interplay between inorganic and organic building blocks that led to the evolution of habitable environments on Earth and beyond. In many of these environments, the presence of water or aqueously altered mineralogy is an important indicator of habitable environments that are present or may have been present in the past. As a result, the search for complex organic chemistry that may imply the presence of a feedstock, if not an inventory of biosignatures, is naturally aligned with targeted analyses of water-rich surface materials. Here we describe the two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) analytical technique that has seen broad application in the study of organics in meteoritic samples, now demonstrated to be compatible with an in situ investigation with technique improvements to target high priority planetary environments as part of a future scientific payload. An ultraviolet (UV) pulsed laser is used in previous and current embodiments of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) to produce ionized species traceable to the mineral and organic composition of a planetary surface sample. L2MS, an advanced technique in laser mass spectrometry, is selective to the aromatic organic fraction of a complex sample, which can provide additional sensitivity and confidence in the detection of specific compound structures. Use of a compact two-step laser mass spectrometer prototype has been previously reported to provide specificity to key aromatic species, such as PAHs, nucleobases, and certain amino acids. Recent improvements in this technique have focused on the interaction between the mineral matrix and the

  1. Oligomeric carbon and siloxane series observed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation and laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry during the analysis of soot formed in fuel-rich flames.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Barbara; Ciajolo, Anna; Millan, Marcos; Galmes, Carolina; Herod, Alan A; Kandiyoti, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Oligomeric carbon and siloxane series have been observed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), during the analysis of the dichloromethane (DCM)-soluble fractions of condensable material recovered from fuel-rich flames. Laser desorption (LD) spectra showed a pattern of oligomeric dimethyl-siloxane structures with a spacing of 74 u. The siloxane series appears to have originated as contamination of samples by silicone oil used to lubricate connections of polymer tubing. This was confirmed by extracting silicone tubing and silicone grease with DCM followed by MALDI-MS analysis. A series of peaks with a mass spacing of 24 u was also observed, superimposed on the continuum of unresolved organic ions. This oligomeric series appears to correspond to polycyclic aromatics separated by (mainly) ethylene bridges. Thus LD-MS appears to have revealed a series of soot precursors, intermediate between polycyclic aromatics and particulate soot, which was not detected by MALDI-MS. More detailed work is necessary to define these species with precision.

  2. Infrared laser desorption/vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry of petroleum saturates: a new experimental approach for the analysis of heavy oils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenyue; Bi, Yucheng; Guo, Huijun; Pan, Yang; Qi, Fei; Deng, Wenan; Shan, Honghong

    2008-12-01

    A novel method combining infrared (IR) laser desorption with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (LD/VUV PIMS) is applied to characterize a number of petroleum saturates samples from Lungu atmospheric residue (LGAR) under different treatment procedures. The mass spectra of these saturates are well resolved with even masses as the dominant ions and are clearly sample-dependent. In order to assess the ability of IR LD/VUV PIMS to determine the average molecular weight of heavy oils, the dependence of the measured molecular weight distributions on the VUV ionization photon energies is also discussed.

  3. Determination of Macrolide Antibiotics Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Followed by Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Yang, Thomas C.; Chang, Sarah Y.

    2012-06-01

    A novel method for the determination of macrolide antibiotics using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection was developed. Acetone and dichloromethane were used as the disperser solvent and extraction solvent, respectively. A mixture of extraction solvent and disperser solvent were rapidly injected into a 1.0 mL aqueous sample to form a cloudy solution. After the extraction, macrolide antibiotics were detected using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI/MS) with colloidal silver as the matrix. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 2, 3, 3, and 2 nM for erythromycin (ERY), spiramycin (SPI), tilmicosin (TILM), and tylosin (TYL), respectively. This developed method was successfully applied to the determination of macrolide antibiotics in human urine samples.

  4. Enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for searching for low-mass inhibitors of enzymes in complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: 'ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and 'ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  5. Enzyme-Coupled Nanoparticles-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Searching for Low-Mass Inhibitors of Enzymes in Complex Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: `ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and `ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  6. BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry: Reagentless Detection of Individual Airborne Spores and Other Bioagent Particles Based on Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Paul Thomas

    2004-09-01

    Better devices are needed for the detection of aerosolized biological warfare agents. Advances in the ongoing development of one such device, the BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system, are described here in detail. The system samples individual, micrometer-sized particles directly from the air and analyzes them in real-time without sample preparation or use of reagents. At the core of the BAMS system is a dual-polarity, single-particle mass spectrometer with a laser based desorption and ionization (DI) system. The mass spectra produced by early proof-of-concept instruments were highly variable and contained limited information to differentiate certain types of similar biological particles. The investigation of this variability and subsequent changes to the DI laser system are described. The modifications have reduced the observed variability and thereby increased the usable information content in the spectra. These improvements would have little value without software to analyze and identify the mass spectra. Important improvements have been made to the algorithms that initially processed and analyzed the data. Single particles can be identified with an impressive level of accuracy, but to obtain significant reductions in the overall false alarm rate of the BAMS instrument, alarm decisions must be made dynamically on the basis of multiple analyzed particles. A statistical model has been developed to make these decisions and the resulting performance of a hypothetical BAMS system is quantitatively predicted. The predictions indicate that a BAMS system, with reasonably attainable characteristics, can operate with a very low false alarm rate (orders of magnitude lower than some currently fielded biodetectors) while still being sensitive to small concentrations of biological particles in a large range of environments. Proof-of-concept instruments, incorporating some of the modifications described here, have already performed well in independent testing.

  7. An experimental and modeling study of grain-scale uranium desorption from field-contaminated sediments and the potential influence of microporosity on mass-transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoliker, D.; Liu, C.; Kent, D. B.; Zachara, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The aquifer below the 300-Area of the Hanford site (Richland, WA, USA) is plagued by a persistent plume of dissolved uranium (U(VI)) in excess of the Environmental Protection Agency drinking water maximum contamination level even after the removal of highly contaminated sediments. The aquifer sediments in the seasonally saturated lower vadose zone act as both a source and sink for uranium during stage changes in the nearby Columbia River. Diffusion limitation of uranium mass-transfer within these sediments has been cited as a potential cause of the plume's persistence. Equilibrium U(VI) sorption is a strong function of variable chemical conditions, especially carbonate, hydrogen, and uranyl ion activities. Field-contaminated sediments from the site require up to 1,000 hours to reach equilibrium in static batch reactors. Increases in U(VI) concentrations over longer time-scales result from changes in chemical conditions, which drive reactions with sediments that favor U(VI) desorption. Grain-scale U(VI) sorption/desorption rates are slow, likely owing to diffusion of U(VI) and other solutes through intra-granular pore domains. In order to improve understanding of the impact of intra-granular diffusion and chemical reactions controlling grain-scale U(VI) release, experiments were conducted on individual particle size fractions of a <8 mm composite of field-contaminated, lower vadose zone sediments. For each size fraction, equilibrium U(VI) sorption/desorption in static batch reactors was well-described by surface complexation models over a range of chemical conditions applicable to the field site. Desorption rates from individual size fractions in flow-through batch reactors, examined under a single set of constant chemical conditions with multiple stop-flow events, were similar for all size fractions <2 mm. Kinetic U(VI) desorption in flow-through batch reactors was modeled using a multi-rate surface complexation approach, where sorption/desorption rates were

  8. Identification of non-diphtheriae corynebacterium by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alatoom, Adnan A; Cazanave, Charles J; Cunningham, Scott A; Ihde, Sherry M; Patel, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for identification of 92 clinical isolates of Corynebacterium species in comparison to identification using rpoB or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Eighty isolates (87%) yielded a score of ≥1.700, and all of these were correctly identified to the species level with the exception of Corynebacterium aurimucosum being misidentified as the closely related Corynebacterium minutissimum.

  9. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Blood Isolates of Acinetobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Chang, Tsung-Chain; Lee, Tai-Fen; Teng, Shih-Hua; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (Bruker Biotyper) was able to accurately identify 98.6% (142/144) of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, 72.4% (63/87) of A. nosocomialis isolates, and 97.6% (41/42) of A. pittii isolates. All Acinetobacter junii, A. ursingii, A. johnsonii, and A. radioresistens isolates (n = 28) could also be identified correctly by Bruker Biotyper. PMID:24899038

  10. Does the Capsule Interfere with Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii?

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Danilo Y; Grenfell, Rafaella C; Vidal, Monica S M; Giudice, Mauro C; Del Negro, Gilda M B; Juliano, Luiz; Benard, Gil; de Almeida Júnior, João N

    2016-02-01

    We described the impact of the capsule size for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii identification at the species level by Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). After experimental capsule size modulation, we observed that reducing the capsule size resulted in improved identification by Bruker MALDI-TOF MS across all of the reference strains analyzed.

  11. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to differentiate between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Amity L; Alelew, Aqilah; Iwen, Peter C

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis in conjunction with the direct formic acid (FA) sample processing method was evaluated for the ability to differentiate the closely related species of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. The results showed that MALDI-TOF-MS, using the direct FA method, was reliable to differentiate between these species.

  12. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Fails To Identify Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Primary Cultures of Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    van Eck, Kim; Faro, Dirk; Wattenberg, Melanie; de Jong, Arjan; Kuipers, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    We have assessed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification (Bruker) of nontuberculous mycobacteria from newly positive liquid cultures of respiratory samples. Twelve (22%) of 54 isolates were identified directly from liquid medium. After subculture and with manual laser operation, this rose to 49/54 isolates (91%). MALDI-TOF MS is less promising than previously suggested. PMID:27147723

  13. Influence of Culture Media on Detection of Carbapenem Hydrolysis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Ana Carolina; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy; Cordeiro-Moura, Jhonatha Rodrigo; Rockstroh, Anna Carolina; Machado, Antonia Maria Oliveira; Gales, Ana Cristina

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of distinct bacterial growth media on detection of carbapenemase hydrolysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. False-negative results were observed for OXA-25-, OXA-26-, and OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates grown on MacConkey agar medium. The other culture media showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting carbapenemase.

  14. Development of a method for the determination of UV filters in water samples using stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodil, Rosario; Moeder, Monika

    2008-02-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) in combination with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was applied for the determination of 9 UV filters in water samples. The stir bar coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was added to 20 mL of water sample at pH 2 (10% MeOH) and stirred at 1000 rpm for 180 min. Then, the stir bar was subjected to TD-GC-MS. The desorption conditions (desorption temperature and desorption time) and SBSE parameters (ionic strength, pH, presence of organic solvent and time) were optimised using a full factorial design and a Box-Behnken design, respectively. The method shows good linearity (correlation coefficients >0.994) and reproducibility (RSD<16%). The extraction efficiencies were above 63% for all the compounds. Detection limits were between 0.2 and 63 ng/L. The developed method offers the ability to detect several UV filters at ultra-low concentration levels with only 20 mL of sample volume. The effectiveness of the method was tested by analysing real samples such as lake water, river water and treated wastewater. The application of the method allowed reporting the levels of UV filters in environmental water samples.

  15. Thin layer chromatography/plasma assisted multiwavelength laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for facile separation and selective identification of low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jialing; Zhou, Zhigui; Yang, Jianwang; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2012-02-07

    A novel plasma assisted multiwavelength (1064, 532, and 355 nm) laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PAMLDI-MS) system was fabricated and applied in the analysis of low molecular weight compounds through combination with thin layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC/PAMLDI-MS system successfully integrated TLC, the multiwavelength laser ablation, and the excitated state plasma from direct analysis in real time (DART) and was proved to be effective in the facile separation and selective identification of low molecular weight compounds. An automated three-dimensional platform was utilized to facilitate the analysis procedures with all the parameters of the TLC/PAMLDI-MS systematically optimized, and the desorption/ionization mechanisms were discussed. The successful combination of three-wavelength laser with DART based system extended the range of the analytes and provided broad possibilities for the compound desorption from the TLC. The experimental results clearly showed that the laser desorption was wavelength dependent. The PAMLDI-MS system was successfully applied in the detection of low molecular weight compounds from different kinds of samples separated on a normal-phase silica gel, such as dye mixtures, drug standards, and tea extract, with the detection level of 5 ng/mm(2).

  16. Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Based Topographical Imaging and Nanometer Scale Resolved Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Nikiforov, Maxim; Bradshaw, James A; Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer scale proximal probe thermal desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD/ESI-MS) was demonstrated for molecular surface sampling of caffeine from a thin film using a 30 nm diameter nano-thermal analysis (nano-TA) probe tip in an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled via a vapor transfer line and ESI interface to a MS detection platform. Using a probe temperature of 350 C and a spot sampling time of 30 s, conical desorption craters 250 nm in diameter and 100 nm deep were created as shown through subsequent topographical imaging of the surface within the same system. Automated sampling of a 5 x 2 array of spots, with 2 m spacing between spots, and real time selective detection of the desorbed caffeine using tandem mass spectrometry was also demonstrated. Estimated from the crater volume (~2x106 nm3), only about 10 amol (2 fg) of caffeine was liberated from each thermal desorption crater in the thin film. These results illustrate a relatively simple experimental setup and means to acquire in automated fashion sub-micrometer scale spatial sampling resolution and mass spectral detection of materials amenable to TD. The ability to achieve MS-based chemical imaging with 250 nm scale spatial resolution with this system is anticipated.

  17. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Nocardia Species▿

    PubMed Central

    Verroken, A.; Janssens, M.; Berhin, C.; Bogaerts, P.; Huang, T.-D.; Wauters, G.; Glupczynski, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of Nocardia species, usually based on biochemical tests together with phenotypic in vitro susceptibility and resistance patterns, is a difficult and lengthy process owing to the slow growth and limited reactivity of these bacteria. In this study, a panel of 153 clinical and reference strains of Nocardia spp., altogether representing 19 different species, were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). As reference methods for species identification, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypical biochemical and enzymatic tests were used. In a first step, a complementary homemade reference database was established by the analysis of 110 Nocardia isolates (pretreated with 30 min of boiling and extraction) in the MALDI BioTyper software according to the manufacturer's recommendations for microflex measurement (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Leipzig, Germany), generating a dendrogram with species-specific cluster patterns. In a second step, the MALDI BioTyper database and the generated database were challenged with 43 blind-coded clinical isolates of Nocardia spp. Following addition of the homemade database in the BioTyper software, MALDI-TOF MS provided reliable identification to the species level for five species of which more than a single isolate was analyzed. Correct identification was achieved for 38 of the 43 isolates (88%), including 34 strains identified to the species level and 4 strains identified to the genus level according to the manufacturer's log score specifications. These data suggest that MALDI-TOF MS has potential for use as a rapid (<1 h) and reliable method for the identification of Nocardia species without any substantial costs for consumables. PMID:20861335

  18. Localization of ergot alkaloids in sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Dopstadt, Julian; Vens-Cappell, Simeon; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Cramer, Benedikt; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    The fungus Claviceps purpurea produces highly toxic ergot alkaloids and accumulates these in the hardened bodies of fungal mycelium. These so-called sclerotia, or ergot bodies, replace the crop seed of infected plants, which can include numerous important food- and feedstuff such as rye and wheat. While several studies have explored details of the infection process and development of ergot bodies, little information is available on the spatial distribution of the mycotoxins in the sclerotia. Here we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) at a lateral resolution of 35 μm to visualize the distribution of two representative alkaloids, ergocristine and ergometrine, produced by Ecc93 and Gal 310 variants of C. purpurea, respectively, after infection of rye. To improve cryosectioning of this fragile biological material tissue with complex texture, we developed a practical embedding protocol based on cellulose polymers. The MALDI-MS images recorded from the so produced intact tissues sections revealed that ergometrine exhibited a relatively homogeneous distribution throughout the ergot body, whereas ergocristine was found to be enriched in the proximal region. This finding can be correlated to the morphological development of sclerotia as ergot alkaloids are only produced in the sphacelial stage. The ability to localize toxins and other secondary metabolites in intact sections of crop-infecting fungi with high lateral resolution renders MALDI-MSI a powerful tool for investigating biosynthetic pathways and for obtaining a deeper understanding of the parasite-host interaction. Graphical abstract Workflow for identification and spatial localization of ergot alkaloids in infected rye grains.

  19. The detection and mapping of the spatial distribution of insect defense compounds by desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Vaikkinen, Anu; Haapala, Markus; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto; Cvačka, Josef

    2015-07-30

    Many insects use chemicals synthesized in exocrine glands and stored in reservoirs to protect themselves. Two chemically defended insects were used as models for the development of a new rapid analytical method based on desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). The distribution of defensive chemicals on the insect body surface was studied. Since these chemicals are predominantly nonpolar, DAPPI was a suitable analytical method. Repeatability of DAPPI-MS signals and effects related to non-planarity and roughness of samples were investigated using acrylic sheets uniformly covered with an analyte. After that, analytical figures of merit of the technique were determined. The spatial distribution of (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene, a toxic nitro compound synthesized by soldiers of the termite Prorhinotermes simplex, was investigated. Then, the spatial distribution of the unsaturated aldehydes (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E,E)-deca-2,4-dienal and (E)-dec-2-enal was monitored in the stink bug Graphosoma lineatum. Chemicals present on the body surface were scanned along the median line of the insect from the head to the abdomen and vice versa, employing either the MS or MS(2) mode. In this fast and simple way, the opening of the frontal gland on the frons of termite soldiers and the position of the frontal gland reservoir, extending deep into the abdominal cavity, were localized. In the stink bug, the opening of the metathoracic scent glands (ostiole) on the ventral side of the thorax as well as the gland reservoir in the median position under the ventral surface of the anterior abdomen were detected and localized. The developed method has future prospects in routine laboratory use in life sciences.

  20. Microfluidic Isoelectric Focusing of Amyloid Beta Peptides Followed by Micropillar-Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mikkonen, Saara; Jacksén, Johan; Roeraade, Johan; Thormann, Wolfgang; Emmer, Åsa

    2016-10-18

    A novel method for preconcentration and purification of the Alzheimer's disease related amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in 75 nL microchannels combined with their analysis by micropillar-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is presented. A semiopen chip-based setup, consisting of open microchannels covered by a lid of a liquid fluorocarbon, was used. IEF was performed in a mixture of four small and chemically well-defined amphoteric carriers, glutamic acid, aspartyl-histidine (Asp-His), cycloserine (cSer), and arginine, which provided a stepwise pH gradient tailored for focusing of the C-terminal Aβ peptides with a pI of 5.3 in the boundary between cSer and Asp-His. Information about the focusing dynamics and location of the foci of Aβ peptides and other compounds was obtained using computer simulation and by performing MALDI-MS analysis directly from the open microchannel. With the established configuration, detection was performed by direct sampling of a nanoliter volume containing the focused Aβ peptides from the microchannel, followed by deposition of this volume onto a chip with micropillar MALDI targets. In addition to purification, IEF preconcentration provides at least a 10-fold increase of the MALDI-MS-signal. After immunoprecipitation and concentration of the eluate in the microchannel, IEF-micropillar-MALDI-MS is demonstrated to be a suitable platform for detection of Aβ peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid as well as in blood plasma.

  1. Characterization of aromaticity in analogues of titan's atmospheric aerosols with two-step laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Schwell, Martin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Benilan, Yves; Cernogora, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Gazeau, Marie-Claire

    2016-10-01

    The role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Nitrogen containing PAH (PANH) as intermediates of aerosol production in the atmosphere of Titan has been a subject of controversy for a long time. An analysis of the atmospheric emission band observed by the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) at 3.28 μm suggests the presence of neutral polycyclic aromatic species in the upper atmosphere of Titan. These molecules are seen as the counter part of negative and positive aromatics ions suspected by the Plasma Spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft, but the low resolution of the instrument hinders any molecular speciation. In this work we investigate the specific aromatic content of Titan's atmospheric aerosols through laboratory simulations. We report here the selective detection of aromatic compounds in tholins, Titan's aerosol analogs, produced with a capacitively coupled plasma in a N2:CH4 95:5 gas mixture. For this purpose, Two-Step Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (L2DI-TOF-MS) technique is used to analyze the so produced analogs. This analytical technique is based on the ionization of molecules by Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) using a λ=248 nm wavelength laser which is selective for aromatic species. This allows for the selective identification of compounds having at least one aromatic ring. Our experiments show that tholins contain a trace amount of small PAHs with one to three aromatic rings. Nitrogen containing PAHs (PANHs) are also detected as constituents of tholins. Molecules relevant to astrobiology are detected as is the case of the substituted DNA base adenine.

  2. Developmental phases of individual mouse preimplantation embryos characterized by lipid signatures using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Christina R; Pirro, Valentina; Eberlin, Livia S; Hallett, Judy E; Cooks, R Graham

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the lipids present in individual preimplantation embryos is of interest in fundamental studies of embryology, in attempts to understand cellular pluripotency and in optimization of in vitro culture conditions necessary for the application and development of biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization and transgenesis. In this work, the profiles of fatty acids and phospholipids (PL) in individual mouse preimplantation embryos and oocytes were acquired using an analytical strategy based on desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). The methodology avoids sample preparation and provides information on the lipids present in these microscopic structures. Differences in the lipid profiles observed for unfertilized oocytes, two- and four-cell embryos, and blastocysts were characterized. For a representative set of embryos (N = 114) using multivariate analysis (specifically principal component analysis) unfertilized oocytes showed a narrower range of PL species than did blastocysts. Two- and four-cell embryos showed a wide range of PLs compared with unfertilized oocytes and high abundances of fatty acids, indicating pronounced synthetic activity. The data suggest that the lipid changes observed in mouse preimplantation development reflect acquisition of a degree of cellular membrane functional and structural specialization by the blastocyst stage. It is also noteworthy that embryos cultured in vitro from the two-cell through the blastocyst stage have a more homogeneous lipid profile as compared with their in vivo-derived counterparts, which is ascribed to the restricted diversity of nutrients present in synthetic culture media. The DESI-MS data are interpreted from lipid biochemistry and previous reports on gene expression of diverse lipids known to be vital to early embryonic development.

  3. Differentiation of Microbial Species and Strains in Coculture Biofilms by Multivariate Analysis of Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Montana State University; Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Cui, Yang; Hofstetter, Theresa; Liu, Suet Yi; Bernstein, Hans C.; Carlson, Ross P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Hanley, Luke

    2013-04-01

    7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups two ?pure? groups and a mixed region. Furthermore, the ?pure? regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA when analyzed by 7.87 eV photon energies than by 10.5 eV radiation. Comparison of the 7.87 and 10.5 eV data is consistent with the expectation that the lower photon energy selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.

  4. Using Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Detect ss- and ds-Oligodeoxynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Huang, Ming-Feng; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    We applied surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with HgTe nanostructures as the matrix for the detection of single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ss-ODNs and ds-ODNs). The concentrations of surfactant and additives (metal ions, an amine) and the pH and ionic strength of the sample matrix played significantly different roles in the detection of ss- and ds-ODNs with various sequences. In the presence of Brij 76 (1.5 %), Hg2+ (7.5 μM), and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 5.0, this SALDI-MS approach allowed the simultaneous detection of T15, T20, T33, and T40, with limits of detection at the femtomole-to-picomole level and sample-to-sample intensity variation <23 %. In the presence of Ag+ (1 μM) and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 7.0, this technique allowed the detection of randomly sequenced ss- and ds-ODNs at concentrations down to the femtomole level. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of ss-ODNs (up to 50-mer) and ds-ODNs (up to 30 base pairs) through the combination of SALDI-MS with HgTe nanostructures as matrices. We demonstrated the practicality of this approach through analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism that determines the fate of the valine residue in the β-globin of sickle cell megaloblasts.

  5. Identification of the 'Streptococcus anginosus group' by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Woods, Katherine; Beighton, David; Klein, John L

    2014-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) provides rapid, accurate and cost-effective identification of a range of bacteria and is rapidly changing the face of routine diagnostic microbiology. However, certain groups of bacteria, for example streptococci (in particular viridans or non-haemolytic streptococci), are less reliably identified by this method. We studied the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of the 'Streptococcus anginosus group' (SAG) to species level. In total, 116 stored bacteraemia isolates identified by conventional methods as belonging to the SAG were analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supplemented with sialidase activity testing, was performed on all isolates to provide 'gold standard' identification against which to compare MALDI-TOF MS performance. Overall, 100 % of isolates were correctly identified to the genus level and 93.1 % to the species level by MALDI-TOF MS. However, only 77.6 % were correctly identified to the genus level and 59.5 % to the species level by a MALDI-TOF MS direct transfer method alone. Use of a rapid in situ extraction method significantly improved identification rates when compared with the direct transfer method (P<0.001). We recommend routine use of this method to reduce the number of time-consuming full extractions required for identification of this group of bacteria by MALDI-TOF MS in the routine diagnostic laboratory. Only 22 % (1/9) of Streptococcus intermedius isolates were reliably identified by MALDI-TOF MS to the species level, even after full extraction. MALDI-TOF MS reliably identifies S. anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus to the species level but does not reliably identify S. intermedius.

  6. Laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass analysis of perfluoropolyether monolayer directly from hard disk medium surface.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toshiji; Macht, Marcus; Kuroda, Masami

    2011-07-15

    Modern life is dependent on computer technology, and because the volume of digital data in the world is increasing rapidly, the importance of data storage devices is also increasing rapidly. Among them, demands for magnetic disk drive well-known as hard disk drives is quite huge and information recording density on the disk media is continuing to grow dramatically. For the research and development of the magnetic disk media, it is critical to investigate and characterize the lubricant layer formed on the disk media surface. However, it is difficult because the layer is only a monolayer which has only approximately 1 nm thickness in many cases. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) measurements of monolayers have already been reported (Su, J.; Mrksich, M. Langmuir, 2003, 19, 4867-4870), lubricants used here are (co)polymers which have molecular weight distributions and are mixtures of various degrees of polymerization. This can reduce the sensitivity of MS measurement because the number (or density) of distinct single molecular species is lower than for homogeneous samples. In this report, direct measurement and characterization of lubricant monolayers using the LDI-TOF-MS instrument is performed to gain insight into detailed information like average molecular weight, polymer distribution, and two-dimensional mapping directly from magnetic disk monolayers. To our knowledge, this is the first time such information was acquired directly from hard disk media. The technique reported here might open up new possibilities also for investigations of various electronic devices other than magnetic hard disks.

  7. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identifying Clinical Malassezia Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Machouart, Marie; Morio, Florent; Sabou, Marcela; Kauffmann-LaCroix, Catherine; Contet-Audonneau, Nelly; Candolfi, Ermanno; Letscher-Bru, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Malassezia comprises commensal yeasts on human skin. These yeasts are involved in superficial infections but are also isolated in deeper infections, such as fungemia, particularly in certain at-risk patients, such as neonates or patients with parenteral nutrition catheters. Very little is known about Malassezia epidemiology and virulence. This is due mainly to the difficulty of distinguishing species. Currently, species identification is based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Only molecular biology techniques identify species with certainty, but they are time-consuming and expensive. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) database for identifying Malassezia species by mass spectrometry. Eighty-five Malassezia isolates from patients in three French university hospitals were investigated. Each strain was identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Forty-five strains of the six species Malassezia furfur, M. sympodialis, M. slooffiae, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. pachydermatis allowed the creation of a MALDI-TOF database. Forty other strains were used to test this database. All strains were identified by our Malassezia database with log scores of >2.0, according to the manufacturer's criteria. Repeatability and reproducibility tests showed a coefficient of variation of the log score values of <10%. In conclusion, our new Malassezia database allows easy, fast, and reliable identification of Malassezia species. Implementation of this database will contribute to a better, more rapid identification of Malassezia species and will be helpful in gaining a better understanding of their epidemiology. PMID:27795342

  8. Accurate mass fragment library for rapid analysis of pesticides on produce using ambient pressure desorption ionization with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kern, Sara E; Lin, Lora A; Fricke, Frederick L

    2014-08-01

    U.S. food imports have been increasing steadily for decades, intensifying the need for a rapid and sensitive screening technique. A method has been developed that uses foam disks to sample the surface of incoming produce. This work provides complimentary information to the extensive amount of published pesticide fragmentation data collected using LCMS systems (Sack et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6383-6411, 2011; Mol et al. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 403, 2891-2908, 2012). The disks are directly analyzed using transmission-mode direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient pressure desorption ionization coupled to a high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS). In order to provide more certainty in the identification of the pesticides detected, a library of accurate mass fragments and isotopes of the protonated parent molecular ion (the [M+H]⁺) has been developed. The HRAM-MS is equipped with a quadrupole mass filter, providing the capability of "data-dependent" fragmentation, as opposed to "all -ion" fragmentation (where all of the ions enter a collision chamber and are fragmented at once). A temperature gradient for the DART helium stream and multiple collision energies were employed to detect and fragment 164 pesticides of varying chemical classes, sizes, and polarities. The accurate mass information of precursor ([M+H]⁺ ion) and fragment ions is essential in correctly identifying chemical contaminants on the surface of imported produce. Additionally, the inclusion of isotopes of the [M+H]⁺ in the database adds another metric to the confirmation process. The fragmentation data were collected using a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer and were added to a database used to process data collected with an Exactive mass spectrometer, an instrument that is more readily available for this screening application. The commodities investigated range from smooth-skinned produce such as apples to rougher surfaces like broccoli

  9. Accurate Mass Fragment Library for Rapid Analysis of Pesticides on Produce Using Ambient Pressure Desorption Ionization with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Sara E.; Lin, Lora A.; Fricke, Frederick L.

    2014-08-01

    U.S. food imports have been increasing steadily for decades, intensifying the need for a rapid and sensitive screening technique. A method has been developed that uses foam disks to sample the surface of incoming produce. This work provides complimentary information to the extensive amount of published pesticide fragmentation data collected using LCMS systems (Sack et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6383-6411, 2011; Mol et al. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 403, 2891-2908, 2012). The disks are directly analyzed using transmission-mode direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient pressure desorption ionization coupled to a high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS). In order to provide more certainty in the identification of the pesticides detected, a library of accurate mass fragments and isotopes of the protonated parent molecular ion (the [M+H]+) has been developed. The HRAM-MS is equipped with a quadrupole mass filter, providing the capability of "data-dependent" fragmentation, as opposed to "all -ion" fragmentation (where all of the ions enter a collision chamber and are fragmented at once). A temperature gradient for the DART helium stream and multiple collision energies were employed to detect and fragment 164 pesticides of varying chemical classes, sizes, and polarities. The accurate mass information of precursor ([M+H]+ ion) and fragment ions is essential in correctly identifying chemical contaminants on the surface of imported produce. Additionally, the inclusion of isotopes of the [M+H]+ in the database adds another metric to the confirmation process. The fragmentation data were collected using a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer and were added to a database used to process data collected with an Exactive mass spectrometer, an instrument that is more readily available for this screening application. The commodities investigated range from smooth-skinned produce such as apples to rougher surfaces like broccoli. The

  10. Identification and phenotypic characterization of Sphingomonas wittichii strain RW1 by peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Halden, Rolf U; Colquhoun, David R; Wisniewski, Eric S

    2005-05-01

    Mass spectrometry is a potentially attractive means of monitoring the survival and efficacy of bioaugmentation agents, such as the dioxin-mineralizing bacterium Sphingomonas wittichii strain RW1. The biotransformation activity of RW1 phenotypes is determined primarily by the presence and concentration of the dioxin dioxygenase, an enzyme initiating the degradation of both dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (DF). We explored the possibility of identifying and characterizing putative cultures of RW1 by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) targeting this characteristic phenotypic biomarker. The proteome from cells of RW1--grown on various media in the presence and absence of DF--was partially purified, tryptically digested, and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Mascot online database queries allowed statistically significant identification of RW1 in disrupted, digested cells (P < 0.01 to 0.05) and in digested whole-cell extracts (P < 0.00001 to 0.05) containing hundreds of proteins, as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Up to 14 peptide ions of the alpha subunit of the dioxin dioxygenase (43% protein coverage) were detected in individual samples. A minimum of 10(7) DF-grown cells was required to identify dioxin degradation-enabled phenotypes. The technique hinges on the detection of multiple characteristic peptides of a biomarker that can reveal at once the identity and phenotypic properties of the microbial host expressing the protein. The results demonstrate the power of PMF of minimally processed microbial cultures as a sensitive and specific technique for the positive identification and phenotypic characterization of certain microorganisms used in biotechnology and bioremediation.

  11. Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lipids and Metabolites in Tissues by Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Thomas, Mathew; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K.; yang, Pengxiang; Prieto, Mari; Laskin, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of tissue sections is a new frontier in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Here we report on fast 3D imaging of lipids and metabolites associated with mouse uterine decidual cells and embryo at the implantation site on day 6 of pregnancy. 2D imaging of 16-20 serial tissue sections deposited on the same glass slide was performed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) – an ambient ionization technique that enables sensitive localized analysis of analytes on surfaces without special sample pre-treatment. In this proof-of-principle study, nano-DESI was coupled to a high-resolution Q-Exactive instrument operated at high repetition rate of >5 Hz with moderate mass resolution of 35,000 (m/Δm at m/z 200), which enabled acquisition of the entire 3D image with a spatial resolution of ~150 μm in less than 4.5 hours. The results demonstrate localization of acetylcholine in the primary decidual zone (PDZ) of the implantation site throughout the depth of the tissue examined, indicating an important role of this signaling molecule in decidualization. Choline and phosphocholine – metabolites associated with cell growth – are enhanced in the PDZ and abundant in other cellular regions of the implantation site. Very different 3D distributions were obtained for fatty acids (FA), oleic acid and linoleic acid (FA 18:1 and FA 18:2), differing only by one double bond. Localization of FA 18:2 in the PDZ indicates its important role in decidualization while FA 18:1 is distributed more evenly throughout the tissue. In contrast, several lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) observed in this study show donut-like distributions with localization around the PDZ. Complementary distributions with minimal overlap were observed for LPC 18:0 and FA 18:2 while the 3D image of the potential precursor phosphatidylcholine (PC 36:2) showed a significant overlap with both LPC 18:0 and FA 18:2.

  12. Laser desorption 7.87 eV postionization mass spectrometry of antibiotics in Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Gerald L; Carlson, Ross; Akhmetov, Artem; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the development of laser desorption 7.87 eV vacuum UV (VUV) postionization MS to detect antibiotics within intact bacterial colony biofilms. As >99% of the molecules ejected by laser desorption are neutrals, VUV photoionization of these neutrals can provide significantly increased signal as compared to the detection of directly emitted ions. Postionization with VUV radiation from the molecular fluorine laser single photon ionizes laser desorbed neutrals with ionization potentials below the 7.87 eV photon energy. Antibiotics with structures indicative of sub-7.87 eV ionization potentials were examined for their ability to be detected by 7.87 eV laser desorption postionization MS. Tetracycline, sulfadiazine, and novobiocin were successfully detected neat as dried films physisorbed on porous silicon oxide substrates. Tetracycline and sulfadiazine were then detected within intact Staphylococcus epidermidis colony biofilms, the former with LOD in the micromolar concentration range.

  13. In situ probing of cholesterol in astrocytes at the single-cell level using laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric imaging with colloidal silver.

    PubMed

    Perdian, D C; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Yeung, Edward S; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-04-30

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  14. In Situ Probing of Cholesterol in Astrocytes at the Single Cell Level using Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging with Colloidal Silver

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, D.C.; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S.; Yeung, Edward S.; and Lee, Young Jin

    2010-03-18

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  15. Monitoring cleavage of fusion proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry: recombinant HIV-1IIIB p26.

    PubMed

    Parker, C E; Papac, D I; Tomer, K B

    1996-07-15

    Matrix-associated laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS) has been used to examine whole bacteria for the presence of a recombinant HIV p26 fusion protein. MALDI/MS, combined with affinity-purification techniques, is also shown to be very useful in monitoring the enzymatic cleavage of both affinity-bound fusion protein and fusion protein in solution. The combination of mass resolution, sensitivity, and speed of analysis makes MALDI/MS an attractive alternative to SDS-PAGE.

  16. A novel type of matrix for surface-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometric detection of biomolecules using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chien-Ping; Lirio, Stephen; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2015-08-12

    A 3D metal-organic framework (MOF) nanomaterial as matrix for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of complex biomolecules. Unlike other nanoparticle matrices, this MOF nanomaterial does not need chemical modification prior to use. An exceptional signal reproducibility as well as very low background interferences in analyzing mono-/di-saccharides, peptides and complex starch digests demonstrate its high potential for biomolecule assays, especially for small molecules.

  17. Detection of Brucella canis infection in dogs by blood culture and bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Tanya J; Krouse, Donna; Miller, Dawn; Livengood, Julia; Thirumalapura, Nagaraja R; Tewari, Deepanker

    2017-04-01

    Brucella canis was recovered from dogs that were canine brucellosis suspect by blood culture using a modified lysis method. Organism identity was established by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The instrument-provided security library identified the isolates as Brucella species. The isolates were further identified as B. canis with the help of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The mass spectral profiles from characterized B. canis isolates, when added to the MALDI-TOF MS standard reference library, allowed successful presumptive identification of B. canis.

  18. Identification of arsenobetaine in sole, lemon sole, flounder, dab, crab and shrimps by field desorption and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Luten, J.B.; Riekwel-Booy, G.; Greef, M.C.; de Brauw, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    Organo-arsenic has been isolated from sole, lemon sole, flounder, dab, crab and shrimps by extraction or ion-exchange in combination with thin-layer chromatography. An alkaline digestion of the samples, followed by a reduction with sodiumborohydride leads to the formation of trimethylarsine. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) can be used to identify arsenobetaine in the isolates. Sufficient purification by thin-layer chromatography is found to be a prerequisite for the detection of a protonated molecular ion of arsenobetaine. If this situation is not met acid enchanced FDMS or Fast Atom Bombardment mass spectrometry in high resolution can be used successfully.

  19. Characterization of low molecular weight hydrocarbon oligomers by laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a solvent-free sample preparation method.

    PubMed

    Pruns, Julia K; Vietzke, Jens-Peter; Strassner, Manfred; Rapp, Claudius; Hintze, Ulrich; König, Wilfried A

    2002-01-01

    A new solvent-free sample preparation method using silver trifluoroacetate (AgTFA) was developed for the analysis of low molecular weight paraffins and microcrystalline waxes by laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOFMS). Experiments show that spectral quality can be enhanced by dispersing AgTFA directly in liquid paraffins without the use of additional solvents. This preparation mixture is applied directly to the MALDI probe. Solid waxes could be examined by melting prior to analysis. The method also provides sufficiently reproducible spectra that peak area ratios between mono- and bicyclic alkane peaks indicated variations in the cycloalkane content of paraffin samples. Dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons observed during the desorption/ionization process was studied by analysis of alkane standards.

  20. Determination of metformin in mouse, rat, dog and human plasma samples by laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Gallagher, Richard; Peter, Raimund M

    2010-11-02

    A simple, rapid and robust high-throughput assay for the quantitative analysis of metformin in plasma from different species using laser diode thermal desorption interfaced with atmospheric chemical pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MSMS) was developed for use in a pharmaceutical discovery environment. In order to minimize sample preparation a generic protein precipitation method was used to extract metformin from the plasma. Laser diode thermal desorption is a relatively new sample introduction method, the optimization of the instrumental parameters are presented. The method was successfully applied to spiked mouse, rat, dog and human plasma samples and was subsequently used to determine the oral pharmacokinetics of metformin after dosing to male rats in order to support drug discovery projects. The deviations for intra-assay accuracy and precision across the four species were less than 30% at all calibration and quality control levels.

  1. In situ identification of organic components of ink used in books from the 1900s by atmospheric pressure matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurato, Laura; Candura, Andrea; Grasso, Giuseppe; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the use of atmospheric pressure/matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (AP/MALDI-MS) as a spatially resolved analytical technique for the study of organic components of inks used to print coloured parts of ancient books. The possibility to operate at atmospheric pressure makes MALDI-MS a new in situ micro-destructive diagnostic tool suitable for analysing samples in air, simplifying the investigation of the organic components of artistic and archaeological objects. In this work, several organic dyes and pigments were identified in situ by analysing different coloured areas of books printed in the years 1911 and 1920. The detected colouring materials, which were available since the 1890s, were often identified as a mixture, confirming the typical procedures used in the lithographic printing processes. The matrix deposition and the laser desorption process did not cause visible alteration of the sample surface.

  2. Scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (SMALDI) mass spectrometry: instrumentation for sub-micrometer resolved LDI and MALDI surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Bernhard; Hubert, Martin

    2002-06-01

    A new instrument and method is described for laterally resolved mass spectrometric surface analysis. Fields of application are in both the life sciences and the material sciences. The instrument provides for imaging of the distribution of selected sample components from natural and artificial surfaces. Samples are either analyzed by laser desorption ionization (LDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry or, after preparation with a suitable matrix, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Areas of 100 x 100 microm are scanned with minimal increments of 0.25 microm, and between 10,000 and 160,000 mass spectra are acquired per image within 3 to 50 min (scan rate up to 50 pixels per s). The effective lateral resolution is in the range of 0.6 to 1.5 microm depending on sample properties, preparation methods and laser wavelength. Optical investigation of the same sample area by UV confocal scanning laser microscopy was found to be very attractive in combination with scanning MALDI mass analysis because pixel-identical images can be created with both techniques providing for a strong increase in analytical information. This article describes the method and instrumentation, including first applicational examples in elemental analysis, imaging of pine tree roots, and investigation of MALDI sample morphology in biomolecular analysis.

  3. A high-performance matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer with collisional cooling.

    PubMed

    Loboda, A V; Ackloo, S; Chernushevich, I V

    2003-01-01

    A high-performance orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer was developed specifically for use in combination with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source. The MALDI source features an ionization region containing a buffer gas with variable pressure. The source is interfaced to the TOF section via a collisional focusing ion guide. The pressure in the source influences the rate of cooling and allows control of ion fragmentation. The instrument provides uniform resolution up to 18,000 FWHM (full width at half maximum). Mass accuracy routinely achieved with a single-point internal recalibration is below 2 ppm for protein digest samples. The instrument is also capable of recording spectra of samples containing compounds with a broad range of masses while using one set of experimental conditions and without compromising resolution or mass accuracy.

  4. Soft-landing ion mobility of silver clusters for small-molecule matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and imaging of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Walton, Barbara L; Verbeck, Guido F

    2014-08-19

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging is gaining popularity, but matrix effects such as mass spectral interference and damage to the sample limit its applications. Replacing traditional matrices with silver particles capable of equivalent or increased photon energy absorption from the incoming laser has proven to be beneficial for low mass analysis. Not only can silver clusters be advantageous for low mass compound detection, but they can be used for imaging as well. Conventional matrix application methods can obstruct samples, such as fingerprints, rendering them useless after mass analysis. The ability to image latent fingerprints without causing damage to the ridge pattern is important as it allows for further characterization of the print. The application of silver clusters by soft-landing ion mobility allows for enhanced MALDI and preservation of fingerprint integrity.

  5. Ultra high vacuum high precision low background setup with temperature control for thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDA-MS) of hydrogen in metals.

    PubMed

    Merzlikin, Sergiy V; Borodin, S; Vogel, D; Rohwerder, M

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly developed UHV-based high precision low background setup for hydrogen thermal desorption analysis (TDA) of metallic samples is presented. Using an infrared heating with a low thermal capacity enables a precise control of the temperature and rapid cool down of the measurement chamber. This novel TDA-set up is superior in sensitivity to almost every standard hydrogen analyzer available commercially due to the special design of the measurement chamber, resulting in a very low hydrogen background. No effects of background drift characteristic as for carrier gas based TDA instruments were observed, ensuring linearity and reproducibility of the analysis. This setup will prove to be valuable for detailed investigations of hydrogen trapping sites in steels and other alloys. With a determined limit of detection of 5.9×10(-3)µg g(-1) hydrogen the developed instrument is able to determine extremely low hydrogen amounts even at very low hydrogen desorption rates. This work clearly demonstrates the great potential of ultra-high vacuum thermal desorption mass spectroscopy instrumentation.

  6. Measurement of toxic volatile organic compounds in indoor air of semiconductor foundries using multisorbent adsorption/thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hou; Lin, Ming-Nan; Feng, Chien-Tai; Yang, Kuang-Ling; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    2003-05-09

    A method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of class-100 clean rooms at semiconductor fabrication facilities was developed. Air samples from two semiconductor factories were collected each hour on multisorbent tubes (including Carbopack B, Carbopack C, and Carbosieve SIII) with a 24-h automatic active sampling system and analyzed using adsorption/thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Experimental parameters, including thermal desorption temperature, desorption time, and cryofocusing temperature, were optimized. The average recoveries and the method detection limits for the target compounds were in the range 94-101% and 0.31-0.89 ppb, respectively, under the conditions of a 1 L sampling volume and 80% relative humidity. VOCs such as acetone, isopropyl alcohol, 2-heptanone, and toluene, which are commonly used in the semiconductor and electronics industries, were detected and accurately quantified with the established method. Temporal variations of the analyte concentrations observed were attributed to the improper use of organic solvents during operation.

  7. Analysis of the volatile organic matter of engine piston deposits by direct sample introduction thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diaby, M; Kinani, S; Genty, C; Bouchonnet, S; Sablier, M; Le Negrate, A; El Fassi, M

    2009-12-01

    This article establishes an alternative method for the characterization of volatiles organic matter (VOM) contained in deposits of the piston first ring grooves of diesel engines using a ChromatoProbe direct sample introduction (DSI) device coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The addition of an organic solvent during thermal desorption leads to an efficient extraction and a good chromatographic separation of extracted products. The method was optimized investigating the effects of several solvents, the volume added to the solid sample, and temperature programming of the ChromatoProbe DSI device. The best results for thermal desorption were found using toluene as an extraction solvent and heating the programmable temperature injector from room temperature to 300 degrees C with a temperature step of 105 degrees C. With the use of the optimized thermal desorption conditions, several components have been positively identified in the volatile fraction of the deposits: aromatics, antioxidants, and antioxidant degradation products. Moreover, this work highlighted the presence of diesel fuel in the VOM of the piston deposits and gave new facts on the absence of the role of diesel fuel in the deposit formation process. Most importantly, it opens the possibility of quickly performing the analysis of deposits with small amounts of samples while having a good separation of the volatiles.

  8. Depth profiling of inks in authentic and counterfeit banknotes by electrospray laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yi-Ying; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Shiea, Jentaie

    2016-01-01

    Electrospray laser desorption ionization is an ambient ionization technique that generates neutrals via laser desorption and ionizes those neutrals in an electrospray plume and was utilized to characterize inks in different layers of copy paper and banknotes of various currencies. Depth profiling of inks was performed on overlapping color bands on copy paper by repeatedly scanning the line with a pulsed laser beam operated at a fixed energy. The molecules in the ink on a banknote were desorbed by irradiating the banknote surface with a laser beam operated at different energies, with results indicating that different ions were detected at different depths. The analysis of authentic $US100, $100 RMB and $1000 NTD banknotes indicated that ions detected in 'color-shifting' and 'typography' regions were significantly different. Additionally, the abundances of some ions dramatically changed with the depth of the aforementioned regions. This approach was used to distinguish authentic $1000 NTD banknotes from counterfeits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Assessment of Reproducibility of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Bacterial and Yeast Identification.

    PubMed

    Westblade, Lars F; Garner, Omai B; MacDonald, Karen; Bradford, Constance; Pincus, David H; Mochon, A Brian; Jennemann, Rebecca; Manji, Ryhana; Bythrow, Maureen; Lewinski, Michael A; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Ginocchio, Christine C

    2015-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has revolutionized the identification of clinical bacterial and yeast isolates. However, data describing the reproducibility of MALDI-TOF MS for microbial identification are scarce. In this study, we show that MALDI-TOF MS-based microbial identification is highly reproducible and can tolerate numerous variables, including differences in testing environments, instruments, operators, reagent lots, and sample positioning patterns. Finally, we reveal that samples of bacterial and yeast isolates prepared for MALDI-TOF MS identification can be repeatedly analyzed without compromising organism identification.

  10. Analysis of low molecular weight acids by negative mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Rohit; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales

    2007-01-01

    Free 9-aminoacridine base is demonstrated to be a suitable matrix for negative mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOFMS) analysis of a wide range of low molecular weight organic acids including aliphatic (from acetic to palmitic acid), aromatic acids, phytohormones (e.g. jasmonic and salicylic acids), and amino acids. Low limits of quantitation in the femtomolar range (jasmonic - 250 fmol; caffeic - 160 fmol and salicylic - 12.5 fmol) and linear detector response over two concentration orders in the pico- and femtomolar range are extremely encouraging for the direct study of such acids in complex biological matrices.

  11. Synthesis of highly water-dispersible polydopamine-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chenyi; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2013-08-28

    In this work, we synthesized highly water-dispersible multiwalled carbon nanotubes@polydopamine (MWCNTs@PDA) core-shell composites by a facile in situ oxidative polymerization. The composites were successfully applied as a novel matrix for the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of various water-soluble small molecule compounds. It was found that MWCNTs@PDA composites have a higher sensitivity and peak intensities for small molecules detection.

  12. The Characterization of Laser Ablation Patterns and a New Definition of Resolution in Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Matthew B.; Raymond, Benjamin B. A.; Padula, Matthew P.

    2017-03-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a technique that has seen a sharp rise in both use and development. Despite this rapid adoption, there have been few thorough investigations into the actual physical mechanisms that underlie the acquisition of IMS images. We therefore set out to characterize the effect of IMS laser ablation patterns on the surface of a sample. We also concluded that the governing factors that control spatial resolution have not been correctly defined and therefore propose a new definition of resolution.

  13. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Accelerates Pathogen Identification and May Confer Benefit in the Outcome of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Hung; Hwang, Jyh-Chang; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Wu, An-Bang; Yan, Jing-Jou

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and conventional standard methods were compared for time to pathogen identification and impact on clinical outcomes in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis patients. The MALDI-TOF MS method identified the causative microorganisms earlier (average time saved, 64 h for all pathogens), and patients had a shorter hospital stay (mean ± standard deviation, 5.2 ± 4.8 days versus 8.2 ± 4.5 days, P = 0.001). PMID:26912750

  14. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gaibani, Paolo; Galea, Anna; Fagioni, Marco; Ambretti, Simone; Sambri, Vittorio; Landini, Maria Paola

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated a real-time single-peak (11.109-Da) detection assay based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae Our results demonstrated that the 11.109-Da peak was detected in 88.2% of the KPC producers. Analysis of blaKPC-producing K. pneumoniae showed that the gene encoding the 11.109-Da protein was commonly (97.8%) associated with the Tn4401a isoform.

  15. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Anna; Fagioni, Marco; Ambretti, Simone; Sambri, Vittorio; Landini, Maria Paola

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated a real-time single-peak (11.109-Da) detection assay based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae. Our results demonstrated that the 11.109-Da peak was detected in 88.2% of the KPC producers. Analysis of blaKPC-producing K. pneumoniae showed that the gene encoding the 11.109-Da protein was commonly (97.8%) associated with the Tn4401a isoform. PMID:27413192

  16. Measurement of laser activated electron tunneling from semiconductor zinc oxide to adsorbed organic molecules by a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hongying; Fu, Jieying; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Shi

    2012-06-04

    Measurement of light induced heterogeneous electron transfer is important for understanding of fundamental processes involved in chemistry, physics and biology, which is still challenging by current techniques. Laser activated electron tunneling (LAET) from semiconductor metal oxides was observed and characterized by a MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) mass spectrometer in this work. Nanoparticles of ZnO were placed on a MALDI sample plate. Free fatty acids and derivatives were used as models of organic compounds and directly deposited on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Irradiation of UV laser (λ=355 nm) with energy more than the band gap of ZnO produces ions that can be detected in negative mode. When TiO(2) nanoparticles with similar band gap but much lower electron mobility were used, these ions were not observed unless the voltage on the sample plate was increased. The experimental results indicate that laser induced electron tunneling is dependent on the electron mobility and the strength of the electric field. Capture of low energy electrons by charge-deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules causes unpaired electron-directed cleavages of chemical bonds in a nonergodic pathway. In positive detection mode, electron tunneling cannot be observed due to the reverse moving direction of electrons. It should be able to expect that laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is a new technique capable of probing the dynamics of electron tunneling. LAET offers advantages as a new ionization dissociation method for mass spectrometry.

  17. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) of low molecular weight organic compounds and synthetic polymers using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2008-08-01

    We have developed surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with anisotropic shapes (ZnO-SALDI-MS). The mass spectra showed low background noises in the low m/z, i.e. less than 500 u region. Thus, we succeeded in SALDI ionization on low molecular weight organic compounds, such as verapamil hydrochloride, testosterone, and polypropylene glycol (PPG) (average molecular weight 400) without using a liquid matrix or buffers such as citric acids. In addition, we found that ZnO-SALDI has advantages in post-source decay (PSD) analysis and produced a simple mass spectrum for phospholipids. The ZnO-SALDI spectra for synthetic polymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) showed the sensitivity and molecular weight distribution to be comparable to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectra with a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix. ZnO-SALDI shows good performance for synthetic polymers as well as low molecular weight organic compounds.

  18. Matrix-assisted and polymer-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of low molecular weight polystyrenes and polyethylene glycols.

    PubMed

    Woldegiorgis, Andreas; Löwenhielm, Peter; Björk, Anders; Roeraade, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Recently, matrices based on oligomers of dioxin and thiophene (polymer-assisted laser desorption/ionization (PALDI)) have been described for mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of low molecular weight compounds (Woldegiorgis A, von Kieseritzky F, Dahlstedt E, Hellberg J, Brinck T, Roeraade J. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2004; 18: 841-852). In this paper, we report the use of PALDI matrices for low molecular weight polymers. An evaluation with polystyrene and polyethylene glycol showed that no charge transfer ionization occurs. Ionization is mediated through metal ion adduction. Comparison of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) data for two very low molecular weight polymers with data obtained from size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) revealed a systematic difference regarding mean molecular weight and dispersity. Further, the mass spectra obtained with PALDI matrices had a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the spectra obtained with conventional matrices. For polymers with higher molecular weights (>1500 Da), the conventional matrices gave better performance. For evaluation of the MALDI spectra, three non-linear mathematical models were evaluated to model the cumulative distributions of the different oligomers and their maximal values of Mw, Mn and PDI. Models based on sigmoidal or Boltzmann equations proved to be most suitable. Objective modeling tools are necessary to compare different sample and instrumental conditions during method optimization of MALDI analysis of polymers, since the bias between MALDI and SEC data can be misleading.

  19. On-Tissue Derivatization via Electrospray Deposition for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Endogenous Fatty Acids in Rat Brain Tissues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is used for the multiplex detection and characterization of diverse analytes over a wide mass range directly from tissues. However, analyte coverage with MALDI MSI is typically limited to the more abundant compounds, which have m/z values that are distinct from MALDI matrix-related ions. On-tissue analyte derivatization addresses these issues by selectively tagging functional groups specific to a class of analytes, while simultaneously changing their molecular masses and improving their desorption and ionization efficiency. We evaluated electrospray deposition of liquid-phase derivatization agents as a means of on-tissue analyte derivatization using 2-picolylamine; we were able to detect a range of endogenous fatty acids with MALDI MSI. When compared with airbrush application, electrospray led to a 3-fold improvement in detection limits and decreased analyte delocalization. Six fatty acids were detected and visualized from rat cerebrum tissue using a MALDI MSI instrument operating in positive mode. MALDI MSI of the hippocampal area allowed targeted fatty acid analysis of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and the CA1 pyramidal layer with a 20-μm pixel width, without degrading the localization of other lipids during liquid-phase analyte derivatization. PMID:27181709

  20. Nanoporous GaN-Ag composite materials prepared by metal-assisted electroless etching for direct laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Bei; Duan, Barrett K; Bohn, Paul W

    2013-07-10

    Three-dimensional nanoporous gallium nitride(PGaN) produced by metal-assisted electroless etching is chemically embedded with silver nanoparticles via electroless deposition, forming a metallized semiconductor membrane with large surface area and nanoscale metal features. A new application utilizing the unique chemical and morphological features of these composite nanostructures is described here, laser induced desorption-ionization(LDI) of biomolecules(e.g., cholesterol and nucleotides) for direct mass analysis, without use of additional organic matrix. Although PGaN itself is a poor matrix for direct LDI mass spectrometry, the combination of Ag and PGaN greatly improves ion signals relative to PGaN or Ag nanostructure surfaces alone. This behavior is attributed to the combination of strong UV absorption, enhanced surface area, and favorable thermal properties of PGaN. Importantly, Ag-PGaN is shown to facilitate the formation of Ag adduct ions in some cases, for example adenine, where adducts are not observed from either porous anodic aluminum membranes or surfaces presenting Ag nanoparticles in isolation. Nanopore-embedded Ag nanostructures serve a dual role: as cationization agents and to assist thermal desorption under UV laser irradiation. The results reported here suggest that the combination of Ag nanostructures embedded in PGaN has the capacity for high quality matrix-free LDI mass analysis.

  1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a new tool in diagnostic investigation of nail disorders?

    PubMed

    Pföhler, Claudia; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Heinzle, Elmar; Altmeyer, Wolfgang; Graeber, Stefan; Müller, Cornelia S L; Stark, Alexandra; Jager, Sven Uwe; Tilgen, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of onychomycosis are rising worldwide. Common diagnostic techniques often lack sensitivity or specificity. Differentiation between non-infectious nail disorders is frequently not possible. The aim of this study was to establish a better diagnostic routine procedure based on modern mass spectrometric peptide analysis techniques. One hundred and fifty-five nail samples from 145 patients with clinically suspected onychomycosis (n = 96, 62%) and without onychomycosis [e.g. nail psoriasis or nail dystrophy resulting from eczema (n = 59, 38%)] were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) peptide mass fingerprinting in comparison with standard techniques. We demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS represents a precise, robust and fast tool in diagnostic investigation of nail disorders, which is superior to common standard methods.

  2. Signal enhancement in electrospray laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry by using a black oxide-coated metal target and a relatively low laser fluence.

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, Alexey; Huang, Min-Zong; Popov, Igor; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kukaev, Evgeny; Boldyrev, Alexey; Spasskiy, Alexander; Leypunskiy, Ilya; Shiea, Jentaie; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    The electrospray Laser desorption/ionization (ELDI) method is actively used for direct sample analysis and ambient mass spectrometry imaging. The optimizing of Laser desorption conditions is essential for this technology. In this work, we propose using a metal target with a black oxide (Fe3O4) coating to increase the signal in ELDI-MS for peptides and small proteins. The experiments were performed on an LTQ-FT mass spectrometer equipped with a home-made ELDI ion source. A cutter blade with black oxide coating was used as a target. A nitrogen laser was used with the following parameters: 337 nm, pulse duration 4ns, repetition rate 10 Hz, fluence to approximately 700 Jm(-2). More than a five times signal increase was observed for a substance P peptide when a coated and a non-coated metal target were compared. No ion signal was observed for proteins if the same fluence and the standard stainless steel target were used. With the assistance of the Fe3O4 coated metal target and a relatively low laser fluence < or =700 Jm(-2)), proteins such as insulin, ubiquitin and myoglobin were successfully ionized. It was demonstrated that the Fe3O4-coated metal target can be used efficiently to assist laser desorption and thus significantly increase the analyte signal in ELDI-MS. A relatively low laser fluence (< or = 700 Jm(-2)) was enough to desorb peptides and proteins (up to 17 kDal with the assistance of the Fe3O4-coated metal target under ambient conditions.

  3. Applications of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer. l. Metastable decay and collision-induced dissociation for sequencing peptides.

    PubMed

    Ackloo, Suzanne; Loboda, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The use of a high-performance orthogonal time-of-flight (o-TOF) mass spectrometer for sequence analysis is described. The mass spectrometer is equipped with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source that operates at elevated pressure, 0.01-1 Torr. Ion fragmentation is controlled by varying the pressure of the buffer gas, the laser energy, the voltage difference between the MALDI target and the adjacent sampling cone, and between the cone and the quadrupole ion guide. The peptides were analyzed under optimal ionization conditions to obtain their molecular mass, and under conditions that promote ion dissociation via metastable decomposition or collision-induced dissociation (CID). The fragmentation spectra were used to obtain sequence information. Ion dissociation was promoted via three configurations of the ionization parameters. All methods yielded sequencing-grade b- and y-type ions. Two binary mixtures of peptides were used to demonstrate that: (1) external calibration provides a standard deviation (sigma) of 4 ppm with a mode of 9 ppm; and (2) that peptides with molecular masses that differ by a factor of two may be independently fragmented by appropriately choosing the CID energy and the low-mass cut-off. Analyses of tryptic digests employed liquid chromatography (LC), deposition of the eluant on a target, and finally MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The mass fingerprint and the (partial) sequence of the tryptic peptides were matched to their precursor protein via database searches.

  4. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) coupled to XAD fractionation: Method to algal organic matter characterization.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Rudy; Leloup, Maud; Lachassagne, Delphine; Pinault, Emilie; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the development of an analytical procedure for the improvement of the Organic Matter structure characterization, particularly the algal matter. Two fractions of algal organic matter from laboratory cultures of algae (Euglena gracilis) and cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were extracted with XAD resins. The fractions were studied using laser desorption ionization (LDI) and Matrix-Assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). A comparison with the natural organic matter characteristics from commercial humic acids and fulvic acids extracted from Suwannee River was performed. Results show that algal and natural organic matters have unique quasi-polymeric structures. Significant repeating patterns were identified. Different fractions extracted from organic matter with common origin had common structures. Thus, 44, 114 and 169Da peaks separation for fractions from E. gracilis organic matter and 28, 58 and 100Da for M. aeruginosa ones were clearly observed. Using the developed protocol, a structural scheme and organic matter composition were obtained. The range 600-2000Da contained more architectural composition differences than the range 100-600Da, suggesting that organic matter is composed of an assembly of common small molecules. Associated to specific monomers, particular patterns were common to all samples but assembly and resulting structure were unique for each organic matter. Thus, XAD fractionation coupled to mass spectroscopy allowed determining a specific fingerprint for each organic matter.

  5. Matrix-free and material-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Matthias; Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Bonn, Günther Karl

    2011-06-01

    The application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds, such as pharmacologically active constituents or metabolites, is usually hampered by employing conventional MALDI matrices owing to interferences caused by matrix molecules below 700 Da. As a consequence, interpretation of mass spectra remains challenging, although matrix suppression can be achieved under certain conditions. Unlike the conventional MALDI methods which usually suffer from background signals, matrix-free techniques have become more and more popular for the analysis of LMW compounds. In this review we describe recently introduced materials for laser desorption/ionization (LDI) as alternatives to conventionally applied MALDI matrices. In particular, we want to highlight a new method for LDI which is referred to as matrix-free material-enhanced LDI (MELDI). In matrix-free MELDI it could be clearly shown, that besides chemical functionalities, the material's morphology plays a crucial role regarding energy-transfer capabilities. Therefore, it is of great interest to also investigate parameters such as particle size and porosity to study their impact on the LDI process. Especially nanomaterials such as diamond-like carbon, C(60) fullerenes and nanoparticulate silica beads were found to be excellent energy-absorbing materials in matrix-free MELDI.

  6. System and method of infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in polyacrylamide gels

    DOEpatents

    Haglund, Jr., Richard F.; Ermer, David R.; Baltz-Knorr, Michelle Lee

    2004-11-30

    A system and method for desorption and ionization of analytes in an ablation medium. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of preparing a sample having analytes in a medium including at least one component, freezing the sample at a sufficiently low temperature so that at least part of the sample has a phase transition, and irradiating the frozen sample with short-pulse radiation to cause medium ablation and desorption and ionization of the analytes. The method further includes the steps of selecting a resonant vibrational mode of at least one component of the medium and selecting an energy source tuned to emit radiation substantially at the wavelength of the selected resonant vibrational mode. The medium is an electrophoresis medium having polyacrylamide. In one embodiment, the energy source is a laser, where the laser can be a free electron laser tunable to generate short-pulse radiation. Alternatively, the laser can be a solid state laser tunable to generate short-pulse radiation. The laser can emit light at various ranges of wavelength.

  7. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle surfaces for the detection of low molecular weight biomolecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marsico, Alyssa L M; Creran, Brian; Duncan, Bradley; Elci, S Gokhan; Jiang, Ying; Onasch, Timothy B; Wormhoudt, Joda; Rotello, Vincent M; Vachet, Richard W

    2015-11-01

    Effective detection of low molecular weight compounds in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often hindered by matrix interferences in the low m/z region of the mass spectrum. Here, we show that monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can serve as alternate matrices for the very sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds such as amino acids. Amino acids can be detected at low fmol levels with minimal interferences by properly choosing the AuNP deposition method, density, size, and monolayer surface chemistry. By inkjet-printing AuNPs at various densities, we find that AuNP clusters are essential for obtaining the greatest sensitivity. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Determination of trichloroanisole and trichlorophenol in wineries' ambient air by passive sampling and thermal desorption-gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Bermúdez-Peinado, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ruíz-García, J; Vílchez-Quero, J L

    2015-02-06

    The present paper describes the calibration of selected passive samplers used in the quantitation of trichlorophenol and trichloroanisole in wineries' ambient air, by calculating the corresponding sampling rates. The method is based on passive sampling with sorbent tubes and involves thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis. Three commercially available sorbents were tested using sampling cartridges with a radial design instead of axial ones. The best results were found for Tenax TA™. Sampling rates (R-values) for the selected sorbents were determined. Passive sampling was also used for accurately determining the amount of compounds present in the air. Adequate correlation coefficients between the mass of the target analytes and exposure time were obtained. The proposed validated method is a useful tool for the early detection of trichloroanisole and its precursor trichlorophenol in wineries' ambient air while avoiding contamination of wine or winery facilities.

  9. Detection of in-situ derivatized peptides in microbial biofilms by laser desorption 7.87 eV postionizaton mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Edirisinghe, P. D.; Moore, J. F.; Skinner-Nemec, K. A.; Lindberg, C.; Giometti, C. S.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Hunt, J. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Hanley, L.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; MassThink

    2007-01-01

    A novel analytical method based on laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) was developed to investigate the competence and sporulation factor-a pentapeptide of amino acid sequence ERGMT-within intact Bacillus subtilis biofilms. Derivatization of the neat ERGMT peptide with quinoline- and anthracene-based tags was separately used to lower the peptide ionization potential and permit direct ionization by 7.87-eV vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The techniques of mass shifting and selective ionization of the derivatized peptide were combined here to permit detection of ERGMT peptide within intact biofilms by LDPI-MS, without any prior extraction or chromatographic separation. Finally, imaging MS specific to the derivatized peptide was demonstrated on an intact biofilm using LDPI-MS. The presence of ERGMT in the biofilms was verified by bulk extraction/LC-MS. However, MALDI imaging MS analyses were unable to detect ERGMT within intact biofilms.

  10. Evaluation of laser desorption mass spectrometry and UV accelerated aging of dyes on paper as tools for the evaluation of a questioned document.

    PubMed

    Grim, Donzna M; Siegel, Jay; Allison, John

    2002-11-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) may be used for the detection and identification of dyes found in inks. Naturally-aged and artificially-aged blue and black ballpoint pen inks containing the cationic dye methyl violet were analyzed on paper. The average molecular weight of the dye sample was calculated from LD mass spectral data and plotted versus time. The resulting aging curves demonstrate that, as dye degradation increases, the average molecular weight of the dye decreases. Typical variables involved in ink aging, such as the type of paper and ink formulation, were investigated. Results show that these variables influence the rate of dye degradation. Furthermore, UV accelerated aging has been developed and tested as an alternative to thermal approaches.

  11. Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (UV-MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of N-acylated and N,O-acylated glycosylamines.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuto; Fukuyama, Yuko; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A; Cerezo, Alberto S; Matulewicz, María C

    2007-12-10

    Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF-MS) has shown to be a very useful technique for the study of the non-volatile and thermally non-stable N-acylated glycopyranosyl- and glycofuranosyl-amines. Of the several matrices tested, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was the most effective giving good spectra in the positive-ion mode. In the linear and reflectron modes, the [M+Na](+) ions appeared with high intensity. Their fragmentation patterns were investigated by post-source decay (PSD) UV-MALDI-TOF-MS showing mainly cross-ring cleavages. In addition, N,O-acylated glycopyranosyl- and glycofuranosyl-amines were also analyzed by this technique. PSD UV-MALDI-TOF-MS gave significant signals for several primary fragment ions, which were proposed but not detected, or observed with very low abundance, in electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) experiments.

  12. Coupling of nanoflow liquid chromatography to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: real-time liquid chromatography run mapping on a MALDI plate.

    PubMed

    Nägele, Edgar; Vollmer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The major obstacle in the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) instruments in the analysis of complex proteome samples is the lack of a direct coupling of a highly resolving separation technique with the mass spectrometer itself. To overcome this drawback, a spotting device for capillary and nanoflow liquid chromatography (LC) with a special liquid deposition principle for lowest volumes was developed. The instrument is able to perform MALDI spotting in real time in order to deposit the LC run on the MALDI plate, and therefore couples the high resolution power of nano-RP-HPLC separation directly with MALDI-MS. This work describes the development and optimization of a method for spotting with online matrix addition, and illustrates its use in the analysis of a complex proteome sample.

  13. Analysis of cancer cell lipids using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization 15-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyo-Jik; Park, Kyu Hwan; Lim, Dong Wan; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, Jeongkwon

    2012-03-30

    A combination of methodologies using the extremely high mass accuracy and resolution of 15-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) was introduced for the identification of intact cancer cell phospholipids. Lipids from a malignant glioma cell line were initially analyzed at a resolution of >200,000 and identified by setting the mass tolerance to ±1 mDa using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) 15-T FT-ICR MS in positive ion mode. In most cases, a database search of potential lipid candidates using the exact masses of the lipids yielded only one possible chemical composition. Extremely high mass accuracy (<0.1 ppm) was then attained by using previously identified lipids as internal standards. This, combined with an extremely high resolution (>800,000), yielded well-resolved isotopic fine structures allowing for the identification of lipids by MALDI 15-T FT-ICR MS without using tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. Using this method, a total of 38 unique lipids were successfully identified.

  14. Analysis of Antiretrovirals in Single Hair Strands for Evaluation of Drug Adherence with Infrared-Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Elias P; Thompson, Corbin G; Bokhart, Mark T; Prince, Heather M A; Sykes, Craig; Muddiman, David C; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2016-01-19

    Adherence to a drug regimen can be a strong predictor of health outcomes, and validated measures of adherence are necessary at all stages of therapy from drug development to prescription. Many of the existing metrics of drug adherence (e.g., self-report, pill counts, blood monitoring) have limitations, and analysis of hair strands has recently emerged as an objective alternative. Traditional methods of hair analysis based on LC-MS/MS (segmenting strands at ≥1 cm length) are not capable of preserving a temporal record of drug intake at higher resolution than approximately 1 month. Here, we evaluated the detectability of HIV antiretrovirals (ARVs) in hair from a range of drug classes using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with 100 μm resolution. Infrared laser desorption of hair strands was shown to penetrate into the strand cortex, allowing direct measurement by MSI without analyte extraction. Using optimized desorption conditions, a linear correlation between IR-MALDESI ion abundance and LC-MS/MS response was observed for six common ARVs with estimated limits of detection less than or equal to 1.6 ng/mg hair. The distribution of efavirenz (EFV) was then monitored in a series of hair strands collected from HIV infected, virologically suppressed patients. Because of the role hair melanin plays in accumulation of basic drugs (like most ARVs), an MSI method to quantify the melanin biomarker pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) was evaluated as a means of normalizing drug response between patients to develop broadly applicable adherence criteria.

  15. Development of stir-bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of musks in vegetables and amended soils.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Josu; Bizkarguenaga, Ekhiñe; Iparraguirre, Arantza; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Zuloaga, Olatz; Prieto, Ailette

    2014-02-17

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and environment-friendly method based on stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) to determine 8 synthetic musks (musk ambrette, musk ketone, celestolide, tonalide, galaxolide, phantolide, traseolide, and cashmeran) in vegetables (lettuce, carrot, and pepper) and amended soil samples. In a first step sorptive extraction was studied both in the headspace (HSSE) and in the immerse mode (SBSE). The best results were obtained in the immersion mode which was further studied. The influence of the main factors: methanol (20%) and NaCl addition (0%), extraction temperature (40°C) and time (180 min), extraction solvent volume (9 mL) and stirring rate (600 rpm) on the efficiency of SBSE was evaluated by means of experimental designs. In the case of TD, desorption time (10 min), desorption temperature (300°C), cryo-focusing temperature (-30°C), vent flow (75 mL/min) and vent pressure (7.2 psi) were studied using both a fractioned factorial design and a central composite design (CCD). The method was validated in terms of apparent recoveries (AR%), method detection limits (MDLs) and precision at two different concentration levels. Although quantification using instrumental calibration rendered odd results in most of the cases, satisfactory recoveries (74-126%) were obtained in the case of matrix-matched calibration approach for all of the analytes and matrices studied at the two concentration levels evaluated. MDLs in the range of 0.01-0.8 ng/g and 0.01-1.1 ng/g were obtained for vegetables and amended soil samples, respectively. RSD values within 1-23% were obtained for all the analytes and matrices. Finally, the method was applied to the determination of musks in vegetable and amended soil samples.

  16. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry interlaboratory comparison of mixtures of polystyrene with different end groups: statistical analysis of mass fractions and mass moments.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Charles M; Wetzel, Stephanie J; Flynn, Kathleen M; Fanconi, Bruno M; VanderHart, David L; Wallace, William E

    2005-07-15

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) interlaboratory comparison was conducted on mixtures of synthetic polymers having the same repeat unit and closely matching molecular mass distributions but with different end groups. The interlaboratory comparison was designed to see how well the results from a group of experienced laboratories would agree on the mass fraction, and molecular mass distribution, of each polymer in a series of binary mixtures. Polystyrenes of a molecular mass near 9000 u were used. Both polystyrenes were initiated with the same butyl initiator; however, one was terminated with -H (termed PSH) and the other was terminated with -CH2CH2OH (termed PSOH). End group composition of the individual polymers was checked by MALDI-TOF MS and by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Five mixtures were created gravimetrically with mass ratios between 95:5 and 10:90 PSOH/PSH. Mixture compositions where measured by NMR and by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). NMR and FT-IR were used to benchmark the performance of these methods in comparison to MALDI-TOF MS. Samples of these mixtures were sent to any institution requesting it. A total of 14 institutions participated. Analysis of variance was used to examine the influences of the independent parameters (participating laboratory, MALDI matrix, instrument manufacturer, TOF mass separation mode) on the measured mass fractions and molecular mass distributions for each polymer in each mixture. Two parameters, participating laboratory and instrument manufacturer, were determined to have a statistically significant influence. MALDI matrix and TOF mass separation mode (linear or reflectron) were found not to have a significant influence. Improper mass calibration, inadequate instrument optimization with respect to high signal-to-noise ratio across the entire mass range, and poor data analysis methods (e.g., baseline subtraction and peak integration

  17. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue-specific metabolites, including free flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and saponins, were successfully detected and visualized in images, showing their distributions at the cellular level. The analytical power of the technique was tested in the imaging of two isobaric licorice saponins with a mass difference of only 0.02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent MS/MS imaging experiment, thereby confirming their identities and excluding possible analyte interference. The use of high spatial resolution, high mass resolution and tandem mass spectrometry in imaging experiments provides significant information about the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues.

  18. Selective identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of different types of gluten in foods made with cereal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Camafeita, E; Solís, J; Alfonso, P; López, J A; Sorell, L; Méndez, E

    1998-10-09

    The gluten toxic fractions responsible for the mucosal damage in coeliac disease (CD), so-called gliadins, hordeins, secalins and avenins from a large number (30-40) of wheat, barley, rye and oats cultivars respectively, have been mass analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Gliadin, secalin and avenin characteristic mass profiles are nearly identical amongst distinct cultivars from the corresponding cereal, while hordeins profiles show more variability depending on the particular barley cultivar. On the basis of these four distinguishable characteristic mass patterns spreading within the 20,000-40,000 Da range, MALDI-TOF-MS has permitted the direct and simultaneous visualization of gliadins, hordeins, secalins and avenins in foods elaborated with cereal mixtures of wheat, barley, rye and oats. This capacity has been demonstrated by mass analyzing foods made with these four cereals in varying ratios. Thus MALDI-TOF-MS can be preliminarily established as a unique system with the ability to discriminate the specific type of gluten toxic fractions present in food samples.

  19. Determination of polyethylene glycol end group functionalities by combination of selective reactions and characterization by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boyu; Zhang, Hong; Myers, Brittany K; Elupula, Ravinder; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Grayson, Scott M

    2014-03-13

    End groups play a critical role in macromolecular coupling reactions for building complex polymer architectures, yet their identity and purity can be difficult to ascertain using traditional analytical technique. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have made matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry a rapid and powerful tool for providing detailed information about the identity and purity of homopolymer end groups. In this work, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to study end groups of linear polyethylene glycols. In particular, the identifications of alcohol, amine and thiol end groups are investigated because these nucleophilic moieties are among the most common within biological and synthetic macromolecules. Through comparative characterization of alcohol, amine, and thiol end groups, the exact identification of these end groups could be confirmed by selective and quantitative modification. The precision of this technique enables the unambiguous differentiation of primary amino groups relative to hydroxyl groups, which differ by only 1 mass unit. In addition, the quantitative conversion of various polyethylene glycol end groups using highly efficient coupling reactions such as the thiol-ene and azide-alkyne click reactions can be confirmed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

  20. Calibration laws based on multiple linear regression applied to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Williams, D Keith; Chadwick, M Ashley; Williams, Taufika Islam; Muddiman, David C

    2008-12-01

    Operation of any mass spectrometer requires implementation of mass calibration laws to translate experimentally measured physical quantities into a m/z range. While internal calibration in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) offers several attractive features, including exposure of calibrant and analyte ions to identical experimental conditions (e.g. space charge), external calibration affords simpler pulse sequences and higher throughput. The automatic gain control method used in hybrid linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) FT-ICR-MS to consistently obtain the same ion population is not readily amenable to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) FT-ICR-MS, due to the heterogeneous nature and poor spot-to-spot reproducibility of MALDI. This can be compensated for by taking external calibration laws into account that consider magnetic and electric fields, as well as relative and total ion abundances. Herein, an evaluation of external mass calibration laws applied to MALDI-FT-ICR-MS is performed to achieve higher mass measurement accuracy (MMA).

  1. Positive and negative-mode laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) for the detection of indigoids in archaeological purple.

    PubMed

    Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2013-03-01

    Laser-based ionization techniques have demonstrated to be a valuable analytical tool to study organic pigments by mass spectrometric analyses. Though laser-based ionization techniques have identified several natural and synthetic organic dyes and pigments, they have never been used in the characterization of purple. In this work, positive and negative-mode laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) was used for the first time to detect indigoids in shellfish purple. The method was used to study organic residues collected from archaeological ceramic fragments that were known to contain purple, as determined by a classical high-performance liquid chromatography-based procedure. LDI-MS provides a mass spectral fingerprint of shellfish purple, and it was found to be a rapid and successful tool for the identification of purple. In addition, a comparison between positive and negative mode ionization highlighted the complementarity of the two ionization modes. On the one hand, the negative-ion mode LDI-MS showed a better selectivity and sensitivity to brominated molecules, such as 6,6'-dibromoindigo, 6-monobromoindigo, 6,6'-dibromoindirubin, 6- and 6'-monobromoindirubin, thanks to their electronegativity, and produced simpler mass spectra. On the other hand, negative-ion mode LDI-MS was found to have a lower sensitivity to non-brominated compounds, such as indigo and indirubin, whose presence can be established in any case by collecting the complementary positive-ion LDI mass spectrum.

  2. Optimization of a Dynamic Headspace-Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry procedure for the determination of furfurals in vinegars.

    PubMed

    Manzini, Simona; Durante, Caterina; Baschieri, Carlo; Cocchi, Marina; Sighinolfi, Simona; Totaro, Sara; Marchetti, Andrea

    2011-08-15

    The use of a Dynamic Headspace System (DHS) device combined with a Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) interfaced to a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) system is proposed for the determination of furfurals in oenological products. An experimental design protocol has been employed for the optimization of the instrumental settings concerning DHS and TDU extraction and desorption steps. It has been possible to individuate the following optimized conditions: incubation temperature 40°C, purge volume 800 mL, dry volume 1500 mL, TDU hold time 5 min and incubation time 10 min. The performance of two different SPE sorbents, namely Tenax TA and Tenax GR used for the furfurals trapping, was investigated too. The developed DHS sampling procedure showed good reproducibility values with a RSD% lower than 10% for all the monitored species. The optimized experimental settings have been used to determine furfurals in several vinegar samples obtained by traditional procedure starting from cooked grape musts, i.e. in Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena (ABTM). In fact, the control of these species is extremely important for quality and safety issues.

  3. Model verification of thermal programmed desorption-mass spectrometry for estimation of release energy values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on mineral sorbents.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Sara I; Talley, Jeffrey W; Silliman, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The physical availability of organic compounds in soil and sediment strongly influences their bioavailability and toxicity. Previous work has indicated that physical availability changes throughout the processes of aging and treatment and that it can be linked to the energy required to release the compound from its sorbent matrix, with a higher energy indicating a more tightly bound compound. This study focused on determining release energy values for various mineral geosorbents (glass beads, sand, and kaolin) contaminated with a 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixture. The sorbents were analyzed using thermal program desorption/mass spectrometry (TPD/MS) and the release energy values were calculated from the resulting thermograms utilizing a nonlinear fit of the analytical solution to a simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation. This solution method resulted in a series of combinations of values for the pre-exponential factor (v) and release energy (E) that produced desorption rate curves with similar errors when fit to actual data sets. These combinations can be viewed as an error surface, which clearly shows a valley of minimum error values spanning the range of both E and v. This indicates that this method may not provide a unique set of E- and v-values and suggests that the simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation cannot be used to determine release energy based on TPD data alone.

  4. Determination of volatile organic compounds in urban and industrial air from Tarragona by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ras-Mallorquí, Maria Rosa; Marcé-Recasens, Rosa Maria; Borrull-Ballarín, Francesc

    2007-05-15

    This study describes the optimisation of an analytical method to determine 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air samples by active collection on multisorbent tubes, followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two multisorbent beds, Carbograph 1/Carboxen 1000 and Tenax/Carbograph 1TD, were tested. The latter gave better results, mainly in terms of the peaks that appeared in blank chromatograms. Temperatures, times and flow desorption were optimised. Recoveries were higher than 98.9%, except methylene dichloride, for which the recovery was 74.9%. The method's detection limits were between 0.01 and 1.25mugm(-3) for a volume sample of 1200ml, and the repeatability on analysis of 100ng of VOCs, expressed as relative standard deviation for n=3, was lower than 4% for all compounds. Urban and industrial air samples from the Tarragona region were analysed. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) were found to be the most abundant VOCs in urban air. Total VOCs in urban samples ranged between 18 and 307mugm(-3). Methylene chloride, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform and styrene were the most abundant VOCs in industrial samples, and total VOCs ranged between 19 and 85mugm(-3).

  5. Progress toward the Quantitative Analysis of PAHs Adsorbed on Soot by Laser Desorption/Laser Ionization/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Faccinetto, Alessandro; Focsa, Cristian; Desgroux, Pascale; Ziskind, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Ex situ analyses of substances extracted from flames provide useful albeit mostly qualitative information on the formation process of soot and on the impact of exhausts on the environment. An experimental setup based on the coupling of laser desorption, laser ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD/LI/ToF-MS) is presented in past works as an alternative means to more traditional techniques like gas chromatography (GC) to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of soot. In this paper, we go one step further in the understanding of the laser desorption/laser ionization dynamics and propose a combined experimental/simulation approach: we estimate the limit of detection of LD/LI/ToF-MS as low as [0.2, 2.8] fmol per laser pulse and we make quantitative predictions on the concentration of PAHs desorbed from soot. In particular, external calibration with model samples where PAHs are adsorbed on black carbon at known concentrations allows us to link the concentration of PAHs desorbed and detected by photoionization ToF-MS to the concentration of PAHs adsorbed on soot. The comparison of data obtained from the analysis of flame sampled soot with standard commercial GC-MS run in parallel validates the approach and defines limits and potentialities of both techniques.

  6. Analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor suspended particulate matter by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Fabien; Glorennec, Philippe; Blanchard, Olivier; Le Bot, Barbara

    2012-09-07

    People are exposed to multiple pollutants, especially indoors. In the perspective of a cumulative risk assessment, a multi-residue analytical method was developed to assess the contamination of indoor suspended particulate matter by 55 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) including musk fragrances, organochlorines (OCs), organophosphates (OPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), phthalates and pyrethroids. It is based on thermal desorption (TD) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Once the thermal desorption conditions were optimized, the method was validated in terms of quantification limits and accuracy using a standard reference material (SRM 2585). Instrumental quantification limits were 10 pg (some OCs, some pyrethroids, musk fragrances, OPs, PAHs, PBDEs and PCBs), 100 pg (phthalates and other OCs) and 1000 pg (other pyrethroids) corresponding respectively to method quantification limits of 1, 10, and 100 pg/m³ for a sampled air volume of 20 m³. Calibration quadratic curves for ranges of 10-1000, 100-10,000, and 1000-100,000 pg, depending on the substance, exhibit determination coefficients above 0.999. Recoveries were between 61 and 96% for chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, PBDEs and PCBs present in the SRM 2585. A test of the method on indoor particulate matter samples (PM₁₀) collected on quartz fiber filters in French dwellings demonstrated its ability to quantify SVOCs from a small amount of PM.

  7. Application of an automatic thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Gil-Moltó, J; Varea, M; Galindo, N; Crespo, J

    2009-02-27

    The application of the thermal desorption (TD) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to the analysis of aerosol organics has been the focus of many studies in recent years. This technique overcomes the main drawbacks of the solvent extraction approach such as the use of large amounts of toxic organic solvents and long and laborious extraction processes. In this work, the application of an automatic TD-GC-MS instrument for the determination of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is evaluated. This device offers the advantage of allowing the analysis of either gaseous or particulate organics without any modification. Once the thermal desorption conditions for PAH extraction were optimised, the method was verified on NIST standard reference material (SRM) 1649a urban dust, showing good linearity, reproducibility and accuracy for all target PAHs. The method has been applied to PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected on quartz fibre filters with low volume samplers, demonstrating its capability to quantify PAHs when only a small amount of sample is available.

  8. Direct Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Plant Leaves Using Surface-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization with Sputter-deposited Platinum Film.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Osaka, Issey; Hamada, Satoshi; Murakami, Tatsuya; Miyazato, Akio; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaves administered with systemic insecticides as agricultural chemicals were analyzed using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is inadequate for the detection of insecticides on leaves because of the charge-up effect that occurs on the non-conductive surface of the leaves. In this study, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a sputter-deposited platinum film (Pt-SALDI) was used for direct analysis of chemicals in plant leaves. Sputter-deposited platinum (Pt) films were prepared on leaves administered with the insecticides. A sputter-deposited Pt film with porous structure was used as the matrix for Pt-SALDI. Acephate and acetamiprid contained in the insecticides on the leaves could be detected using Pt-SALDI-MS, but these chemical components could not be adequately detected using MALDI-MS because of the charge-up effect. Enhancement of ion yields for the insecticides was achieved using Pt-SALDI, accompanied by prevention of the charge-up effect by the conductive Pt film. The movement of systemic insecticides in plants could be observed clearly using Pt-SALDI-IMS. The distribution and movement of components of systemic insecticides on leaves could be analyzed directly using Pt-SALDI-IMS. Additionally, changes in the properties of the chemicals with time, as an indicator of the permeability of the insecticides, could be evaluated.

  9. Rapid metabolic profiling of Nicotiana tabacum defence responses against Phytophthora nicotianae using direct infrared laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Successful defence of tobacco plants against attack from the oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae includes a type of local programmed cell death called the hypersensitive response. Complex and not completely understood signaling processes are required to mediate the development of this defence in the infected tissue. Here, we demonstrate that different families of metabolites can be monitored in small pieces of infected, mechanically-stressed, and healthy tobacco leaves using direct infrared laser desorption ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The defence response was monitored for 1 - 9 hours post infection. Results Infrared laser desorption ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry allows rapid and simultaneous detection in both negative and positive ion mode of a wide range of naturally occurring primary and secondary metabolites. An unsupervised principal component analysis was employed to identify correlations between changes in metabolite expression (obtained at different times and sample treatment conditions) and the overall defence response. A one-dimensional projection of the principal components 1 and 2 obtained from positive ion mode spectra was used to generate a Biological Response Index (BRI). The BRI obtained for each sample treatment was compared with the number of dead cells found in the respective tissue. The high correlation between these two values suggested that the BRI provides a rapid assessment of the plant response against the pathogen infection. Evaluation of the loading plots of the principal components (1 and 2) reveals a correlation among three metabolic cascades and the defence response generated in infected leaves. Analysis of selected phytohormones by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry verified our findings. Conclusion The described methodology allows for rapid assessment of infection-specific changes in the plant metabolism, in particular of phenolics, alkaloids

  10. Analysis of calcitonin and its analogues by capillary zone electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ahmad; Olofsson, Ing-Marie

    2004-06-01

    Capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) separations and mass spectrometric analysis of salmon calcitonin and related analogues were performed to generate electrophoresis and mass fingerprints for quality control of the recombinant polypeptide pharmaceutical salmon calcitonin. The calcitonins and their corresponding tryptic digests were successfully separated by CZE at low pH in fused silica capillaries dynamically modified with poly-cationic polymers. The poly-cationic modified inner surface of the fused silica capillaries generated a strong anionic electroosmotic flow (EOF). Analytes of negative, neutral, and positive charge were all swept through the capillary toward the positive electrode. Compared to Polybrene-coated capillaries, capillaries coated with PEI showed a markedly slower but much more stable electroosmotic flow. The migration order of the analytes was predicted by comparing approximate values of the charge to (molecular mass)2/3 ratios. The predicted migration order was confirmed by off-line analysis of CZE fractions with matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).

  11. Conformational effects on cationization of poly(ethylene glycol) by alkali metal ions in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Kayori; Matsuyama, Shigetomo; Saito, Takeshi; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Nagahata, Ritsuko; Kawabata, Shin-Ichirou

    2005-12-01

    Conformational effects of polymer chains on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) were studied by using an equimolar mixture of uniform poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) and by molecular dynamics simulations. Uniform PEGs with degrees of polymerization n = 8-39 were separated from commercial PEG samples by preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. MALDI-TOFMS spectra of an equimolar mixture of the uniform PEGs in aqueous ethanol were measured by adding a mixture of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (as a matrix reagent) and five alkali metal chlorides (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl). After optimization of the matrix concentration and laser power, five types of adduct cationized by Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+ could be identified simultaneously in the same spectrum. In the lower molecular-mass region around 103, the spectral intensity increase rapidly with increasing molecular mass of PEG; this rapid increase in the spectral intensity started at a lower molecular mass for smaller adduct cations. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to calculated the affinity of PEG for the adduct cations. These experimental and simulated results showed that the observed spectral intensities in MALDI-TOFMS were markedly affected by the species of adduct cations and the degree of polymerization of the PEG, and that they were dependent on the stability of the PEG-cation complex.

  12. Separation and identification of an oligomeric light stabilizer Chimassorb 944 by gradient elution chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiu; Diao, Xingli; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2014-10-17

    A non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed to separate a light stabilizer Chimassorb 944 into individual oligomers, which are further identified using pre-column fluorescent derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Consistent with previous studies, we find that the Chimassorb 944 product is a complex mixture consisting of a homologous series with the amine end groups and the number of repeat units (n) span from 1 to 26. In addition to the dominant linear species, cyclic oligomers are present at relatively high levels in the low-mass range. Their concentration decreases rapidly with the length of the oligomer backbone and becomes undetectable when n>7. Moreover, comparison of the HPLC and MALDI-MS molar mass distributions of Chimassorb 944 shows that the HPLC analysis produces greater molar mass averages and thus offers an effective means for accurate measure of the relative abundances of the oligomers.

  13. Activation processes and polyethylene formation on a phillips model catalyst studied by laser ablation, laser desorption, and static secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aubriet, Frédéric; Muller, Jean-François; Poleunis, Claude; Bertrand, Patrick; Di Croce, Pascal G; Grange, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Since the discovery of the Phillips catalysts, there still is much uncertainty concerning their activation, their molecular structure, the nature of the active chromium sites, and the polymerization mechanisms. Surface techniques are not easy to be used for such study according to the nonconductive behavior of the support. Therefore, model Phillips catalyst is elaborated by spin coating a trivalent chromium precursor on a silicon wafer. The surface characterization of this model catalyst is conducted by laser ablation mass spectrometry (LA-MS), laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), and static secondary ion mass spectrometry (s-SIMS), at different steps of its preparation. To validate our approach, a comparison is also made between the model and the real Philips catalyst. Moreover, the model catalyst efficiency for polyethylene synthesis is evaluated and allows us to discuss the validity of the mechanisms previously proposed to explain the catalytic process. The characterization of Phillips model catalyst by mass spectrometry allows us to better understand the activation processes of such catalyst. Depending on the activation temperature, chromium oxide species are formed and anchored at the support surface. They consist mainly in mono-chromium sites at high temperature. The chromium valence is hexavalent. This model catalyst is active for the polymerization of ethylene. A pseudo-oligomer molecular weight distribution is observed by LA-MS, whereas s-SIMS allows us to elucidate the anchorage of the polymer at activate chromium surface sites.

  14. Grouping myxococci (Corallococcus) strains by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI TOF) mass spectrometry: comparison with gene sequence phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Stackebrandt, Erko; Päuker, Orsola; Erhard, Marcel

    2005-02-01

    Nine Corallococcus isolates and three type strains of Corallococcus species were characterized by Intact Cell Mass Spectrometry using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The resulting phenetic clustering was compared to the phylogenetic grouping based upon sequences of two housekeeping genes. The three dendrograms of relatedness resembled each other in that the isolates were highly similar to the type strains of Corallococcus exiguus and Corallococcus coralloides, while Corallococcus macrosporus and Myxococcus xanthus were more distantly related. While certain pairs of organisms were recovered by spectrometry and genes sequence analysis, others were detected by two of the three approaches. The degree of similarity determined by sequence analysis of the two genes was not higher than that revealed by MALDI-TOF analysis. The results show that the spectral profile, consisting of about 25 to 45 masses ranging between 2 and 20 kDa, have indeed taxonomic significance, confirming literature data that ribosomal proteins and certain housekeeping proteins are responsible for the masses obtained. Provided the availability of a database of type strains, MALDI-TOF analysis of unknown strains appears to be a rapid and inexpensive method to taxonomically cluster environmental isolates, expanding the spectrum to strains other than those of medical importance predominantly investigated so far.

  15. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young -Jin; Chapman, Kent D.

    2015-11-22

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding to metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation.

  16. Structural determination of the conjugate of human serum albumin with a mitomycin C derivative, KW-2149, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yasuzawa, T; Tomer, K B

    1997-01-01

    A new mitomycin C derivative, KW-2149, is known to form a covalent conjugate with human serum albumin (HSA). This conjugate exhibits 1/20 of the anticellular activity of unconjugated KW-2149. Structural studies of this conjugate were carried out using a combination of enzymatic digestion, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The tryptic peptide T5 (residues 21-41) was the only peptide found to be modified by KW-2149 moieties, the [(gamma-L-glutamylamino)ethyl]thio group or the (2-aminoethyl)thio group, through a disulfide bond. Although the latter peptide lost its mitomycin C moiety in the course of tryptic digestion, these data strongly suggest that KW-2149 was bound to Cys-34, the only free cysteine on HSA.

  17. Rapid Inactivation of Mycobacterium and Nocardia Species before Identification Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Doing, Kirk; Miller, Elizabeth; Miller, Eric; Moreno, Erik; Baghli, Mehdi; Mailler, Sandrine; Girard, Victoria; van Belkum, Alex; Deol, Parampal

    2014-01-01

    The identification of mycobacteria outside biocontainment facilities requires that the organisms first be rendered inactive. Exposure to 70% ethanol (EtOH) either before or after mechanical disruption was evaluated in order to establish a safe, effective, and rapid inactivation protocol that is compatible with identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia species using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A combination of 5 min of bead beating in 70% EtOH followed by a 10-min room temperature incubation period was found to be rapidly bactericidal and provided high-quality spectra compared to spectra obtained directly from growth on solid media. The age of the culture, the stability of the refrigerated or frozen lysates, and freeze-thaw cycles did not adversely impact the quality of the spectra or the identification obtained. PMID:25078917

  18. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Blood Isolates of Vibrio Species

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wern-Cherng; Jan, I-Shiow; Chen, Jong-Min; Teng, Shih-Hua; Teng, Lee-Jene; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Among 56 blood isolates of Vibrio species identified by sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system correctly identified all isolates of Vibrio vulnificus (n = 20), V. parahaemolyticus (n = 2), and V. fluvialis (n = 1) but none of the isolates of serogroup non-O1/O139 (non-serogroup O1, non-O139) V. cholerae (n = 33) to the species level. All of these serogroup non-O1/O139 V. cholerae isolates were correctly identified using the newly created MALDI-TOF MS database. PMID:25740773

  19. Metabolomic Analysis of Oxidative and Glycolytic Skeletal Muscles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/IonizationMass Spectrometric Imaging (MALDI MSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Garrett, Timothy J.; Carter, Christy S.; Yost, Richard A.

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of heterogeneous muscle fibers that have different physiological, morphological, biochemical, and histological characteristics. In this work, skeletal muscles extensor digitorum longus, soleus, and whole gastrocnemius were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to characterize small molecule metabolites of oxidative and glycolytic muscle fiber types as well as to visualize biomarker localization. Multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed to extract significant features. Different metabolic fingerprints were observed from oxidative and glycolytic fibers. Higher abundances of biomolecules such as antioxidant anserine as well as acylcarnitines were observed in the glycolytic fibers, whereas taurine and some nucleotides were found to be localized in the oxidative fibers.

  20. Metabolomic Analysis of Oxidative and Glycolytic Skeletal Muscles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/IonizationMass Spectrometric Imaging (MALDI MSI).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Garrett, Timothy J; Carter, Christy S; Yost, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of heterogeneous muscle fibers that have different physiological, morphological, biochemical, and histological characteristics. In this work, skeletal muscles extensor digitorum longus, soleus, and whole gastrocnemius were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to characterize small molecule metabolites of oxidative and glycolytic muscle fiber types as well as to visualize biomarker localization. Multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed to extract significant features. Different metabolic fingerprints were observed from oxidative and glycolytic fibers. Higher abundances of biomolecules such as antioxidant anserine as well as acylcarnitines were observed in the glycolytic fibers, whereas taurine and some nucleotides were found to be localized in the oxidative fibers.

  1. Theoretical optimization by genetic algorithm of delayed extraction parameters for a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tauro, S; Razvi, M A N

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the operating parameters, namely pulse voltage and extraction delay time, when using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). Simulations predict the presence of several combinations of these parameters that give a local maximum. The aim is to locate the optimal combination (a global maximum) of pulse voltage and extraction time delay in order to focus the ions of a particular m/z value to achieve the best resolution in a given instrumental geometry. The GA locates the global maximum quickly. The results indicate that it may be possible to achieve very high resolving power by using delayed extraction (DE)-MALDI-TOFMS with parameters obtained from the GA.

  2. Direct thermal desorption in the analysis of cheese volatiles by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace.

    PubMed

    Valero, E; Sanz, J; Martínez-Castro, I

    2001-06-01

    Direct thermal desorption (DTD) has been used as a technique for extracting volatile components of cheese as a preliminary step to their gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. In this study, it is applied to different cheese varieties: Camembert, blue, Chaumes, and La Serena. Volatiles are also extracted using other techniques such as simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace. Separation and identification of the cheese components are carried out by GC-mass spectrometry. Approximately 100 compounds are detected in the examined cheeses. The described results show that DTD is fast, simple, and easy to automate; requires only a small amount of sample (approximately 50 mg); and affords quantitative information about the main groups of compounds present in cheeses.

  3. Direct determination of the peptide content in microspheres by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Na, Dong Hee; DeLuca, Patrick P; Lee, Kang Choon

    2004-05-01

    A quantitative determination of peptides incorporated into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was accomplished in a single step without pretreatment for extracting the peptide from the microsphere. The conventional extraction methods often underestimate the actual amount of peptide because of incomplete extraction from the microspheres or loss during the procedures. In this study, the microspheres dissolved in acetonitrile containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid were mixed with matrix solution containing the internal standard, and the peptide content was directly determined by MALDI-TOF MS. The drug content values determined by MALDI-TOF MS in both the leuprolide- and salmon calcitonin-incorporated microspheres were closer to the theoretical contents than those determined by the conventional extraction method. This method using MALDI-TOF MS could be a good alternative to time-consuming and less-accurate conventional methods.

  4. Rapid identification of gallotannins from Chinese galls by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Xing, Jie; Ke, Jinxia; Zhan, Zhaoqi; Corke, Harold

    2009-06-01

    Chinese gall, a conventional traditional Chinese medicine, contains high levels of gallotannins. A rapid method for direct analysis of the gallotannins without using any troublesome sample pretreatments was developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS) to successfully identify the gallotannin components in the crude extract of Chinese galls within several minutes. The high quality of the MS and MS(2) spectra acquired clearly showed that hydrolysable tannins in Chinese galls were identified as a series of the gallotannins with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 4-11 galloyl units. The MS(2) data indicated that the identified gallotannins with DP of 4-7 galloyl units had clear fragmentation with loss of 1-5 galloyl units which were further deprived of 1-3 water moieties. This technique may be used for rapid evaluation and screening of hydrolysable tannins in medicinal plants.

  5. Transmission-mode direct analysis in real time and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Pérez, José J; Harris, Glenn A; Chipuk, Joseph E; Brodbelt, Jennifer S; Green, Michael D; Hampton, Christina Y; Fernández, Facundo M

    2010-04-01

    Transmission-mode direct analysis in real time (TM-DART) is presented as an alternative sampling strategy to traditional methods of sample introduction for DART MS analysis. A custom-designed sample holder was fabricated to rapidly and reproducibly position insecticide-treated nets normal to the ionizing metastable gas stream, enabling transmission of desorbed analyte ions through the holder cavity and into the MS. Introduction of the sample at this fixed geometry eliminates the need for optimizing sample position and allows spectra based on factors such as metastable gas temperature and flow to be systematically evaluated. The results presented here, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations, demonstrate the effects of these factors on the resulting mass spectra and the potential of this sampling strategy to be used for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Transmission-mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI) experiments on similar insecticide-treated nets were performed for comparison purposes.

  6. Identification of amino acids by material enhanced laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MELDI-MS) in positive- and negative-ion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashir, Muhammad Ahsan; Stecher, Guenther; Mayr, Stefan; Bonn, Guenther K.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, different silica gel modifications were evaluated for their application as target surface for material enhanced laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric (MELDI-MS) investigation of amino acids. 4,4'-Azodianiline (ADA-silica) modified silica gel was successfully employed for the qualitative analysis of amino acids in positive- and in negative-ion mode. Further no derivatisation of amino acids was necessary, as the introduced system allowed the direct analysis of targets and delivered spectra with excellent signal intensity and signal-to-noise ratio within a few minutes. The influence of surface chemistry, ionisation mode and the nature of analytes on signal intensity was studied and discussed. Detection limit of 2.10 pg (10 fmol) was achieved by employing ADA-silica in positive-ion mode. Finally, xylem saps from different types of trees were analysed. This proved the high performance and excellent behaviour of the introduced target surface material.

  7. An extraction method of positive blood cultures for direct identification of Candida species by Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Rose-Anne; Chauvin, Pamela; Valentin, Alexis; Fillaux, Judith; Roques-Malecaze, Christine; Arnaud, Sylvie; Menard, Sandie; Magnaval, Jean-François; Berry, Antoine; Cassaing, Sophie; Iriart, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    Candida spp. are an important cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Currently, complete identification of yeasts with conventional methods takes several days. We report here the first evaluation of an extraction method associated with the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for direct identification of Candida species from positive blood cultures. We evaluated this protocol with blood cultures that were inoculated with reference and routine isolates (eight reference strains, 30 patients isolates and six mixed cultures containing two strains of different Candida species), or from patients with candidemia (28 isolates). This method performed extremely well (97% correct identification) with blood cultures of single Candida spp. and significantly reduced the time of diagnosis. Nevertheless, subculture remains indispensable to test fungal resistance and to detect mixed infections.

  8. Thermal transformation of bioactive caffeic acid on fumed silica seen by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry and quantum chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Tetiana V; Lipkovska, Natalia O; Barvinchenko, Valentyna M; Palyanytsya, Borys B; Kazakova, Olga A; Dudik, Olesia O; Menyhárd, Alfréd; László, Krisztina

    2016-05-15

    Thermochemical studies of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and their surface complexes are important for the pharmaceutical industry, medicine and for the development of technologies of heterogeneous biomass pyrolysis. In this study, structural and thermal transformations of caffeic acid complexes on silica surfaces were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS) and quantum chemical methods. Two types of caffeic acid surface complexes are found to form through phenolic or carboxyl groups. The kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions of caffeic acid on silica surface are calculated. The mechanisms of thermal transformations of the caffeic chemisorbed surface complexes are proposed. Thermal decomposition of caffeic acid complex chemisorbed through grafted ester group proceeds via three parallel reactions, producing ketene, vinyl and acetylene derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Immobilization of phenolic acids on the silica surface improves greatly their thermal stability.

  9. Analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: An update for 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J

    2009-01-01

    This review is the third update of the original review, published in 1999, on the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to the analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates and brings the topic to the end of 2004. Both fundamental studies and applications are covered. The main topics include methodological developments, matrices, fragmentation of carbohydrates and applications to large polymeric carbohydrates from plants, glycans from glycoproteins and those from various glycolipids. Other topics include the use of MALDI MS to study enzymes related to carbohydrate biosynthesis and degradation, its use in industrial processes, particularly biopharmaceuticals and its use to monitor products of chemical synthesis where glycodendrimers and carbohydrate-protein complexes are highlighted.

  10. Detection of digoxin in urine samples by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mei-Ching; Chi, Kai-Ming; Chang, Sarah Y

    2013-10-15

    A novel method for the detection of digoxin using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to the surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection (SALDI/MS) was developed. Acetone and chloroform were used as the disperser solvent and extraction solvents, respectively. After the extraction, digoxin was detected using SALDI/MS with colloidal palladium as the matrix. Under optimal extraction and detection conditions, the calibration curve, which ranged from 0.01 to 0.50 μM, was observed to be linear. The limit of detection (LOD) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 2 nM for digoxin. With a sample-to-extract volume ratio of 400, the enrichment factor for digoxin was calculated to be 252. This novel method was successfully applied for the determination of digoxin in human urine samples.

  11. Optimization of matrix assisted desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the characterization of Bacillus and Brevibacillus species

    PubMed Central

    AlMasoud, Najla; Xu, Yun; Nicolaou, Nicoletta; Goodacre, Royston

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been an increased interest in using various analytical techniques for detecting and identifying microorganisms. More recently there has been an explosion in the application of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for bacterial characterization, and here we optimize this approach in order to generate reproducible MS data from bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus and Brevibacillus. Unfortunately MALDI-TOF-MS generates large amounts of data and is prone to instrumental drift. To overcome these challenges we have developed a preprocessing pipeline that includes baseline correction, peak alignment followed by peak picking that in combination significantly reduces the dimensionality of the MS spectra and corrects for instrument drift. Following this two different prediction models were used which are based on support vector machines and these generated satisfactory prediction accuracies of approximately 90%. PMID:25086893

  12. The development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry-based method for the protein fingerprinting and identification of Aeromonas species using whole cells.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Maura J; Smallwood, Anthony W; Pfaller, Stacy; Rodgers, Mark; Shoemaker, Jody A

    2006-06-01

    This report describes the development of a method to detect the waterborne pathogen Aeromonas using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, MALDI-MS was applied to the characterization of seventeen species of Aeromonas. These seventeen species were represented by thirty-two strains, which included type, reference and clinical isolates. Intact cells from each strain were used to generate a reproducible library of protein mass spectral fingerprints or m/z signatures. Under the test conditions used, peak lists of the mass ions observed in each species revealed that three mass ions were conserved among all the seventeen species tested. These common mass ions having an average m/z of 6301, 12,160 or 12,254, and 13,450, can be potentially used as genus-specific biomarkers to identify Aeromonas in unknown samples. A dendrogram generated using the m/z signatures of all the strains tested indicated that the mass spectral data contained sufficient information to distinguish between genera, species, and strains. There are several advantages of using MALDI-MS based protein mass spectral fingerprinting of whole cells for the identification of microorganisms as well as for their differentiation at the sub-species level: (1) the capability to detect proteins, (2) high throughput, and (3) relatively simple sample preparation techniques. The accuracy and speed with which data can be obtained makes MALDI-MS a powerful tool especially suited for environmental monitoring and detection of biological hazards.

  13. IN-SITU PROBING OF RADIATION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF ORGANICS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ICE ANALOGS-NOVEL LASER DESORPTION LASER IONIZATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Yang Rui E-mail: ryang73@ustc.edu

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the evolution of organic molecules in ice grains in the interstellar medium (ISM) under cosmic rays, stellar radiation, and local electrons and ions is critical to our understanding of the connection between ISM and solar systems. Our study is aimed at reaching this goal of looking directly into radiation-induced processing in these ice grains. We developed a two-color laser-desorption laser-ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopic method (2C-MALDI-TOF), similar to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results presented here with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) probe molecules embedded in water-ice at 5 K show for the first time that hydrogenation and oxygenation are the primary chemical reactions that occur in astrophysical ice analogs when subjected to Ly{alpha} radiation. We found that hydrogenation can occur over several unsaturated bonds and the product distribution corresponds to their stabilities. Multiple hydrogenation efficiency is found to be higher at higher temperatures (100 K) compared to 5 K-close to the interstellar ice temperatures. Hydroxylation is shown to have similar efficiencies at 5 K or 100 K, indicating that addition of O atoms or OH radicals to pre-ionized PAHs is a barrierless process. These studies-the first glimpses into interstellar ice chemistry through analog studies-show that once accreted onto ice grains PAHs lose their PAH spectroscopic signatures through radiation chemistry, which could be one of the reason for the lack of PAH detection in interstellar ice grains, particularly the outer regions of cold, dense clouds or the upper molecular layers of protoplanetary disks.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymers coupled to matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for femtomoles detection of cardiac troponin I peptides.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Lucia; Anesi, Andrea; Busato, Mirko; Guella, Graziano; Bossi, Alessandra Maria

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were combined to MALDI-TOF-MS to evaluate a selective enrichment (SE) method for the determination of clinically relevant biomarkers from complex biological samples. The concept was proven with the myocardial injury marker Troponin I (cTnI). In a first part, MIP materials entailed for the recognition of cTnI epitopes (three peptides selected) were prepared and characterized in dimensions (0.7-2μm), dissociation constants (58-817 nM), kinetics of binding (5-60 min), binding capacity (ca. 1.5 µg/mg polymer), imprinting factors (3 > IF > 5) and selectivity for the peptide epitope. Then, the MIPs, incubated with cTnI peptides and spotted on the target with the DHB matrix, were assayed for the desorption of the peptides in MALDI-TOF-MS. The measured detection limit was ca. 300 femtomols. Finally, the MIP-SE MALDI-TOF-MS was tested for its ability to enrich in the cTnI peptides from a complex sample, mimic of serum (i.e. 81 peptides of digested albumin). The MIP-SE MALDI-TOF-MS successfully enriched in cTnI peptides from the complex sample proving the technique could offer a flexible platform to prepare entailed materials suitable for diagnostic purposes.

  15. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  16. Graphene coated silica applied for high ionization matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: A novel approach for environmental and biomolecule analysis.

    PubMed

    Nasser Abdelhamid, Hani; Wu, Bo-Sgum; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-08-01

    The integration of nanotechnology with mass spectrometry for sensitive and selective detection of molecules is a hot/important field of research. Synthesis of graphene (G) coated with mesoporous silica (SiO2, G@SiO2) for mass spectrometric application has been demonstrated. For the first time, we proposed the significant role of surfactant that used during the synthesis of mesorporous silicate (SiO2) in mass spectrometry. It was noticed that G could initiate SiO2 via surfactants which work as initiators for further ionization. The porosity of SiO2 trapped the analytes that was released and ionized with the surfactant fragments. Undoubtedly, strong background interferences were present in the case of organic matrix, which greatly obscured the detection of low molecular weight compounds. G@SiO2 nanocomposite affords several advantages, such as the ability to detect small molecules (<500Da), high sample localization through silica mesoporosity, and high ionization efficiency over than G or conventional matrices. The high performance of G@SiO2 is not only due to the large surface area but also due to high desorption/ionization efficiency of inevitably surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, CATB). Unlike the conventional MALDI-MS, the G@SiO2-MS is capable of generating multiply charged polysaccharides. The present method was validated to detect surfactants with low limits of detection.

  17. Nanomanipulation-Coupled Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization-Direct Organelle Mass Spectrometry: A Technique for the Detailed Analysis of Single Organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Mandy S.; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D.; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel technique combining precise organelle microextraction with deposition and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for a rapid, minimally invasive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of single organelles from living cells. A dual-positioner nanomanipulator workstation was utilized for both extraction of organelle content and precise co-deposition of analyte and matrix solution for MALDI-direct organelle mass spectrometry (DOMS) analysis. Here, the triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of single lipid droplets from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were acquired and results validated with nanoelectrospray ionization (NSI) MS. The results demonstrate the utility of the MALDI-DOMS technique as it enabled longer mass analysis time, higher ionization efficiency, MS imaging of the co-deposited spot, and subsequent MS/MS capabilities of localized lipid content in comparison to NSI-DOMS. This method provides selective organellar resolution, which complements current biochemical analyses and prompts for subsequent subcellular studies to be performed where limited samples and analyte volume are of concern.

  18. Nitrocellulose film substrate minimizes fragmentation in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Romano, Raffaele; Addeo, Francesco

    2010-07-01

    The potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of intact triacylglycerols (TAGs) is generally limited by the extensive in-source prompt fragmentation. The sequential deposition of matrix and TAGs over the stainless steel target precoated with a thin layer of nitrocellulose (NC) drastically reduced fragmentation in the MALDI-TOF MS profiling of oils and fats. The NC MALDI-TOF MS profiles of native and thermally stressed virgin olive oil and butter are reported as case studies, along with test analyses of a standard mixture of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols. Mass spectra were almost completely devoid of both fragment and matrix ion signals, thus disclosing relevant information, especially in the low molecular mass range. The detection of several partial acylglycerols of low abundance and minor TAGs that are barely observed with other techniques also provided evidence for an increased dynamic range of NC MALDI-TOF MS that was due to the minimization of suppressive effects. The NC film substrate also improved the shot-to-shot and sample-to-sample reproducibility of the ion production through the exhibition of a more homogeneous matrix/analyte cocrystallization, thus enabling MALDI-based measurements to a consistent quantification of TAGs.

  19. The suitability of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry in a laboratory developed test using cystic fibrosis carrier screening as a model.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Daniel H; Miltgen, Nicholas E; Stoerker, Jay; van den Boom, Dirk; Highsmith, W Edward; Cagasan, Lesley; McCullough, Ron; Mueller, Reinhold; Tang, Lin; Tynan, John; Tate, Courtney; Bombard, Allan

    2010-09-01

    We designed a laboratory developed test (LDT) by using an open platform for mutation/polymorphism detection. Using a 108-member (mutation plus variant) cystic fibrosis carrier screening panel as a model, we completed the last phase of LDT validation by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Panel customization was accomplished via specific amplification primer and extension probe design. Amplified genomic DNA was subjected to allele specific, single base extension endpoint analysis by mass spectrometry for inspection of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (NM_000492.3). The panel of mutations and variants was tested against 386 blinded samples supplied by "authority" laboratories highly experienced in cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator genotyping; >98% concordance was observed. All discrepant and discordant results were resolved satisfactorily. Taken together, these results describe the concluding portion of the LDT validation process and the use of mass spectrometry to detect a large number of complex reactions within a single run as well as its suitability as a platform appropriate for interrogation of scores to hundreds of targets.

  20. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research. PMID:28211480

  1. Evaluation of a Semiquantitative Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Positive Blood Cultures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jette S; Hamacher, Christina; Gross, Birgit; Sparbier, Katrin; Lange, Christoph; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schubert, Sören

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, rapid identification of the pathogen and its individual antibiotic resistance is crucial to ensure adequate antiinfective treatment at the earliest time point. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria directly from the blood culture bottle has been widely established; however, there is still an urgent need for new methods that permit rapid resistance testing. Recently, a semiquantitative MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based method for the prediction of antibiotic resistance was described. We evaluated this method for detecting nonsusceptibility against two β-lactam and two non-β-lactam antibiotics. A collection of 30 spiked blood cultures was tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, 99 patient-derived blood cultures were tested for nonsusceptibility against cefotaxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin in parallel with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification from the blood culture fluid. The assay correctly classified all isolates tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and cefotaxime. One misclassification for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility and five misclassifications for piperacillin-tazobactam nonsusceptibility occurred. Identification of the bacterium and prediction of nonsusceptibility was possible within approximately 4 h.

  2. Rapid Characterization of Microalgae and Microalgae Mixtures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    PubMed Central

    Barbano, Duane; Diaz, Regina; Zhang, Lin; Sandrin, Todd; Gerken, Henri; Dempster, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular methods to characterize microalgae are time-intensive and expensive. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may represent a rapid and economical alternative approach. The objectives of this study were to determine whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used to: 1) differentiate microalgae at the species and strain levels and 2) characterize simple microalgal mixtures. A common protein extraction sample preparation method was used to facilitate rapid mass spectrometry-based analysis of 31 microalgae. Each yielded spectra containing between 6 and 56 peaks in the m/z 2,000 to 20,000 range. The taxonomic resolution of this approach appeared higher than that of 18S rDNA sequence analysis. For example, two strains of Scenedesmus acutus differed only by two 18S rDNA nucleotides, but yielded distinct MALDI-TOF mass spectra. Mixtures of two and three microalgae yielded relatively complex spectra that contained peaks associated with members of each mixture. Interestingly, though, mixture-specific peaks were observed at m/z 11,048 and 11,230. Our results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS affords rapid characterization of individual microalgae and simple microalgal mixtures. PMID:26271045

  3. Rapid Characterization of Microalgae and Microalgae Mixtures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Barbano, Duane; Diaz, Regina; Zhang, Lin; Sandrin, Todd; Gerken, Henri; Dempster, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular methods to characterize microalgae are time-intensive and expensive. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may represent a rapid and economical alternative approach. The objectives of this study were to determine whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used to: 1) differentiate microalgae at the species and strain levels and 2) characterize simple microalgal mixtures. A common protein extraction sample preparation method was used to facilitate rapid mass spectrometry-based analysis of 31 microalgae. Each yielded spectra containing between 6 and 56 peaks in the m/z 2,000 to 20,000 range. The taxonomic resolution of this approach appeared higher than that of 18S rDNA sequence analysis. For example, two strains of Scenedesmus acutus differed only by two 18S rDNA nucleotides, but yielded distinct MALDI-TOF mass spectra. Mixtures of two and three microalgae yielded relatively complex spectra that contained peaks associated with members of each mixture. Interestingly, though, mixture-specific peaks were observed at m/z 11,048 and 11,230. Our results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS affords rapid characterization of individual microalgae and simple microalgal mixtures.

  4. Petroleomic Analysis of Bio- Oils from the Fast Pyrolysis or Biomass: Laser Desorption Ionization-Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap mass Spectrometry Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Erica A.; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-08-23

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces bio-oils that can be upgraded into biofuels. Despite similar physical properties to petroleum, the chemical properties of bio-oils are quite different and their chemical compositions, particularly those of non-volatile compounds, are not well-known. Here, we report the first time attempt at analyzing bio-oils using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), which employed laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap-Orbitrap MS. Besides a few limitations, we could determine chemical compositions for over 100 molecular compounds in a bio-oil sample produced from the pyrolysis of a loblolly pine tree. These compounds consist of 3-6 oxygens and 9-17 double-bond equivalents (DBEs). Among those, O{sub 4} compounds with a DBE of 9-13 were most abundant. Unlike petroleum oils, the lack of nearby molecules within a {+-}2 Da mass window for major components enabled clear isolation of precursor ions for subsequent MS/MS structural investigations. Petroleomic analysis and a comparison to low-mass components in hydrolytic lignin suggest that they are dimers and trimers of depolymerized lignin.

  5. Nanomanipulation-Coupled Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization-Direct Organelle Mass Spectrometry: A Technique for the Detailed Analysis of Single Organelles.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Mandy S; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel technique combining precise organelle microextraction with deposition and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for a rapid, minimally invasive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of single organelles from living cells. A dual-positioner nanomanipulator workstation was utilized for both extraction of organelle content and precise co-deposition of analyte and matrix solution for MALDI-direct organelle mass spectrometry (DOMS) analysis. Here, the triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of single lipid droplets from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were acquired and results validated with nanoelectrospray ionization (NSI) MS. The results demonstrate the utility of the MALDI-DOMS technique as it enabled longer mass analysis time, higher ionization efficiency, MS imaging of the co-deposited spot, and subsequent MS/MS capabilities of localized lipid content in comparison to NSI-DOMS. This method provides selective organellar resolution, which complements current biochemical analyses and prompts for subsequent subcellular studies to be performed where limited samples and analyte volume are of concern. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for molecular analysis of organic compounds in medicines, tea, and coffee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren-Qi; Bao, Kai; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Ng, Siu Choon

    2013-11-21

    Natural occurring organic compounds from food, natural organic matter, as well as metabolic products have received intense attention in current chemical and biological studies. Examination of unknown compounds in complex sample matrices is hampered by the limited choices for data readout and molecular elucidation. Herein, we report a generic method of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the rapid characterization of ingredients in pharmaceutical compounds, tea, and coffee. The analytes were first fractionated using a cationic HILIC column prior to MALDI-MS analyses. It was found that the retention times of a compound arising from different samples were consistent under the same conditions. Accordingly, molecules can be readily characterized by both the mass and chromatographic retention time. The retention behaviors of acidic and basic compounds on the cationic HILIC column were found to be significantly influenced by the pH of mobile phases, whereas neutral compounds depicted a constant retention time at different pH. The general HILIC-MALDI-MS method is feasible for fast screening of naturally occurring organic compounds. A series of homologs can be determined if they have the same retention behavior. Their structural features can be elucidated by considering their mass differences and hydrophilic properties as determined by HILIC chromatogram.

  7. Assessment of a new method for the analysis of decomposition gases of polymers by a combining thermogravimetric solid-phase extraction and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Duemichen, E; Braun, U; Senz, R; Fabian, G; Sturm, H

    2014-08-08

    For analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products of polymers, the common techniques are thermogravimetry, combined with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These methods offer a simple approach to the decomposition mechanism, especially for small decomposition molecules. Complex spectra of gaseous mixtures are very often hard to identify because of overlapping signals. In this paper a new method is described to adsorb the decomposition products during controlled conditions in TGA on solid-phase extraction (SPE) material: twisters. Subsequently the twisters were analysed with thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS), which allows the decomposition products to be separated and identified using an MS library. The thermoplastics polyamide 66 (PA 66) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) were used as example polymers. The influence of the sample mass and of the purge gas flow during the decomposition process was investigated in TGA. The advantages and limitations of the method were presented in comparison to the common analysis techniques, TGA-FTIR and TGA-MS.

  8. Small protein biomarkers of culture in Bacillus spores detected using capillary liquid chromatography coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Wahl, Jon H.; Willse, Alan R.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2006-10-20

    Capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) was used to compare small proteins and peptides extracted from Bacillus subtilis spores grown on four different media. A single, efficient protein separation, compatible with MALDI-MS analysis, was employed to reduce competitive ionization between proteins, and thus interrogate more proteins than possible using direct MALDI-MS. The MALDI-MS data files for each fraction are assembled as two dimensional data sets of retention time and mass information. This method of visualizing small protein data required careful attention to background correction as well as mass and retention time variability. The resulting data sets were used to create comparative displays of differences in protein profiles between different spore preparations. Protein differences were found between two different solid media in both phase bright and phase dark conditions. The protein differences between two different liquid media were also examined. As an extension of this method, we have demonstrated that candidate protein biomarkers can be trypsin digested to provide identifying peptide fragment information following the cLC-MALDI experiment. We have demonstrated this method on two markers and utilized acid breakdown information to identify one additional marker for this organism. The resulting method can be used to identify discriminating proteins as potential biomarkers of growth media, which might ultimately be used for source attribution.

  9. Ultraviolet/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric characterization of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid-induced reductive hydrogenation of oligonucleotides on cytosine residues.

    PubMed

    Koomen, J M; Russell, D H

    2000-08-01

    The changes in the ion signals in the isotope cluster, mass resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and mass accuracy for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) of DNA oligonucleotides (dGGATC, dCAGCt, and dAACCGTT) and their fragment ions were evaluated, and these data were compared with those obtained using 3-hydroxypicolinic acid. Mass spectra obtained by using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) appear to have differences from the theoretical isotopic clusters, which arise by reductive hydrogenation producing a second peak at the M + 2 isotope of the native oligonucleotide. Based on the patterns of the isotopic envelope observed in the in-source decay fragments, we propose that cytosine is the site of reduction. We do not find evidence of reduction of oligonucleotides, viz. dTGGGGTT, that do not contain cytosine; however, 2'-deoxycytidine and 2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphate undergo reductive hydrogenation. Several experiments were carried out in an effort to determine whether the reductive hydrogenation occurs during sample preparation or as a result of laser irradiation. The results of these experiments suggest that it occurs during sample preparation. The relative intensities of ion signals corresponding to the reduced base can be altered by using different matrix additives (aminonaphthalenes) or a different substrate (copper). Also, the oxidized form of 2,5-DHB is trapped by reaction with the side chain of cysteine in glutathione, providing evidence that the reaction occurs in solution as the matrix crystallizes.

  10. Generation of highly charged peptide and protein ions by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted infrared laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    König, Simone; Kollas, Oliver; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2007-07-15

    We show that highly charged ions can be generated if a pulsed infrared laser and a glycerol matrix are employed for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with a quadrupole ion trap. Already for small peptides like bradykinin, doubly protonated ions form the most abundant analyte signal in the mass spectra. The center of the charge-state distribution increases with the size of the analyte. For example, insulin is detected with a most abundant ion signal corresponding to a charge state of four, whereas for cytochrome c, the 10 times protonated ion species produces the most intense signal. Myoglobin is observed with up to 13 charges. The high m/z ratios allow us to use the Paul trap for the detection of MALDI-generated protein ions that are, owing to their high molecular weight, not amenable in their singly protonated charge state. Formation of multiple charges critically depends on the addition of diluted acid to the analyte-matrix solution. Tandem mass spectra generated by collision-induced dissociation of doubly charged peptides are also presented. The findings allow speculations about the involvement of electrospray ionization processes in these MALDI experiments.

  11. Direct identification of trypanosomatids by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (DIT MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Avila, C C; Almeida, F G; Palmisano, G

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and rapid determination of trypanosomatids is essential in epidemiological surveillance and therapeutic studies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown to be a useful and powerful technique to identify bacteria, fungi, metazoa and human intact cells with applications in clinical settings. Here, we developed and optimized a MALDI-TOF MS method to profile trypanosomatids. trypanosomatid cells were deposited on a MALDI target plate followed by addition of matrix solution. The plate was then subjected to MALDI-TOF MS measurement to create reference mass spectra library and unknown samples were identified by pattern matching using the BioTyper software tool. Several m/z peaks reproducibly and uniquely identified trypanosomatids species showing the potentials of direct identification of trypanosomatids by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, this method discriminated different life stages of Trypanosoma cruzi, epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote and Trypanosoma brucei, procyclic and bloodstream. T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) were also discriminated in three clades. However, it was not possible to achieve enough resolution and software-assisted identification at the strain level. Overall, this study shows the importance of MALDI-TOF MS for the direct identification of trypanosomatids and opens new avenues for mass spectrometry-based detection of parasites in biofluids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  13. Rapid Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Hydrolysis Products by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    microextraction (SPME) sampling and DESI-MS analysis or liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) analysis. The...sample pre- treatment, resulting in a significant increase in sample throughput over conventional solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling and DESI...methods based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS analysis [35-43] and direct

  14. Direct analysis of Salvia divinorum leaves for salvinorin A by thin layer chromatography and desorption electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Joseph H; Wiseman, Justin M

    2010-05-15

    Salvia divinorum is widely cultivated in the US, Mexico, Central and South America and Europe and is consumed for its ability to produce hallucinogenic effects similar to those of other scheduled hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD. Salvinorin A (SA), a kappa opiod receptor agonist and psychoactive constituent, is found primarily in the leaves and to a lesser extent in the stems of the plant. Herein, the analysis of intact S. divinorum leaves for SA and of acetone extracts separated using thin layer chromatography (TLC) is demonstrated using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. The detection of SA using DESI in the positive ion mode is characterized by several ions associated with the compound - [M+H](+), [M+NH(4)](+), [M+Na](+), [2M+NH(4)](+), and [2M+Na](+). Confirmation of the identity of these ions is provided through exact mass measurements using a time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. The presence of SA in the leaves was confirmed by multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) of the [M+H](+) ion using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Direct analysis of the leaves revealed several species of salvinorin in addition to SA as confirmed by MS(n), including salvinorin B, C, D/E, and divinatorin B. Further, the results from DESI imaging of a TLC separation of a commercial leaf extract and an acetone extract of S. divinorum leaves were in concordance with the TLC/DESI-MS results of an authentic salvinorin A standard. The present study provides an example of both the direct analysis of intact plant materials for screening illicit substances and the coupling of TLC and DESI-MS as a simple method for the examination of natural products.

  15. The importance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for correct identification of Clostridium difficile isolated from chromID C. difficile chromogenic agar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Cheng, Vincent C C; Wong, Oi-Ying; Wong, Sally C Y; So, Simon Y C; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-11

    The clinical workflow of using chromogenic agar and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-fight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for Clostridium difficile identification was evaluated. The addition of MALDI-TOF MS identification after the chromID C. difficile chromogenic agar culture could significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy of C. difficile.

  16. Top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 2 subtypes from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Tandem Time of Flight mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have analyzed 26 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains for Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) production using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomic analysis. STEC strains were induced to ...

  17. Bacteriophage cell lysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli for top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 1 & 2 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-light mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RATIONALE: Analysis of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) often relies upon sample preparation methods that result in cell lysis, e.g. bead-beating. However, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can undergo bacteriophage...

  18. Carbon Dots and 9AA as a Binary Matrix for the Detection of Small Molecules by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongli; Gao, Dan; Bai, Hangrui; Liu, Hongxia; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    Application of matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) to analyze small molecules have some limitations, due to the inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization and interference of matrix-related peaks in low m/z region. In this work, carbon dots (CDs) were for the first time applied as a binary matrix with 9-Aminoacridine (9AA) in MALDI MS for small molecules analysis. By 9AA/CDs assisted desorption/ionization (D/I) process, a wide range of small molecules, including nucleosides, amino acids, oligosaccharides, peptides, and anticancer drugs with a higher sensitivity were demonstrated in the positive ion mode. A detection limit down to 5 fmol was achieved for cytidine. 9AA/CDs matrix also exhibited excellent reproducibility compared with 9AA matrix. Moreover, by exploring the ionization mechanism of the matrix, the influence factors might be attributed to the four parts: (1) the strong UV absorption of 9AA/CDs due to their π-conjugated network; (2) the carboxyl groups modified on the CDs surface act as protonation sites for proton transfer in positive ion mode; (3) the thin layer crystal of 9AA/CDs could reach a high surface temperature more easily and lower transfer energy for LDI MS; (4) CDs could serve as a matrix additive to suppress 9AA ionization. Furthermore, this matrix was allowed for the analysis of glucose as well as nucleosides in human urine, and the level of cytidine was quantified with a linear range of 0.05-5 mM (R2 > 0.99). Therefore, the 9AA/CDs matrix was proven to be an effective MALDI matrix for the analysis of small molecules with improved sensitivity and reproducibility. This work provides an alternative solution for small molecules detection that can be further used in complex samples analysis.

  19. Carbon Dots and 9AA as a Binary Matrix for the Detection of Small Molecules by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongli; Gao, Dan; Bai, Hangrui; Liu, Hongxia; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    Application of matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) to analyze small molecules have some limitations, due to the inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization and interference of matrix-related peaks in low m/z region. In this work, carbon dots (CDs) were for the first time applied as a binary matrix with 9-Aminoacridine (9AA) in MALDI MS for small molecules analysis. By 9AA/CDs assisted desorption/ionization (D/I) process, a wide range of small molecules, including nucleosides, amino acids, oligosaccharides, peptides, and anticancer drugs with a higher sensitivity were demonstrated in the positive ion mode. A detection limit down to 5 fmol was achieved for cytidine. 9AA/CDs matrix also exhibited excellent reproducibility compared with 9AA matrix. Moreover, by exploring the ionization mechanism of the matrix, the influence factors might be attributed to the four parts: (1) the strong UV absorption of 9AA/CDs due to their π-conjugated network; (2) the carboxyl groups modified on the CDs surface act as protonation sites for proton transfer in positive ion mode; (3) the thin layer crystal of 9AA/CDs could reach a high surface temperature more easily and lower transfer energy for LDI MS; (4) CDs could serve as a matrix additive to suppress 9AA ionization. Furthermore, this matrix was allowed for the analysis of glucose as well as nucleosides in human urine, and the level of cytidine was quantified with a linear range of 0.05-5 mM (R(2) > 0.99). Therefore, the 9AA/CDs matrix was proven to be an effective MALDI matrix for the analysis of small molecules with improved sensitivity and reproducibility. This work provides an alternative solution for small molecules detection that can be further used in complex samples analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with desorption corona beam ionization-mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of antidepressants in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Zheng, Hao-Bo; Huang, Yun-Qing; Hu, Yu-Ning; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-21

    Ambient ionization techniques show good potential in rapid analysis of target compounds. However, a direct application of these ambient ionization techniques for the determination of analytes in a complex matrix is difficult due to the matrix interference and ion suppression. To resolve this problem, here we developed a strategy by coupling magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) with desorption corona beam ionization (DCBI)-mass spectrometry (MS). As a proof of concept, the pyrrole-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Ppy) were prepared and used for the extraction of antidepressants. After extraction, the Fe3O4@Ppy with trapped antidepressants was then directly subjected to DCBI-MS analysis with the aid of a homemade magnetic glass capillary. As the MSPE process is rapid and the direct DCBI-MS analysis does not need solvent desorption or chromatographic separation processes, the overall analysis can be completed within 3 min. The proposed MSPE-DCBI-MS method was then successfully used to determine antidepressants in human urine and plasma. The calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.005-0.5 μg mL(-1) for urine and 0.02-1 μg mL(-1) for plasma with reasonable linearity (R(2) > 0.951). The limits of detection of three antidepressants were in the range of 0.2-1 ng mL(-1) for urine and 2-5 ng mL(-1) for plasma. Acceptable reproducibility for rapid analysis was achieved with relative standard deviations less than 19.1% and the relative recoveries were 85.2-118.7%. Taken together, the developed MSPE-DCBI-MS strategy offers a powerful capacity for rapid analysis of target compounds in a complex matrix, which would greatly expand the applications of ambient ionization techniques with plentiful magnetic sorbents.

  1. Analysis of trace contamination of phthalate esters in ultrapure water using a modified solid-phase extraction procedure and automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsu-Chuan; Den, Walter; Chan, Shu-Fei; Kin, Kuan Tzu

    2008-04-25

    The present study was aimed to develop a procedure modified from the conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the analysis of trace concentration of phthalate esters in industrial ultrapure water (UPW). The proposed procedure allows UPW sample to be drawn through a sampling tube containing hydrophobic sorbent (Tenax TA) to concentrate the aqueous phthalate esters. The solid trap was then demoisturized by two-stage gas drying before subjecting to thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This process removes the solvent extraction procedure necessary for the conventional SPE method, and permits automation of the analytical procedure for high-volume analyses. Several important parameters, including desorption temperature and duration, packing quantity and demoisturizing procedure, were optimized in this study based on the analytical sensitivity for a standard mixture containing five different phthalate esters. The method detection limits for the five phthalate esters were between 36 ng l(-1) and 95 ng l(-1) and recovery rates between 15% and 101%. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was not recovered adequately because the compound was both poorly adsorbed and desorbed on and off Tenax TA sorbents. Furthermore, analyses of material leaching from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) tubes as well as the actual water samples showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the common contaminants detected from PVC contaminated UPW and the actual UPW, as well as in tap water. The reduction of DEHP in the production processes of actual UPW was clearly observed, however a DEHP concentration of 0.20 microg l(-1) at the point of use was still being quantified, suggesting that the contamination of phthalate esters could present a barrier to the future cleanliness requirement of UPW. The work demonstrated that the proposed modified SPE procedure provided an effective method for rapid analysis and contamination

  2. Surface swabbing technique for the rapid screening for pesticides using ambient pressure desorption ionization with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Edison, Sara E; Lin, Lora A; Gamble, Bryan M; Wong, Jon; Zhang, Kai

    2011-01-15

    A rapid screening method for pesticides has been developed to promote more efficient processing of produce entering the United States. Foam swabs were used to recover a multiclass mixture of 132 pesticides from the surfaces of grapes, apples, and oranges. The swabs were analyzed using direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled with a high-resolution Exactive Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer. By using a DART helium temperature gradient from 100-350°C over 3 min, a minimal separation of analytes based on volatility differences was achieved. This, combined with the Exactive's mass resolution of 100,00, allowed the chromatographic step, along with the typical compositing and extraction steps associated with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) approaches, to be eliminated. Detection of 86% of the analytes present was consistently achieved at levels of 2 ng/g (per each apple or orange) and 10 ng/g (per grape). A resolution study was conducted with four pairs of isobaric compounds analyzed at a mass resolution of 100 000. Baseline separation was achieved with analyte ions differing in mass by 25 ppm and analyte ions with a mass difference of 10 ppm were partially resolved. In addition, field samples that had undergone traditional sample preparation using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, rugged, and safe) were analyzed using both LC/MS and DART-MS and the results from the two techniques were found to be comparable in terms of identification of the pesticides present. The use of swabs greatly increased sample throughput by reducing sample preparation and analysis time.

  3. Characterization of low-molecular weight iodine-terminated polyethylenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the use of derivatization.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Vladimir G; Borisov, Roman S; Polovkov, Nikolai Yu; Zhilyaev, Dmitry I; Vinogradov, Aleksei A; Ivanyuk, Aleksei V

    2013-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry, in conjunction with various derivatization approaches, have been applied to structure determination of individual oligomers and molecular-mass distributions (MMD) in low-molecular mass polyethylene having an iodine terminus. Direct GC/MS analysis has shown that the samples under investigation composed of polyethyelene-iodides (major components) and n-alkanes. Exchange reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH gave rise to methoxy-derivatives and n-alkenes. Electron ionization mass spectra have shown that the former contained terminal methoxy groups indicating the terminal position of the iodine atom in the initial oligomers. MMD parameters have been determined with the aid of MALDI mass spectrometry followed by preliminary derivatization-formation of covalently bonded charge through the reaction of iodides with triphenylphosphine, trialkylamines, pyridine or quinoline. The mass spectra revealed well-resolved peaks for cationic parts of derivatized oligomers allowing the determination of MMD. The latter values have been compared with those calculated from GC/MS data.

  4. Simultaneous quantitation of metformin and sitagliptin from mouse and human dried blood spots using laser diode thermal desorption tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Gallagher, Richard T; Denn, Mark; Peter, Raimund M

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and robust high-throughput assay for the simultaneous analysis of metformin and sitagliptin from mouse and human dried blood spot samples using laser diode thermal desorption interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS/MS) was developed for use in a pharmaceutical discovery environment as an alternative to traditional plasma analysis. Analytes were extracted from dried blood spots using a simple punch disc and solvent extract procedure. Details of the method development and optimization of the instrumental parameters are presented. The method was successfully applied to spiked mouse and human dried blood spot samples. Analyte stability was determined in dried blood spots on FTA cards and as extracts of dried blood spots. The method was subsequently used to determine the oral pharmacokinetics of metformin and sitagliptin after dosing to male mice. Metformin and Sitagliptin results are compared to data generated by more traditional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy and precision across the analytes and species deviated by less than 30% at all calibration levels and less than 20% at all quality control levels.

  5. Identification of medically relevant species of arthroconidial yeasts by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kolecka, Anna; Khayhan, Kantarawee; Groenewald, Marizeth; Theelen, Bart; Arabatzis, Michael; Velegraki, Aristea; Kostrzewa, Markus; Mares, Mihai; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Boekhout, Teun

    2013-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for an extensive identification study of arthroconidial yeasts, using 85 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW yeast collection and 134 clinical isolates collected from medical centers in Qatar, Greece, and Romania. The test set included 72 strains of ascomycetous yeasts (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete, and Magnusiomyces spp.) and 147 strains of basidiomycetous yeasts (Trichosporon and Guehomyces spp.). With minimal preparation time, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool that provided reliable identification of most (98%) of the tested strains to the species level, with good discriminatory power. The majority of strains were correctly identified at the species level with good scores (>2.0) and seven of the tested strains with log score values between 1.7 and 2.0. The MALDI-TOF MS results obtained were consistent with validated internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and/or large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequencing results. Expanding the mass spectrum database by increasing the number of reference strains for closely related species, including those of nonclinical origin, should enhance the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS-based diagnostic analysis of these arthroconidial fungi in medical and other laboratories.

  6. Applications of whole-cell matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in systematic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Welker, Martin; Moore, Edward R B

    2011-02-01

    In the last few years matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been increasingly studied and applied for the identification and typing of microorganisms. Very recently, MALDI-TOF MS has been introduced in clinical routine microbiological diagnostics with marked success, which is remarkable considering that not long ago the technology was generally seen as being far from practical application. The identification of microbial isolates by whole-cell mass spectrometry (WC-MS) is being recognized as one of the latest tools forging a revolution in microbial diagnostics, with the potential of bringing to an end many of the time-consuming and man-power-intensive identification procedures that have been used for decades. Apart from applications of WC-MS in clinical diagnostics, other fields of microbiology also have adopted the technology with success. In this article, an over-view of the principles of MALDI-TOF MS and WC-MS is presented, highlighting the characteristics of the technology that allow its utilization for systematic microbiology.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

    2014-09-16

    Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/Δm=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Finally, long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

  8. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry profiling of trace constituents of condom lubricants in the presence of biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sandra E; Kim, Sin Young; Kim, Seoung Bum; Schug, Kevin A

    2011-04-15

    The use of condoms in sexual assault cases has become increasingly common due to the heightened awareness of the use of DNA as evidence in criminal investigations. The ability to identify and differentiate the polymers and additives found in lubricant residues can provide investigators leads and insights as to the perpetrator of a sexual assault. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is ideal for detecting condom lubricants and additives; the instrument is capable of surveying analytes across a wide mass range and is a preferred technique for the analysis of polymers. Three MALDI-TOF-MS methods directed toward the detection and differentiation of condom and personal lubricant residues, as well as their mixtures with biological fluids, were developed and compared: (a) a sample premixed with aqueous matrix; (b) a sample premixed with an ionic liquid matrix; and (c) a layering method that incorporates a cationization reagent. Of the three, the layered method that utilized sodium chloride as a cationization reagent showed the best sensitivity and selectivity. This method allowed for the segregation of the various lubricant formulas into a discrete number of groups. Infrared spectroscopy was used to support and clarify the MALDI data. Principal component analysis was used to further demonstrate the ability of this method to segregate various lubricant types into a limited number of classes. Additionally, lubricant residues could be detected in the presence of biological fluids down to a fraction of a percent.

  9. Characterization of Nonpolar Lipids and Selected Steroids by Using Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Chemical Ionization, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization, and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry†

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhicheng; Daiya, Shivani; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-01-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) combined with ClMn(H2O)+ chemical ionization (CI) was tested for the analysis of nonpolar lipids and selected steroids in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR). The nonpolar lipids studied, cholesterol, 5α-cholestane, cholesta-3,5-diene, squalene, and β-carotene, were found to solely form the desired water replacement product (adduct-H2O) with the ClMn(H2O)+ ions. The steroids, androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone, estradiol, and estriol, also form abundant adduct-H2O ions, but less abundant adduct-2H2O ions were also observed. Neither (+)APCI nor (+)ESI can ionize the saturated hydrocarbon lipid, cholestane. APCI successfully ionizes the unsaturated hydrocarbon lipids to form exclusively the intact protonated analytes. However, it causes extensive fragmentation for cholesterol and the steroids. The worst case is cholesterol that does not produce any stable protonated molecules. On the other hand, ESI cannot ionize any of the hydrocarbon analytes, saturated or unsaturated. However, ESI can be used to protonate the oxygen-containing analytes with substantially less fragmentation than for APCI in all cases except for cholesterol and estrone. In conclusion, LIAD/ClMn(H2O)+ chemical ionization is superior over APCI and ESI for the mass spectrometric characterization of underivatized nonpolar lipids and steroids. PMID:21528012

  10. Quantitation of lysergic acid diethylamide in urine using atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; McCooeye, Margaret A; Fraser, Catharine; Mester, Zoltán

    2004-12-01

    A quantitative method was developed for analysis of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in urine using atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (AP MALDI-ITMS). Following solid-phase extraction of LSD from urine samples, extracts were analyzed by AP MALDI-ITMS. The identity of LSD was confirmed by fragmentation of the [M + H](+) ion using tandem mass spectrometry. The quantification of LSD was achieved using stable-isotope-labeled LSD (LSD-d(3)) as the internal standard. The [M + H](+) ion fragmented to produce a dominant fragment ion, which was used for a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method for quantitative analysis of LSD. SRM was compared with selected ion monitoring and produced a wider linear range and lower limit of quantification. For SRM analysis of samples of LSD spiked in urine, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1-100 ng/mL with a coefficient of determination, r(2), of 0.9917. This assay was used to determine LSD in urine samples and the AP MALDI-MS results were comparable to the HPLC/ ESI-MS results.

  11. The value of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in identifying clinically relevant bacteria: a comparison with automated microbiology system

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunmei; Huang, Shenglei; Shan, Yuzhang; Ye, Xiangru

    2014-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed as a new-type soft ionization mass spectrometry in the recent year. Increasing number of clinical microbiological laboratories consider it as an innovate approach for bacterial identification. Methods A total of 876 clinical strains, comprising 52 species in 27 genus, were obtained from Fudan University Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital. We compared the identification accuracy of the Vitek MS system (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile) to other conventional methods for bacterial identification. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed as a reference identification method in cases of discrepant results. Results The Vitek MS system consistently produced accurate results within minutes of loading, while conventional methods required several hours to produce identification results. Among the 876 isolates, the overall performance of Vitek MS was significantly better than the conventional method both for correct species identification (830, 94.7% vs. 746, 85.2%, respectively, P=0.000). Conclusions Compared to traditional identification methods, MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, accurate and economical technique to enhance the clinical value of microorganism identification. PMID:24822117

  12. End-group analysis of blue light-emitting polymers using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; He, Meiyu; Pei, Jian; Liu, Bin

    2002-12-15

    An analytical method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been applied to provide information on the structure of a copolymer, e.g., repeat unit and end group. Seven conjugated polymers, which have been demonstrated as the active component in blue light-emitting diodes, were synthesized through Suzuki polycondensation reaction in the presence of Pd(PPh3)4 catalyst. Their molecular weights were obtained using gel permeation chromatography analysis. MALDI-TOF MS was used to investigate the structure information in detail. The proposed end-group structures were confirmed by the identity between the observed and the simulated isotopic distribution of each polymer. The results demonstrate that these synthetic polymers possess various end groups and even contain macrocycles. The catalyst Pd(PPh3)4 was found to introduce phenyl end groups via aryl-aryl exchange between the catalytic palladium intermediate and the triphenylphosphine ligand. All these results are based on the analysis of the mass spectrum data, which suggests that MALDI-TOF MS is an extraordinarily strong tool in synthetic polymer structure analysis.

  13. Tandem mass spectrometry of poly(ethylene imine)s by electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI).

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, Esra; Knop, Katrin; Tauhardt, Lutz; Kempe, Kristian; Crecelius, Anna C; Jäger, Michael; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, linear poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) polymers, which are of importance in gene delivery, are investigated in detail by using electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight (ESI-Q-TOF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The analyzed PEIs with different end groups were synthesized using the polymerization of substituted 2-oxazoline via a living cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) and a subsequent hydrolysis under acidic conditions. The main goal of this study was to identify linear PEI polymers in a detailed way to gain information about their fragmentation pathways. For this purpose, a detailed characterization of three different linear PEIs was performed by using ESI-Q-TOF and MALDI-TOF MS in combination with collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. In ESI-MS as well as MALDI-MS analysis, the obtained spectra of PEIs resulted in fitting mass distributions for the investigated PEIs. In the tandem MS analysis, a 1,2-hydride shift with a charge-remote rearrangement via a four-membered cyclic transition state, as well as charge-induced fragmentation reactions, was proposed as the main fragmentation mechanisms according to the obtained fragmentation products from the protonated parent peaks. In addition, heterolytic and homolytic cleavages were proposed as alternative fragmentation pathways. Moreover, a 1,4-hydrogen elimination was proposed to explain different fragmentation products obtained from the sodiated parent peaks.

  14. Solvent selection for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic polymers employing solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heike; Ehmann, Thomas; Otto, Matthias

    2010-08-30

    The principle relating to the selection of a proper matrix, cationization reagent, and solvent for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of synthetic polymers is still a topic of research. In this work we focused on the selection of a suitable MALDI solvent. Polystyrene PS7600 and poly(ethylene glycol) PEG4820 were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS using various solvents which were selected based on the Hansen solubility parameter system. For polystyrene (PS), dithranol was used as the matrix and silver trifluoroacetate as the cationization reagent whereas, for poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), the combination of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and sodium trifluoroacetate was used for all experiments. When employing solvents which dissolve PS and PEG, reliable MALDI mass spectra were obtained while samples in non-solvents (solvents which are not able to dissolve the polymer) failed to provide spectra. It seems that the solubility of the matrix and the cationization reagent are less important than the polymer solubility.

  15. Characterization of whole fibril-forming collagen proteins of types I, III, and V from fetal calf skin by infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dreisewerd, Klaus; Rohlfing, Andreas; Spottke, Beatrice; Urbanke, Claus; Henkel, Werner

    2004-07-01

    Fibril-forming collagen proteins of the types I, III, and V were extracted from fetal calf skin, purified by differential salt precipitation, and analyzed by infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IR-MALDI-TOF-MS). Glycerol was used as liquid IR-MALDI matrix. Noncovalently bound triple helices of the types I and V were detected from the NaCl precipitate. After heating at 43 degrees C for 10 min, resulting in the dissociation of the triple helix, the single alpha-chain subunits were detected. For type I, mass spectra acquired from molecular sieve chromatography fractions revealed the presence of further substructures of dimeric type and of supramolecular complexes up to the tetramer. Triple helices of type III, stabilized by covalent disulfide bonds, were detected from the total protein precipitate also after heat treatment. For type III, even hexamer and nonamer structures with molecular weights close to 600 and 900 kDa were recorded. For comparison, ultraviolet (UV-)MALDI-MS measurements with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrix were carried out with some of the samples. Here, only the single alpha-chains were detected with significantly reduced sensitivity.

  16. Matrix/analyte ratio influencing polymer molecular weight distribution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gitta; Jakab, Annamária; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Vékey, Károly; Hudecz, Ferenc; Mezo, Gábor

    2009-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been used to characterize poly(L-lysine) polymers and unique oligomer peptides, like 10-, 15- and 25-mer [Lys]n oligolysine peptides. Several matrices have been tried in order to find optimal conditions, but only alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid gave analytically useful spectra. The synthetic oligomers and their mixtures gave good quality spectra, showing protonated and cationized molecules, including doubly charged species. The polymers, analogously, gave a wide distribution of single- and double-cationized peak series. The polymer distributions observed indicate the presence of significant suppression effects. The concentration (matrix/analyte ratio) was found to influence the results significantly; distributions shifting to higher masses when higher polymer concentrations were used. This effect was studied in detail using the synthetic ('monodisperse') oligolysine peptides. It was found that the relative intensities change by over an order of magnitude in the 0.1-10 pmol/microL concentration range (typical for most proteomic analyses). The results indicate that concentration effects need to be considered when MALDI-MS is used for quantitative purposes.

  17. A high-throughput matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based assay of chitinase activity.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil P J; Naumann, Todd A

    2011-04-01

    A high-throughput matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay is described for determination of chitolytic enzyme activity. The assay uses unmodified chitin oligosaccharide substrates and is readily achievable on a microliter scale (2μl of total volume containing 2μg of substrate and 1ng of protein). The speed and sensitivity of the assay make it potentially well suited for the high-throughput screening of chitinase inhibitors. The mass spectrum is acquired in approximately 2min, as opposed to typically 30-40min for a single run with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based assay. By using the multiple-place MALDI MS targets, we estimate that 100 assays could be run in approximately 2-3h without needing to remove the target from the instrument. In addition, because the substrate and product chitomers are visualized simultaneously in the TOF spectrum, this gives immediate information about the cleavage site and mechanism of the enzyme under study. The assay was used to monitor the purification and transgenic expression of plant class IV chitinases. By performing the assay with chitomer substrates and C-glycoside chitomer analogs, the enzyme mechanism of the class IV chitinases is described for the first time.

  18. Analysis of complex phthalic acid based polyesters by the combination of size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Nadine O; Rode, Karsten; Simpson, Jaylin M; Pasch, Harald

    2014-01-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used in conjunction with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to investigate a model polyester system based on phthalic anhydride-1,2-propylene glycol. The polyesters were synthesized with a 30% molar excess of glycol, with kinetic samples being removed during different intervals of the polyesterification reaction. SEC was used to track the course of the reaction by determining the molecular weight and molecular weight distributions before subsequent off-line coupling with MALDI-TOF MS as a selective detection method to determine the chemical composition, identify the functionality type distributions as well as assist in assigning structural conformations. Mass spectrometry analysis proved to be a highly effective tool to facilitate the identification of the narrowly dispersed fractions obtained from the chromatographic separations as well as serve as a core method to investigate the heterogeneous nature of the bulk kinetic samples. Through the hyphenation of these sophisticated polymer characterization techniques, information on the molecular heterogeneity of the model polyesters, showing a complex variety of possible distributions, was obtained.

  19. A mixed matrix of 3-hydroxypicolinic acid and pyrazinecarboxylic acid for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lihua; Deng, Huimin; Deng, Qinying; Zhao, Shankai

    2004-01-01

    A mixed matrix of 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (3-HPA) and pyrazinecarboxylic acid (PCA) was used for analysis of a variety of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides ranging in length from 8-108-mers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The experimental results showed that DNA segments with masses in the range from 5000 to 10,500 Da can be analyzed with high resolution (isotopic peaks resolved) when 3-HPA/PCA was prepared by mixing saturated 3-HPA solution and saturated PCA solution (in 50% of a 0.5 mol/L solution of diammonium hydrogen citrate plus 50% acetonitrile) at the volume ratio of 4:1. Each component of a mixture of d(A)1-10 gave a well-resolved peak. Moreover, when 3-HPA/PCA was used to analyze two mixtures, one containing two 23-mer DNA segments with a 9 Da difference (A and T) and the other with a 7 Da difference (AA and TG), the two 23-mer ion peaks were well separated from each other and an isotopically resolved spectrum of each component was recorded. Under the identical experimental conditions, the sample-to-sample reproducibility, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and the tolerance to metal salts, with 3-HPA/PCA, were superior to those observed using 3-HPA alone for analysis of DNA segments.

  20. Determination of off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin, in salmon fillets using stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ruan, E D; Aalhus, J L; Summerfelt, S T; Davidson, J; Swift, B; Juárez, M

    2013-12-20

    A sensitive and solvent-less method for the determination of musty and earthy off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM), in salmon tissue was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-TD-GCMS). MIB and GSM were solid phase extracted using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bars, analyzed by gas chromatography, and detected in full scan mode of mass selective detector (MSD). Using this method, the calibration curves of MIB and GSM were linear in the range of 0.3-100ng/L, with a correlation coefficient above 0.999 and RSDs less than 4% (n=4). The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3, n=6) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10, n=6) of MIB and GSM were both ∼0.3 and 1ng/L, respectively. The recoveries of MIB and GSM were 22% and 29% by spike in 30ng/L standard compounds, 23% and 30% by spike-in 100ng/L standard compounds in salmon tissue samples with good precision (<8% of RSDs, n=6), respectively. The recoveries of MIB and GSM were better than reported methodologies using SPME fibres (<10%) in fish tissue samples. This method was successfully applied to monitor and characterize depurated salmon fillet samples (0, 3, 6 and 10 days).

  1. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Can Precisely Discriminate the Lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and Species of Listeria

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Takahashi, Hajime; Tamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus Listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of Listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. In this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable MS database to discriminate the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the species of Listeria (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. grayi, and L. rocourtiae) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) proteotyping method, which relies on both genetic information (genomics) and observed MS peaks in MALDI-TOF MS (proteomics). The specific set of eight biomarkers (ribosomal proteins L24, L6, L18, L15, S11, S9, L31 type B, and S16) yielded characteristic MS patterns for the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the different species of Listeria, and led to the construction of a MS database that was successful in discriminating between these organisms in MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting analysis followed by advanced proteotyping software Strain Solution analysis. We also confirmed the constructed database on the proteotyping software Strain Solution by using 23 Listeria strains collected from natural sources. PMID:27442502

  2. Rapid detection of high-risk Enterococcus faecium clones by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana R; Sousa, Clara; Novais, Carla; Silva, Liliana; Ramos, Helena; Coque, Teresa M; Lopes, João; Peixe, Luísa

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to explore the potential of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for early identification of dominant Enterococcus faecium (Efm) clones involved in human infections. Well-characterized Efm isolates (n=77), analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing(eBURST and BAPS [Bayesian analysis of population structure] algorithms), and belonging to different hospital (n=53) and community (n=24) phylogenomic groups, were tested. Mass spectra (Bruker) were analyzed by visual inspection and different chemometric tools. Discrimination between groups comprising isolates commonly found in hospitals (BAPS 2.1a, 3.3a1, 3.3a2) and community (BAPS 2.1b and 3.2) was achieved with >99% accuracy, while identification of sequence types belonging to different BAPS subgroups was associated with >95% correct predictions. Our work is a proof of concept with regard to the suitability of MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of high-risk Efm clones. Further studies including strains from a wider variety of clones and sources will strengthen the potential of the workflow here described.

  3. Localization of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng with different age by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hangrui; Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Jianjun; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-07-15

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. (P. ginseng) is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines, with ginsenosides as its main bioactive components. Because different ginsenosides have varied pharmacological effects, extraction and separation of ginsenosides are usually required for the investigation of pharmacological effects of different ginsenosides. However, the contents of ginsenosides vary with the ages and tissues of P. ginseng root. In this research, an efficient method to explore the distribution of ginsenosides and differentiate P. ginseng roots with different ages was developed based on matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-TOF-MSI). After a simple sample preparation, there were 18 peaks corresponding to 31 ginsenosides with distinct localization in the mass range of m/z 700-1400 identified by MALDI-TOF-MSI and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. All the three types of ginsenosides were successfully detected and visualized in images, which could be correlated with anatomical features. The P. ginseng at the ages of 2, 4 and 6 could be differentiated finely through the principal component analysis of data collected from the cork based on the ion images but not data from the whole tissue. The experimental result implies that the established method for the direct analysis of metabolites in plant tissues has high potential for the rapid identification of metabolites and analysis of their localizations in medicinal herbs. Furthermore, this technique also provides valuable information for the component-specific extraction and pharmacological research of herbs.

  4. Detection of bacteria from biological mixtures using immunomagnetic separation combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madonna, A.J.; Basile, F.; Furlong, E.; Voorhees, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid method for identifying specific bacteria from complex biological mixtures using immunomagnetic separation coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been developed. The technique employs commercially available magnetic beads coated with polycolonal antibodies raised against specific bacteria and whole cell analysis by MALDI-MS. A suspension of a bacterial mixture is mixed with the immunomagnetic beads specific for the target microorganism. After a short incubation period (20 mins) the bacteria captured by the beads are washed, resuspended in deionized H2O and directly applied onto a MALDI probe. Liquid suspensions containing bacterial mixtures can be screened within 1 h total analysis time. Positive tests result in the production of a fingerprint mass spectrum primarily consisting of protein biomarkers characteristic of the targeted microorganism. Using this procedure, Salmonella choleraesuis was isolated and detected from standard bacterial mixtures and spiked samples of river water, human urine, and chicken blood. Copyright ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Development of a thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for quantitative determination of haloanisoles and halophenols in wineries' ambient air.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ruiz-García, J; Zafra-Gómez, A

    2013-08-30

    An analytical method for the detection and quantification of haloanisoles and their corresponding halophenols in wineries' ambient air was developed. The target analytes were haloanisoles and halophenols, reported by previous scientific literature as responsible for wine taint. A calibrated pump and active tubes filled with Tenax GR™ were used for sampling. These tubes were thermally desorbed and analyzed using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The adsorption efficiencies of five commercial sampling tubes filled with different materials were evaluated. The efficiencies of the selected adsorbent were close to 100% for all sampled compounds. Desorption, chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions were accurately optimized allowing very low limits of quantification and wide linear ranges. The limits of quantification in ambient air ranged from 0.8pgtube(-1) for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, to 28pgtube(-1) for pentachlorophenol. These results are of great importance because human sensory threshold for haloanisoles is very low. The chromatographic method was also validated and the instrumental precision and trueness were established, a maximum RSD of 9% and a mean recovery of 91-106% were obtained. The proposed method involves an easy and sensitive technique for the early detection of haloanisoles and their precursor halophenols in ambient air avoiding contamination of wine or winery facilities.

  6. Quantification of plant surface metabolites by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry imaging: glucosinolates on Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Rohit; Schramm, Katharina; Jeschke, Verena; Nemes, Peter; Vertes, Akos; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Svatoš, Aleš

    2015-03-01

    The localization of metabolites on plant surfaces has been problematic because of the limitations of current methodologies. Attempts to localize glucosinolates, the sulfur-rich defense compounds of the order Brassicales, on leaf surfaces have given many contradictory results depending on the method employed. Here we developed a matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry protocol to detect surface glucosinolates on Arabidopsis thaliana leaves by applying the MALDI matrix